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Sample records for anemia virus infection

  1. Equine Infectious Anemia Virus from Infected Horse Serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideo; Yoshino, Tomoo; Ushimi, Chuzo

    1974-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus was purified from infected horse serum samples. Electron microscope observation on negatively stained preparations of purified virus showed roughly spherical particles sized between 100 and 200 nm in diameter. In disrupted particles, an envelope was visible but no internal structure could be resolved. Since the purified virus fraction had a strong antigenic activity to antiserum in immunodiffusion reaction, these particles are thought to be the causative virus of equine infectious anemia. Images PMID:4372175

  2. Equine infectious anemia virus replication is upregulated during differentiation of blood monocytes from acutely infected horses.

    OpenAIRE

    Sellon, D C; Walker, K M; Russell, K E; Perry, S T; Covington, P; Fuller, F J

    1996-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus is a lentivirus that replicates in mature tissue macrophages of horses. Ponies were infected with equine infectious anemia virus. During febrile episodes, proviral DNA was detectable, but viral mRNA was not detectable. As cultured blood monocytes from these ponies differentiated into macrophages, viral expression was upregulated. In situ hybridization confirmed that viral transcription occurred in mature macrophages.

  3. Equine infectious anemia virus replication is upregulated during differentiation of blood monocytes from acutely infected horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellon, D C; Walker, K M; Russell, K E; Perry, S T; Covington, P; Fuller, F J

    1996-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus is a lentivirus that replicates in mature tissue macrophages of horses. Ponies were infected with equine infectious anemia virus. During febrile episodes, proviral DNA was detectable, but viral mRNA was not detectable. As cultured blood monocytes from these ponies differentiated into macrophages, viral expression was upregulated. In situ hybridization confirmed that viral transcription occurred in mature macrophages. PMID:8523576

  4. Interstitial lung disease associated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus infection in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Cadoré, Jean-Luc; Catoi, Cornel; Archer, Fabienne; Dolmazon, Christine; Mornex, Jean-Francois

    2013-01-01

    EIA (Equine Infectious Anemia) is a blood-borne disease primarily transmitted by haematophagous insects or needle punctures. Other routes of transmission have been poorly explored. We evaluated the potential of EIAV (Equine Infectious Anemia Virus) to induce pulmonary lesions in naturally infected equids. Lungs from 77 EIAV seropositive horses have been collected in Romania and France. Three types of lesions have been scored on paraffin-embedded lungs: lymphocyte infiltration, bronchiolar inf...

  5. Lessons in AIDS Vaccine Development Learned from Studies of Equine Infectious, Anemia Virus Infection and Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Craigo, Jodi K.; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia (EIA), identified in 1843 [1] as an infectious disease of horses and as a viral infection in 1904, remains a concern in veterinary medicine today. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has served as an animal model of HIV-1/AIDS research since the original identification of HIV. Similar to other lentiviruses, EIAV has a high propensity for genomic sequence and antigenic variation, principally in its envelope (Env) proteins. However, EIAV possesses a unique and dynamic...

  6. Equine Endothelial Cells Support Productive Infection of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Maury, Wendy; Oaks, J. Lindsay; Bradley, Sarahann

    1998-01-01

    Previous cell infectivity studies have demonstrated that the lentivirus equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infects tissue macrophages in vivo and in vitro. In addition, some strains of EIAV replicate to high titer in vitro in equine fibroblasts and fibroblast cell lines. Here we report a new cell type, macrovascular endothelial cells, that is infectible with EIAV. We tested the ability of EIAV to infect purified endothelial cells isolated from equine umbilical cords and renal arteries. Inf...

  7. Increased susceptibility to infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) in Lepeophtheirus salmonis – infected Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The salmon louse and infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) are the two most significant pathogens of concern to the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry. However, the interactions between sea lice and ISAv, as well as the impact of a prior sea lice infection on the susceptibility of th...

  8. Identifying the Conditions Under Which Antibodies Protect Against Infection by Equine Infectious Anemia Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Elissa J.; Smith?, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to predict the conditions under which antibodies protect against viral infection would transform our approach to vaccine development. A more complete understanding is needed of antibody protection against lentivirus infection, as well as the role of mutation in resistance to an antibody vaccine. Recently, an example of antibody-mediated vaccine protection has been shown via passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies before equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection of horses...

  9. Antibody escape kinetics of equine infectious anemia virus infection of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Elissa J; Nanda, Seema; Mealey, Robert H

    2015-07-01

    Lentivirus escape from neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is not well understood. In this work, we quantified antibody escape of a lentivirus, using antibody escape data from horses infected with equine infectious anemia virus. We calculated antibody blocking rates of wild-type virus, fitness costs of mutant virus, and growth rates of both viruses. These quantitative kinetic estimates of antibody escape are important for understanding lentiviral control by antibody neutralization and in developing NAb-eliciting vaccine strategies. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. The efficacy of ELISA commercial kits for the screening of equine infectious anemia virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Alvarez; Fabiana Cipolini; Andrés Wigdorovitz; Karina Trono; Maria E Barrandeguy

    2015-01-01

    The most used and reliable indicator of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection is the detection of its specific antibodies in horse serum. In the present study, the performance of two commercial ELISA tests for the detection of EIAV antibodies as well as the potential advantages of their use as an EIAV infection screening tool were evaluated in 302 horse serum samples. Both ELISA assays showed 100% diagnostic sensitivity, and 92.3-94.3% diagnostic specificity. Discordant results were...

  11. Lessons in AIDS vaccine development learned from studies of equine infectious, anemia virus infection and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigo, Jodi K; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2013-12-02

    Equine infectious anemia (EIA), identified in 1843 [1] as an infectious disease of horses and as a viral infection in 1904, remains a concern in veterinary medicine today. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has served as an animal model of HIV-1/AIDS research since the original identification of HIV. Similar to other lentiviruses, EIAV has a high propensity for genomic sequence and antigenic variation, principally in its envelope (Env) proteins. However, EIAV possesses a unique and dynamic disease presentation that has facilitated comprehensive analyses of the interactions between the evolving virus population, progressive host immune responses, and the definition of viral and host correlates of immune control and vaccine efficacy. Summarized here are key findings in EIAV that have provided important lessons toward understanding long term immune control of lentivirus infections and the parameters for development of an enduring broadly protective AIDS vaccine.

  12. Lessons in AIDS Vaccine Development Learned from Studies of Equine Infectious, Anemia Virus Infection and Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi K. Craigo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Equine infectious anemia (EIA, identified in 1843 [1] as an infectious disease of horses and as a viral infection in 1904, remains a concern in veterinary medicine today. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV has served as an animal model of HIV-1/AIDS research since the original identification of HIV. Similar to other lentiviruses, EIAV has a high propensity for genomic sequence and antigenic variation, principally in its envelope (Env proteins. However, EIAV possesses a unique and dynamic disease presentation that has facilitated comprehensive analyses of the interactions between the evolving virus population, progressive host immune responses, and the definition of viral and host correlates of immune control and vaccine efficacy. Summarized here are key findings in EIAV that have provided important lessons toward understanding long term immune control of lentivirus infections and the parameters for development of an enduring broadly protective AIDS vaccine.

  13. Characterization of the infection of equine fibroblasts by equine infectious anemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevjer-Anderson, P.; Cheevers, W.P.; Crawford, T.B.

    1978-01-01

    Equine dermal fibroblasts persistently infected with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) show no alterations in cell morphology or growth kinetics when compared to uninfected cells. The percentage of cells immunofluorescent positive for viral proteins fluctuated, depending upon the stage of the cell cycle, while production of extracellular virus was uniform throughout the cell cycle, increasing only as the cell number increased. This was shown in log versus stationary phase cultures as well as in cultures synchronized by serum starvation. The establishment of productive infection did not require host cell DNA synthesis. Normal levels of progeny virus were produced in cultures pretreated with mitomycin C and placed in serum-containing medium. Serum-starved cultures, however, did not support EIAV replication as well as other cultures, presumably because synthesis of provirus was inhibited. (author)

  14. Equine infectious anemia virus-infected dendritic cells retain antigen presentation capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Julie A; McGuire, Travis C

    2005-05-10

    To determine if equine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) were susceptible to equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection, ex vivo-generated DC were infected with virus in vitro. EIAV antigen was detected by immunofluorescence 3 days post-infection with maximum antigen being detected on day 4, whereas there was no antigen detected in DC incubated with the same amount of heat-inactivated EIAV. No cytolytic activity was observed after EIAV(WSU5) infection of DC. These monocyte-derived DC were more effective than macrophages and B cells in stimulating allogenic T lymphocytes. Both infected macrophages and DC stimulated similar levels of memory CTL responses in mixtures of CD8+ and CD4+ cells as detected with (51)Cr-release assays indicating that EIAV infection of DC did not alter antigen presentation. However, EIAV-infected DC were more effective than infected macrophages when used to stimulate memory CTL in isolated CD8+ cells. The maintenance of antigen processing and presenting function by EIAV-infected DC in vitro suggests that this function is maintained during in vivo infection.

  15. Equine infectious anemia virus-infected dendritic cells retain antigen presentation capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Julie A.; McGuire, Travis C.

    2005-01-01

    To determine if equine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) were susceptible to equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection, ex vivo-generated DC were infected with virus in vitro. EIAV antigen was detected by immunofluorescence 3 days post-infection with maximum antigen being detected on day 4, whereas there was no antigen detected in DC incubated with the same amount of heat-inactivated EIAV. No cytolytic activity was observed after EIAV WSU5 infection of DC. These monocyte-derived DC were more effective than macrophages and B cells in stimulating allogenic T lymphocytes. Both infected macrophages and DC stimulated similar levels of memory CTL responses in mixtures of CD8+ and CD4+ cells as detected with 51 Cr-release assays indicating that EIAV infection of DC did not alter antigen presentation. However, EIAV-infected DC were more effective than infected macrophages when used to stimulate memory CTL in isolated CD8+ cells. The maintenance of antigen processing and presenting function by EIAV-infected DC in vitro suggests that this function is maintained during in vivo infection

  16. Depression of Vaccinal Immunity to Marek's Disease by Infection with Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yankun; Cui, Ning; Han, Ni; Wu, Jiayan; Cui, Zhizhong; Su, Shuai

    2017-01-01

    Marek's disease (MD) has been occurring with increasing frequency in chickens in recent years. To our knowledge, however, there has been no report of the very virulent plus (vv+) MD virus (MDV) field isolate in China. Studies have shown that dual infection with immunosuppressive viruses such as chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) occurs frequently in chickens developing MD. In this study, we performed a designed set of in vivo experiments, which comprised five different groups of chickens, including the group of CVI988/Rispens-vaccinated chickens, the groups of CVI988/Rispens-vaccinated chickens infected with MDV or CIAV or both viruses (MDV and CIAV), and the group of MDV-challenged chickens. The effects of CIAV dual infection on the immunization of commercial MDV vaccine CVI988/Rispens were evaluated. The results show that infection of the SD15 strain of CIAV significantly reduced the weight and antibody titers to avian influenza virus (AIV)/Newcastle disease virus (NDV) inactivated vaccines of chickens immunized with the CVI988/Rispens, and resulted in the atrophy of thymus/bursa and the enlargement of spleen. The CVI988/Rispens vaccination conferred good immune protection for chickens challenged with 2000 PFU of the GX0101 strain of MDV. However, dual infection with SD15 significantly reduced the body weight, antibody titers induced by AIV/NDV inactivated vaccines and protective index of CVI988/Rispens, and resulted in the aggravation of the immunosuppression, mortality, and viremia of GX0101 in CVI988/Rispens-immunized/GX0101-challenged chickens. Overall, CIAV infection significantly reduced the protective effects of the CVI988/Rispens vaccine against MDV, implying that concurrent infection with CIAV may be a major contributor in the frequent attacks of MD in China in recent years.

  17. Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus infection as risk factors for anemia in infants in Kisumu, western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, Anna M.; Ayisi, John G.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Misore, Ambrose O.; Otieno, Juliana A.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Kager, Piet A.; Steketee, Richard W.; Nahlen, Bernard L.

    2002-01-01

    The role of maternal and pediatric infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and malaria as risk factors for anemia was determined in a birth cohort of infants born to mothers participating in a study of the interaction between placental malaria and HIV infection, in Kisumu, Kenya.

  18. The efficacy of ELISA commercial kits for the screening of equine infectious anemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Irene; Cipolini, Fabiana; Wigdorovitz, Andrés; Trono, Karina; Barrandeguy, Maria E

    2015-01-01

    The most used and reliable indicator of Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection is the detection of its specific antibodies in horse serum. In the present study, the performance of two commercial ELISA tests for the detection of EIAV antibodies as well as the potential advantages of their use as an EIAV infection screening tool were evaluated in 302 horse serum samples. Both ELISA assays showed 100% diagnostic sensitivity, and 92.3-94.3% diagnostic specificity. Discordant results were analyzed by immunoblot. The results showed that both ELISA tests are very efficient at detecting EIAV infected animals, allowing to identify a higher number of positive horse cases. Thus, ELISA assays can be useful tools in EIA control and eradication. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. The efficacy of ELISA commercial kits for the screening of equine infectious anemia virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Alvarez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The most used and reliable indicator of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV infection is the detection of its specific antibodies in horse serum. In the present study, the performance of two commercial ELISA tests for the detection of EIAV antibodies as well as the potential advantages of their use as an EIAV infection screening tool were evaluated in 302 horse serum samples. Both ELISA assays showed 100% diagnostic sensitivity, and 92.3-94.3% diagnostic specificity. Discordant results were analyzed by immunoblot. The results showed that both ELISA tests are very efficient at detecting EIAV infected animals, allowing to identify a higher number of positive horse cases. Thus, ELISA assays can be useful tools in EIA control and eradication.

  20. Proteomic alteration of equine monocyte-derived macrophages infected with equine infectious anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Cheng; Liu, Hai-Fang; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Ma, Jian; Li, Yi-Jing; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Similar to the well-studied viruses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is another member of the Lentivirus genus in the family Retroviridae. Previous studies revealed that interactions between EIAV and the host resulted in viral evolution in pathogenicity and immunogenicity, as well as adaptation to the host. Proteomic analysis has been performed to examine changes in protein expression and/or modification in host cells infected with viruses and has revealed useful information for virus-host interactions. In this study, altered protein expression in equine monocyte-derived macrophages (eMDMs, the principle target cell of EIAV in vivo) infected with the EIAV pathogenic strain EIAV(DLV34) (DLV34) was examined using 2D-LC-MS/MS coupled with the iTRAQ labeling technique. The expression levels of 210 cellular proteins were identified to be significantly upregulated or downregulated by infection with DLV34. Alterations in protein expression were confirmed by examining the mRNA levels of eight selected proteins using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR, and by verifying the levels of ten selected proteins using parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). Further analysis of GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG)-Pathway enrichment demonstrated that these differentially expressed proteins are primarily related to the biological processes of oxidative phosphorylation, protein folding, RNA splicing, and ubiquitylation. Our results can facilitate a better understanding of the host response to EIAV infection and the cellular processes required for EIAV replication and pathogenesis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Demonstration of Antigenic Identity Between Purified Equine Infectious Anemia Virus and an Antigen Extracted from Infected Horse Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideo; Norcross, Neil L.; Coggins, Leroy

    1972-01-01

    Antigenic relationship between purified equine infectious anemia (EIA) virus and spleen-derived antigen from EIA-infected horses was examined by immunodiffusion. Identical antigenicity of these two antigens has been proven because precipitation lines formed between the two antigens and EIA antiserum connected with each other. The results indicate that the antigenic substance derived from infected spleen is a component of EIA virus. Images PMID:4629262

  2. Identifying the Conditions Under Which Antibodies Protect Against Infection by Equine Infectious Anemia Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Elissa J; Smith, Robert J

    2014-05-27

    The ability to predict the conditions under which antibodies protect against viral infection would transform our approach to vaccine development. A more complete understanding is needed of antibody protection against lentivirus infection, as well as the role of mutation in resistance to an antibody vaccine. Recently, an example of antibody-mediated vaccine protection has been shown via passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies before equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection of horses with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Viral dynamic modeling of antibody protection from EIAV infection in SCID horses may lead to insights into the mechanisms of control of infection by antibody vaccination. In this work, such a model is constructed in conjunction with data from EIAV infection of SCID horses to gain insights into multiple strain competition in the presence of antibody control. Conditions are determined under which wild-type infection is eradicated with the antibody vaccine. In addition, a three-strain competition model is considered in which a second mutant strain may coexist with the first mutant strain. The conditions that permit viral escape by the mutant strains are determined, as are the effects of variation in the model parameters. This work extends the current understanding of competition and antibody control in lentiviral infection, which may provide insights into the development of vaccines that stimulate the immune system to control infection effectively.

  3. Identifying the Conditions Under Which Antibodies Protect Against Infection by Equine Infectious Anemia Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissa J. Schwartz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict the conditions under which antibodies protect against viral infection would transform our approach to vaccine development. A more complete understanding is needed of antibody protection against lentivirus infection, as well as the role of mutation in resistance to an antibody vaccine. Recently, an example of antibody-mediated vaccine protection has been shown via passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies before equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV infection of horses with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID. Viral dynamic modeling of antibody protection from EIAV infection in SCID horses may lead to insights into the mechanisms of control of infection by antibody vaccination. In this work, such a model is constructed in conjunction with data from EIAV infection of SCID horses to gain insights into multiple strain competition in the presence of antibody control. Conditions are determined under which wild-type infection is eradicated with the antibody vaccine. In addition, a three-strain competition model is considered in which a second mutant strain may coexist with the first mutant strain. The conditions that permit viral escape by the mutant strains are determined, as are the effects of variation in the model parameters. This work extends the current understanding of competition and antibody control in lentiviral infection, which may provide insights into the development of vaccines that stimulate the immune system to control infection effectively.

  4. Free-virus and cell-to-cell transmission in models of equine infectious anemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Linda J S; Schwartz, Elissa J

    2015-12-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus in the retrovirus family that infects horses and ponies. Two strains, referred to as the sensitive strain and the resistant strain, have been isolated from an experimentally-infected pony. The sensitive strain is vulnerable to neutralization by antibodies whereas the resistant strain is neutralization-insensitive. The sensitive strain mutates to the resistant strain. EIAV may infect healthy target cells via free virus or alternatively, directly from an infected target cell through cell-to-cell transfer. The proportion of transmission from free-virus or from cell-to-cell transmission is unknown. A system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is formulated for the virus-cell dynamics of EIAV. In addition, a Markov chain model and a branching process approximation near the infection-free equilibrium (IFE) are formulated. The basic reproduction number R0 is defined as the maximum of two reproduction numbers, R0s and R0r, one for the sensitive strain and one for the resistant strain. The IFE is shown to be globally asymptotically stable for the ODE model in a special case when the basic reproduction number is less than one. In addition, two endemic equilibria exist, a coexistence equilibrium and a resistant strain equilibrium. It is shown that if R0>1, the infection persists with at least one of the two strains. However, for small infectious doses, the sensitive strain and the resistant strain may not persist in the Markov chain model. Parameter values applicable to EIAV are used to illustrate the dynamics of the ODE and the Markov chain models. The examples highlight the importance of the proportion of cell-to-cell versus free-virus transmission that either leads to infection clearance or to infection persistence with either coexistence of both strains or to dominance by the resistant strain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Interstitial lung disease associated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus infection in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolfa, Pompei; Nolf, Marie; Cadoré, Jean-Luc; Catoi, Cornel; Archer, Fabienne; Dolmazon, Christine; Mornex, Jean-François; Leroux, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    EIA (Equine Infectious Anemia) is a blood-borne disease primarily transmitted by haematophagous insects or needle punctures. Other routes of transmission have been poorly explored. We evaluated the potential of EIAV (Equine Infectious Anemia Virus) to induce pulmonary lesions in naturally infected equids. Lungs from 77 EIAV seropositive horses have been collected in Romania and France. Three types of lesions have been scored on paraffin-embedded lungs: lymphocyte infiltration, bronchiolar inflammation, and thickness of the alveolar septa. Expression of the p26 EIAV capsid (CA) protein has been evaluated by immunostaining. Compared to EIAV-negative horses, 52% of the EIAV-positive horses displayed a mild inflammation around the bronchioles, 22% had a moderate inflammation with inflammatory cells inside the wall and epithelial bronchiolar hyperplasia and 6.5% had a moderate to severe inflammation, with destruction of the bronchiolar epithelium and accumulation of smooth muscle cells within the pulmonary parenchyma. Changes in the thickness of the alveolar septa were also present. Expression of EIAV capsid has been evidenced in macrophages, endothelial as well as in alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells, as determined by their morphology and localization. To summarize, we found lesions of interstitial lung disease similar to that observed during other lentiviral infections such as FIV in cats, SRLV in sheep and goats or HIV in children. The presence of EIAV capsid in lung epithelial cells suggests that EIAV might be responsible for the broncho-interstitial damages observed.

  6. Equine infectious anemia virus Gag p9 function in early steps of virus infection and provirus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sha; Chen, Chaoping; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2005-07-01

    We have previously reported that serial truncation of the Gag p9 protein of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) revealed a progressive loss in replication phenotypes in transfected cells, such that a proviral mutant (E32) expressing the N-terminal 31 amino acids of p9 produced infectious virus particles similarly to parental provirus, while a proviral mutant (K30) with two fewer amino acids produced replication-defective virus particles, despite containing apparently normal levels of processed Gag and Pol proteins (C. Chen, F. Li, and R. C. Montelaro, J. Virol. 75:9762-9760, 2001). Based on these observations, we sought in the current study to identify the precise defect in K30 virion infection of permissive equine dermal (ED) cells. The results of these experiments clearly demonstrated that K30 virions entered target ED cells and produced early (minus-strand strong-stop) and late (Gag) viral DNA products as efficiently as did the replication-competent E32 mutant and parental EIAV(UK) viruses. However, in contrast to the replication-competent E32 mutant and parental viruses, infection with K30 mutant virus failed to produce detectable two-long-terminal-repeat DNA circles, stable integrated provirus, virus-specific Gag mRNA expression, or intracellular viral protein expression. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the K30 mutant is defective in the ability to produce sufficient nuclear viral DNA to establish a productive infection in ED cells. Thus, these observations indicate for the first time that the EIAV Gag p9 protein performs a critical role in viral DNA production and processing to provirus during EIAV infection, in addition to its previously defined role in viral budding mediated by the p9 L domain.

  7. Leukoencephalitis associated with selective viral replication in the brain of a pony with experimental chronic equine infectious anemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, J L; Long, M T; Baszler, T V

    2004-09-01

    Neurologic disease occurs sporadically in horses infected with the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). This report describes a case of clinically severe neurologic disease in a pony experimentally infected with EIAV. This pony did not have fever or anemia, which are the characteristic clinical signs of disease. The histopathologic changes were characterized as lymphohistiocytic periventricular leukoencephalitis. Polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization data showed that the brain lesions were directly associated with viral replication and that high-level viral replication occurred selectively within the lesion and not in other tissues. These findings suggest that EIAV-associated neurologic disease is the direct result of viral replication.

  8. Anemia and survival in human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Mocroft, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    The prospective, multicenter cohort study EuroSIDA has previously reported on predictors and outcomes of anemia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. In a Cox proportional-hazards model with serial measures of CD4+ cell count, plasma viral load, and degrees of anemia fitted...... as time-dependent variables, the relative hazard of death increased markedly for patients with anemia versus no anemia. A clinical scoring system was developed and validated for patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy using the most recent laboratory measures. Mild and severe anemia were...... independently (Panemia. The mechanisms underlying why hemoglobin is such a strong prognostic...

  9. Risk of zidovudine-induced anemia on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection patients with different CD4 cell counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    anak agung ayu niti wedayani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is the most common hematologic abnormality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. This abnormality is associated with HIV infection itself, HIV-related opportunities infections or drug use. Zidovudine (AZT is the most common cause of anemia in HIV patients. Recent study showed anemia in HIV patients is also associated with CD4 cell counts. Aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of anemia on HIV patients with different CD4 cell counts after AZT-based antiretroviral therapy (ART.This retrospective cohort study was conducted using medical record of HIV patients in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya. Subjects who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were divided into two group i.e. HIV patients with CD4 cell counts 200-350 cell/mm3 and those with CD4cell counts ≥350 cell/mm3. All available demographics, clinical and laboratory data of subjects before and after AZT-based ART were then recorded and evaluated. Ninety-seven HIV patients (50 male and 47 female were involved in this study. The result showed that the anemia incidence significantly increased after AZT-based ART (p0.05. Gender, age, weight and clinical stage were not associated with anemia incidence (p>0.05. In contrast, anemia incidence is associated with Hb level before AZT therapy (p<0.05. In conclusion, the anemia incidence in HIV patients after AZT based ART is not associated with the level of CD4 cell counts, however it is associated with Hb levels before AZT therapy.

  10. Functional roles of equine infectious anemia virus Gag p9 in viral budding and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Li, F; Montelaro, R C

    2001-10-01

    Previous studies utilizing Gag polyprotein budding assays with transfected cells reveal that the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) Gag p9 protein provides a late assembly function mediated by a critical Y(23)P(24)D(25)L(26) motif (L-domain) to release viral particles from the plasma membrane. To elucidate further the role of EIAV p9 in virus assembly and replication, we have examined the replication properties of a defined series of p9 truncation and site-directed mutations in the context of a reference infectious molecular proviral clone, EIAV(uk). Characterization of these p9 proviral mutants revealed new functional properties of p9 in EIAV replication, not previously elucidated by Gag polyprotein budding assays. The results of these studies demonstrated that only the N-terminal 31 amino acids of a total of 51 residues in the complete p9 protein were required to maintain replication competence in transfected equine cells; proviral mutants with p9 C-terminal truncations of 20 or fewer amino acids remained replication competent, while mutants with truncations of 21 or more residues were completely replication defective. The inability of the defective p9 proviral mutations to produce infectious virus could not be attributed to defects in Gag polyprotein expression or processing, in virion RT activity, or in virus budding. While proviral replication competence appeared to be associated with the presence of a K(30)K(31) motif and potential ubiquitination of the EIAV p9 protein, mutations of these lysine residues to methionines produced variant proviruses that replicated as well as the parental EIAV(uk) in transfected ED cells. Thus, these observations reveal for the first time that EIAV p9 is not absolutely required for virus budding in the context of proviral gene expression, suggesting that other EIAV proteins can at least in part mediate late budding functions previously associated with the p9 protein. In addition, the data define a function for EIAV p9 in the

  11. Fanconi anemia patients are more susceptible to infection with tumor virus SV40.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manola Comar

    Full Text Available Fanconi anemia (FA is a recessive DNA repair disease characterized by a high predisposition to developing neoplasms. DNA tumor polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40 transforms FA fibroblasts at high efficiency suggesting that FA patients could be highly susceptible to SV40 infection. To test this hypothesis, the large tumor (LT antigen of SV40, BKV, JCV and Merkel Cell (MC polyomaviruses were tested in blood samples from 89 FA patients and from 82 of their parents. Two control groups consisting of 47 no-FA patients affected by other genetic bone marrow failure diseases and 91 healthy subjects were also evaluated. Although JCV, BKV and MC were not found in any of the FA samples, the prevalence and viral load of SV40 were higher in FA patients (25%; mean viral load: 1.1×10(2 copies/10(5cells as compared with healthy individuals (4.3%; mean viral load: 0.8×10(1 copies/10(5cells and genetic controls (0% (p<0.005. A marked age-dependent frequency of SV40 was found in FA with respect to healthy subjects suggesting that, although acquired early in life, the virus can widespread more easily in specific groups of population. From the analysis of family pedigrees, 60% of the parents of SV40-positive probands were positive for the virus compared to 2% of the parents of the SV40-negative probands (p<0.005. It is worthy of note that the relative frequency of SV40-positive relatives detected in this study was the highest ever reported, showing that asymptomatic FA carriers are also more susceptible to SV40. In conclusion, we favor the hypothesis that SV40 spread could be facilitated by individuals who are genetically more susceptible to infection, such as FA patients. The increased susceptibility to SV40 infection seems to be associated with a specific defect of the immune system which supports a potential interplay of SV40 with an underlying genetic alteration that increases the risk of malignancies.

  12. Gag genetic heterogeneity of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) in naturally infected horses in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Malliga M; Simard, Carole

    2007-11-01

    Gag genetic heterogeneity of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) variants in naturally infected horses in Canada was studied since very limited information is available on the variability of EIAV Gag sequences in public database. A phylogenetic analysis based on 414nts of Gag gene sequences amplified by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed the distinct divergence of these variants compared to other published strains in a corresponding region. Significant predicted amino acid sequence variations were also identified in an immunorelevant region within this fragment which corresponded to a previously characterized cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) epitope cluster (EC2, aa 77-119). Furthermore, alignment of the predicted full-length Gag protein gene sequences of some of these variants associated with clinical cases of EIA in Canada with the published sequences of EIAV originating from other countries revealed conserved and variant sequences in regions corresponding to other characterized CTL epitope clusters, EC1, EC3 and EC4. Conserved sequences identified among different variant strains might have an important implication for their screening and selection of putative peptide epitopes to mediate relevant immune response and cross protection against divergent field strains of EIAV.

  13. Equine infectious anemia virus in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hua-Nan; Rao, Dan; Fu, Xian-Qiu; Hu, Ming-Ming; Dong, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia is an equine disease caused by equine infectious anemia virus, which was first reported in 1840. Equine infectious anemia virus research in China started in the 1960s, focusing on etiology, pathology, diagnosis, and immunology. Notably, in 1978 an attenuated vaccine was successfully developed for equine infectious anemia virus, effectively preventing equine infectious anemia virus in China. This article will review equine infectious anemia virus in China, including pa...

  14. A Unique Evolution of the S2 Gene of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus in Hosts Correlated with Particular Infection Statuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Feng Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV is a member of the Lentivirus genus in the Retroviridae family that exhibits a genomic structure similar to that of HIV-1. The S2 accessory proteins play important roles in viral replication in vivo and in viral pathogenicity; however, studies on S2 evolution in vivo are limited. This study analyzed the evolutionary characteristics of the S2 gene of a pathogenic EIAV strain, EIAVLN40, in four experimentally infected horses. The results demonstrated that 14.7% (10 of 68 residues of the stable amino acid mutations occurred longitudinally in S2 during a 150-day infection period. Further analysis revealed that six of the ten mutated residues were positively selected during the infection. Alignment and phylogenetic analyses showed that the S2 gene sequences of viruses isolated from the infected horses at the early stage of EIAVLN40 infection were highly homologous and similar to the vaccine-specific sequence. The S2 gene variants isolated from the febrile episodes and late phase of infection became homologous to the S2 gene sequence of the inoculating EIAVLN40 strain. Our results indicate that the S2 gene evolves in diversity and divergence in vivo in different stages of EIAV infection and that this evolution correlates with the pathogenicity of the virus.

  15. A unique evolution of the s2 gene of equine infectious anemia virus in hosts correlated with particular infection statuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Qiang; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Du, Cheng; Tang, Yan-Dong; Na, Lei; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2014-11-10

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a member of the Lentivirus genus in the Retroviridae family that exhibits a genomic structure similar to that of HIV-1. The S2 accessory proteins play important roles in viral replication in vivo and in viral pathogenicity; however, studies on S2 evolution in vivo are limited. This study analyzed the evolutionary characteristics of the S2 gene of a pathogenic EIAV strain, EIAVLN40, in four experimentally infected horses. The results demonstrated that 14.7% (10 of 68 residues) of the stable amino acid mutations occurred longitudinally in S2 during a 150-day infection period. Further analysis revealed that six of the ten mutated residues were positively selected during the infection. Alignment and phylogenetic analyses showed that the S2 gene sequences of viruses isolated from the infected horses at the early stage of EIAVLN40 infection were highly homologous and similar to the vaccine-specific sequence. The S2 gene variants isolated from the febrile episodes and late phase of infection became homologous to the S2 gene sequence of the inoculating EIAVLN40 strain. Our results indicate that the S2 gene evolves in diversity and divergence in vivo in different stages of EIAV infection and that this evolution correlates with the pathogenicity of the virus.

  16. Differential responses of Equus caballus and Equus asinus to infection with two pathogenic strains of equine infectious anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S J; Cook, R F; Montelaro, R C; Issel, C J

    2001-03-20

    Most in vivo studies with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) have been performed in horses and ponies (Equus caballus) with little published information available detailing the clinical responses of donkeys (Equus asinus) to infection with this virus. Consequently, donkeys were inoculated with two strains of EIAV (EIAV(PV) and EIAV(WY)) which have been documented to produce disease in E. caballus. Four ponies, 561, 562, 564 and 567 and two donkeys, 3 and 5 were infected with EIAV(PV) and one horse (94-10) and one donkey (4) were infected with EIAV(WY). Although the horse and ponies all experienced clinical signs of disease, which in some cases were severe, the donkeys remained asymptomatic throughout a 365-day observation period, except for mild transient reductions in platelet counts. The results from serological assays, virus isolation from plasma and detection of plasma-associated viral RNA by RT-PCR, indicated that initial replication of EIAV(PV) and EIAV(WY) was lower in donkeys than in horses and ponies. This conclusion was confirmed using competitive RT-PCR, in which viral RNA levels in the plasma of EIAV(PV)-infected ponies was up to 100,000-fold higher than in infected donkeys during the first 20 days post-infection (dpi). Similar results were obtained in the EIAV(WY)-infected animals, in which viral RNA burdens in the donkey at 20 dpi were 1000-fold less than in the horse. However, infection of donkey and horse monocyte-derived macrophage cultures with EIAV(PV) demonstrated that these cells in vitro were equally susceptible to virus-induced cytopathic effects and yielded similar levels of progeny virus. This result suggests that factors other than host cell permissiveness mediate the clinical differences observed between horses and donkeys infected with EIAV(PV) or EIAV(WY).

  17. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia occurred prior to evident nephropathy in a patient with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endo Morito

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal involvement in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection has been suggested to be due to a variety of immunological processes. However, the precise mechanism by which the kidneys are damaged in these patients is still unclear. Case presentation A 66 year old man presented with the sudden onset of autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Concomitant with a worsening of hemolysis, his initially mild proteinuria and hemoglobinuria progressed. On admission, laboratory tests revealed that he was positive for hepatitis C virus in his blood, though his liver function tests were all normal. The patient displayed cryoglobulinemia and hypocomplementemia with cold activation, and exhibited a biological false positive of syphilic test. Renal biopsy specimens showed signs of immune complex type nephropathy with hemosiderin deposition in the tubular epithelial cells. Conclusions The renal histological findings in this case are consistent with the deposition of immune complexes and hemolytic products, which might have occurred as a result of the patient's underlying autoimmune imbalance, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

  18. Equine infectious anemia virus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Nan; Rao, Dan; Fu, Xian-Qiu; Hu, Ming-Ming; Dong, Jian-Guo

    2018-01-02

    Equine infectious anemia is an equine disease caused by equine infectious anemia virus, which was first reported in 1840. Equine infectious anemia virus research in China started in the 1960s, focusing on etiology, pathology, diagnosis, and immunology. Notably, in 1978 an attenuated vaccine was successfully developed for equine infectious anemia virus, effectively preventing equine infectious anemia virus in China. This article will review equine infectious anemia virus in China, including past and recent research, and commemorate scientists who have made great contributions to equine infectious anemia virus prevention.

  19. Tissue Sites of Persistent Infection and Active Replication of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus during Acute Disease and Asymptomatic Infection in Experimentally Infected Equids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Sharon M.; Cook, Sheila J.; Cook, R. Frank; Rushlow, Keith E.; Issel, Charles J.; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2000-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection of horses is characterized by recurring cycles of disease and viremia that typically progress to an inapparent infection in which clinical symptoms are absent as host immune responses maintain control of virus replication indefinitely. The dynamics of EIAV viremia and its association with disease cycles have been well characterized, but there has been to date no comprehensive quantitative analyses of the specific tissue sites of EIAV infection and replication in experimentally infected equids during acute disease episodes and during asymptomatic infections in long-term inapparent carriers. To characterize the in vivo site(s) of viral infection and replication, we developed a quantitative competitive PCR assay capable of detecting 10 copies of viral DNA and a quantitative competitive reverse transcription-PCR assay with a sensitivity of about 30 copies of viral singly spliced mRNA. Animals were experimentally infected with one of two reference viruses: the animal-passaged field isolate designated EIAVWyo and the virulent cell-adapted strain designated EIAVPV. Tissues and blood cells were isolated during the initial acute disease or from asymptomatic animals and analyzed for viral DNA and RNA levels by the respective quantitative assays. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the appearance of clinical symptoms in experimentally infected equids coincided with rapid widespread seeding of viral infection and replication in a variety of tissues. During acute disease, the predominant cellular site of viral infection and replication was the spleen, which typically accounted for over 90% of the cellular viral burden. In asymptomatic animals, viral DNA and RNA persisted in virtually all tissues tested, but at extremely low levels, a finding indicative of tight but incomplete immune control of EIAV replication. During all disease states, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were found to harbor less than 1% of

  20. Gag Protein Epitopes Recognized by CD4+ T-Helper Lymphocytes from Equine Infectious Anemia Virus-Infected Carrier Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonning, S. M.; Zhang, W.; McGuire, T. C.

    1999-01-01

    Antigen-specific T-helper (Th) lymphocytes are critical for the development of antiviral humoral responses and the expansion of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Identification of relevant Th lymphocyte epitopes remains an important step in the development of an efficacious subunit peptide vaccine against equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a naturally occurring lentivirus of horses. This study describes Th lymphocyte reactivity in EIAV carrier horses to two proteins, p26 and p15, encoded by the relatively conserved EIAV gag gene. Using partially overlapping peptides, multideterminant and possibly promiscuous epitopes were identified within p26. One peptide was identified which reacted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from all five EIAV-infected horses, and three other peptides were identified which reacted with PBMC from four of five EIAV-infected horses. Four additional peptides containing both CTL and Th lymphocyte epitopes were also identified. Multiple epitopes were recognized in a region corresponding to the major homology region of the human immunodeficiency virus, a region with significant sequence similarity to other lentiviruses including simian immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus, Jembrana disease virus, visna virus, and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. PBMC reactivity to p15 peptides from EIAV carrier horses also occurred. Multiple p15 peptides were shown to be reactive, but not all infected horses had Th lymphocytes recognizing p15 epitopes. The identification of peptides reactive with PBMC from outbred horses, some of which encoded both CTL and Th lymphocyte epitopes, should contribute to the design of synthetic peptide or recombinant vector vaccines for EIAV. PMID:10196322

  1. Pathological and immunohistochemical studies of subclinical infection of chicken anemia virus in 4-week-old chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridy, Mohie; Sasaki, Jun; Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Okada, Kosuke; Goryo, Masanobu

    2012-06-01

    Subclinical infection of chicken anemia virus (CAV) at 4 to 6 weeks of age, after maternal antibodies have waned, is implicated in several field problems in broiler flocks. In order to understand the pathogenesis of subclinical infection with CAV, an immunopathological study of CAV-inoculated 4-week-old SPF chickens was performed. Sixty 4-week-old SPF chickens were equally divided into CAV and control groups. The CAV group was inoculated intramuscularly with the MSB1-TK5803 strain of CAV. Neither mortality nor anemia was detected in the CAV and control groups. In the CAV group, no signs were observed, except that some chickens were grossly smaller compared with the control group. Sporadic thymus lobes appeared to be reddening and atrophied. Within the first two weeks p.i. of CAV, there was a mild to moderate depletion of lymphocytes in the thymus cortex and spleen in some chickens. Moreover, lymphoid depletion of the bursa of Fabricius, proventriculus and cecal tonsils was observed. Hyperplastic lymphoid foci were observed in the liver, lungs, kidneys and heart at the 4th week p.i. of CAV. Immunohistochemically, a moderate lymphoid depletion of CD4(+)and CD8(+) T cells in the thymus cortex and spleen was observed in some chickens within two weeks p.i. of CAV. CAV inclusions and antigens were detected infrequently in the thymus cortex and spleen. It could be concluded that the immunosuppression in subclinical infection with CAV occurs as a result of reduction of cellular immunity.

  2. Health and epidemiological approaches of Trypanosoma evansi and equine infectious anemia virus in naturally infected horses at southern Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Daniela R; Jansen, Ana M; Abreu, Urbano G P; Macedo, Gabriel C; Silva, Antônia R S; Mazur, Carlos; Andrade, Gisele B; Herrera, Heitor M

    2016-11-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and Trypanossoma evansi are endemic in Brazilian Pantanal Biome, an important area for livestock production. In this sense, we evaluated the epidemiological single and co-infection effects of T. evansi and EIAV in naturally infected horses in the southern Pantanal wetland by serological tests and hematological assays. Both higher seroprevalence and heath poor condition of the sampled animals were associated with differences in horse management between farms. We found that the negative animals for both infectious agents (NN) represented the major group in F1 (37%), and the smallest group in F2 (19%). Furthermore, we recorded higher EIAV seroprevalence (56%) in F2, compared to F1 (38%). We observed that T. evansi infection was mostly related to young horses, as seen by their higher seroprevalence, ranging from 70.7% in the beginning of the rainy season to 81% in the end of flood period, in comparison with the values of 42% and 68%, respectively, in working animals. on the other hand, working animals showed a higher seroprevalence for EIAV (48%) in both seasons than young horses. We observed that the management of working horses could be a risk factor of EIAV infection. On the other hand, as T. evansi is maintained in the study region by many species of wild mammals, the mechanical transmission through blood-sucking vectors ensures the infection to horses since early. Our results showed that single or co-infection by EIAV and T. evansi caused different degree of anemia in the infected animals. Moreover, the health of horses in Brazilian Pantanal is also influenced by differences in horse management and environmental circumstances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitation of Marek's disease and chicken anemia viruses in organs of experimentally infected chickens and commercial chickens by multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Irit; Raibshtein, I; Al-Touri, A

    2013-06-01

    The worldwide distribution of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and Marek's disease virus (MDV) is well documented. In addition to their economic significance in single- or dual-virus infections, the two viruses can often accompany various other pathogens and affect poultry health either directly, by causing tumors, anemia, and delayed growth, or indirectly, by aggravating other diseases, as a result of their immunosuppressive effects. After a decade of employing the molecular diagnosis of those viruses, which replaced conventional virus isolation, we present the development of a real-time multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of both viruses. The real-time PCRs for MDV and for CAV alone are more sensitive than the respective end-point PCRs. In addition, the multiplex real-time shows a similar sensitivity when compared to the single real-time PCR for each virus. The newly developed real-time multiplex PCR is of importance in terms of the diagnosis and detection of low copies of each virus, MDV and CAV in single- and in multiple-virus infections, and its applicability will be further evaluated.

  4. Serologically silent, occult equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infections in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotti, Sonia; Garcia, Maria Inés; Veaute, Carolina; Bailat, Alejandra; Lucca, Eduardo; Cook, R Frank; Cook, Sheila J; Soutullo, Adriana

    2016-05-01

    Molecular and serological techniques for Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) diagnosis were compared using samples from 59 clinically normal horses stabled on five farms in the Santa Fe Province of Argentina. Of these 26 (44.1%) were positive in official AGID tests and/or gp45/gp90-based ELISA. Surprisingly 18 of the 33 seronegative horses were positive in a PCR against viral sequences encoding gp45 (PCR-positive/AGID-negative) with all but one remaining EIAV-antibody negative throughout a two year observation period. The gp45 PCR results are supported by fact that 7/18 of these horses were positive in the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) recommended EIAV gag gene specific PCR plus 2 of this 7 also reacted in a PCR directed predominantly against the 5' untranslated region of the viral genome. Furthermore sufficient quantities of serum were available from 8 of these horses to verify their seronegative status in sensitive Western Blot tests and demonstrate by ELISA the absence of EIAV-specific antibodies was not attributable to abnormalities in total IgG concentration. Studies involving 7 of the PCR-positive/AGID-negative horses to measure lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of PHA showed no significant differences between this group and control animals. In addition, lymphocytes from 2 of these 7 horses responded to peptides derived from gp90 and gp45. Together these results demonstrate that apparently clinically normal horses with no gross signs of immunodeficiency in terms of total IgG concentration or T helper-cell function can remain seronegative for at least 24 months while harboring EIAV specific nucleic acid sequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Increases the Risk of Incident Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yung-Feng; Lan, Yu-Ching; Huang, Chun-Teng; Jen, I-An; Chen, Marcelo; Lee, Chun-Yuan; Chuang, Pei-Hung; Lee, Yun; Morisky, Donalde E; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2017-11-15

    Currently, the association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and subsequent development of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) remains unclear. This nationwide population-based cohort study aimed to determine the association between incident AIHA and HIV infection in Taiwan. During 2000-2012, we identified people aged ≧15 years living with HIV (PLWH) from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control HIV Surveillance System. Individuals were considered to be infected with HIV on the basis of positive results of an HIV type 1 Western blot. Age- and sex-matched controls without HIV infection were selected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for comparison. All patients were followed until 31 December 2012 and observed for occurrence of AIHA. Of 171468 subjects (19052 PLWH and 152416 controls), 30 (0.02%) had incident AIHA during a mean follow-up of 5.45 years, including 23 PLWH (0.12%) and 7 controls (0.01%). After adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities, HIV infection was found to be an independent risk factor of incident AIHA (adjusted hazard ratio, 20.9; 95% confidence interval, 8.34-52.3). Moreover, PLWH who were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy were more likely to develop AIHA than those who were not receiving these drugs (adjusted hazard ratio, 16.2; 95% confidence interval, 3.52-74.2). Our study suggests that HIV infection is an independent risk factor for incident AIHA. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A rare case of acute pancreatitis and life-threatening hemolytic anemia associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in a young healthy adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhchain; Khosla, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a common infection that affects 95% of adults worldwide at some point during life. It is usually asymptomatic or causes a self-limiting clinical syndrome known as infectious mononucleosis. It rarely causes complications. Here, we present a case of a healthy 21-year-old female college student who suffered from severe pancreatitis and life-threatening autoimmune hemolytic anemia in association with EBV infection, and we also discuss the common presentation of EBV infection and the diagnosis and treatment of simple and complicated EBV infection. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid identification of chicken anemia virus in Nigerian backyard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... endonuclease (RE) analysis was used for the detection and characterization of chicken anemia virus. (CAV) in backyard chickens ... Diagnosis of CAV infections can be made by detecting infectious virus, virus antigen, .... water); Lane 15: product obtained by amplification of NGR-5. DNA; Lane 18: phage λ ...

  8. Adaptive immunity is the primary force driving selection of equine infectious anemia virus envelope SU variants during acute infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Robert H; Leib, Steven R; Pownder, Sarah L; McGuire, Travis C

    2004-09-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus that causes persistent infection in horses. The appearance of antigenically distinct viral variants during recurrent viremic episodes is thought to be due to adaptive immune selection pressure. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated envelope SU cloned sequences from five severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) foals infected with EIAV. Within the SU hypervariable V3 region, 8.5% of the clones had amino acid changes, and 6.4% had amino acid changes within the known cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope Env-RW12. Of all the SU clones, only 3.1% had amino acid changes affecting potential N-linked glycosylation sites. In contrast, a much higher degree of variation was evident in SU sequences obtained from four EIAV-infected immunocompetent foals. Within V3, 68.8% of the clones contained amino acid changes, and 50% of the clones had amino acid changes within the Env-RW12 CTL epitope. Notably, 31.9% of the clones had amino acid changes affecting one or more glycosylation sites. Marked amino acid variation occurred in cloned SU sequences from an immune-reconstituted EIAV-infected SCID foal. Of these clones, 100% had amino acid changes within V3, 100% had amino acid changes within Env-RW12, and 97.5% had amino acid changes affecting glycosylation sites. Analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions revealed statistically significant differences between SCID and immunocompetent foals and between SCID foals and the reconstituted SCID foal. Interestingly, amino acid selection at one site occurred independently of adaptive immune status. Not only do these data indicate that adaptive immunity primarily drives the selection of EIAV SU variants, but also they demonstrate that other selective forces exist during acute infection.

  9. Mice transgenic for equine cyclin T1 and ELR1 are susceptible to equine infectious anemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Cheng; Ma, Jian; Liu, Qiang; Li, Yun-Fei; He, Xi-Jun; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Meng, Qing-Wen; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2015-04-28

    As a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) protein superfamily, equine lentivirus receptor 1 (ELR1) has been shown to be expressed in various equine cells that are permissive for equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) replication. The EIAV Tat protein (eTat) activates transcription initiated at the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter through a unique mechanism that requires the recruitment of the equine cyclin T1 (eCT1) cofactor into the viral TAR RNA target element. In vitro studies have demonstrated that mouse fibroblast cell lines (e.g., NIH 3T3 cells) that express the EIAV receptor ELR1 and eCT1 support the productive replication of EIAV. Therefore, we constructed transgenic eCT1- and ELR1-expressing mice to examine whether they support in vivo EIAV replication. For the first time, we constructed mice transgenic for ELR1 and eCT1. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis confirmed that ELR1 and eCT1 were expressed in the transgenic mouse tissues, particularly in the intestines, spleen and lymph nodes. Consistent with the results of EIAV infection in NIH 3T3 cells expressing ELR1 and eCT1, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from the transgenic mice could support EIAV replication. More importantly, this virus could infect and replicate in mouse blood monocyte-derived macrophages (mMDMs). Macrophages are the principle target cell of EIAV in its natural hosts. Furthermore, after the transgenic mice were inoculated with EIAV, the virus could be detected not only in the plasma of the circulating blood but also in multiple organs, among which, the spleen and lymph nodes were the predominant sites of EIAV replication. Finally, we found that consistent with high viral replication levels, the relevant pathological changes occurred in the spleen and lymph nodes. Our results show that mice transgenic for ELR1 and eCT1 are susceptible to EIAV infection and replication. Further, EIAV infection can cause

  10. Infection of equine monocyte-derived macrophages with an attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) strain induces a strong resistance to the infection by a virulent EIAV strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Wang, Shan-Shan; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Liu, Hai-Fang; Liu, Qiang; Wei, Hua-Mian; Wang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Yu-Hong; Du, Cheng; Kong, Xian-Gang; Zhou, Jian-Hua; Wang, Xiaojun

    2014-08-09

    The Chinese attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine has successfully protected millions of equine animals from EIA disease in China. Given that the induction of immune protection results from the interactions between viruses and hosts, a better understanding of the characteristics of vaccine strain infection and host responses would be useful for elucidating the mechanism of the induction of immune protection by the Chinese attenuated EIAV strain. In this study, we demonstrate in equine monocyte-derived macrophages (eMDM) that EIAVFDDV13, a Chinese attenuated EIAV strain, induced a strong resistance to subsequent infection by a pathogenic strain, EIAVUK3. Further experiments indicate that the expression of the soluble EIAV receptor sELR1, Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and interferon β (IFNβ) was up-regulated in eMDM infected with EIAVFDDV13 compared with eMDM infected with EIAVUK3. Stimulating eMDM with poly I:C resulted in similar resistance to EIAV infection as induced by EIAVFDDV13 and was correlated with enhanced TLR3, sELR1 and IFNβ expression. The knock down of TLR3 mRNA significantly impaired poly I:C-stimulated resistance to EIAV, greatly reducing the expression of sELR1 and IFNβ and lowered the level of infection resistance induced by EIAVFDDV13. These results indicate that the induction of restraining infection by EIAVFDDV13 in macrophages is partially mediated through the up-regulated expression of the soluble viral receptor and IFNβ, and that the TLR3 pathway activation plays an important role in the development of an EIAV-resistant intracellular environment.

  11. Effects of ribavirin dose reduction vs erythropoietin for boceprevir-related anemia in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection--a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poordad, Fred; Lawitz, Eric; Reddy, K Rajender; Afdhal, Nezam H; Hézode, Christophe; Zeuzem, Stefan; Lee, Samuel S; Calleja, Jose Luis; Brown, Robert S; Craxi, Antonio; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Nyberg, Lisa; Nelson, David R; Rossaro, Lorenzo; Balart, Luis; Morgan, Timothy R; Bacon, Bruce R; Flamm, Steven L; Kowdley, Kris V; Deng, Weiping; Koury, Kenneth J; Pedicone, Lisa D; Dutko, Frank J; Burroughs, Margaret H; Alves, Katia; Wahl, Janice; Brass, Clifford A; Albrecht, Janice K; Sulkowski, Mark S

    2013-11-01

    Treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with boceprevir, peginterferon, and ribavirin can lead to anemia, which has been managed by reducing ribavirin dose and/or erythropoietin therapy. We assessed the effects of these anemia management strategies on rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) and safety. Patients (n = 687) received 4 weeks of peginterferon and ribavirin followed by 24 or 44 weeks of boceprevir (800 mg, 3 times each day) plus peginterferon and ribavirin. Patients who became anemic (levels of hemoglobin approximately ≤10 g/dL) during the study treatment period (n = 500) were assigned to groups that were managed by ribavirin dosage reduction (n = 249) or erythropoietin therapy (n = 251). Rates of SVR were comparable between patients whose anemia was managed by ribavirin dosage reduction (71.5%) vs erythropoietin therapy (70.9%), regardless of the timing of the first intervention to manage anemia or the magnitude of ribavirin dosage reduction. There was a threshold for the effect on rate of SVR: patients who received <50% of the total milligrams of ribavirin assigned by the protocol had a significantly lower rate of SVR (P < .0001) than those who received ≥50%. Among patients who did not develop anemia, the rate of SVR was 40.1%. Eleven thromboembolic adverse events were reported in 9 of 295 patients who received erythropoietin, compared with 1 of 392 patients who did not receive erythropoietin. Reduction of ribavirin dosage can be the primary approach for management of anemia in patients receiving peginterferon, ribavirin, and boceprevir for HCV infection. Reduction in ribavirin dosage throughout the course of triple therapy does not affect rates of SVR. However, it is important that the patient receives at least 50% of the total amount (milligrams) of ribavirin assigned by response-guided therapy. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01023035. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunodiffusion Studies of Purified Equine Infectious Anemia Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideo; Ushimi, Chuzo

    1971-01-01

    Antigenicity of purified equine infectious anemia (EIA) virus was examined by immunodiffusion against sera obtained from horses experimentally infected with EIA virus. The purified virus reacted with the infected horse serum, and virus-specific precipitating antibody was demonstrated. Furthermore, it was found that purified EIA virus reacted against the serum of horses infected with all strains of EIA virus which were antigenically different from one another. From the result, group-specific components of the virus rather than strain-specific ones were considered to be involved in the reaction. Serological reactivity was lost by adding antiserum from the infected horse to the antigen. The precipitating antibody usually appeared in the serum 1 to 2 weeks after the first febrile attack of EIA and remained for a longer period. Some characteristics of the purified antigen and specificity of the reaction for EIA are described. Images PMID:16557982

  13. Equine infectious anemia and equine infectious anemia virus in 2013: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R F; Leroux, C; Issel, C J

    2013-11-29

    A detailed description of equine infectious anemia virus and host responses to it are presented. Current control and eradication of the infection are discussed with suggestions for improvements to increase their effectiveness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Virulence determinants of equine infectious anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Susan L; Fuller, Frederick J

    2010-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus that rapidly Induces disease in experimentally infected horses. Because EIAV infection and replication is centered on the monocyte/macrophage and has a pronounced acute disease stage, it is a useful model system for understanding the contribution of monocyte/macrophages to other lentivirus-induced diseases. Genetic mapping studies utilizing chimeric proviruses in which parental viruses are acutely virulent or avirulent have allowed the identification of important regions that influence acute virulence. U3 regions in the viral LTR, surface envelope (SU) protein and the accessory S2 gene strongly influence acute disease expression. While the chimeric proviruses provide insight into genes or genome regions that affect viral pathogenesis, it is then necessary to further dissect those regions to focus on specific virus-host mechanisms that lead to disease expression. The V6 region of the viral env protein is an example of one identified region that may interact with the ELR-1 receptor in an important way and we are currently identifying S2 protein motifs required for disease expression.

  15. Serological method using recombinant S2 protein to differentiate equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-infected and EIAV-vaccinated horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sha; Issel, Charles J; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2004-11-01

    We recently reported a highly protective attenuated live virus vaccine for equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) based on a proviral construct (EIAVUKDeltaS2) with a genetically engineered mutation in the viral S2 gene that eliminates expression of this accessory protein. While the EIAVUKDeltaS2 vaccine provides protection from detectable infection by experimental challenge with highly virulent virus, the potential for commercial application of this vaccine is complicated by the fact that horses inoculated with the EIAVUKDeltaS2 vaccine strain become seropositive in various reference diagnostic assays based on detection of antibodies to virion core or envelope proteins. To address this issue, we describe here the development and optimization of a new serologic EIAV diagnostic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum antibodies to the EIAV S2 protein that are produced in infected horses but not in horses inoculated with the EIAVUKDeltaS2 vaccine virus. The test S2 protein antigen was developed using the S2 gene sequence from the EIAVUK strain of virus and a series of modifications to facilitate production and purification of the diagnostic antigen, designated HS2G. Using this HS2G as antigen, we describe the development of an affinity ELISA that provides a sensitive and specific detection of S2-specific serum antibodies in experimentally and field-infected horses (22 of 24), without detectable reactivity with immune serum from uninfected (12 of 12) or vaccinated (29 of 29) horses. These data indicate that the S2-based diagnostic ELISA has the potential to accurately differentiate horses infected with EIAV from horses inoculated with an attenuated EIAV vaccine strain with a mutant S2 gene.

  16. Gag Protein Epitopes Recognized by ELA-A-Restricted Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes from Horses with Long-Term Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Lonning, Scott M.; McGuire, Travis C.

    1998-01-01

    Most equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-infected horses have acute clinical disease, but they eventually control the disease and become lifelong carriers. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are considered an important immune component in the control of infections with lentiviruses including EIAV, but definitive evidence for CTL in the control of disease in carrier horses is lacking. By using retroviral vector-transduced target cells expressing different Gag proteins and overlapping synthetic peptides of 16 to 25 amino acids, peptides containing at least 12 Gag CTL epitopes recognized by virus-stimulated PBMC from six long-term EIAV-infected horses were identified. All identified peptides were located within Gag matrix (p15) and capsid (p26) proteins, as no killing of target cells expressing p11 and p9 occurred. Each of the six horses had CTL recognizing at least one Gag epitope, while CTL from one horse recognized at least eight different Gag epitopes. None of the identified peptides were recognized by CTL from all six horses. Two nonamer peptide epitopes were defined from Gag p26; one (18a) was likely restricted by class I equine leukocyte alloantigen A5.1 (ELA-A5.1) molecules, and the other (28b-1) was likely restricted by ELA-A9 molecules. Sensitization of equine kidney target cells for CTLm killing required 10 nM peptide 18a and 1 nM 28b-1. The results demonstrated that diverse CTL responses against Gag epitopes were generated in long-term EIAV-infected horses and indicated that ELA-A class I molecules were responsible for the diversity of CTL epitopes recognized. This information indicates that multiple epitopes or whole proteins will be needed to induce CTL in horses with different ELA-A alleles in order to evaluate their role in controlling EIAV. PMID:9811694

  17. Gag protein epitopes recognized by ELA-A-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes from horses with long-term equine infectious anemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Lonning, S M; McGuire, T C

    1998-12-01

    Most equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-infected horses have acute clinical disease, but they eventually control the disease and become lifelong carriers. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are considered an important immune component in the control of infections with lentiviruses including EIAV, but definitive evidence for CTL in the control of disease in carrier horses is lacking. By using retroviral vector-transduced target cells expressing different Gag proteins and overlapping synthetic peptides of 16 to 25 amino acids, peptides containing at least 12 Gag CTL epitopes recognized by virus-stimulated PBMC from six long-term EIAV-infected horses were identified. All identified peptides were located within Gag matrix (p15) and capsid (p26) proteins, as no killing of target cells expressing p11 and p9 occurred. Each of the six horses had CTL recognizing at least one Gag epitope, while CTL from one horse recognized at least eight different Gag epitopes. None of the identified peptides were recognized by CTL from all six horses. Two nonamer peptide epitopes were defined from Gag p26; one (18a) was likely restricted by class I equine leukocyte alloantigen A5.1 (ELA-A5.1) molecules, and the other (28b-1) was likely restricted by ELA-A9 molecules. Sensitization of equine kidney target cells for CTLm killing required 10 nM peptide 18a and 1 nM 28b-1. The results demonstrated that diverse CTL responses against Gag epitopes were generated in long-term EIAV-infected horses and indicated that ELA-A class I molecules were responsible for the diversity of CTL epitopes recognized. This information indicates that multiple epitopes or whole proteins will be needed to induce CTL in horses with different ELA-A alleles in order to evaluate their role in controlling EIAV.

  18. Infection with equine infectious anemia virus vaccine strain EIAVDLV121 causes no visible histopathological lesions in target organs in association with restricted viral replication and unique cytokine response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Ma, Jian; Wang, Xue-Feng; Xiao, Fei; Li, Li-Jia; Zhang, Jiao-Er; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Du, Cheng; He, Xi-Jun; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2016-02-01

    The live equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine strain EIAVDLV121 was developed by in vitro attenuation of a virulent strain, EIAVLN40, in the 1970s, and it has been demonstrated to induce protective immunity under laboratory and natural EIAV infection conditions. The detailed biological features of this attenuated virus remain to be further investigated. Experimental inoculation with EIAVDLV121 did not result in clinical symptoms even with immunosuppressive treatment in our previous studies. Here, we further investigated whether the replication of the vaccine strain EIAVDLV121 in experimentally infected horses causes histopathological lesions to develop in the targeted organs. Both the lungs and the spleen have been demonstrated to support EIAV replication. By evaluating the gross macroscopic and histological changes, we found that EIAVDLV121 did not cause detectable histopathological lesions and that it replicated several hundred times more slowly than its parental virulent strain, EIAVLN40, in tissues. Immunochemical assays of these tissues indicated that the primary target cells of EIAVDLV121 were monocytes/macrophages, but that EIAVLN40 also infected alveolar epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells. In addition, both of these viral strains promoted the up- and down-regulation of the expression of various cytokines and chemokines, implicating the potential involvement of these cellular factors in the pathological outcomes of EIAV infection and host immune responses. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the EIAV vaccine strain does not cause obvious histopathological lesions or clinical symptoms and that it induces a unique cytokine response profile. These features are considered essential for EIAVDLV121 to function as an effective live vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. S2 from equine infectious anemia virus is an infectivity factor which counteracts the retroviral inhibitors SERINC5 and SERINC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chande, Ajit; Cuccurullo, Emilia Cristiana; Rosa, Annachiara; Ziglio, Serena; Carpenter, Susan; Pizzato, Massimo

    2016-11-15

    The lentivirus equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) encodes the small protein S2, a pathogenic determinant that is important for virus replication and disease progression in horses. No molecular function had been linked to this accessory protein. We report that S2 can replace the activity of Negative factor (Nef) in HIV-1 infectivity, being required to antagonize the inhibitory activity of Serine incorporator (SERINC) proteins on Nef-defective HIV-1. Like Nef, S2 excludes SERINC5 from virus particles and requires an ExxxLL motif predicted to recruit the clathrin adaptor, Adaptor protein 2 (AP2). Accordingly, functional endocytic machinery is essential for S2-mediated infectivity enhancement, and S2-mediated enhancement is impaired by inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In addition to retargeting SERINC5 to a late endosomal compartment, S2 promotes host factor degradation. Emphasizing the similarity with Nef, we show that S2 is myristoylated, and, as is compatible with a crucial role in posttranslational modification, its N-terminal glycine is required for anti-SERINC5 activity. EIAV-derived vectors devoid of S2 are less susceptible than HIV-1 to the inhibitory effect of both human and equine SERINC5. We then identified the envelope glycoprotein of EIAV as a determinant that also modulates retroviral susceptibility to SERINC5, indicating that EIAV has a bimodal ability to counteract the host factor. S2 shares no sequence homology with other retroviral factors known to counteract SERINC5. Like the primate lentivirus Nef and the gammaretrovirus glycoGag, the accessory protein from EIAV is an example of a retroviral virulence determinant that independently evolved SERINC5-antagonizing activity. SERINC5 therefore plays a critical role in the interaction of the host with diverse retrovirus pathogens.

  20. Inactivated E. coli transformed with plasmids that produce dsRNA against infectious salmon anemia virus hemagglutinin show antiviral activity when added to infected ASK cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eGarcía

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV has caused great losses to the Chilean salmon industry, and the success of prevention and treatment strategies is uncertain. The use of RNA interference (RNAi is a promising approach because during the replication cycle, the ISAV genome must be transcribed to mRNA in the cytoplasm. We explored the capacity of E. coli transformed with plasmids that produce double-stranded RNA (dsRNA to induce antiviral activity when added to infected ASK cells. We transformed the non-pathogenic Escherichia coli HT115 (DE3 with plasmids that expressed highly conserved regions of the ISAV genes encoding the nucleoprotein (NP, fusion (F, hemagglutinin (HE and matrix (M proteins as dsRNA, which is the precursor of the RNAi mechanism. The inactivated transformed bacteria carrying dsRNA were tested for their capacity to silence the target ISAV genes, and the dsRNA that were able to inhibit gene expression were subsequently tested for their ability to attenuate the cytopathic effect (CPE and reduce the viral load. Of the four target genes tested, inactivated E. coli transformed with plasmids producing dsRNA targeting HE showed antiviral activity when added to infected ASK cells.

  1. The determination of in vivo envelope-specific cell-mediated immune responses in equine infectious anemia virus-infected ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Cook, Frank R; Cook, Sheila J; Craigo, Jodi K; Even, Deborah L; Issel, Charles J; Montelaro, Ronald C; Horohov, David W

    2012-08-15

    Distinct from human lentivirus infection, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-infected horses will eventually enter an inapparent carrier state in which virus replication is apparently controlled by adaptive immune responses. Although recrudescence of disease can occur after immune suppression, the actual immune correlate associated with protection has yet to be determined. Therefore, EIAV provides a model for investigating immune-mediated protective mechanisms against lentivirus infection. Here, we have developed a method to monitor EIAV-envelope specific cellular immunity in vivo. An EIA carrier horse with no clinical signs infected 7 years ago and 4 related experimental ponies infected 6 months previously were used in this study. Forty-four 20-mer peptides, representing the entire surface unit protein (gp90) of EIAV, were combined into 14 peptide pools and intradermally injected into the neck of EIAV-infected horses. An identical volume of saline alone was injected into a fifteenth site as a negative control. After 48 h, those sites with palpable infiltrations were measured prior to the collection of 2mm and 4mm punch biopsies. Total RNA was extracted from each 2mm biopsy for determination of CD3 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA expression by real-time PCR. The 4mm skin biopsies were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded for immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining for CD3, CD20, CD25 and MAC387 (macrophage marker). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained prior to the injection and tested for in vitro reactivity against the same peptides. Histological examination showed that some of the envelope peptides elicited a lymphocytic cellular infiltration at the injection site, as evidenced by positive staining for CD3. Gp90 peptide-specific increases in CD3 and IFN-γ gene expression were also detected in the injection sites. Furthermore, differences were found between in vivo and in vitro responses to gp90 specific peptides. These results demonstrate a

  2. Equine infectious anemia virus envelope evolution in vivo during persistent infection progressively increases resistance to in vitro serum antibody neutralization as a dominant phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Laryssa; Leroux, Caroline; Issel, Charles J; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2002-11-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection of horses is characterized by well-defined waves of viremia associated with the sequential evolution of distinct viral populations displaying extensive envelope gp90 variation; however, a correlation of in vivo envelope evolution with in vitro serum neutralization phenotype remains undefined. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to utilize a previously defined panel of natural variant EIAV envelope isolates from sequential febrile episodes to characterize the effects of envelope variation during persistent infection on viral neutralization phenotypes and to define the determinants of EIAV envelope neutralization specificity. To assess the neutralization phenotypes of the sequential EIAV envelope variants, we determined the sensitivity of five variant envelopes to neutralization by a longitudinal panel of immune serum from the source infected pony. The results indicated that the evolution of the EIAV envelope sequences observed during sequential febrile episodes produced an increasingly neutralization-resistant phenotype. To further define the envelope determinants of EIAV neutralization specificity, we examined the neutralization properties of a panel of chimeric envelope constructs derived from reciprocal envelope domain exchanges between selected neutralization-sensitive and neutralization-resistant envelope variants. These results indicated that the EIAV gp90 V3 and V4 domains individually conferred serum neutralization resistance while other envelope segments in addition to V3 and V4 were evidently required for conferring total serum neutralization sensitivity. These data clearly demonstrate for the first time the influence of sequential gp90 variation during persistent infection in increasing envelope neutralization resistance, identify the gp90 V3 and V4 domains as the principal determinants of antibody neutralization resistance, and indicate distinct complex cooperative envelope domain interactions in

  3. Use of heavy water (D2O) in developing thermostable recombinant p26 protein based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of equine infectious anemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Harisankar; Goyal, Sachin K; Malik, Praveen; Singh, Raj K

    2014-01-01

    Thermostabilizing effect of heavy water (D2O) or deuterium oxide has been demonstrated previously on several enzymes and vaccines like oral poliovirus vaccine and influenza virus vaccine. In view of the above observations, effect of heavy water on in situ thermostabilization of recombinant p26 protein on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serodiagnosis of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection was investigated in the present study. The carbonate-bicarbonate coating buffer was prepared in 60% and 80% D2O for coating the p26 protein in 96-well ELISA plate and thermal stability was examined at 4 °C, 37 °C, 42 °C, and 45 °C over a storage time from 2 weeks to 10 months. A set of positive serum (n = 12) consisting of strong, medium, and weak titer strength (4 samples in each category) and negative serum (n = 30) were assessed in ELISA during the study period. At each time point, ELISA results were compared with fresh plate to assess thermal protective effect of D2O. Gradual increase in the stabilizing effect of 80% D2O at elevated temperature (37 °C < 42 °C < 45 °C) was observed. The 80% D2O provides the thermal protection to rp26 protein in ELISA plate up to 2 months of incubation at 45 °C. The findings of the present study have the future implication of adopting cost effective strategies for generating more heat tolerable ELISA reagents with extended shelf life.

  4. Use of Heavy Water (D2O in Developing Thermostable Recombinant p26 Protein Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Serodiagnosis of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harisankar Singha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermostabilizing effect of heavy water (D2O or deuterium oxide has been demonstrated previously on several enzymes and vaccines like oral poliovirus vaccine and influenza virus vaccine. In view of the above observations, effect of heavy water on in situ thermostabilization of recombinant p26 protein on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for serodiagnosis of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV infection was investigated in the present study. The carbonate-bicarbonate coating buffer was prepared in 60% and 80% D2O for coating the p26 protein in 96-well ELISA plate and thermal stability was examined at 4°C, 37°C, 42°C, and 45°C over a storage time from 2 weeks to 10 months. A set of positive serum (n=12 consisting of strong, medium, and weak titer strength (4 samples in each category and negative serum (n=30 were assessed in ELISA during the study period. At each time point, ELISA results were compared with fresh plate to assess thermal protective effect of D2O. Gradual increase in the stabilizing effect of 80% D2O at elevated temperature (37°C < 42°C < 45°C was observed. The 80% D2O provides the thermal protection to rp26 protein in ELISA plate up to 2 months of incubation at 45°C. The findings of the present study have the future implication of adopting cost effective strategies for generating more heat tolerable ELISA reagents with extended shelf life.

  5. A Live Attenuated Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Proviral Vaccine with a Modified S2 Gene Provides Protection from Detectable Infection by Intravenous Virulent Virus Challenge of Experimentally Inoculated Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Craigo, Jodi K.; Howe, Laryssa; Steckbeck, Jonathan D.; Cook, Sheila; Issel, Charles; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2003-01-01

    Previous evaluations of inactivated whole-virus and envelope subunit vaccines to equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) have revealed a broad spectrum of efficacy ranging from highly type-specific protection to severe enhancement of viral replication and disease in experimentally immunized equids. Among experimental animal lentivirus vaccines, immunizations with live attenuated viral strains have proven most effective, but the vaccine efficacy has been shown to be highly dependent on the nature and severity of the vaccine virus attenuation. We describe here for the first time the characterization of an experimental attenuated proviral vaccine, EIAVUKΔS2, based on inactivation of the S2 accessory gene to down regulate in vivo replication without affecting in vitro growth properties. The results of these studies demonstrated that immunization with EIAVUKΔS2 elicited mature virus-specific immune responses by 6 months and that this vaccine immunity provided protection from disease and detectable infection by intravenous challenge with a reference virulent biological clone, EIAVPV. This level of protection was observed in each of the six experimental horses challenged with the reference virulent EIAVPV by using a low-dose multiple-exposure protocol (three administrations of 10 median horse infectious doses [HID50], intravenous) designed to mimic field exposures and in all three experimentally immunized ponies challenged intravenously with a single inoculation of 3,000 HID50. In contrast, naïve equids subjected to the low- or high-dose challenge develop a detectable infection of challenge virus and acute disease within several weeks. Thus, these data demonstrate that the EIAV S2 gene provides an optimal site for modification to achieve the necessary balance between attenuation to suppress virulence and replication potential to sufficiently drive host immune responses to produce vaccine immunity to viral exposure. PMID:12805423

  6. A live attenuated equine infectious anemia virus proviral vaccine with a modified S2 gene provides protection from detectable infection by intravenous virulent virus challenge of experimentally inoculated horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Craigo, Jodi K; Howe, Laryssa; Steckbeck, Jonathan D; Cook, Sheila; Issel, Charles; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2003-07-01

    Previous evaluations of inactivated whole-virus and envelope subunit vaccines to equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) have revealed a broad spectrum of efficacy ranging from highly type-specific protection to severe enhancement of viral replication and disease in experimentally immunized equids. Among experimental animal lentivirus vaccines, immunizations with live attenuated viral strains have proven most effective, but the vaccine efficacy has been shown to be highly dependent on the nature and severity of the vaccine virus attenuation. We describe here for the first time the characterization of an experimental attenuated proviral vaccine, EIAV(UK)deltaS2, based on inactivation of the S2 accessory gene to down regulate in vivo replication without affecting in vitro growth properties. The results of these studies demonstrated that immunization with EIAV(UK)deltaS2 elicited mature virus-specific immune responses by 6 months and that this vaccine immunity provided protection from disease and detectable infection by intravenous challenge with a reference virulent biological clone, EIAV(PV). This level of protection was observed in each of the six experimental horses challenged with the reference virulent EIAV(PV) by using a low-dose multiple-exposure protocol (three administrations of 10 median horse infectious doses [HID(50)], intravenous) designed to mimic field exposures and in all three experimentally immunized ponies challenged intravenously with a single inoculation of 3,000 HID(50). In contrast, naïve equids subjected to the low- or high-dose challenge develop a detectable infection of challenge virus and acute disease within several weeks. Thus, these data demonstrate that the EIAV S2 gene provides an optimal site for modification to achieve the necessary balance between attenuation to suppress virulence and replication potential to sufficiently drive host immune responses to produce vaccine immunity to viral exposure.

  7. Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.

  8. Protective effects of broadly neutralizing immunoglobulin against homologous and heterologous equine infectious anemia virus infection in horses with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sandra D; Leib, Steven R; Wu, Wuwei; Nelson, Robert; Carpenter, Susan; Mealey, Robert H

    2011-07-01

    Using the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) lentivirus model system, we previously demonstrated protective effects of broadly neutralizing immune plasma in young horses (foals) with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). However, in vivo selection of a neutralization-resistant envelope variant occurred. Here, we determined the protective effects of purified immunoglobulin with more potent broadly neutralizing activity. Overall, protection correlated with the breadth and potency of neutralizing activity in vitro. Four of five SCID foals were completely protected against homologous challenge, while partial protection occurred following heterologous challenge. These results support the inclusion of broadly neutralizing antibodies in lentivirus control strategies.

  9. Severe anemia and hydrops in a neonate with parvovirus B19 infection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Sajjadian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia at the time of birth may cause some problem like asphyxia, heart failure shock or even death in a neonate. Different etiologies can be considered for this problem. Parvovirus B19, as a viral organism, can cause hydrops fetalis and neonatal anemia and consequent complications. We present here a case of newborn infant with severe anemia who had human parvovirus B19 infection.Case Presentation: A male newborn with gestational age of 36 week was born from a mother with poor prenatal care and history of contact with domestic animal. The neonate was very pale with Apgar score 2 at 1 min and received resuscitation, mechanical ventilation and repeated blood transfusion The hemoglobin level was significantly low. Analysis was made based on the clinical presentations. According to the case history, physical and laboratory findings, neonatal severe anemia induced by parvovirus B19 infection was suggested and Laboratory work up documented his infection with parovirus B19.Conclusion: Parvovirus B19 (B19 virus is the smallest single strand linear DNA virus in animal viruses, which is the only strain of parvovirus that is pathogenic in humans. Human parvovirus B19 may cross the placenta and result in fetal infection, morbidity and death. Parvovirus is an uncommon cause of neonatal anemia and hydrops fetalis so this etiology must be considered in differential diagnosis of anemia at birth.

  10. Antigenic stimulation of T lymphocytes in chronic nononcogenic retrovirus infection: equine infectious anemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Shively, M A; Banks, K L; Greenlee, A; Klevjer-Anderson, P

    1982-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia is a chronic disease of horses caused by a nononcogenic retrovirus. Studies were undertaken to determine the types of cells involved in the in vitro lymphoproliferative response to viral antigens and the dynamics of this reaction. It was observed that reactive lymphocytes were present at unpredictable times in the peripheral blood of infected horses. This reaction was shown to be specific for the interaction of equine infectious anemia virus and T lymphocytes. Enriche...

  11. Characterization of a cytolytic strain of equine infectious anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, Wendy; Wright, Patrick J; Bradley, Sarahann

    2003-02-01

    A novel strain of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) called vMA-1c that rapidly and specifically killed infected equine fibroblasts (ED cells) but not other infectible cell lines was established. This strain was generated from an avirulent, noncytopathic strain of EIAV, MA-1. Studies with this new cytolytic strain of virus have permitted us to define viral parameters associated with EIAV-induced cell killing and begin to explore the mechanism. vMA-1c infection resulted in induction of rapid cell death, enhanced fusogenic activity, and increased rates of spread in equine fibroblasts compared to other strains of EIAV. The highly cytolytic nature of vMA-1c suggested that this strain might be superinfecting equine fibroblasts. Receptor interference studies demonstrated that prior infection of equine fibroblasts with EIAV did not alter the ability of vMA-1c to infect and kill these cells. In similar studies in a canine fibroblast cell line, receptor interference did occur. vMA-1c infection of equine fibroblasts was also associated with large quantities of unintegrated viral DNA, a well-established hallmark of retroviral superinfection. Cloning of the vMA-1c genome identified nucleotide changes that would result in at least one amino acid change in all viral proteins. A chimeric infectious molecular clone containing the vMA-1c tat, S2, and env open reading frames recapitulated most of the characteristics of vMA-1c, including superinfection, fibroblast killing, and fusogenic activity. In summary, in vitro selection for a strain of EIAV that rapidly killed cells resulted in the generation of a virus that was able to superinfect these cells, presumably by the use of a novel mechanism of cell entry. This phenotype mapped to the 3' half of the genome.

  12. Randomized Trial Evaluating the Impact of Ribavirin Mono-Therapy and Double Dosing on Viral Kinetics, Ribavirin Pharmacokinetics and Anemia in Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldenström, Jesper; Westin, Johan; Nyström, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    In this pilot study (RibaC), 58 hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infected treatment-naïve patients were randomized to (i) 2 weeks ribavirin double dosing concomitant with pegylated interferon-α (pegIFN-α), (ii) 4 weeks ribavirin mono-therapy prior to adding pegIFN-α, or (iii) standard-of-care (...

  13. Characterization of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Integration in the Horse Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qiang; Wang, Xue-Feng; Ma, Jian; He, Xi-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 has a unique integration profile in the human genome relative to murine and avian retroviruses. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is another well-studied lentivirus that can also be used as a promising retro-transfection vector, but its integration into its native host has not been characterized. In this study, we mapped 477 integration sites of the EIAV strain EIAVFDDV13 in fetal equine dermal (FED) cells during in vitro infection. Published integrati...

  14. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  15. Molecular and biological characterization of equine infectious anemia virus Rev.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Susan; Dobbs, Drena

    2010-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is one of the most divergent members of the lentivirus subfamily of retroviruses and is considered a useful comparative model for molecular studies of lentivirus replication. The Rev protein of EIAV is functionally homologous with other lentiviral Revs and facilitates export of incompletely spliced viral mRNAs through a Crm1-dependent pathway. The trans- and cis-acting elements that mediate EIAV Rev function are similar to, but distinct from, the well-characterized elements in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), the prototypical Rev protein. In addition, the EIAV rev sequence is highly variable in vivo, and changes in Rev phenotype correlate with changes in clinical stages of EIAV infection. This review summarizes the molecular biology of EIAV Rev-RRE interactions and the consequences of Rev variation in vivo. A comparative perspective of Rev activity may enhance understanding of an essential lentiviral protein and stimulate new strategies for treatment and prevention of lentivirus infections in vivo.

  16. Infectious salmon anemia virus--genetics and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, Luis; Rivas-Aravena, Andrea; Cortez-San Martin, Marcelo; Sandino, Ana María; Spencer, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    The infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is the causative agent of the ISA syndrome that affects mainly Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and has caused high mortality epidemics in Norway, Scotland, Canada, the United States and Chile. It is classified as an Orthomyxoviridae, its genome is composed of 8 single-strand RNA segments with negative polarity that code for 11 polypeptides. Through functional studies of the coded proteins it has been established that RNA segments 5 and 6 code for a fusion protein and hemagglutinin, respectively, while two polypeptides coded by segments 7 and 8 inhibit interferon induction. The functions of the rest of the possible proteins coded by the viral genome have been assigned by comparison with the corresponding ones of the influenza virus genome. As to its pathogenicity, some growth parameters such as incubation period, resistance to chemical and physical factors, establishment of the infection in other marine species, and dissemination ability among the different organs have been evaluated in several salmonids. Genomic analysis has shown (i) the existence of a high polymorphism region (HPR) in segment 6, and (ii) sequence insertion in segment 5. More than 20 HPR variants have been determined, all originating from HPR0, which is associated with low pathogenicity, while 4 different sequence insertions in segment 5 have not been related with some characteristic of the virus infection. Much progress has been made in the characterization of the virus in 20 years of study, but more detailed knowledge of the specific function of the proteins coded by all the viral genes is still missing, including the pathogenicity mechanism at the molecular level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Immune responses are required to terminate viremia in equine infectious anemia lentivirus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Perryman, L E; O'Rourke, K I; McGuire, T C

    1988-01-01

    Six normal and four immunodeficient horses were injected with a cloned variant of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). The six normal horses had detectable EIAV in their plasma by 7 days postinjection. During their primary viremic episode, which was accompanied by fever and anemia, maximum titers of EIAV in plasma ranged from 10(3.8) to 10(4.8) 50% tissue culture infective doses per ml. All six normal horses cleared detectable virus from their plasma by 21 to 35 days after injection. Horses...

  18. An optimized polymerase chain reaction assay to identify avian virus vaccine contamination with Chicken anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Haitham M; Elzahed, Hanan M; Elabiare, Elham A; Badawy, Ahmed A; Yousef, Ausama A

    2011-01-01

    The use of embryonating chicken eggs in preparation of avian virus vaccines is the principle cause for contamination with Chicken anemia virus (CAV). Identification of CAV in contaminated vaccines relies on the expensive, tedious, and time-consuming practice of virus isolation in lymphoblastoid cell lines. The experience of the last 2 decades indicates that polymerase chain reaction is extending to replace most of the classic methods for detection of infectious agents. In the present report, a simple, rapid, and accurate polymerase chain reaction method for detection of CAV in poultry vaccines is described. Oligonucleotide primers homologous to highly conserved sequences of the VP1 gene were used to amplify a fragment of 676 bp. The developed assay was specific for detecting CAV from different sources, with no cross reactivity with many avian viruses. No inter- and intra-assay variations were observed. The analytical sensitivity of the test was high enough to detect 5 TCID(50) (50% tissue culture infective dose) of the virus per reaction; however, different factors related to the vaccine matrix showed considerable effects on the detection limit. In conclusion, this method may represent a suitable alternative to virus isolation for identification of CAV contamination of poultry virus vaccines.

  19. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes in protection against equine infectious anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Travis C; Fraser, Darrilyn G; Mealey, Robert H

    2004-12-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are associated with virus control in horses infected with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). Early in infection, control of the initial viremia coincides with the appearance of CTL and occurs before the appearance of neutralizing antibody. In carrier horses, treatment with immunosuppressive drugs results in viremia before a change in serum neutralizing antibody occurs. Clearance of initial viremia caused by other lentiviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus, is also associated with CTL and not neutralizing antibody. In addition, depletion of CD8+ cells prior to infection of rhesus monkeys with simian immunodeficiency prevents clearance of virus and the same treatment of persistently infected monkeys results in viremia. Cats given adoptive transfers of lymphocytes from vaccinated cats were protected and the protection was MHC-restricted, occurred in the absence of antiviral humoral immunity, and correlated with the transfer of cells with feline immunodeficiency virus-specific CTL and T-helper lymphocyte activities. Therefore, a lentiviral vaccine, including one for EIAV, needs to induce CTL. Based on initial failures to induce CTL to EIAV proteins by any means other than infection, we attempted to define an experimental system for the evaluation of methods for CTL induction. CTL epitopes restricted by the ELA-A1 haplotype were identified and the MHC class I molecule presenting these peptides was identified. This was done by expressing individual MHC class I molecules from cDNA clones in target cells. The target cells were then pulsed with peptides and used with effector CTL stimulated with the same peptides. In a preliminary experiment, immunization of three ELA-A1 haplotype horses with an Env peptide restricted by this haplotype resulted in CTL in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) which recognized the Env peptide and virus-infected cells, but the CTL response was transient

  20. Anemia and iron homeostasis in a cohort of HIV-infected patients in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf Hadi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anemia is a common clinical finding in HIV-infected patients and iron deficiency or redistribution may contribute to the development of low hemoglobin levels. Iron overload is associated with a poor prognosis in HIV and Hepatitis C virus infections. Iron redistribution may be caused by inflammation but possibly also by hepatitis C co-infection. We examined the prevalence of anemia and its relation to mortality in a cohort of HIV patients in a setting where injecting drug use (IDU is a main mode of HIV transmission, and measured serum ferritin and sTfR, in relation to anemia, inflammation, stage of HIV disease, ART and HCV infection. Methods Patient characteristics, ART history and iron parameters were recorded from adult HIV patients presenting between September 2007 and August 2009 in the referral hospital for West Java, Indonesia. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox's regression were used to assess factors affecting survival. Logistic regression was used to identity parameters associated with high ferritin concentrations. Results Anemia was found in 49.6% of 611 ART-naïve patients, with mild (Hb 10.5 - 12.99 g/dL for men; and 10.5 - 11.99 g/dL for women anemia in 62.0%, and moderate to severe anemia (Hb Conclusion HIV-associated anemia is common among HIV-infected patients in Indonesia and strongly related to mortality. High ferritin with low sTfR levels suggest that iron redistribution and low erythropoietic activity, rather than iron deficiency, contribute to anemia. Serum ferritin and sTfR should be used cautiously to assess iron status in patients with advanced HIV infection.

  1. Anemia, malaria and hookworm infections in a Vietnamese ethnic minority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Hung, Q.; de Vries, Peter J.; Giao, Phan T.; Binh, Tran Q.; Nam, Nguyen V.; Kager, Piet A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and evaluate the relationship of malaria and helminth infections on anemia status in Phan Tien village, a mountainous ethnic minority community in southern Vietnam. This longitudinal study was performed from April 1997 to 2000 by

  2. Anemia and iron homeostasis in a cohort of HIV-infected patients in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisaksana, Rudi; Sumantri, Rachmat; Indrati, Agnes R; Zwitser, Aleta; Jusuf, Hadi; de Mast, Quirijn; van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, Andre

    2011-08-09

    Anemia is a common clinical finding in HIV-infected patients and iron deficiency or redistribution may contribute to the development of low hemoglobin levels. Iron overload is associated with a poor prognosis in HIV and Hepatitis C virus infections. Iron redistribution may be caused by inflammation but possibly also by hepatitis C co-infection. We examined the prevalence of anemia and its relation to mortality in a cohort of HIV patients in a setting where injecting drug use (IDU) is a main mode of HIV transmission, and measured serum ferritin and sTfR, in relation to anemia, inflammation, stage of HIV disease, ART and HCV infection. Patient characteristics, ART history and iron parameters were recorded from adult HIV patients presenting between September 2007 and August 2009 in the referral hospital for West Java, Indonesia. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox's regression were used to assess factors affecting survival. Logistic regression was used to identity parameters associated with high ferritin concentrations. Anemia was found in 49.6% of 611 ART-naïve patients, with mild (Hb 10.5 -12.99 g/dL for men; and 10.5-11.99 g/dL for women) anemia in 62.0%, and moderate to severe anemia (Hb < 10.5 g/dL) in 38.0%. Anemia remained an independent factor associated with death, also after adjustment for CD4 count and ART (p = 0.008). Seroprevalence of HCV did not differ in patients with (56.9%) or without anemia (59.6%). Serum ferritin concentrations were elevated, especially in patients with anemia (p = 0.07) and/or low CD4 counts (p < 0.001), and were not related to hsCRP or HCV infection. Soluble TfR concentrations were low and not related to Hb, CD4, hsCRP or ART. HIV-associated anemia is common among HIV-infected patients in Indonesia and strongly related to mortality. High ferritin with low sTfR levels suggest that iron redistribution and low erythropoietic activity, rather than iron deficiency, contribute to anemia. Serum ferritin and sTfR should be used cautiously to

  3. Viruses infecting bivalve molluscs

    OpenAIRE

    Renault, Tristan; Novoa, Beatriz

    2004-01-01

    Bivalve molluscs are filter feeders and as a consequence they may bioaccumulate in their tissues viruses that infect humans and higher vertebrates. However, there have also been described mortalities of bivalve molluscs associated with viruses belonging to different families. Mass mortalities of adult Portuguese oysters, Crassostrea angulata, among French livestocks (between 1967 and 1973) were associated with irido-like virus infections. Herpesviruses were reported in the eastern oyster, Pac...

  4. Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Hoerr, F J; Breedlove, C

    2009-03-01

    The effects of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) coinfection in commercial layer-type and meat-type (broiler) chickens with specific maternal immunity were evaluated. In addition, the broiler progeny used had been vaccinated in ovo against IBDV. Layer chickens were inoculated intramuscularly on day 3 of age with CAV and orally on day 7 of age with an IBDV standard strain (APHIS). Broiler chickens were exposed to CAV and/or an IBDV variant strain (AL2) via the drinking water on days 3 and 14 of age. Following CAV and IBDV inoculation neither mortality nor overt clinical disease was observed in any layer or broiler group. In spite of maternal immunity against both IBDV and CAV, mean hematocrits of all layer groups inoculated with CAV (CAV, CAV + APHIS) were lower than uninfected chickens. IBDV APHIS alone or in combination with CAV did not affect the layer weight gain. However, on day 30 of age and concomitantly with maternal antibody decay, bursa lymphocyte depletion became evident in CAV + APHIS-infected layer chickens. These birds (CAV + APHIS) also seroconverted to IBDV on day 35 of age. CAV persisted at low levels in the layer chickens throughout the experimental period in CAV- and CAV+APHIS-infected chickens. Similarly, infected broiler chickens did not show changes in weight gain. Compared to CAV-infected or uninfected controls, CAV+AL2- and AL2-infected broiler chickens showed significant lymphocyte depletion in the bursa as assessed both by bursal indices and histomorphometry. Broilers also seroconverted to IBDV after day 30 of age confirming that bursal lymphocyte depletion was due to IBDV resuming replication. Thymus histomorphometry revealed significant lymphocyte depletion in all infected broiler groups at 30 days of age, but only in CAV+AL2-infected broiler chickens at 41 days of age, suggesting that IBDV infection delayed repopulation of the thymus.

  5. Long terminal repeats are not the sole determinants of virulence for equine infectious anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Y-B; Zhou, T; Yuan, X-F; Qiu, H-J; Xue, F; Sun, C-Q; Wang, L; Wu, D-L; Peng, J-M; Kong, X-G; Tong, G-Z

    2007-01-01

    The long terminal repeats (LTRs) of equine infectious anemia virus donkey leukocyte-attenuated virus (EIAV-DLA) were substituted with those of the wild-type EIAV-L (wt EIAV-L, the parent virus of EIAV-DLA). The resulting chimeric plasmid was designated pOK-LTR DLA/L. Purified pOK-LTR DLA/L was transfected into monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) cultures prepared from EIAV-negative, heparinized whole blood from a donkey. Eighth-passage cell cultures developed the typical cytopathogenic effects (CPE) of EIAV infection, and virions with typical EIAV profiles were observed with an electron microscope. Horses were inoculated with the chimeric virus or EIAV-DLA and challenged with the wt EIAV-L strain six months later. All of the horses inoculated with either the chimeric virus or EIAV-DLA were protected from disease, whereas the control horses died with typical EIA symptoms.

  6. Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  7. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  8. Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reason for blood cell counts to be low. Anemia of Chronic Disease Anemia of chronic disease is a result of chronic inflammation caused by ... benign or malignant tumors, or a variety of chronic medical conditions. Pernicious Anemia ... © 2018 Health ...

  9. Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a shortage of iron. This condition is called iron deficiency anemia. There are a few other types of anemia, ... Try to avoid these foods if you have iron deficiency anemia. Foods high in vitamin B12 include: meat and ...

  10. Duplex PCR assay for the detection of avian adeno virus and chicken anemia virus prevalent in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Aqib

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Avian Adeno viruses and Chicken Anemia Viruses cause serious economic losses to the poultry industry of Pakistan each year. Timely and efficient diagnosis of the viruses is needed in order to practice prevention and control strategies. In the first part of this study, we investigated broilers, breeder and Layer stocks for morbidity and mortality rates due to AAV and CAV infections and any co-infections by examining signs and symptoms typical of their infestation or post mortem examination. In the second part of the study, we developed a duplex PCR assay for the detection of AAV and CAV which is capable to simultaneously detect both the viral types prevalent in Pakistan with high sensitivity and 100% specificity.

  11. Parvovirus B19 infection in Tunisian patients with sickle-cell anemia and acute erythroblastopenia

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    Zili Mohamed

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human parvovirus B19 is the etiologic agent of erythema infectiosum in children. It is also associated with other clinical manifestations in different target groups. Patients with chronic hemolytic anemia are at high risk of developing acute erythroblastopenia following infection by the virus. They usually become highly viremic and pose an increased risk of virus transmission. Close monitoring of such high risk groups is required for epidemiologic surveillance and disease prevention activities. Here we report a molecular epidemiological study on B19 virus infection in Tunisian patients with chronic hemolytic anemia. Methods This study was conducted on 92 young chronic hemolytic anemia patients who attended the same ward at the National Bone Marrow Transplantation Center of Tunis and 46 controls from a different hospital. Screening for IgM and IgG anti-B19 antibodies was performed using commercially available enzyme immunoassays and B19 DNA was detected by nested PCR in the overlapping VP1/VP2 region. DNA was sequenced using dideoxy-terminator cycle sequencing technology. Results Anti-parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies were detected in 26 of 46 sickle-cell anemia patients, 18 of 46 β-thalassemia and 7 of 46 controls. Anti-parvovirus B19 IgM antibodies were detected only in 4 of the sickle-cell anemia patients: two siblings and two unrelated who presented with acute erythroblastopenia at the time of blood collection for this study and had no history of past transfusion. B19 DNA was detected only in sera of these four patients and the corresponding 288 bp nested DNA amplicons were sequenced. The sequences obtained were all identical and phylogenetic analysis showed that they belonged to a new B19 virus strain of Genotype1. Conclusion A new parvovirus B19 strain of genotype1 was detected in four Tunisian patients with sickle-cell anemia. Virus transmission appeared to be nosocomial and resulted in acute erythroblastopenia in the four

  12. Serologic investigation of the prevalence of Equine infectious anemia virus in Tabriz area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hassanpour

    2010-08-01

    Equine infectious anemia (EIA is caused by the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV, which infects the animals in the family Equidae and is classified in the subfamily Lentivirinae of the family Retroviridae. The disease leads to fever, hemolytic anemias, icterus, depression and chronic weight loss. This study was conducted on 287 horses (200 male and 87 female in Tabriz area in Iran in order to determine the seroprevalence of equine infectious anemia. Blood was collected from all horses and the sera were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV using an ELISA test with IDEXX kit. The mean of Optical Density (OD was 0.372± 0.016.  In these samples the lowest and highest levels were 0.273 and 0.511 respectively. There was no positive case according to the observed results. Mean OD was 0.381± 0.014 in male horses and 0.387±0.010 in female horses, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P= 0.356. The horses were studied in four age groups: 1-3 (54 horses, 3-6 (125 horses, 6-9 (70 horses and over 9 years old (38 horses. Mean OD was 0.373±0.011, 0.381±0.012, 0.383±0.009, 0.388±0.017 in these groups respectively. The results revealed that none of the horses were positive for antibodies to EIAV.

  13. Varicella zoster virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Anne A.; Breuer, Judith; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gershon, Michael D.; Gilden, Don; Grose, Charles; Hambleton, Sophie; Kennedy, Peter G. E.; Oxman, Michael N.; Seward, Jane F.; Yamanishi, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chickenpox), which can be severe in immunocompromised individuals, infants and adults. Primary infection is followed by latency in ganglionic neurons. During this period, no virus particles are produced and no obvious neuronal damage occurs. Reactivation of the virus leads to virus replication, which causes zoster (shingles) in tissues innervated by the involved neurons, inflammation and cell death — a process that can lead to persistent radicular pain (postherpetic neuralgia). The pathogenesis of postherpetic neuralgia is unknown and it is difficult to treat. Furthermore, other zoster complications can develop, including myelitis, cranial nerve palsies, meningitis, stroke (vasculopathy), retinitis, and gastroenterological infections such as ulcers, pancreatitis and hepatitis. VZV is the only human herpesvirus for which highly effective vaccines are available. After varicella or vaccination, both wild-type and vaccine-type VZV establish latency, and long-term immunity to varicella develops. However, immunity does not protect against reactivation. Thus, two vaccines are used: one to prevent varicella and one to prevent zoster. In this Primer we discuss the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of VZV infections, with an emphasis on the molecular events that regulate these diseases. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/14×VI1 PMID:27188665

  14. Anemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway-Duren, Jacqueline B; Klaassen, Hillary

    2013-12-01

    Anemias continue to present a challenge to the health care profession. Anemia is defined as a reduction in one or more of the RBC indices. Patients presenting with a mild form of anemia may be asymptomatic; however, in more serious cases the anemia can become life threatening. In many cases the clinical presentation also reflects the underlying cause. Anemia may be attributed to various causes, whereas autoimmune RBC destruction may be attributed to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Laboratory tests are essential in facilitating early detection and differentiation of anemia. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Parvovirus B19 infection presenting with severe erythroid aplastic crisis during pregnancy in a woman with autoimmune hemolytic anemia and alpha-thalassemia trait: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Ching; Chen, Chin-Shan; Wang, Wei-Yao; Ma, Jui-Shan; Shu, Hwei-Fan; Fan, Frank S

    2015-03-12

    Parvovirus B19 virus commonly causes subclinical infection, but it can prove fatal to the fetus during pregnancy and cause severe anemia in an adult with hemolytic diseases. We present the case of a woman with autoimmune hemolytic anemia who was diagnosed with parvovirus B19-induced transient aplastic crisis during her second trimester of pregnancy and faced the high risk of both fetal and maternal complications related to this specific viral infection. To the best of our knowledge, the experience of successful intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for B19 virus infection during pregnancy, as in our case, is limited. A 28-year-old and 20-week pregnant Chinese woman with genetically confirmed alpha-thalassemia trait was diagnosed with cold antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia and suffered from transient aplastic crisis caused by B19 virus infection. She received intravenous immunoglobulin treatment to reduce the risk of hydrops fetalis. Her peripheral blood reticulocyte percentage recovered, but anemia persisted, so she underwent several courses of high dose intravenous dexamethasone for controlling her underlying hemolytic problem. Finally, her hemoglobin levels remained stable with no need of erythrocyte transfusion, and a healthy baby boy was naturally delivered. Parvovirus B19 virus infection should be considered when a sudden exacerbation of anemia occurs in a patient with hemolytic disease, and the possible fetal complications caused by maternal B19 virus infection during pregnancy should not be ignored. Close monitoring and adequate management can keep both mother and fetus safe.

  17. Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV): what has HIV's country cousin got to tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Caroline; Cadoré, Jean-Luc; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2004-01-01

    Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus, of the Retrovirus family, with an almost worldwide distribution, infecting equids. It causes a persistent infection characterized by recurring febrile episodes associating viremia, fever, thrombocytopenia, and wasting symptoms. The disease is experimentally reproducible by inoculation of Shetland ponies or horses with EIAV pathogenic strains. Among lentiviruses, EIAV is unique in that, despite a rapid virus replication and antigenic variation, most animals progress from a chronic stage characterized by recurring peaks of viremia and fever to an asymptomatic stage of infection. The inapparent carriers remain infective for life, as demonstrated by experimental transfer of blood to naive animals. The understanding of the correlates of this immune control is of great interest in defining vaccine strategies. Research on EIAV, this "country cousin" of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), over the last five decades has produced some interesting results on natural immunological control of lentivirus replication and disease and on the nature and role of virus variation in persistence and pathogenesis. These studies are of interest in the context of HIV and efforts to develop a vaccine. This review will focus on some of the most recent results.

  18. Zika virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Scholler, Amalie Skak; Buus, Soren

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has drawn worldwide attention due to its association to neurologic complications, particularly severe congenital malformations. While ZIKV can replicate efficiently and cause disease in human hosts, it fails to replicate to substantial titers...... mice by introducing the virus directly in the brain via intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation. In this way, the antigen is precisely placed at the site of interest, evading the first line of defense, and thus rendering the mice susceptible to infection. We found that, while intravenous (i.v.) inoculation...... of two different strains of WT mice with low doses of ZIKV does not result in viremia, it is nevertheless able to induce both cell-mediated and humoral immunity as well as clinical protection against subsequent i.c challenge with lethal doses of the virus. In order to determine the contribution of key...

  19. Ribavirin-induced anemia in hepatitis C virus patients undergoing combination therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeja M Krishnan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The current standard of care for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection - combination therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin - elicits sustained responses in only ∼50% of the patients treated. No alternatives exist for patients who do not respond to combination therapy. Addition of ribavirin substantially improves response rates to interferon and lowers relapse rates following the cessation of therapy, suggesting that increasing ribavirin exposure may further improve treatment response. A key limitation, however, is the toxic side-effect of ribavirin, hemolytic anemia, which often necessitates a reduction of ribavirin dosage and compromises treatment response. Maximizing treatment response thus requires striking a balance between the antiviral and hemolytic activities of ribavirin. Current models of viral kinetics describe the enhancement of treatment response due to ribavirin. Ribavirin-induced anemia, however, remains poorly understood and precludes rational optimization of combination therapy. Here, we develop a new mathematical model of the population dynamics of erythrocytes that quantitatively describes ribavirin-induced anemia in HCV patients. Based on the assumption that ribavirin accumulation decreases erythrocyte lifespan in a dose-dependent manner, model predictions capture several independent experimental observations of the accumulation of ribavirin in erythrocytes and the resulting decline of hemoglobin in HCV patients undergoing combination therapy, estimate the reduced erythrocyte lifespan during therapy, and describe inter-patient variations in the severity of ribavirin-induced anemia. Further, model predictions estimate the threshold ribavirin exposure beyond which anemia becomes intolerable and suggest guidelines for the usage of growth hormones, such as erythropoietin, that stimulate erythrocyte production and avert the reduction of ribavirin dosage, thereby improving treatment response. Our model thus facilitates, in

  20. Low plasma selenium concentrations, high plasma human immunodeficiency virus load and high interleukin-6 concentrations are risk factors associated with anemia in adults presenting with pulmonary tuberculosis in Zomba district, Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettow, van M.; West, C.E.; Meer, van der J.W.M.; Wieringa, F.T.; Semba, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Although anemia is common among adults with pulmonary tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in sub-Saharan Africa, the factors contributing to its pathogenesis have not been well characterized. Objective: To characterize the antioxidant micronutrient status, interleukin-6

  1. Novel strategy to evaluate infectious salmon anemia virus variants by high resolution melting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagoberto Sepúlveda

    Full Text Available Genetic variability is a key problem in the prevention and therapy of RNA-based virus infections. Infectious Salmon Anemia virus (ISAv is an RNA virus which aggressively attacks salmon producing farms worldwide and in particular in Chile. Just as with most of the Orthomyxovirus, ISAv displays high variability in its genome which is reflected by a wider infection potential, thus hampering management and prevention of the disease. Although a number of widely validated detection procedures exist, in this case there is a need of a more complex approach to the characterization of virus variability. We have adapted a procedure of High Resolution Melting (HRM as a fine-tuning technique to fully differentiate viral variants detected in Chile and projected to other infective variants reported elsewhere. Out of the eight viral coding segments, the technique was adapted using natural Chilean variants for two of them, namely segments 5 and 6, recognized as virulence-associated factors. Our work demonstrates the versatility of the technique as well as its superior resolution capacity compared with standard techniques currently in use as key diagnostic tools.

  2. An equine infectious anemia virus variant superinfects cells through novel receptor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindley, Melinda A; Zhang, Baoshan; Montelaro, Ronald C; Maury, Wendy

    2008-10-01

    Wild-type strains of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) prevent superinfection of previously infected cells. A variant strain of virus that spontaneously arose during passage, EIAV(vMA-1c), can circumvent this mechanism in some cells, such as equine dermis (ED) cells, but not in others, such as equine endothelial cells. EIAV(vMA-1c) superinfection of ED cells results in a buildup of unintegrated viral DNA and rapid killing of the cell monolayer. Here, we examined the mechanism of resistance that is used by EIAV to prevent superinfection and explored the means by which EIAV(vMA-1c) overcomes this restriction. We found that the cellular receptor used by EIAV, equine lentivirus receptor 1 (ELR1), remains on the surface of cells chronically infected with EIAV, suggesting that wild-type EIAV interferes with superinfection by masking ELR1. The addition of soluble wild-type SU protein to the medium during infection blocked infection by wild-type strains of virus, implicating SU as the viral protein responsible for interfering with virion entry into previously infected cells. Additionally, interference of wild-type EIAV binding to ELR1 by the addition of either anti-ELR1 antibodies or the ELR1 ectodomain prevented entry of the wild-type strains of EIAV into two permissive cell populations. Many of these same interference treatments prevented EIAV(vMA-1c) infection of endothelial cells but only modestly affected the ability of EIAV(vMA-1c) to enter and kill previously infected ED cells. These findings indicate that EIAV(vMA-1c) retains the ability to use ELR1 for entry and suggest that this virus can interact with an additional, unidentified receptor to superinfect ED cells.

  3. Zika virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laval, F; Leparc-Goffart, I; Meynard, J-B; Daubigny, H; Simon, F; Briolant, S

    2016-05-01

    Since its discovery in 1947 in Uganda, the Zika virus (ZIKV) remained in the shadows emerging in 2007 in Micronesia, where hundreds of dengue-like syndromes were reported. Then, in 2013-2014, it was rife in French Polynesia, where the first neurological effects were observed. More recently, its arrival in Brazil was accompanied by an unusually high number of children with microcephaly born to mothers infected with ZIKV during the first trimester of pregnancy. In 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be a public health emergency and now talks about a ZIKV pandemic. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about ZIKV infection, successively addressing its transmission, epidemiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention before discussing some perspectives.

  4. Early detection of dominant Env-specific and subdominant Gag-specific CD8+ lymphocytes in equine infectious anemia virus-infected horses using major histocompatibility complex class I/peptide tetrameric complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Robert H; Sharif, Amin; Ellis, Shirley A; Littke, Matt H; Leib, Steven R; McGuire, Travis C

    2005-08-15

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are critical for control of lentiviruses, including equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). Measurement of equine CTL responses has relied on chromium-release assays, which do not allow accurate quantitation. Recently, the equine MHC class I molecule 7-6, associated with the ELA-A1 haplotype, was shown to present both the Gag-GW12 and Env-RW12 EIAV CTL epitopes. In this study, 7-6/Gag-GW12 and 7-6/Env-RW12 MHC class I/peptide tetrameric complexes were constructed and used to analyze Gag-GW12- and Env-RW12-specific CTL responses in two EIAV-infected horses (A2164 and A2171). Gag-GW12 and Env-RW12 tetramer-positive CD8+ cells were identified in nonstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells as early as 14 days post-EIAV inoculation, and frequencies of tetramer-positive cells ranged from 0.4% to 6.7% of nonstimulated peripheral blood CD8+ cells during the 127-day study period. Although both horses terminated the initial viremic peak, only horse A2171 effectively controlled viral load. Neutralizing antibody was present during the initial control of viral load in both horses, but the ability to maintain control correlated with Gag-GW12-specific CD8+ cells in A2171. Despite Env-RW12 dominance, Env-RW12 escape viral variants were identified in both horses and there was no correlation between Env-RW12-specific CD8+ cells and control of viral load. Although Gag-GW12 CTL escape did not occur, a Gag-GW12 epitope variant arose in A2164 that was recognized less efficiently than the original epitope. These data indicate that tetramers are useful for identification and quantitation of CTL responses in horses, and suggest that the observed control of EIAV replication and clinical disease was associated with sustained CTL recognition of Gag-specific epitopes.

  5. Helicobacter pylori Infection and Anemia in Taiwanese Adults

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    Hsiang-Yao Shih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA are common in adults. Although the most common causes of IDA usually arise from the gastrointestinal tract, the association between chronic Helicobacter pylori infection and anemia remains unclear. Aim. To evaluate the association of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection and IDA. Materials and Methods. We enrolled 882 patients from January 2010 to April 2013. The status of Helicobacter pylori (H.p infection was confirmed and blood samples from the same participants were taken on the same day to check the level of hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin, and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC. Results. No significant difference was noted from the demographic data. The average level of hemoglobin (Hb was not different between negative and positive groups, pos 13.57 g/dL versus neg 13.65 g/dL (P=0.699. Although the levels of serum IDA related parameters were expected in positive group (lower serum iron and ferritin and higher TIBC these differences did not reach statistical significance (P=0.824 for iron, P=0.360 for ferritin, and P=0.252 for TIBC. Conclusion. Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is not attributed to IDA. The levels of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin, and TIBC remain unaffected after chronic H.p infection. Large-scale clinical studies are needed to prove the association.

  6. Molecular detection, epidemiology, and genetic characterization of novel European field isolates of equine infectious anemia virus.

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    Cappelli, Katia; Capomaccio, Stefano; Cook, Frank R; Felicetti, Michela; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Coppola, Giacomo; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Coletti, Mauro; Passamonti, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    The application of molecular diagnostic techniques along with nucleotide sequence determination to permit contemporary phylogenetic analysis of European field isolates of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has not been widely reported. As a result, of extensive testing instigated following the 2006 outbreak of equine infectious anemia in Italy, 24 farms with a history of exposure to this disease were included in this study. New PCR-based methods were developed, which, especially in the case of DNA preparations from peripheral blood cells, showed excellent correlation with OIE-approved agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) tests for identifying EIAV-infected animals. In contrast, the OIE-recommended oligonucleotide primers for EIAV failed to react with any of the Italian isolates. Similar results were also obtained with samples from four Romanian farms. In addition, for the first time complete characterization of gag genes from five Italian isolates and one Romanian isolate has been achieved, along with acquisition of extensive sequence information (86% of the total gag gene) from four additional EIAV isolates (one Italian and three Romanian). Furthermore, in another 23 cases we accomplished partial characterization of gag gene sequences in the region encoding the viral matrix protein. Analysis of this information suggested that most Italian isolates were geographically restricted, somewhat reminiscent of the "clades" described for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Collectively this represents the most comprehensive genetic study of European EIAV isolates conducted to date.

  7. cis- and trans-acting regulation of gene expression of equine infectious anemia virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Dorn, P L; Derse, D

    1988-01-01

    Deletion analysis of the equine infectious anemia virus long terminal repeat revealed that sequences responsive to virus-specific transactivation are located within the region spanning the transcriptional start site (-31 to +22). In addition, an active exon of a trans-acting factor (tat) was identified downstream of pol and overlapping env (nucleotides 5264 to 5461). Activation by tat is accompanied by an increase in the steady-state levels of mRNA directed by the equine infectious anemia vir...

  8. Zika Virus Infection

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    I.B. Yershova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus disease — an infectious disease caused by a virus of the same name from the Flaviviridae family. The main route of transmission of the virus is the infection through the blood during a bite by tropical mosquitoes of Aedes genus and sexual contact with a patient. Only in Brazil in 2015 Zika fever affected a half million people. There is a serious risk of further spread of the infection, for this reason, the disease has been given a status of pandemic. The incubation period is 3 to 12 days. In 75 % of cases, Zika fever is asymptomatic. Symptomatic form is usually occurs in a mild, rarely — in moderate-to-severe form. The symptoms — weakness, often low-grade fever, chills, heada­che, retro-orbital pain, myalgia and arthralgia, maculopapular rash on the face and body. Conjunctivitis, intolerance of bright light develop. Nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, cough, sore throat, lymphadenopathy occur less often. Cases of death in people with fever Zika are extremely rare. In areas, where Zika fever outbreak is detected, an increased number of children born with microcephaly is recorded. The disease is diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction. Drugs for the treatment and vaccines for the prevention of the disease do not exist. Conventional antiviral drugs are ineffective. The only way of medical exposure is symptomatic treatment. After recovery, lifelong immunity is formed. Protection against disease is only avoiding mosquito bites in areas where there is Zika fever.

  9. Characterization of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Long Terminal Repeat Quasispecies In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Feng; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Yu-Hong; Wang, Shuai; Chen, Jie; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Ma, Jian; Zhou, Jian-Hua; Wang, Xiaojun

    2018-04-15

    The equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) attenuated vaccine was developed by long-term passaging of a field-isolated virulent strain in cross-species hosts, followed by successive cultivation in cells in vitro To explore the molecular mechanism underlying the evolution of the EIAV attenuated vaccine, a systematic study focusing on long-terminal-repeat (LTR) variation in numerous virus strains ranging from virulent EIAV to attenuated EIAV was performed over time both in vitro and in vivo Two hypervariable regions were identified within the U3 region in the enhancer region (EHR) and the negative regulatory element (NRE) and within the R region in the transcription start site (TSS) and the Tat-activating region (TAR). Among these sites, variation in the U3 region resulted in the formation of additional transcription factor binding sites; this variation of the in vitro -adapted strains was consistent with the loss of pathogenicity. Notably, the same LTR variation pattern was observed both in vitro and in vivo Generally, the LTR variation in both the attenuated virus and the virulent strain fluctuated over time in vivo Interestingly, the attenuated-virus-specific LTR variation was also detected in horses infected with the virulent strain, supporting the hypothesis that the evolution of an attenuated virus might have involved branching from EIAV quasispecies. This hypothesis was verified by phylogenetic analysis. The present systematic study examining the molecular evolution of attenuated EIAV from EIAV quasispecies may provide an informative model reflecting the evolution of similar lentiviruses. IMPORTANCE The attenuated EIAV vaccine was the first lentiviral vaccine used to successfully control for equine infectious anemia in China. This vaccine provides an important reference for studying the relationship between EIAV gene variation and changes in biological characteristics. Importantly, the vaccine provides a model for the investigation of lentiviral quasispecies

  10. Characterization of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Long Terminal Repeat Quasispecies In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Feng; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Yu-Hong; Wang, Shuai; Chen, Jie; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Ma, Jian; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) attenuated vaccine was developed by long-term passaging of a field-isolated virulent strain in cross-species hosts, followed by successive cultivation in cells in vitro. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying the evolution of the EIAV attenuated vaccine, a systematic study focusing on long-terminal-repeat (LTR) variation in numerous virus strains ranging from virulent EIAV to attenuated EIAV was performed over time both in vitro and in vivo. Two hypervariable regions were identified within the U3 region in the enhancer region (EHR) and the negative regulatory element (NRE) and within the R region in the transcription start site (TSS) and the Tat-activating region (TAR). Among these sites, variation in the U3 region resulted in the formation of additional transcription factor binding sites; this variation of the in vitro-adapted strains was consistent with the loss of pathogenicity. Notably, the same LTR variation pattern was observed both in vitro and in vivo. Generally, the LTR variation in both the attenuated virus and the virulent strain fluctuated over time in vivo. Interestingly, the attenuated-virus-specific LTR variation was also detected in horses infected with the virulent strain, supporting the hypothesis that the evolution of an attenuated virus might have involved branching from EIAV quasispecies. This hypothesis was verified by phylogenetic analysis. The present systematic study examining the molecular evolution of attenuated EIAV from EIAV quasispecies may provide an informative model reflecting the evolution of similar lentiviruses. IMPORTANCE The attenuated EIAV vaccine was the first lentiviral vaccine used to successfully control for equine infectious anemia in China. This vaccine provides an important reference for studying the relationship between EIAV gene variation and changes in biological characteristics. Importantly, the vaccine provides a model for the investigation of lentiviral

  11. Phosphoinositides direct equine infectious anemia virus gag trafficking and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fiona; Chen, Kang; Ehrlich, Lorna S; Jin, Jing; Chen, Min H; Medina, Gisselle N; Symons, Marc; Montelaro, Ronald; Donaldson, Julie; Tjandra, Nico; Carter, Carol A

    2011-04-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2) ], the predominant phosphoinositide (PI) on the plasma membrane, binds the matrix (MA) protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) with similar affinities in vitro. Interaction with PI(4,5)P(2) is critical for HIV-1 assembly on the plasma membrane. EIAV has been shown to localize in internal compartments; hence, the significance of its interaction with PI(4,5)P(2) is unclear. We therefore investigated the binding in vitro of other PIs to EIAV MA and whether intracellular association with compartments bearing these PIs was important for assembly and release of virus-like particles (VLPs) formed by Gag. In vitro, EIAV MA bound phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P] with higher affinity than PI(4,5)P(2) as revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra upon lipid titration. Gag was detected on the plasma membrane and in compartments enriched in phosphatidylinositol 3,5-biphosphate [PI(3,5)P(2) ]. Treatment of cells with YM201636, a kinase inhibitor that blocks production of PI(3,5)P(2) from PI(3)P, caused Gag to colocalize with aberrant compartments and inhibited VLP release. In contrast to HIV-1, release of EIAV VLPs was not significantly diminished by coexpression with 5-phosphatase IV, an enzyme that specifically depletes PI(4,5)P(2) from the plasma membrane. However, coexpression with synaptojanin 2, a phosphatase with broader specificity, diminished VLP production. PI-binding pocket mutations caused striking budding defects, as revealed by electron microscopy. One of the mutations also modified Gag-Gag interaction, as suggested by altered bimolecular fluorescence complementation. We conclude that PI-mediated targeting to peripheral and internal membranes is a critical factor in EIAV assembly and release. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. The Effect of Malaria and HIV Co-Infection on Anemia: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Sandhu, Nisha Kaur; Wai, Victor Nyunt

    2016-04-01

    Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are globally important public health concerns. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infections in people living in endemic countries, and (ii) to assess the effect of co-infection on anemia.Studies were searched on electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Medline, Google Scholar, and African Journals Online. Observational studies, assessing the prevalence of co-infection and reporting its association with anemia, were included. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using a tool called the risk of bias assessment for non-randomized studies. Heterogeneity among studies was investigated with the I-square test. Pooled prevalence of the co-infection and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using the random-effect model, reflected on heterogeneity among studies. Summary odds ratio (OR), summary standardized mean difference (SMD), and their corresponding 95% CIs were estimated, as appropriate. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were performed for robustness of results. Publication bias was assessed by visualization of a funnel plot.Twenty-three studies were included in the present study. Overall, the pooled prevalence of co-infection was 19% (95% CI: 15-23%, I: 98.1%), showing 26% (95% CI: 20-32%, I: 98.7%) in adults, 12% (95% CI: 7-17%, I: 95.0) in pregnant women, and 9% (95% CI: 6-11%, I: 68.6%) in children. Anemia was comparable between the monoinfected and co-infected adults (summary OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 0.93-2.37) and increased by 49% in co-infected pregnant women (summary OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.14-1.94). The mean hemoglobin concentration was significantly lower in the co-infected group than the monoinfected group (summary SMD: -0.47, 95% CI: -0.61 to -0.33). The results of meta-regression on the prevalence of co-infection using the publication year and total population as covariates showed the I value remained high implying

  13. Discerning an Effective Balance between Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Attenuation and Vaccine Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigo, Jodi K.; Li, Feng; Steckbeck, Jonathan D.; Durkin, Shannon; Howe, Laryssa; Cook, Sheila J.; Issel, Charles; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2005-01-01

    Among the diverse experimental vaccines evaluated in various animal lentivirus models, live attenuated vaccines have proven to be the most effective, thus providing an important model for examining critical immune correlates of protective vaccine immunity. We previously reported that an experimental live attenuated vaccine for equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), based on mutation of the viral S2 accessory gene, elicited protection from detectable infection by virulent virus challenge (F. Li et al., J. Virol. 77:7244-7253, 2003). To better understand the critical components of EIAV vaccine efficacy, we examine here the relationship between the extent of virus attenuation, the maturation of host immune responses, and vaccine efficacy in a comparative study of three related attenuated EIAV proviral vaccine strains: the previously described EIAVUKΔS2 derived from a virulent proviral clone, EIAVUKΔS2/DU containing a second gene mutation in the virulent proviral clone, and EIAVPRΔS2 derived from a reference avirulent proviral clone. Inoculations of parallel groups of eight horses resulted in relatively low levels of viral replication (average of 102 to 103 RNA copies/ml) and a similar maturation of EIAV envelope-specific antibody responses as determined in quantitative and qualitative serological assays. However, experimental challenge of the experimentally immunized horses by our standard virulent EIAVPV strain by using a low-dose multiple exposure protocol (three inoculations with 10 median horse infective doses, administered intravenously) revealed a marked difference in the protective efficacy of the various attenuated proviral vaccine strains that was evidently associated with the extent of vaccine virus attenuation, time of viral challenge, and the apparent maturation of virus-specific immunity. PMID:15708986

  14. Discerning an effective balance between equine infectious anemia virus attenuation and vaccine efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigo, Jodi K; Li, Feng; Steckbeck, Jonathan D; Durkin, Shannon; Howe, Laryssa; Cook, Sheila J; Issel, Charles; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2005-03-01

    Among the diverse experimental vaccines evaluated in various animal lentivirus models, live attenuated vaccines have proven to be the most effective, thus providing an important model for examining critical immune correlates of protective vaccine immunity. We previously reported that an experimental live attenuated vaccine for equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), based on mutation of the viral S2 accessory gene, elicited protection from detectable infection by virulent virus challenge (F. Li et al., J. Virol. 77:7244-7253, 2003). To better understand the critical components of EIAV vaccine efficacy, we examine here the relationship between the extent of virus attenuation, the maturation of host immune responses, and vaccine efficacy in a comparative study of three related attenuated EIAV proviral vaccine strains: the previously described EIAV(UK)DeltaS2 derived from a virulent proviral clone, EIAV(UK)DeltaS2/DU containing a second gene mutation in the virulent proviral clone, and EIAV(PR)DeltaS2 derived from a reference avirulent proviral clone. Inoculations of parallel groups of eight horses resulted in relatively low levels of viral replication (average of 10(2) to 10(3) RNA copies/ml) and a similar maturation of EIAV envelope-specific antibody responses as determined in quantitative and qualitative serological assays. However, experimental challenge of the experimentally immunized horses by our standard virulent EIAV(PV) strain by using a low-dose multiple exposure protocol (three inoculations with 10 median horse infective doses, administered intravenously) revealed a marked difference in the protective efficacy of the various attenuated proviral vaccine strains that was evidently associated with the extent of vaccine virus attenuation, time of viral challenge, and the apparent maturation of virus-specific immunity.

  15. Fatal autoimmune hemolytic anemia due to immunoglobulin g autoantibody exacerbated by epstein-barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeyi, Emmanuel A; Simmons, Julie H; Jones, Mary Rose; Palavecino, Elizabeth L; Pomper, Gregory J

    2015-01-01

    Most cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) are caused by the production of an autoantibody that targets determinants on red blood cells (RBCs). This autoantibody can be immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, or IgA. Some autoantibodies react optimally at 0° to 4°C (ie, cold agglutinin) and usually are clinically insignificant. High-titer cold agglutinins are associated with IgM autoantibody and complement fixation induced by infectious agents, including the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This case report describes a 31-year-old man who had jaundice, a hemoglobin of 6.0 gdL, and was diagnosed with a hemolytic crisis of AIHA. He received a total of 11 RBC transfusions during a 15-hour period without sustained response and later died. The direct antiglobulin test results for this patient were positive, whereas the cold-agglutinin-testing results were negative. We detected EBV DNA in blood via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We report a rare case of AIHA associated with an IgG autoantibody and exacerbated by EBV infection, causing a fatal hemolytic anemia. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP).

  16. The association of pagophagia with Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with iron-deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, Suheyl; Boga, Can; Ozdogu, Hakan; Serin, Ender

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between pagophagia (compulsive ice eating) and H. pylori infection in patients with iron-deficiency anemia. We identified H. pylori infection using the (13)C-urea breath test in 45 patients with iron-deficiency anemia (group 1) and 55 patients with iron-deficiency anemia and pagophagia (group 2). Subgroups for testing oral intestinal iron absorption were randomly assigned from both groups. These subgroups consisted of (a) 10 patients with iron-deficiency anemia, (b) 10 patients with iron-deficiency anemia and pagophagia, (c) 10 patients with iron-deficiency anemia, pagophagia, and H. pylori infection before the eradication of H. pylori and (d) subgroup c after eradication therapy. There was no difference in the rate of H. pylori infection in the iron-deficiency anemia groups, with or without pagophagia. Furthermore, oral intestinal iron absorption was not influenced by pagophagia and/or H. pylori infection. Pagophagia did not increase the risk of H. pylori infection in patients with iron-deficiency anemia. Pagophagia and H. pylori infection do not synergistically affect the development of intestinal iron absorption abnormalities.

  17. Characterization of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Integration in the Horse Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Wang, Xue-Feng; Ma, Jian; He, Xi-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2015-06-19

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 has a unique integration profile in the human genome relative to murine and avian retroviruses. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is another well-studied lentivirus that can also be used as a promising retro-transfection vector, but its integration into its native host has not been characterized. In this study, we mapped 477 integration sites of the EIAV strain EIAVFDDV13 in fetal equine dermal (FED) cells during in vitro infection. Published integration sites of EIAV and HIV-1 in the human genome were also analyzed as references. Our results demonstrated that EIAVFDDV13 tended to integrate into genes and AT-rich regions, and it avoided integrating into transcription start sites (TSS), which is consistent with EIAV and HIV-1 integration in the human genome. Notably, the integration of EIAVFDDV13 favored long interspersed elements (LINEs) and DNA transposons in the horse genome, whereas the integration of HIV-1 favored short interspersed elements (SINEs) in the human genome. The chromosomal environment near LINEs or DNA transposons potentially influences viral transcription and may be related to the unique EIAV latency states in equids. The data on EIAV integration in its natural host will facilitate studies on lentiviral infection and lentivirus-based therapeutic vectors.

  18. Characterization of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Integration in the Horse Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 has a unique integration profile in the human genome relative to murine and avian retroviruses. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV is another well-studied lentivirus that can also be used as a promising retro-transfection vector, but its integration into its native host has not been characterized. In this study, we mapped 477 integration sites of the EIAV strain EIAVFDDV13 in fetal equine dermal (FED cells during in vitro infection. Published integration sites of EIAV and HIV-1 in the human genome were also analyzed as references. Our results demonstrated that EIAVFDDV13 tended to integrate into genes and AT-rich regions, and it avoided integrating into transcription start sites (TSS, which is consistent with EIAV and HIV-1 integration in the human genome. Notably, the integration of EIAVFDDV13 favored long interspersed elements (LINEs and DNA transposons in the horse genome, whereas the integration of HIV-1 favored short interspersed elements (SINEs in the human genome. The chromosomal environment near LINEs or DNA transposons potentially influences viral transcription and may be related to the unique EIAV latency states in equids. The data on EIAV integration in its natural host will facilitate studies on lentiviral infection and lentivirus-based therapeutic vectors.

  19. Severe anemia affects both splenectomized and non-splenectomized Plasmodium falciparum-infected Aotus infulatus monkeys

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    Leonardo J de Moura Carvalho

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Severe anemia is the earliest and a frequently fatal complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Here we describe Aotus infulatus as a primate model suitable to study this malaria complication. Both non-splenectomized and splenectomized monkeys receiving different inocula of P. falciparum FVO strain presented large (> 50% decreases in hematocrit values during infection. Non-splenectomized animals were able to control parasite growth (parasitemia did not exceed 4%, but they had to be treated because of severe anemia. Three of 4 splenectomized monkeys did not control parasitemia and were treated, but developed severe anemia after treatment when presenting a negative blood film. Destruction of parasitized red blood cells alone cannot account for the degree of anemia. Non-splenectomized monkeys repeatedly infected with homologous parasites became rapidly and progressively resistant to reinfection and to the development of severe anemia. The data presented here point to A. infulatus as a suitable model for studying the pathogenesis of severe malarial infection.

  20. Incidence and predictors of severe anemia in Asian HIV-infected children using first-line antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunupuradah, Torsak; Kariminia, Azar; Chan, Kwai-Cheng; Ramautarsing, Reshmie; Huy, Bui Vu; Han, Ning; Nallusamy, Revathy; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Sirisanthana, Virat; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Kurniati, Nia; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Yusoff, Nik Khairulddin Nik; Razali, Kamarul; Fong, Siew Moy; Sohn, Annette H.; Lumbiganon, Pagakrong

    2013-01-01

    There are limited data on treatment-related anemia in Asian HIV-infected children. Data from Asian HIV-infected children aged <18 years on first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were used. Children who had pre-existing severe anemia at baseline were excluded. Anemia was graded using

  1. Development and Characterization of an In Vivo Pathogenic Molecular Clone of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R. Frank; Leroux, Caroline; Cook, Sheila J.; Berger, Sandra L.; Lichtenstein, Drew L.; Ghabrial, Nadia N.; Montelaro, Ronald C.; Issel, Charles J.

    1998-01-01

    An infectious nonpathogenic molecular clone (19-2-6A) of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) was modified by substitution of a 3.3-kbp fragment amplified by PCR techniques from a pathogenic variant (EIAVPV) of the cell culture-adapted strain of EIAV (EIAVPR). This substitution consisted of coding sequences for 77 amino acids at the carboxyl terminus of the integrase, the S1 (encoding the second exon of tat), S2, and S3 (encoding the second exon of rev) open reading frames, the complete env gene (including the first exon of rev), and the 3′ long terminal repeat (LTR). Modified 19-2-6A molecular clones were designated EIAVPV3.3, and infection of a single pony (678) with viruses derived from a mixture of five of these molecular clones induced clinical signs of acute equine infectious anemia (EIA) at 23 days postinfection (dpi). As a consequence of this initial study, a single molecular clone, EIAVPV3.3#3 (redesignated EIAVUK), was selected for further study and inoculated into two ponies (613 and 614) and two horses (700 and 764). Pony 614 and the two horses developed febrile responses by 12 dpi, which was accompanied by a 48 to 64% reduction in platelet number, whereas pony 613 did not develop fever (40.6°C) until 76 dpi. EIAV could be isolated from the plasma of these animals by 5 to 7 dpi, and all became seropositive for antibodies to this virus by 21 dpi. Analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence demonstrated that the 3.3-kbp 3′ fragment of EIAVUK differed from the consensus sequence of EIAVPV by just a single amino acid residue in the second exon of the rev gene. Complete homology with the EIAVPV consensus sequence was observed in the hypervariable region of the LTR. However, EIAVUK was found to contain an unusual 68-bp nucleotide insertion/duplication in a normally conserved region of the LTR sequence. These results demonstrate that substitution of a 3.3-kbp fragment from the EIAVPV strain into the infectious nonpathogenic molecular clone 19-2-6A leads

  2. Long terminal repeat sequences from virulent and attenuated equine infectious anemia virus demonstrate distinct promoter activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Yuan, Xiu-Fang; Hou, Shao-Hua; Tu, Ya-Bin; Peng, Jin-Mei; Wen, Jian-Xin; Qiu, Hua-Ji; Wu, Dong-Lai; Chen, Huan-Chun; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Tong, Guang-Zhi

    2007-09-01

    In the early 1970s, the Chinese Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) vaccine, EIAV(DLA), was developed through successive passages of a wild-type virulent virus (EIAV(L)) in donkeys in vivo and then in donkey macrophages in vitro. EIAV attenuation and cell tropism adaptation are associated with changes in both envelope and long terminal repeat (LTR). However, specific LTR changes during Chinese EIAV attenuation have not been demonstrated. In this study, we compared LTR sequences from both virulent and attenuated EIAV strains and documented the diversities of LTR sequence from in vivo and in vitro infections. We found that EIAV LTRs of virulent strains were homologous, while EIAV vaccine have variable LTRs. Interestingly, experimental inoculation of EIAV(DLA) into a horse resulted in a restriction of the LTR variation. Furthermore, LTRs from EIAV(DLA) showed higher Tat transactivated activity than LTRs from virulent strains. By using chimeric clones of wild-type LTR and vaccine LTR, the main difference of activity was mapped to the changes of R region, rather than U3 region.

  3. Immune Responses and Viral Replication in Long-Term Inapparent Carrier Ponies Inoculated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Scott A.; Li, Feng; McKeon, Brian M.; Cook, Sheila J.; Issel, Charles J.; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2000-01-01

    Persistent infection of equids by equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is typically characterized by a progression during the first year postinfection from chronic disease with recurring disease cycles to a long-term asymptomatic infection that is maintained indefinitely. The goal of the current study was to perform a comprehensive longitudinal analysis of the course of virus infection and development of host immunity in experimentally infected horses as they progressed from chronic disease to long-term inapparent carriage. We previously described the evolution of EIAV genomic quasispecies (C. Leroux, C. J. Issel, and R. C. Montelaro, J. Virol. 71:9627–9639, 1997) and host immune responses (S. A. Hammond, S. J. Cook, D. L. Lichtenstein, C. J. Issel, and R. C. Montelaro, J. Virol. 71:3840–3852, 1997) in four experimentally infected ponies during sequential disease episodes associated with chronic disease during the first 10 months postinfection. In the current study, we extended the studies of these experimentally infected ponies to 3 years postinfection to characterize the levels of virus replication and development of host immune responses associated with the progression from chronic disease to long-term inapparent infection. The results of these studies revealed over a 103-fold difference in the steady-state levels of plasma viral RNA detected during long-term inapparent infection that correlated with the severity of chronic disease, indicating different levels of control of virus replication during long-term inapparent infections. Detailed analyses of antibody and cellular immune responses in all four ponies over the 3-year course of infection revealed a similar evolution during the first year postinfection of robust humoral and cellular immunity that then remained relatively constant during long-term inapparent infection. These observations indicate that immune parameters that have previously been correlated with EIAV vaccine protection fail to provide

  4. Immune responses and viral replication in long-term inapparent carrier ponies inoculated with equine infectious anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, S A; Li, F; McKeon, B M; Cook, S J; Issel, C J; Montelaro, R C

    2000-07-01

    Persistent infection of equids by equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is typically characterized by a progression during the first year postinfection from chronic disease with recurring disease cycles to a long-term asymptomatic infection that is maintained indefinitely. The goal of the current study was to perform a comprehensive longitudinal analysis of the course of virus infection and development of host immunity in experimentally infected horses as they progressed from chronic disease to long-term inapparent carriage. We previously described the evolution of EIAV genomic quasispecies (C. Leroux, C. J. Issel, and R. C. Montelaro, J. Virol. 71:9627-9639, 1997) and host immune responses (S. A. Hammond, S. J. Cook, D. L. Lichtenstein, C. J. Issel, and R. C. Montelaro, J. Virol. 71:3840-3852, 1997) in four experimentally infected ponies during sequential disease episodes associated with chronic disease during the first 10 months postinfection. In the current study, we extended the studies of these experimentally infected ponies to 3 years postinfection to characterize the levels of virus replication and development of host immune responses associated with the progression from chronic disease to long-term inapparent infection. The results of these studies revealed over a 10(3)-fold difference in the steady-state levels of plasma viral RNA detected during long-term inapparent infection that correlated with the severity of chronic disease, indicating different levels of control of virus replication during long-term inapparent infections. Detailed analyses of antibody and cellular immune responses in all four ponies over the 3-year course of infection revealed a similar evolution during the first year postinfection of robust humoral and cellular immunity that then remained relatively constant during long-term inapparent infection. These observations indicate that immune parameters that have previously been correlated with EIAV vaccine protection fail to provide

  5. Autophagy in Measles Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Rozières

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a biological process that helps cells to recycle obsolete cellular components and which greatly contributes to maintaining cellular integrity in response to environmental stress factors. Autophagy is also among the first lines of cellular defense against invading microorganisms, including viruses. The autophagic destruction of invading pathogens, a process referred to as xenophagy, involves cytosolic autophagy receptors, such as p62/SQSTM1 (Sequestosome 1 or NDP52/CALCOCO2 (Nuclear Dot 52 KDa Protein/Calcium Binding And Coiled-Coil Domain 2, which bind to microbial components and target them towards growing autophagosomes for degradation. However, most, if not all, infectious viruses have evolved molecular tricks to escape from xenophagy. Many viruses even use autophagy, part of the autophagy pathway or some autophagy-associated proteins, to improve their infectious potential. In this regard, the measles virus, responsible for epidemic measles, has a unique interface with autophagy as the virus can induce multiple rounds of autophagy in the course of infection. These successive waves of autophagy result from distinct molecular pathways and seem associated with anti- and/or pro-measles virus consequences. In this review, we describe what the autophagy–measles virus interplay has taught us about both the biology of the virus and the mechanistic orchestration of autophagy.

  6. Sero-surveillance of equine infectious anemia virus in equines in India during more than a decade (1999-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Praveen; Singha, Harisankar; Goyal, Sachin K; Khurana, Sandip K; Kumar, Rajender; Virmani, Nitin; Shanmugasundaram, Karuppusamy; Pandey, Shashti B; Kant, Ravi; Singh, Birendra K; Singh, Raj K

    2013-12-01

    Equine infectious anemia (EIA) is a retroviral infection of horses. Horses infected by EIA virus (EIAV) become inapparent carriers that remain asymptomatic for the remainder of their life span and serve as infection source to other horses. In this study, agar gel immunodiffusion test and ELISA were used to investigate the presence of antibodies to EIAV in equines. A total of 67,042 equine serum samples from 19 states and two union territories were tested during April 1999 to September 2012. The results revealed that none of the animals were positive for antibodies to EIAV from 1999 to December 2009. However, two EIAV sero-positive cases one each from indigenous and thoroughbred equines were detected in 2010 and 2012, respectively. Occurrence of EIA after a long gap of 11 years is indicative of reemergence of EIA in India which warrants concerted efforts in nationwide surveillance and monitoring for detection and elimination of EIAV carrier animals to prevent EIA outbreak.

  7. A Case Report of Avian Polyomavirus Infection in a Blue Fronted Parrot (Amazona aestiva Associated with Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Azevedo Philadelpho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An adult Blue Fronted Amazon parrot (A. aestiva presenting with emesis, apathy, undigested seed in feces, and severe anemia was treated for approximately 2 months. Upon radiographic examination, an enlarged kidney was the only alteration. PCR for avian Bornavirus, Circovirus, and Polyomavirus was performed for the feces and blood. The results were positive for APV in both samples and negative for the other viruses. After 6 months, the feces from the same animal were negative for APV. Because the animal was positive for APV in both the feces and the blood, it is likely that these clinical symptoms were due to Polyomavirus infection. Severe anemia is an unusual clinical sign of Polyomavirus, and this study aims to identify novel differential diagnostic criteria for the disease.

  8. Anemia among HIV infected individuals taking art with and without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hematological complications such as Zidovudine(ZDV) associated anemia are among the commonly reported adverse drug reactions of Antiretroviral Therapy(ART). Little is known about ZDV associated anemia in developing countries like Ethiopia. Methods: Comparative retrospective cohort study was ...

  9. Evolution of the equine infectious anemia virus long terminal repeat during the alteration of cell tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, Wendy; Thompson, Robert J; Jones, Quentin; Bradley, Sarahann; Denke, Tara; Baccam, Prasith; Smazik, Matthew; Oaks, J Lindsay

    2005-05-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus with in vivo cell tropism primarily for tissue macrophages; however, in vitro the virus can be adapted to fibroblasts and other cell types. Tropism adaptation is associated with both envelope and long terminal repeat (LTR) changes, and findings strongly suggest that these regions of the genome influence cell tropism and virulence. Furthermore, high levels of genetic variation have been well documented in both of these genomic regions. However, specific EIAV nucleotide or amino acid changes that are responsible for cell tropism changes have not been identified. A study was undertaken with the highly virulent, macrophage-tropic strain of virus EIAV(wyo) to identify LTR changes associated with alterations in cell tropism. We found the stepwise generation of a new transcription factor binding motif within the enhancer that was associated with adaptation of EIAV to endothelial cells and fibroblasts. An LTR that contained the new motif had enhanced transcriptional activity in fibroblasts, whereas the new site did not alter LTR activity in a macrophage cell line. This finding supports a previous prediction that selection for new LTR genetic variants may be a consequence of cell-specific selective pressures. Additional investigations of the EIAV(wyo) LTR were performed in vivo to determine if LTR evolution could be detected over the course of a 3-year infection. Consistent with previous in vivo findings, we observed no changes in the enhancer region of the LTR over that time period, indicating that the EIAV(wyo) LTR was evolutionarily stable in vivo.

  10. Dengue virus antibodies enhance Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lauren M; Carlin, Eric R; Jenkins, Meagan M; Tan, Amanda L; Barcellona, Carolyn M; Nicholson, Cindo O; Michael, Scott F; Isern, Sharon

    2016-12-01

    For decades, human infections with Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, were sporadic, associated with mild disease, and went underreported since symptoms were similar to other acute febrile diseases. Recent reports of severe disease associated with ZIKV have greatly heightened awareness. It is anticipated that ZIKV will continue to spread in the Americas and globally where competent Aedes mosquito vectors are found. Dengue virus (DENV), the most common mosquito-transmitted human flavivirus, is both well-established and the source of outbreaks in areas of recent ZIKV introduction. DENV and ZIKV are closely related, resulting in substantial antigenic overlap. Through antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), anti-DENV antibodies can enhance the infectivity of DENV for certain classes of immune cells, causing increased viral production that correlates with severe disease outcomes. Similarly, ZIKV has been shown to undergo ADE in response to antibodies generated by other flaviviruses. We tested the neutralizing and enhancing potential of well-characterized broadly neutralizing human anti-DENV monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) and human DENV immune sera against ZIKV using neutralization and ADE assays. We show that anti-DENV HMAbs, cross-react, do not neutralize, and greatly enhance ZIKV infection in vitro . DENV immune sera had varying degrees of neutralization against ZIKV and similarly enhanced ZIKV infection. Our results suggest that pre-existing DENV immunity may enhance ZIKV infection in vivo and may lead to increased disease severity. Understanding the interplay between ZIKV and DENV will be critical in informing public health responses and will be particularly valuable for ZIKV and DENV vaccine design and implementation strategies.

  11. Chikungunya VIrUS infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of 107 cases of serologically proven chikungunya (CHIK) virus infection was undertaken. All respondents 'had contracted the. 'disease at least 3 years previously; 87,9% had fully .recovered, 3,7% experienced only occasional stiff- ness or mild discomfort, 2,8% had persistent resi- dual joint stiffness but ...

  12. The Effect of Malaria and HIV Co-Infection on Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Sandhu, Nisha Kaur; Wai, Victor Nyunt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are globally important public health concerns. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infections in people living in endemic countries, and (ii) to assess the effect of co-infection on anemia. Studies were searched on electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Medline, Google Scholar, and African Journals Online. Observational studies, assessing the prevalence of co-infection and reporting its association with anemia, were included. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using a tool called the risk of bias assessment for non-randomized studies. Heterogeneity among studies was investigated with the I-square test. Pooled prevalence of the co-infection and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using the random-effect model, reflected on heterogeneity among studies. Summary odds ratio (OR), summary standardized mean difference (SMD), and their corresponding 95% CIs were estimated, as appropriate. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were performed for robustness of results. Publication bias was assessed by visualization of a funnel plot. Twenty-three studies were included in the present study. Overall, the pooled prevalence of co-infection was 19% (95% CI: 15–23%, I2: 98.1%), showing 26% (95% CI: 20–32%, I2: 98.7%) in adults, 12% (95% CI: 7–17%, I2: 95.0) in pregnant women, and 9% (95% CI: 6–11%, I2: 68.6%) in children. Anemia was comparable between the monoinfected and co-infected adults (summary OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 0.93–2.37) and increased by 49% in co-infected pregnant women (summary OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.14–1.94). The mean hemoglobin concentration was significantly lower in the co-infected group than the monoinfected group (summary SMD: −0.47, 95% CI: −0.61 to −0.33). The results of meta-regression on the prevalence of co-infection using the publication year and total population as covariates showed

  13. Development of a nested PCR assay to detect equine infectious anemia proviral DNA from peripheral blood of naturally infected horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian-Bao; Zhu, Wei; Cook, Frank R; Goto, Yoshitaka; Horii, Yoichiro; Haga, Takeshi

    2012-11-01

    Equine infectious anemia (EIA) has posed a major challenge and caused significant losses to the equine industry worldwide. PCR detection methods have considerable potential as an adjunct to conventional serological diagnostic techniques. However, most published PCR methods, including that recommended by the OIE, were designed using laboratory-adapted virus strains and do not function with field isolates of EIA virus (EIAV). In the present study, a nested PCR assay for detection of EIAV proviral DNA in peripheral blood cells of naturally infected horses was developed. Primer sets were designed based on conserved 5' regions of the viral genome extending from the LTR to the tat gene. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the method has a detection limit of 10 genomic copies and, when applied to a naturally EIAV-infected feral horse population, shows 100 % correlation with conventional serological diagnostic techniques. This assay provides a powerful new tool in the control of EIAV.

  14. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide and are characterized by establishing lifelong infection with periods of latency interspersed with periodic episodes of reactivation. Acquisition of HSV by an infant during the peripartum or postpartum period results in neonatal HSV disease, a rare but significant infection that can be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances have led to improvements in mortality and, to a lesser extent, neurodevelopmental outcomes, but room exists for further improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies on Ancylostomiasis: 1.An Experimental Study on Hookworm Infection and Anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun Ho; Kim, Dong Jip; Lee, Jang Kyu; Seo, Byong Sul; Lee, Soon Hyung

    1967-01-01

    In view of its prevalence in the Far East area, a more detailed knowledge on the hookworm infection is one of the very important medical problem. The present study was aimed to determine the infectivity of the artificially hatched ancylosotma duodenale larvae in man after its oral administration, evaluate the clinical symptomatology of such infection, determine the date of first appearance of ova in the stool, calculate the blood loss per worm per day, assess the relation-ships between the ova count, infectivity (worm load), blood loss and severity of anemia. An erythrokinetic study was also done to analyse the characteristics of hookworm anemia by means of 59 Fe and 51 Cr.

  16. [Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, A; Meier, H P; Straub, R; Gerber, V

    2009-04-01

    Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is a reportable, eradicable epizootic disease caused by the equine lentivirus of the retrovirus family which affects equids only and occurs worldwide. The virus is transmitted by blood, mainly by sanguivorous insects. The main symptoms of the disease are pyrexia, apathy, loss of body condition and weight, anemia, edema and petechia. However, infected horses can also be inapparent carriers without any overt signs. The disease is diagnosed by serological tests like the Coggins test and ELISA tests. Presently, Switzerland is offi cially free from EIA. However, Switzerland is permanently at risk of introducing the virus as cases of EIA have recently been reported in different European countries.

  17. Diverse uses of feathers with emphasis on diagnosis of avian viral infections and vaccine virus monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Davidson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The large amounts of feathers produced by the poultry industry, that is considered as a waste was explored for possible uses in various industries, such as meals for animals, biofuels, biodegradable plastic materials, combating water pollution and more. That review mentions these uses, but concentrate on the utilization of feathers for the diagnosis of viral infections and for monitoring vaccine viruses in chickens after vaccination. The viral diseases in which diagnosis using nucleic acids extracted from the feather shafts was described are, Marek's disease virus, circoviruses, chicken anemia virus, fowlpox virus, avian retroviruses, avian influenza virus and infectious laryngotracheitis virus. In two cases, of Marek's disease virus and of infectious laryngotracheitis virus, the differentiation of vaccine and wild-type viruses from feather shafts was made possible, thus allowing for monitoring the vaccination efficacy. The present review demonstrates also the stability of DNA viruses in feather shafts, and the possible evaluation of environmental dissemination of pathogens. When viruses are transmitted vertically, like in the cases of the retrovirus REV, a teratogenic effect on the development of feathers of the day-old newly hatched chick might occur in the case of avian influenza and the chicken anemia virus, which might indicate on a viral infection.

  18. Increased susceptibility of blood type O individuals to develop anemia in Plasmodium vivax infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Sarah Stela; Milagres, Vanessa Gonçalves; Chaves, Daniel Gonçalves; Fontes, Cor Jesus Fernandes; Carvalho, Luzia Helena; Sousa, Tais Nobrega; Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de

    2017-06-01

    Plasmodium vivax has been reported to cause severe malaria, and one of the main resulting complications is anemia. Considering that P. vivax infects only young erythrocytes, anemia has been associated with the destruction of infected and non-infected erythrocytes. However, few studies have focused on understanding the relationship between the pathogenesis of P. vivax malaria and human genetic polymorphisms. Although ABO groups seem to influence the outcome of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the association between P. vivax and ABO blood groups has been minimally investigated. Thus, we investigate the correlation between ABO blood groups and anemia induced by P. vivax infection. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms at the ABO gene were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and Real-Time PCR in P. vivax-infected subjects. The ABO blood types were associated with the hematological data of the patients. Our main finding was that type O infected-individuals showed lower levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit compared to type A-infected individuals. The correlation between ABO blood groups and hemoglobin levels remained significant when a multiple linear regression was applied with the possible confounding effects of clinical-epidemiologic variables taken into account. The finding that type O individuals have a higher frequency of anemia is a first step to understand the mechanisms involved in malaria anemia, which could be associated to increased destruction of type O erythrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The S2 accessory gene of equine infectious anemia virus is essential for expression of disease in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerness, Angela J; Flaherty, Maureen T; Perry, Stephanie T; Jia, Bin; Payne, Susan L; Fuller, Frederick J

    2006-05-25

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus that persistently infects horses and causes a disease that is characterized by periodic episodes of fever, thrombocytopenia, and viremia. EIAV encodes only four regulatory/accessory genes, (tat, rev, ttm, and S2) and is the least genetically complex of all known lentiviruses. We sought to determine the role of the EIAV S2 accessory gene of EIAV by introducing mutations that would prevent S2 expression on the p19/wenv17 infectious molecular clone. Virus derived from the p19/wenv17 molecular clone is highly virulent and routinely fatal when given in high doses (J. Virol. 72 (1998) 483). In contrast, an S2 deletion mutant on the p19/wenv17 background is unable to induce acute disease and plasma virus loads were reduced by 2.5 to 4.0 logs at 15 days post-infection. The S2 deleted virus failed to produce any detectable clinical signs during a 5-month observation period. These results demonstrate that S2 gene expression is essential for disease expression of EIAV.

  20. Endoscopic Diagnosis of Hookworm Infection That Caused Anemia in an Elderly Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-che Kuo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hookworm infection is a common intestinal nematodes in the world. Patients with a light hookworm infection are usually asymptomatic, but a moderate or heavy hookworm burden can result in fatigue, recurrent abdominal pain, and iron-deficiency anemia. We presented a case of 61-year-old man complained of general malaise and melena for 6 months due to hookworm infection. There is no eosinophilia, and the stool exam only revealed positive of occult blood, without ova or parasite identified. Upper endoscopy revealed several squirming red worms in duodenum. Hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale infection is diagnosed and eradiated by mebendazole successfully. His anemia is corrected after treatment. Hence, hookworm infection should be noted in eldler patients with long term anemia in Taiwan. It is also important to check carefully in the duodenum at routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

  1. The pathogenic and vaccine strains of equine infectious anemia virus differentially induce cytokine and chemokine expression and apoptosis in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yue-Zhi; Cao, Xue-Zhi; Li, Liang; Li, Li; Jiang, Cheng-Gang; Wang, Xue-Feng; Ma, Jian; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2011-09-01

    The attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine was the first attenuated lentivirus vaccine to be used in a large-scale application and has been used to successfully control the spread of equine infectious anemia (EIA) in China. To better understand the potential role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of EIAV infection and resulting immune response, we used branched DNA technology to compare the mRNA expression levels of 12 cytokines and chemokines, including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IP-10, IL-8, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MCP-1, and MCP-2, in equine monocyte-derived macrophages (eMDMs) infected with the EIAV(DLV121) vaccine strain or the parental EIAV(DLV34) pathogenic strain. Infection with EIAV(DLV34) and EIAV(DLV121) both caused changes in the mRNA levels of various cytokines and chemokines in eMDMs. In the early stage of infection with EIAV(DLV34) (0-24h), the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly up-regulated, while with EIAV(DLV121), expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 was markedly up-regulated. The effects on the expression of other cytokines and chemokines were similar between these two strains of virus. During the first 4 days after infection, the expression level of IL-4 in cells infected with the pathogenic strain were significantly higher than that in cells infected with the vaccine strain, but the expression of IL-1α and IL-1β induced by the vaccine strain was significantly higher than that observed with the pathogenic strain. In addition, after 4 days of infection with the pathogenic strain, the expression levels of 5 chemokines, but not IP-10, were markedly increased in eMDMs. In contrast, the vaccine strain did not up-regulate these chemokines to this level. Contrary to our expectation, induced apoptosis in eMDMs infected with the vaccine strain was significantly higher than that infected with the pathogenic strain 4 days and 6 days after infection. Together, these

  2. The Probability of Extinction of Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus in One and Two Patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, Evan

    2017-12-01

    Single-type and multitype branching processes have been used to study the dynamics of a variety of stochastic birth-death type phenomena in biology and physics. Their use in epidemiology goes back to Whittle's study of a susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model in the 1950s. In the case of an SIR model, the presence of only one infectious class allows for the use of single-type branching processes. Multitype branching processes allow for multiple infectious classes and have latterly been used to study metapopulation models of disease. In this article, we develop a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) model of infectious salmon anemia virus in two patches, two CTMC models in one patch and companion multitype branching process (MTBP) models. The CTMC models are related to deterministic models which inform the choice of parameters. The probability of extinction is computed for the CTMC via numerical methods and approximated by the MTBP in the supercritical regime. The stochastic models are treated as toy models, and the parameter choices are made to highlight regions of the parameter space where CTMC and MTBP agree or disagree, without regard to biological significance. Partial extinction events are defined and their relevance discussed. A case is made for calculating the probability of such events, noting that MTBPs are not suitable for making these calculations.

  3. Enhancement of equine infectious anemia virus virulence by identification and removal of suboptimal nucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R Frank; Cook, Sheila J; Berger, Sandra L; Leroux, Caroline; Ghabrial, Nadia N; Gantz, Marie; Bolin, Pamela S; Mousel, Michelle R; Montelaro, Ronald C; Issel, Charles J

    2003-09-01

    Pathogenicity was reportedly restored to an avirulent molecular clone of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) by substitution of 3' sequences from the pathogenic variant strain (EIAV(PV)). However, the incidence of disease in horses/ponies was found to be significantly lower (P = 0.016) with the chimeric clone (EIAV(UK)) than with EIAV(PV). This was attributable to 3' rather than 5' regions of the proviral genome, where EIAV(UK) differs from the consensus EIAV(PV) sequence by having a 68-bp duplication in the 3' LTR and arginine (R(103)) rather than tryptophan (W(103)) at position 103 in the second exon of rev. In EIAV(UK) recipients the duplication was rapidly eliminated and R(103) replaced by W(103) in the viral population. Furthermore, removal of the 3' variant sequences from EIAV(UK) (EIAV(UK3)) resulted in an equivalent (P = 0.013) disease potential in Equus caballus to EIAV(PV). The 68-bp duplication and/or R(103) may limit peak viral RNA accumulation during acute infection.

  4. Enhancement of equine infectious anemia virus virulence by identification and removal of suboptimal nucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R. Frank; Cook, Sheila J.; Berger, Sandra L.; Leroux, Caroline; Ghabrial, Nadia N.; Gantz, Marie; Bolin, Pamela S.; Mousel, Michelle R.; Montelaro, Ronald C.; Issel, Charles J.

    2003-01-01

    Pathogenicity was reportedly restored to an avirulent molecular clone of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) by substitution of 3' sequences from the pathogenic variant strain (EIAV PV ). However, the incidence of disease in horses/ponies was found to be significantly lower (P = 0.016) with the chimeric clone (EIAV UK ) than with EIAV PV . This was attributable to 3' rather than 5' regions of the proviral genome, where EIAV UK differs from the consensus EIAV PV sequence by having a 68-bp duplication in the 3' LTR and arginine (R 103 ) rather than tryptophan (W 103 ) at position 103 in the second exon of rev. In EIAV UK recipients the duplication was rapidly eliminated and R 103 replaced by W 103 in the viral population. Furthermore, removal of the 3' variant sequences from EIAV UK (EIAV UK3 ) resulted in an equivalent (P = 0.013) disease potential in Equus caballus to EIAV PV . The 68-bp duplication and/or R 103 may limit peak viral RNA accumulation during acute infection

  5. Immune selection of equine infectious anemia virus env variants during the long-term inapparent stage of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponseller, Brett A; Sparks, Wendy O; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Li, Yuxing; Antons, Amanda K; Oaks, J Lindsay; Carpenter, Susan

    2007-06-20

    The principal neutralizing domain (PND) of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is located in the V3 region of SU. Genetic variation in the PND is considered to play an important role in immune escape and EIAV persistence; however, few studies have characterized genetic variation in SU during the inapparent stage of disease. To better understand the mechanisms of virus persistence, we undertook a longitudinal study of SU variation in a pony experimentally inoculated with the virulent EIAV(Wyo). Viral RNA isolated from the inoculum and from sequential sera samples was amplified by RT-PCR, cloned, and individual clones were sequenced. Of the 147 SU clones obtained, we identified 71 distinct V3 variants that partitioned into five major non-overlapping groups, designated PND-1 to PND-5, which segregated with specific stages of clinical disease. Genotypes representative of each group were inserted into an infectious molecular clone, and chimeric viruses were tested for susceptibility to neutralization by autologous sera from successive times post-infection. Overall, there was a trend for increasing resistance to neutralizing antibody during disease progression. The PND genotype associated with recrudescence late in infection was resistant to both type-specific and broadly neutralizing antibody, and displayed a reduced replication phenotype in vitro. These findings indicate that neutralizing antibody exerts selective pressure throughout infection and suggest that viral strategies of immune evasion and persistence change in the face of an evolving and maturing host immune response.

  6. Characterization of isolates of equine infectious anemia virus in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigre, Dellane Martins; Brandão, Camila Fonseca Lopes; de Paula, Fabiana Lopes; Chinalia, Fabio Alexandre; Campos, Gubio Soares; Sardi, Silvia Ines

    2017-03-01

    Equine infectious anemia is an important infectious disease that affects equids worldwide. Control of the disease is currently based on detection of anti-p26 EIAV by Agar Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID). In this work, 62 animals were examined by AGID and nested-PCR using primers for the gag gene. Fifty-three samples (85.5%) were positive by nested-PCR, whereas only 33 samples (53%) were positive for AGID. Fifteen amplicons obtained by nested-PCR were sequenced and the aligned results subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The analysis suggests that the Brazilian EIAV form a cluster with WSU5, EIAVUK and Wyoming strains from United States.

  7. Anemia in a cohort of HIV-infected Hispanics: prevalence, associated factors and impact on one-year mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rodríguez, Eduardo J; Mayor, Angel M; Fernández-Santos, Diana M; Ruiz-Candelaria, Yelitza; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F

    2014-07-08

    Anemia occurs frequently in HIV-infected patients and has been associated with an increased risk of death in this population. For Hispanic subjects, information describing this blood disorder during HIV is scarce. Therefore, the present study examined data from a cohort of HIV-positive Hispanics to determine the prevalence of anemia, identify its associated factors, and evaluate its relationship with one-year mortality. This study included 1,486 patients who enrolled between January, 2000 and December, 2010 in an HIV-cohort in Bayamón, Puerto Rico. Data were collected through personal interviews and medical record abstractions. To determine the factors independently associated with anemia, a multivariable logistic regression model was used. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were also performed to estimate survival time and to predict death risk. The prevalence of anemia at enrollment was 41.5%. Factors independently associated with increased odds of anemia were: unemployment (OR = 2.02; 95% CI 1.45-2.79), CD4 count anemia. Survival differed significantly by anemia status (log-rank test: p anemia, respectively. Having anemia at baseline was independently associated with an increased one-year mortality risk (severe anemia: HR = 9.06; 95% CI: 4.16-19.72; moderate anemia: HR = 6.51; 95% CI: 3.25-13.06; mild anemia: HR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.35-4.74). A high prevalence of anemia at enrollment was observed in this cohort of HIV-infected Hispanics. Unemployment and several adverse prognostic features of HIV infection were independently associated with this blood disorder. Anemia resulted to be the strongest predictor of one-year mortality, evidencing a dose-response effect. Further investigations are needed to evaluate whether recovering from anemia is associated with longer survival, and to identify the types of anemia affecting this particular group of HIV patients.

  8. Acquired Aplastic Anemia After Nosocomial Serratia marcescens Bone Marrow Infection in an Elderly Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Wei Wang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old female patient with a multiple medical history developed refractory pancytopenia during treatment for peptic ulcer, bacteremia, pneumonia, and respiratory failure. Bone marrow biopsy revealed hypocellularity with few hematopoietic cells, which was indicative of aplastic anemia. Common causes including viral infection, mycobacterial infection, environmental exposure, congenital bone marrow disorder, and hematologic malignancy were primarily excluded. Identical Serratia marcescens cultures were isolated from the central venous catheter tip and bone marrow, and the pancytopenia improved gradually with proper antibiotics treatment. This case indicates that nosocomial S. marcescens infection may cause potentially fatal acquired aplastic anemia. Crucial issues in avoiding aplastic anemia include confronting increasing mortality and morbidity caused by nosocomial infection, improving environmental hygiene, early diagnosis of proper etiology, and adequate antibiotics treatment.

  9. Pathogenic genotype of major piroplasm surface protein associated with anemia in Theileria orientalis infection in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhee; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Park, Bae-Keun; Chae, Joon-Seok; Park, Jinho

    2017-07-27

    Serious disease outbreaks in cattle caused by Theileria orientalis have emerged in the Asia-Pacific region. Genetic variables of the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) expressed on the surface of the piroplasm inside T. orientalis-infected erythrocytes are considered to be associated with variation in the pathogenicity of T. orientalis. Our study describes the clinically relevant MPSP types associated with anemia in Theileria-infected cattle. These results revealed that MPSP expression plays an important role in hematological alterations in Theileria-infected cattle, and that MPSP type 1 is strongly associated with bovine anemia, which can be a potential target for the prevention of bovine theileriosis.

  10. Leishmania donovani infection induces anemia in hamsters by differentially altering erythropoiesis in bone marrow and spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P Lafuse

    Full Text Available Leishmania donovani is a parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis by infecting and replicating in macrophages of the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. Severe anemia and leucopenia is associated with the disease. Although immune defense mechanisms against the parasite have been studied, we have a limited understanding of how L. donovani alters hematopoiesis. In this study, we used Syrian golden hamsters to investigate effects of L. donovani infection on erythropoiesis. Infection resulted in severe anemia and leucopenia by 8 weeks post-infection. Anemia was associated with increased levels of serum erythropoietin, which indicates the hamsters respond to the anemia by producing erythropoietin. We found that infection also increased numbers of BFU-E and CFU-E progenitor populations in the spleen and bone marrow and differentially altered erythroid gene expression in these organs. In the bone marrow, the mRNA expression of erythroid differentiation genes (α-globin, β-globin, ALAS2 were inhibited by 50%, but mRNA levels of erythroid receptor (c-kit, EpoR and transcription factors (GATA1, GATA2, FOG1 were not affected by the infection. This suggests that infection has a negative effect on differentiation of erythroblasts. In the spleen, erythroid gene expression was enhanced by infection, indicating that the anemia activates a stress erythropoiesis response in the spleen. Analysis of cytokine mRNA levels in spleen and bone marrow found that IFN-γ mRNA is highly increased by L. donovani infection. Expression of the IFN-γ inducible cytokine, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, was also up-regulated. Since TRAIL induces erythroblasts apoptosis, apoptosis of bone marrow erythroblasts from infected hamsters was examined by flow cytometry. Percentage of erythroblasts that were apoptotic was significantly increased by L. donovani infection. Together, our results suggest that L. donovani infection inhibits erythropoiesis in the bone marrow by

  11. Virus-host interaction in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Figueiredo, Andreza Soriano; Araujo, João Pessoa

    2013-12-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection has been the focus of several studies because this virus exhibits genetic and pathogenic characteristics that are similar to those of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). FIV causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in cats, nevertheless, a large fraction of infected cats remain asymptomatic throughout life despite of persistent chronic infection. This slow disease progression may be due to the presence of factors that are involved in the natural resistance to infection and the immune response that is mounted by the animals, as well as due to the adaptation of the virus to the host. Therefore, the study of virus-host interaction is essential to the understanding of the different patterns of disease course and the virus persistence in the host, and to help with the development of effective vaccines and perhaps the cure of FIV and HIV infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlation between iron deficiency anemia and intestinal parasitic infection in school-age children in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlan, D. M.; Ananda, F. R.; Sari, M. I.; Arrasyid, N. K.; Sari, D. I.

    2018-03-01

    Anemia is an abnormal hemoglobin concentration in blood that impacts almost 40% school-age children in developing countries. Intestinal parasitic infection, along with malnutrition are contributed to influence absorption, transportation, and metabolism of iron which is the most common etiology of anemia in school-age children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and parasitic intestinal infection generally and protozoa infection particularly among school-age children in Medan. This was a cross-sectional study conducted from May until October 2016 in primaryschool in Medan and Hamparan Perak, Deli Serdang. Consecutive sampling was used with total 132 samples obtained. Univariate analysis and Bivariate analysis were performed.This study showed the prevalence of IDA was 7.6%, and proportion of parasitic intestinal infection was 26.5% with 19.8% protozoa infection. The correlation between IDA and intestinal parasitic infection was not significant in Chi-Square Test (p-value: 0.089), neither was between IDA and protozoa infection (p-value: 0.287). There was a correlation between MCV, MCH, and anemia with p-value0.05).

  13. Anemia and growth retardation associated with Schistosoma haematobium infection in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Chalotte W; Sacko, Moussa; Madsen, Henry

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundThe aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate a possible association of Schistosoma haematobium with child growth development and describe a plausible schistosomiasis-related anemia in children and adults in a highly schistosomiasis endemic area of Mali. MethodsUrine, feces a....... Lower height for age z-scores were also associated with anemia. ConclusionsS. haematobium infection is likely to impact on child growth and possibly also anemia in all age groups and advocates for inclusion of whole populations into future control programes.......BackgroundThe aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate a possible association of Schistosoma haematobium with child growth development and describe a plausible schistosomiasis-related anemia in children and adults in a highly schistosomiasis endemic area of Mali. MethodsUrine, feces...

  14. Genetic markers of the immune response of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, F; Laflamme, M; Gagné, N

    2010-08-01

    Infectious diseases among fish present an important economic burden for the aquaculture and fisheries industries around the world. For example, the infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) infects farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and results in millions of dollars of lost revenue to salmon farmers. Although improved management and husbandry practices over the last few years have minimized the losses and the number of outbreaks, the risk of new virulent strains emerging is a looming threat to the viability and sustainability of this industry. A greater understanding of the host-pathogen interactions at the molecular level during the course of an infection thus remains of strategic importance for the development of molecular tools and efficient vaccines capable of minimizing losses in the eventual case of a new outbreak. Using a 32 k cDNA microarray platform (cGRASP), we have identified various signaling pathways and immune regulated genes, which are activated or repressed in Atlantic salmon head-kidney during the course of an ISAV infection. Gene expressions were measured at five different time-points: 6 h, 24 h, 3 d, 7 d and 16 d post-injection. The earliest time points showed only a few differentially expressed genes in ISAV injected fish, relative to sham injected controls, although as time progressed, many additional genes involved in key defense pathways were up-regulated including MHC type I, beta-2 microglobulin, TRIM 25 and CC chemokine 19. During the latest stage of the infection process, many genes related to oxygen transportation were under-expressed, which correlates well with the observed anemia that occurs prior to death in Atlantic salmon infected with virulent strains of ISAV. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The synergistic effect of concomitant schistosomiasis, hookworm, and trichuris infections on children's anemia burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara E Ezeamama

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the degree of synergism between helminth species in their combined effects on anemia.Quantitative egg counts using the Kato-Katz method were determined for Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, and Schistosoma japonicum in 507 school-age children from helminth-endemic villages in The Philippines. Infection intensity was defined in three categories: uninfected, low, or moderate/high (M+. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin <11 g/dL. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR, 95% confidence intervals (CI, and synergy index for pairs of concurrent infections.M+ co-infection of hookworm and S. japonicum (OR = 13.2, 95% CI: 3.82-45.5 and of hookworm and T. trichiura (OR = 5.34, 95% CI: 1.76-16.2 were associated with higher odds of anemia relative to children without respective M+ co-infections. For co-infections of hookworm and S. japonicum and of T. trichiura and hookworm, the estimated indices of synergy were 2.9 (95% CI: 1.1-4.6 and 1.4 (95% CI: 0.9-2.0, respectively.Co-infections of hookworm and either S. japonicum or T. trichiura were associated with higher levels of anemia than would be expected if the effects of these species had only independent effects on anemia. This suggests that integrated anti-helminthic treatment programs with simultaneous deworming for S. japonicum and some geohelminths could yield a greater than additive benefit for reducing anemia in helminth-endemic regions.

  16. Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection among Pregnant Women in South-South, Nigeria. ... Concerted efforts need to be made towards reducing the seroprevalence through awareness campaigns, testing for the virus as well as development of vaccine among other preventive measures.

  17. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection in Cameroon: Investigation of the Genetic Diversity and Virulent Circulating Strains. ... A total of 36 HIV/HCV co-infected isolates (22 from volunteer blood donors and 14 from people living with HIV/AIDS not yet on antiretroviral treatment) were analyzed ...

  18. [Zika virus infection in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjasi, Gabriella; Póka, Róbert

    2017-04-01

    The Zika virus is a flavivirus spread by mosquitoes. Its primary vectors are the Aedes aegypti and the Aedes albopictus. Before 2007 it sporadically caused benign morbidity. Since 2015, it started spreading "explosively" in America, especially in Brazil. In August 2016 they reported cases from New York and Poland, too. Most of the infections don't produce any symptoms, but can cause grave complications. The most important lesion is microcephalia that forms in fetuses. Microcephalia's most serious consequence is mental retardation, which puts great burden on both the family and the society. The viral infection increases the incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome. This is an acute autoimmune disease which causes demyelination and, in the worst cases, it can also be fatal. Yet we do not possess adequate and specific vaccination nor antiviral therapy, although, since July 2016, the effectiveness of a DNA based vaccine is being tested on humans. More than half of the world's population lives in areas contaminated by infected mosquitoes so there is a great need for the development of an effective method against the vector mosquitoes. Sadly, even the vector control strategies aren't effective enough to push back the epidemic. Pregnant or fertile women must take the highest precautions against mosquito bites, especially if they travel to regions ravaged by the epidemic. The safest solution would be to postpone both the trip and the childbearing. In Europe, the vectors aren't spread enough to cause major threat, except maybe the warmer regions bordered by the Mediterranean Sea. However, it is possible that in the near future other viruses spread by Aedes mosquitoes could appear. Naturally, the travellers and immigrants, who came from endemic regions can also contribute to the spread of the epidemic. Thanks to the changes in global weather, there were reported findings of mosquitoes of the Aedes albopictus species in Hungary, which are slowly invading the continent, although

  19. Unique evolution characteristics of the envelope protein of EIAV(LN₄₀), a virulent strain of equine infectious anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Shuai; Lin, Yuezhi; Jiang, Chenggang; Ma, Jian; Zhao, Liping; Lv, Xiaoling; Wang, Fenglong; Shen, Rongxian; Zhou, Jianhua

    2011-04-01

    The Chinese equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) virulent strain EIAV(LN40) is derived from a naturally occurring virus by continuously passing in horses for 16 generations. Its genome sequence is 23% different from that of the American strains or the Japanese strains, and the variation of envelope gp90 surface unit (SU) is as high as 41%. In this study, evolutions of the EIAV(LN40) gp90 gene in four infected horses were analyzed. Results showed that new quasispecies arose in the early stage of infection in all EIAV(LN40)-infected horses. These quasispecies belonged to branches different from EIAV(LN40) in a phylogenetic tree. In contrast, the gp90 sequences of viruses isolated after disease onset remained in the same phylogenetic branch as EIAV(LN40), with some having exactly the same sequences. The glycosylation sites 191NSSN and 237NNTW in the V3 and V4 region present or absent simultaneously in most of the predicted amino acid sequences. Changes in the glycosylation sites within V3, V4, and V5 regions are usually associated with the disease status. Glycosylation sites (191NSSN, 237NNTW, and 280NDTS) within these three regions were present in EIAV(LN40) and most of the quasispecies isolated after, but not before disease onset. These unique evolutionary characteristics of SU have not been reported for EIAV and other lentiviruses. Our results provide a reference for a further understanding of the mechanism underlying the persistent infection and escape from immune surveillance of EIAV.

  20. Chemical Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of a Phage Display-Derived Peptide Active against Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Nicolás; Cárdenas, Constanza; Guzmán, Fanny; Marshall, Sergio H

    2016-04-01

    Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is the etiological agent of the disease by the same name and causes major losses in the salmon industry worldwide. Epizootic ISAV outbreaks have occurred in Norway and, to a lesser degree, in Canada. In 2007, an ISAV outbreak in Chile destroyed most of the seasonal production and endangered the entire Chilean salmon industry. None of the existing prophylactic approaches have demonstrated efficacy in providing absolute protection from or even a palliative effect on ISAV proliferation. Sanitary control measures for ISAV, based on molecular epidemiology data, have proven insufficient, mainly due to high salmon culture densities and a constant presence of a nonpathogenic strain of the virus. This report describes an alternative treatment approach based on interfering peptides selected from a phage display library. The screening of a phage display heptapeptide library resulted in the selection of a novel peptide with significant in vitro antiviral activity against ISAV. This peptide specifically interacted with the viral hemagglutinin-esterase protein, thereby impairing virus binding, with plaque reduction assays showing a significant reduction in viral yields. The identified peptide acts at micromolar concentrations against at least two different pathogenic strains of the virus, without detectable cytotoxic effects on the tested fish cells. Therefore, antiviral peptides represent a novel alternative for controlling ISAV and, potentially, other fish pathogens. Identifying novel methods for the efficient control of infectious diseases is imperative for the future of global aquaculture. The present study used a phage display heptapeptide library to identify a peptide with interfering activity against a key protein of the infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV). A piscine orthomyxovirus, ISAV is a continuous threat to the commercial sustainability of cultured salmon production worldwide. The complex epidemiological strategy of this

  1. [Sickle cell anemia and transfusion safety in Bamako, Mali. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections and alloimmunization belonged to Rh and Kell systems in sickle cell anemia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, A B; Guindo, A; Kouriba, B; Dorie, A; Diabaté, D T; Diawara, S I; Fané, B; Touré, B A; Traoré, A; Gulbis, B; Diallo, D A

    2013-12-01

    Red cell transfusion is one of the main treatments in sickle cell disease. However there are potential risks of blood transfusions. In order to propose strategies to improve blood safety in sickle cell disease in Mali, we conducted a prospective study of 133 patients with sickle cell anemia recruited at the sickle cell disease research and control center of Bamako, November 2010 to October 2011. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections by serum screening and the frequency of red cell alloimmunization before and after blood transfusion. The diagnosis of sickle cell syndrome was made by HPLC, the detection of markers of viral infection was performed by ELISA, and the diagnosis of alloimmunization was conducted by the Indirect Coombs test. Prevalence of viral infections observed at the time of enrolment of patients in the study was 1%, 3% and 1% respectively for HIV, HBV and HCV. Three cases of seroconversion after blood transfusion were detected, including one for HIV, one for HBV and one another for HCV in sickle cell anemia patients. All these patients had received blood from occasional donors. The red cell alloimmunization was observed in 4.4% of patients. All antibodies belonged to Rh system only. Blood transfusion safety in sickle cell anemia patients in Mali should be improved by the introduction of at least the technique for detecting the viral genome in the panel of screening tests and a policy of transfusions of blood units only from regular blood donors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Equine immune-mediated hemolytic anemia associated with Clostridium perfringens infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Douglas J; Moritz, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested an association between equine immune-mediated hemolytic anemia and clostridial infections or neck abscesses. The purpose of this report was to describe and characterize the hematologic abnormalities in a horse with Clostridium-associated immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. We also retrospectively evaluated hematologic abnormalities in 8 horses with clostridial myositis or subcutaneous emphysema. A 7-year-old Foreign Warm-Blood gelding was evaluated for anemia and a cervical abscess. CBCs and reticulocyte counts were obtained using an Advia 120 analyzer and evaluation of Wright's-stained smears. All cases of equine Clostridium spp.myositis or subcutaneous emphysema over a 7-year period were identified in a retrospective search of the University of Minnesota Veterinary Teaching Hospital database. Clinical, hematologic, and microbiological findings were recorded. Clostridium perfringens genotype A was isolated from the neck wound of the gelding. The CBC was characterized by severe regenerative anemia, intravascular hemolysis, and RBC agglutination. A direct Coombs' test was positive. Moderate numbers of spheroechinocytes were observed. The total automated reticulocyte count was 4.5% (56,700/microliter), with most reticulocytes having low absorbance (mature reticulocytes). The anemia responded to penicillin and steroidal and nonsteroidal immunosuppressive drugs. Of 8 horses with myositis, all of which involved the cervical region, 5 were anemic, 1 had a positive direct Coombs' test, and 2 had increased numbers of type III echinocytes and spheroechinocytes. The presence of type III echinocytes or spheroechinocytes may be helpful in diagnosing immune-mediated hemolytic anemia associated with clostridial infections in horses. Automated reticulocyte counts may detect very low levels of reticulocytosis in hemolytic anemia in horses.

  3. Molecular characterization of chicken infectious anemia viruses detected from breeder and broiler chickens in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-R; Kwon, Y-K; Bae, Y-C; Oem, J-K; Lee, O-S

    2010-11-01

    In South Korea, 32 sequences of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) from various flocks of breeder and commercial chickens were genetically characterized for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein 1 gene, including a hypervariable region of the CIAV genome, indicated that Korean CIAV strains were separated into groups II, IIIa, and IIIb. Strains were commonly identified in great-grandparent and grandparent breeder farms as well as commercial chicken farms. In the field, CIAV strains from breeder farms had no clinical effects, but commercial farm strains were associated with depression, growth retardation, and anemia regardless of the group from which the strain originated. In addition, we identified 7 CIAV genomes that were similar to vaccine strains from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks. These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms.

  4. Hepatitis E Virus Infects Neurons and Brains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Xinying; Huang, Fen; Xu, Lei; Lin, Zhanmin; de Vrij, Femke M. S.; Ayo-Martin, Ane C.; van der Kroeg, Mark; Zhao, Manzhi; Yin, Yuebang; Wang, Wenshi; Cao, Wanlu; Wang, Yijin; Kushner, Steven A.; Marie Peron, Jean; Alric, Laurent; de Man, Robert A.; Jacobs, Bart C.; van Eijk, Jeroen J.; Aronica, Eleonora M. A.; Sprengers, Dave; Metselaar, Herold J.; de Zeeuw, Chris I.; Dalton, Harry R.; Kamar, Nassim; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Pan, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), as a hepatotropic virus, is supposed to exclusively infect the liver and only cause hepatitis. However, a broad range of extrahepatic manifestations (in particular, idiopathic neurological disorders) have been recently reported in association with its infection. In this

  5. Medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Manheimer, Eric; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.......The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection....

  6. Anemia and intestinal parasite infection in school children in rural Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, Le H.; Brouwer, I.D.; Verhoef, H.; Khan, N.C.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study hypothesized that besides iron deficiency, intestinal parasites infection is also a determinant of anemia in schoolchildren in rural Vietnam. Methods: 400 primary schoolchildren from 20 primary schools in Tam Nong district, a poor rural area in Vietnam, were randomly selected

  7. Epitope specificity is critical for high and moderate avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes associated with control of viral load and clinical disease in horses with equine infectious anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Robert H; Zhang, Baoshan; Leib, Steven R; Littke, Matt H; McGuire, Travis C

    2003-09-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus that causes persistent infections in horses. We hypothesized that high-avidity CTL specific for nonvariable epitopes might be associated with low viral load and minimal disease in EIAV-infected horses. To test this hypothesis, memory CTL (CTLm) responses were analyzed in two infected horses with high plasma viral loads and recurrent disease (progressors), and in two infected horses with low-to-undetectable viral loads and mild disease (nonprogressors). High-avidity CTLm in one progressor recognized an envelope gp90 epitope, and the data documented for the first time in EIAV that viral variation led to CTL escape. Each of the nonprogressors had high-to-moderate avidity CTLm directed against epitopes within Rev, including the nuclear export and nuclear localization domains. These results suggested that the epitope specificity of high- and moderate-avidity CTLm was an important determinant for disease outcome in the EIAV-infected horses examined.

  8. Epitope specificity is critical for high and moderate avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes associated with control of viral load and clinical disease in horses with equine infectious anemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mealey, Robert H.; Zhang Baoshan; Leib, Steven R.; Littke, Matt H.; McGuire, Travis C.

    2003-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus that causes persistent infections in horses. We hypothesized that high-avidity CTL specific for nonvariable epitopes might be associated with low viral load and minimal disease in EIAV-infected horses. To test this hypothesis, memory CTL (CTLm) responses were analyzed in two infected horses with high plasma viral loads and recurrent disease (progressors), and in two infected horses with low-to-undetectable viral loads and mild disease (nonprogressors). High-avidity CTLm in one progressor recognized an envelope gp90 epitope, and the data documented for the first time in EIAV that viral variation led to CTL escape. Each of the nonprogressors had high-to-moderate avidity CTLm directed against epitopes within Rev, including the nuclear export and nuclear localization domains. These results suggested that the epitope specificity of high- and moderate-avidity CTLm was an important determinant for disease outcome in the EIAV-infected horses examined

  9. Epitope specificity is critical for high and moderate avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes associated with control of viral load and clinical disease in horses with equine infectious anemia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Robert H.; Zhang, Baoshan; Leib, Steven R.; Littke, Matt H.; McGuire, Travis C.

    2012-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus that causes persistent infections in horses. We hypothesized that high-avidity CTL specific for nonvariable epitopes might be associated with low viral load and minimal disease in EIAV-infected horses. To test this hypothesis, memory CTL (CTLm) responses were analyzed in two infected horses with high plasma viral loads and recurrent disease (progressors), and in two infected horses with low-to-undetectable viral loads and mild disease (nonprogressors). High-avidity CTLm in one progressor recognized an envelope gp90 epitope, and the data documented for the first time in EIAV that viral variation led to CTL escape. Each of the nonprogressors had high-to-moderate avidity CTLm directed against epitopes within Rev, including the nuclear export and nuclear localization domains. These results suggested that the epitope specificity of high- and moderate-avidity CTLm was an important determinant for disease outcome in the EIAV-infected horses examined. PMID:12954220

  10. Anemia Rate Assessment in Hospitalized Patients with Acute Bacterial Infection in Qom Hospitals, Qom, Iran, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Ghanuni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesImmunosuppression is regarded among the risk factors for bacterial infection. But in recent studies, anemia was considered a predisposing factor for bacterial infections. The main goals of this study was to assess the rate of anemia in hospitalized patients with acute bacterial infection and to determine the relationship between anemia and bacterial infection as a predisposing factor.Methods 311 hospitalized patients whose bacterial infection was well documented based on the files present in Kamkar, Arabnia, Fatemi, and Sahamieh hospitals in Qom, Iran, were selected for the present study. They were categorized into various age groups from newborns to the elderly. The data included, age, sex, Hb of the patients the first, third and discharge day, HCT in the first, third and discharge day, MCV, MCH, MCHC, WBC in the first, third, fourth day, Diff in the first and fourth days, ESR, CRP, maximum of fever and disease, chronic disease, smoking. A P<0.05 was considered as being significant.Results On the basis of hemoglobin rate, 43.9 % of patients had anemia as a co-disease. There was no anemia among newborns, but 57% of infants had it. Patients who had pyorrheal lymphadenitis had maximum rate of anemia among other patients. ConclusionOn the average, the rate of anemia in this study was 2.1 times more than that of general population in Qom, as well as in any of the age groups. This difference indicates that anemia rate in patients with acute bacterial infections is more common than general population. However, more studies are needed for the assessment of the relationship between anemia and bacterial infection as a predisposing factor. But it seems that the hemoglobin level and severity of disease have direct effects on each other. Keywords: Anemia; Bacterial Infections; Patients; Qom, Iran.

  11. Persistent hepatitis virus infection and immune homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU Yun

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis between the host and viruses is naturally maintained. On the one hand, the immune system activates the immune response to kill or eliminate viruses; on the other hand, the immune system controls the immune response to maintain immune homeostasis. The cause of persistent infections with hepatitis viruses such as HBV and HCV is that viral molecules damage the immune system of the host and their variants escape immune clearance. Long-term coexistence of the host and viruses is the pr...

  12. [Intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppen, T; Eis-Hübinger, A M; Schild, R L; Enders, G; Hansmann, M; Rister, M; Bartmann, P

    2001-01-01

    Early fetal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is rarely documented. Only the minority of affected fetuses survive this condition. At 19 weeks of gestation the first episode of a genital HSV-infection of a pregnant woman was treated with local interferon beta. At 34 weeks of gestation hydrocephalus with secondary microcephaly and microphthalmia of both eyes was detected by ultrasonography. In the amniotic fluid HSV type 2 (HSV-2) was isolated and HSV-2-DNA was detected by PCR. The serum of the mother proved positive for HSV-2 (glycoprotein G2)-specific IgG-antibodies. No other infectious causes were apparent on further testing. At 35 + 4 weeks gestation a small-for-gestational-age neonate (2130 g) with microcephaly (29 cm head circumference) was born by spontaneous vaginal delivery. Scarce ulcerative skin lesions and vesicles, hepatosplenomegaly and microphthalmia were diagnosed. Furthermore, encephalomalacia with parenchymal destruction, cataract of both eyes and aplasia of the maculae and papillae were found. HSV-2-PCR was tested positive in chorionic cells and an umbilical segment of the placenta as well as in swabs from both eyes, throat, and a herpetic skin lesion collected during the first 5 days of life. HSV-IgM-antibodies were found in the umbilical cord blood. Local and intravenous treatment with aciclovir was started. The infant exhibited signs of a severely malfunctioning central nervous system. At the age of 4 months the boy suffered from generalised cerebral seizures. He died at the age of 9 months as a consequence of respiratory insufficiency with consecutive circulation failure. The case of an intrauterine HSV-2-infection is presented. The time of onset of fetal infection was most probably at the time of the maternal disease (19 weeks of gestation). Inspite of the very early infection the fetus did not die in utero. Especially, if a primary genital HSV-2-infection of a pregnant woman is suspected, which can be proven by serological means only

  13. Anemia and intestinal parasitic infections in primary school students in Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuoka, R; Bailey, J W; Nery Guimarães, A M; Gurgel, R Q; Cuevas, L E

    1999-01-01

    Anemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. The main causes are parasitic infections, malaria, and low iron intake. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of anemia, parasitic infections, and nutritional status of children attending public primary schools in Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. Of 360 students, 26.7% were anemic, and prevalence was higher in children under 8 and over 15 years of age. Overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 42%, with Ascaris lumbricoides (28.7%), Trichuris trichiura (15.6%), and hookworm (1. 7%) most frequently found. There was an association between parasitic infections and poor sanitary conditions, but there was no association between anemia and presence of intestinal parasites. Height-for-age Z scores were lower than the NCHS standard, and prevalence of stunting was 5.4%. Although intestinal parasites were not associated with anemia, children with parasites had lower nutritional indices (weight- and height-for-age Z scores) than those without parasites.

  14. Iron deficiency anemia in Helicobacter pylori infection: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenzhen; Li Yumin; Yang Kehu; Ma Bin; Guan Quanlin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Lijuan

    2010-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and iron deficiency anemia are prevalent in disadvantaged populations worldwide. The benefit of H. pylori eradiation for iron deficiency anemia has been extensively studied, but data are still equivocal. A search in The Cochrane Library, PUBMED, EMBASE, EBM Review databases, Science Citation Index Expanded, and CMB (Chinese Biomedical Literature Database) was performed. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing anti-H. pylori plus oral iron to oral iron alone for the iron deficiency patients in whom H. pylori was positive were selected for meta-analysis. Reviev Manager 5.0 software was used for the performance of meta-analysis. Sixteen randomized controlled trials totaling 956 patients were included. The meta-analysis showed that the difference from baseline to endpoint of hemoglobin (Hb), serum iron (SI), and serum ferritin (SF) was statistically significantly different between anti-H. pylori treatment plus oral iron and oral iron alone (SMD, Hb 1.48; 95% CI, 0.96, 2.00; p infection could be effective in improving anemia and iron statue in IDA patients infected by H. pylori, particularly in patients with moderate or severe anemia.

  15. High yield expression in a recombinant E. coli of a codon optimized chicken anemia virus capsid protein VP1 useful for vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Bang-Jau

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV, the causative agent chicken anemia, is the only member of the genus Gyrovirus of the Circoviridae family. CAV is an immune suppressive virus and causes anemia, lymph organ atrophy and immunodeficiency. The production and biochemical characterization of VP1 protein and its use in a subunit vaccine or as part of a diagnostic kit would be useful to CAV infection prevention. Results Significantly increased expression of the recombinant full-length VP1 capsid protein from chicken anemia virus was demonstrated using an E. coli expression system. The VP1 gene was cloned into various different expression vectors and then these were expressed in a number of different E. coli strains. The expression of CAV VP1 in E. coli was significantly increased when VP1 was fused with GST protein rather than a His-tag. By optimizing the various rare amino acid codons within the N-terminus of the VP1 protein, the expression level of the VP1 protein in E. coli BL21(DE3-pLysS was further increased significantly. The highest protein expression level obtained was 17.5 g/L per liter of bacterial culture after induction with 0.1 mM IPTG for 2 h. After purification by GST affinity chromatography, the purified full-length VP1 protein produced in this way was demonstrated to have good antigenicity and was able to be recognized by CAV-positive chicken serum in an ELISA assay. Conclusions Purified recombinant VP1 protein with the gene's codons optimized in the N-terminal region has potential as chimeric protein that, when expressed in E. coli, may be useful in the future for the development of subunit vaccines and diagnostic tests.

  16. An updated proposal for classification of infectious salmon anemia virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Constanza; Ojeda, Nicolás; Labra, Alvaro; Marshall, Sergio H

    2017-09-01

    Biological databases contain a wealth of valuable information that can contribute to the enrichment of virtually any area. However, the exponential growth of information together with its dissemination through virtual networks has become a double-edged sword, promoting synonymy that leads to confusion and chaos. Organization of data is a big effort that must be accompanied by clarity, both in the deposited data and in the publications arising from them. In this report, an effort is made to organize the information related to infectious salmon anemia virus and its classification based on the variability of genomic segment 6.

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitus B virus co-infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitus B virus co-infection amog patients in Kano Nigeria. EE Nwokedi, MA Emokpae, AI Dutse. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 15(3) July-September 2006: 227-229. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  18. Understanding virus-host dynamics following EIAV infection in SCID horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupe, Stanca M; Schwartz, Elissa J

    2014-02-21

    We develop a mathematical model for the interaction between two competing equine infectious anemia virus strains and neutralizing antibodies. We predict that elimination of one or both virus strains depends on the initial antibody levels, the strength of antibody mediated neutralization, and the persistence of antibody over time. We further show that the ability of a subdominant, neutralization resistant virus to dominate the infection transiently or permanently is dependent on the antibody-mediated neutralization effect. Finally, we determine conditions for persistence of both virus strains. We fit our models to virus titers from horses (foals) with severe combined immunodeficiency to estimate virus-host parameters and to validate analytical results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Peter D; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M; Read, Andrew J; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog's kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses.

  20. Zika Virus: Mechanisms of Infection During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicholas J C; Teixeira, Mauro M; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2017-09-01

    Immune status changes during pregnancy, with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory contexts at different stages, making pregnant women potentially more susceptible to various infections. Infection by Zika virus during pregnancy can cause developmental damage to the fetus, and the altered immune response during pregnancy could contribute to disease during Zika infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A study of anemia in human immunodeficiency virus patients: Estimating the prevalence, analyzing the causative effect of nutritional deficiencies, and correlating the degree of severity with CD4 cell counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Panwar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia is a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. The role of iron, Vitamin B12, and folate deficiencies, which are otherwise most common causes of anemia, is not well-established in HIV patients. Several studies in India have shown that severe immunodeficiency is associated with higher grade of anemia, but correlation of CD4 cell counts with severity of anemia is not well-documented. Aims: The aims of the present study were: To estimate the point prevalence of anemia in HIV patients, to analyze the causative role of iron, Vitamin B12, and folate deficiencies in anemic HIV patients, and correlating the degree of severity of anemia with CD4 cell counts. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study. The study group enrolled 103 consecutive HIV patients attending medical emergency, medical outpatient department, medical wards, and anti-retroviral therapy (ART center at a tertiary care medical center in North India. Study participation consisted of a single visit during which relevant data, including medical history, current medications, CD4 T-lymphocyte count, complete hemogram with red blood cell indices, peripheral smear picture, iron studies, serum Vitamin B12, serum folate and bone marrow studies, were recorded on a case report form. Anemia was classified according to the World Health Organization criteria. Data analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Results: 86.4% (89/103 patients were found to be anemic. There was no significant difference in prevalence of anemia in ART-naive patients from those who were on ART (P > 0.05. Pearson′s correlation had shown a highly significant positive correlation of hemoglobin and CD4 cell counts in male patients (r = 0.418 as well as female patients (r = 0.565. Normocytic normochromic was the most common type of anemia in males (46% as well as females (42%. Significant iron deficiency

  2. Zika Virus Infection: Current Concerns and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Ranjan, Aruna; Chu, Jian Feng; Foo, Wei Lim; Chai, Zhi Xin; Lau, Eileen YinYien; Ye, Heuy Mien; Theam, Xi Jin; Lok, Yen Ling

    2016-12-01

    The Zika virus outbreaks highlight the growing importance need for a reliable, specific and rapid diagnostic device to detect Zika virus, as it is often recognized as a mild disease without being identified. Many Zika virus infection cases have been misdiagnosed or underreported because of the non-specific clinical presentation. The aim of this review was to provide a critical and comprehensive overview of the published peer-reviewed evidence related to clinical presentations, various diagnostic methods and modes of transmission of Zika virus infection, as well as potential therapeutic targets to combat microcephaly. Zika virus is mainly transmitted through bites from Aedes aegypti mosquito. It can also be transmitted through blood, perinatally and sexually. Pregnant women are advised to postpone or avoid travelling to areas where active Zika virus transmission is reported, as this infection is directly linked to foetal microcephaly. Due to the high prevalence of Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly in the endemic area, it is vital to confirm the diagnosis of Zika virus. Zika virus infection had been declared as a public health emergency and of international concern by the World Health Organisation. Governments and agencies should play an important role in terms of investing time and resources to fundamentally understand this infection so that a vaccine can be developed besides raising awareness.

  3. Mechanisms of equine infectious anemia virus escape from neutralizing antibody responses define epitope specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponseller, Brett A; Clark, Sandra K; Friedrich, Rachel A

    2012-08-01

    Determining mechanisms of viral escape to particular epitopes recognized by virus-neutralizing antibody can facilitate characterization of host-neutralizing antibody responses as type- versus group-specific, and provides necessary information for vaccine development. Our study reveals that a single N-glycan located in the 5' region of the Wyoming wild-type equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) principal neutralizing domain (PND) accounts for the differences in neutralization phenotype observed between PND variants, while variations in charged amino acids within the PND do not appear to play a key role in viral escape. Site-directed mutagenesis and peptide mapping of a conserved epitope to neutralizing antibody in the 3' region of the PND showed rapid selective pressure for acquisition of a 5' PND N-glycan responsible for defining the specificity of the neutralizing-antibody response.

  4. Interferon-γ Inhibits Ebola Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany A Rhein

    Full Text Available Ebola virus outbreaks, such as the 2014 Makona epidemic in West Africa, are episodic and deadly. Filovirus antivirals are currently not clinically available. Our findings suggest interferon gamma, an FDA-approved drug, may serve as a novel and effective prophylactic or treatment option. Using mouse-adapted Ebola virus, we found that murine interferon gamma administered 24 hours before or after infection robustly protects lethally-challenged mice and reduces morbidity and serum viral titers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that interferon gamma profoundly inhibits Ebola virus infection of macrophages, an early cellular target of infection. As early as six hours following in vitro infection, Ebola virus RNA levels in interferon gamma-treated macrophages were lower than in infected, untreated cells. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, to interferon gamma-treated macrophages did not further reduce viral RNA levels, suggesting that interferon gamma blocks life cycle events that require protein synthesis such as virus replication. Microarray studies with interferon gamma-treated human macrophages identified more than 160 interferon-stimulated genes. Ectopic expression of a select group of these genes inhibited Ebola virus infection. These studies provide new potential avenues for antiviral targeting as these genes that have not previously appreciated to inhibit negative strand RNA viruses and specifically Ebola virus infection. As treatment of interferon gamma robustly protects mice from lethal Ebola virus infection, we propose that interferon gamma should be further evaluated for its efficacy as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategy against filoviruses. Use of this FDA-approved drug could rapidly be deployed during future outbreaks.

  5. Identification of the interaction and interaction domains of chicken anemia virus VP2 and VP3 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fenfen; Pan, Wei; Gao, Honglei; Qi, Xiaole; Qin, Liting; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2018-01-01

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is a small, single-stranded DNA virus of Anelloviridae family. Its genome segments encode three proteins, VP1, VP2, and VP3. This study identified an interaction between VP2 and VP3 and mapped the interaction domains. Through the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system, VP2 was found to interact with VP3. The presence of the VP2-VP3 complex in CAV-infected chicken cells was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. Confocal microscopy showed that VP2 and VP3 were expressed in the cytoplasm in cotransfected Vero cells. In the Y2H system, the interaction domains were identified as being within the N-terminal aa 1-30 and C-terminal aa 17-60 for VP2 and the N-terminal aa 46-60 and C-terminal aa 1-7 for VP3. This study showed the interaction between VP2 and VP3 of CAV and identified multiple independent interactive domains within the two proteins. This provides novel information for investigating the biological functions of these proteins. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Genomic comparison between attenuated Chinese equine infectious anemia virus vaccine strains and their parental virulent strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Shuai; Lin, Yuezhi; Jiang, Chenggang; Ma, Jian; Zhao, Liping; Lv, Xiaoling; Wang, Fenglong; Shen, Rongxian; Kong, Xiangang; Zhou, Jianhua

    2011-02-01

    A lentiviral vaccine, live attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine, was developed in the 1970s, and this has made tremendous contributions to the control of equine infectious anemia (EIA) in China. Four key virus strains were generated during the attenuation of the EIAV vaccine: the original Liao-Ning strain (EIAV(LN40)), a donkey-adapted virulent strain (EIAV(DV117)), a donkey-leukocyte-attenuated vaccine strain (EIAV(DLV121)), and a fetal donkey dermal cell (FDD)-adapted vaccine strain (EIAV(FDDV13)). In this study, we analyzed the proviral genomes of these four EIAV strains and found a series of consensus substitutions among these strains. These mutations provide useful information for understanding the genetic basis of EIAV attenuation. Our results suggest that multiple mutations in a variety of genes in our attenuated EIAV vaccines not only provide a basis for virulence attenuation and induction of protective immunity but also greatly reduce the risk of reversion to virulence.

  7. Ebola Virus Infection Modelling and Identifiability Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Kinh eNguyen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent outbreaks of Ebola virus (EBOV infections have underlined the impact of the virus as a major threat for human health. Due to the high biosafety classification of EBOV (level 4, basic research is very limited. Therefore, the development of new avenues of thinking to advance quantitative comprehension of the virus and its interaction with the host cells is urgently neededto tackle this lethal disease. Mathematical modelling of the EBOV dynamics can be instrumental to interpret Ebola infection kinetics on quantitative grounds. To the best of our knowledge, a mathematical modelling approach to unravel the interaction between EBOV and the host cells isstill missing. In this paper, a mathematical model based on differential equations is used to represent the basic interactions between EBOV and wild-type Vero cells in vitro. Parameter sets that represent infectivity of pathogens are estimated for EBOV infection and compared with influenza virus infection kinetics. The average infecting time of wild-type Vero cells in EBOV is slower than in influenza infection. Simulation results suggest that the slow infecting time of EBOV could be compensated by its efficient replication. This study reveals several identifiability problems and what kind of experiments are necessary to advance the quantification of EBOV infection. A first mathematical approach of EBOV dynamics and the estimation of standard parametersin viral infections kinetics is the key contribution of this work, paving the way for future modelling work on EBOV infection.

  8. Saffold virus infection associated with human myocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nielsen, Alex Yde; Banner, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saffold virus was described in 2007 as one of the first human viruses within the genus cardioviruses. Cardioviruses may cause severe infections of the myocardium in animals, and several studies have associated saffold virus with human disease. As a result, saffold virus has been...... isolated from different anatomical compartments, including the myocardium, but, until now, it has not been possible to demonstrate the accompanying histopathological signs of inflammation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine if saffold virus is capable of causing invasive infection in the human...... myocardium. STUDY DESIGN: Using real-time PCR, we retrospectively examined formalin-fixed paraffin embedded cardiac tissue specimens from 150 deceased individuals diagnosed with myocarditis at autopsy. The results were compared with histological findings. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Saffold virus was detected...

  9. Immune Response in Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Anthony; Koh, Sarene; Bertoletti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can replicate within hepatocytes without causing direct cell damage. The host immune response is, therefore, not only essential to control the spread of virus infection, but it is also responsible for the inflammatory events causing liver pathologies. In this review, we discuss how HBV deals with host immunity and how we can harness it to achieve virus control and suppress liver damage. PMID:26134480

  10. Functional RNA during Zika virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göertz, Giel P.; Abbo, Sandra R.; Fros, Jelke J.; Pijlman, Gorben P.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV; family Flaviviridae; genus Flavivirus) is a pathogenic mosquito-borne RNA virus that currently threatens human health in the Americas, large parts of Asia and occasionally elsewhere in the world. ZIKV infection is often asymptomatic but can cause severe symptoms including

  11. Endocytosis and a low-pH step are required for productive entry of equine infectious anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindley, Melinda A; Maury, Wendy

    2005-12-01

    Recently, it has become evident that entry of some retroviruses into host cells is dependent upon a vesicle-localized, low-pH step. The entry mechanism of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has yet to be examined. Here, we demonstrate that wild-type strains of EIAV require a low-pH step for productive entry. Lysosomotropic agents that inhibit the acidification of internal vesicles inhibited productive entry of EIAV. The presence of ammonium chloride (30 mM), monensin (30 microM), or bafilomycin A (50 nM) in the medium dramatically decreased the number of EIAV antigen-positive cells. We found that a low-pH step was required for EIAV infection of tissue culture cell lines as well as primary cells, such as endothelial cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. The ammonium chloride treatment did not reduce virion stability, nor did the treatment prevent virion binding to cells. Consistent with a requirement for a low-pH step, virion infectivity was enhanced more than threefold by brief low-pH treatment following binding of viral particles to permissive cells. A superinfecting variant strain of EIAV, vMA-1c, did not require a low-pH step for productive infection of fibroblasts. However, lysosomotropic agents were inhibitory to vMA-1c infection in the other cell types that vMA-1c infected but did not superinfect, indicating that the entry pathway used by vMA-1c for superinfection abrogates the need for the low-pH step.

  12. Virus infections of honeybees Apis Mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Tantillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The health and vigour of honeybee colonies are threatened by numerous parasites (such as Varroa destructor and Nosema spp. and pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa. Among honeybee pathogens, viruses are one of the major threats to the health and wellbeing of honeybees and cause serious concern for researchers and beekeepers. To tone down the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effective and environmentally benign disease control strategies. Here we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the morphology, genome organization, transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis of eight honeybee viruses: Deformed wing virus (DWV and Kakugo virus (KV; Sacbrood virus (SBV; Black Queen cell virus (BQCV; Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV; Kashmir bee virus (KBV; Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV; Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV. The review has been designed to provide researchers in the field with updated information about honeybee viruses and to serve as a starting point for future research.

  13. Virus Infections of Honeybees Apis Mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantillo, Giuseppina; Bottaro, Marilisa; Di Pinto, Angela; Martella, Vito; Di Pinto, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The health and vigour of honeybee colonies are threatened by numerous parasites (such as Varroa destructor and Nosema spp.) and pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa. Among honeybee pathogens, viruses are one of the major threats to the health and well-being of honeybees and cause serious concern for researchers and beekeepers. To tone down the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effective and environmentally benign disease control strategies. Here we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the morphology, genome organization, transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis of eight honeybee viruses: Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Kakugo virus (KV); Sacbrood virus (SBV); Black Queen cell virus (BQCV); Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV); Kashmir bee virus (KBV); Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV); Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV). The review has been designed to provide researchers in the field with updated information about honeybee viruses and to serve as a starting point for future research. PMID:27800411

  14. SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF EQUINE INFECTIOUS ANEMIA VÍRUS INFECTION IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE RIO GRANDE DO SUL STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Cezar Rebelatto

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a brief review on equine Infectious anemia added of the results of serological diagnosis of this infection performed at the Federal University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, between 1979 to 1990. A total of 7,035 serum samples were tested by the agar gel immunodiffusion test (Coggins test, to which 40 (0,57% reacted positively. This percentage of positivity is lower than in other regions of Brazil, probably due to the lack of predisposing factors for equine infectious anemia virus spread, such as, a low density of blood-sucking insects in the South of Brazil and the seldom use of massive therapies and vaccinations in the region.

  15. Double-stranded-RNA-specific adenosine deaminase 1 (ADAR1) is proposed to contribute to the adaptation of equine infectious anemia virus from horses to donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan-Dong; Zhang, Xiang; Na, Lei; Wang, Xue-Feng; Fu, Li-Hua; Zhu, Chun-Hui; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2016-10-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a member of the genus Lentivirus of the family Retroviridae. Horses are the most susceptible equids to EIAV infection and are therefore the primary hosts of this virus. In contrast, infected donkeys do not develop clinically active equine infectious anemia (EIA). This phenomenon is similar to what has been observed with HIV-1, which fails to induce AIDS in non-human primates. Interestingly, Shen et al. developed a donkey-tropic pathogenic virus strain (EIAVDV117, DV117) by serially passaging a horse-tropic pathogenic strain, EIAVLN40 (LN40), in donkeys. LN40, which was generated by passaging a field isolate in horses, displayed enhanced virulence in horses but caused no clinical symptoms in donkeys. Infection with DV117 induced acute EIA in nearly 100 % of donkeys. Genomic analysis of DV117 revealed a significantly higher frequency of A-to-G substitutions when compared to LN40. Furthermore, detailed analysis of dinucleotide editing showed that A-to-G mutations had a preference for 5'TpA and 5'ApA. These results strongly implicated the activity of the adenosine deaminase, ADAR1, in this type of mutation. Further investigation demonstrated that overexpression of donkey ADAR1 increased A-to-G mutations within the genome of EIAV. Together with our previous finding that multiple mutations in multiple genes are generated in DV117 during its adaptation from horses to donkeys, the present study suggests that ADAR1-induced A-to-G mutations occur during virus adaption to related new hosts contributing to the alteration of EIAV host tropism.

  16. Identification of a novel equine infectious anemia virus field strain isolated from feral horses in southern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian-Bao; Zhu, Wei; Cook, Frank R; Goto, Yoshitaka; Horii, Yoichiro; Haga, Takeshi

    2013-02-01

    Although equine infectious anemia (EIA) was described more than 150 years ago, complete genomic sequences have only been obtained from two field strains of EIA virus (EIAV), EIAV(Wyoming) and EIAV(Liaoning). In 2011, EIA was detected within the distinctive feral Misaki horse population that inhabits the Toi-Cape area of southern Japan. Complete proviral sequences comprising a novel field strain were amplified directly from peripheral blood of one of these EIAV-infected horses and characterized by nucleotide sequencing. The complete provirus of Miyazaki2011-A strain is 8208 bp in length with an overall genomic organization typical of EIAV. However, this field isolate possesses just 77.2 and 78.7 % nucleotide sequence identity with the EIAV(Wyoming) and EIAV(Liaoning) strains, respectively, while similarity plot analysis suggested all three strains arose independently. Furthermore, phylogenetic studies using sequences obtained from all EIAV-infected Misaki horses against known viral strains strongly suggests these Japanese isolates comprise a separate monophyletic group.

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in children, and ... of the mouth, an enlarged spleen, and frequent infections. People who have iron-deficiency anemia may have ...

  18. Lectin Switching During Dengue Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejnirattisai, Wanwisa; Webb, Andrew I.; Chan, Vera; Jumnainsong, Amonrat; Davidson, Andrew; Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus receptors are relatively poorly characterized, but there has been recent interest in 2 C-type lectin molecules, dendritic cell–specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3)–grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) and its close homologue liver/lymph node–specific ICAM-3–grabbing integrin (L-SIGN), which can both bind dengue and promote infection. In this report we have studied the interaction of dengue viruses produced in insect cells, tumor cell lines, and primary human dendritic cells (DCs) with DC-SIGN and L-SIGN. Virus produced in primary DCs is unable to interact with DC-SIGN but remains infectious for L-SIGN–expressing cells. Skin-resident DCs may thus be a site of initial infection by insect-produced virus, but DCs will likely not participate in large-scale virus replication during dengue infection. These results reveal that differential glycosylation of dengue virus envelope protein is highly dependent on cell state and suggest that studies of virus tropism using virus prepared in insect cells or tumor cell lines should be interpreted with caution. PMID:21606536

  19. Inhibition of Enveloped Viruses Infectivity by Curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Ou, Jun-Lin; Chiou, Shyan-Song; Chen, Jo-Mei; Wong, Min-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Li

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA) activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB)-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter) than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm) and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm). These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses. PMID:23658730

  20. Inhibition of enveloped viruses infectivity by curcumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yen Chen

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm. These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses.

  1. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

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    Dinamene Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children.A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system.The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%, Giardia lamblia (20.1% and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%. Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886, while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210. The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449.This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  2. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António; Centeno-Lima, Sónia

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  3. Antiviral therapy in herpes- virus infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    Herpesviruses are large, enveloped DNA viruses.There are currently 8 known human herpesviruses and 1 primate species that is a rare human pathogen. Most people have been infected with sev- eral human herpesviruses. In immuno- competent individuals primary infections with herpesviruses are generally mild, self-.

  4. Anemia and mechanism of erythrocyte destruction in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.

    1968-01-01

    In the anemia which accompanies infection by Leucocytozoon simondi in Pekin ducks there was a far greater loss of erythrocytes than could be accounted for as a result of direct physical rupture by the parasite. Erythrocyte loss began at the same time the 1st parasites appeared in the blood and was severest just prior to maximum parasitemia. Blood replacement and parasite loss occurred simultaneously. Examination of the spleen and bone marrow revealed that erythrophagocytosis was not the cause of anemia as reported for infections of Plasmodium, Babesia and Anaplasma. An anti-erythrocyte (A-E) factor was found in the serum of acutely infected ducks which agglutinated and hemolyzed normal untreated duck erythrocytes as well as infected cells. This A-E factor appeared when the 1st red cell loss was detected and reached its maximum titer just prior to the greatest red cell loss. Titers of the A-E factor were determined using normal uninfected erythrocytes at temperatures between 4 and 42 C. Cells agglutinated below 25 C and hemolyzed at 37 and 42 C. These results indicated that the A-E factor could be responsible for loss of cells other than those which were infected and could thus produce an excess loss of red cells. Attempts to implicate the A-E factor as an autoantibody were all negative. The A-E factor was present in the gamma fraction of acute serum but no anamnestic response could be detected when recovered ducks were reinfected. Anemia was never as severe in reinfections as in primary infections. The A-E factor also never reached as high a titer and was removed from the circulation very rapidly in reinfected ducks. It is concluded that red cell loss in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon disease results from intravascular hemolysis rather than erythrophagocytosis. The A-E factor responsible for hemolysis is more likely a parasite product rather than autoantibody.

  5. Anemia and intestinal parasitic infections in primary school students in Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil Anemia e parasitoses intestinais em escolares de primeiro grau em Aracaju, Sergipe, Brasil

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    Reiko Tsuyuoka

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. The main causes are parasitic infections, malaria, and low iron intake. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of anemia, parasitic infections, and nutritional status of children attending public primary schools in Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. Of 360 students, 26.7% were anemic, and prevalence was higher in children under 8 and over 15 years of age. Overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 42%, with Ascaris lumbricoides (28.7%, Trichuris trichiura (15.6%, and hookworm (1.7% most frequently found. There was an association between parasitic infections and poor sanitary conditions, but there was no association between anemia and presence of intestinal parasites. Height-for-age Z scores were lower than the NCHS standard, and prevalence of stunting was 5.4%. Although intestinal parasites were not associated with anemia, children with parasites had lower nutritional indices (weight- and height-for-age Z scores than those without parasites.Estima-se que a anemia afeta metade dos escolares e adolescentes nos países em desenvolvimento. As principais causas são enteroparasitoses, malária e/ou baixa ingesta de ferro. Este estudo objetivou descrever a prevalência de anemia e de enteroparasitoses, assim como o estado nutricional de escolares de primeiro grau de escolas públicas municipais de Aracaju, SE, Brasil. Dos 360 estudantes, 26,7% estavam anêmicos, sendo a prevalência maior nos menores de oito anos e nos maiores de 15. A prevalência geral de enteroparasitoses foi de 42%. Ascaris lumbricoides (28,7%, Trichuris trichiura (15,6% e ancilostomídeos (1,7% estavam entre os mais freqüentemente encontrados. Houve associação entre enteroparasitose e má condição de saneamento, mas não entre anemia e presença de enteroparasitos. Os escores de desvio padrão (Z-scores de altura para idade foram inferiores aos padrões do NCHS, com preval

  6. Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Nigerians | Ejiofor | Nigerian Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis C virus is a chronic life long infection in the majority of patients who are infected with the virus. Not much is known and written/published about this virus in Nigeria. Objective: To asses the status of hepatitis C virus infection in Nigeria. Materials and method: Sources of information were mainly from ...

  7. MAIT cells are activated in acute Dengue virus infection and after in vitro Zika virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Paquin-Proulx, Dominic; Avelino-Silva, Vivian I.; Santos, Bianca A. N.; Silveira Barsotti, Nathália; Siroma, Fabiana; Fernandes Ramos, Jessica; Coracini Tonacio, Adriana; Song, Alice; Maestri, Alvino; Barros Cerqueira, Natalia; Felix, Alvina Clara; Levi, José Eduardo; Greenspun, Benjamin C.; de Mulder Rougvie, Miguel; Rosenberg, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are members of the Flaviviridae and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito bites. Both viruses are responsible for a growing number of infections in tropical and subtropical regions. DENV infection can cause lethargy with severe morbidity and dengue shock syndrome leading to death in some cases. ZIKV is now linked with Guillain-Barré syndrome and fetal malformations including microcephaly and developmental disorders (congenital Zika syndrome). The...

  8. MAIT cells are activated in acute Dengue virus infection and after in vitro Zika virus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Dominic Paquin-Proulx; Vivian I Avelino-Silva; Bianca A N Santos; Nathália Silveira Barsotti; Fabiana Siroma; Jessica Fernandes Ramos; Adriana Coracini Tonacio; Alice Song; Alvino Maestri; Natalia Barros Cerqueira; Alvina Clara Felix; José Eduardo Levi; Benjamin C Greenspun; Miguel de Mulder Rougvie; Michael G Rosenberg

    2018-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are members of the Flaviviridae and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito bites. Both viruses are responsible for a growing number of infections in tropical and subtropical regions. DENV infection can cause lethargy with severe morbidity and dengue shock syndrome leading to death in some cases. ZIKV is now linked with Guillain-Barré syndrome and fetal malformations including microcephaly and developmental disorders (congenital Zika syndrome). The...

  9. Genetic diversity of chicken anemia virus following cell culture passaging in MSB-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasmah, M S; Omar, A R; Wan, K F; Hair-Bejo, M; Aini, I

    2004-01-01

    It has been shown that a chicken anemia virus (CAV) isolates which had undergone 60 passages in MSB-1 cells (SMSC-1/P60, 3-1/P60) acquired 33-66 nucleotide substitutions at the coding region resulting in 13-16 amino acid changes as compared to the CAV isolates passaged only 5 times in MSB-1 cells (SMSC-1 and 3-1) (Chowdhury et al., Arch. Virol. 148, 2437-2448, 2003). In this study we found that a low CAV (BL-5) and a high CAV passage (BL-5/P90) differed by only 15 nucleotide substitutions resulting in 11 amino acid changes. Phylogenetic analysis based on VP1 also revealed that both isolates were close to each other but not to other CAV isolates from Malaysia, namely SMSC-1 and 3-1.

  10. U.S. response to a report of infectious salmon anemia virus in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Kevin H; Gustafson, Lori; Warg, Janet; Whaley, Janet; Purcell, Maureen K.; Rolland, Jill B.; Winton, James R.; Snekvik, Kevin; Meyers, Theodore; Stewart, Bruce; Kerwin, John; Blair, Marilyn; Bader, Joel; Evered, Joy

    2014-01-01

    Federal, state, and tribal fishery managers, as well as the general public and their elected representatives in the United States, were concerned when infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) was suspected for the first time in free-ranging Pacific Salmon collected from the coastal areas of British Columbia, Canada. This article documents how national and regional fishery managers and fish health specialists of the U.S. worked together and planned and implemented actions in response to the reported finding of ISAV in British Columbia. To date, the reports by Simon Fraser University remain unconfirmed and preliminary results from collaborative U.S. surveillance indicate that there is no evidence of ISAV in U.S. populations of free-ranging or marine-farmed salmonids on the west coast of North America.

  11. Detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus by real-time PCR in naturally and experimentally infected chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT is an acute, highly contagious upper-respiratory infectious disease of chickens. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for fast and accurate detection and quantitation of ILTV DNA of chickens experimentally infected with ILTV strain LJS09 and naturally infected chickens. The detection lower limit of the assay was 10 copies of DNA. There were no cross reactions with the DNA and RNA of infectious bursal disease virus, chicken anemia virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, avian reovirus, Newcastle disease virus, and Marek's disease virus. The real-time PCR was reproducible as the coefficients of variation of reproducibility of the intra-assay and the inter-assay were less than 2%. The real-time PCR was used to detect the levels of the ILTV DNA in the tissues of specific pathogen free (SPF chickens infected with ILTV at different times post infection. ILTV DNA was detected by real-time PCR in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, larynx, tongue, thymus, glandular stomach, duodenum, pancreatic gland, small intestine, large intestine, cecum, cecal tonsil, bursa of Fabricius, and brain of chickens in the infection group and the contact-exposure group. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the ILTV real-time PCR assay revealed its suitability for detection and quantitation of ILTV in the samples from clinically and experimentally ILTV infected chickens.

  12. Genomic Analysis of the Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus in a Specific Pathogen-Free Chicken Population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibody to chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV was positive in a specific pathogen-free (SPF chicken population by ELISA test in our previous inspection, indicating a possible infection with CIAV. In this study, blood samples collected from the SPF chickens were used to isolate CIAV by inoculating into MSB1 cells and PCR amplification. A CIAV strain (SD1403 was isolated and successfully identified. Three overlapping genomic fragments were obtained by PCR amplification and sequencing. The full genome sequence of the SD1403 strain was obtained by aligning the sequences. The genome of the SD1403 strain was 2293 bp with a nucleotide identity of 94.8% to 98.5% when compared with 30 referred CIAV strains. The viral proteins VP2 and VP3 were highly conserved, but VP1 was not relatively conserved. Both amino acids 139 and 144 of VP1 were glutamine, which was in accord with the low pathogenic characteristics. In this study, we first reported that CIAV exists in Chinese SPF chicken populations and may be an important reason why attenuated vaccine can be contaminated with CIAV.

  13. Genomic Analysis of the Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus in a Specific Pathogen-Free Chicken Population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Yixin; Fang, Lichun; Fu, Jiayuan; Cui, Shuai; Zhao, Yingjie; Cui, Zhizhong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The antibody to chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) was positive in a specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicken population by ELISA test in our previous inspection, indicating a possible infection with CIAV. In this study, blood samples collected from the SPF chickens were used to isolate CIAV by inoculating into MSB1 cells and PCR amplification. A CIAV strain (SD1403) was isolated and successfully identified. Three overlapping genomic fragments were obtained by PCR amplification and sequencing. The full genome sequence of the SD1403 strain was obtained by aligning the sequences. The genome of the SD1403 strain was 2293 bp with a nucleotide identity of 94.8% to 98.5% when compared with 30 referred CIAV strains. The viral proteins VP2 and VP3 were highly conserved, but VP1 was not relatively conserved. Both amino acids 139 and 144 of VP1 were glutamine, which was in accord with the low pathogenic characteristics. In this study, we first reported that CIAV exists in Chinese SPF chicken populations and may be an important reason why attenuated vaccine can be contaminated with CIAV.

  14. Hepatitis E Virus Infects Neurons and Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinying; Huang, Fen; Xu, Lei; Lin, Zhanmin; de Vrij, Femke M S; Ayo-Martin, Ane C; van der Kroeg, Mark; Zhao, Manzhi; Yin, Yuebang; Wang, Wenshi; Cao, Wanlu; Wang, Yijin; Kushner, Steven A; Marie Peron, Jean; Alric, Laurent; de Man, Robert A; Jacobs, Bart C; van Eijk, Jeroen J; Aronica, Eleonora M A; Sprengers, Dave; Metselaar, Herold J; de Zeeuw, Chris I; Dalton, Harry R; Kamar, Nassim; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Pan, Qiuwei

    2017-04-15

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), as a hepatotropic virus, is supposed to exclusively infect the liver and only cause hepatitis. However, a broad range of extrahepatic manifestations (in particular, idiopathic neurological disorders) have been recently reported in association with its infection. In this study, we have demonstrated that various human neural cell lines (embryonic stem cell-derived neural lineage cells) induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human neurons and primary mouse neurons are highly susceptible to HEV infection. Treatment with interferon-α or ribavirin, the off-label antiviral drugs for chronic hepatitis E, exerted potent antiviral activities against HEV infection in neural cells. More importantly, in mice and monkey peripherally inoculated with HEV particles, viral RNA and protein were detected in brain tissues. Finally, patients with HEV-associated neurological disorders shed the virus into cerebrospinal fluid, indicating a direct infection of their nervous system. Thus, HEV is neurotropic in vitro, and in mice, monkeys, and possibly humans. These results challenge the dogma of HEV as a pure hepatotropic virus and suggest that HEV infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of idiopathic neurological disorders. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Varicella Zoster Virus (Chickenpox) Infection in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Lamont, Ronald F.; Sobel, Jack D; Carrington, D; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Vaisbuch, Edi; Romero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Congenital varicella syndrome, maternal varicella zoster virus pneumonia and neonatal varicella infection are associated with serious feto-maternal morbidity and not infrequently with mortality. Vaccination against Varicella zoster virus can prevent the disease and outbreak control limits the exposure of pregnant women to the infectious agent. Maternal varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) administration before rash development, with or without antivirals medications can modify progression ...

  16. Selection of peptides for serological detection of equine infectious anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, E M; Cardoso, R; Souza, G R L; Goulart, L R; Heinemann, M B; Leite, R C; Reis, J K P

    2012-08-13

    Equine infectious anemia caused by equine infectious anemia virus is an important disease due to its high severity and incidence in animals. We used a phage display library to isolate peptides that can be considered potential markers for equine infectious anemia diagnosis. We selected peptides using IgG purified from a pool comprised of 20 sera from animals naturally infected with equine infectious anemia virus. The diagnostic potential of these peptides was investigated by ELISA, Western blot and dot blot with purified IgG and serum samples. Based on the results, we chose a peptide mimetic for glycoprotein gp45 epitopes of equine infectious anemia virus, with potential for use as an antigen in indirect diagnostic assays. Synthesis of this peptide has possible applications for the development of new diagnostic tools for this disease.

  17. Persistence of chicken anemia virus antigen and inclusions in spontaneous cases of Marek's disease visceral lymphomas in broiler chickens at slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed Sabry; Ono, Hiroki; Sasaki, Jun; Ochiai, Kenji; Goryo, Masanobu

    2016-06-01

    The chicken anemia virus (CAV) and Marek's disease virus (MDV) infect chickens worldwide; a single or dual infection by these viruses has a great impact on poultry production. In the present study, we examined the existence of CAV antigen and its inclusions in Marek's disease (MD) lymphomas in chickens in the slaughterhouses of Iwate prefecture, Japan. Forty-nine spleens and 13 livers with different degrees of nodular lesions were histopathologically examined at our laboratory. Grossly, the tested organs showed various sizes and anatomical architectures. Based on the cellular morphology and the infiltrative nature of the neoplastic lymphocytes, MD was confirmed in 76% (37/49) of the spleens and 92% (12/13) of the livers. The lesions of MD, according to the pattern of lymphocytic accumulation in the affected organs, were divided into multifocal, coalesced and diffuse. CAV intranuclear inclusion bodies were detected within the small and the large bizarre lymphocytes of the MD lymphomas in 2 livers and 9 spleens, and the immunostaining test for CAV confirmed the persistence of CAV antigens and inclusions in the neoplastic cells. This study demonstrated the persistence of CAV infection within the neoplastic cells of naturally occurring MD lymphomas in chickens.

  18. Relationship between ITPA polymorphisms and hemolytic anemia in HCV-infected patients after ribavirin-based therapy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Tenor, Daniel; García-Álvarez, Mónica; Jiménez-Sousa, María A; Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Resino, Salvador

    2015-10-06

    There is growing evidence that variations in the gene encoding inosine triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (ITPase), known as inosine triphosphatase (ITPA), are related to hemolytic anemia, which is frequently observed among hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients receiving ribavirin (RBV)-based therapy. We performed a meta-analysis of all eligible studies assessing ITPA gene polymorphisms related to RBV-induced hemolytic anemia in HCV-infected patients published in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane library prior to the end of 2014. Three outcomes were evaluated: (1) hemoglobin decline, (2) severe anemia, and (3) RBV dose reduction or treatment discontinuation. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were estimated by either fixed or random effects models. Twenty-nine studies were selected from the literature search: 20 references involving 6533 individuals for hemoglobin decline, 13 references on 3764 patients for severe anemia, and 16 references on 3918 patients for RBV dose reduction or discontinuation. Significant associations with hemoglobin decline were found for rs1127354 CC [OR = 12.84 (95 % CI 7.44; 22.17)], rs7270101 AA [OR = 3.41 (95 % CI 2.08; 5.59)] and rs6051702 AA [OR = 4.43 (95 % CI 2.80; 7.00)] genotypes. Moreover, significant associations with hemoglobin decline were also found for absent [OR = 6.01 (95 % CI 4.84; 7.46)] and mild [OR = 4.68 (95 % CI 2.83; 7.74)] ITPase deficiency haplotypes. The ITPA rs1127354 CC genotype and absent ITPase deficiency haplotype were also associated with severe anemia {[OR = 7.77 (95 % CI 5.03; 12.00)] and [OR = 4.79 (95 % CI 1.69; 13.56)], respectively}. Additionally, the rs1127354 CC genotype showed significant association with RBV dose reduction or stopping treatment (OR = 2.24; 95 % CI 1.79; 2.81). ITPA polymorphisms increase the likelihood of developing hemolytic anemia for HCV-infected patients on RBV-based therapy, particularly rs1127354 CC and rs7270101 AA genotypes, suggesting the

  19. The risk of introduction of equine infectious anemia virus into USA via cloned horse embryos imported from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseged, B D; Habtemariam, T; Tameru, B; Nganwa, D

    2012-01-15

    Deriving horse oocytes in the USA is hampered by the lack of abattoirs processing horse carcasses which could provide abundant quantities of ovaries from slaughtered mares. Therefore, several cloning industries in the USA are attempting to import cloned horse embryos from Canada. Like any agricultural commodity, cloned embryos pose a risk of introduction of exotic animal diseases into the importing country. Under such circumstances, risk assessment could provide an objective, transparent, and internationally accepted means for evaluating the risk. This quantitative risk assessment (QRA) was initiated to determine the risk of introduction of Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) into the USA via cloned horse embryos imported from Canada. In assessing the risk, a structured knowledge base regarding cloning in relation to Equine infectious anemia (EIA) was first developed. Based on the knowledge base, a scenario tree was developed to determine conditions (with mathematical probabilities) that could lead to the introduction and maintenance of EIAV along the cloning pathway. Parameters for the occurrence of the event at each node were estimated using published literature. Using @Risk software and setting Monte Carlo simulation at 50,000 iterations, the probability of importing an EIAV-infected cloned horse embryo was 1.8 × 10(-9) (R = 1.5 × 10(-12) to 2.9 × 10(-8)). Taking into account the current protocol for equine cloning and assuming the yield of 5 to 30 clones per year, the possible number of EIAV-infected cloned horse embryos ranged from 2.0 × 10(-10) to 9.1 × 10(-5) (Mean = 1.4×10(-6)) per year. Consequently, it would take up to 1.5 × 10(7) (R = 1.6 × 10(4) to 5.1 × 10(10)) years for EIAV to be introduced into the USA. Based on the knowledge base and our critical pathway analysis, the biological plausibility of introducing EIAV into USA via cloned horse embryos imported from Canada is extremely low. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural model of the Rev regulatory protein from equine infectious anemia virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yungok Ihm

    Full Text Available Rev is an essential regulatory protein in the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV and other lentiviruses, including HIV-1. It binds incompletely spliced viral mRNAs and shuttles them from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, a critical prerequisite for the production of viral structural proteins and genomic RNA. Despite its important role in production of infectious virus, the development of antiviral therapies directed against Rev has been hampered by the lack of an experimentally-determined structure of the full length protein. We have used a combined computational and biochemical approach to generate and evaluate a structural model of the Rev protein. The modeled EIAV Rev (ERev structure includes a total of 6 helices, four of which form an anti-parallel four-helix bundle. The first helix contains the leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES. An arginine-rich RNA binding motif, RRDRW, is located in a solvent-exposed loop region. An ERLE motif required for Rev activity is predicted to be buried in the core of modeled structure where it plays an essential role in stabilization of the Rev fold. This structural model is supported by existing genetic and functional data as well as by targeted mutagenesis of residues predicted to be essential for overall structural integrity. Our predicted structure should increase understanding of structure-function relationships in Rev and may provide a basis for the design of new therapies for lentiviral diseases.

  1. The impact of hepatitis A virus infection on hepatitis C virus infection: a competitive exclusion hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaku, Marcos; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Chaib, Eleazar; Massad, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    We address the observation that, in some cases, patients infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are cleared of HCV when super-infected with the hepatitis A virus (HAV). We hypothesise that this phenomenon can be explained by the competitive exclusion principle, including the action of the immune system, and show that the inclusion of the immune system explains both the elimination of one virus and the co-existence of both infections for a certain range of parameters. We discuss the potential clinical implications of our findings.

  2. Activity of andrographolide against chikungunya virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintachai, Phitchayapak; Kaur, Parveen; Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Ramphan, Suwipa; Kuadkitkan, Atichat; Wikan, Nitwara; Ubol, Sukathida; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Smith, Duncan R

    2015-09-18

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has recently engendered large epidemics around the world. There is no specific antiviral for treatment of patients infected with CHIKV, and development of compounds with significant anti-CHIKV activity that can be further developed to a practical therapy is urgently required. Andrographolide is derived from Andrographis paniculata, a herb traditionally used to treat a number of conditions including infections. This study sought to determine the potential of andrographolide as an inhibitor of CHIKV infection. Andrographolide showed good inhibition of CHIKV infection and reduced virus production by approximately 3log10 with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 77 μM without cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition and RNA transfection studies showed that andrographolide affected CHIKV replication and the activity of andrographolide was shown to be cell type independent. This study suggests that andrographolide has the potential to be developed further as an anti-CHIKV therapeutic agent.

  3. The role of fish movements and the spread of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) in Chile, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardones, F O; Martinez-Lopez, B; Valdes-Donoso, P; Carpenter, T E; Perez, A M

    2014-04-01

    Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) infection is a constant major threat to farmed and wild Atlantic salmon worldwide. Many epidemics have recently been reported in the most important salmon farming regions of the world, including Chile (2007-2009), where ISAV generated the most important disease and economic crisis in history of the salmon industry of the country. The spread of ISAV within a region is most likely by local or neighborhood spread from an infected farm; however, there is evidence that anthropogenic activities, such as movement of live or harvested fish or their byproduct, may have played a more important role than environmental or passive transmission in the 2007-2009 outbreak. Atlantic salmon farms (n=421) were retrospectively followed from stocking to harvesting in southern Chile at the time of the ISAV epidemic (2007-2009). The effect of husbandry and spatial risk factors, in addition to contact-network risk factors, which were obtained from the social network analyses, on time to first ISAV infection was estimated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Five variables were retained in the final fitted model: co-existing multiple generations on a farm (hazard ratio [HR]=2.585), mean smolt weight at stocking greater than 120g (HR=1.165), farm area (perkm(2)) (HR=1.005), and increased number of shipments entering a farm, i.e. the farm input degree (HR=1.876) were associated with reduced time to infection; whereas time-to-infection was longer for farms located farther from an ongoing ISAV outbreak (HR=0.943). It was demonstrated that movements of latently infected fish resulted in approximately 7 outbreaks, and potentially explain about 6% of the total number of cases during the epidemic. Results from this study provide new information about the mechanisms of spread of ISAV in one the largest documented ISAV epidemics in the world. Findings may be used to support the design and implementation of risk-based surveillance and control

  4. Hepatitis C virus infection and risk of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Torsten; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kjaer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Several chronic infections have been associated with cardiovascular diseases, including Chlamydia pneumoniae, human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis. This review evaluates the literature on the association between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the risk of coronary artery...

  5. Activity of andrographolide against chikungunya virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Phitchayapak Wintachai; Parveen Kaur; Regina Ching Hua Lee; Suwipa Ramphan; Atichat Kuadkitkan; Nitwara Wikan; Sukathida Ubol; Sittiruk Roytrakul; Justin Jang Hann Chu; Duncan R. Smith

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has recently engendered large epidemics around the world. There is no specific antiviral for treatment of patients infected with CHIKV, and development of compounds with significant anti-CHIKV activity that can be further developed to a practical therapy is urgently required. Andrographolide is derived from Andrographis paniculata, a herb traditionally used to treat a number of conditions including infections. This stud...

  6. USEFULNESS OF THE GRAPEVINE VIRUS-INFECTED COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Cocuţa Buciumeanu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to use the virus-infected material as reference in various studies, a grapevine virus collection was established at NRDIBH Ştefănşti-Argeş. The vines are infected with 1-3 of the main specific viruses of this crop: fanleaf virus, leafroll associated virus serotypes 1+3, fleck virus and virus A. Different lots of plants belonging to the same cultivar are infected with different viruses. The own rooted or grafted potted plants are maintained in an insect-proof greenhouse. The main goals of the study of grapevine under the influence of virus infection had in view: symptoms, in vitro behaviour of virus infected grapevine, virus elimination, plant positive control in the diagnostic process. The symptoms produced by viral infection can affect the whole plant (systemic symptoms or they are visible on certain parts of the plant (local symptoms. In vitro studies of virus infected grapevines comparatively with the healthy material aimed with the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the culture: multiplication and rooting rates, shoots elongation, abnormal cuttings and vitrification phenomena. Infected grapevine cultivars and clones were subjected to virus elimination through thermotherapy, chemotherapy or electrotherapy, combined with in vitro culture. The diagnosis of leafroll, fleck, vein necrosis and corky bark diseases have been done by in vitro micrografting, as rapid biological method of virus detection. Samples collected from infected vines were used as material testing for virus detection by ELISA in inter-laboratory comparisons and Iaboratory-performed validation.

  7. Zika virus infection of Hofbauer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Michael K; Jurado, Kellie Ann; Abrahams, Vikki M; Fikrig, Erol; Guller, Seth

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have linked antenatal infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) with major adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes, including microcephaly. There is a growing consensus for the existence of a congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). Previous studies have indicated that non-placental macrophages play a key role in the replication of dengue virus (DENV), a closely related flavivirus. As the placenta provides the conduit for vertical transmission of certain viruses, and placental Hofbauer cells (HBCs) are fetal-placental macrophages located adjacent to fetal capillaries, it is not surprising that several recent studies have examined infection of HBCs by ZIKV. In this review, we describe congenital abnormalities associated with ZIKV infection, the role of HBCs in the placental response to infection, and evidence for the susceptibility of HBCs to ZIKV infection. We conclude that HBCs may contribute to the spread of ZIKV in placenta and promote vertical transmission of ZIKV, ultimately compromising fetal and neonatal development and function. Current evidence strongly suggests that further studies are warranted to dissect the specific molecular mechanism through which ZIKV infects HBCs and its potential impact on the development of CZS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Covalent conjugation of the equine infectious anemia virus Gag with SUMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinzhong; Wen, Shuping; Zhao, Rui; Qi, Jing; Liu, Zhao; Li, Weiwei; An, Jing; Wood, Charles; Wang, Ying

    2017-05-06

    The conjugation of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) to the target protein, namely, SUMOylation, is involved in the regulation of many important biological events including host-pathogen interaction. Some viruses have evolved to exploit the host SUMOylation machinery to modify their own protein. Retroviral Gag protein plays critical roles in the viral life cycle. The HIV-1 p6 and the Moloney murine leukemia virus CA have been reported to be conjugated with SUMO. In this study, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, the covalent conjugation of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) Gag with SUMO. The C-terminal p9 domain of Gag is a main target for SUMOylation and SUMO is attached to multiple sites of p9, including K30 whose mutation abolished p9 SUMOylation completely. The SUMOylation of p9, but not the p9-K30 mutant, was also detected in equine fibroblastic cells ATCC ® CCL-57™. Ubc9 and its C93 residue are indispensable for the SUMOylation of p9. Using confocal microscopy, it is found that EIAV Gag localizes primarily, if not exclusively, in the cytoplasm of the cell and the co-localization of EIAV Gag with Ubc9 was observed. Our findings that EIAV Gag is SUMOylated at p9-K30, together with previous findings on the defects of p9-K30 mutant in viral DNA translocation from cytoplasm to the nucleus, suggests that SUMOylation of Gag may be involved in such functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic arthritis in chikungunya virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Lourdes; Roure, Silvia

    2017-07-24

    Chikungunya virus infection causes arthralgia and arthritis in the acute phase of the disease but, in more than half of the cases, musculoskeletal manifestations can be prolonged over time and, in some cases, become chronic. Although polyarthralgia is the most frequent chronic manifestation, forms with polyarthritis, tenosynovitis and enthesopathy are also common. To analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent articular manifestations after infection with the Chikungunya virus. Report of 3 cases of chronic arthritis after infection with chikungunya virus diagnosed at outpatient care in a university hospital of Catalonia, all of them imported after exposure in areas of epidemic infection between 2013-2015. All three patients had inflammatory joint pain for more than one year after acute disease (3, 2 and 1 years, respectively). In all cases, it appeared as polyarthritis with involvement of small joints of hands and feet (pseudorheumatoid arthritis-like). Laboratory tests showed a slight elevation of acute phase reactants, and analyses for immune markers were negative. Two of the patients required treatment with glucocorticoids and hydroxychloroquine. The course led to slow clinical improvement, but only one of them came to be completely asymptomatic. In the differential diagnosis of chronic polyarthritis, Chikungunya virus disease should also be considered in areas in which it is not endemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  10. Neopterin and human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B

    1993-01-01

    to predict the later development of AIDS. The increased neopterin concentrations show that the immune system is activated in HIV infection and demonstrate the presence of an interaction between the virus and the immune system. The most important future use of neopterin measurements may be in fast evaluation...

  11. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in People Spread of Bird Flu Viruses Between Animals and People Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A ... Influenza A (H5N1) H5N1 in Birds and Other Animals H5N1 in People Public Health Threat of Highly Pathogenic Asian Avian ...

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus infection among migrant fishermen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: People migrate from place to place for diverse reasons chief among which is economic. Migrant fishermen like other migrant population lead high risk sexual lifestyle and are therefore, predisposed to Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Aim: To determine the prevalence of HIV among migrant ...

  13. Infection of Bergmann glia in the cerebellum of a skunk experimentally infected with street rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A C; Phelan, C C; Rossiter, J P

    2000-10-01

    Rabies virus is a highly neuronotropic virus and glial cell infection is not prominent in the central nervous system (CNS). Paraffin-embedded tissues from the cerebella of skunks experimentally infected with either a skunk salivary gland isolate of street rabies virus or the challenge virus standard (CVS) strain of fixed rabies virus were examined with immunoperoxidase staining for rabies virus antigen by using an anti-rabies virus nucleocapsid protein monoclonal antibody. A skunk infected with street rabies virus showed prominent infection of Bergmann glia. Although infected Purkinje cells were observed, they usually demonstrated a relatively small amount of antigen in their perikarya. A CVS-infected skunk showed many intensely labeled Purkinje cells and a relatively small number of infected Bergmann glia. These findings indicate that although rabies virus is a highly neuronotropic virus, street rabies virus strains do not always demonstrate strict neuronotropism in the central nervous system.

  14. Tickborne Powassan virus infections among Wisconsin residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Diep K Hoang; Staples, J Erin; Sotir, Mark J; Warshauer, David M; Davis, Jeffrey P

    2010-04-01

    Powassan virus (POWV) is a tickborne Flavivirus that causes a rare but potentially life-threatening illness. The first reported case of POWV infection in a Wisconsin resident occurred in 2003. Enhanced surveillance and testing detected 2 additional cases. Patient specimens with a positive or equivocal immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to an arbovirus were sent from commercial laboratories to the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene and forwarded to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for confirmatory testing. Patients with laboratory confirmed POWV infections were interviewed to obtain demographic, clinical, and epidemiologic information. POWV infections were confirmed in 3 adult Wisconsin residents in 2003, 2006, and 2007; illness onsets occurred during May and June. Two patients were hospitalized and all survived. One patient had a dual infection with POWV and Anaplasma phaghocytophilum. Specimens from all 3 patients were initially reported as positive for IgM antibody to either St Louis encephalitis or California serogroup viruses; POWV-specific antibody was detected during confirmatory testing at the CDC. Each patient had exposures to known or likely tick habitats in different counties within 30 days before illness onset. These are the first diagnosed human POWV infections in Wisconsin. Because all 3 patients were initially identified as having other arboviral infections using commercial screening kits, routine confirmatory testing is essential for proper diagnosis of most arboviral infections. Wisconsin residents should be educated regarding risks of acquiring and ways to prevent POWV infection and other tickborne diseases when spending time outdoors.

  15. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus infections among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection are common in Nigeria; where they are a major cause of both acute and chronic liver disease, as well as hepatocellular cancer. Persons at risk of acquisition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are also at risk of acquisition of infection with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and ...

  16. Immunodomination during peripheral vaccinia virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon C W Lin

    Full Text Available Immunodominance is a fundamental property of CD8(+ T cell responses to viruses and vaccines. It had been observed that route of administration alters immunodominance after vaccinia virus (VACV infection, but only a few epitopes were examined and no mechanism was provided. We re-visited this issue, examining a panel of 15 VACV epitopes and four routes, namely intradermal (i.d., subcutaneous (s.c., intraperitoneal (i.p. and intravenous (i.v. injection. We found that immunodominance is sharpened following peripheral routes of infection (i.d. and s.c. compared with those that allow systemic virus dissemination (i.p. and i.v.. This increased immunodominance was demonstrated with native epitopes of VACV and with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B when expressed from VACV. Responses to some subdominant epitopes were altered by as much as fourfold. Tracking of virus, examination of priming sites, and experiments restricting virus spread showed that priming of CD8(+ T cells in the spleen was necessary, but not sufficient to broaden responses. Further, we directly demonstrated that immunodomination occurs more readily when priming is mainly in lymph nodes. Finally, we were able to reduce immunodominance after i.d., but not i.p. infection, using a VACV expressing the costimulators CD80 (B7-1 and CD86 (B7-2, which is notable because VACV-based vaccines incorporating these molecules are in clinical trials. Taken together, our data indicate that resources for CD8(+ T cell priming are limiting in local draining lymph nodes, leading to greater immunodomination. Further, we provide evidence that costimulation can be a limiting factor that contributes to immunodomination. These results shed light on a possible mechanism of immunodomination and highlight the need to consider multiple epitopes across the spectrum of immunogenicities in studies aimed at understanding CD8(+ T cell immunity to viruses.

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and other symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and ... Internal bleeding (bleeding inside the body) also may lead to iron-deficiency anemia. This type of blood ...

  18. Influenza virus infection during pregnancy and in specific populations

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, WJ

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus infection causes approximately 1 billion infections worldwide each year. These infections are usually self-limiting, but serious complications may occur, in particular in adults aged 65 years or older, patients with cardiovascular disease, asthma or autoimmune disorders and pregnant women. In this thesis we studied several aspects of influenza virus infection. Pregnant women appear to be at an increased risk of complications of influenza virus infection, especially during the ...

  19. Dengue Virus-Specific Antibodies Enhance Brazilian Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanha, Priscila M S; Nascimento, Eduardo J M; Braga, Cynthia; Cordeiro, Marli T; de Carvalho, Otávio V; de Mendonça, Leila R; Azevedo, Elisa A N; França, Rafael F O; Dhalia, Rafael; Marques, Ernesto T A

    2017-03-01

    Anti-Flavivirus antibodies are highly cross-reactive and may facilitate Zika virus (ZIKV) infection through the antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) mechanism. We demonstrate that dengue-specific antibodies enhance the infection of a primary Brazilian ZIKV isolate in a FcγRII-expressing K562 cell line. In addition, we demonstrate that serum samples from dengue-immune pregnant women enhanced ZIKV infection. These findings highlight the need for epidemiological studies and animal models to further confirm the role of ADE in the development of congenital and neurological complications associated with ZIKV infections. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Selection of a rare neutralization-resistant variant following passive transfer of convalescent immune plasma in equine infectious anemia virus-challenged SCID horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sandra D; Leib, Steven R; Carpenter, Susan; Mealey, Robert H

    2010-07-01

    Vaccines preventing HIV-1 infection will likely elicit antibodies that neutralize diverse strains. However, the capacity for lentiviruses to escape broadly neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is not completely understood, nor is it known whether NAbs alone can control heterologous infection. Here, we determined that convalescent immune plasma from a horse persistently infected with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) neutralized homologous virus and several envelope variants containing heterologous principal neutralizing domains (PND). Plasma was infused into young horses (foals) affected with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), followed by challenge with a homologous EIAV stock. Treated SCID foals were protected against clinical disease, with complete prevention of infection occurring in one foal. In three SCID foals, a novel neutralization-resistant variant arose that was found to preexist at a low frequency in the challenge inoculum. In contrast, SCID foals infused with nonimmune plasma developed acute disease associated with high levels of the predominant challenge virus. Following transfer to an immunocompetent horse, the neutralization-resistant variant induced a single febrile episode and was subsequently controlled in the absence of type-specific NAb. Long-term control was associated with the presence of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Our results demonstrate that immune plasma with neutralizing activity against heterologous PND variants can prevent lentivirus infection and clinical disease in the complete absence of T cells. Importantly, however, rare neutralization-resistant envelope variants can replicate in vivo under relatively broad selection pressure, highlighting the need for protective lentivirus vaccines to elicit NAb responses with increased breadth and potency and/or CTL that target conserved epitopes.

  1. Cells in Dengue Virus Infection In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansanee Noisakran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue has been recognized as one of the most important vector-borne emerging infectious diseases globally. Though dengue normally causes a self-limiting infection, some patients may develop a life-threatening illness, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF/dengue shock syndrome (DSS. The reason why DHF/DSS occurs in certain individuals is unclear. Studies in the endemic regions suggest that the preexisting antibodies are a risk factor for DHF/DSS. Viremia and thrombocytopenia are the key clinical features of dengue virus infection in patients. The amounts of virus circulating in patients are highly correlated with severe dengue disease, DHF/DSS. Also, the disturbance, mainly a transient depression, of hematological cells is a critical clinical finding in acute dengue patients. However, the cells responsible for the dengue viremia are unresolved in spite of the intensive efforts been made. Dengue virus appears to replicate and proliferate in many adapted cell lines, but these in vitro properties are extremely difficult to be reproduced in primary cells or in vivo. This paper summarizes reports on the permissive cells in vitro and in vivo and suggests a hematological cell lineage for dengue virus infection in vivo, with the hope that a new focus will shed light on further understanding of the complexities of dengue disease.

  2. Restriction of equine infectious anemia virus by equine APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Jörg; Bravo, Ignacio G; Marino, Daniela; Conrad, Elea; Perković, Mario; Battenberg, Marion; Cichutek, Klaus; Münk, Carsten

    2009-08-01

    The mammalian APOBEC3 (A3) proteins comprise a multigene family of cytidine deaminases that act as potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. The A3 locus on the chromosome 28 of the horse genome contains multiple A3 genes: two copies of A3Z1, five copies of A3Z2, and a single copy of A3Z3, indicating a complex evolution of multiple gene duplications. We have cloned and analyzed for expression the different equine A3 genes and examined as well the subcellular distribution of the corresponding proteins. Additionally, we have tested the functional antiretroviral activity of the equine and of several of the human and nonprimate A3 proteins against the Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), the Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and the Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2). Hematopoietic cells of horses express at least five different A3s: A3Z1b, A3Z2a-Z2b, A3Z2c-Z2d, A3Z2e, and A3Z3, whereas circulating macrophages, the natural target of EIAV, express only part of the A3 repertoire. The five A3Z2 tandem copies arose after three consecutive, recent duplication events in the horse lineage, after the split between Equidae and Carnivora. The duplicated genes show different antiviral activities against different viruses: equine A3Z3 and A3Z2c-Z2d are potent inhibitors of EIAV while equine A3Z1b, A3Z2a-Z2b, A3Z2e showed only weak anti-EIAV activity. Equine A3Z1b and A3Z3 restricted AAV and all equine A3s, except A3Z1b, inhibited SIV. We hypothesize that the horse A3 genes are undergoing a process of subfunctionalization in their respective viral specificities, which might provide the evolutionary advantage for keeping five copies of the original gene.

  3. Genetic immunization with codon-optimized equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) surface unit (SU) envelope protein gene sequences stimulates immune responses in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R Frank; Cook, Sheila J; Bolin, Pamela S; Howe, Laryssa J; Zhou, Weisong; Montelaro, Ronald C; Issel, Charles J

    2005-06-15

    In the context of DNA vaccines the native equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-envelope gene has proven to be an extremely weak immunogen in horses probably because the RNA transcripts are poorly expressed owing to an unusual codon-usage bias, the possession of multiple RNA splice sites and potential adenosine-rich RNA instability elements. To overcome these problems a synthetic version of sequences encoding the EIAV surface unit (SU) envelope glycoprotein was produced (SYNSU) in which the codon-usage bias was modified to conform to that of highly expressed horse and human genes. In transfected COS-1 cell cultures, the steady state expression levels of SYNSU were at least 30-fold greater than equivalent native SU sequences. More importantly, EIAV-specific humoral and lymphocyte proliferation responses were induced in ponies immunized with a mammalian expression vector encoding SYNSU. However, these immunological responses were unable to confer protection against infection with a virulent EIAV strain.

  4. Solution structure of the Equine Infectious Anemia Virus p9 protein: a rationalization of its different ALIX binding requirements compared to the analogous HIV-p6 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henklein Peter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The equine infection anemia virus (EIAV p9 Gag protein contains the late (L- domain required for efficient virus release of nascent virions from the cell membrane of infected cell. Results In the present study the p9 protein and N- and C-terminal fragments (residues 1-21 and 22-51, respectively were chemically synthesized and used for structural analyses. Circular dichroism and 1H-NMR spectroscopy provide the first molecular insight into the secondary structure and folding of this 51-amino acid protein under different solution conditions. Qualitative 1H-chemical shift and NOE data indicate that in a pure aqueous environment p9 favors an unstructured state. In its most structured state under hydrophobic conditions, p9 adopts a stable helical structure within the C-terminus. Quantitative NOE data further revealed that this α-helix extends from Ser-27 to Ser-48, while the N-terminal residues remain unstructured. The structural elements identified for p9 differ substantially from that of the functional homologous HIV-1 p6 protein. Conclusions These structural differences are discussed in the context of the different types of L-domains regulating distinct cellular pathways in virus budding. EIAV p9 mediates virus release by recruiting the ALG2-interacting protein X (ALIX via the YPDL-motif to the site of virus budding, the counterpart of the YPXnL-motif found in p6. However, p6 contains an additional PTAP L-domain that promotes HIV-1 release by binding to the tumor susceptibility gene 101 (Tsg101. The notion that structures found in p9 differ form that of p6 further support the idea that different mechanisms regulate binding of ALIX to primary versus secondary L-domains types.

  5. Amplification of complete gag gene sequences from geographically distinct equine infectious anemia virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Bazartseren, Tsevel; Koba, Ryota; Murakami, Hironobu; Oguma, Keisuke; Murakami, Kenji; Sentsui, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    In the current study, primers described previously and modified versions of these primers were evaluated for amplification of full-length gag genes from different equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) strains from several countries, including the USA, Germany and Japan. Each strain was inoculated into a primary horse leukocyte culture, and the full-length gag gene was amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Each amplified gag gene was cloned into a plasmid vector for sequencing, and the detectable copy numbers of target DNA were determined. Use of a mixture of two forward primers and one reverse primer in the polymerase chain reaction enabled the amplification of all EIAV strains used in this study. However, further study is required to confirm these primers as universal for all EIAV strains. The nucleotide sequence of gag is considered highly conserved, as evidenced by the use of gag-encoded capsid proteins as a common antigen for the detection of EIAV in serological tests. However, significant sequence variation in the gag genes of different EIAV strains was found in the current study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Virus elimination in acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Correlation with virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity rather than cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Volkert, M; Bro-Jørgensen, K

    1983-01-01

    The immunological effector mechanism responsible for the elimination of virus in murine acute non-fatal extracranial lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection was studied. In this infection virus clearance is generally regarded as the result of a direct action of virus-specific cytotoxic T cells...

  7. Hepatitis C virus infection and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenborn, Karin; Tryc, Anita B; Heeren, Meike; Worthmann, Hans; Pflugrad, Henning; Berding, Georg; Bokemeyer, Martin; Tillmann, Hans L; Goldbecker, Annemarie

    2009-03-01

    There is growing evidence that hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infection may affect the brain. About half of the HCV-infected patients complain of chronic fatigue irrespective of their stage of liver disease or virus replication rate. Even after successful antiviral therapy fatigue persists in about one third of the patients. Many patients, in addition, report of deficits in attention, concentration and memory, some also of depression. Psychometric testing revealed deficits in attention and verbal learning ability as characteristic for HCV-afflicted patients with normal liver function. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies showed alterations of the cerebral choline, N-acetyl-aspartate, and creatine content in the basal ganglia, white matter and frontal cortex, respectively. Recently, pathologic cerebral serotonin and dopamine transporter binding and regional alterations of the cerebral glucose utilisation compatible with alterations of the dopaminergic attentional system were observed. Several studies detected HCV in brain samples or cerebro-spinal fluid. Interestingly, viral sequences in the brain often differed from those in the liver, but were closely related to those found in lymphoid tissue. Therefore, the Trojan horse hypothesis emerged: HCV-infected mononuclear blood cells enter the brain, enabling the virus to reside within the brain (probably in microglia) and to infect brain cells, especially astrocytes.

  8. Prevalence and prognostic significance of infection with TT virus in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, JK; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Sørensen, M

    2000-01-01

    No clear association between human disease and TT virus (TTV) has been documented. A possible pathogenic role of TTV was investigated in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). TTV serum concentrations were estimated in 185 HIV-infected patients by dilution polymerase chain...... reaction. Of these, 149 (76%) were TTV-positive, compared with 18 (7%) of 252 Danish blood donors (PHIV-infected patients who were TTV-positive, 72 (51%) had high TTV viremia (>/=5 times the highest concentration observed among blood donors, i.e., >/=3.5x105 TTV/mL of serum). High TTV...... viremia was associated with decreased survival (PHIV viral load (P

  9. Hepatitis C virus infection in the human immunodeficiency virus infected patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    for 15%-20% of chronically infected individuals. HCV treatment has rapidly changed with the development of new direct-acting antiviral agents; therefore, cure rates have greatly improved because the new treatment regimens target different parts of the HCV life cycle. In this review, we focus......Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share the same transmission routes; therefore, coinfection is frequent. An estimated 5-10 million individuals alone in the western world are infected with both viruses. The majority of people acquire HCV by injection drug use and...... HIV-HCV coinfected individuals. Morbidity and mortality rates from chronic HCV infection will increase because the infection incidence peaked in the mid-1980s and because liver disease progresses slowly and is clinically silent to cirrhosis and end-stage-liver disease over a 15-20 year time period...

  10. [A NEW PANDEMIC: ZIKA VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourée, Patrice

    2016-06-01

    Zika virus is a flavivirus isolated in non human primates in 1647, then in humans 1954 (Uganda). It emerged on Micronesia (island af Yap) in 2007, then in French Polynesia in 2013-2014, in South America (mostly in Brazil and Colombia) in 2015 and in French West Indies in 2016. It is transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Zika virus infection is symptomatic in only 20% of cases and clinical presentation is associated with mild illness. But several neurological complications are reported (as Guillain-Barré syndrome: 48 cases in French Polynesia) and congenital malformations (microcephaly). Laboratory diagnosis is based on virus isolation by PCR. There is no specific treatment or vaccine available against the Zika virs. Prevention is based on measures of protection from mosquitoes bites.

  11. Myeloradiculopathy associated with chikungunya virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Anna M; Batra, Ayush; Colorado, Rene A; Lyons, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that is endemic to parts of Africa, South and Southeast Asia, and more recently the Caribbean. Patients typically present with fever, rash, and arthralgias, though neurologic symptoms, primarily encephalitis, have been described. We report the case of a 47-year-old woman who was clinically diagnosed with CHIKV while traveling in the Dominican Republic and presented 10 days later with left lower extremity weakness, a corresponding enhancing thoracic spinal cord lesion, and positive CHIKV serologies. She initially responded to corticosteroids, followed by relapsing symptoms and gradual clinical improvement. The time lapse between acute CHIKV infection and the onset of myelopathic sequelae suggests an immune-mediated phenomenon rather than direct activity of the virus itself. Chikungunya virus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of myelopathy in endemic areas. The progression of symptoms despite corticosteroid administration suggests more aggressive immunomodulatory therapies may be warranted at disease onset.

  12. Mechanisms of Zika Virus Infection and Neuropathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagnier, David; Muscolini, Michela; Coyne, Carolyn B; Diamond, Michael S; Hiscott, John

    2016-08-01

    A spotlight has been focused on the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) because of its epidemic outbreak in Brazil and Latin America, as well as the severe neurological manifestations of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with infection. In this review, we discuss the recent literature on ZIKV-host interactions, including new mechanistic insight concerning the basis of ZIKV-induced neuropathogenesis.

  13. Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straus, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons

  14. Mechanisms of immune evasion in Epstein-Barr virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gram., A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The human herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a large DNA virus that infects over 90% of the adult world population. EBV is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis and EBV infection is associated with various malignancies. EBV establishes lifelong infections in immunocompetent hosts. To counteract the host’s immune defence, EBV acquired numerous immune evasion mechanisms. During latency of EBV, viral protein synthesis is limited or absent, making the virus-infected cells virtually...

  15. Pharmacological intervention for dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jenn-Haung; Lin, Yi-Ling; Hsieh, Shie-Liang

    2017-04-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection has a considerable health impact in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide. Escalation of infection rates greatly increases morbidity and mortality, most commonly from deaths due to dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Although the development of an effective, long-lasting vaccine has been a major aim for control and prevention of DENV infection, the currently licensed vaccine has limitations and is less than satisfactory. Thus, there remains an important need to identify effective and tolerable medications for treatment of DENV-infected patients both in the early phase, to prevent progression to fatal outcomes, and to minimize deaths after patients develop severe complications. This review will address several specific points, including (1) approaches to identify anti-DENV medications, (2) recent advances in the development of potential compounds targeting DENV infection, (3) experience with clinical trials of regimens for DENV infection, (4) some available medications of potential for clinical trials against DENV infection, (5) reasons for unsuccessful outcomes and challenges of anti-DENV treatments, and (6) directions for developing or selecting better anti-DENV strategies. This review provides useful guidance for clinicians selecting drugs for DENV-infected patients with severe manifestations or potential fatal disease progression, and for basic researchers seeking to develop effective anti-DENV regimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influenza A virus infections in swine: pathogenesis and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, B H

    2014-03-01

    Influenza has been recognized as a respiratory disease in swine since its first appearance concurrent with the 1918 "Spanish flu" human pandemic. All influenza viruses of significance in swine are type A, subtype H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 viruses. Influenza viruses infect epithelial cells lining the surface of the respiratory tract, inducing prominent necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis and variable interstitial pneumonia. Cell death is due to direct virus infection and to insult directed by leukocytes and cytokines of the innate immune system. The most virulent viruses consistently express the following characteristics of infection: (1) higher or more prolonged virus replication, (2) excessive cytokine induction, and (3) replication in the lower respiratory tract. Nearly all the viral proteins contribute to virulence. Pigs are susceptible to infection with both human and avian viruses, which often results in gene reassortment between these viruses and endemic swine viruses. The receptors on the epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract are major determinants of infection by influenza viruses from other hosts. The polymerases, especially PB2, also influence cross-species infection. Methods of diagnosis and characterization of influenza viruses that infect swine have improved over the years, driven both by the availability of new technologies and by the necessity of keeping up with changes in the virus. Testing of oral fluids from pigs for virus and antibody is a recent development that allows efficient sampling of large numbers of animals.

  17. Outbreaks of Tilapia Lake Virus Infection, Thailand, 2015?2016

    OpenAIRE

    Surachetpong, Win; Janetanakit, Taveesak; Nonthabenjawan, Nutthawan; Tattiyapong, Puntanat; Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2017-01-01

    During 2015?2016, several outbreaks of tilapia lake virus infection occurred among tilapia in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus from Thailand grouped with a tilapia virus (family Orthomyxoviridae) from Israel. This emerging virus is a threat to tilapia aquaculture in Asia and worldwide.

  18. Outbreaks of Tilapia Lake Virus Infection, Thailand, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surachetpong, Win; Janetanakit, Taveesak; Nonthabenjawan, Nutthawan; Tattiyapong, Puntanat; Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2017-06-01

    During 2015-2016, several outbreaks of tilapia lake virus infection occurred among tilapia in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus from Thailand grouped with a tilapia virus (family Orthomyxoviridae) from Israel. This emerging virus is a threat to tilapia aquaculture in Asia and worldwide.

  19. Virus strategies for evasion of the host response to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G L

    1994-03-01

    The attack on viruses and virus-infected cells by the mammalian immune system has provided considerable selective pressure for viruses that have evolved vigorous countermeasures to pre-empt, neutralize or evade this host attack. These countermeasures are astonishingly diverse, and their study imparts fundamental information about immunology and the mechanisms enabling viruses to survive and cause disease.

  20. Effects of dietary selenium supplementation on parasitemia, anemia and serum proteins of Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, J I; Okeke, M C; Ngene, A A; Omeje, J N; Abonyi, F O

    2013-10-01

    Trypanosomosis has been associated with immunosuppression, anemia and oxidative damage while selenium possesses both immunostimulatory and antioxidative effects. This study was designed to assess the effect of dietary selenium supplementation on parasitemia, anemia, survival pattern and serum protein profiles of trypanosome-infected rats. Twenty five rats, divided into five groups (A-E) of 5 each, were treated as follows: 4, 8 and 16 ppm (ppm) of selenium in their feed, respectively throughout the experimental period and were infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei on day 14 post supplementation, infected not supplemented and the negative control. Supplementation at 4 and 8 ppm increased the packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration on day 7 of supplementation (PS) when compared with the unsupplemented groups. Following infection on day 14 PS, the PCV, Hb of 16 ppm and infected not supplemented groups were significantly (P Supplementation did not lead to significant (P > 0.05) changes on the total protein, albumin and globulin by day 14 PS. Infection, however, caused significant (P > 0.05) decrease in the total protein and albumin from day 28. The supplementation did not significantly (P > 0.05) increase the pre-patent period but caused a significant reduction in the parasitemia levels and increased survival intervals. Dietary selenium supplementation, from the results, may show promise in the management of African trypanosomosis as the supplementation was able to: reduce anemia and parasitemia and increase survival intervals of trypanosome infected rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Photodynamic treatment of Herpes simplex virus infection in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, C.D.; Hester, L.D.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of photodynamic action on in vitro herpes simplex virus infections of CV-1 monkey kidney fibroblasts or human skin fibroblasts were determined using proflavine sulfate and white fluorescent lamps. Photodynamic treatment of confluent cell monolayers prior to virus infection inactivated cell capacity, i.e. the capacity of the treated cells to support subsequent virus growth as measured by plaque formation. The capacity of human cells was more sensitive to inactivation than the capacity of monkey cells when 6 μM proflavine was used. Treated cell monolayers recovered the capacity to support virus plaque formation when virus infection was delayed four days after the treatment. Experiments in which the photodynamically treated monolayers were infected with UV-irradiated virus demonstrated that this treatment induced Weigle reactivation in both types of cells. This reactivation occurred for virus infection just after treatment or 4 days later. A Luria-Latarjet-type experiment was also performed in which cultures infected with unirradiated virus were photodynamically treated at different times after the start of infection. The results showed that for the first several hours of the virus infection the infected cultures were more sensitive to inactivation by photodynamic treatment than cell capacity. By the end of the eclipse period the infected cultures were less sensitive to inactivation than cell capacity. Results from extracellular inactivation of virus growth in monkey cells at 6 μM proflavine indicated that at physiological pH the virus has a sensitivity to photodynamic inactivation similar to that for inactivation of cell capacity. The combined data indicated that photodynamic treatment of the cell before or after virus infection could prevent virus growth. Thus, photodynamic inactivation of infected and uninfected cells may be as important as inactivation of virus particles when considering possible mechanisms in clinical photodynamic therapy for herpes

  2. Hepatitis A virus infection - shifting epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, W.Z.; Hussain, A.B.; Hussain, T.; Anwar, M.; Ghani, E.; Asad-Ullah

    2006-01-01

    Objective of the Study: To determine the age distribution in HAV infection and seasonal variations in the prevalence of acute viral hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration: The study was carried out on the patients reporting at Virology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, for determination of hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgM antibody, from July 2003 to June 2004. Patients and Methods: Altogether 626 patients with clinical suspicion of hepatitis A virus infection were referred to AFIP Rawalpindi for this test. Blood samples were collected and sera were separated and transferred to plastic aliquots that were stored at -20 deg. C in a retrievable fashion until utilized in testing. The testing for ant-HAY IgM was carried out with the help of a commercial Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) using reagent kits of Dias Orin (Germany) for HAV IgM antibodies. Results: The HAV IgM positive rate was 40.57% (252/626). Those tested included the sporadic cases as well as the patients from outbreak in two schools of Nowshera cantonment. The age of patients testing positive for HAV IgM, ranged from 03 to 27 years. There was a statistically significant seasonal difference in rate of positivity in different months of the calendar year. An outbreak of HAV infection was seen in the children of two neighboring schools of a cantonment, in which 44 children in different classes developed clinical jaundice. Conclusion: HAV infection occurs in a significant proportion of young people with a clinical suspicion of HAV infection. There is a changing trend of developing hepatitis a in the age beyond 18 years and in outbreaks, which was not there in our patients previously due to universal immunity found against HAV by the age of 18. It was because of chances of consumption of polluted food. (author)

  3. Laboratory Diagnosis of Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Marie Louise; St George, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    -The rapid and accurate diagnosis of Zika virus infection is an international priority. -To review current recommendations, methods, limitations, and priorities for Zika virus testing. -Sources include published literature, public health recommendations, laboratory procedures, and testing experience. -Until recently, the laboratory diagnosis of Zika infection was confined to public health or research laboratories that prepared their own reagents, and test capacity has been limited. Furthermore, Zika cross-reacts serologically with other flaviviruses, such as dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever. Current or past infection, or even vaccination with another flavivirus, will often cause false-positive or uninterpretable Zika serology results. Detection of viral RNA during acute infection using nucleic acid amplification tests provides more specific results, and a number of commercial nucleic acid amplification tests have received emergency use authorization. In addition to serum, testing of whole blood and urine is recommended because of the higher vial loads and longer duration of shedding. However, nucleic acid amplification testing has limited utility because many patients are asymptomatic or present for testing after the brief period of Zika shedding has passed. Thus, the greatest need and most difficult challenge is development of accurate antibody tests for the diagnosis of recent Zika infection. Research is urgently needed to identify Zika virus epitopes that do not cross-react with other flavivirus antigens. New information is emerging at a rapid pace and, with ongoing public-private and international collaborations and government support, it is hoped that rapid progress will be made in developing robust and widely applicable diagnostic tools.

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart- ... infections Motor or cognitive development delays in ... with chronic conditions, iron-deficiency anemia can make their condition worse or result ...

  5. MAIT cells are activated in acute Dengue virus infection and after in vitro Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin-Proulx, Dominic; Avelino-Silva, Vivian I; Santos, Bianca A N; Silveira Barsotti, Nathália; Siroma, Fabiana; Fernandes Ramos, Jessica; Coracini Tonacio, Adriana; Song, Alice; Maestri, Alvino; Barros Cerqueira, Natalia; Felix, Alvina Clara; Levi, José Eduardo; Greenspun, Benjamin C; de Mulder Rougvie, Miguel; Rosenberg, Michael G; Nixon, Douglas F; Kallas, Esper G

    2018-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are members of the Flaviviridae and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito bites. Both viruses are responsible for a growing number of infections in tropical and subtropical regions. DENV infection can cause lethargy with severe morbidity and dengue shock syndrome leading to death in some cases. ZIKV is now linked with Guillain-Barré syndrome and fetal malformations including microcephaly and developmental disorders (congenital Zika syndrome). The protective and pathogenic roles played by the immune response in these infections is unknown. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a population of innate T cells with potent anti-bacterial activity. MAIT cells have also been postulated to play a role in the immune response to viral infections. In this study, we evaluated MAIT cell frequency, phenotype, and function in samples from subjects with acute and convalescent DENV infection. We found that in acute DENV infection, MAIT cells had elevated co-expression of the activation markers CD38 and HLA-DR and had a poor IFNγ response following bacterial stimulation. Furthermore, we found that MAIT cells can produce IFNγ in response to in vitro infection with ZIKV. This MAIT cell response was independent of MR1, but dependent on IL-12 and IL-18. Our results suggest that MAIT cells may play an important role in the immune response to Flavivirus infections.

  6. MAIT cells are activated in acute Dengue virus infection and after in vitro Zika virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Paquin-Proulx

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV and Zika virus (ZIKV are members of the Flaviviridae and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito bites. Both viruses are responsible for a growing number of infections in tropical and subtropical regions. DENV infection can cause lethargy with severe morbidity and dengue shock syndrome leading to death in some cases. ZIKV is now linked with Guillain-Barré syndrome and fetal malformations including microcephaly and developmental disorders (congenital Zika syndrome. The protective and pathogenic roles played by the immune response in these infections is unknown. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT cells are a population of innate T cells with potent anti-bacterial activity. MAIT cells have also been postulated to play a role in the immune response to viral infections. In this study, we evaluated MAIT cell frequency, phenotype, and function in samples from subjects with acute and convalescent DENV infection. We found that in acute DENV infection, MAIT cells had elevated co-expression of the activation markers CD38 and HLA-DR and had a poor IFNγ response following bacterial stimulation. Furthermore, we found that MAIT cells can produce IFNγ in response to in vitro infection with ZIKV. This MAIT cell response was independent of MR1, but dependent on IL-12 and IL-18. Our results suggest that MAIT cells may play an important role in the immune response to Flavivirus infections.

  7. Production of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) antigen in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arruda Coutinho, Luciana Cavalcanti; de Jesus, André Luiz Santos; de Paiva Fontes, Karin Florêncio Lins; Coimbra, Eliane Campos; Mariz, Filipe Colaço; de Freitas, Antonio Carlos; de Cássia Carvalho Maia, Rita; de Castro, Roberto Soares

    2013-08-01

    Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is a persistent lentivirus infection of horses which causes a chronic clinical condition with worldwide importance in veterinary medicine. The p26 protein is usually prepared for use as an antigen in serological tests for EIA diagnosis since it is a well-conserved gene sequence and very immunogenic. In view of the ability of yeast to make post-translational modifications of proteins, this study was carried out to allow Pichia pastoris to be used for the expression of a synthetic codon-optimized EIAV p26 gene. The gene was cloned into pPICZαA vector after appropriate enzymatic digestion. P. pastoris clones transformed with the pPICZαAp26 construction were induced to produce the recombinant p26 protein (rp26) under the regulation of alcohol oxidase 1 promoter by adding methanol to the culture medium. The p26 gene expression was detected by RT-PCR and the production of rp26 was confirmed by dot blotting, Western blotting, ELISA and AGID. The P. pastoris expression system was capable of producing a functional EIAV p26 protein that can be used directly in the functionality tests without requiring laborious purification or recovery steps. This is the first reported study of EIAV p26 protein production in yeast cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Infection in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, C

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single stranded RNA virus causing infection worldwide. In developing countries HEV genotypes 1 and 2 spread faeco-orally via water. Recently, infections with HEV have been detected in Europe and North America in patients with no travel history. These are food-borne HEV genotypes 3 and 4, a pig-associated zoonosis. Most infections are asymptomatic but morbidity and chronic infection may occur with prior liver disease or immunosuppression. International seroprevalence rates vary and with improved diagnostics have increased. To determine the current prevalence in this region we studied anonymised serum samples submitted in 2015 for routine testing. We detected anti-HEV IgG in 16\\/198 (8%) individuals, highest rate in 40-59 year olds (43.8%). This is higher than reported for the same region in 1995 (0.4%) using a previous generation assay. This study provides evidence of HEV circulation in Ireland and reinforces the need for ongoing surveillance.

  9. Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rottier, P.

    1980-01-01

    Some aspects of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) multiplication in cowpea mesophyll protoplasts were studied. The detection and characterization of proteins whose synthesis is induced or is stimulated upon virus infection was performed with the aid of radioactive labelling. (Auth.)

  10. Immunochromatographic lateral flow test for detection of antibodies to Equine infectious anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, I; Gutierrez, G; Barrandeguy, M; Trono, K

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a simple immunochromatographic lateral flow (ICLF) test for specific detection of Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) antibodies in equine sera. Viral recombinant p26 capsid protein (rp26) was used as the capture protein in the test line and as the detector reagent conjugated to colloidal gold. The performance of rp26-ICLF was evaluated, and the results obtained were compared with a commercially available agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test used as a standard of comparison according to international guidelines. The values obtained for comparative diagnostic sensitivity (98.3%), diagnostic specificity (87.4%) and concordance (92.4%) were similar to those reported for other ICLF tests for animal infectious diseases. Very good repeatability and reproducibility, as well as a total agreement with blind previous results from three proficiency test panels, were obtained, thus indicating that rp26-ICLF is a precise test. The end point of the twofold serial dilution of serum samples was the same as, and even better than, the AGID test, thus demonstrating the same analytical sensitivity as that of the reference method for EIA diagnosis. No cross-reactivity was observed when serum samples from horses with other infectious diseases were analyzed. rp26-ICLF proved to be a precise and rapid test suitable for field screening in veterinary practice, since minimal equipment and operator expertise are required. However, further research should be carried out to increase the level of sensitivity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical studies on hepatitis B, C, and E virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic viral hepatitis is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. This thesis describes clinical aspects of hepatitis B, C, and E virus infection. Part I focuses on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This part describes immune responses of patients with acute HBV-infection,

  12. Mechanisms of immune evasion in Epstein-Barr virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gram., A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The human herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a large DNA virus that infects over 90% of the adult world population. EBV is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis and EBV infection is associated with various malignancies. EBV establishes lifelong infections in immunocompetent hosts. To

  13. Imunocompetent Mice Model for Dengue Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a noncontagious infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV. DENV belongs to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, and is classified into four antigenically distinct serotypes: DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4. The number of nations and people affected has increased steadily and today is considered the most widely spread arbovirus (arthropod-borne viral disease in the world. The absence of an appropriate animal model for studying the disease has hindered the understanding of dengue pathogenesis. In our study, we have found that immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice infected intraperitoneally with DENV-1 presented some signs of dengue disease such as thrombocytopenia, spleen hemorrhage, liver damage, and increase in production of IFNγ and TNFα cytokines. Moreover, the animals became viremic and the virus was detected in several organs by real-time RT-PCR. Thus, this animal model could be used to study mechanism of dengue virus infection, to test antiviral drugs, as well as to evaluate candidate vaccines.

  14. Molecular basis and enzymatic properties of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase volendam, leading to chronic nonspherocytic anemia, granulocyte dysfunction, and increased susceptibility to infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, D.; van Zwieten, R.; Wijnen, J. T.; Gómez-Gallego, F.; de Boer, M.; Stevens, D.; Pronk-Admiraal, C. J.; de Rijk, T.; van Noorden, C. J.; Weening, R. S.; Vulliamy, T. J.; Ploem, J. E.; Mason, P. J.; Bautista, J. M.; Khan, P. M.; Beutler, E.

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the blood cells from a woman with a low degree of chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia and frequent bacterial infections accompanied by icterus and anemia, The activity of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in her red blood cells (RBCs) was below detection level, and in

  15. Comparison of association of diabetes mellitus in hepatitis C virus infection and hepatitis B virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.A.; Bukhari, M.H.; Khokhar, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: While patients with liver disease are known to have a higher prevalence of glucose intolerance, preliminary studies suggest that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may be an additional risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Objective: The presented study was aimed to study and determine a relationship between the relative proportions of Diabetes Mellitus in patients suffering from HCV infection. Study Design: This cross sectional study. Study Settings: Patients were registered from outdoor as well as indoor departments of different teaching hospitals (Services hospital Lahore and medical departments in Jinnah hospital, Mayo hospital, Sir Ganga Ram hospital) in Lahore, Pakistan. Methods: This cross sectional study was comprised of age and sex matched 258 patients of viral hepatitis B infection and viral hepatitis C infection, conducted at Hepatitis Clinic Services Hospital, affiliated with Post Graduate Medical Institute, Lahore. Diagnosis of HBV was made with evidence of hepatitis B surface antigen, HCV infection was diagnosed if patient was sero positive for anti HCV (ELISA methods) and HCV - RNA (By PCR). Diabetes Mellitus was diagnosed after fulfilling the American Diabetic Association Criteria, from November, 2000 to September, 2002. Results: A total of 318 patients were registered, out of which 258 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 164 hepatitis C infected and 94 hepatitis B infected cases, 16.46% hepatitis C infected cases were diagnosed as diabetics while 4.25% hepatitis B infected cases were diagnosed as diabetics. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is high Association and relationship of Diabetes Mellitus with Hepatitis C virus infection as compared with Hepatitis B virus infection. (author)

  16. Infection-stimulated anemia results primarily from interferon gamma-dependent, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1-independent red cell loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Dong-Xia; Zhao, Qi

    2015-04-05

    Although the onset of anemia during infectious disease is commonly correlated with production of inflammatory cytokines, the mechanisms by which cytokines induce anemia are poorly defined. This study focused on the mechanism research. Different types of mice were infected perorally with Toxoplasma gondii strain ME49. At the indicated times, samples from each mouse were harvested, processed, and analyzed individually. Blood samples were analyzed using a Coulter Counter and red blood cell (RBC) survival was measured by biotinylation. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and inducible protein 10 (IP-10) mRNA in liver tissue were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. T. gondii-infected mice exhibited anemia due to a decrease in both erythropoiesis and survival time of RBC in the circulation (P anemia was associated with fecal occult, supporting previous literature that hemorrhage is a consequence of T. gondii infection in mice. Infection-induced anemia was abolished in interferon gamma (IFNγ) and IFNγ receptor deficient mice (P anemia resulting solely from increased loss of circulating RBC. Infection-stimulated decrease in erythropoiesis and losses of RBC have distinct mechanistic bases. These results show that during T. gondii infection, IFNγ is responsible for an anemia that results from both a decrease in erythropoiesis and a STAT1 independent loss of circulating RBC.

  17. Fatal canine distemper virus infection of giant pandas in China

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Na; Yu, Yicong; Wang, Tiecheng; Wilker, Peter; Wang, Jianzhong; Li, Yuanguo; Sun, Zhe; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    We report an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection among endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Five of six CDV infected giant pandas died. The surviving giant panda was previously vaccinated against CDV. Genomic sequencing of CDV isolated from one of the infected pandas (giant panda/SX/2014) suggests it belongs to the Asia-1 cluster. The hemagglutinin protein of the isolated virus and virus sequenced from lung samples originating from deceased giant pandas all possess...

  18. Nipah virus infection in bats (order Chiroptera) in peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yob, J. M.; Field, H.; Rashdi, A. M.; Morrissy, C.; van der Heide, B.; Rota, P.; bin Adzhar, A.; White, J.; Daniels, P.; Jamaluddin, A.; Ksiazek, T.

    2001-01-01

    Nipah virus, family Paramyxoviridae, caused disease in pigs and humans in peninsular Malaysia in 1998-99. Because Nipah virus appears closely related to Hendra virus, wildlife surveillance focused primarily on pteropid bats (suborder Megachiroptera), a natural host of Hendra virus in Australia. We collected 324 bats from 14 species on peninsular Malaysia. Neutralizing antibodies to Nipah virus were demonstrated in five species, suggesting widespread infection in bat populations in peninsular Malaysia. PMID:11384522

  19. Association between urticaria and virus infections: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbalzano, Egidio; Casciaro, Marco; Quartuccio, Sebastiano; Minciullo, Paola L; Cascio, Antonio; Calapai, Gioacchino; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    The association between urticaria and virus infections has rarely been reported in the literature. The lack of reported cases is probably due to the difficulty in establishing a cause-and-effect relationship. It is not possible to challenge the patient with an etiologic agent. The purpose of this work was to perform a systematic review on the association between urticaria and virus infections. This systematic review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We searched for articles from January 1, 2008, through May 2015, by using two key terms related to urticaria and virus diseases, "urticaria" and one key term related to virus infections, "virus disease," then "urticaria" and the name of each virus family, and of the most representative virus serotypes. We reported cases of patients affected either by acute or chronic urticaria with a concurrent virus infection. Previous other causes of urticaria had to be excluded. Herpesviridae infections and urticaria were the most frequently reported associations in children. However, hepatitis virus infections would appear to be the most-frequent cause of urticaria in adults. Data obtained indicated viral infection as a potential trigger and sometimes as the main etiologic agent in causing acute or chronic urticaria. In every case, urticarial manifestation cleared up after either healing or controlling of the viral infection. However, prospective studies and well-structured research is needed to better clarify the role of viruses in the pathogenesis of urticaria and their relative prevalence.

  20. Congenital Zika Virus Infection: Beyond Neonatal Microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Adriana Suely de Oliveira; Aguiar, Renato Santana; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos; Arruda, Monica B; Melo, Fabiana de Oliveira; Ribeiro, Suelem Taís Clementino; Batista, Alba Gean Medeiros; Ferreira, Thales; Dos Santos, Mayra Pereira; Sampaio, Virgínia Vilar; Moura, Sarah Rogéria Martins; Rabello, Luciana Portela; Gonzaga, Clarissa Emanuelle; Malinger, Gustavo; Ximenes, Renato; de Oliveira-Szejnfeld, Patricia Soares; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Chimelli, Leila; Silveira, Paola Paz; Delvechio, Rodrigo; Higa, Luiza; Campanati, Loraine; Nogueira, Rita M R; Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo; Szejnfeld, Jacob; Voloch, Carolina Moreira; Ferreira, Orlando C; Brindeiro, Rodrigo M; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have reported an increase in the number of fetuses and neonates with microcephaly whose mothers were infected with the Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy. To our knowledge, most reports to date have focused on select aspects of the maternal or fetal infection and fetal effects. To describe the prenatal evolution and perinatal outcomes of 11 neonates who had developmental abnormalities and neurological damage associated with ZIKV infection in Brazil. We observed 11 infants with congenital ZIKV infection from gestation to 6 months in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Ten of 11 women included in this study presented with symptoms of ZIKV infection during the first half of pregnancy, and all 11 had laboratory evidence of the infection in several tissues by serology or polymerase chain reaction. Brain damage was confirmed through intrauterine ultrasonography and was complemented by magnetic resonance imaging. Histopathological analysis was performed on the placenta and brain tissue from infants who died. The ZIKV genome was investigated in several tissues and sequenced for further phylogenetic analysis. Description of the major lesions caused by ZIKV congenital infection. Of the 11 infants, 7 (63.6%) were female, and the median (SD) maternal age at delivery was 25 (6) years. Three of 11 neonates died, giving a perinatal mortality rate of 27.3%. The median (SD) cephalic perimeter at birth was 31 (3) cm, a value lower than the limit to consider a microcephaly case. In all patients, neurological impairments were identified, including microcephaly, a reduction in cerebral volume, ventriculomegaly, cerebellar hypoplasia, lissencephaly with hydrocephalus, and fetal akinesia deformation sequence (ie, arthrogryposis). Results of limited testing for other causes of microcephaly, such as genetic disorders and viral and bacterial infections, were negative, and the ZIKV genome was found in both maternal and neonatal tissues (eg, amniotic fluid, cord blood, placenta, and

  1. Lack of Durable Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies Against Zika Virus from Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Matthew H; McGowan, Eileen; Jadi, Ramesh; Young, Ellen; Lopez, Cesar A; Baric, Ralph S; Lazear, Helen M; de Silva, Aravinda M

    2017-05-01

    Cross-reactive antibodies elicited by dengue virus (DENV) infection might affect Zika virus infection and confound serologic tests. Recent data demonstrate neutralization of Zika virus by monoclonal antibodies or human serum collected early after DENV infection. Whether this finding is true in late DENV convalescence (>6 months after infection) is unknown. We studied late convalescent serum samples from persons with prior DENV or Zika virus exposure. Despite extensive cross-reactivity in IgG binding, Zika virus neutralization was not observed among primary DENV infections. We observed low-frequency (23%) Zika virus cross-neutralization in repeat DENV infections. DENV-immune persons who had Zika virus as a secondary infection had distinct populations of antibodies that neutralized DENVs and Zika virus, as shown by DENV-reactive antibody depletion experiments. These data suggest that most DENV infections do not induce durable, high-level Zika virus cross-neutralizing antibodies. Zika virus-specific antibody populations develop after Zika virus infection irrespective of prior DENV immunity.

  2. Envelope-specific T-helper and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses associated with protective immunity to equine infectious anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagmyer, Tara L; Craigo, Jodi K; Cook, Sheila J; Issel, Charles J; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2007-04-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection of horses provides a valuable model for examining the natural immunological control of lentivirus infection and disease and the mechanisms of protective and enhancing vaccine immunity. We have previously hypothesized that the EIAV envelope (Env) proteins gp90 and gp45 are major determinants of vaccine efficacy, and that the development of protective immunity by attenuated viral vaccines may be associated with the progressive redirection of immune responses from immunodominant, variable Env segments to immunorecessive, conserved Env sequences. Whilst the antibody-neutralization determinants of Env have been defined, there are to date no comprehensive analyses of the lymphoproliferative (T-helper, Th) and cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) epitopes of the EIAV Env proteins. Thus, in the current study, synthetic-peptide methodologies were used to define regions of EIAV Env associated with protective vaccine immunity in a panel of 12 horses inoculated with the attenuated EIAV(D9) vaccine and two asymptomatic carrier horses infected experimentally with the virulent EIAV(PV) strain expressing the same Env protein as the vaccine strain. The results of these studies identified 17 broadly reactive Th peptides and six broadly reactive CTL peptides in the Env proteins of EIAV that were associated with protective immunity. Thus, these data provide for the first time a comprehensive mapping of EIAV Env-specific cellular regions that can be used to examine the development of protective immunity and to evaluate potential cellular immune determinants of protective immunity.

  3. Caligus rogercresseyi: posible vector en la transmisión horizontal del virus de la anemia infecciosa del salmón (ISAv)

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Oelckers; Siri Vike; Henrik Duesund; Javier González; Are Nylund; Gabriel Yany

    2015-01-01

    Chile el año 2007 se convirtió en el segundo país productor de salmónidos a nivel mundial. Al año siguiente la industria salmonera nacional comenzó a experimentar una severa crisis sanitaria producida por el virus causante de la anemia infecciosa del salmón. Este virus se presentó por primera vez en Noruega (1984), luego en Canadá, Escocia, Islas Faroe, Estados Unidos y Chile (2007). La anemia infecciosa del salmón (ISA), es una enfermedad altamente contagiosa entre los peces, producida por u...

  4. Anemia hemolítica autoinmune postinfección por virus de la hepatitis A. Informe de caso; Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia associated to hepatitis A. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Lucía Sossa Melo, MD; Sara Inés Jiménez Sanguino, MD; Carlos Andrés Pérez Martínez, MD; Amaury Alexis Amaris Vergara, MD; Luis Antonio Salazar Montaña, MD; Ángela Peña Castellanos, MD; Jesica Liliana Pinto Ramírez; Laura Andrea Rincón Arenas

    2010-01-01

    La anemia hemolítica autoinmune se asocia con una variedad de virus hepatotrópicos, en particular citomegalovirus (CMV), virus del Epstein-Barr y de la hepatitis B. No es frecuente dentro de la historia natural de la hepatitis A, la aparición de anemia hemolítica, y cuando se presenta, generalmente se asocia a deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino sin hemólisis previa, con astenia e ictericia de dos meses de evolución y hepatomeg...

  5. Neurological complications of Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, Francisco Javier

    2018-04-26

    Zika virus (ZIKV) disease is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, ZIKV has caused outbreaks in most American countries. Areas covered: Publications about neurological complications of ZIKV infection retrieved from pubmed searchers were reviewed, and reference lists and relevant articles from review articles were also examined. Vertical/intrauterine transmission leads to congenital infection and causes microcephaly and congenital ZIKV syndrome. ZIKV preferentially infects human neural progenitor cells and triggers cell apoptosis. ZIKV RNA has been identified in foetal brain tissue and brains of microcephalic infants who died; amniotic fluid and placentas of pregnant mothers; and umbilical cord, cerebro-spinal fluid and meninges of newborns. The increase in the number of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) cases during the ZIKV outbreak in the Americas provides epidemiological evidence for the link between ZIKV infection and GBS. Less frequently reported ZIKV neurological complications include encephalitis/meningoencephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, myelitis, cerebrovascular complications (ischemic infarction; vasculopathy), seizures and encephalopathy, sensory polyneuropathy and sensory neuronopathy. Analysis of GBS incidence could serve as an epidemiological 'marker' or sentinel for ZIKV disease and other neurological complications associated to ZIKV. Expert commentary: An expanding spectrum of neurological complications associated with ZIKV infection is being recognised.

  6. Animal Models of Dengue Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Harris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of animal models of dengue virus (DENV infection and disease has been challenging, as epidemic DENV does not naturally infect non-human species. Non-human primates (NHPs can sustain viral replication in relevant cell types and develop a robust immune response, but they do not develop overt disease. In contrast, certain immunodeficient mouse models infected with mouse-adapted DENV strains show signs of severe disease similar to the ‘vascular-leak’ syndrome seen in severe dengue in humans. Humanized mouse models can sustain DENV replication and show some signs of disease, but further development is needed to validate the immune response. Classically, immunocompetent mice infected with DENV do not manifest disease or else develop paralysis when inoculated intracranially; however, a new model using high doses of DENV has recently been shown to develop hemorrhagic signs after infection. Overall, each model has its advantages and disadvantages and is differentially suited for studies of dengue pathogenesis and immunopathogenesis and/or pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines.

  7. Zika virus infections in pregnancy: epidemics and case management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih sahiner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus is an RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, and is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Only a small number of cases had been described until 2007 when the first major Zika virus outbreak occurred on Yap Island, Micronesia. Approximately 80% of people infected with Zika virus do not exhibit any symptoms. Symptomatic infections are generally moderate and characterized by acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis. The virus has recently attracted a broad interest due to the emerging cases of microcephaly that are possibly associated with mothers infected by the Zika virus during pregnancy, and the regional increases in the incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome during the epidemic periods. Although the relationship between Zika virus infection and these abnormalities is not obviously understood yet, Zika virus testing is recommended for infants with microcephaly or intracranial calcifications whose mothers were potentially infected with the Zika virus during pregnancy. Every day, new reports are being published about the outbreaks associated with this virus; nevertheless, no new cases of this virus have been reported in Turkey. Despite this, we cannot currently exclude the possibility of the encounter with the virus because of the presence of Aedes mosquitoes, which are responsible for the spread of the virus, are prevalent in Turkey, and an increasing number of travel-related cases are being reported from different countries. In the light of the current knowledge on this virus, this review aims to discuss the course of Zika virus infections in detail, especially congenital infection, and presenting current information about the case management and preventive measures. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(1.000: 143-151

  8. Hepatitis B virus infection in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yoshihiko; Utsumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria Inge; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2015-10-14

    Approximately 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 75% of whom reside in Asia. Approximately 600000 of infected patients die each year due to HBV-related diseases or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The endemicity of hepatitis surface antigen in Indonesia is intermediate to high with a geographical difference. The risk of HBV infection is high in hemodialysis (HD) patients, men having sex with men, and health care workers. Occult HBV infection has been detected in various groups such as blood donors, HD patients, and HIV-infected individuals and children. The most common HBV subgenotype in Indonesia is B3 followed by C1. Various novel subgenotypes of HBV have been identified throughout Indonesia, with the novel HBV subgenotypes C6-C16 and D6 being successfully isolated. Although a number of HBV subgenotypes have been discovered in Indonesia, genotype-related pathogenicity has not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, genotype-related differences in the prognosis of liver disease and their effects on treatments need to be determined. A previous study conducted in Indonesia revealed that hepatic steatosis was associated with disease progression. Pre-S2 mutations and mutations at C1638T and T1753V in HBV/B3 have been associated with advanced liver diseases including HCC. However, drug resistance to lamivudine, which is prominent in Indonesia, remains obscure. Although the number of studies on HBV in Indonesia has been increasing, adequate databases on HBV infection are limited. We herein provided an overview of the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HBV infection in Indonesia.

  9. Polysulfonate suramin inhibits Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chee Wah; Sam, I-Ching; Chong, Wei Lim; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2017-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus that causes newborn microcephaly and Guillian-Barré syndrome in adults. No therapeutics are available to treat ZIKV infection or other flaviviruses. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effect of glycosaminoglycans and analogues against ZIKV infection. Highly sulfated heparin, dextran sulfate and suramin significantly inhibited ZIKV infection in Vero cells. De-sulfated heparin analogues lose inhibitory effect, implying that sulfonate groups are critical for viral inhibition. Suramin, an FDA-approved anti-parasitic drug, inhibits ZIKV infection with 3-5 log 10  PFU viral reduction with IC 50 value of ∼2.5-5 μg/ml (1.93 μM-3.85 μM). A time-of-drug-addition study revealed that suramin remains potent even when administrated at 1-24 hpi. Suramin inhibits ZIKV infection by preventing viral adsorption, entry and replication. Molecular dynamics simulation revealed stronger interaction of suramin with ZIKV NS3 helicase than with the envelope protein. Suramin warrants further investigation as a potential antiviral candidate for ZIKV infection. Heparan sulfate (HS) is a cellular attachment receptor for multiple flaviviruses. However, no direct ZIKV-heparin interaction was observed in heparin-binding analysis, and downregulate or removal of cellular HS with sodium chlorate or heparinase I/III did not inhibit ZIKV infection. This indicates that cell surface HS is not utilized by ZIKV as an attachment receptor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Perinatal Chicken Pox (Varicella Zoster Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Annagur

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is due to infection with the varicella zoster virus (VZV, a human alphaherpervirus found worldwide. Classically, the cinical disease is a febrile illness with a pruritic vesicular rash. Maternal chickenpox between 5 days before delivery to 2 days after delivery (perinatal varicella can cause severe and even fatal illness in the newborn. A 7-day old girl baby presented on day 4 of postnatal with the complaints of widespread vesicular rash and non-suckling. Mother of the baby also had a similar eruption four day prior to delivery, which was clinically characteristic of varicella. Considering history and clinical presentation, a diagnosis of perinatal chickenpox was considered and the baby was treated with acyclovir which she responded and recovered. Herein, the clinical feasures and treatment of chickenpox infection in the perinatal period have been emphasized with this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 311-314

  11. Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in an Italian zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascotto Ernesto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A fatal Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV infection epidemic involving fifteen primates occurred between October 2006 and February 2007 at the Natura Viva Zoo. This large open-field zoo park located near Lake Garda in Northern Italy hosts one thousand animals belonging to one hundred and fifty different species, including various lemur species. This lemur collection is the most relevant and rich in Italy. A second outbreak between September and November 2008 involved three lemurs. In all cases, the clinical signs were sudden deaths generally without any evident symptoms or only with mild unspecific clinical signs. Gross pathologic changes were characterized by myocarditis (diffuse or focal pallor of the myocardium, pulmonary congestion, emphysema, oedema and thoracic fluid. The EMCV was isolated and recognized as the causative agent of both outbreaks. The first outbreak in particular was associated with a rodent plague, confirming that rats are an important risk factor for the occurrence of the EMCV infection.

  12. Hepatitis C virus infection protein network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chassey, B; Navratil, V; Tafforeau, L; Hiet, M S; Aublin-Gex, A; Agaugué, S; Meiffren, G; Pradezynski, F; Faria, B F; Chantier, T; Le Breton, M; Pellet, J; Davoust, N; Mangeot, P E; Chaboud, A; Penin, F; Jacob, Y; Vidalain, P O; Vidal, M; André, P; Rabourdin-Combe, C; Lotteau, V

    2008-01-01

    A proteome-wide mapping of interactions between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human proteins was performed to provide a comprehensive view of the cellular infection. A total of 314 protein-protein interactions between HCV and human proteins was identified by yeast two-hybrid and 170 by literature mining. Integration of this data set into a reconstructed human interactome showed that cellular proteins interacting with HCV are enriched in highly central and interconnected proteins. A global analysis on the basis of functional annotation highlighted the enrichment of cellular pathways targeted by HCV. A network of proteins associated with frequent clinical disorders of chronically infected patients was constructed by connecting the insulin, Jak/STAT and TGFbeta pathways with cellular proteins targeted by HCV. CORE protein appeared as a major perturbator of this network. Focal adhesion was identified as a new function affected by HCV, mainly by NS3 and NS5A proteins.

  13. Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in an Italian zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canelli, Elena; Luppi, Andrea; Lavazza, Antonio; Lelli, Davide; Sozzi, Enrica; Martin, Ana M Moreno; Gelmetti, Daniela; Pascotto, Ernesto; Sandri, Camillo; Magnone, William; Cordioli, Paolo

    2010-03-18

    A fatal Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection epidemic involving fifteen primates occurred between October 2006 and February 2007 at the Natura Viva Zoo. This large open-field zoo park located near Lake Garda in Northern Italy hosts one thousand animals belonging to one hundred and fifty different species, including various lemur species. This lemur collection is the most relevant and rich in Italy. A second outbreak between September and November 2008 involved three lemurs. In all cases, the clinical signs were sudden deaths generally without any evident symptoms or only with mild unspecific clinical signs. Gross pathologic changes were characterized by myocarditis (diffuse or focal pallor of the myocardium), pulmonary congestion, emphysema, oedema and thoracic fluid. The EMCV was isolated and recognized as the causative agent of both outbreaks. The first outbreak in particular was associated with a rodent plague, confirming that rats are an important risk factor for the occurrence of the EMCV infection.

  14. Equine tetherin blocks retrovirus release and its activity is antagonized by equine infectious anemia virus envelope protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin; Hu, Zhe; Gu, Qinyong; Wu, Xingliang; Zheng, Yong-Hui; Wei, Ping; Wang, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Human tetherin is a host restriction factor that inhibits replication of enveloped viruses by blocking viral release. Tetherin has an unusual topology that includes an N-terminal cytoplasmic tail, a single transmembrane domain, an extracellular domain, and a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. Tetherin is not well conserved across species, so it inhibits viral replication in a species-specific manner. Thus, studies of tetherin activities from different species provide an important tool for understanding its antiviral mechanism. Here, we report cloning of equine tetherin and characterization of its antiviral activity. Equine tetherin shares 53%, 40%, 36%, and 34% amino acid sequence identity with feline, human, simian, and murine tetherins, respectively. Like the feline tetherin, equine tetherin has a shorter N-terminal domain than human tetherin. Equine tetherin is localized on the cell surface and strongly blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) release from virus-producing cells. The antiviral activity of equine tetherin is neutralized by EIAV envelope protein, but not by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu, which is a human tetherin antagonist, and EIAV envelope protein does not counteract human tetherin. These results shed new light on our understanding of the species-specific tetherin antiviral mechanism.

  15. Genetic characterization by composite sequence analysis of a new pathogenic field strain of equine infectious anemia virus from the 2006 outbreak in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Michelle; Cook, Frank; Kenna, Rachel; Callinan, John J; Cullinane, Ann

    2013-03-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), the causative agent of equine infectious anaemia (EIA), possesses the least-complex genomic organization of any known extant lentivirus. Despite this relative genetic simplicity, all of the complete genomic sequences published to date are derived from just two viruses, namely the North American EIAV(WYOMING) (EIAV(WY)) and Chinese EIAV(LIAONING) (EIAV(LIA)) strains. In 2006, an outbreak of EIA occurred in Ireland, apparently as a result of the importation of contaminated horse plasma from Italy and subsequent iatrogenic transmission to foals. This EIA outbreak was characterized by cases of severe, sometimes fatal, disease. To begin to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathogenic phenotype, complete proviral genomic sequences in the form of 12 overlapping PCR-generated fragments were obtained from four of the EIAV-infected animals, including two of the index cases. Sequence analysis of multiple molecular clones produced from each fragment demonstrated the extent of diversity within individual viral genes and permitted construction of consensus whole-genome sequences for each of the four viral isolates. In addition, complete env gene sequences were obtained from 11 animals with differing clinical profiles, despite exposure to a common EIAV source. Although the overall genomic organization of the Irish EIAV isolates was typical of that seen in all other strains, the European viruses possessed ≤80 % nucleotide sequence identity with either EIAV(WY) or EIAV(LIA). Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Irish EIAV isolates developed independently of the North American and Chinese viruses and that they constitute a separate monophyletic group.

  16. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie F. Daughenbaugh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV, and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

  17. cis-Acting and trans-acting modulation of equine infectious anemia virus alternative RNA splicing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Huey-Jane; Baker, Carl C.; Princler, Gerald L.; Derse, David

    2004-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a lentivirus distantly related to HIV-1, encodes regulatory proteins, EIAV Tat (ETat) and Rev (ERev), from a four-exon mRNA. Exon 3 of the tat/rev mRNA contains a 30-nucleotide purine-rich element (PRE) which binds both ERev and SF2/ASF, a member of the SR family of RNA splicing factors. To better understand the role of this element in the regulation of EIAV pre-mRNA splicing, we quantified the effects of mutation or deletion of the PRE on exon 3 splicing in vitro and on alternative splicing in vivo. We also determined the branch point elements upstream of exons 3 and 4. In vitro splicing of exon 3 to exon 4 was not affected by mutation of the PRE, and addition of purified SR proteins enhanced splicing independently of the PRE. In vitro splicing of exon 2 to exon 3 was dependent on the PRE; under conditions of excess SR proteins, either the PRE or the 5' splice site of exon 3 was sufficient to activate splicing. We applied isoform-specific primers in real-time RT-PCR reactions to quantitatively analyze alternative splicing in cells transfected with rev-minus EIAV provirus constructs. In the context of provirus with wild-type exon 3, greater than 80% of the viral mRNAs were multiply spliced, and of these, less than 1% excluded exon 3. Deletion of the PRE resulted in a decrease in the relative amount of multiply spliced mRNA to about 40% of the total and approximately 39% of the viral mRNA excluded exon 3. Ectopic expression of ERev caused a decrease in the relative amount of multiply spliced mRNA to approximately 50% of the total and increased mRNAs that excluded exon 3 to about 4%. Over-expression of SF2/ASF in cells transfected with wild-type provirus constructs inhibited splicing but did not significantly alter exon 3 skipping

  18. Seroprevalence of Toscana virus infection in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fezaa, Ons; Bahri, Olfa; Alaya Bouafif, Nissaf Ben; Triki, Henda; Bouattour, Ali

    2013-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of IgG antibodies against Toscana virus (TOSV) by an ELISA test and to determine the extent of its circulation in Tunisia. An indirect ELISA test was performed to detect anti-TOSV IgG. The results were compared to those of an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test. The survey tested 494 healthy people from various regions of Tunisia by ELISA for anti-TOSV IgG; 47 people (9.5%) were found to be positive. Seroprevalence varied by bioclimatic region and gender. Two hundred and twelve samples, randomly chosen from the same selected population and tested with ELISA, were retested using an IFA for IgG antibodies. An 85% concordance between the IFA and ELISA was obtained (kappa=0.650). These serological data confirm the circulation of TOSV in different bioclimatic zones in Tunisia where the vector sand flies are found. The detection of IgG against TOSV suggests that the diagnosis of TOSV infection is often neglected, as this virus often causes asymptomatic infections, with only a few patients developing severe illnesses involving neurological manifestations. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Viremia and Clinical Presentation in Nicaraguan Patients Infected With Zika Virus, Chikungunya Virus, and Dengue Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jesse J; Gresh, Lionel; Vargas, Maria Jose; Ballesteros, Gabriela; Tellez, Yolanda; Soda, K James; Sahoo, Malaya K; Nuñez, Andrea; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2016-12-15

     Zika virus (ZIKV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and dengue virus (DENV) cocirculate in Nicaragua. In this study, we sought to compare the quantified viremia and clinical presentation of patients infected with 1 or more of these viruses.  Acute-phase serum samples from 346 patients with a suspected arboviral illness were tested using a multiplex real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for ZIKV, CHIKV, and DENV. Viremia was quantitated for each detected virus, and clinical information from request forms submitted with each sample was recorded.  A total of 263 patients tested positive for 1 or more viruses: 192 patients tested positive for a single virus (monoinfections) and 71 patients tested positive for 2 or all 3 viruses (coinfections). Quantifiable viremia was lower in ZIKV infections compared with CHIKV or DENV (mean 4.70 vs 6.42 and 5.84 log 10 copies/mL serum, respectively; P virus, mean viremia was significantly lower in coinfections than in monoinfections. Compared with patients with CHIKV or DENV, ZIKV patients were more likely to have a rash (P < .001) and less likely to be febrile (P < .05) or require hospitalization (P < .001). Among all patients, hospitalized cases had higher viremia than those who did not require hospitalization (7.1 vs 4.1 log10 copies/mL serum, respectively; P < .001).  ZIKV, CHIKV, and DENV result in similar clinical presentations, and coinfections may be relatively common. Our findings illustrate the need for accurate, multiplex diagnostics for patient care and epidemiologic surveillance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  20. 78 FR 33848 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... No. FDA-2013-D-0589] Draft Guidance for Industry on Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection... guidance for industry entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing Antiretroviral Drugs... guidance for industry entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing Antiretroviral Drugs...

  1. Equine viperin restricts equine infectious anemia virus replication by inhibiting the production and/or release of viral Gag, Env, and receptor via distortion of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan-Dong; Na, Lei; Zhu, Chun-Hui; Shen, Nan; Yang, Fei; Fu, Xian-Qiu; Wang, Yu-Hong; Fu, Li-Hua; Wang, Jia-Yi; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jian-Hua; Li, Cheng-Yao

    2014-11-01

    Viperin is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated multifunctional protein that regulates virus replication and possesses broad antiviral activity. In many cases, viperin interferes with the trafficking and budding of viral structural proteins by distorting the membrane transportation system. The lentivirus equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has been studied extensively. In this study, we examined the restrictive effect of equine viperin (eViperin) on EIAV replication and investigated the possible molecular basis of this restriction to obtain insights into the effect of this cellular factor on retroviruses. We demonstrated that EIAV infection of primary equine monocyte-derived macrophages (eMDMs) upregulated the expression of eViperin. The overexpression of eViperin significantly inhibited the replication of EIAV in eMDMs, and knockdown of eViperin transcription enhanced the replication of EIAV in eMDMs by approximately 45.8%. Further experiments indicated that eViperin restricts EIAV at multiple steps of viral replication. The overexpression of eViperin inhibited EIAV Gag release. Both the α-helix domain and radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) domain were required for this activity. However, the essential motifs in SAM were different from those reported for the inhibition of HIV-1 Gag by human viperin. Furthermore, eViperin disrupted the synthesis of both EIAV Env and receptor, which consequently inhibited viral production and entry, respectively, and this disruption was dependent on the eViperin α-helix domain. Using immunofluorescence assays and electron microscopy, we demonstrated that the α-helix domain is responsible for the distortion of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Finally, EIAV did not exhibit counteracting eViperin at the protein level. In previous studies, viperin was indicated as restricting virus replications primarily by the inhibition of virus budding. Here, we show that viperin may have multiple antiviral mechanisms, including the reduction

  2. First Imported Case of Zika Virus Infection into Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hee-Chang; Park, Wan Beom; Kim, Uh Jin; Chun, June Young; Choi, Su-Jin; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Jung, Sook-In; Jee, Youngmee; Kim, Nam-Joong; Choi, Eun Hwa; Oh, Myoung-Don

    2016-07-01

    Since Zika virus has been spreading rapidly in the Americas from 2015, the outbreak of Zika virus infection becomes a global health emergency because it can cause neurological complications and adverse fetal outcome including microcephaly. Here, we report clinical manifestations and virus isolation findings from a case of Zika virus infection imported from Brazil. The patient, 43-year-old Korean man, developed fever, myalgia, eyeball pain, and maculopapular rash, but not neurological manifestations. Zika virus was isolated from his semen, and reverse-transcriptase PCR was positive for the virus in the blood, urine, and saliva on the 7th day of the illness but was negative on the 21st day. He recovered spontaneously without any neurological complications. He is the first case of Zika virus infection in Korea imported from Brazil.

  3. Transfusion associated hepatitis B virus infection among sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Transfusion of blood products is a recognised way of transmitting infections particularly viruses. The extent to which blood transfusion contributes to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in transfused patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) has been found to be 20% in Lagos, Nigeria. Mamman in Zaria however ...

  4. Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 Infection among Females in Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection is life long with manifestation in a small proportion of those infected. It has presented public health concern because of its progressively increasing prevalence which some authorities say is of epidemic proportion in developing countries. Herpes simplex virus type 2 has ...

  5. Phyllanthus species for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yun, Xia; Luo, Hui; Liu, Jian Ping

    2011-01-01

    Phyllanthus species for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have been assessed in clinical trials, but no consensus regarding their usefulness exists.......Phyllanthus species for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have been assessed in clinical trials, but no consensus regarding their usefulness exists....

  6. Diagnosis and Management of Paediatric Hepatitis C Virus Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HepatitisC virus is a chronic life-long infection in themajority of patientswho are infected with the virus.Without accurate diagnosis and follow up, these children cannot be offered optimal care, and are at risk of presenting in adult life with significant liver pathology and long-term sequelae. Objective: To explore ...

  7. Mayaro Virus Infection, Amazon Basin Region, Peru, 2010–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, Crystyan; Guevara, Carolina; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Jhonston, Erik J.; Ramal, Cesar; Aguilar, Patricia V.; Ampuero, Julia S.

    2013-01-01

    During 2010–2013, we recruited 16 persons with confirmed Mayaro virus infection in the Peruvian Amazon to prospectively follow clinical symptoms and serologic response over a 12-month period. Mayaro virus infection caused long-term arthralgia in more than half, similar to reports of other arthritogenic alphaviruses. PMID:24210165

  8. Postmortem Findings for 7 Neonates with Congenital Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Anastácio Q; Cavalcante, Diane I M; Franco, Luciano M; Araújo, Fernanda M C; Sousa, Emília T; Valença-Junior, José Telmo; Rolim, Dionne B; Melo, Maria E L; Sindeaux, Pedro D T; Araújo, Marialva T F; Pearson, Richard D; Wilson, Mary E; Pompeu, Margarida M L

    2017-07-01

    Postmortem examination of 7 neonates with congenital Zika virus infection in Brazil revealed microcephaly, ventriculomegaly, dystrophic calcifications, and severe cortical neuronal depletion in all and arthrogryposis in 6. Other findings were leptomeningeal and brain parenchymal inflammation and pulmonary hypoplasia and lymphocytic infiltration in liver and lungs. Findings confirmed virus neurotropism and multiple organ infection.

  9. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Avian Influenza Virus Infection via Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijven FJ; Teunis PFM; Roda Husman AM de; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Using literature data, daily infection risks of chickens and humans with H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) by drinking water consumption were estimated for the Netherlands. A highly infectious virus and less than 4 log10 drinking water treatment (reasonably inefficient) may lead to a high infection

  10. Co-infections with Chikungunya and Dengue Viruses, Guatemala, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas; Signor, Leticia Del Carmen Castillo; Williams, Christopher; Donis, Evelin; Cuevas, Luis E; Adams, Emily R

    2016-11-01

    We screened serum samples referred to the national reference laboratory in Guatemala that were positive for chikungunya or dengue viruses in June 2015. Co-infection with both viruses was detected by reverse transcription PCR in 46 (32%) of 144 samples. Specimens should be tested for both arboviruses to detect co-infections.

  11. Hepatitis B Virus infection in Nigeria – a review | Emechebe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... virus in the general population also play role in Nigeria. Conclusion: Reduction in the of hepatitis B virus infection could be achieved by public enlightenment campaign, mass immunization of the children and adults at risk while antiviral drugs and immunostimulatory therapy should be provided for those already infected.

  12. Transverse myelitis associated with Zika virus infection: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Beattriz Vaz Pereira Casagrande; Danielle Oliveira de Sousa; Adriana Kamilly Leitão Pitman Machado; Carolina Ribeiro Mainardi; Carolina Barros Kahwage

    2018-01-01

    Title: Transverse myelitis associated with Zika virus infection: a Case Report.: The zika virus belongs to the family flaviviridae, and is transmitted by the arthropod Aedes aegypt. Its major importance is related to the several debilitating neurological manifestations associated with it, such as transverse myelitis. Case: The authors report a case of transverse myelitis in a patient with a previous diagnosis of Zika virus infection. After the image exams and serology, the diagnosis was ...

  13. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infection in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Hrnjaković-Cvjetković Ivana; Cvjetković Dejan; Patić Aleksandra; Radovanov Jelena; Kovačević Gordana; Milošević Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Tick-borne meningoencephalitis virus is a flavivirus that causes the most important vector-borne central nervous system infection in many countries of Europe and Asia. There are three subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus: European, Siberian and the Far-Eastern subtype. Transmission. In endemic areas, the virus remains in transmissive cycles between Ixodes ticks and small rodents. Clinical picture. In most cases (70−98%) infection goes asy...

  14. Susceptibility of different leukocyte cell types to Vaccinia virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Puig Juana M

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccinia virus, the prototype member of the family Poxviridae, was used extensively in the past as the Smallpox vaccine, and is currently considered as a candidate vector for new recombinant vaccines. Vaccinia virus has a wide host range, and is known to infect cultures of a variety of cell lines of mammalian origin. However, little is known about the virus tropism in human leukocyte populations. We report here that various cell types within leukocyte populations have widely different susceptibility to infection with vaccinia virus. Results We have investigated the ability of vaccinia virus to infect human PBLs by using virus recombinants expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP, and monoclonal antibodies specific for PBL subpopulations. Flow cytometry allowed the identification of infected cells within the PBL mixture 1–5 hours after infection. Antibody labeling revealed that different cell populations had very different infection rates. Monocytes showed the highest percentage of infected cells, followed by B lymphocytes and NK cells. In contrast to those cell types, the rate of infection of T lymphocytes was low. Comparison of vaccinia virus strains WR and MVA showed that both strains infected efficiently the monocyte population, although producing different expression levels. Our results suggest that MVA was less efficient than WR in infecting NK cells and B lymphocytes. Overall, both WR and MVA consistently showed a strong preference for the infection of non-T cells. Conclusions When infecting fresh human PBL preparations, vaccinia virus showed a strong bias towards the infection of monocytes, followed by B lymphocytes and NK cells. In contrast, very poor infection of T lymphocytes was detected. These finding may have important implications both in our understanding of poxvirus pathogenesis and in the development of improved smallpox vaccines.

  15. Pathogenesis of Hendra and Nipah virus infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escaffre, Olivier; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Rockx, Barry

    2013-04-17

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are emerging zoonotic viruses that cause severe and often lethal respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans. Henipaviruses can infect a wide range of species and human-to-human transmission has been observed for NiV. While the exact route of transmission in humans is not known, experimental infection in different animal species suggests that infection can be efficiently initiated after respiratory challenge. The limited data on histopathological changes in fatal human cases of HeV and NiV suggest that endothelial cells are an important target during the terminal stage of infection; however, it is unknown where these viruses initially establish infection and how the virus disseminates from the respiratory tract to the central nervous system and other organs. Here we review the current concepts in henipavirus pathogenesis in humans.

  16. Microbiological diagnosis of human papilloma virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Lindemann, Maria Luisa; Pérez-Castro, Sonia; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; Pérez-Gracia, Maria Teresa

    2017-11-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the leading cause of sexually transmitted infection worldwide. This virus generally causes benign lesions, such as genital warts, but persistent infection may lead to cervical cancer, anal cancer, vaginal cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer, although less frequently. Cervical cancer is a severe disease with a high mortality in some countries. Screening with cytology has been very successful in the last few years, but nowadays there are numerous studies that confirm that cytology should be replaced with the detection of HPV as a first line test in population based screening. There are several commercially available FDA approved tests for screening of cervical cancer. A new strategy, based on individual detection of the high risk genotypes HPV16 and HPV18, present in 70% of cervical cancer biopsies, has been proposed by some experts, and is going to be implemented in most countries in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Hepatitis B virus infection in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Gorman, C S

    2012-02-01

    Recent increases in Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection prompted us to characterize HBV-infected children in Ireland and to audit management, by reviewing prospectively gathered data. Of 46 children (29 [63%] male), median age at presentation was 8.1 years (range 0.6-17.6), monitoring duration was 22.5 months (range 1-101), 23\\/46 (50%) were European (including 9 [19.6%] Irish), 15 (32.6%) African and 9 (19.6%) Asian. Acquisition was vertical (25\\/46 [54.3%]), horizontal (5\\/46 [10.9%]), unknown (16\\/46 [34.8%]). HBV-DNA was >100,000,000 cpm in 20\\/32 (62.5%) with chronic infection. Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) was detected in 32\\/44 (72.7%). We estimate that universal neonatal vaccination (UNV-HBV) could have prevented 22% of cases, and could limit further horizontal HBV spread. This supports the recent introduction of UNV-HBV.

  18. Absence of human metapneumovirus co-infection in cases of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woensel, J. B. M.; Bos, A. P.; Lutter, R.; Rossen, J. W. A.; Schuurman, R.

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that co-infection of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in severe respiratory syncytial (RSV) virus bronchiolitis is very common. To evaluate the epidemiology of hMPV co-infection in children with severe lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV virus. This was an observational

  19. Absence of human metapneumovirus co-infection in cases of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woensel, J B M; Bos, A P; Lutter, R; Rossen, J W A; Schuurman, R

    It has been suggested that co-infection of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in severe respiratory syncytial (RSV) virus bronchiolitis is very common. To evaluate the epidemiology of hMPV co-infection in children with severe lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV virus. This was an observational

  20. Development, evaluation, and laboratory validation of immunoassays for the diagnosis of equine infectious anemia (EIA) using recombinant protein produced from a synthetic p26 gene of EIA virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Harisankar; Goyal, Sachin K; Malik, Praveen; Khurana, Sandip K; Singh, Raj K

    2013-12-01

    Equine infectious anemia (EIA)-a retroviral disease caused by equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-is a chronic, debilitating disease of horses, mules, and donkeys. EIAV infection has been reported worldwide and is recognized as pathogen of significant economic importance to the horse industry. This disease falls under regulatory control program in many countries including India. Control of EIA is based on identification of inapparent carriers by detection of antibodies to EIAV in serologic tests and "Stamping Out" policy. The current internationally accepted test for diagnosis of EIA is the agar gel immune-diffusion test (AGID), which detects antibodies to the major gag gene (p26) product. The objective of this study was to develop recombinant p26 based in-house immunoassays [enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and AGID] for EIA diagnosis. The synthetic p26 gene of EIAV was expressed in Escherichia coli and diagnostic potential of recombinant p26 protein were evaluated in ELISA and AGID on 7,150 and 1,200 equine serum samples, respectively, and compared with commercial standard AGID kit. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed ELISA were 100 and 98.6 %, respectively. Whereas, relative sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed AGID were in complete agreement in respect to commercial AGID kit. Here, we have reported the validation of an ELISA and AGID on large number of equine serum samples using recombinant p26 protein produced from synthetic gene which does not require handling of pathogenic EIAV. Since the indigenously developed reagents would be economical than commercial diagnostic kit, the rp26 based-immunoassays could be adopted for the sero-diagnosis and control of EIA in India.

  1. Hookworm infection and anemia in adult women in rural Chiapas, Mexico Anemia e infección por Necator americanus en mujeres en Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula E. Brentlinger

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe associations between anemia and hookworm (Necator americanus infection in hospitalized women in rural Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the hospital records of 68 anemic women (defined as having a hemoglobin level OBJETIVO: Describir la asociación entre anemia severa e infección con Necator americanus en una población de mujeres hospitalizadas en el estado de Chiapas, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En el registro de ingresos del año 1999 de un hospital rural en Altamirano, Chiapas, se identificaron a las pacientes con diagnósticos de egreso de anemia (definida como hemoglobina<10mg/dl y/o parasitosis intestinal. También se revisó el registro de transfusiones para identificar a las mujeres mayores de 14 años de edad que recibieron sangre. La revisión de expedientes y el análisis de datos se llevó a cabo en el año 2000. Las comparaciones de las características de las pacientes se hicieron con la prueba t de Student (para variables continuas y la prueba ji2 (para variables categóricas. La significancia estadística se estableció con un valor de p< 0.01. RESULTADOS: En las mujeres en quienes se realizó examen coproscópico, 50% tuvieron N. americanus. La presencia de N. americanus no excluyó la presencia de otro factor de riesgo para anemia, por ejemplo embarazo o hemorragia. Los niveles de hemoglobina de las mujeres infectadas con N. americanus fueron significativamente más bajos (promedio 4.1 g/dl que los de las demás mujeres anémicas (promedio 7.0 gm/dl, y la prevalencia de N. americanus en mujeres anémicas fue más alta (50.0% que en la población atendida por el hospital (1.9%. CONCLUSIONES: Aunque la prevalencia de infección con N. americanus no se considera alta en la población general mexicana, fue importante en las mujeres anémicas que se sometieron a coproscopía en nuestro estudio. Las mujeres anémicas ameritan coproscopía donde existe N. americanus, y pueden

  2. Transcriptional Profiling of the Immune Response to Marburg Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, John H; Yen, Judy; Caballero, Ignacio S; Garamszegi, Sara; Malhotra, Shikha; Lin, Kenny; Hensley, Lisa; Goff, Arthur J

    2015-10-01

    Marburg virus is a genetically simple RNA virus that causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. The mechanism of pathogenesis of the infection is not well understood, but it is well accepted that pathogenesis is appreciably driven by a hyperactive immune response. To better understand the overall response to Marburg virus challenge, we undertook a transcriptomic analysis of immune cells circulating in the blood following aerosol exposure of rhesus macaques to a lethal dose of Marburg virus. Using two-color microarrays, we analyzed the transcriptomes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells that were collected throughout the course of infection from 1 to 9 days postexposure, representing the full course of the infection. The response followed a 3-stage induction (early infection, 1 to 3 days postexposure; midinfection, 5 days postexposure; late infection, 7 to 9 days postexposure) that was led by a robust innate immune response. The host response to aerosolized Marburg virus was evident at 1 day postexposure. Analysis of cytokine transcripts that were overexpressed during infection indicated that previously unanalyzed cytokines are likely induced in response to exposure to Marburg virus and further suggested that the early immune response is skewed toward a Th2 response that would hamper the development of an effective antiviral immune response early in disease. Late infection events included the upregulation of coagulation-associated factors. These findings demonstrate very early host responses to Marburg virus infection and provide a rich data set for identification of factors expressed throughout the course of infection that can be investigated as markers of infection and targets for therapy. Marburg virus causes a severe infection that is associated with high mortality and hemorrhage. The disease is associated with an immune response that contributes to the lethality of the disease. In this study, we investigated how the immune cells

  3. «I Am Legend»: comparison of the fictional virus infection and Rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco CAMACHO AGUILERA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the movie I am legend (2007 by, the rabies virus infection is reviewed in this article, given its strong resemblance to the fictional disease created in this film caused by the virus Krippin. A review of history, virus characteristics, viral transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostics, mortality, treatment and prevention, are presented and are contrasted with the film.

  4. West Nile virus meningitis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pilalas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of West Nile virus lineage 2 in central Macedonia, Greece, in 2010 resulted in large outbreaks for 5 consecutive years. We report a case of viral meningitis in an individual infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, which preceded the recognition of the outbreak and was confirmed retrospectively as West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease.

  5. Unfolded protein response in hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Wan eChan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus of clinical importance. The virus establishes a chronic infection and can progress from chronic hepatitis, steatosis to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of viral persistence and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Recently the unfolded protein response (UPR, a cellular homeostatic response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, has emerged to be a major contributing factor in many human diseases. It is also evident that viruses interact with the host UPR in many different ways and the outcome could be pro-viral, anti-viral or pathogenic, depending on the particular type of infection. Here we present evidence for the elicitation of chronic ER stress in HCV infection. We analyze the UPR signaling pathways involved in HCV infection, the various levels of UPR regulation by different viral proteins and finally, we propose several mechanisms by which the virus provokes the UPR.

  6. Absence of Active Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Clinics in Zambia and Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandeler, Gilles; Mulenga, Lloyd; Hobbins, Michael; Joao, Candido; Sinkala, Edford; Hector, Jonas; Aly, Musa; Chi, Benjamin H; Egger, Matthias; Vinikoor, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of replicating hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Among 1812 individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus, no patient in rural Mozambique and 4 patients in urban Zambia were positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Of these, none had confirmed HCV replication.

  7. Recombinant envelope protein (rgp90) ELISA for equine infectious anemia virus provides comparable results to the agar gel immunodiffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Jenner K P; Diniz, Rejane S; Haddad, João P A; Ferraz, Isabella B F; Carvalho, Alex F; Kroon, Erna G; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Leite, Rômulo C

    2012-03-01

    Equine infectious anemia (EIA) is an important viral infection affecting horses worldwide. The course of infection is accompanied generally by three characteristic stages: acute, chronic and inapparent. There is no effective EIA vaccine or treatment, and the control of the disease is based currently on identification of EIAV inapparent carriers by laboratory tests. Recombinant envelope protein (rgp90) was expressed in Escherichia coli and evaluated via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There was an excellent agreement (95.42%) between the ELISA results using rgp90 and agar gel immunodiffusion test results. AGID is considered the "gold-standard" serologic test for equine infectious anemia (EIA). After 1160 serum samples were tested, the relative sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA were 96.1% and 96.4%, respectively. Moreover, analysis diagnostic accuracy of the ELISA was performed. The ELISA proved robust. Furthermore, good reproducibility was observed for the negative controls and, positive controls for all plates tested. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Arikan

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in women of child-bearing age continue to increase both internationally and in Canada. The care of HIV-infected pregnant women is complex, and multiple issues must be addressed, including the current and future health of the woman, minimization of the risk of maternal-infant HIV transmission, and maintenance of the well-being of the fetus and neonate. Vertical transmission of HIV can occur in utero, intrapartum and postpartum, but current evidence suggests that the majority of transmission occurs toward end of term, or during labour and delivery. Several maternal and obstetrical factors influence transmission rates, which can be reduced by optimal medical and obstetrical care. Zidovudine therapy has been demonstrated to reduce maternal-infant transmission significantly, but several issues, including the short and long term safety of antiretrovirals and the optimal use of combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy, remain to be defined. It is essential that health care workers providing care to these women fully understand the natural history of HIV disease in pregnancy, the factors that affect vertical transmission and the management issues during pregnancy. Close collaboration among a multidisciplinary team of knowledgeable health professionals and, most importantly, the woman herself can improve both maternal and infant outcomes.

  9. Hepatitis B virus and delta infection in male homosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, G; Bienzle, U; Slusarczyk, J; Hansson, B G; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1986-02-01

    Six hundred and sixty-six homosexuals were analysed in respect of hepatitis B virus and delta infections. Evidence of ongoing or recent hepatitis B virus infection was found in 450/666 (67.6%) homosexuals; 44 were HBsAg positive. Anti-delta was found in two HBsAg-positive homosexuals. Both individuals had a non-replicative form of HBV infection and biochemical evidence of liver disease. The study confirms that HBV infection is frequent in homosexuals and indicates that delta-infection is rare in male homosexuals.

  10. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in virus infected cells: SARS corona virus, Yellow fever virus, Human Herpesvirus-6, Camelpox virus and Cytomegalovirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Marcel A

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ten potential reference genes were compared for their use in experiments investigating cellular mRNA expression of virus infected cells. Human cell lines were infected with Cytomegalovirus, Human Herpesvirus-6, Camelpox virus, SARS coronavirus or Yellow fever virus. The expression levels of these genes and the viral replication were determined by real-time PCR. Genes were ranked by the BestKeeper tool, the GeNorm tool and by criteria we reported previously. Ranking lists of the genes tested were tool dependent. However, over all, β-actin is an unsuitable as reference gene, whereas TATA-Box binding protein and peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase A are stable reference genes for expression studies in virus infected cells.

  11. Prevalence of Hepatitis B virus infection amongst parturients in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in Nigeria and indeed the whole of Sub-Saharan Africa. The Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology in Nigeria (SOGHIN) recommends HBV screening for all Nigerians to pave way for early detection and treatment of the infection in those who are infected and ...

  12. Immunomodulatory therapy for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprengers, D.; Janssen, H. L. A.

    2005-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most prevalent viral pathogens of man with around 350 million chronically infected patients. It has been postulated that in persistently infected individuals the HBV-specific immune response is too weak to eliminate HBV from all infected hepatocytes, but

  13. Prevalence of viruses infecting cowpea in Uganda and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CMV and CABMV were later confirmed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Of the viruses detected in leaf samples, 53.26% occurred as single infections, 24.46% dual and 22.28% multiple infections. Similarly, analysis of seed samples revealed infection of 40.6, 34.6 and 24.8% for single, dual ...

  14. Influenza virus infection during pregnancy and in specific populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, WJ

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus infection causes approximately 1 billion infections worldwide each year. These infections are usually self-limiting, but serious complications may occur, in particular in adults aged 65 years or older, patients with cardiovascular disease, asthma or autoimmune disorders and pregnant

  15. Prenatal brain MRI of fetuses with Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette-Artur, Prisca; Besnard, Marianne; Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique; Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Garel, Catherine

    2016-06-01

    An outbreak of Zika virus was observed in French Polynesia in 2013-2014. Maternal Zika virus infection has been associated with fetal microcephaly and severe cerebral damage. To analyze the MRI cerebral findings in fetuses with intrauterine Zika virus infection. We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data. Inclusion criteria comprised cases with (1) estimated conception date between June 2013 and May 2014, (2) available US and MRI scans revealing severe fetal brain lesions and (3) positive polymerase chain reaction for Zika virus in the amniotic fluid. We recorded pregnancy history of Zika virus infection and analyzed US and MRI scans. Three out of 12 cases of severe cerebral lesions fulfilled all inclusion criteria. History of maternal Zika virus infection had been documented in two cases. Calcifications and ventriculomegaly were present at US in all cases. MRI showed micrencephaly (n = 3), low cerebellar biometry (n = 2), occipital subependymal pseudocysts (n = 2), polymicrogyria with laminar necrosis and opercular dysplasia (n = 3), absent (n = 1) or hypoplastic (n = 1) corpus callosum and hypoplastic brainstem (n = 1). Severe cerebral damage was observed in our series, with indirect findings suggesting that the germinal matrix is the principal target for Zika virus. The lesions are very similar to severe forms of congenital cytomegalovirus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections.

  16. Prenatal brain MRI of fetuses with Zika virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemette-Artur, Prisca [Centre Hospitalier de Polynesie Francaise, Service de Radiologie, Pirae, Tahiti (Country Unknown); Besnard, Marianne [Centre Hospitalier de Polynesie Francaise, Service de Reanimation Neo-natale, Pirae, Tahiti (Country Unknown); Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique [Centre Hospitalier de Polynesie Francaise, Service d' Obstetrique, Pirae, Tahiti (Country Unknown); Jouannic, Jean-Marie [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Service de Medecine Foetale, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Paris (France); Garel, Catherine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2016-06-15

    An outbreak of Zika virus was observed in French Polynesia in 2013-2014. Maternal Zika virus infection has been associated with fetal microcephaly and severe cerebral damage. To analyze the MRI cerebral findings in fetuses with intrauterine Zika virus infection. We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data. Inclusion criteria comprised cases with (1) estimated conception date between June 2013 and May 2014, (2) available US and MRI scans revealing severe fetal brain lesions and (3) positive polymerase chain reaction for Zika virus in the amniotic fluid. We recorded pregnancy history of Zika virus infection and analyzed US and MRI scans. Three out of 12 cases of severe cerebral lesions fulfilled all inclusion criteria. History of maternal Zika virus infection had been documented in two cases. Calcifications and ventriculomegaly were present at US in all cases. MRI showed micrencephaly (n = 3), low cerebellar biometry (n = 2), occipital subependymal pseudocysts (n = 2), polymicrogyria with laminar necrosis and opercular dysplasia (n = 3), absent (n = 1) or hypoplastic (n = 1) corpus callosum and hypoplastic brainstem (n = 1). Severe cerebral damage was observed in our series, with indirect findings suggesting that the germinal matrix is the principal target for Zika virus. The lesions are very similar to severe forms of congenital cytomegalovirus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. (orig.)

  17. Prenatal brain MRI of fetuses with Zika virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemette-Artur, Prisca; Besnard, Marianne; Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique; Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Garel, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of Zika virus was observed in French Polynesia in 2013-2014. Maternal Zika virus infection has been associated with fetal microcephaly and severe cerebral damage. To analyze the MRI cerebral findings in fetuses with intrauterine Zika virus infection. We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data. Inclusion criteria comprised cases with (1) estimated conception date between June 2013 and May 2014, (2) available US and MRI scans revealing severe fetal brain lesions and (3) positive polymerase chain reaction for Zika virus in the amniotic fluid. We recorded pregnancy history of Zika virus infection and analyzed US and MRI scans. Three out of 12 cases of severe cerebral lesions fulfilled all inclusion criteria. History of maternal Zika virus infection had been documented in two cases. Calcifications and ventriculomegaly were present at US in all cases. MRI showed micrencephaly (n = 3), low cerebellar biometry (n = 2), occipital subependymal pseudocysts (n = 2), polymicrogyria with laminar necrosis and opercular dysplasia (n = 3), absent (n = 1) or hypoplastic (n = 1) corpus callosum and hypoplastic brainstem (n = 1). Severe cerebral damage was observed in our series, with indirect findings suggesting that the germinal matrix is the principal target for Zika virus. The lesions are very similar to severe forms of congenital cytomegalovirus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. (orig.)

  18. Anemia and Red Blood Cell Abnormalities in HIV-Infected and HIV-Exposed Breastfed Infants: A Secondary Analysis of the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, Collins; Zeh, Clement; Ondoa, Pascale; Omolo, Paul; Akoth, Benta; Lwamba, Humphrey; Lando, Richard; Williamson, John; Otieno, Juliana; Masaba, Rose; Weidle, Paul; Thomas, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Anemia results in increased morbidity and mortality, underscoring the need to better understand its pathophysiology amongst HIV-exposed and infected children in sub-Saharan Africa, the region where most infant HIV exposure and infections occur. This analysis used samples obtained from children in the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study (KiBS). KiBS was a longitudinal phase IIB, open-label, one-arm clinical trial, designed to investigate the safety, tolerability and effectiveness of a maternal triple-antiretroviral (ARV) regimen for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, during late pregnancy and early infancy while breastfeeding. Blood samples from 482 children were obtained at birth, 2, 6, 10 and 14 weeks and 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Severity of anemia was graded using the NIH Division of AIDS (DAIDS) toxicity tables. We describe the proportion of children with anemia and anomalies in red blood cell parameters at various time points over 24 months and compare rates of anemia between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children and by mothers' ARV regimen and infant malaria infection. The proportion of children with anemia significantly increased after the breastfeeding period in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children with higher proportion among HIV-infected children compared to HIV-uninfected children (RR: 1.72; CI: 1.22-2.44, p = 0.002). Maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen was not associated with infant anemia (p = 0.11). There was no significant difference in mean hemoglobin between HIV-uninfected children with and without malaria at each time point except at 24 months. A relatively lower proportion of children with severe anemia during the breastfeeding period suggest that exposure to mother's triple antiretroviral combinations through breast milk, posed minimal risk of hematologic toxicity.

  19. B-cell-rich T-cell lymphoma associated with Epstein-Barr virus-reactivation and T-cell suppression following antithymocyte globulin therapy in a patient with severe aplastic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyoshi Hanaoka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (B-LPD is generally characterized by the proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-infected B lymphocytes. We here report the development of EBV-negative B-LPD associated with EBV-reactivation following antithymocyte globulin (ATG therapy in a patient with aplastic anemia. The molecular autopsy study showed the sparse EBV-infected clonal T cells could be critically involved in the pathogenesis of EBV-negative oligoclonal B-LPD through cytokine amplification and escape from T-cell surveillances attributable to ATG-based immunosuppressive therapy, leading to an extremely rare B-cell-rich T-cell lymphoma. This report helps in elucidating the complex pathophysiology of intractable B-LPD refractory to rituximab.

  20. Seroprevalence of Ebola virus infection in Bombali District, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadege Goumkwa Mafopa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey of anti-Ebola Zaire virus nucleoprotein IgG prevalence was carried out among Ebola virus disease survivors and their Community Contacts in Bombali District, Sierra Leone. Our data suggest that the specie of Ebola virus (Zaire responsible of the 2013-2016 epidemic in West Africa may cause mild or asymptomatic infection in a proportion of cases, possibly due to an efficient immune response.

  1. Iron supplementation in HIV-infected Malawian children with anemia: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esan, Michael O.; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; Nkhoma, Ernest; Musicha, Crispin; White, Sarah A.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Phiri, Kamija S.

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether iron supplementation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children living in regions with high infection pressure is safe or beneficial. A 2-arm, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was conducted to examine the effects of iron supplementation on hemoglobin, HIV

  2. Development of an equine-tropic replication-competent lentivirus assay for equine infectious anemia virus-based lentiviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Daniel C; Bannister, Richard; Leroux-Carlucci, Marie A; Evans, Nerys E; Miskin, James E; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A

    2012-10-01

    The release of lentiviral vectors for clinical use requires the testing of vector material, production cells, and, if applicable, ex vivo-transduced cells for the presence of replication-competent lentivirus (RCL). Vectors derived from the nonprimate lentivirus equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) have been directly administered to patients in several clinical trials, with no toxicity observed to date. Because EIAV does not replicate in human cells, and because putative RCLs derived from vector components within human vector production cells would most likely be human cell-tropic, we previously developed an RCL assay using amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) as a surrogate positive control and human cells as RCL amplification/indicator cells. Here we report an additional RCL assay that tests for the presence of theoretical "equine-tropic" RCLs. This approach provides further assurance of safety by detecting putative RCLs with an equine cell-specific tropism that might not be efficiently amplified by the human cell-based RCL assay. We tested the ability of accessory gene-deficient EIAV mutant viruses to replicate in a highly permissive equine cell line to direct our choice of a suitable EIAV-derived positive control. In addition, we report for the first time the mathematical rationale for use of the Poisson distribution to calculate minimal infectious dose of positive control virus and for use in monitoring assay positive/spike control failures in accumulating data sets. No RCLs have been detected in Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant RCL assays to date, further demonstrating that RCL formation is highly unlikely in contemporary minimal lentiviral vector systems.

  3. The Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Pregnant Women in Labour with Unknown Status and those with Negative status early in the Index Pregnancy in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria.

  4. NNDSS - Table II. Cryptosporidiosis to Dengue virus infection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Cryptosporidiosis to Dengue virus infection - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported...

  5. Genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection we performed a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Randomized trials comparing genus Phyllanthus vs. placebo, no intervention, general nonspecific treatment, other herbal medicine...

  6. NNDSS - Table II. Cryptosporidiosis to Dengue virus infection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Cryptosporidiosis to Dengue virus infection - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  7. Schmallenberg virus infection of ruminants: challenges and opportunities for veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claine F

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available François Claine, Damien Coupeau, Laetitia Wiggers, Benoît Muylkens, Nathalie Kirschvink Veterinary Department, Faculty of Sciences, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences (NARILIS, University of Namur (UNamur, Namur, Belgium Abstract: In 2011, European ruminant flocks were infected by Schmallenberg virus (SBV leading to transient disease in adult cattle but abortions and congenital deformities in calves, lambs, and goat kids. SBV belonging to the Simbu serogroup (family Bunyaviridae and genus Orthobunyavirus was first discovered in the same region where bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8 emerged 5 years before. Both viruses are transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp. and share several similarities. This paper describes the current knowledge of temporal and geographical spread, molecular virology, transmission and susceptible species, clinical signs, diagnosis, prevention and control, impact on ruminant health, and productivity of SBV infection in Europe, and compares SBV infection with BTV-8 infection in ruminants. Keywords: Schmallenberg virus, Europe, ruminants, review

  8. Easy and Rapid Detection of Mumps Virus by Live Fluorescent Visualization of Virus-Infected Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadanobu Takahashi

    Full Text Available Mumps viruses show diverse cytopathic effects (CPEs of infected cells and viral plaque formation (no CPE or no plaque formation in some cases depending on the viral strain, highlighting the difficulty in mumps laboratory studies. In our previous study, a new sialidase substrate, 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl-4-bromophenyl 5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-α-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulopyranosidonic acid (BTP3-Neu5Ac, was developed for visualization of sialidase activity. BTP3-Neu5Ac can easily and rapidly perform histochemical fluorescent visualization of influenza viruses and virus-infected cells without an antiviral antibody and cell fixation. In the present study, the potential utility of BTP3-Neu5Ac for rapid detection of mumps virus was demonstrated. BTP3-Neu5Ac could visualize dot-blotted mumps virus, virus-infected cells, and plaques (plaques should be called focuses due to staining of infected cells in this study, even if a CPE was not observed. Furthermore, virus cultivation was possible by direct pick-up from a fluorescent focus. In conventional methods, visible appearance of the CPE and focuses often requires more than 6 days after infection, but the new method with BTP3-Neu5Ac clearly visualized infected cells after 2 days and focuses after 4 days. The BTP3-Neu5Ac assay is a precise, easy, and rapid assay for confirmation and titration of mumps virus.

  9. Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottier, P.

    1980-01-01

    In contrast to the situation concerning bacterial and, to a lesser extent, animal RNA viruses, little is known about the biochemical processes occurring in plant cells due to plant RNA virus infection. Such processes are difficult to study using intact plants or leaves. Great effort has

  10. Identification and distribution of viruses infecting sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction of total plant RNA isolations confirmed the presence of SPFMV, SPVG, SPCSV and SPMMV as the most prevalent viruses infecting sweet potato in KZN. Keywords: reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, sweet potato, viruses. South African Journal of Plant and Soil ...

  11. Protection of melon plants against Cucumber mosaic virus infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adhab

    serological means, nine species including, Portulaca oleraceae, Sisymbrium irio, Beta vulgaris, Chenopodium murale, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus,. Solanum nigrum, Sonchus oleraceus, and Withania samnifera, were found to harbor the virus. Some of these hosts harbor the virus in asymptomatic infection ...

  12. Background review for diagnostic test development for Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrel, Rémi N; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Pas, Suzan; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Koopmans, Marion; Reusken, Chantal

    2016-08-01

    To review the state of knowledge about diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection and identify areas of research needed to address the current gaps in knowledge. We made a non-systematic review of the published literature about Zika virus and supplemented this with information from commercial diagnostic test kits and personal communications with researchers in European preparedness networks. The review covered current knowledge about the geographical spread, pathogen characteristics, life cycle and infection kinetics of the virus. The available molecular and serological tests and biosafety issues are described and discussed in the context of the current outbreak strain. We identified the following areas of research to address current knowledge gaps: (i) an urgent assessment of the laboratory capacity and capability of countries to detect Zika virus; (ii) rapid and extensive field validation of the available molecular and serological tests in areas with and without Zika virus transmission, with a focus on pregnant women; (iii) monitoring the genomic diversity of circulating Zika virus strains; (iv) prospective studies into the virus infection kinetics, focusing on diagnostic sampling (specimen types, combinations and timings); and (v) developing external quality assessments for molecular and serological testing, including differential diagnosis for similar viruses and symptom clusters. The availability of reagents for diagnostic development (virus strains and antigens, quantified viral ribonucleic acid) needs to be facilitated. An international laboratory response is needed, including preparation of protocols for prospective studies to address the most pressing information needs.

  13. The Effect of Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Hepatitis B Virus Serologic Status in Co-Infected Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Effect of Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Hepatitis B Virus Serologic Status in Co-Infected Adults Michael L. Landrum1,2*, Ann M. Fieberg1,3...Portsmouth, Virginia, United States of America Abstract Background: Factors associated with serologic hepatitis B virus (HBV) outcomes in HIV-infected...HM, Crum-Cianflone NF, Marconi VC, et al. (2010) The Effect of Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Hepatitis B Virus Serologic Status in Co-Infected

  14. Mitigating Prenatal Zika Virus Infection in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial L; Parpia, Alyssa S; Galvani, Alison P

    2016-10-18

    Because of the risk for Zika virus infection in the Americas and the links between infection and microcephaly, other serious neurologic conditions, and fetal death, health ministries across the region have advised women to delay pregnancy. However, the effectiveness of this policy in reducing prenatal Zika virus infection has yet to be quantified. To evaluate the effectiveness of pregnancy-delay policies on the incidence and prevalence of prenatal Zika virus infection. Vector-borne Zika virus transmission model fitted to epidemiologic data from 2015 to 2016 on Zika virus infection in Colombia. Colombia, August 2015 to July 2017. Population of Colombia, stratified by sex, age, and pregnancy status. Recommendations to delay pregnancy by 3, 6, 9, 12, or 24 months, at different levels of adherence. Weekly and cumulative incidence of prenatal infections and microcephaly cases. With 50% adherence to recommendations to delay pregnancy by 9 to 24 months, the cumulative incidence of prenatal Zika virus infections is likely to decrease by 17% to 44%, whereas recommendations to delay pregnancy by 6 or fewer months are likely to increase prenatal infections by 2% to 7%. This paradoxical exacerbation of prenatal Zika virus exposure is due to an elevated risk for pregnancies to shift toward the peak of the outbreak. Sexual transmission was not explicitly accounted for in the model because of limited data but was implicitly subsumed within the overall transmission rate, which was calibrated to observed incidence. Pregnancy delays can have a substantial effect on reducing cases of microcephaly but risks exacerbating the Zika virus outbreak if the duration is not sufficient. Duration of the delay, population adherence, and the timing of initiation of the intervention must be carefully considered. National Institutes of Health.

  15. Сlinical case of hemolytic anemia combined with secondary chronic pyelonephritis and intracellular infection in a 7-year-old child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Samoylenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemolytic anemias are group of diseases that are characterized by decreased lifetime of erythrocytes due to their accelerated destruction caused by membrane and enzymopathies of red blood cells, defects in globin synthesis or external factors such as intoxications and autoimmune processes. The most common hemolytic anemia in Europe is hereditary spherocytosis, which occurs in a ratio of 1 : 2000. Hereditary spherocytosis (Minkowski — Chauffard disease is hereditary microspherocytic hemolytic anemia, which occurs as a result of mutation, leading to the erythrocyte membrane defect. Clinical manifestations of Minkowski — Chauffard anemia may vary from asymptomatic to fulminant hemolytic anemia, but commonly this disease has a undulant course. In our clinical practice, we observed hereditary spherocytosis combined with secondary chronic pyelonephritis and chronic persistent intracellular infection in a 7-year-old girl. The patient complained of high fever, general fatigue and weakness, and pain in the lower extremities. Complete doubling of the left kidney and urethra was diagnosed in a patient (her father has the same congenital pathology, which was diagnosed after the birth of his daughter and refluxing megаureter of the lower half of left doubled kidney in the first year of her life. The girl underwent heminephroureterectomy on the left. Despite the surgical intervention, a secondary chronic pyelonephritis developed. Due to frequent anemia, patient was previously observed in the hematological department, but diagnosis of hemolytic anemia was not confirmed. Our clinical case shows that presence of concomitant diseases, especially chronic intracellular infection combined with pyelonephritis, can significantly complicate hemolytic anemia. Pale skin and mucous membranes are considered as a symptom of pyelonephritis, and ictericity is considered as a manifestation of liver damage with intracellular infection. As a result, more detailed

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... develop restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move the legs. This ... may be a sign of infection, a blood disorder, or another ... may be a clue as to the cause of your anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, for ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may be a sign of infection, a blood disorder, or another condition. Finally, the CBC looks at mean corpuscular (kor-PUS-kyu-lar) volume (MCV). MCV is a measure of the average size of your red blood cells. The results may be a clue as to the cause of your anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, for ...

  18. Co-infection and disease severity of Ohio Maize dwarf mosaic virus and Maize chlorotic dwarf virus strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two major maize viruses have been reported in the United States: Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV). These viruses co-occur in regions where maize is grown such that co-infections are likely. Co-infection of different strains of MCDV is also observed frequently...

  19. Infection of Mosquito Cells (C6/36) by Dengue-2 Virus Interferes with Subsequent Infection by Yellow Fever Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrao, Emiliana Pereira; da Fonseca, Benedito Antônio Lopes

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is one of the most important diseases caused by arboviruses in the world. Yellow fever is another arthropod-borne disease of great importance to public health that is endemic to tropical regions of Africa and the Americas. Both yellow fever and dengue viruses are flaviviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, and then, it is reasonable to consider that in a given moment, mosquito cells could be coinfected by both viruses. Therefore, we decided to evaluate if sequential infections of dengue and yellow fever viruses (and vice-versa) in mosquito cells could affect the virus replication patterns. Using immunofluorescence and real-time PCR-based replication assays in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells with single or sequential infections with both viruses, we demonstrated the occurrence of viral interference, also called superinfection exclusion, between these two viruses. Our results show that this interference pattern is particularly evident when cells were first infected with dengue virus and subsequently with yellow fever virus (YFV). Reduction in dengue virus replication, although to a lower extent, was also observed when C6/36 cells were initially infected with YFV followed by dengue virus infection. Although the importance that these findings have on nature is unknown, this study provides evidence, at the cellular level, of the occurrence of replication interference between dengue and yellow fever viruses and raises the question if superinfection exclusion could be a possible explanation, at least partially, for the reported lack of urban yellow fever occurrence in regions where a high level of dengue transmission occurs.

  20. Canine distemper virus infection in a lesser grison (Galictis cuja: first report and virus phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Megid

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases in wild animals have been increasing as a result of their habitat alterations and closer contact with domestic animals. Canine distemper virus (CDV has been reported in several species of wild carnivores, presenting a threat to wildlife conservation. We described the first case of canine distemper virus infection in lesser grison (Galictis cuja. A free-ranging individual, with no visible clinical sigs, presented sudden death after one day in captivity. Molecular diagnosis for CDV infection was performed using whole blood collected by postmortem intracardiac puncture, which resulted positive. The virus phylogeny indicated that domestic dogs were the probable source of infection.

  1. Chinese sacbrood virus infection in Asian honey bees (Apis cerana cerana) and host immune responses to the virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese Sacbrood virus (CSBV) is a common honey bee virus that infects both the European honey bee (A. mellifera) and the Asian honey bee (A. cerana). However, CSBV has much more devastating effects on Asian honey bees than on European honey bees, posing a serious threat to the agricultural and nat...

  2. Drosophila C virus systemic infection leads to intestinal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chtarbanova, Stanislava; Lamiable, Olivier; Lee, Kwang-Zin; Galiana, Delphine; Troxler, Laurent; Meignin, Carine; Hetru, Charles; Hoffmann, Jules A; Daeffler, Laurent; Imler, Jean-Luc

    2014-12-01

    Drosophila C virus (DCV) is a positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the Dicistroviridae family. This natural pathogen of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster is commonly used to investigate antiviral host defense in flies, which involves both RNA interference and inducible responses. Although lethality is used routinely as a readout for the efficiency of the antiviral immune response in these studies, virus-induced pathologies in flies still are poorly understood. Here, we characterize the pathogenesis associated with systemic DCV infection. Comparison of the transcriptome of flies infected with DCV or two other positive-sense RNA viruses, Flock House virus and Sindbis virus, reveals that DCV infection, unlike those of the other two viruses, represses the expression of a large number of genes. Several of these genes are expressed specifically in the midgut and also are repressed by starvation. We show that systemic DCV infection triggers a nutritional stress in Drosophila which results from intestinal obstruction with the accumulation of peritrophic matrix at the entry of the midgut and the accumulation of the food ingested in the crop, a blind muscular food storage organ. The related virus cricket paralysis virus (CrPV), which efficiently grows in Drosophila, does not trigger this pathology. We show that DCV, but not CrPV, infects the smooth muscles surrounding the crop, causing extensive cytopathology and strongly reducing the rate of contractions. We conclude that the pathogenesis associated with systemic DCV infection results from the tropism of the virus for an important organ within the foregut of dipteran insects, the crop. DCV is one of the few identified natural viral pathogens affecting the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. As such, it is an important virus for the deciphering of host-virus interactions in insects. We characterize here the pathogenesis associated with DCV infection in flies and show that it results from the tropism of the

  3. Cell-to-cell infection by HIV contributes over half of virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Shingo; Takeuchi, Junko S; Nakaoka, Shinji; Mammano, Fabrizio; Clavel, François; Inaba, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Misawa, Naoko; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Sato, Kei

    2015-10-06

    Cell-to-cell viral infection, in which viruses spread through contact of infected cell with surrounding uninfected cells, has been considered as a critical mode of virus infection. However, since it is technically difficult to experimentally discriminate the two modes of viral infection, namely cell-free infection and cell-to-cell infection, the quantitative information that underlies cell-to-cell infection has yet to be elucidated, and its impact on virus spread remains unclear. To address this fundamental question in virology, we quantitatively analyzed the dynamics of cell-to-cell and cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections through experimental-mathematical investigation. Our analyses demonstrated that the cell-to-cell infection mode accounts for approximately 60% of viral infection, and this infection mode shortens the generation time of viruses by 0.9 times and increases the viral fitness by 3.9 times. Our results suggest that even a complete block of the cell-free infection would provide only a limited impact on HIV-1 spread.

  4. Varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox) infection in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamont, Ronald F; Sobel, Jack D; Carrington, D

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Lamont R, Sobel J, Carrington D, Mazaki-Tovi S, Kusanovic J, Vaisbuch E, Romero R. Varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox) infection in pregnancy. BJOG 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.02983.x. Congenital varicella syndrome, maternal varicella-zoster virus pneumonia...... and neonatal varicella infection are associated with serious fetomaternal morbidity and, not infrequently, mortality. Vaccination against varicella-zoster virus can prevent the disease, and outbreak control limits the exposure of pregnant women to the infectious agent. Maternal varicella-zoster immunoglobulin...

  5. The Aedes aegypti toll pathway controls dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Xi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue viruses, utilizes its innate immune system to ward off a variety of pathogens, some of which can cause disease in humans. To date, the features of insects' innate immune defenses against viruses have mainly been studied in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which appears to utilize different immune pathways against different types of viruses, in addition to an RNA interference-based defense system. We have used the recently released whole-genome sequence of the Ae. aegypti mosquito, in combination with high-throughput gene expression and RNA interference (RNAi-based reverse genetic analyses, to characterize its response to dengue virus infection in different body compartments. We have further addressed the impact of the mosquito's endogenous microbial flora on virus infection. Our findings indicate a significant role for the Toll pathway in regulating resistance to dengue virus, as indicated by an infection-responsive regulation and functional assessment of several Toll pathway-associated genes. We have also shown that the mosquito's natural microbiota play a role in modulating the dengue virus infection, possibly through basal-level stimulation of the Toll immune pathway.

  6. Molecular phylodynamics and protein modeling of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro-Nallar Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ISAV is a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family that affects salmonids with disastrous results. It was first detected in 1984 in Norway and from then on it has been reported in Canada, United States, Scotland and the Faroe Islands. Recently, an outbreak was recorded in Chile with negative consequences for the local fishing industry. However, few studies have examined available data to test hypotheses associated with the phylogeographic partitioning of the infecting viral population, the population dynamics, or the evolutionary rates and demographic history of ISAV. To explore these issues, we collected relevant sequences of genes coding for both surface proteins from Chile, Canada, and Norway. We addressed questions regarding their phylogenetic relationships, evolutionary rates, and demographic history using modern phylogenetic methods. Results A recombination breakpoint was consistently detected in the Hemagglutinin-Esterase (he gene at either side of the Highly Polymorphic Region (HPR, whereas no recombination breakpoints were detected in Fusion protein (f gene. Evolutionary relationships of ISAV revealed the 2007 Chilean outbreak group as a monophyletic clade for f that has a sister relationship to the Norwegian isolates. Their tMRCA is consistent with epidemiological data and demographic history was successfully recovered showing a profound bottleneck with further population expansion. Finally, selection analyses detected ongoing diversifying selection in f and he codons associated with protease processing and the HPR region, respectively. Conclusions Our results are consistent with the Norwegian origin hypothesis for the Chilean outbreak clade. In particular, ISAV HPR0 genotype is not the ancestor of all ISAV strains, although SK779/06 (HPR0 shares a common ancestor with the Chilean outbreak clade. Our analyses suggest that ISAV shows hallmarks typical of RNA viruses that can be exploited in epidemiological and

  7. Adverse outcomes of pregnancy-associated Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, William J

    2018-03-06

    The spread of Zika virus to the Americas was accompanied by surge in the number of infants with CNS abnormalities leading to a declaration of a health emergency by the WHO. This was accompanied by significant responses from governmental health agencies in the United States and Europe that resulted in significant new information described in the natural history of this perinatal infection in a very short period of time. Although much has been learned about Zika virus infection during pregnancy, limitations of current diagnostics and the challenges for accurate serologic diagnosis of acute Zika virus infection has restricted our understanding of the natural history of this perinatal infection to infants born to women with clinical disease during pregnancy and to Zika exposed infants with obvious clinical stigmata of disease. Thus, the spectrum of disease in infants exposed to Zika virus during pregnancy remains to be defined. In contrast, observations in informative animal models of Zika virus infections have provided rational pathways for vaccine development and existing antiviral drug development programs for other flaviviruses have resulted in accelerated development for potential antiviral therapies. This brief review will highlight some of the current concepts of the natural history of Zika virus during pregnancy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Infection and Proliferation of Giant Viruses in Amoeba Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus, the first discovered giant virus with genome size and particle size much larger than previously discovered viruses, possesses several genes for translation and CRISPER Cas system-like defense mechanism against virophages, which co-infect amoeba cells with the giant virus and which inhibit giant virus proliferation. Mimiviruses infect amoeba cells by phagocytosis and release their DNA into amoeba cytoplasm through their stargate structure. After infection, giant virion factories (VFs) form in amoeba cytoplasm, followed by DNA replication and particle formation at peripheral regions of VF. Marseilleviruses, the smallest giant viruses, infect amoeba cells by phagocytosis or endocytosis, form larger VF than Mimivirus's VF in amoeba cytoplasm, and replicate their particles. Pandoraviruses found in 2013 have the largest genome size and particle size among all viruses ever found. Pandoraviruses infect amoeba cells by phagocytosis and release their DNA into amoeba cytoplasm through their mouth-like apical pores. The proliferation of Pandoraviruses occurs along with nucleus disruption. New virions form at the periphery of the region formerly occupied by the amoeba cell nucleus.

  9. Hemolytic Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead to hemolytic anemia in a fetus or newborn. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications The signs and symptoms of hemolytic anemia will depend on the type and severity of the disease. People who have mild hemolytic anemia often have ...

  10. Hemolytic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - hemolytic ... bones that helps form all blood cells. Hemolytic anemia occurs when the bone marrow isn't making ... destroyed. There are several possible causes of hemolytic anemia. Red blood cells may be destroyed due to: ...

  11. Neuromuscular Manifestations of West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arturo eLeis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common neuromuscular manifestation of West Nile virus (WNV infection is a poliomyelitis syndrome with asymmetric paralysis variably involving one (monoparesis to four limbs (quadriparesis, with or without brainstem involvement and respiratory failure. This syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis may occur without overt fever or meningoencephalitis. Although involvement of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and motor neurons in the brainstem are the major sites of pathology responsible for neuromuscular signs, inflammation also may involve skeletal or cardiac muscle (myositis, myocarditis, motor axons (polyradiculitis, peripheral nerve (Guillain-Barré syndrome, brachial plexopathy. In addition, involvement of spinal sympathetic neurons and ganglia provides a plausible explanation for autonomic instability seen in some patients. Many patients also experience prolonged subjective generalized weakness and disabling fatigue. Despite recent evidence that WNV may persist long term in the central nervous system or periphery in animals, the evidence in humans is controversial. WNV persistence would be of great concern in immunosuppressed patients or in those with prolonged or recurrent symptoms. Support for the contention that WNV can lead to autoimmune disease arises from reports of patients presenting with various neuromuscular diseases that presumably involve autoimmune mechanisms (GBS, other demyelinating neu¬ropathies, myasthenia gravis, brachial plexopathies, stiff-person syndrome, and delayed or recurrent symptoms. Although there is no specific treatment or vaccine currently approved in humans, and the standard remains supportive care, drugs that can alter the cascade of immunobiochemical events leading to neuronal death may be potentially useful (high-dose corticosteroids, interferon preparations, and intravenous immune globulin containing WNV-specific antibodies. Human experience with these agents seems promising based on anecdotal

  12. Chronic hepatitis E virus infection in liver transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, Elizabeth B.; van den Berg, Arie P.; Porte, Robert J.; Benne, Cornelis A.; Vennema, Harry; Reimerink, Johan H. J.; Koopmans, Marion P. G.

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is known to run a self-limiting course. Sporadic cases of acute hepatitis due to infection with HEV genotype 3, present in pig populations, are increasingly recognized. Zoonotic transmission seems infrequent. The entity of unexplained chronic hepatitis after liver

  13. Prevalence of hepatitis E virus infection in liver transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, Elizabeth B; Niesters, Hubert G M; van den Berg, Arie P; Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies; Porte, Robert J; Vennema, Harry; Reimerink, Johan H J; Koopmans, Marion P G

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is known to run a self-limited course. Recently, chronic hepatitis E has been described in several immunosuppressed patients after solid organ transplantation. The prevalence of HEV infection after transplantation, however, is unknown. We studied HEV parameters [HEV

  14. Vaccination against acute respiratory virus infections and measles in man.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. de Vries (Petra)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractSeveral viruses may cause more or less severe acute respiratory infections in man, some of which are followed by systemic infection. Only for influenza and measles are licensed vaccines available at present. The protection induced by influenza vaccines, which are based on inactivated

  15. Hepatitis C virus infection among transmission-prone medical personnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaaijer, H. L.; Appelman, P.; Frijstein, G.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected physicians have been reported to infect some of their patients during exposure-prone procedures (EPPs). There is no European consensus on the policy for the prevention of this transmission. To help define an appropriate preventive policy, we determined the prevalence

  16. Distribution of hepatitis B virus infection in Namibia | Mhata | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Namibia regards hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as a public health problem and introduced hepatitis B vaccinations for infants during 2009. However, information on HBV infection in the country remains limited, and effective public health interventions may be compromised in the absence of adequate ...

  17. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among Makerere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medical students in the course of their clinical work are at risk of acquiring hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection or transmitting it to their patients. HBV immunization for medical students in Uganda is recommended but not strictly enforced. It is important to assess the prevalence of HBV infection in medical students in ...

  18. Pitfalls in diagnosis of Hepatitis B Virus infection among adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Hepatitis B virus infection is common in Nigerians and its diagnosis is necessary for effective treatment and eradication. This study is aimed at highlighting the serological factors jeopardizing the diagnosis and treatment of the infection among Nigerians adults. Patients and Methods: Three studies were carried out.

  19. Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Nigerians | Ejiofor | Nigerian Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children and adults are all at risk of being infected especially sickle cell disease patients. Others include those who are exposed to the common risk factors like Blood transfusion, haemodialyisis, recycling of syringes and needles, sexual promiscuity. Conclusion: Reduction in the Hepatitis C virus infection could be achieved ...

  20. Hepatitis C virus infection in patients with oral lichen planus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-20

    Feb 20, 2011 ... Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disease of uncertain etiology. Recent reports suggest that LP is an extrahepatic manifestation of Hepatitis C infection. Objective: To determine the association of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with oral LP and to study the tests of liver function in ...

  1. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in Nigerian children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Hepatitis B virus infection is a major global health problem of public health importance. In a bid to control the infection, the Nigerian government in 2004 introduced hepatitis B vaccine into the National Program on Immunization. There are no studies on the prevalence of hepatitis B in adolescent prior to 2004.

  2. The Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    HIV Infection Diagnosed in Women in Labour. African Journal of Reproductive Health September 2015; 19 (3):137. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. The Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among. Pregnant Women in Labour with Unknown Status and those with. Negative status early in the Index ...

  3. Dengue virus life cycle : viral and host factors modulating infectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    Dengue virus (DENV 1-4) represents a major emerging arthropod-borne pathogen. All four DENV serotypes are prevalent in the (sub) tropical regions of the world and infect 50-100 million individuals annually. Whereas the majority of DENV infections proceed asymptomatically or result in self-limited

  4. Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in Greece, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Theocharopoulos, George; Dougas, Georgios; Athanasiou, Maria; Detsis, Marios; Baka, Agoritsa; Lytras, Theodoros; Mellou, Kassiani; Bonovas, Stefanos; Panagiotopoulos, Takis

    2011-01-01

    During 2010, an outbreak of West Nile virus infection occurred in Greece. A total of 197 patients with neuroinvasive disease were reported, of whom 33 (17%) died. Advanced age and a history of heart disease were independently associated with death, emphasizing the need for prevention of this infection in persons with these risk factors. PMID:22000357

  5. Pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus infections of the cornea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Maertzdorf (Jeroen)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe identification of human herpes virus (HHV) infections can be traced back to ancient Greece where Herpes simplex vims (HSV) infections in humans were first documented. Hippocrates used the word "herpes", meaning to creep or crawl, to describe spreading skin lesions. Although the

  6. The Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Agboghoroma et al. HIV Infection Diagnosed in Women in Labour. African Journal of Reproductive Health September 2015; 19 (3):137. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. The Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among. Pregnant Women in Labour with Unknown Status and those with. Negative status ...

  7. Hepatitis C virus infection in patients with oral lichen planus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disease of uncertain etiology. Recent reports suggest that LP is an extrahepatic manifestation of Hepatitis C infection. Objective: To determine the association of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with oral LP and to study the tests of liver function in patients with ...

  8. [Neurological symptoms with a hepatitis E virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardt, J. van de; Dubbelink, T.B. Olde; Visee, H.F.; Schneeberger, P.M.; Lutgens, S.P.; Eijk, J.J.J. van

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV3) is an emerging zoonosis in the industrialized world. The infection usually proceeds asymptomatically. Extrahepatic sequelae including neurological symptoms have been described. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 52-year-old man presented at the

  9. Early reverse transcription is essential for productive foamy virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamborlini, Alessia; Renault, Noémie; Saïb, Ali; Delelis, Olivier

    2010-06-11

    Although viral RNA constitutes the majority of nucleic acids packaged in virions, a late occurring step of reverse transcription leads to the presence of infectious viral cDNA in foamy virus particles. This peculiarity distinguishes them from the rest of the retroviral family. To evaluate the respective contribution of these viral nucleic acids in the replication of foamy viruses, their fate was studied by real-time PCR and RT-PCR early after infection, in the presence or in the absence of AZT. We found that an early reverse transcription step, which occurs during the first hours post-entry, is absolutely required for productive infection. Remarkably, sensitivity to AZT can be counteracted by increasing the multiplicity of infection (moi). We also show that 2-LTR circular viral DNA, which appears as soon as four hours post-infection, is transcriptionally competent. Taken together, our data demonstrate that an early reverse transcription process, which takes place soon after viral entry, is indispensable for infectivity of FVs at low moi, when the amount of DNA-containing particles is not sufficient to lead to a productive infection. This study demonstrates a key role of the packaged viral RNA in the foamy virus infection, suggesting that the replication of this virus can be achieved by involving either viral DNA or RNA genome, depending on the condition of infection.

  10. Characterization of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus infecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus infecting cucurbits: Evidence for sap transmission in a host specific manner. ... infected plants from different factors like buffer combinations, source of inoculum, age of inoculum, genotypes of test plants, and species of plants, temperature, seasons and organic materials.

  11. Human Hendra virus infection causes acute and relapsing encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K T; Robertson, T; Ong, B B; Chong, J W; Yaiw, K C; Wang, L F; Ansford, A J; Tannenberg, A

    2009-06-01

    To study the pathology of two cases of human Hendra virus infection, one with no clinical encephalitis and one with relapsing encephalitis. Autopsy tissues were investigated by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. In the patient with acute pulmonary syndrome but not clinical acute encephalitis, vasculitis was found in the brain, lung, heart and kidney. Occasionally, viral antigens were demonstrated in vascular walls but multinucleated endothelial syncytia were absent. In the lung, there was severe inflammation, necrosis and viral antigens in type II pneumocytes and macrophages. The rare kidney glomerulus showed inflammation and viral antigens in capillary walls and podocytes. Discrete necrotic/vacuolar plaques in the brain parenchyma were associated with antigens and viral RNA. Brain inflammation was mild although CD68(+) microglia/macrophages were significantly increased. Cytoplasmic viral inclusions and antigens and viral RNA in neurones and ependyma suggested viral replication. In the case of relapsing encephalitis, there was severe widespread meningoencephalitis characterized by neuronal loss, macrophages and other inflammatory cells, reactive blood vessels and perivascular cuffing. Antigens and viral RNA were mainly found in neurones. Vasculitis was absent in all the tissues examined. The case of acute Hendra virus infection demonstrated evidence of systemic infection and acute encephalitis. The case of relapsing Hendra virus encephalitis showed no signs of extraneural infection but in the brain, extensive inflammation and infected neurones were observed. Hendra virus can cause acute and relapsing encephalitis and the findings suggest that the pathology and pathogenesis are similar to Nipah virus infection.

  12. Jellyfish green fluorescent protein as a reporter for virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulcombe, D C; Chapman, S; Santa Cruz, S

    1995-06-01

    The gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) of Aequorea victoria was introduced into the expression cassette of a virus vector based on potato virus X (PVX). Host plants of PVX inoculated with PVX.GFP became systemically infected. Production of GFP in these plants was detected initially between 1 and 2 days postinoculation by the presence of regions on the inoculated leaf that fluoresced bright green under UV light. Subsequently, this green fluorescence was evident in systemically infected tissue. The fluorescence could be detected by several methods. The simplest of these was by looking at the UV-illuminated plants in a darkened room. The PVX.GFP-infected tissue has been analysed either by epifluorescence or confocal laser scanning microscopy. These microscopical methods allow the presence of the virus to be localized to individual infected cells. It was also possible to detect the green fluorescence by spectroscopy or by electrophoresis of extracts from infected plants. To illustrate the potential application of this reporter gene in virological studies a derivative of PVX.GFP was constructed in which the coat protein gene of PVX was replaced by GFP. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of the inoculated tissue showed that the virus was restricted to the inoculated cells thereby confirming earlier speculation that the PVX coat protein is essential for cell-to-cell movement. It is likely that GFP will be useful as a reporter gene in transgenic plants as well as in virus-infected tissue.

  13. Infantile Cytomegalovirus-Associated Severe Warm Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifeh, Hassan K.; Mourad, Youmna M.; Chamoun, Cynthia T.

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare hematologic entity in children. Etiologies are mainly viruses or bacteria. We describe here a case of severe warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (IgG- and C3d-positive direct antiglobulin test) in an immunocompetent 6-month-old infant with acute Cytomegalovirus infection that responded well to corticotherapy and intraveneous immunoglobulins without using blood component transfusion. This case demonstrates the importance of recognizing CMV in infantile Autoim...

  14. Hepatitis B Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus co-infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B Virus(HBV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV) share similar properties such as modes of transmission. This study was therefore designed to find out the prevalence of HBV/HIV co-infection in Zawan village. Three hundred subjects were recruited into the study through simple random sampling method ...

  15. Outbreak of Zika Virus Infections, Dominica, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sadie J; Carlson, Colin J; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J; Romero, Moory M; Cox, Shelly-Ann; Mahon, Roché; Trotman, Adrian; St Ville, Sylvester; Ahmed, Shalauddin

    2017-11-01

    In February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the pandemic of Zika virus a public health emergency. On March 4, 2016, Dominica reported its first autochthonous Zika virus disease case; subsequently, 1,263 cases were reported. We describe the outbreak through November 2016, when the last known case was reported.

  16. Outbreak of Zika Virus Infections, Dominica, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Sadie J.; Carlson, Colin J.; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J.; Romero, Moory M.; Cox, Shelly-Ann; Mahon, Roché; Trotman, Adrian; St. Ville, Sylvester; Ahmed, Shalauddin

    2017-01-01

    In February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the pandemic of Zika virus a public health emergency. On March 4, 2016, Dominica reported its first autochthonous Zika virus disease case; subsequently, 1,263 cases were reported. We describe the outbreak through November 2016, when the last known case was reported.

  17. Malaria, Epstein-Barr virus infection and the pathogenesis of Burkitt's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Anthony R; Majumdar, Suvankar

    2017-11-01

    A geographical and causal connection has long been recognized between malaria, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Potential clues are that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum selectively absorbs vitamin A from the host and depends on it for its biological activities; secondly, alterations in vitamin A (retinoid) metabolism have been implicated in many forms of cancer, including BL. The first author has proposed that the merozoite-stage malaria parasite, emerging from the liver, uses its absorbed vitamin A as a cell membrane destabilizer to invade the red blood cells, causing anemia and other signs and symptoms of the disease as manifestations of an endogenous form of hypervitaminosis A (Mawson AR, Path Global Health 2013;107(3):122-9). Repeated episodes of malaria would therefore be expected to expose the tissues of affected individuals to potentially toxic doses of vitamin A. It is proposed that such episodes activate latent EBV infection, which in turn activates retinoid-responsive genes. Expression of these genes enhances viral replication and induces germinal center (GC) B cell expansion, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression, and c-myc translocation, which in turn predisposes to BL. Thus, an endogenous form of retinoid toxicity related to malaria infection may be the common factor linking frequent malaria, EBV infection and BL, whereby prolonged exposure of lymphatic tissues to high concentrations of retinoids may combine to induce B-cell translocation and increase the risk of Burkitt's lymphoma. © 2017 UICC.

  18. PREVALENCIA DEL VIRUS DE LA ANEMIA INFECCIOSA EQUINA (AIE EN DOS POBLACIONES DE CABALLOS DE TRABAJO DE LOS DEPARTAMENTOS DEL CHOCÓ Y LA GUAJIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sarmiento

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene como objetivo fundamental establecer la prevalencia del virus causante de la anemia infecciosa equina (AIE en dos poblaciones diferentes de equinos utilizados para el transporte y carga, establecidas en los departamentos de La Guajira y el Chocó. Se analizaron 123 muestras de sangre de las poblaciones equinas anteriormente mencionadas, utilizando el test de Coggins con el fin de detectar la presencia de anticuerpos específicos para la proteína p26, la cual hace parte de la cápside del virus.

  19. Comparative analysis of LTR and structural genes in an equine infectious anemia virus strain isolated from a feral horse in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianbao; Cook, Frank R; Haga, Takeshi; Horii, Yoichiro; Norimine, Junzo; Misawa, Naoaki; Goto, Yoshitaka; Zhu, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Although equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) poses a major threat to the equine industry worldwide, the molecular epidemiology of this virus is poorly understood. Recently, an EIAV strain (EIAVMiyazaki2011-A) representing a new monophyletic group was discovered in feral horses in southern Japan. In the present study, the EIAVMiyazaki2011-A proviral genome is compared with evolutionarily divergent EIAV isolates to investigate conservation of functional elements or motifs within the long terminal repeats (LTRs) and structural genes. This analysis represents a significant step forward in increasing understanding of the molecular conservation and variation between geographically distinct strains of this equine lentivirus.

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, ... symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... iron-deficiency anemia may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor ...

  2. Experimental Hendra virus infection of dogs: virus replication, shedding and potential for transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, D J; Riddell, S; Klein, R; Arkinstall, R; Haining, J; Frazer, L; Mottley, C; Evans, R; Johnson, D; Pallister, J

    2017-01-01

    Characterisation of experimental Hendra virus (HeV) infection in dogs and assessment of associated transmission risk. Beagle dogs were exposed oronasally to Hendra virus/Australia/Horse/2008/Redlands or to blood collected from HeV-infected ferrets. Ferrets were exposed to oral fluids collected from dogs after canine exposure to HeV. Observations made and samples tested post-exposure were used to assess the clinical course and replication sites of HeV in dogs, the infectivity for ferrets of canine oral fluids and features of HeV infection in dogs following contact with infective blood. Dogs were reliably infected with HeV and were generally asymptomatic. HeV was re-isolated from the oral cavity and virus clearance was associated with development of virus neutralising antibody. Major sites of HeV replication in dogs were the tonsils, lower respiratory tract and associated lymph nodes. Virus replication was documented in canine kidney and spleen, confirming a viraemic phase for canine HeV infection and suggesting that urine may be a source of infectious virus. Infection was transmitted to ferrets via canine oral secretions, with copy numbers for the HeV N gene in canine oral swabs comparable to those reported for nasal swabs of experimentally infected horses. HeV is not highly pathogenic for dogs, but their oral secretions pose a potential transmission risk to people. The time-window for transmission risk is circumscribed and corresponds to the period of acute infection before establishment of an adaptive immune response. The likelihood of central nervous system involvement in canine HeV infection is unclear, as is any long-term consequence. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  3. Korean infection control nurses' knowledge and awareness of infection control against Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung M; Choi, Jeong S

    2017-07-01

    To assess the level of knowledge and awareness of Ebola virus disease infection control among infection control nurses and to identify a correlation between these factors. The data were collected from 125 infection control nurses by using a self-report questionnaire. The data were collected on sociodemographic and hospital characteristics, as well as the level of knowledge and awareness of Ebola virus disease infection control. The respondents' mean level of knowledge (correct-answer rate) was 87.7% and their mean level of awareness was 3.86 (1 = "not important at all" to 4 = "very important"). Knowledge of Ebola virus disease infection control was significantly higher among those nurses who had received some Ebola virus disease education. There was a significant positive correlation between the level of knowledge and the level of awareness. The development of effective education and training systems is necessary to improve infection control nurses' knowledge and awareness of Ebola virus disease infection control. Moreover, each hospital should build effective and systematic Ebola virus disease infection control strategies. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  4. Astrocytic infection in canine distemper virus-induced demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutinelli, F; Vandevelde, M; Griot, C; Richard, A

    1989-01-01

    Acute canine distemper virus (CDV)-induced demyelinating lesions were examined with double-labelling immunocytochemistry simultaneously demonstrating CDV antigen and glial fibrillary acidid protein (GFAP) as marker for astrocytes. It was shown that 64% of all astrocytes within the demyelinating lesions were infected and that 95% of all infected cells counted in the lesions were astrocytes. These results suggest that the astrocyte is the main target for CDV and that astroglial infection may play an important role in the mechanism of demyelination.

  5. Enhanced infectivity of bluetongue virus in cell culture by centrifugation.

    OpenAIRE

    Sundin, D R; Mecham, J O

    1989-01-01

    The effects of centrifugation of the infection of cell culture with bluetongue virus (BTV) were investigated. Baby hamster kidney cells were infected with BTV with or without centrifugation. Viral antigen was detected by immunofluorescence at 24 h in both centrifuged and noncentrifuged cultures. However, after 24 h of infection, the production of PFU in centrifuged cell cultures was 10- to 20-fold greater than that seen in cultures not centrifuged. In addition, centrifugation enhanced the dir...

  6. Wheeze after Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Simonsen, Jacob; Breindahl, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Prior studies found associations between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, wheezing, and asthma. The present study aimed to examine the risk of wheezing after RSV, by the history of wheezing. Methods We included 39 children hospitalized for RSV infection (cases) and 23...... children hospitalized for nonrespiratory tract infection reasons (controls) and followed the children prospectively with regular standardized telephone interviews until 18 months, and again 5 years after inclusion. The risk of wheeze was estimated by odds ratios (OR), comparing children hospitalized...

  7. Multiple Epstein-Barr virus infections in healthy individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Dennis M.; Brown, Abigail L.; Etienne, Wiguins; Keitel, Wendy A.; Ling, Paul D.; Butel, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    We employed a newly developed genotyping technique with direct representational detection of LMP-1 gene sequences to study the molecular epidemiology of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in healthy individuals. Infections with up to five different EBV genotypes were found in two of nine individuals studied. These results support the hypothesis that multiple EBV infections of healthy individuals are common. The implications for the development of an EBV vaccine are discussed.

  8. Antiviral activity of lanatoside C against dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yan Yi; Chen, Karen Caiyun; Chen, Huixin; Seng, Eng Khuan; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2014-11-01

    Dengue infection poses a serious threat globally due to its recent rapid spread and rise in incidence. Currently, there is no approved vaccine or effective antiviral drug for dengue virus infection. In response to the urgent need for the development of an effective antiviral for dengue virus, the US Drug Collection library was screened in this study to identify compounds with anti-dengue activities. Lanatoside C, an FDA approved cardiac glycoside was identified as a candidate anti-dengue compound. Our data revealed that lanatoside C has an IC50 of 0.19μM for dengue virus infection in HuH-7 cells. Dose-dependent reduction in dengue viral RNA and viral proteins synthesis were also observed upon treatment with increasing concentrations of lanatoside C. Time of addition study indicated that lanatoside C inhibits the early processes of the dengue virus replication cycle. Furthermore, lanatoside C can effectively inhibit all four serotypes of dengue virus, flavivirus Kunjin, alphavirus Chikungunya and Sindbis virus as well as the human enterovirus 71. These findings suggest that lanatoside C possesses broad spectrum antiviral activity against several groups of positive-sense RNA viruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Zika virus infection and its emerging trends in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehuddin, Ahmad Ruzain; Haslan, Haszianaliza; Mamikutty, Norshalizah; Zaidun, Nurul Hannim; Azmi, Mohamad Fairuz; Senin, Mohamad Mu'izuddin; Syed Ahmad Fuad, Syed Baharom; Thent, Zar Chi

    2017-03-01

    Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that represents a public health emergency at the ongoing epidemic. Previously, this rare virus was limited to sporadic cases in Africa and Asia until its emergence in Brazil, South America in 2015, where it rapidly spread throughout the world. Recently, a high number of cases were reported in Singapore and other Southeast Asia countries. A combination of factors explains the current Zika virus outbreak although it is highly likely that the changes in the climate and high frequency of travelling contribute to the spread of Aedes vector carrying the Zika virus mainly to the tropical climate countries such as the Southeast Asia. The Zika virus is known to cause mild clinical symptoms similar to those of dengue and chikungunya and transmitted by different species of Aedes mosquitoes. However, neurological complications such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, and congenital anomalies, including microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers, raised a serious concern. Currently, there is no specific antiviral treatment or vaccine available for Zika virus infection. Therefore, international public health response is primarily focused on preventing infection, particularly in pregnant women, and on providing up-to-date recommendations to reduce the risk of non-vector transmission of Zika virus. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Undetectable hepatitis C virus RNA during syphilis infection in two HIV/HCV-co-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Knudsen, Andreas; Krarup, Henrik Bygum

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, elicits a vigorous immune response in the infected host. This study sought to describe the impact of syphilis infection on hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels in patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection. METHODS: Patients...

  11. Why Zika virus infection has become a public health concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Lan Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Prior to 2015, Zika Virus (ZIKV outbreaks had occurred in areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Although a causal relationship between Zika infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is strongly suspected, such a connection has not yet been scientifically proven. In May 2015, the outbreak of ZIKV infection in Brazil led to reports of syndrome and pregnant women giving birth to babies with birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes; the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO issued an alert regarding the first confirmed ZIKV infection in Brazil. Currently, ZIKV outbreaks are ongoing and it will be difficult to predict how the virus will spread over time. ZIKV is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of infected mosquitos, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These mosquitoes are the principle vectors of dengue, and ZIKV disease generally is reported to include symptoms associated with acute febrile illnesses that clinically resembles dengue fever. The laboratory diagnosis can be performed by using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR on serum, viral nucleic acid and virus-specific immunoglobulin M. There is currently no vaccine and antiviral treatment available for ZIKV infection, and the only way to prevent congenital ZIKV infection is to prevent maternal infection. In February 2016, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC activated ZIKV as a Category V Notifiable Infectious Disease similar to Ebola virus disease and MERS.

  12. Animal models for the study of hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Na Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Even with an effective vaccine, an estimated 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV worldwide. Current antiviral therapies, including interferon and nucleot(side analogues, rarely cure chronic hepatitis B. Animal models are very crucial for understanding the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B and developing new therapeutic drugs or strategies. HBV can only infect humans and chimpanzees, with the use of chimpanzees in HBV research strongly restricted. Thus, most advances in HBV research have been gained using mouse models with HBV replication or infection or models with HBV-related hepadnaviral infection. This review summarizes the animal models currently available for the study of HBV infection.

  13. Screening Criteria for Ophthalmic Manifestations of Congenital Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Andrea A; Tsui, Irena; Rossetto, Julia; Vasconcelos, Zilton; Adachi, Kristina; Valderramos, Stephanie; Halai, Umme-Aiman; Pone, Marcos Vinicius da Silva; Pone, Sheila Moura; Silveira Filho, Joel Carlos Barros; Aibe, Mitsue S; da Costa, Ana Carolina C; Zin, Olivia A; Belfort, Rubens; Brasil, Patricia; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2017-09-01

    Current guidelines recommend screening eye examinations for infants with microcephaly or laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection but not for all infants potentially exposed to Zika virus in utero. To evaluate eye findings in a cohort of infants whose mothers had polymerase chain reaction-confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy. In this descriptive case series performed from January 2 through October 30, 2016, infants were examined from birth to 1 year of age by a multidisciplinary medical team, including a pediatric ophthalmologist, from Fernandes Figueira Institute, a Ministry of Health referral center for high-risk pregnancies and infectious diseases in children in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Mother-infant pairs from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who presented with suspected Zika virus infection during pregnancy were referred to our institution and had serum, urine, amniotic fluid, or placenta samples tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction for Zika virus. Description of eye findings, presence of microcephaly or other central nervous system abnormalities, and timing of infection in infants with confirmed Zika virus during pregnancy. Eye abnormalities were correlated with central nervous system findings, microcephaly, and the timing of maternal infection. Of the 112 with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed Zika virus infection in maternal specimens, 24 infants (21.4%) examined had eye abnormalities (median age at first eye examination, 31 days; range, 0-305 days). Ten infants (41.7%) with eye abnormalities did not have microcephaly, and 8 (33.3%) did not have any central nervous system findings. Fourteen infants with eye abnormalities (58.3%) were born to women infected in the first trimester, 8 (33.3%) in the second trimester, and 2 (8.3%) in the third trimester. Optic nerve and retinal abnormalities were the most frequent findings. Eye abnormalities were statistically associated with microcephaly (odds ratio [OR], 19.1; 95% CI, 6.0-61.0), other central

  14. The immunology of genital human papilloma virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports a presentation by Margaret Stanley, Reader in Epithelial Biology, at the University of Cambridge, in which she reviews the evidence to date regarding the immunology of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in genital warts. In this she explains that investigations into the immunology of genital wart infections indicate that the replication cycle of papilloma viruses is tightly linked to keratinocyte differentiation - a strategy for immune evasion. While the papilloma virus infects primitive basal cells, viral replication and viral assembly are confined to differentiating superficial epithelial cells. Viral replication and release are confined to cells destined for death and are not associated with inflammation. Such findings suggest that the immune system is ignorant or indifferent to the infection. Evidence from regressing genital warts in humans and animal models suggests that HPV is a cell-mediated immune response of the Th1 type offering a strategy for immunotherapy in benign disease. This is supported by evidence from trials with immunomodulatory agents. While strategies to elicit cytotoxic responses are required for malignant HPV associated lesions, the problems of immune evasion associated with these approaches should not be underestimated. Present optimal therapeutic strategies for genital human papilloma viruses infection would therefore appear to require the induction of a virus specific immune response, either by immunomodulatory agents and/or immunisation with the relevant viral antigens.

  15. Social stigmatization and hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacks, Steven; Beavers, Kimberly; Theodore, Dickens; Dougherty, Karen; Batey, Betty; Shumaker, Jeremy; Galanko, Joseph; Shrestha, Roshan; Fried, Michael W

    2006-03-01

    Our aim was to assess stigmatization by evaluating the impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) on social interactions, feelings of rejection, internalized shame, and financial insecurity, and behavior. HCV patients suffer from slowly progressive disease. Although much research has improved the long-term prognosis of chronic HCV, quality of life may be affected by perceived social stigmatization. In a cross-sectional study, HCV patients without cirrhosis or significant comorbidities were recruited from the University of North Carolina viral hepatitis clinic. Subjects completed a questionnaire administered by a trained interviewer that assessed changes in sexual behavior, personal hygiene habits, social function, and interactions. Additionally, subjects completed validated, standardized questionnaires, the Health Status Questionnaire, and the SCL-90-R. Frequencies were calculated for the prevalence of stigmatization and altered social interaction. Correlations between education and behavior changes were assessed. A series of multivariate analyses controlling for age, sex, and education were performed to assess the association between HCV acquisition risk and stigmatization. One hundred seventy-five of 217 potential subjects (81%) participated in the survey. The average age was 45.2+/-7.7 years. Fifty-five percent were men and 53% were single. Twenty-nine percent had some college education. Risk factors for HCV acquisition included transfusion (21%) and injection drug use (29%), whereas 32% had an unknown mode of infection. Among common activities, 47% were less likely to share drinking glasses, 14% were less likely to prepare food, and one-third of subjects were less likely to share a towel. Thirty-five percent of respondents reported changes in their sexual practices. Decreased frequency of kissing and sexual intercourse was reported in 20% and 27% of individuals, respectively. Almost half of the single subjects reported increased use of condoms compared with only 20

  16. Virus isolation for diagnosing dengue virus infections in returning travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teichmann, D.; Göbels, K.; Niedrig, M.; Sim-Brandenburg, J.-W.; Làge-Stehr, J.; Grobusch, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    Dengue fever is recognized as one of the most frequent imported acute febrile illnesses affecting European tourists returning from the tropics. In order to assess the value of virus isolation for the diagnosis of dengue fever, 70 cases of dengue fever confirmed in German travelers during the period

  17. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk...... production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures...... 3–5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed...

  18. Equine schlafen 11 restricts the production of equine infectious anemia virus via a codon usage-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yue-Zhi; Sun, Liu-Ke; Zhu, Dan-Tong; Hu, Zhe; Wang, Xue-Feng; Du, Cheng; Wang, Yu-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Human schlafen11 is a novel restriction factor for HIV-1 based on bias regarding relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU). Here, we report the cloning of equine schlafen11 (eSLFN11) and the characteristics of its role in restricting the production of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a retrovirus similar to HIV-1. Overexpression of eSLFN11 inhibited EIAV replication, whereas knockdown of endogenous eSLFN11 by siRNA enhanced the release of EIAV from its principal target cell. Notably, although eSLFN11 significantly suppressed expression of viral Gag protein and EIAV release into the culture medium, the levels of intracellular viral early gene proteins Tat and Rev and viral genomic RNA were unaffected. Coincidently, similar altered patterns of codon usage bias were observed for both the early and late genes of EIAV. Therefore, our data suggest that eSLFN11 restricts EIAV production by impairing viral mRNA translation via a mechanism that is similar to that employed by hSLFN11 for HIV-1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards antiviral therapies for treating dengue virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Suzanne Jf; Neyts, Johan

    2016-10-01

    Dengue virus is an emerging human pathogen that poses a huge public health burden by infecting annually about 390 million individuals of which a quarter report with clinical manifestations. Although progress has been made in understanding dengue pathogenesis, a licensed vaccine or antiviral therapy against this virus is still lacking. Treatment of patients is confined to symptomatic alleviation and supportive care. The development of dengue therapeutics thus remains of utmost importance. This review focuses on the few molecules that were evaluated in dengue virus-infected patients: balapiravir, chloroquine, lovastatin, prednisolone and celgosivir. The lessons learned from these clinical trials can be very helpful for the design of future trials for the next generation of dengue virus inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Regional aggressive root resorption caused by neuronal virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Inger; Strøm, Carsten; Worsaae, Nils

    2012-01-01

    occurring regionally. Two cases of female patients, 26 and 28 years old, referred with aggressive root resorption were investigated clinically and radiographically. Anamnestic information revealed severe virus diseases during childhood, meningitis in one case and whooping cough in the other. One...... of the patients was treated with dental implants. Virus spreading along nerve paths is a possible explanation for the unexpected resorptions. In both cases, the resorptions began cervically. The extent of the resorption processes in the dentition followed the virus infected nerve paths and the resorption process...... stopped when reaching regions that were innervated differently and not infected by virus. In one case, histological examination revealed multinuclear dentinoclasts. The pattern of resorption in the two cases indicates that innervation is a factor, which under normal conditions may protect the root surface...

  1. Avian influenza A virus and Newcastle disease virus mono- and co-infections in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iv. Zarkov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main features of avian influenza viruses (AIV and Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1, the possibilities for isolation and identification in laboratory conditions, methods of diagnostics, main hosts, clinical signs and virus shedding are reviewed in chronological order. The other part of the review explains the mechanisms and interactions in cases of co-infection of AIV and APMV-1, either between them or with other pathogens in various indicator systems – cell cultures, chick embryos or birds. The emphasis is placed on quantitative data on the virus present mainly in the first ten days following experimental infection of birds, the periods of virus carrier ship and shedding, clinical signs, pathological changes, diagnostic challenges

  2. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: epidemiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent viruses capable of establishing lifelong infection. Genital herpes in women of childbearing age represents a major risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HSV infection, with primary and first-episode genital HSV infections posing the highest risk. The advent of antiviral therapy with parenteral acyclovir has led to significant improvement in neonatal HSV disease mortality. Further studies are needed to improve the clinician's ability to identify infants at increased risk for HSV infection and prevent MTCT, and to develop novel antiviral agents with increased efficacy in infants with HSV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Targeting Viral Proteostasis Limits Influenza Virus, HIV, and Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Nicholas S; Moshkina, Natasha; Fenouil, Romain; Gardner, Thomas J; Aguirre, Sebastian; Shah, Priya S; Zhao, Nan; Manganaro, Lara; Hultquist, Judd F; Noel, Justine; Sachs, David; Hamilton, Jennifer; Leon, Paul E; Chawdury, Amit; Tripathi, Shashank; Melegari, Camilla; Campisi, Laura; Hai, Rong; Metreveli, Giorgi; Gamarnik, Andrea V; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Greenbaum, Benjamin; Simon, Viviana; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Krogan, Nevan J; Mulder, Lubbertus C F; van Bakel, Harm; Tortorella, Domenico; Taunton, Jack; Palese, Peter; Marazzi, Ivan

    2016-01-19

    Viruses are obligate parasites and thus require the machinery of the host cell to replicate. Inhibition of host factors co-opted during active infection is a strategy hosts use to suppress viral replication and a potential pan-antiviral therapy. To define the cellular proteins and processes required for a virus during infection is thus crucial to understanding the mechanisms of virally induced disease. In this report, we generated fully infectious tagged influenza viruses and used infection-based proteomics to identify pivotal arms of cellular signaling required for influenza virus growth and infectivity. Using mathematical modeling and genetic and pharmacologic approaches, we revealed that modulation of Sec61-mediated cotranslational translocation selectively impaired glycoprotein proteostasis of influenza as well as HIV and dengue viruses and led to inhibition of viral growth and infectivity. Thus, by studying virus-human protein-protein interactions in the context of active replication, we have identified targetable host factors for broad-spectrum antiviral therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pseudorabies virus infection alters neuronal activity and connectivity in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M McCarthy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-herpesviruses, including human herpes simplex virus 1 & 2, varicella zoster virus and the swine pseudorabies virus (PRV, infect the peripheral nervous system of their hosts. Symptoms of infection often include itching, numbness, or pain indicative of altered neurological function. To determine if there is an in vitro electrophysiological correlate to these characteristic in vivo symptoms, we infected cultured rat sympathetic neurons with well-characterized strains of PRV known to produce virulent or attenuated symptoms in animals. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were made at various times after infection. By 8 hours of infection with virulent PRV, action potential (AP firing rates increased substantially and were accompanied by hyperpolarized resting membrane potentials and spikelet-like events. Coincident with the increase in AP firing rate, adjacent neurons exhibited coupled firing events, first with AP-spikelets and later with near identical resting membrane potentials and AP firing. Small fusion pores between adjacent cell bodies formed early after infection as demonstrated by transfer of the low molecular weight dye, Lucifer Yellow. Later, larger pores formed as demonstrated by transfer of high molecular weight Texas red-dextran conjugates between infected cells. Further evidence for viral-induced fusion pores was obtained by infecting neurons with a viral mutant defective for glycoprotein B, a component of the viral membrane fusion complex. These infected neurons were essentially identical to mock infected neurons: no increased AP firing, no spikelet-like events, and no electrical or dye transfer. Infection with PRV Bartha, an attenuated circuit-tracing strain delayed, but did not eliminate the increased neuronal activity and coupling events. We suggest that formation of fusion pores between infected neurons results in electrical coupling and elevated firing rates, and that these processes may contribute to the altered neural

  5. Hendra virus infection dynamics in Australian fruit bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Hume; de Jong, Carol; Melville, Deb; Smith, Craig; Smith, Ina; Broos, Alice; Kung, Yu Hsin Nina; McLaughlin, Amanda; Zeddeman, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Hendra virus is a recently emerged zoonotic agent in Australia. Since first described in 1994, the virus has spilled from its wildlife reservoir (pteropid fruit bats, or 'flying foxes') on multiple occasions causing equine and human fatalities. We undertook a three-year longitudinal study to detect virus in the urine of free-living flying foxes (a putative route of excretion) to investigate Hendra virus infection dynamics. Pooled urine samples collected off plastic sheets placed beneath roosting flying foxes were screened for Hendra virus genome by quantitative RT-PCR, using a set of primers and probe derived from the matrix protein gene. A total of 1672 pooled urine samples from 67 sampling events was collected and tested between 1 July 2008 and 30 June 2011, with 25% of sampling events and 2.5% of urine samples yielding detections. The proportion of positive samples was statistically associated with year and location. The findings indicate that Hendra virus excretion occurs periodically rather than continuously, and in geographically disparate flying fox populations in the state of Queensland. The lack of any detection in the Northern Territory suggests prevalence may vary across the range of flying foxes in Australia. Finally, our findings suggest that flying foxes can excrete virus at any time of year, and that the apparent seasonal clustering of Hendra virus incidents in horses and associated humans (70% have occurred June to October) reflects factors other than the presence of virus. Identification of these factors will strengthen risk minimization strategies for horses and ultimately humans.

  6. Detection and diagnosis of rice-infecting viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara-Ichiki, Tamaki; Shiba, Takuya; Matsukura, Keiichiro; Ueno, Takanori; Hirae, Masahiro; Sasaya, Takahide

    2013-01-01

    Rice-infecting viruses have caused serious damage to rice production in Asian, American, and African countries, where about 30 rice viruses and diseases have been reported. To control these diseases, developing accurate, quick methods to detect and diagnose the viruses in the host plants and any insect vectors of the viruses is very important. Based on an antigen–antibody reaction, serological methods such as latex agglutination reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have advanced to detect viral particles or major proteins derived from viruses. They aid in forecasting disease and surveying disease spread and are widely used for virus detection at plant protection stations and research laboratories. From the early 2000s, based on sequence information for the target virus, several other methods such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification have been developed that are sensitive, rapid, and able to differentiate closely related viruses. Recent techniques such as real-time RT-PCR can be used to quantify the pathogen in target samples and monitor population dynamics of a virus, and metagenomic analyses using next-generation sequencing and microarrays show potential for use in the diagnosis of rice diseases. PMID:24130554

  7. Antiviral therapy in herpes- virus infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    ral therapy is unable to cure infection. (latency persists after ... is used to treat serious CMV infection almost exclusively in .... corneal ulcer. Topical aciclovir is effective for superficial ocular HSV infections. All cases should be fol- lowed up by an ophthalmologist. Mucocutaneous HSV in immuno- compromised patients.

  8. Vaccinia Virus Infections in a Martial Arts Gym

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-04

    This podcast discusses an outbreak of vaccinia virus in Maryland in 2008. Christine Hughes, a health scientist with the Poxvirus and Rabies Branch at CDC, and co-author of a paper in the April 2011 issue of CDC's journal, discusses vaccinia virus infections in a martial arts gym.  Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2011.

  9. THE POSSIBLE COLLISIONS IN VIRUS INFECTION IMMUNODIAGNOSTICS AND VACCINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Kharchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies (Ab, especially natural, display multiple specificity not only due to intrinsic conformational dynamics. With computational analysis the distribution of identical and homologous peptides has been studied in surface proteins from RNA and DNA viruses of widely distributed infections. It was established that each virus protein shared the fragments homologous to other virus proteins that allowed to propose the existence of the peptide continuum of the protein relationship (PCPR. Possible manifestations of PCPR are multiple reactivity and autoreactivity in Ab and therefore it is not possible to consider the immune methods of virus identification as high reliable because of crossing interactions. The PCPR excludes the existence of 100% specificity in immune tests for virus identification. Immunodiagnostic collisions may occur either in identification of virus itself or identification of Ab to viruses. Also PCPR may be responsible for heterologous immunity and consequently the infection associated with severe pathology. The comparative analysis of peptide relationship of H1N1 influenza virus nucleoprotein and human proteins found out, beyond early described its common motif with human hypocretin receptor 2, peptides homologous to those in melanotonin and glutamate receptors and three ion channels. It allows to propose that the sleep disorder narcolepsy associated with Pandemrix vaccination (an adjuvanted, influenza pandemic vaccine and also with infection by influenza virus during the 2009 A(H1N1 influenza pandemic may be determined not only by Ab to the peptide motif common to influenza nucleoprotein and hypocretin receptor but also Ab to melanotonin and glutamate receptors and ion channels. Decreasing and even avoiding risks of complications from vaccination may be feasible by means of a computer analysis of vaccine proteins for the occurrence of epitopes homologous to the human protein those and particularly by an analysis of Ab profiles

  10. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Influenza A Virus Infection During Pregnancy Associated with an Increased Risk for Stillbirth and Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing He

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Impaired pregnancy outcomes, such as low birth weight are associated with increased disease risk in later life, however little is known about the impact of common infectious diseases during pregnancy on birth weight. The study had two aims: a to investigate risk factors of influenza virus infection during pregnancy, and b to analyze the impact of influenza virus infection on pregnancy outcome, especially birth weight. Methods: Prospective and retrospective observational studies found in PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, and WangFang database were included in this meta analysis. Data of included studies was extracted and analyzed by the RevMan software. Results: Pregnant women with anemia (P=0.004, RR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.13-1.88, obesity (P<0.00001, RR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.25-1.46 and asthma (P<0.00001, RR=1.99, 95% CI: 1.67-2.37 had higher rates of influenza virus infection. Regarding birth outcomes, influenza A virus infection did not affect the likelihood for cesarean section. Mothers with influenza had a higher rate of stillbirth (P=0.04, RR=2.36, 95% CI: 1.05-5.31, and their offspring had low 5-minute APGR Scores (P=0.009, RR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.08-1.79. Furthermore, the rate for birth weight < 2500g (P=0.04, RR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.03-2.84 was increased. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that anemia, asthma and obesity during pregnancy are risk factors influenza A virus infection during pregnancy. Moreover, gestational influenza A infection impairs pregnancy outcomes and increases the risk for low birth weight, a known risk factor for later life disease susceptibility.

  11. Vitamin D status of HIV-infected women and its association with HIV disease progression, anemia, and mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Mehta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D has a potential role in slowing HIV disease progression and preventing mortality based on its extensive involvement in the immune system; however, this relationship has not been examined in large studies or in resource-limited settings.Vitamin D levels were assessed in 884 HIV-infected pregnant women at enrollment in a trial of multivitamin supplementation (not including vitamin D in Tanzania. Women were followed up for a median of 69.5 months, and information on hemoglobin levels, HIV disease progression, and mortality was recorded. Proportional hazard models and generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relationship of these outcomes with vitamin D status.Low vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<32 ng/mL was significantly associated with progression to WHO HIV disease stage III or greater in multivariate models (incidence rate ratio [RR]: 1.25; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.05, 1.50. No significant relationship was observed between vitamin D status and T-cell counts during follow-up. Women with low vitamin D status had 46% higher risk of developing severe anemia during follow-up, compared to women with adequate vitamin D levels (RR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.96. Women in the highest vitamin D quintile had a 42% lower risk of all-cause mortality, compared to the lowest quintile (RR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.84. Vitamin D status had a protective association with HIV disease progression, all-cause mortality, and development of anemia during follow-up in HIV-infected women. If confirmed in randomized trials, vitamin D supplementation could represent a simple and inexpensive method to prolonging the time to initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients, particularly in resource-limited settings.

  12. An updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Lauren; Jaraisy, Ameen; Haj, Saeda; Muhsen, Khitam

    2017-02-01

    We conducted an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the prevalence of depleted iron stores among persons infected with Helicobacter pylori compared to uninfected ones. We also assessed the impact of anti-H. pylori eradication therapy plus iron therapy on ferritin and hemoglobin levels compared to iron therapy alone. A literature search was conducted using the databases Medline, the Cochrane Library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, and the Science Citation Index Expanded. Observational studies with methodological quality score of 13 (median score) and above, on a scale of 0-16, and all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible for the meta-analyses. Pooled point estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using the random effects model. Compared to uninfected persons, H. pylori-infected individuals showed increased likelihood of iron deficiency anemia (14 observational studies); pooled OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.23-2.42); iron deficiency (pooled OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.15-1.54; 30 studies); and anemia (pooled OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.00-1.32; 23 studies). Meta-analyses of seven RCTs showed increased ferritin, standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.53 (95% 0.21-0.85), but not hemoglobin, SMD 0.36 (95% -0.07 to 0.78), Pv=.1, following anti-H. pylori eradication therapy plus iron therapy as compared with iron therapy alone. Significant heterogeneity was found among studies, as well as evidence of publication bias. Current evidence indicates increased likelihood of depleted iron stores in relation to H. pylori infection. H. pylori eradication therapy, added to iron therapy, might be beneficial in increasing ferritin and hemoglobin levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Cohabitation reaction-diffusion model for virus focal infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Daniel R.; Fort, Joaquim

    2014-12-01

    The propagation of virus infection fronts has been typically modeled using a set of classical (noncohabitation) reaction-diffusion equations for interacting species. However, for some single-species systems it has been recently shown that noncohabitation reaction-diffusion equations may lead to unrealistic descriptions. We argue that previous virus infection models also have this limitation, because they assume that a virion can simultaneously reproduce inside a cell and diffuse away from it. For this reason, we build a several-species cohabitation model that does not have this limitation. Furthermore, we perform a sensitivity analysis for the most relevant parameters of the model, and we compare the predicted infection speed with observed data for two different strains of the T7 virus.

  14. Avipox Virus Infection in Rosella parakeet (Platycercus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Balachandran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Three parakeets were brought for postmortem examination with a history of sudden death. The gross examination of birds revealed multiple light whitish nodules around the left eye, on the skin at the level of hock joint, on the anterior part of tracheal mucosa, congested lung and pallor liver. Impression smears from nodules revealed numerous heterophils, red blood cells, necrotic epithelial cells and bacterial colonies. Histopathological examination of nodules revealed eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in the spinosal cells, epidermal hyperplasia, ballooning degeneration of spinosal cells and bacterial colonies. The virus was isolated and infection was produced on both chorioallantoic membrane and chicken embryo fibroblasts. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out and primer set designed from the 4b core protein gene of fowl pox virus revealed amplification at 578 bp. Suitable remedial measures were recommended against avipox virus infection and secondary bacterial infection.

  15. TUBERCULOSIS IN HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-EXPOSED OR VIRUS-INFECTED UNITED-STATES CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GUTMAN, LT; MOYE, J; ZIMMER, B; TIAN, C

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to provide a preliminary assessment of the occurrence of tuberculosis exposure, infection and disease within a national sample of infants and children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exposure or infection, and to determine the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

  16. Early Events in Chikungunya Virus Infection-From Virus Cell Binding to Membrane Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K. S.; Hoornweg, Tabitha E.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.; Smit, Jolanda M.

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus causing millions of infections in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. CHIKV infection often leads to an acute self-limited febrile illness with debilitating myalgia and arthralgia. A potential long-term

  17. Japanese encephalitis virus tropism in experimentally infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklin, Meret E; Garcìa-Nicolàs, Obdulio; Brechbühl, Daniel; Python, Sylvie; Zumkehr, Beatrice; Posthaus, Horst; Oevermann, Anna; Summerfield, Artur

    2016-02-24

    Pigs are considered to be the main amplifying host for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and their infection can correlate with human cases of disease. Despite their importance in the ecology of the virus as it relates to human cases of encephalitis, the pathogenesis of JEV in pigs remains obscure. In the present study, the localization and kinetics of virus replication were investigated in various tissues after experimental intravenous infection of pigs. The data demonstrate a rapid and broad spreading of the virus to the central nervous system (CNS) and various other organs. A particular tropism of JEV in pigs not only to the CNS but also for secondary lymphoid tissue, in particular the tonsils with the overall highest viral loads, was observed. In this organ, even 11 days post infection, the latest time point of the experiment, no apparent decrease in viral RNA loads and live virus was found despite the presence of a neutralizing antibody response. This was also well beyond the clinical and viremic phase. These results are of significance for the pathogenesis of JEV, and call for further experimental studies focusing on the cellular source and duration of virus replication in pigs.

  18. Possible Association Between Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly - Brazil, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Ribeiro, Erlane M; Feitosa, Ian M L; Horovitz, Dafne D G; Cavalcanti, Denise P; Pessoa, André; Doriqui, Maria Juliana R; Neri, Joao Ivanildo; Neto, Joao Monteiro de Pina; Wanderley, Hector Y C; Cernach, Mirlene; El-Husny, Antonette S; Pone, Marcos V S; Serao, Cassio L C; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa V

    2016-01-29

    In early 2015, an outbreak of Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in northeast Brazil, an area where dengue virus was also circulating. By September, reports of an increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly in Zika virus-affected areas began to emerge, and Zika virus RNA was identified in the amniotic fluid of two women whose fetuses had been found to have microcephaly by prenatal ultrasound. The Brazil Ministry of Health (MoH) established a task force to investigate the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for incident microcephaly cases (head circumference ≥2 standard deviations [SD] below the mean for sex and gestational age at birth) and pregnancy outcomes among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Among a cohort of 35 infants with microcephaly born during August-October 2015 in eight of Brazil's 26 states and reported to the registry, the mothers of all 35 had lived in or visited Zika virus-affected areas during pregnancy, 25 (71%) infants had severe microcephaly (head circumference >3 SD below the mean for sex and gestational age), 17 (49%) had at least one neurologic abnormality, and among 27 infants who had neuroimaging studies, all had abnormalities. Tests for other congenital infections were negative. All infants had a lumbar puncture as part of the evaluation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were sent to a reference laboratory in Brazil for Zika virus testing; results are not yet available. Further studies are needed to confirm the association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and to understand any other adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with Zika virus infection. Pregnant women in Zika virus-affected areas should protect themselves from mosquito bites by using air conditioning, screens, or nets when indoors, wearing long sleeves and pants, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear

  19. Alterations in Bone and Erythropoiesis in Hemolytic Anemia: Comparative Study in Bled, Phenylhydrazine-Treated and Plasmodium-Infected Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Robert; Tshikudi Malu, Diane; Dumais, Mathieu; Dalko, Esther; Gaudreault, Véronique; Roméro, Hugo; Martineau, Corine; Kevorkova, Olha; Dardon, Jaime Sanchez; Dodd, Erin Lynn; Bohle, David Scott; Scorza, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    Sustained erythropoiesis and concurrent bone marrow hyperplasia are proposed to be responsible for low bone mass density (BMD) in chronic hemolytic pathologies. As impaired erythropoiesis is also frequent in these conditions, we hypothesized that free heme may alter marrow and bone physiology in these disorders. Bone status and bone marrow erythropoiesis were studied in mice with hemolytic anemia (HA) induced by phenylhydrazine (PHZ) or Plasmodium infection and in bled mice. All treatments resulted in lower hemoglobin concentrations, enhanced erythropoiesis in the spleen and reticulocytosis. The anemia was severe in mice with acute hemolysis, which also had elevated levels of free heme and ROS. No major changes in cellularity and erythroid cell numbers occurred in the bone marrow of bled mice, which generated higher numbers of erythroid blast forming units (BFU-E) in response to erythropoietin. In contrast, low numbers of bone marrow erythroid precursors and BFU-E and low concentrations of bone remodelling markers were measured in mice with HA, which also had blunted osteoclastogenesis, in opposition to its enhancement in bled mice. The alterations in bone metabolism were accompanied by reduced trabecular bone volume, enhanced trabecular spacing and lower trabecular numbers in mice with HA. Taken together our data suggests that hemolysis exerts distinct effects to bleeding in the marrow and bone and may contribute to osteoporosis through a mechanism independent of the erythropoietic stress. PMID:23029401

  20. Optimization of Herpes Virus Infection Treatment in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.P. Kharchenko

    2012-03-01

    There was revealed the polymorphism of human herpes virus 6 in children associated with virus replication activity. The important role of chronic human herpes virus 6 in forming of sickly children group with involvement of nervous and cardiovascular systems and presence of the various clinical variants correlating with the form of an infection contamination is confirmed. Principles of stratification of patients, diagnostic and treatment approaches with account of clinical semiology and complex of molecular-genetic, serological, bacteriological, neurofunctional and cardiovascular examinations were developed. The treatment positive results allow to confirm the benefit from integrative multidisciplinary therapy.

  1. Nonsynonymous changes of equine lentivirus receptor-1 (ELR1) gene in amino acids involved in the interaction with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbi-Botto, C M; Sadaba, S A; Zappa, M E; Peral-García, P; Díaz, S

    2017-06-01

    Equine lentivirus receptor-1 (ELR1) has been characterized as the specific functional receptor that mediates equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) entrance to horse macrophages. This receptor is tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 14 (TNFRSF14). The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of allelic variants in the coding sequence of equine TNFRSF14 gene by screening for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in different equine populations. Forty seven horse samples were randomly selected from a reservoir of EIAV-seropositive and seronegative samples collected from different outbreaks and regions of Argentina. DNA samples were scanned via PCR and direct sequencing of exon 3 and exon 5 of TNFRSF14 gene. A total of 21 SNPs were identified, of which 11 were located in coding sequences. Within exon 5, four SNPs caused nonsynonymous substitutions, while two other SNPs caused synonymous substitutions in crucial residues (Ser112 and Thr114) implicated in the interaction with EIAV. Despite some of exon 5 variants occurred exclusively in EIAV-positive or EIAV-negative horses, critical residues for the function of the mature protein were conserved, accounting for selective pressures in favor of preserving the specific function of TNFRSF members and the host immune response. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the existence of allelic variations involving some crucial amino acid residues in horse ELR1. Further, it could be an initial step to test the possible functional relevance and relationship of these variants with EIAV infection and disease progression as well as to develop preventive strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS INFECTION IN HUMANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrnjaković Cvjetković, Ivana; Cvjetković, Dejan; Patić, Aleksandra; Radovanov, Jelena; Kovacević, Gordana; Milosević, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Tick-borne meningoencephalitis virus is a flavivirus that causes the most important vector-borne central nervous system infection in many countries of Europe and Asia. There are three subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus: European, Siberian and the Far-Eastern subtype. In endemic areas, the virus remains in transmissive cycles between Ixodes ticks and small rodents. In most cases (70-98%) infection goes asymptomatically. In about one-third of meningitis cases, meningoencephalitis or meningomyelitis is developed. Postencephalytic syndrome may be the complication of the infection, presenting with neurological symptoms. Etiologic diagnosis of tick-borne meningoencephalitis is only made on basis of laboratory analyses. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction is used for determining the presence of virus in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Antibodies in blood and cerebrospinal fluid can be detected by serological tests. The most efficient way to control this potentially severe disease with possible serious long-term consequences is vaccination. It should be recommended to persons who live or travel to endemic areas. In Serbia, tick-borne encephalitis virus infection belongs to the list of reportable diseases; however, there are no reported cases because the diagnostics is not performed routinely. We believe that the significance of this zoonosis must be examined in our country and some of its parts because of preliminary positive serological findings found out in Vojvodina as well as because of reported cases in neighboring countries such as Hungary and Croatia and its worldwide distribution.

  3. Deletion of leucine 61 in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase leads to chronic nonspherocytic anemia, granulocyte dysfunction, and increased susceptibility to infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruggen, Robin; Bautista, José M.; Petropoulou, Theoni; de Boer, Martin; van Zwieten, Rob; Gómez-Gallego, Felíx; Belohradsky, Bernd H.; Hartwig, Nico G.; Stevens, David; Mason, Philip J.; Roos, Dirk

    2002-01-01

    In this study the blood cells of 4 male patients from 2 unrelated families with chronic nonspherocytic anemia and recurrent bacterial infections were investigated. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in the red blood cells and in the granulocytes of these patients was below

  4. Unusual Anemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughety, Molly Maddock; DeLoughery, Thomas G

    2017-03-01

    Many processes lead to anemia. This review covers anemias that are less commonly encountered in the United States. These anemias include hemoglobin defects like thalassemia, bone marrow failure syndromes like aplastic anemia and pure red cell aplasia, and hemolytic processes such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. The pathogenesis, diagnostic workup, and treatment of these rare anemias are reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nosocomial infections by respiratory syncytial virus in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Karina Machado Echeverría

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute lower respiratory infections cause high morbidity and mortality in children. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most prevalent agent. Some viruses cause serious nosocomial infections. In Uruguay, there is no knowledge about the morbidity and mortality of nosocomial infections by RSV. Objective: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of RSV nosocomial infections. Methodology: A descriptive study of acute lower respiratory infections caused by RSV in patients younger than two years, between 1/1/2005 and 31/12/2008 at the Hospital Pediátrico del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell, was made. Results: Were identified 59 patients who represented an annual rate lower than 2/1000 discharges. The monthly distribution of cases was similar to the respiratory infections. No outbreaks were reported. The age of the patients had an average of 8.9 months, 39 were younger than one year, 23 had one or more risk factors for severe disease. Six patients required admission to intensive care unit, all required invasive ventilation, 3 died, none had chronic respiratory failure following the RSV nosocomial infection. Conclusions: During the study period, the RSV nosocomial infections showed a low prevalence, despite it highly contagiousness. They mainly affected young children, carriers of risk factors for severe ALRI. Their evolution was similar to that reported for RSV respiratory infections community acquired. It is important to maintain standards for the control of nosocomial infections, to prevent nosocomial transmission of RSV and prevent the onset of severe disease in hospitalized patients.

  6. Preparedness for ongoing Ebola virus infection: how to welcome it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sora Yasri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of Ebola virus infection is the big global concern. Preparedness for ongoing Ebola virus infection is the topic that should be discussed. In fact, it is necessary to set up a biosecurity system to protect against the present Ebola outbreak. The medical personnel have to prepare for fighting the problem. The management of the present outbreak requires international collaboration and control of cross-border disease transmission is also the big challenge. The good case study is the Hajj scenario.

  7. Beet western yellows virus infects the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Sissi; Biteau, Flore; Mignard, Benoit; Marais, Armelle; Candresse, Thierry; Theil, Sébastien; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Hehn, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Although poleroviruses are known to infect a broad range of higher plants, carnivorous plants have not yet been reported as hosts. Here, we describe the first polerovirus naturally infecting the pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The virus was identified through bioinformatic analysis of NGS transcriptome data. The complete viral genome sequence was assembled from overlapping PCR fragments and shown to share 91.1 % nucleotide sequence identity with the US isolate of beet western yellows virus (BWYV). Further analysis of other N. mirabilis plants revealed the presence of additional BWYV isolates differing by several insertion/deletion mutations in ORF5.

  8. Caligus rogercresseyi: posible vector en la transmisión horizontal del virus de la anemia infecciosa del salmón (ISAv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Oelckers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chile el año 2007 se convirtió en el segundo país productor de salmónidos a nivel mundial. Al año siguiente la industria salmonera nacional comenzó a experimentar una severa crisis sanitaria producida por el virus causante de la anemia infecciosa del salmón. Este virus se presentó por primera vez en Noruega (1984, luego en Canadá, Escocia, Islas Faroe, Estados Unidos y Chile (2007. La anemia infecciosa del salmón (ISA, es una enfermedad altamente contagiosa entre los peces, producida por un virus de la familia Orthomyxoviridae. La especie más vulnerable a este virus es el salmón del Atlántico (Salmo salar. La plaga parasitaria producida por el piojo de mar, Caligus rogercresseyi, copépodo ectoparásito, ha ido en aumento lo que favorece el contagio de enfermedades bacterianas y virales. De todas las especies cultivadas en Chile, el salmón del Atlántico, S. salar es una de las especies más susceptibles de ser infestadas por C. rogercresseyi. Durante el 2006, la industria presentó un aumento significativo en las tasas de infestación por Caligus; luego en el 2007, aparecieron brotes del virus ISA. En Noruega, se ha demostrado que el piojo de mar, Lepeophtherius salmonis puede tener un rol como vector en la transmisión del virus ISA, por lo que el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar si C. rogercresseyi es un vector de transmisión del virus ISA en el salmón del Atlántico, cultivado en el sur de Chile.

  9. [Materno-fetal infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, S

    1989-06-01

    Transmission of the HIV from mother to fetus is now virtually the only means by which children can be contaminated. Thirty to 40% of infants born to HIV-seropositive mothers are infected. Nearly half of infected neonates develop AIDS within the first two or three years of life. Early diagnosis of HIV infection rests on recovery of the virus. Early administration of azidothymidine may reduce the severity of this infection that is occurring increasingly in France, where 30,000 to 40,000 women are HIV-seropositive.

  10. T cell immunity to infection with dengue virus in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eWeiskopf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is the etiologic agent of dengue fever, the most significant mosquito-borne viral disease in humans. Up to 400 million DENV infections occur every year, and severity can range from asymptomatic to an acute self-limiting febrile illness. In a small proportion of patients, the disease can exacerbate and progress to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and/or dengue shock syndrome (DSS, characterized by severe vascular leakage, thrombocytopenia, and hemorrhagic manifestations. A unique challenge in vaccine development against DENV is the high degree of sequence variation, characteristically associated with RNA viruses. This is of particular relevance in the case of DENV since infection with one DENV serotype (primary infection presumably affords life-long serotype-specific immunity but only partial and temporary immunity to other serotypes in secondary infections settings. The role of T cells in dengue virus infection and subsequent disease manifestations is not fully understood. According to the original antigenic sin theory, skewing of T cell responses induced by primary infection with one serotype causes less effective response upon secondary infection with a different serotype, predisposing to severe disease. Our recent study has suggested an HLA linked protective role for T cells. Herein we will discuss the role of T cells in protection and pathogenesis from severe disease as well as the implications for vaccine design.

  11. Herpes Simplex Virus Infections of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    This article summarizes knowledge of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Disease pathogenesis, detection of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis and prognosis, and approaches to therapy warrant consideration. HSV infection of the CNS is one of few treatable viral diseases. Clinical trials indicate that outcome following neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections of the CNS is significantly improved when 6 months of suppressive oral acyclovir therapy follows IV antiviral therapy. In contrast, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections of the brain do not benefit from extended oral antiviral therapy. This implies a difference in disease pathogenesis between HSV-2 and HSV-1 infections of the brain. PCR detection of viral DNA in the CSF is the gold standard for diagnosis. Use of PCR is now being adopted as a basis for determining the duration of therapy in the newborn. HSV infections are among the most common encountered by humans; seropositivity occurs in 50% to 90% of adult populations. Herpes simplex encephalitis, however, is an uncommon result of this infection. Since no new antiviral drugs have been introduced in nearly 3 decades, much effort has focused on learning how to better use acyclovir and how to use existing databases to establish earlier diagnosis.

  12. Advances in Animal Models of Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection seriously affects human health. Stable and reliable animal models of HBV infection bear significance in studying pathogenesis of this health condition and development of intervention measures. HBV exhibits high specificity for hosts, and chimpanzee is long used as sole animal model of HBV infection. However, use of chimpanzees is strictly constrained because of ethical reasons. Many methods were used to establish small-animal models of HBV infection. Tupaia is the only nonprimate animal that can be infected by HBV. Use of HBV-related duck hepatitis virus and marmot hepatitis virus infection model contributed to evaluation of mechanism of HBV replication and HBV treatment methods. In recent years, development of human–mouse chimeric model provided possibility of using common experimental animals to carry out HBV research. These models feature their own advantages and disadvantages and can be complementary in some ways. This study provides an overview of current and commonly used animal models of HBV infection.

  13. The role of cell proteins in dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Ma Isabel; del Angel, Rosa María; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Ludert, Juan E; Pando-Robles, Victoria

    2014-12-05

    Despite 70 years of study, dengue disease continues to be a global health burden. Treatment is only supportive based on presenting symptoms. To date, there is no licensed prophylactic vaccine and no specific antiviral drugs available. The pathogenesis mechanisms during dengue virus infections remain poorly understood, and the complete picture on risk factors for developing severe clinical illness is still unknown. Viruses as obligate intracellular parasites depend on the host cell machinery for replication. As a result of a co-evolution process for million years, viruses have developed sophisticated strategies to hijack and use cellular factors for entry, replication and propagation, alternate host transmission and to combat host cell defenses. This review focuses on recent reports about cellular proteins involved along the dengue virus replication cycle, in prime cellular targets during the infection of both humans and mosquito hosts and also on the proteomics and other approaches that are being used to reveal the entire orchestration and most significant processes altered during infection. Identification of the key host cell factors involve in these processes will provide a better understanding of how viruses replicate and cause disease, and how to develop more effective therapeutic interventions. Dengue disease is as a global health problem. The treatment is only supportive based on presenting symptoms. To date, there is no licensed prophylactic vaccine and no specific antiviral drugs available. The study of the interactions between virus and host cell proteins will provide a better understanding of how viruses replicate and cause disease. Here, we focus on the current knowledge about the cellular proteins involved during DENV infection in different target cells in the two hosts, mosquito and human. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Aedes aegypti D7 Saliva Protein Inhibits Dengue Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Conway

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of several medically relevant arboviruses including dengue virus (DENV types 1-4. Ae. aegypti transmits DENV by inoculating virus-infected saliva into host skin during probing and feeding. Ae. aegypti saliva contains over one hundred unique proteins and these proteins have diverse functions, including facilitating blood feeding. Previously, we showed that Ae. aegypti salivary gland extracts (SGEs enhanced dissemination of DENV to draining lymph nodes. In contrast, HPLC-fractionation revealed that some SGE components inhibited infection. Here, we show that D7 proteins are enriched in HPLC fractions that are inhibitory to DENV infection, and that recombinant D7 protein can inhibit DENV infection in vitro and in vivo. Further, binding assays indicate that D7 protein can directly interact with DENV virions and recombinant DENV envelope protein. These data reveal a novel role for D7 proteins, which inhibits arbovirus transmission to vertebrates through a direct interaction with virions.

  15. Clinical, Pathological and Immunological Aspects of Transplacental PRRS Virus Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    . The first animal experiments elucidated the pathogenicity of Danish PRRS virus (PRRSV) isolates in pregnant sows together with the effects of infection at various stages of gestation. In 1996, the introduction of a vaccination program using an attenuated live PRRS vaccine led to an epidemic of American type...... PRRSV in the previously unaffected Danish pig population. Acute PRRS like disease was observed in non-vaccinated as well as in vaccinated herds, and it was demonstrated that the vaccine strain had reverted to virulence. By experimental infection of late term pregnant sows, we demonstrated that a field...... isolate of PRRS vaccine-derived virus (VDV) could cause disease in swine consistent with PRRS, thus confirming the etiological role of VDV. Since the complex pathology following in utero infection with PRRSV indicates impairment of the immune system of congenitally infected pigs, we studied various aspect...

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and inflammatory arthritis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reported prevalence of articular manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) varies, but with sub-Saharan Africa accounting for almost 70% of the people living with HIV, this results in a considerable burden of disease in the region. The spectrum of clinical presentation described, includes articular pain ...

  17. Host cell responses to dengue virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diosa Toro, Mayra

    2017-01-01

    Dengue (ook wel knokkelkoorts) is de meest voorkomende virale infectieziekte dat wordt overgedragen door muggen in de wereld met naar schatting 390 miljoen infecties per jaar. Ondanks de grote klinische impact en economische schade van het dengue virus is er nog steeds geen behandeling beschikbaar.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus infection and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Sai Wah; Tsang, Chi Man; Lo, Kwok Wai

    2017-10-19

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with multiple types of human cancer, including lymphoid and epithelial cancers. The closest association with EBV infection is seen in undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which is endemic in the southern Chinese population. A strong association between NPC risk and the HLA locus at chromosome 6p has been identified, indicating a link between the presentation of EBV antigens to host immune cells and NPC risk. EBV infection in NPC is clonal in origin, strongly suggesting that NPC develops from the clonal expansion of a single EBV-infected cell. In epithelial cells, the default program of EBV infection is lytic replication. However, latent infection is the predominant mode of EBV infection in NPC. The establishment of latent EBV infection in pre-invasive nasopharyngeal epithelium is believed to be an early stage of NPC pathogenesis. Recent genomic study of NPC has identified multiple somatic mutations in the upstream negative regulators of NF-κB signalling. Dysregulated NF-κB signalling may contribute to the establishment of latent EBV infection in NPC. Stable EBV infection and the expression of latent EBV genes are postulated to drive the transformation of pre-invasive nasopharyngeal epithelial cells to cancer cells through multiple pathways.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human oncogenic viruses'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Um protocolo de "nested-PCR" para detecção do vírus da anemia das galinhas A nested-PCR protocol for detection of the chicken anemia virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Simionatto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve o estabelecimento de um pro!tocolo de "nested-PCR" para a detecção do vírus da anemia das galinhas (CAV, chicken anemia virus, agente causador da anemia infecciosa das galinhas. Para a extração de DNA a partir de amostras clínicas um método baseado no uso de tiocianato de guanidina mostrou-se mais sensível e prático, do que os demais avaliados. Para a PCR inicial foi selecionado um par de primers que amplifica uma região de 664 pares de bases (pb do gene VP1. Para a "nested-PCR" propriamente dita, foi selecionado um segundo par que amplifica uma região interna de 520 pb. A especificidade dos primers foi avaliada utilizando amostras de lotes controlados para CAV. Outras trinta amostras vírus e bactérias, causadoras de doenças em aves, não geraram produto de amplificação. A sensibilidade do teste foi determinada a partir de diluições seriadas de uma amostra vacinal de CAV. A "nested-PCR" mostrou ser mais sensível do que a PCR e foi capaz de detectar pelo menos 0,16 TCID50% da cepa vacinal. Além disso, detectou DNA viral em tecidos, soro e cama aviária de lotes com e sem sinais clínicos. Conclui-se que, como técnica para a detecção do CAV, o protocolo de "nested-PCR" aqui descrito, é mais sensível, rápido e menos trabalhoso do que o isolamento viral em cultivo celular.This paper reports a nested polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR protocol for detection of chicken anemia virus (CAV, the causal agent of infectious chicken anemia. For DNA extraction from clinical samples, a method based on guanidine thiocyanate was found more sensitive and practical than other extraction protocols tested. The pair of primers used in the initial PCR targeted a 664 bp fragment on the VP1 gene. The primers for the internal PCR targeted a fragment of 520 bp. The specificity of the primers was evaluated on samples of CAV controlled flocks. Thirty different viruses and bacteria isolated from chickens did not give rise

  20. Four viruses infecting figs in Western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Y. ALDHEBIANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases are compromising fig production in Saudi Arabia and in particular those caused by viruses. RT-PCR assays were conducted on 80 samples collected from four fig-growing provinces in the West Mecca region of Saudi Arabia, including the Fatima, Khulais, Rabigh and Alshifa valleys. Samples consisted of leaf tissues taken from caprifig and common fig trees. The presence of Fig mosaic virus (FMV, Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 1 (FLMaV-1, Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 2 (FLMaV-2 and Fig mild mottle-associated virus (FMMaV was assessed from the samples. RT-PCR results showed that all four viruses were present in the surveyed areas with different proportions of infection. Incidence was 69% of samples, with a peak of 80%, from the Alshifa and Fatima valleys, 60% from Rabigh and 55% from Khulais valley. FLMaV-1 was the prevailing virus (55% of samples, followed by FMV (34%, whereas FLMaV-2 (11% of samples and FMMaV (6% were less common. Most of the mosaic symptoms observed in surveyed fig orchards occurred with the presence of FMV. However, many other symptoms remained unexplained because of the arduous task of determining the involvement of other fig-infecting viruses with mosaic disease. This is the first report of FMMaV and FLMaV-2 in Saudi Arabia, and of FMV and FLMaV-1 in western Saudi Arabia. The virus status of this crop is probably compromised and a sanitation programme is required to produce healthy plant material in Saudi Arabia.

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: In a country with a rapidly spreading HIV epidemic information regarding HIV and TB Co-infection are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of HIV infection in a representative sample of sputum-positive tuberculosis patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey whereby blood sample was ...

  2. The biology of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Donald P

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this article is to review the basic biology of infection with HIV-1 and the development of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The discussion will include epidemiology, general description of the retroviruses, pathogenesis of the immune deficiency, clinical consequences, treatment, and treatment outcomes. Aspects of the infection that affect protein and energy balance will be identified.

  3. Stability of the gorilla microbiome despite simian immunodeficiency virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Moeller, A. H.; Peeters, Martine; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Ngole, E. M.; Esteban, A.; Hahn, B. H.; Ochman, H.

    2015-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) have been discovered in over 45 primate species; however, the pathogenic potential of most SIV strains remains unknown due to difficulties inherent in observing wild populations. Because those SIV infections that are pathogenic have been shown to induce changes in the host's gut microbiome, monitoring the microbiota present in faecal samples can provide a noninvasive means for studying the effects of SIV infection on the health of wild-living primates. H...

  4. Transient Hearing Loss in Adults Associated With Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhaes, Eriko S; Santos, Luciane A; Dias, Lislane; Andrade, Nilvano A; Bezerra, Victor H; de Carvalho, Anderson T; de Moraes, Laise; Henriques, Daniele F; Azar, Sasha R; Vasilakis, Nikos; Ko, Albert I; Andrade, Bruno B; Siqueira, Isadora C; Khouri, Ricardo; Boaventura, Viviane S

    2017-03-01

    In 2015, during the outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil, we identified 3 cases of acute hearing loss after exanthematous illness. Serology yielded finding compatible with ZIKV as the cause of a confirmed (n = 1) and a probable (n = 2) flavivirus infection, indicating an association between ZIKV infection and transient hearing loss. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  5. Experimental infection of pregnant gilts with swine hepatitis E virus

    OpenAIRE

    Kasorndorkbua, Chaiyan; Thacker, Brad J.; Halbur, Patrick G.; Guenette, Denis K.; Buitenwerf, Ryan M.; Royer, Ryan L.; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effect of swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection on pregnant gilts, their fetuses, and offspring, 12 gilts were intravenously inoculated with swine HEV. Six gilts, who were not inoculated, served as controls. All inoculated gilts became actively infected and shed HEV in feces, but vertical transmission was not detected in the fetuses. There was no evidence of clinical disease in the gilts or their offspring. Mild multifocal lymphohistiocytic hepatitis was observed in 4 of 12...

  6. Disseminated Histoplasmosis in Early Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Prabhava; Sarria, Juan C

    2017-03-01

    Early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to transient immunosuppression followed by a quasi-homeostatic state with slow progression towards AIDS. Histoplasmosis has never been reported in early HIV. We present a case of disseminated histoplasmosis with documented recent seroconversion and review the literature regarding other opportunistic infections in early HIV. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Spleen necrosis virus, an avian retrovirus, can infect primate cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, H M; Brown, A M; Ron, Y; Dougherty, J P

    1991-01-01

    Spleen necrosis virus (SNV) is an avian retrovirus that can infect some mammalian cells such as dog cells as well as all avian cells tested to date. We were interested in testing whether SNV could also infect primate cells. For these experiments, we used HeLa and COS-7 cells. Initially, we determined whether the SNV long terminal repeat promoter was functional in HeLa and COS-7 cells. In transient transfection assays, the SNV promoter efficiently directed chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gen...

  8. ROLE OF THE SEROLOGIC TEST FOR DENGUE VIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Sinta Purnama Dewi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Dengue virus infection is infection disease cause by dengue virus. Dengue virus infection can cause a broad spectrum disease such as : dengue fever (DF, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, and dengue shock syndrome (DSS. Currently dengue virus ranks eighth as a cause of illness in the State of South-East Asia and Western Pacific. Epidemic dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur each year in Indonesia with a tendency incident and the affected area is increasing. Laboratory tests can be done to detect the dengue virus infection: a complete blood count and serology. Of serology test, positive IgM antibody showed that patients had a primary infection, whereas patients with secondary infections showed positive IgG antibodies, usually accompanied by antibody IgM positive. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  9. Spatial analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cougars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David C; Waller, Lance A; Biek, Roman

    2010-07-01

    The cougar (Puma concolor) is a large predatory feline found widely in the Americas that is susceptible to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a fast-evolving lentivirus found in wild feline species that is analogous to simian immunodeficiency viruses in wild primates and belongs to the same family of viruses as human immunodeficiency virus. FIV infection in cougars can lead to a weakened immune system that creates opportunities for other infecting agents. FIV prevalence and lineages have been studied previously in several areas in the western United States, but typically without spatially explicit statistical techniques. To describe the distribution of FIV in a sample of cougars located in the northern Rocky Mountain region of North America, we first used kernel density ratio estimation to map the log relative risk of FIV. The risk surface showed a significant cluster of FIV in northwestern Montana. We also used Bayesian cluster models for genetic data to investigate the spatial structure of the feline immunodeficiency virus with virus genetic sequence data. A result of the models was two spatially distinct FIV lineages that aligned considerably with an interstate highway in Montana. Our results suggest that the use of spatial information and models adds novel insight when investigating an infectious animal disease. The results also suggest that the influence of landscape features likely plays an important role in the spatiotemporal spread of an infectious disease within wildlife populations.

  10. Clinical and Laboratory Diagnosis of Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, David A; Depelsenaire, Alexandra C I; Young, Paul R

    2017-03-01

    Infection with any of the 4 dengue virus serotypes results in a diverse range of symptoms, from mild undifferentiated fever to life-threatening hemorrhagic fever and shock. Given that dengue virus infection elicits such a broad range of clinical symptoms, early and accurate laboratory diagnosis is essential for appropriate patient management. Virus detection and serological conversion have been the main targets of diagnostic assessment for many years, however cross-reactivity of antibody responses among the flaviviruses has been a confounding issue in providing a differential diagnosis. Furthermore, there is no single, definitive diagnostic biomarker that is present across the entire period of patient presentation, particularly in those experiencing a secondary dengue infection. Nevertheless, the development and commercialization of point-of-care combination tests capable of detecting markers of infection present during different stages of infection (viral nonstructural protein 1 and immunoglobulin M) has greatly simplified laboratory-based dengue diagnosis. Despite these advances, significant challenges remain in the clinical management of dengue-infected patients, especially in the absence of reliable biomarkers that provide an effective prognostic indicator of severe disease progression. This review briefly summarizes some of the complexities and issues surrounding clinical dengue diagnosis and the laboratory diagnostic options currently available. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Neutralizing Antibodies and Pathogenesis of Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Stoll-Keller

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. The interplay between the virus and host innate and adaptive immune responses determines the outcome of infection. There is increasing evidence that host neutralizing responses play a relevant role in the resulting pathogenesis. Furthermore, viral evasion from host neutralizing antibodies has been revealed to be an important contributor in leading both to viral persistence in acute liver graft infection following liver transplantation, and to chronic viral infection. The development of novel model systems to study HCV entry and neutralization has allowed a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms of virus-host interactions during antibody-mediated neutralization. The understanding of these mechanisms will ultimately contribute to the development of novel antiviral preventive strategies for liver graft infection and an urgently needed vaccine. This review summarizes recent concepts of the role of neutralizing antibodies in viral clearance and protection, and highlights consequences of viral escape from neutralizing antibodies in the pathogenesis of HCV infection.

  12. Renal disease in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, K J; Levy, J K; Edinboro, C H; Vaden, S L; Tompkins, M B

    2012-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cause similar clinical syndromes of immune dysregulation, opportunistic infections, inflammatory diseases, and neoplasia. Renal disease is the 4th most common cause of death associated with HIV infection. To investigate the association between FIV infection and renal disease in cats. Client-owned cats (153 FIV-infected, 306 FIV-noninfected) and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) research colony cats (95 FIV-infected, 98 FIV-noninfected). A mixed retrospective/prospective cross-sectional study. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, urine specific gravity (USG), and urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) data were compared between FIV-infected and FIV-noninfected cats. In FIV-infected cats, total CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were measured using flow cytometry, and CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio was calculated. Renal azotemia was defined as a serum creatinine ≥ 1.9 mg/dL with USG ≤ 1.035. Proteinuria was defined as a UPC > 0.4 with an inactive urine sediment. Among the client-owned cats, no association was detected between FIV infection and renal azotemia (P = .24); however, a greater proportion of FIV-infected cats were proteinuric (25.0%, 16 of 64 cats) compared to FIV-noninfected cats (10.3%, 20 of 195 cats) (P FIV-infected cats, but UPC was positively correlated with the CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio (Spearman's rho = 0.37, P = .01). Among the SPF research colony cats, no association was detected between FIV infection and renal azotemia (P = .21) or proteinuria (P = .25). Proteinuria but not azotemia was associated with natural FIV infection. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Alteration of cell cycle progression by Sindbis virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Ruirong; Saito, Kengo [Department of Molecular Virology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Isegawa, Naohisa [Laboratory Animal Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Shirasawa, Hiroshi, E-mail: sirasawa@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Molecular Virology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan)

    2015-07-10

    We examined the impact of Sindbis virus (SINV) infection on cell cycle progression in a cancer cell line, HeLa, and a non-cancerous cell line, Vero. Cell cycle analyses showed that SINV infection is able to alter the cell cycle progression in both HeLa and Vero cells, but differently, especially during the early stage of infection. SINV infection affected the expression of several cell cycle regulators (CDK4, CDK6, cyclin E, p21, cyclin A and cyclin B) in HeLa cells and caused HeLa cells to accumulate in S phase during the early stage of infection. Monitoring SINV replication in HeLa and Vero cells expressing cell cycle indicators revealed that SINV which infected HeLa cells during G{sub 1} phase preferred to proliferate during S/G{sub 2} phase, and the average time interval for viral replication was significantly shorter in both HeLa and Vero cells infected during G{sub 1} phase than in cells infected during S/G{sub 2} phase. - Highlights: • SINV infection was able to alter the cell cycle progression of infected cancer cells. • SINV infection can affect the expression of cell cycle regulators. • SINV infection exhibited a preference for the timing of viral replication among the cell cycle phases.

  14. Special Issue: Viruses Infecting Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gregory Chinchar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although viruses infecting and affecting humans are the focus of considerable research effort, viruses that target other animal species, including cold-blooded vertebrates, are receiving increased attention. In part this reflects the interests of comparative virologists, but increasingly it is based on the impact that many viruses have on ecologically and commercially important animals. Frogs and other amphibians are sentinels of environmental health and their disappearance following viral or fungal (chytrid infection is a cause for alarm. Likewise, because aquaculture and mariculture are providing an increasingly large percentage of the “seafood” consumed by humans, viral agents that adversely impact the harvest of cultured fish and amphibians are of equal concern. [...

  15. Transverse myelitis associated with Zika virus infection: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beattriz Vaz Pereira Casagrande

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Title: Transverse myelitis associated with Zika virus infection: a Case Report.: The zika virus belongs to the family flaviviridae, and is transmitted by the arthropod Aedes aegypt. Its major importance is related to the several debilitating neurological manifestations associated with it, such as transverse myelitis. Case: The authors report a case of transverse myelitis in a patient with a previous diagnosis of Zika virus infection. After the image exams and serology, the diagnosis was confirmed and treatment with prednisone was performed with an unsatisfactory clinical outcome. Conclusion: Brazil is the country of greatest concern worldwide due to the thousands of Zika cases with associated neurological complications, causing sequels and physical disabilities. However, cases worldwide have increased substantially.

  16. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly: Evidence for a Causal Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Na; Ling, Feng

    2016-10-20

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to the Dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses. Since the explosive outbreaks of ZIKV in Latin America in 2015, a sudden increase in the number of microcephaly cases has been observed in infants of women who were pregnant when they contracted the virus. The severity of this condition raises grave concerns, and extensive studies on the possible link between ZIKV infection and microcephaly have been conducted. There is substantial evidence suggesting that there is a causal link between ZIKV and microcephaly, however, future studies are warranted to solidify this association. To summarize the most recent evidence on this issue and provide perspectives for future studies, we reviewed the literature to identify existing evidence of the causal link between ZIKV infection and microcephaly within research related to the epidemics, laboratory diagnosis, and possible mechanisms.

  17. Mathematical solutions for Hepatitis B virus infection in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an analysis of the transmission dynamics and control of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Nigeria using mathematical model Rc was obtained as the effective basic reproduction number, and its values computed using 6 different control strategies. Result shows that with 25 years waning rate of vaccine, HBV ...

  18. Hepatitus B virus infection : factors influencing the outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Hattum (Jan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis study was designed to find correlations between the various courses of disease after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and factors that could conceivably have influenced the course of disease. The aim of the study was to find correlations between parameters of viral replication and

  19. Immune Response and Immunolmodulation in Chronic Hepatiitis B Virus Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Sprengers (Dave)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractDespite the presence of an effective vaccine since 1982, chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB) still ranks among the highest causes of mortality from infectious diseases worldwide. The studies presented in this thesis were performed to get a better insight into the

  20. Cardiovascular implications from untreated human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jason V; Lundgren, Jens D

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become an important cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with access to antiretroviral medications, as the risk for AIDS has fallen and life expectancy improved. Traditional CVD risk f...

  1. Transfusion Related Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection in Sickle Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine retrospectively, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in relation to a background history of blood transfusion; through anti HCV antibody screening test, amongst adult sickle cell disease patients. Anti HCV antibody was tested for in the serum of 92 consecutively selected ...

  2. Certain growth related attributes of bunchy top virus infected banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) on morpho-physiological characteristics of banana (Musa sp.) cv., Basrai plants was assessed. Healthy and BBTV infected samples of banana were collected from its open fields and micro-propagated aseptically. These plantlets were established in wire-house for three months.

  3. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture, and its rampant spread has resulted in great economic loss. Identification of host cellular proteins interacting with WSSV will help in unravelling the repertoire of host proteins involved in WSSV infection. In this study, we have employed ...

  4. Transgenic tomato hybrids resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de P.; Ultzen, T.; Prins, M.; Gielen, J.; Goldbach, R.; Grinsven, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infections cause significant economic losses in the commercial culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Culture practices have only been marginally effective in controlling TSWV. The ultimate way to minimize losses caused by TSWV is resistant varieties. These can

  5. Hepatitis B Virus Infection In Patients With Homozygous Sickle Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnebe-Agumadu U H, and Abiodun P O. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Patients with Homozygous Sickle Cell Disease (HbSS): Need for Intervention. Annals Biomedical Sciences 2002; 1:79-87. This is a prospective study of 213 patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) (112 males and 101 females) aged 6 months to 18 years ...

  6. Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women delivering at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier and infectivity status among women delivering at Harare Maternity Hospital. Design: A serological survey study of pregnant women admitted for labour and delivery. Setting: Harare Maternity Hospital, Harare, Zimbabwe between June 1996 and June ...

  7. Infection of hepatitis C virus genotypes in hepatocellular carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the infection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients from rural areas of Faisalabad region. Among 179 HCC subjects, men and women were 51 and 49%, respectively. All samples positive for HCV RNA by qualitative PCR were ...

  8. Seroprevalence of hepatitis b virus infection amongst pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B is a worldwide health care problem, especially in developing countries. An estimated one third of the global population has been infected with this virus. Two hundred (200) serum samples from pregnant women attending the antenatal centre of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria ...

  9. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased ...

  10. Knowledge of Hepatitis B Virus Infection Among Traders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-16

    May 16, 2017 ... to biomedical concepts. Attitude, on the other hand, has been defined as “a learned predisposition to. INTRODUCTION. Infection with hepatitis B virus ..... Past history of jaundice Yes. No. (f). Do you share sharps (razor blade, clippers, Needles with another person. Yes. No. (i). Do you share your tooth brush ...

  11. Haematology of infectious bursal disease virus infected chickens on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is an herbal spice proven to posses antimicrobial and immunostimulating properties which could be useful in the control of endemic diseases of poultry such as infectious bursal disease (IBD). Its effect on IBD virus infection was therefore investigated via haematological assessment. One hundred and ...

  12. Role of antibodies in controlling dengue virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaar, Hilde M.; Wilschut, Jan C.; Smit, Jolanda M.

    The incidence and disease burden of arthropod-borne flavivirus infections have dramatically increased during the last decades due to major societal and economic changes, including massive urbanization, lack of vector control, travel, and international trade. Specifically, in the case of dengue virus

  13. Depression after Infection with West Nile Virus 1

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Kristy O.; Resnick, Melissa; Miller, Vicki

    2007-01-01

    Previous reports have noted depression after West Nile virus (WNV) infection. We further measured this outcome and found that 31% of patients reported new-onset depression and 75% of these had Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scores indicative of mild-to-severe depression. Physicians should be aware of neuropsychiatric consequences of WNV in patients.

  14. Prevalence And Risk Factors For Human Pappiloma Virus Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Pappiloma Virus (HPV) infection is a disease of global public health importance, culminating into a high risk of cervical cancer. Most of the risk factors are modifiable, thus making HPV itself preventable. Efforts towards community HPV prevention and vaccination have not yielded the desired results, most especially ...

  15. Health Disparity in Human Papilloma Virus Related Infections | Poku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of the volume of information of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and the HPV vaccines, there are racial and gender differences in the knowledge and awareness of HPV among Guyanese. The study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude towards HPV infection, cervical cancer and HPV vaccines. The study was ...

  16. Chikungunya Virus and Central Nervous System Infections in Children, India

    OpenAIRE

    Lewthwaite, Penny; Vasanthapuram, Ravi; Osborne, Jane C.; Begum, Ashia; Plank, Jenna L.M.; Shankar, M. Veera; Hewson, Roger; Desai, Anita; Beeching, Nick J.; Ravikumar, Ravi; Solomon, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus best known for causing fever, rash, arthralgia, and occasional neurologic disease. By using real-time reverse transcription?PCR, we detected CHIKV in plasma samples of 8 (14%) of 58 children with suspected central nervous system infection in Bellary, India. CHIKV was also detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of 3 children.

  17. Chronic West Nile virus infection in kea (Nestor notabilis)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakonyi, T.; Gaydon, G. K.; Schwing, R.; Vogl, W.; Häbich, A.-C.; Thaller, D.; Weissenböck, H.; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Nowotny, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 183, February (2016), s. 135-139 ISSN 0378-1135 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT; European Commission(XE) 261391 - EUROWESTNILE Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile virus * Lineage 2 * Kea * Nestor notabilis * Psittaciformes * Persistent infection * Austria Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.628, year: 2016

  18. Awareness of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the level of awareness of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among antenatal clients in Nnewi Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study of six hundred consecutive antenatal clients attending the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital and five private ...

  19. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in a rural community of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in a rural community of Plateau State: effective control measures still a nightmare? GTA Jombo, DZ Egah, EB Banwat. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 15(1) 2006: 49-52. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  20. Management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adults in resource-limited countries: Challenges and prospects in Nigeria. AG Habib. Abstract. No Abstract. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine Vol. 3 (1) 2005: pp. 26-32. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...