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Sample records for anemia computed tomographic

  1. Computer tomographic findings in neurosyphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Pavithran K

    1993-01-01

    Computer tomographic features of the brain in 2 cases of neurosyphilis are described. Less prominence of the cortical sulci suggesting cortical atrophy was the predominant feature in a case of general paralysis of insane. Diffuse, irregular, non-enhancing, low-attenuated area in the cortical and subcortical region of the right temporoparietal lobe of a patient with vascular syphilis, suggested infarction of the brain.

  2. Computer tomographic findings in neurosyphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithran K

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer tomographic features of the brain in 2 cases of neurosyphilis are described. Less prominence of the cortical sulci suggesting cortical atrophy was the predominant feature in a case of general paralysis of insane. Diffuse, irregular, non-enhancing, low-attenuated area in the cortical and subcortical region of the right temporoparietal lobe of a patient with vascular syphilis, suggested infarction of the brain.

  3. Computed tomographic findings of trichuriasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naime Tokmak; Zafer Koc; Serife Ulusan; Ismail Soner Koltas; Nebil Bal

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we present computed tomographic findings of colonic trichuriasis. The patient was a 75-year-old man who complained of abdominal pain, and weight loss.Diagnosis was achieved by colonoscopic biopsy. Abdominal computed tomography showed irregular and nodular thickening of the wall of the cecum and ascending colon.Although these findings are nonspecific, they may be one of the findings of trichuriasis. These findings, confirmed by pathologic analysis of the biopsied tissue and KatoKatz parasitological stool flotation technique, revealed adult Trichuris. To our knowledge, this is the first report of colonic trichuriasis indicated by computed tomography.

  4. Computed tomographic angiography in tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasar, Pankajkumar Ashok; Ravikumar, Radhakrishnan; Varghese, Roy; Kotecha, Monika; Vimala, Jesudian; Kumar, Raghavan Nair Suresh

    2011-10-01

    Echocardiography is often inadequate for imaging tetralogy of Fallot, prompting cineangiography. This study prospectively evaluated multidetector computed tomographic angiography for preoperative evaluation of tetralogy of Fallot in 112 consecutive patients. Forty-eight had nonconfluent or hypoplastic pulmonary arteries (mean z-score, -2; range, -11.1-0.13) permitting only palliative or no surgery; 64 had adequate pulmonary artery anatomy (mean z-score, 0.59; range, -2.53-3.4) allowing total repair. The surgical data of 50 patients who underwent total correction were compared with transthoracic echocardiography and multidetector computed tomographic angiography findings. Multidetector computed tomographic angiography tended to reveal unsuspected collaterals and coronary abnormalities besides outlining the right ventricular outflow tract and pulmonary artery branches. The branch pulmonary artery diameter z-score was the most important determinant of surgical strategy, with the worst figures being associated with no surgical options or palliative surgery, and the best figures leading to corrective surgery. The mean radiation dose was 3.45 mSv. Multidetector computed tomographic angiography is a powerful supplement to echocardiography in the preoperative evaluation of tetralogy of Fallot.

  5. Computed Tomographic Scan Evaluation of Pulmonary Blastomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blastomycosis is an uncommon granulomatous pulmonary and extrapulmonary infectious disease caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis. Diagnosis may be delayed or difficult because of varied presentation. The characteristics of blastomycosis on computed tomographic (CT scan of the chest are not well characterized.

  6. Computed tomographic imaging of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare disease of uncertain etiology. The computed tomographic image is characterized by geographically sharply delineated alveolar infiltrates, faint, ground-glass-like parenchymal turbidity, with well bordered interstitial structures and recesses in the subpleural space. (orig.)

  7. Computed tomographic colonography:Hope or hype?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Otto; Schiueh-Tzang; Lin

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a promising emerging technology for imaging of the colon. This concise review discusses the currently available data on CTC technique,test characteristics,acceptance,safety,cost-effectiveness,follow-up strategy,and extracolonic findings. In summary,CTC technique is still evolving,and further research is needed to clarify the role of automated colonic insufflation,smooth-muscle relaxants,intravenous and oral contrast,soft-ware rendering,and patient positioning. Curr...

  8. Computed tomographic findings of benign retroperitoneal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Takashi; Nakata, Hajime; Nakayama, Chikashi (Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan)); Nishitani, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Keiichi

    1983-07-01

    We have reviewed the computed tomographic (CT) findings of 8 cases of benign retroperitoneal tumors with histological proof. Two teratomas, two schwannomas, and one each of epidermoid cyst, simple cyst, bronchogenic cyst, and cystic lymphangioma were included. The most common CT appearance of these tumors was the solitary, round, well-demarcated, relatively low density mass. Capsule or calcification was demonstrated in some. CT is a highly valuable non-invasive examination method for a diagnosis of a benign retroperitoneal tumor.

  9. Health risks from computed tomographic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Seth B; Meyers, Bryan F

    2015-05-01

    Results of the recent National Lung Cancer Screening Trial show a significant survival benefit for annual screening with a low-dose computed tomographic (CT) scan in high-risk individuals. This result has led the US Preventive Services Task Force to recommend annual low-dose CT scans for this at-risk population. Less well characterized are the risks from screening. The primary risks from screening are radiation exposure, false-positive results and unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, overdiagnosis and overtreatment, and increased psychological distress. This article reviews these risks, which must be considered and weighed against the benefits when discussing enrollment with patients. PMID:25901559

  10. Computed tomographic analysis of urinary calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhouse, J.H.; Prien, E.L.; Amis, E.S. Jr.; Dretler, S.P.; Pfister, R.C.

    1984-03-01

    Excised urinary calculi were subjected to computed tomographic (CT) scanning in an attempt to determine whether CT attenuation values would allow accurate analysis of stone composition. The mean, maximum, and modal pixel densities of the calculi were recorded and compared; the resulting values reflected considerable heterogeneity in stone density. Although uric acid and cystine calculi could be identified by their discrete ranges on one or more of these criteria, calcium-containing stones of various compositions, including struvite, could not be distinguished reliably. CT analysis of stone density is not likely to be more accurate than standard radiography in characterizing stone composition in vivo.

  11. Computed tomographic features of cerebellar hemangioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Lan; Ko, Young Tae; Kim, Ho Kyun [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-06-15

    Computed tomographic and angiographic findings of 6 proven cerebellar Hemangiotoma seen in this hospital during last 2 years were analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. Except one 14 years old female, all of them wee 37 to 48 years old males. 2. The operative findings of the tumors were 3 cystic tumors with mural nodules and 3 solid tumors. Computed tomographic findings were: 3. Of three cases of cystic cerebellar hemangiotomas, 2 cases revealed characteristic CT findings such as; a. In precontrast study, a well defined round lower density containing one isodense nodule in its periphery was seen in each case. The absorption coefficiency of each lower density was around 5 EMI unit. b. In post contrast study, the nodules were enhanced densely and homogeneously white the lower densities remain unchanged. 4. Of three cases of solid cerebella hemangiotoma, 2 cases revealed isodense mass suggested by mass effect such as displaced 4th ventricle and peripheral edema in precontrast study, while the remaining case revealed ill defined slightly high density with peripheral edema. In postcontrast study, the 2 isodense masses showed well circumscribed homogenous enhancement with central slight lower density in one of them, while high density mass revealed no enhancement at all. 5. The vertebral angiography performed in 5 cases revealed high vascular tumors with feeding arteries, draining veins and increased circulation time. 6. The tumor blushing seen in vertebral angiography was correlated to the postcontrast enhancement of solid tumors and mural nodules in cystic hemangioblastoma.

  12. Computed tomographic investigations on intraventricular hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigated in 106 patients with intraventricular hematomas all the known factors which can have an influence on prognosis: age, sex, anamnesis of the patients, size, extent and localization of the intracranial bleeding, underlying angiopathy and differences between arterial and venous and spontaneous and traumatic bleedings. It was shown that the state of mind was the deciding prognostic factor, whereby viligance was the cumulative expression of all other investigated influences. A computed tomography (CT) examination is deciding in the question of operative hydrocephalus care. In 13 patients it was further shown, how clearly CT results and brain dissection allowed themselves to be compared. The computed tomographic examination method is best suited to achieve even physiological and more extensive prognostic possibilities. (orig.)

  13. E-learn Computed Tomographic Angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havsteen, Inger; Christensen, Anders; Nielsen, Jens K;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is widely available in emergency rooms to assess acute stroke patients. To standardize readings and educate new readers, we developed a 3-step e-learning tool based on the test-teach-retest methodology in 2 acute stroke scenarios: vascular...... occlusion and "spot sign" in acute intracerebral hemorrhage. We hypothesized that an e-learning program enhances reading skills in physicians of varying experience. METHODS: We developed an HTML-based program with a teaching segment and 2 matching test segments. Tests were taken before and after...... sign correctly 69% before versus 92% after teaching (P = .009) and reported a median self-perceived diagnostic certainty of 50% versus 75% (P = .030). Self-perceived diagnostic certainty revealed no significant increase for vascular occlusion. CONCLUSIONS: The e-learning program is a useful educational...

  14. Computed tomographic anatomy of the equine foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claerhoudt, S; Bergman, E H J; Saunders, J H

    2014-10-01

    This study describes a detailed computed tomographic reference of the normal equine foot. Ten forefeet of five adult cadavers, without evidence of orthopaedic disease, were used. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on all feet. Two-millimetre thick transverse slices were obtained, and sagittal and dorsal planes were reformatted. The CT images were matched with the corresponding anatomic slices. The phalanges and the distal sesamoid bone showed excellent detail. The extensor and flexor tendons (including their attachments) could be clearly evaluated. The collateral (sesamoidean) ligaments could be readily located, but were difficult to delineate at their proximal attachment. The distal digital annular ligament could only be distinguished from the deep digital flexor tendon proximal to the distal sesamoid bone, and its proximal attachment could be identified, but not its distal insertion. Small ligaments (impar ligament, chondrosesamoidean, chondrocoronal and chondrocompedal ligaments, axial and abaxial palmar ligaments of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint) were seen with difficulty and not at all slices. The joint capsules could not be delineated from the surrounding soft tissue structures. The lateral and medial proprius palmar digital artery and vein could be visualized occasionally on some slices. The ungular cartilages, corium and hoof wall layering were seen. The nerves, the articular and fibrocartilage of the distal sesamoid bone and the chondroungular ligament could not be assessed. Computed tomography of the equine foot can be of great value when results of radiography and ultrasonography are inconclusive. Images obtained in this study may serve as reference for CT of the equine foot.

  15. Computed tomographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Nak Kwan; Nam, Kyung Jin; Park, Churl Min; Eun, Chung Kie; Lee, Sun Wha [Kyung Hee Unversity Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Paragonimiasis is widely distributed in Far East and Southeast Asia, particularly in Korea. The central nervous system is the most frequent location for paragonimiasis outside the lungs. We analyzed the computed tomographic findings of 17 cases which were diagnosed pathologically and clinically as cerebral paragonimiasis. The results were as follows: 1. The ratio of male to female was 10 : 7 and about 88% of cases were under the age of 40 years. 2. The common locations of cerebral paragonimiasis were the occipital (12 cases) and temporal (11 cases) lobes. 3. Precontrast CT findings of cerebral paragonimiasis were low density with calcifications in 6 cases, low and isodensities in 4 cases, mixed densities in 3 cases, only low density in 2 cases and only calcification in 2 cases. Hydrocephalus (7 cases), mass effect (6 cases), atrophic change (6 cases) and cyst formation (3 cases) were associated. 4. The shape of calcifications in CT scan were soap-bubble or ring in 6 cases, nodular or oval in 6 cases, stipple in 4 cases and amorphous conglomerated in 2 cases. 5. The contrast -enhanced 8 cases were 5 ring or rim like, 2 nodular and 1 irregular enhancements, while 9 cases were not enhanced.

  16. Computed tomographic findings of intracerebral cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Kyo; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ho Kyun; Ahn, Chi Yul [School of Medicine, Kyung-Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease in which man serves as the intermediate host of Taenia Solium, the pork tapeworm. The computed tomographic findings of 25 cases of intracerebral cysticercosis proven by pathologic and/or clinical findings during past 2 years were analysed. The results were as follows; 1. The sex was 19 males and 6 females, and 56 percent of the patients were seen in fourth and fifth decades. The most common symptom was epilepsy (72%). 2. The C. T. findings in precontrast study were varied; such as ill defined low density (48%), cystic low density (20%), dilated ventricles (20%), ill defined low density with isodense nodule (18%), cystic low density with isodense mural nodule (12%) and calcification (8%). 3. The areas of involvement were 20 cases (80%) of parenchymal form, 3 cases (12%) of ventricular form and 2 cases (8%) of mixed form. 4. The contrast-enhanced 13 cases were 5 nodular, 5 ring or rim-like and 3 mixed type enhancements, while 12 cases were not enhanced. 5. C.T. scan demonstrated more precise location and extents of cerebral cysticercosis, especially in parenchymal form. It was considered to be important in determination of surgical feasibility and its approach.

  17. Computed tomographic findings of intracerebral cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease in which man serves as the intermediate host of Taenia Solium, the pork tapeworm. The computed tomographic findings of 25 cases of intracerebral cysticercosis proven by pathologic and/or clinical findings during past 2 years were analysed. The results were as follows; 1. The sex was 19 males and 6 females, and 56 percent of the patients were seen in fourth and fifth decades. The most common symptom was epilepsy (72%). 2. The C. T. findings in precontrast study were varied; such as ill defined low density (48%), cystic low density (20%), dilated ventricles (20%), ill defined low density with isodense nodule (18%), cystic low density with isodense mural nodule (12%) and calcification (8%). 3. The areas of involvement were 20 cases (80%) of parenchymal form, 3 cases (12%) of ventricular form and 2 cases (8%) of mixed form. 4. The contrast-enhanced 13 cases were 5 nodular, 5 ring or rim-like and 3 mixed type enhancements, while 12 cases were not enhanced. 5. C.T. scan demonstrated more precise location and extents of cerebral cysticercosis, especially in parenchymal form. It was considered to be important in determination of surgical feasibility and its approach

  18. Computer tomographic imaging of rabbit bulbourethral glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to utilize the obtained data for differentiation of normal and pathologically altered bulbourethral glands in rabbits with regard to using this animal species as a model for studying diseases in this organ in humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten sexually mature healthy male white New Zealand rabbits, 12 months old, weighed 2.8−3.2 kg were investigated. The animals were anesthetized. Scans were done at 2 mm intervals and the image reconstruction was three-dimensional. RESULTS: Rabbit bulbourethral glands were observed as a transversely oval homogeneous, relatively hyperdense structure against the surrounding soft tissues. They are visualized in the transverse cut of the pelvic outlet in the plane through the cranial part of cg2, the body of ischium, cranially to tuber ischiadicum and dorsally to the caudal part of symphysis pubis –sciatic arch. The glandular margins are adequately distinguished from the adjacent soft tissue structures. The density of the rabbit bulbourethral glands was similar to this of the soft tissues. CONCLUSION: The data obtained by the computed tomographic imaging of the rabbit bulbourethral glands could be used as an anatomical reference in the diagnosis and interpretation of imaging findings of various pathological states of the gland in this species, as well as in utilization of the rabbit as an animal model for studying diseases of this organ in humans, particularly diverticula, stenosis, lithiasis and valves

  19. Computed tomographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Weon Tae; Jung, Min Ki; Kang, Heoung Keun; Chung, Hyon De [Chonnam University Medicine School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-10-15

    Authors analyzed the computed tomographic (CT) findings of 19 cases pathologically and clinically proven cerebral paragonimiasis that were performed at Chonnam University Hospital from April 1983 through March 1987. The results were as follows: 1. Male to female ratio was 15:4 and the most prevalent age group was 3rd decade (7 cases). The common symptoms were epileptic seizure (16 cases) and headache (12 cases). 2. The multiplicity of cerebral paragonimiasis was 7 of 19 cases and the distributions of lesion were occipital (11 cases), temporal (6 cases), frontal (5 cases) and parietal (5 cases) lobe. 3. The calcification on CT scan were single (7 cases) or multiple (7 cases) and the shape of calcification were nodular (10 cases), soap babble of ring (8 cases), and stippled (6 cases). The pattern of contrast enhancement were ring (5 cases) or nodular (1 case), and along the basal cistern (1 case with arachnoiditis). 4. 12 out of 13 cases, had long clinical symptoms over 3 years with calcifications, could be analyzed according to Valentine's vascular territory; 6 cases in PCA territory, 3 in MCA and 3 in ACA. 5. CT findings were noted according to the duration of symptoms; 5 cases, had symptoms less than 1 year, showed abscess (5 cases) and arachnoiditis (1 case) with brain edema, mass effect, hydrocephalus and contrast enhancement but no calcification in all. One case, had symptom of 1 year and 2 months, showed partially calcified granulomatous lesion with perifocal edema and contrast enhancement, 13 cases, had symptoms over 3 years, showed multiple calcification with brain atrophy (10 cases), but no contrast enhancement in all cases.

  20. Computer simulations of a low energy proton beam tomograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milhoretto, E.; Schelin, H.R.; Setti, J.A.P.; Denyak, V.; Paschuk, S.A.; Basilio, A.C.; Rocha, R.; Ribeiro Junior, S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica e Informatica Industrial (CPGEI)]. E-mails: sergei@utfpr.edu.br; edneymilhoretto@yahoo.com; schelin@cpgei.cefetpr.br; Evseev, I.; Yevseyeva, O. [Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: evseev@iprj.uerj.br; Lopes, R.T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graducao em Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br; Vinagre Filho, U.M. [Instituto de Energia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    This work presents the recent development of a low energy proton beam tomograph. The proton tomograph prototype (involving UTFPR, UERJ, UFRJ and IEN/CNEN) has been installed and tested at the cyclotron CV-28 of IEN/CNEN. New computer simulations were performed in order to optimize the performance of the scattered proton beam and its aluminum collimator energy losses. The computer code simulates the tomographic measurements with two aluminum collimators (variable aperture from 0.2 mm to 0.4 mm in diameter and variable thickness from 4 mm to 8 mm), a water phantom and a Si(Li) detector. The analysis of the exit beam energy spectra in comparison with a perfectly collimated proton beam made it possible to achieve the best quality of reconstructed tomographic images of water phantom. (author)

  1. Evaluation of multislice computed tomographic perfusion imaging and computed tomographic angiography on traumatic cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Fang-hong; CHEN Wei-jian; YANG Yun-jun; DUAN Yu-xia; FU Feng-li

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the application value of multislice computed tomographic perfusion imaging (MSCTPI) and multislice computed tomographic angiography (MSCTA) on traumatic cerebral infarction. Methods: MSCTA was performed on 10 patients who were initiailly diagnosed as traumatic cerebral infarction by normal conventional computed tomography (NCCT), among whom, 3 patients were examined by MSCTPI simultaneously. Reconstructed images of the intracranial artery were made with techniques of maximum intensity projection (MIP) and volume rendering (VR) from MSCTA scanning data. Then the graph of function of four parameters, regional cerebral blood flow (Rcbf), regional cerebral blood volume (Rcbv), mean transit time (MTT), and time to peak (TTP), acquired by the perfusing analysis software was obtained. Results: Among the 10 patients with traumatic cerebral infarction, 6 showed complex type on NCCT, which depicted abnormality on MSCTA, and 4 showed simple type on NCCT, which had negative results on MSCTA. Among the 4 patients with abnormal great vessels, 2 suffered from steno sis or occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, 1 from spasm of the anterior cerebral artery, and 1 from spasm of the vertebral-basal artery. The image of MSCTPI of 1 patient with massive cerebral infarction on the right cerebral hemisphere confirmed by CT was smaller than those of the other patients, which showed occlusion of the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery on MSCTA. Among the 6 patients whose MSCTA showed no abnormality, 4 showed simple infarction and 2 showed complex infarction. The infarction focus of 5 patients occurred in the basal ganglia and 1 in the splenium of corpus callosum. Among the 2 cases of small cerebral infarction volume on NCCT, one was normal, the other showed hypoperfusion on MSCTPI and was normal on MSCTA. Conclusion: The combination of MSCTPI and MSCTA is very useful for evaluating the change of intracranial artery in ischemic regions and assessing the cerebral

  2. Spiral computed tomographic imaging related to computerized ultrasonographic images of carotid plaque morphology and histology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise; Wagner, A; Wiebe, B M;

    2001-01-01

    Echolucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, as evaluated by computerized B-mode ultrasonographic images, has been associated with an increased incidence of brain infarcts on cerebral computed tomographic scans. We tested the hypotheses that characterization of carotid plaques on spiral computed...... tomographic images correlates with that on computerized B-mode ultrasonographic images and that spiral computed tomographic imaging predicts the histomorphometric plaque content....

  3. Dynamic computed tomographic scans in experimental brain abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic computed tomographic scans were performed in an experimental brain abscess model to establish criteria that could be utilized in abscess staging. The vascular phase of the time-density curves did not differentiate cerebritis and capsule stages. The amount of residual enhancement after the first pass of an intra-arterial contrast bolus differed between major abscess stages, the greater residual enhancement being noted in the capsule stage. (orig.)

  4. Dynamic computed tomographic scans in experimental brain abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enzmann, D.R.; Britt, R.H.; Placone, R.C.

    1984-07-01

    Dynamic computed tomographic scans were performed in an experimental brain abscess model to establish criteria that could be utilized in abscess staging. The vascular phase of the time-density curves did not differentiate cerebritis and capsule stages. The amount of residual enhancement after the first pass of an intra-arterial contrast bolus differed between major abscess stages, the greater residual enhancement being noted in the capsule stage.

  5. Computed Tomographic Angiography (CTA) in Vascular Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tehrai

    2007-01-01

    In the evaluation of trauma patients, computed tomo-graphy and CT angiography (CTA) are powerful non-invasive tools that provide a large amount of informa-tion in so little time that they have virtually replaced plain film radiography and catheter angiography. In our hospital, CTA has replaced catheter angiogra-phy for diagnosing most vascular injuries, resulting from penetrating and blunt trauma to head, neck, thorax, abdomen and extremities. This lecture will cover current imaging protocols...

  6. Computed tomographic evaluation of renal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adequate radiographic demonstration of the extent of renal injury following blunt abdominal trauma is an important guide to therapy. The diagnostic evaluation of renal injuries usually begins with excretory urography, but not provide detailed information about the extent of injury. The need for a more accurate noninvasive modality led us to investigate the use of computed tomography. We evaluated with computed tomography and excretory urography 30 selected patients suspected of having major renal injury. Of these patients 11 were also underwent arteriography for assessment of renal arterial injuries. In this paper, we wish to analyze the result of the above modalities, particularly angiography and computed tomography. The brief results were as follow. 1. Among 30 patients, 21 cases were male and 9 cases were female. About one third of these occurred between the age of 20-29. 2. All cases were non penetrating blunt traumas. 3. Renal injuries were categorized into 3 groups. Category I is minor renal injuries (14 cases), II is major renal injuries (13 cases), and III is catastrophic renal injuries (3 cases). 4. IVP is the most common initial diagnostic modality and good for screening of patients, but lack of specificity. In our study the specificity is about 33%. 5. CT is more accurate in detecting hematoma, parenchymal laceration, fracture and extravasation of urine, but angiography is more confirmative in diagnosis of vascular injuries. 6. Conservative management was done in 19 cases; 13 cases of category I and 6 cases of II. Operation was performed in 11 cases; 1 case of category I, 7 cases of II and 3 cases of III. 7. Associated injuries were noted in 17 cases (57%).

  7. Computer tomographic anatomy of the neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R.

    1984-01-01

    The structures in the neck which can be recognised by computer tomography, and their course, is described. The cartilagenous larynx and trachea, the oesophagus, thyroid, sternocleidomastoid muscle, common carotid arteries and internal jugular veins can be recognised regularly. In addition, one can identify smaller muscles, vessels and nerves, such as the sterno-hyoid, omo-hyoid, anterior and medial scalenus muscles, the superior and inferior thyroid arteries and the suprascapular, internal thoracic and vertebral arteries, the thyro-cervical trunk and the vagus and phrenic nerves. An accurate knowledge of the anatomy is essential for the recognition of enlarged parathyroid glands.

  8. Computed tomographical evaluation of diabetic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubara, Yoshifumi; Hara, Shigeko; Arizono, Kenji; Katori, Hideyuki; Yamada, Akira; Mimura, Nobuhide [Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan). Kidney Center; Hagura, Ryoko

    1996-06-01

    Diabetic nephropathy can be regarded mainly as a type of microangiopathy, but is a disease that may also include aspects of macroangiopathy. This is especially true of renal disease in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), which is characterized not only by diabetic glomerulosclerosis, but also by atherosclerosis. We performed morphological studies on the kidney, using computed tomography (CT), focusing on such points as: abdominal aortic calcifications at the level of kidney, calcifications in the renal artery, and wedge-shaped defects on the renal surface. We noted that these findings became more prominent in NIDDM patients during end-stage renal failure than during normal renal function, and were significantly more common in those two NIDDM groups than in age-matched nondiabetic patients without hypertension, hyperlipidemia or gout. NIDDM patients exhibited these features more frequently than IDDM patients. (author)

  9. Computed tomographic analysis of renal calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillman, B.J.; Drach, G.W.; Tracey, P.; Gaines, J.A.

    1984-03-01

    An in vitro study sought to determine the feasibility of using computed tomography (CT) to analyze the chemical composition of renal calculi and thus aid in selecting the best treatment method. Sixty-three coded calculi were scanned in a water bath. Region-of-interest measurements provided the mean, standard deviation, and minimum and maximum pixel values for each stone. These parameters were correlated with aspects of the stones' chemical composition. A multivariate analysis showed that the mean and standard deviation of the stones' pixel values were the best CT parameters for differentiating types of renal calculi. By using computerized mapping techniques, uric acid calculi could be perfectly differentiated from struvite and calcium oxalate calculi. The latter two types also were differentiable, but to a lesser extent. CT has a potential role as an adjunct to clinical and laboratory methods for determining the chemical composition of renal calculi in an effort to select optimal treatment.

  10. Lymphadenopathy in celiac disease: computed tomographic observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.; Bayless, T.M.; Fishman, E.K.; Siegelman, S.S.

    1984-06-01

    Lymphadenopathy in patients with celiac disease is generally viewed with alarm due to the association between celiac disease and intestinal lymphoma. Four patients with celiac disease are described in whom significant mesenteric and paraaortic adenopathy was demonstrated by computed tomogrophy (CT). The subsequent clinical course of these patients revealed no evidence of lymphoma. In two patients with longstanding celiac disease and recent relapse, exploratory laparotomy revealed reactive hyperplasia in the enlarged glands; in one patient this was associated with intestinal ulceration, and in the other no underlying pathology was found. Follow-up CT scans in both these patients demonstrated regression of the findings with clinical improvement. In the other two patients, CT was performed as part of the initial evaluation.

  11. Computer Aided Interpretation Approach for Optical Tomographic Images

    CERN Document Server

    Klose, Christian D; Netz, Uwe; Beuthan, Juergen; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2010-01-01

    A computer-aided interpretation approach is proposed to detect rheumatic arthritis (RA) of human finger joints in optical tomographic images. The image interpretation method employs a multi-variate signal detection analysis aided by a machine learning classification algorithm, called Self-Organizing Mapping (SOM). Unlike in previous studies, this allows for combining multiple physical image parameters, such as minimum and maximum values of the absorption coefficient for identifying affected and not affected joints. Classification performances obtained by the proposed method were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, and mutual information. Different methods (i.e., clinical diagnostics, ultrasound imaging, magnet resonance imaging and inspection of optical tomographic images), were used as "ground truth"-benchmarks to determine the performance of image interpretations. Using data from 100 finger joints, findings suggest that some parameter combinations lead to higher sensitivities while...

  12. Computed tomographic study on Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serologically proven 21 patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia that showed infiltrative shadows on chest radiograms were studied by computed tomography (CT). Localization of the lesion and the fashion of its progression through the lung were analyzed. Following 3 loci were defined on the basis of the investigations of critical analysis of the chest radiograms, and of radiopathological analysis of the experimental animal model of mycoplasmal pneumonia with soft X-ray image. I: Peribronchial and periarterial interstitium. II: Bronchiole and its surroundings. III: Lung parenchyma, on hilar area as IIIh, on marginal area as IIIm. Even in the early phase of this disease, radiopathological findings on CT have been distributed in all loci mentioned above. The Shadow disappeared from locus III approximately 14th day from the onset. The shadow have remained, however, loci I, II for a long period. Those findings suggest that locus I and II are one of the major focus of Mycoplasma neumoniae pneumonia. Volume loss in the locus III was observed 78 % of the cases at 28th day from the onset. The shadow on locus IIIh was more prominent than locus IIIm. Reported analytical method with CT could be widely applied to disclose a radiopathological details in other infectious diseases of the lung. (author)

  13. ULTRASOUND AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC DIAGNOSIS OF OPTIC NERVE TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Saakyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive examination was made in 93 patients, including 18 children, with tumors of the optic nerve (ON. Duplex ultrasound scanning was performed in 39 patients, of them there were 11 patients with ON gliomas and 28 with ON meningiomas. The specific computed tomographic and echographic signs of ON glioma and meningiomas were detected. The studies have shown that duplex ultrasound scanning and structural computed tomography of orbital sockets are highly informative complementary imaging procedures for ON tumors, which permits one to make their correct diagnosis, to specify surgical volume, and to plan adequate treatment.

  14. Computer diagnosis of tomographic pulmonary images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation records an attempt to construct empirically a robust algorithm capable of differentiating between images of healthy and abnormal lung parenchyma. The aim is to provide the basis for computer software that will facilitate the automatic diagnosis of pulmonary disease. Six archived data sets, comprising images of a range of known physiological conditions, are used to inform the final diagnostic algorithm. However, irregularities common in such data - arising from factors associated with scanning protocols and image reconstruction - demand that some consistent means of normalizing the images be adopted. Lung morphology results in the fractal structure of the broncho-vascular tree, which provides an efficient network for transporting air and blood to the alveoli and accounts for the homogeneous density of the lung parenchyma. Local density is decreased by lesions occurring as residual air pockets beyond the terminal bronchioles, and increased by fibrous scarring. The result is darker or lighter greyscale levels in the corresponding images. The sensitivity of CT to parenchymal density changes makes such deviations from 'normal' greyscale values good indices of disease. However, as the aforementioned conditions are often present together, average density cannot be used as a discriminator, so a set of three 'panning' threshold windows are prepared: one to 'see' only a range of darker pixels, another the 'normal' ones, the third the unnaturally light ones. Different features can thus be segmented and quantified. An image 'feature' here implies a subset of a significant number of adjacent, thresholded pixels. Its 'space-filling' character is assessed by assigning it a fractal dimension. The number and greyscale range of the pixels comprising the pattern (feature) together with its assessed fractal dimension are used as diagnostic indices. As a conclusion to the diagnostic exercise, some aspects of image processing are suggested as useful in addressing the

  15. Anemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway-Duren, Jacqueline B; Klaassen, Hillary

    2013-12-01

    Anemias continue to present a challenge to the health care profession. Anemia is defined as a reduction in one or more of the RBC indices. Patients presenting with a mild form of anemia may be asymptomatic; however, in more serious cases the anemia can become life threatening. In many cases the clinical presentation also reflects the underlying cause. Anemia may be attributed to various causes, whereas autoimmune RBC destruction may be attributed to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Laboratory tests are essential in facilitating early detection and differentiation of anemia.

  16. Pineal region tumors: computed tomographic-pathologic spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futrell, N.N.; Osborn, A.G.; Cheson. B.D.

    1981-11-01

    While several computed tomographic (CT) studies of posterior third ventricular neoplasms have included descriptions of pineal tumors, few reports have concentrated on these uncommon lesions. Some authors have asserted that the CT appearance of many pineal tumors is virtually pathognomonic. A series of nine biopsy-proved pineal gland and eight other presumed tumors is presented that illustrates their remarkable heterogeneity in both histopathologic and CT appearance. These tumors included germinomas, teratocarcinomas, hamartomas, and other varieties. They had variable margination, attentuation, calcification, and suprasellar extension. Germinomas have the best response to radiation therapy. Biopsy of pineal region tumors is now feasible and is recommended for treatment planning.

  17. Computed tomographical imaging of the brain in post hypoglycemic coma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, A.; Sakamoto, T.; Kinoshita, Y.; Yokota, J.I.; Yoshioka, T.; Sugimoto, T.

    1987-07-01

    A case of post severe hypoglycemic coma was studied by sequential Computed Tomographic Imaging (CT) of the brain. The CT 1) was normal in the early stage, 2) subsequently showed a low density area, which was enhanced by the contrast medium, in the cerebral cortex and the boundary zone between the major cerebral arteries, and 3) revealed marked enhancement in the entire cortical region and hypodensity in the periventricular region in the late stage. These CT findings, representing the course of neural cell damage by severe hypoglycemia, are discussed from the pathophysiological viewpoint.

  18. Computed tomographical imaging of the brain in post hypoglycemic coma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of post severe hypoglycemic coma was studied by sequential Computed Tomographic Imaging (CT) of the brain. The CT 1) was normal in the early stage, 2) subsequently showed a low density area, which was enhanced by the contrast medium, in the cerebral cortex and the boundary zone between the major cerebral arteries, and 3) revealed marked enhancement in the entire cortical region and hypodensity in the periventricular region in the late stage. These CT findings, representing the course of neural cell damage by severe hypoglycemia, are discussed from the pathophysiological viewpoint. (orig.)

  19. Computed tomographic features of fibrous dysplasia of maxillofacial region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sontakke, Subodh Arun; Karjodka, Freny R [Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumba (India); Umarji, Hemant R [Government Dental College and Hospital, Mumbai (India)

    2011-03-15

    This study was to find the computed tomographic features of fibrous dysplasia of the maxillofacial region. All eight cases included in the study reported either to Government Dental College and Hospital or Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai between 2003 and 2009. The patients were prescribed computed tomogram in addition to conventional radiographs of maxillofacial region which were studied for characteristic features of fibrous dysplasia. The diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia was confirmed by histopathological report. All cases showed the ill-defined margins of lesions except in the region where the lesions were extending to cortex of the involved bone. Internal structure of all cases showed ground glass appearance. Four cases of maxillary lesion showed the displacement of maxillary sinus maintaining the shape of maxillary sinus. Two cases showed complete obliteration of maxillary sinus. Displacement of inferior alveolar canal did not follow any typical pattern in any of the cases but was displaced in different directions. The craniofacial type of fibrous dysplasia is as common as fibrous dysplasia of jaw. The margins, extent, internal structure and effect on surrounding structure are well detected on computed tomographic images.

  20. Computed tomographic evaluation of gallstone calcification for biliary lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caslowitz, P L; Fishman, E K; Kafonek, D R; Lillemoe, K D; Mitchell, S; Widlus, D M; Saba, G P

    1991-04-01

    As the Food and Drug Administration trials for biliary lithotripsy in the United States near completion, future criteria for patient eligibility remain to be defined. Gallstone calcification greater than 3-mm partial rim on plain film (KUB) or oral cholecystogram (OCG) has excluded patients thus far, since early results of gallstone clearance (lithotripsy plus chemodissolution) were suboptimal with calcified stones. To evaluate the usefulness of these criteria for gallstone fragmentation, computed tomographic (CT) scans were performed on 20 patients immediately prior to lithotripsy to evaluate gallstone density and 24 hours after lithotripsy to observe the CT appearance of fragmentation. The adequacy of fragmentation was determined by pre- and post-lithotripsy sonography. This report constitutes the results of these investigations. PMID:10149158

  1. Epinephrine-enhanced computed tomographic arthrography of the canine shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rycke, Lieve; van Bree, Henri; Van Caelenberg, Annemie; Polis, Ingeborgh; Duchateau, Luc; Gielen, Ingrid

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of epinephrine-enhanced computed tomographic arthrography (CTA) on the image sharpness of the lateral and medial glenohumeral ligaments (LGHL and MGHL, respectively), biceps tendon (BT) and joint cartilage (JC) in the canine shoulder. The shoulders of eight normal dogs were examined using a 4-slice helical CT scanner. The right shoulders were injected with Iohexol and the left shoulders with a mixture of Iohexol and epinephrine. CTA images were obtained after 1, 3, 5, 9, 13, 20 and 30 min and the image sharpness of the intra-articular structures in both shoulders was graded for visibility. The attenuation values were measured to examine the persistence of contrast appearance. Admixture of epinephrine and Iohexol significantly improved the image sharpness of the LGHL and the BT, especially on delayed CTA images. The use of epinephrine did not negatively affect post-CTA recovery.

  2. Double Colorectal Cancer Only Diagnosed by Computed Tomographic Colonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Nagata

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old woman presented to her physician with rectal bleeding and intermittent diarrhea. Optical colonoscopy revealed a bulky tumor which was diagnosed as rectal cancer. She was referred to our institution for further evaluation and treatment. Slim optical colonoscopy showed an obstructive cancer in the rectosigmoid junction and no information of the proximal side of the obstruction. The patient then underwent computed tomographic (CT colonography for further evaluation of the proximal side. Three-dimensional endoluminal ‘fly-through’ images revealed another protruded lesion in the proximal side of the obstruction. Diagnosis of synchronous double cancer was made by CT colonography. This CT data was not only used to create three-dimensional images but also to decide on a preoperative clinical staging. Laparoscopy-assisted high anterior resection was performed and T3 rectal cancer and T1 sigmoid colon cancer were confirmed in the resected specimen. Follow-up optical colonoscopy revealed no other tumors. CT colonography has recently become a popular preoperative examination tool with significant improvement in quality of image due to a rapid progress in computer technology. CT colonography correctly showed synchronous double cancer in our case and provided crucial information for planning surgery. We recommend that CT colonography should be used for evaluating the proximal side of obstructive colorectal cancer.

  3. Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician October 01, 2002, http://www.aafp.org/afp/20021001/1217.html) Normocytic Anemia by JR Brill, ... Physician November 15, 2000, http://www.aafp.org/afp/20001115/2255.html) Written by familydoctor.org editorial ...

  4. Extracolonic findings of computed tomographic colonography in Koreans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Keun Park; Dong Il Park; Sun-Young Lee; Sang Kil Lee; Young-Ho Kim; Soon Jin Lee; Jeong-Sik Byeon; Kyu Chan Huh; Ki-Nam Shim

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To determine the frequency and characteristics of extracolonic lesions detected using computed tomographic (CT) colonography. METHODS:The significance of extracolonic lesions was classified as high, intermediate, or low. Medical records were reviewed to establish whether further investigations were carried out pertaining to the extracolonic lesions that were detected by CT colonography. RESULTS:A total of 920 cases from 7 university hospitals were included, and 692 extracolonic findings were found in 532 (57.8%) patients. Of 692 extracolonic findings, 60 lesions (8.7%) were highly significant, 250 (36.1%) were of intermediate significance, and 382 (55.2%) were of low significance. CT colonography revealed fewer extracolonic findings in subjects who were without symptoms ( P < 0.001), younger ( P < 0.001), or who underwent CT colonography with no contrast enhancement ( P = 0.005). CT colonography with contrast enhancement showed higher cost-effectiveness in detecting highly significant extracolonic lesions in older subjects and in subjects with symptoms. CONCLUSION:Most of the extracolonic findings d e t e c t e d u s i n g C T c o l o n o g ra p hy w e r e o f l e s s significant lesions. The role of CT colonography would be optimized if this procedure was performed with contrast enhancement in symptomatic older subjects.

  5. Colorectal Laterally Spreading Tumors by Computed Tomographic Colonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Kakugawa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, few reports focused primarily on detecting colorectal laterally spreading tumors (LSTs have been published. The aim of this study was to determine the visibility of LSTs on computed tomographic colonography (CTC compared with that on colonoscopy as a standard. We retrospectively reviewed and matched data on endoscopic and CTC reports in 157 patients (161 LSTs who received a multidetector CT scan using contrast media immediately after total colonoscopy at the National Cancer Center Hospital in Tokyo, Japan, between December 2005 and August 2010. The results of the total colonoscopy were known at the time of the CTC procedure and reading. Of the 161 LSTs detected on colonoscopy, 138 were observed and matched by CTC (86%. Of the 91 granular type LSTs (LST-Gs, 88 (97% were observed and matched, while of the 70 non-granular type LSTs (LST-NGs, 50 (71% were observed and matched by CTC (p < 0.0001. CTC enabled observation of 73% (22/30 of 20–29 mm, 83% (35/42 of 30–39 mm, 88% (49/56 of 40–59 mm, and 97% (32/33 of ≥60 mm tumors. The rate of observed LSTs by CTC was 86% (97% of LST-G, 71% of LST-NG of the LSTs found during total colonoscopy.

  6. Cerebral computed tomographic angiography scan delay in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukosevicius Saulius

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Computed tomographic angiography (CTA is widely applied in the evaluation of cerebral vessels. Contrast enhancement in cerebral CTA without care or test bolus is not always sufficient for high-quality images. AIMS: Evaluation of the possibilities of calculation of scan delay for cerebral CTA in case of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, based on clinical data of a patient and to find out prognostic error of the model. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective study in Neurosurgery and Radiology departments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Scan delay in 53 patients suffering an acute SAH was measured employing test bolus technique. Cerebral CTA was performed afterwards. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: SPSS for Windows v.10.1 software package was applied for dispersion analysis, including one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov′s test and Levene′s Test of Equality of Error Variances. RESULTS: A statistical model for the prediction of scan delay in SAH was developed. Cerebral CTA scan delay was dependent upon age, neurological status and impact of the latter factors together (P<0.05. The determined mean square error of prognosis of scan delay of the developed model equals 3.3 sec. CONCLUSION: Using our proposed model it is possible to estimate an optimal delay time for CTA in most patients with SAH with a determined error.

  7. Hemodynamic study of hepatocellular car-cinoma nodules by multi-slice spiral computed tomographic perfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国林

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the 64-slice computed tomographic(CT) perfusion parameters of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) nodule so as to assess the diagnostic value of hemodynamic changes of HCC nodule by this perfusion

  8. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Computed Tomographic Differentiation from Other Thyroid Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Won; Yoon, Dae Young; Choi, Chul Soon; Chang, Suk Ki; Yun, Eun Joo; Seo, Young Lan; Rho, Young-Soo; Jin Cho, Sung; Kim, Keon Ha (Depts. of Radiology, Otorhinolaryngology, and Pathology, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (KR))

    2008-04-15

    Background: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is rare but is one of the most aggressive malignancies. Therefore, accurate diagnosis is important in order to provide appropriate therapy. Purpose: To establish useful computed tomographic (CT) criteria for differentiating anaplastic carcinoma from other thyroid masses. Material and Methods: The CT scans of nine patients with anaplastic carcinomas were retrospectively reviewed and compared with those of 32 patients with papillary carcinomas (n = 12) or benign lesions (n = 20) exceeding a maximum diameter of 2.0 cm. Image analysis was performed according to the following CT parameters: size, margin (well defined or ill defined), composition (cystic, mixed, or solid), mean attenuation value, ratio of attenuation of the mass to that of the adjacent muscle (M/m attenuation ratio), necrosis (present or absent), and calcification (stippled, nodular, or absent) of the thyroid mass; and tumor-spreading patterns including the presence of surrounding normal thyroid tissue in the involved lobe, involvement of the contralateral thyroid lobe, extension into the adjacent structures, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Results: Anaplastic carcinomas appeared as large (average 4.6 cm), solid (100%), and ill-defined (88.9%) masses accompanied by necrosis (100%), nodular calcification (44.4%), direct invasion into the adjacent organs (55.6%), and cervical lymph node involvement (77.8%). Tumor necrosis was the most valuable parameter in differentiating anaplastic carcinomas from other thyroid masses. Patient age (>70 years) and low attenuation value on postcontrast scan (attenuation value <100 HU, or M/m attenuation ratio <1.3) are also helpful predictors for anaplastic carcinoma. Conclusion: If a patient is older than 70 years of age and has a large necrotic thyroid mass of low attenuation, anaplastic carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis

  9. Computed tomographic features of lymphangioleiomyomatosis: Evaluation in 138 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobino, Kazunori, E-mail: tobino@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Iizuka Hospital, 3-83 Yoshiomachi, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-0018 (Japan); Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine & Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Johkoh, Takeshi [Department of Radiology, Kinki Central Hospital of Mutual Aid Association of Public School Teachers, Kurumazuka 3-1, Itami, Hyogo 664-0872 (Japan); Fujimoto, Kiminori [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine and Center for Diagnostic Imaging, Kurume University Hospital, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume, Fukuoka 830-0011 (Japan); Sakai, Fumikazu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Saitama International Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1298 (Japan); Arakawa, Hiroaki [Department of Radiology, Dokkyo Medical University, 880 Kita-Kobayashi, Mibu, Tochigi 321-0293 (Japan); Kurihara, Masatoshi [The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Pneumothorax Center, Nissan Tamagawa Hospital, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Kumasaka, Toshio [The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Department of Pathology, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, 4-1-22 Hiroo, Shibuya-Ku, Tokyo 150-0012 (Japan); Koike, Kengo; Takahashi, Kazuhisa [Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine & Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Seyama, Kuniaki [Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine & Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •In our series, the frequency of pulmonary nodules was higher than in the previous reports. •Our sporadic LAM patients had a lower frequency of renal AML than in that of previous reports. •LAM patients may have a high incidence of renal and hepatic cysts. •LAM cells may originate in the pelvis then spread via the axial lymphatic system. -- Abstract: Purpose: The aim was to characterize the computed tomographic (CT) findings from Japanese patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Materials and methods: CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis from 124 patients with sporadic LAM (S-LAM, mean age, 37.4 years) and 14 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-LAM (mean age, 35.6 years) were analyzed. Results: Pulmonary nodules (18.8%) and hepatic angiomyolipoma (AML, 24.3%) were more common in our patients than those in previous reports. Compared with TSC-LAM, S-LAM group had a higher frequency of pulmonary nodules (28.6% vs 32.3%, P < 0.01) and lower frequencies of air-space consolidation (21.4% vs 2.4%, P < 0.01), pneumothorax (28.6% vs 8.1%, P = 0.02), pulmonary hilar lymphadenopathy (14.3% vs 0.8%, P < 0.01), renal AML (85.7% vs 17.4%, P < 0.01), hepatic AML (71.4% vs 17.4%, P < 0.01), and retrocrural lymphadenopathy (14.3% vs 1.4%, P = 0.04). Axial lymphatic abnormalities (i.e., thoracic duct dilatation, lymphadenopathy, and lymphangioleiomyoma) were most common in the pelvis and tended to decrease in incidence with increased distance from the pelvis. Conclusion: The incidence of some CT findings in Japanese patients differed from those in previous reports. Axial lymphatic abnormalities noted here suggest that the origin of LAM cells may be the pelvis.

  10. Computed tomographic features of lymphangioleiomyomatosis: Evaluation in 138 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •In our series, the frequency of pulmonary nodules was higher than in the previous reports. •Our sporadic LAM patients had a lower frequency of renal AML than in that of previous reports. •LAM patients may have a high incidence of renal and hepatic cysts. •LAM cells may originate in the pelvis then spread via the axial lymphatic system. -- Abstract: Purpose: The aim was to characterize the computed tomographic (CT) findings from Japanese patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Materials and methods: CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis from 124 patients with sporadic LAM (S-LAM, mean age, 37.4 years) and 14 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-LAM (mean age, 35.6 years) were analyzed. Results: Pulmonary nodules (18.8%) and hepatic angiomyolipoma (AML, 24.3%) were more common in our patients than those in previous reports. Compared with TSC-LAM, S-LAM group had a higher frequency of pulmonary nodules (28.6% vs 32.3%, P < 0.01) and lower frequencies of air-space consolidation (21.4% vs 2.4%, P < 0.01), pneumothorax (28.6% vs 8.1%, P = 0.02), pulmonary hilar lymphadenopathy (14.3% vs 0.8%, P < 0.01), renal AML (85.7% vs 17.4%, P < 0.01), hepatic AML (71.4% vs 17.4%, P < 0.01), and retrocrural lymphadenopathy (14.3% vs 1.4%, P = 0.04). Axial lymphatic abnormalities (i.e., thoracic duct dilatation, lymphadenopathy, and lymphangioleiomyoma) were most common in the pelvis and tended to decrease in incidence with increased distance from the pelvis. Conclusion: The incidence of some CT findings in Japanese patients differed from those in previous reports. Axial lymphatic abnormalities noted here suggest that the origin of LAM cells may be the pelvis

  11. Estimation of stochastic risk from computed tomographic examinations in Japan, 1979, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The population doses and stochastic risks of hereditary, leukemia and malignant diseses from computed tomographic examinations were estimated on the basis of a 1979 nationwide survey of randomly sampled hospitals and clinics throughout Japan. The organ or tissue doses related to genetic effects and somatic effects were determined with a phantom measurement, using thermoluminescent dosimeters and seven types of computed tomographic scanners. The resultant annual population doses per person were 0.11 mrad (1.1 μGy) for genetically significant dose, 2.8 mrad (28 μGy) for per caput mean bone marrow dose, 2.2 mrad (22 μGy) for leukemia significant dose and 0.72 mrad (7.2 μGy) for malignancy significant dose, respectively. Assuming that computed tomographic examinations in 1979 will be performed continuously in the future, the population risks for the whole population in Japan were estimated to be 20 persons per year for total risks. As an example of results, the individual risks was 7.36 x 10-6 for 32 year old male and 8.23 x 10-6 for 32 year old female from clanial computed tomographic examinations and 101.0 x 10-6 for 12 year old male and 257 x 10-6 for 12 year old female from lower abdominal computed tomographic examinations. (author)

  12. Evaluation of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic colonography in detection of local recurrent colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yau-Tong You; Chung-Rong Chang Chien; Jeng-Yi Wang; Koon-Kwan Ng; Jinn-Shiun Chen; Reiping Tang; Jy-Ming Chiang; Chien-Yuh Yeh; Pao-Shiu Hsieh

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity,specificity of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic colonography in detecting local recurrence of colorectal cancer.METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2004,434 patients after potentially curative resection for invasive colorectal cancer were followed up for a period ranging from 20 to 55 mo. Eighty of the four hundred and thirty-four patients showing strong clinical evidence for recurring colorectal cancer during the last followup were enrolled in this study. Each patient underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomographic colonography and colonoscopy on the same day. Any lesions, biopsies,identified during the colonoscopic examination, immediate complications and the duration of the procedure were recorded. The results of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic colonography were evaluated by comparing to those of colonoscopy, surgical finding, and clinical follow-up.RESULTS: Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic colonography had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 83% and an overall accuracy of 94% in detecting local recurrent colorectal cancer.CONCLUSION: Conventional colonoscopy and contrastenhanced tomographic colonography can complement each other in detecting local recurrence of colorectal cancer.

  13. Spiral computed tomographic imaging related to computerized ultrasonographic images of carotid plaque morphology and histology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise; Wagner, A; Wiebe, B M;

    2001-01-01

    Echolucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, as evaluated by computerized B-mode ultrasonographic images, has been associated with an increased incidence of brain infarcts on cerebral computed tomographic scans. We tested the hypotheses that characterization of carotid plaques on spiral comput...

  14. Temporal bone anomalies in the branchio-oto-renal syndrome: detailed computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceruti, S.; Stinckens, C.I.C.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Casselman, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To inventory computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings in the branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging study on a family with the BOR syndrome. SETTING: Department of medical imaging and magnetic

  15. Cost-effectiveness of computed tomographic colonography screening for colorectal cancer in the medicare population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Knudsen (Amy); I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); C.M. Rutter (Carolyn); J.E. Savarino (James); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); K.M. Kuntz (Karen); A. Zauber (Ann)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) considered whether to reimburse computed tomographic colonography (CTC) for colorectal cancer screening of Medicare enrollees. To help inform its decision, we evaluated the reimbursement rate at which CTC screening could be

  16. Early Computed Tomographic Angiography after Endovascular Aneurysm Repair : Worthwhile or Worthless?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waasdorp, Evert J.; van Herwaarden, Joost A.; van de Mortel, Rob H. W.; Moll, Frans L.; de Vries, Jean-Paul P. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the value of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) early after an endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in relation to CTA 3 months after EVAR. We retrospectively reviewed all elective EVAR patients with available postprocedural and 3-month follow-up CTAs who were treated between

  17. Dynamic enhanced computed tomographic findings of a perirenal capillary hemangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Min; Kim, Sang Won; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Yang, Dal Mo; Ryu, Jung Kyu; Lim, Sung Jig [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Hemangiomas are benign mesenchymal neoplasms that rarely occur in the kidney and perirenal space. Perirenal hemangiomas can mimic the appearance of exophytic renal cell carcinoma or various retroperitoneal tumors. We report a case of perirenal hemangioma detected by dynamic enhanced computed tomography in a 43-year-old female.

  18. Subperiosteal hematomas of the orbit: angiographic and computed tomographic diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigel, R.S. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque); Williams, A.G.; Hutchison, J.W.; Wolter, J.R.; Carlow, T.J.; Rogers, D.E.

    1982-06-01

    Subperiosteal hematomas of the orbit are a rare complication of blunt head trauma that may on occasion occur spontaneously. Angiography and computed tomography (CT) were used in the diagnosis of three cases of subperiosteal hematoma. In the proper clinical setting, orbital CT can give a precise delineation of the size and extent of this hematoma.

  19. Computed Tomographic Study of Superficial Fascia of the Abdomen: Implication to Localized Fat Deposits (LFD) Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey AK; Kumar P; Radhakrishnan P; Kumar S; Kotian SR; D'Souza A; D'Souza AS

    2015-01-01

    Background: Superficial fascia of the abdomen, being a supportive structure plays a vital role in abdominal localized fat deposits (LFDs) as well as in surgical treatment of obesity. Interest in the anatomy of the superficial fascia is increasing with increasing popularity of surgical procedures for abdominal obesity. The study aims at computed tomographic evaluation and classification of the superficial fascia of abdomen & comparing with the earlier published cadaveric study. Materials and m...

  20. The fate of traumatic subdural hygroma in serial computed tomographic scans.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, K. S.; Bae, W. K.; Bae, H. G.; Yun, I. G.

    2000-01-01

    We reviewed serial computed tomographic (CT) scans of 58 patients with traumatic subdural hygroma (SDG) to investigate its natural history. All were re-evaluated with a special reference to the size and density of SDG. Thirty-four patients (58.6%) were managed conservatively and 24 patients (41.4%) underwent surgery. The lesion was described as remained, reduced, resolved, enlarged and changed. Means of interval from injury to diagnosis and any changes in CT were calculated. SDGs were resolve...

  1. Computed tomographic imaging of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis; Computertomographisches Bild der pulmonalen Alveolarproteinose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitton, M.B. [Klinik mit Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Univ. Mainz (Germany); Schweden, F. [Klinik mit Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Univ. Mainz (Germany); Wilhelm, K. [Medizinische Klinik 3, Abt. Pneumologie, Univ. Mainz (Germany); Wengler-Becker, U. [Inst. fuer Pathologie, Univ. Mainz (Germany); Thelen, M. [Klinik mit Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Univ. Mainz (Germany)

    1995-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare disease of uncertain etiology. The computed tomographic image is characterized by geographically sharply delineated alveolar infiltrates, faint, ground-glass-like parenchymal turbidity, with well bordered interstitial structures and recesses in the subpleural space. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die pulmonale Alveolarproteinose ist eine seltene Erkrankung unklarer Aetiologie. Das computertomographische Bild ist durch geographisch scharf demarkierte alveolaere Infiltrate, flaue milchglasartige Parenchymtruebungen mit gut abgrenzbaren interstitiellen Strukturen und Aussparung des Subpleuralraumes charakterisiert. (orig.)

  2. Computed Tomographic Tenography of Normal Equine Digital Flexor Tendon Sheath: An Ex Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lacitignola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to document the normal computed tomographic tenography findings of digital flexor tendon sheath. Six ex vivo normal equine forelimbs were used. An axial approach was used to inject 185 mg/mL of iopamidol in a total volume of 60 mL into the digital flexor tendon sheaths. Single-slice helical scans, with 5 mm thickness, spaced every 3 mm, for a pitch of 0.6, and with bone algorithm reconstruction, were performed before and after injections of contrast medium. To obtain better image quality for multiplanar reconstruction and 3D reformatting, postprocessing retroreconstruction was performed to reduce the images to submillimetre thickness. Computed tomographic tenography of digital flexor tendon sheaths could visualize the following main tendon structures for every forelimb in contrast-enhanced images as low densities surrounded by high densities: superficial digital flexor tendon, deep digital flexor tendon, manica flexoria, mesotendons, and synovial recess. Results of this study suggest that computed tomographic tenography can be used with accuracy and sensitivity to evaluate the common disorders of the equine digital flexor tendon sheath and the intrathecal structures.

  3. Computed tomographic appearance of inflammatory polyps in three cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the use of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the inner ear, tympanic bullae, nasopharyngeal area, and external ear canals of three cats. All cats presented for evaluation of upper respiratory signs or chronic ear infection. Nasopharyngeal masses were present in two cats, and a mass in the external ear canal was present in the third cat. In all three cats, CT was able to define the extent of osseous bulla involvement, which was confirmed at surgery. Computed tomography also defined the extent of the polyp in the nasopharyngeal area in two cats, and in the external ear canal in one cat. Surgical removal of the polyps was accomplished with a combined oral approach and ventral bulla osteotomy in cats 1 and 2. The polyp was removed from cat 3 using a combination of ventral bulla osteotomy and excision of the mass through the external ear canal. Microscopic examination confirmed all masses as nasopharyngeal (inflammatory) polyps

  4. Development of an electrical impedance computed tomographic two-phase flows analyzer. Annual technical report for program renewal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O.C.

    1993-05-01

    This progress report details the theoretical development, numerical results, experimental design (mechanical), experimental design (electronic), and experimental results for the research program for the development of an electrical impedance computed tomographic two-phase flow analyzer.

  5. Chronic septic arthritis of the adult hip: Computed tomographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnik, C.S.; Ammann, A.M.; Walsh, J.W.

    1987-10-01

    Abnormalities on computed tomography (CT) are described in 12 adults in whom septic arthritis of the hip was diagnosed. Presenting symptoms varied, as did CT findings. Soft tissue abnormalities ranged from intra-articular effusion to large abscess formation, and bone changes ranged from minimal erosion of articular surfaces to gross destruction of the proximal femur and acetabulum. CT can be helpful in the evaluation of septic arthritis of the hip because of its superior demonstration of soft tissue detail. An accurate diagnosis can be established in unsuspected cases and can be confirmed when clinical indicators are vague.

  6. The image of a brain stroke in a computed tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of 100 findings from patients who suffered brain strokes and by the use of 1500 ensured stroke images it was tested whether or not the stroke-predilection typologie outlined by Zuelch is based on a coincidental summation of individual cases. The radio-computed tomography with the possibility of evaluation of non-lethal cases proved itself as a suited method for confirmation or repudiation of this stroke theory. By means of the consistently achieved association of the frontal, respectively horizontal sectional image for the typology it could be proven and - with the exception of a few rather seldom types - also demonstrated that the basic and predilection types of brain stroke repeated themselves in their pattern. In individual cases a specification of lower types could also be undertaken. (orig./TRV)

  7. Computed tomographic imaging of the brain of normal neonatal foals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Cabrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to provide a more complete description of normal cross-sectional anatomy of the neonatal brain of the foal and associated structures by computed tomography (CT and gross anatomical sections. Using a fourth-generation CT scanner, 2-mm contiguous transverse images were acquired from two neonatal 5-days-old Quarter horse foals. After the study the animals were euthanised for reasons unrelated to head pathology. To assist in the accurate identification of brain and associated structures, transverse CT images were obtained and compared with the corresponding frozen cross-sections of the head. CT images matched well with their corresponding transverse gross sections and provided good differentiation between the bones and the soft tissues of the head. These CT images are intended to be a useful initial anatomic reference in the interpretation for clinical CT imaging studies of the brain and associated structures in live neonatal foals.

  8. Recurrent largngeal nerve paralysis: a laryngographic and computed tomographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vocal cord paralysis is a relatively common entity, usually resulting from a pathologic process of the vagus nerve or its recurrent larynegeal branch. It is rarely caused by intralargngeal lesions. Four teen patients with recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (RLNP) were evaluated by laryngography, computed tomography (CT), or both. In the evaluation of the paramedian cord, CT was limited in its ability to differentiate between tumor or RLNP as the cause of the fixed cord, but it yielded more information than laryngography on the structural abnormalities of the larynx and pre-epiglottic and paralaryngeal spaces. Laryngography revealed distinct features of RLNP and is the procedure of choice for evaluation of functional abnormalities of the larynx until further experience with faster CT scanners and dynamic scanning of the larynx is gained

  9. Computed tomographic appearance of mucormycosis; Computertomographisches Erscheinungsbild der pulmonalen Mukormykose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J.; Hinrichs, T.; Jacobi, V. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Boehme, A.; Hoelzer, D. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Klinik III, Haematologie/Onkologie

    2000-07-01

    Aim: Analysis of the morphological characteristics of pulmonary mucormycosis using computed tomography (CT). Material and methods: Prospective analysis of CT studies in 9 patients out of 19 patients with proven pulmonary mucormycosis. Results: Pulmonary mucormycosis was most frequently found in the upper lobe bilaterally (51% of all nodules). In 22% of the manifestations, the morphological criterion of a 'bird's nest' could be verified in CT, in 37% central necrotic areas were detected. In 37% an open bronchus was diagnosed, in 6% we observed bronchiectases. 43% of all nodules presented with a halo sign. In three patients we found pleural effusions, enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes were diagnosed in one patient. Conclusion: Computed tomography allows an improved diagnosis and therapeutic follow-up in patients suffering from pulmonary mucormycosis. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Analyse der morphologischen Charakteristika der pulmonalen Mukormykose in der Computertomographie. Material und Methodik: Retrospektive Analyse der computertomographischen Untersuchungen bei 9 Patienten aus einem Kollektiv von 19 Patienten mit gesicherter pulmonaler Mukormykose. Ergebnisse: Pulmonale Mukormanifestationen fanden sich bevorzugt im Oberlappen beidseits (51% aller Herde). Bei 22% der Herde konnte das morphologische Zeichen des 'bird's nest' verifiziert werden, bei 37% zeigten sich Einschmelzungen. In 37% der Herde liess sich ein offener Bronchus nachweisen, bei 6% beobachteten wir Bronchiektasen. 43% der Herde wiesen einen 'Halo' auf. Bei drei Patienten lagen Pleuraerguesse vor, eine Lymphknotenvergroesserung (>1 cm) zeigte sich bei einem Patienten. Schlussfolgerung: Die Computertomographie leistet einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Diagnose und Verlaufskontrolle der pulmonalen Mukormykose. (orig.)

  10. Computed tomographic study in young epileptics in Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ashraf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infectious diseases like neurocysticercosis and neurotuberculosis are endemic in Indian subcontinent and are important causes of epilepsy. Epileptic children are prone to have poor school performance, higher levels of anxiety and depression apart from low self esteem. These treatable condition could be easily picked up on neuroimaging like cranial computed tomography (CT scan and treated accordingly at an earliest. Objectives: To assess the role of cranial computed tomography scan in children having epilepsy. Material and Methods: Seventy two children between the age of 1 month and 14 years were prospectively enrolled, who had atleast two unprovoked seizures greater than 24 hours apart, and all those children where seizures result from acute central nervous system insult were meticulously excluded. Diagnosis of epilepsy was based on detailed history, thorough clinical examination, routine laboratory tests with additional specific tests like electroencephalogram (EEG and CT scan brain. Results: Males constituted 62.5% and females 37.5% of our sample (p=0.247. The EEG was abnormal in 68.1% of all subjects, among which EEG was abnormal in 69.8% of generalized seizures, 64.7% in partial seizures and 1% in undetermined seizures. The spectrum of various seizure types in our study was generalized seizures in 73.6%, partial seizures in 23.6% & undetermined seizures in 2.8%. The incidence of these lesions in hospitalized young epileptics was 31.9%, in order of their frequency, it was cerebral atrophy and dilated ventricle (18.8% each; calcifications (15.5%; encephalomalacia and pachygyria (9.4% each; HIE changes, tuberous sclerosis (6.3% each; leucodystrophy, thin corpus callosum, large cisterna magna, granuloma and periventricular leukomalacia (3.1% each. The intracranial structural lesions were present in 22.6% of generalized seizures, 64.7% of partial seizures, none of undetermined seizures (p=0.004. Conclusion: Abnormal cranial CT scan

  11. Computed tomographic features of afferent loop syndrome: pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zissin, R. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hertz, M. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Tel Aviv (Israel); Paran, H. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Surgery ' A' , Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Osadchy, A. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Gayer, G. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Assaf Harofe Medical Center, Zrifin, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2005-04-15

    This pictorial essay reviews the computed tomography (CT) findings of afferent loop syndrome (ALS) in various pathological conditions to demonstrate the contribution of a common imaging modality-that is, abdominal CT, used nowadays for various abdominal complaints-to the diagnosis of ALS. ALS is caused by obstruction of the duodenum and jejunum proximal to a gastrojejunostomy anastomosis. It is a rare complication after Billroth II subtotal gastrectomy and even more rare after total or subtotal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Although currently advanced medical treatment and endoscopic interventions have dramatically decreased the necessity of surgery for peptic ulcer disease, ALS may appear years after previously common operations. Alternatively, the use of surgical resection for early gastric cancer nowadays leads to an increasing rate of malignancy-related ALS. Clinically, ALS may be difficult to diagnose as its presentation may be vague and nonspecific, but it has a characteristic appearance on CT. Clinicians and radiologists should therefore be familiar with this rare complication. Prompt recognition and correct diagnosis of this syndrome and its probable etiology are important as a guide for treatment. This review illustrates the CT features of ALS in various conditions. (author)

  12. Computed tomographic features of afferent loop syndrome: pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pictorial essay reviews the computed tomography (CT) findings of afferent loop syndrome (ALS) in various pathological conditions to demonstrate the contribution of a common imaging modality-that is, abdominal CT, used nowadays for various abdominal complaints-to the diagnosis of ALS. ALS is caused by obstruction of the duodenum and jejunum proximal to a gastrojejunostomy anastomosis. It is a rare complication after Billroth II subtotal gastrectomy and even more rare after total or subtotal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Although currently advanced medical treatment and endoscopic interventions have dramatically decreased the necessity of surgery for peptic ulcer disease, ALS may appear years after previously common operations. Alternatively, the use of surgical resection for early gastric cancer nowadays leads to an increasing rate of malignancy-related ALS. Clinically, ALS may be difficult to diagnose as its presentation may be vague and nonspecific, but it has a characteristic appearance on CT. Clinicians and radiologists should therefore be familiar with this rare complication. Prompt recognition and correct diagnosis of this syndrome and its probable etiology are important as a guide for treatment. This review illustrates the CT features of ALS in various conditions. (author)

  13. MULTISLICE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF INTRACRANIAL SPACE OCCUPYING LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : Introduction: The term intracranial space occupying lesions includes lesions which expand in volume to displace normal neural structures. They give rise to the various symptoms like focal seizures, paralysis, features of raised intracranial tension and false localizing signs. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of computed tomography in evaluation of space occupying lesions of brain, assessment of the site, nature and extent, age and sex prevalence of space occupying lesions. MATERIAL & METHODS: The present study was conducted on one hundred patients with space occupying lesions of the brain presenting with various neurologic symptoms or incidental findings. Patients of all age groups suspected to have intracranial space occupying lesions were included in the study. Results were expressed as mean ± SD and proportions as percentages. Results: Most of the cases of hyperdense lesions were intracerebral hemorrhages, meningioma, lymphoma and medulloblastoma. High grade astrocytomas were heterogenous hypodense lesions with irregular ring enhancement associated perilesional edema and mass effect. Low grade astrocytomas had minimal rim/ mural nodule enhancement. Intracranial tuberculoma and neurocysticercosis showed ring with nodular enhancing. Calcification was seen in tuberous sclerosis, neurocysticercosis, meningiomas, oligodendrogliomas, arteriovenous malformations and dermoid cyst. Congenital lesions had variable presentation ranging from cystic to mixed pattern lesions. CONCLUSIONS: In developing countries, CT imaging remains as a major diagnostic modality, with easy accessibility and technical ease as compared to MRI.

  14. Novel computed tomographic chest metrics to detect pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chin-Shang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH can potentially improve survival and quality of life. Detecting PH using echocardiography is often insensitive in subjects with lung fibrosis or hyperinflation. Right heart catheterization (RHC for the diagnosis of PH adds risk and expense due to its invasive nature. Pre-defined measurements utilizing computed tomography (CT of the chest may be an alternative non-invasive method of detecting PH. Methods This study retrospectively reviewed 101 acutely hospitalized inpatients with heterogeneous diagnoses, who consecutively underwent CT chest and RHC during the same admission. Two separate teams, each consisting of a radiologist and pulmonologist, blinded to clinical and RHC data, individually reviewed the chest CT's. Results Multiple regression analyses controlling for age, sex, ascending aortic diameter, body surface area, thoracic diameter and pulmonary wedge pressure showed that a main pulmonary artery (PA diameter ≥29 mm (odds ratio (OR = 4.8, right descending PA diameter ≥19 mm (OR = 7.0, true right descending PA diameter ≥ 16 mm (OR = 4.1, true left descending PA diameter ≥ 21 mm (OR = 15.5, right ventricular (RV free wall ≥ 6 mm (OR = 30.5, RV wall/left ventricular (LV wall ratio ≥0.32 (OR = 8.8, RV/LV lumen ratio ≥1.28 (OR = 28.8, main PA/ascending aorta ratio ≥0.84 (OR = 6.0 and main PA/descending aorta ratio ≥ 1.29 (OR = 5.7 were significant predictors of PH in this population of hospitalized patients. Conclusion This combination of easily measured CT-based metrics may, upon confirmatory studies, aid in the non-invasive detection of PH and hence in the determination of RHC candidacy in acutely hospitalized patients.

  15. Computed tomographic evaluation of the portal vein in the hepatomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kee Hyung; Lee, Seung Chul; Bae, Man Gil; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong; Lee, Min Ho; Kee, Choon Suhk; Park, Kyung Nam [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    Computed tomography and pornographic findings of 63 patients with hepatoma, undergone hepatic angiography and superior mesenteric pornography for evaluation of tumor and thrombosis of portal vein and determination of indication of transcatheter arterial embolization for palliative treatment of hepatoma from April, 85 to June, 86 in Hanyang university hospital, were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1. In 36 cases, portal vein thrombosis was detected during photography. Nineteen of 37 cases which revealed localized hepatoma in the right lobe of the liver showed portal vein thrombosis; 9 of 11 cases of the left lobe; 8 of 14 cases which were involved in entire liver revealed thrombosis. One case localized in the caudate lobe showed no evidence of invasion to portal vein. 2. Twenty-four of 34 cases with diffuse infiltrative hepatoma revealed portal vein thrombosis and the incidence of portal vein thrombosis in this type were higher than in the cases of the nodular type. 3. The portal vein thrombosis appeared as filling defects of low density in the lumen of the portal veins in CT and they did not reveal contrast enhancement. 4. CT revealed well the evidence of obstructions in the cases of portal vein thrombosis and the findings were well-corresponded to the findings of the superior mesenteric photography. 5. Five of the cases of the portal vein thrombosis were missed in the CT and the causes were considered as due to partial volume effect of enhanced portal vein with partial occlusion or arterioportal shunts. 6. Six of 13 cases with occlusion of main portal vein showed cavernous transformation and they were noted as multiple small enhanced vascularities around the porta hepatis in the CT. According to the results, we conclude that CT is a useful modality to detect the changes of the portal veins in the patients of the hepatoma.

  16. Novel computed tomographic chest metrics to detect pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) can potentially improve survival and quality of life. Detecting PH using echocardiography is often insensitive in subjects with lung fibrosis or hyperinflation. Right heart catheterization (RHC) for the diagnosis of PH adds risk and expense due to its invasive nature. Pre-defined measurements utilizing computed tomography (CT) of the chest may be an alternative non-invasive method of detecting PH. This study retrospectively reviewed 101 acutely hospitalized inpatients with heterogeneous diagnoses, who consecutively underwent CT chest and RHC during the same admission. Two separate teams, each consisting of a radiologist and pulmonologist, blinded to clinical and RHC data, individually reviewed the chest CT's. Multiple regression analyses controlling for age, sex, ascending aortic diameter, body surface area, thoracic diameter and pulmonary wedge pressure showed that a main pulmonary artery (PA) diameter ≥29 mm (odds ratio (OR) = 4.8), right descending PA diameter ≥19 mm (OR = 7.0), true right descending PA diameter ≥ 16 mm (OR = 4.1), true left descending PA diameter ≥ 21 mm (OR = 15.5), right ventricular (RV) free wall ≥ 6 mm (OR = 30.5), RV wall/left ventricular (LV) wall ratio ≥0.32 (OR = 8.8), RV/LV lumen ratio ≥1.28 (OR = 28.8), main PA/ascending aorta ratio ≥0.84 (OR = 6.0) and main PA/descending aorta ratio ≥ 1.29 (OR = 5.7) were significant predictors of PH in this population of hospitalized patients. This combination of easily measured CT-based metrics may, upon confirmatory studies, aid in the non-invasive detection of PH and hence in the determination of RHC candidacy in acutely hospitalized patients

  17. Ossification in the caudal attachments of the ligamentum flavum: an anatomic and computed tomographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of anatomic specimens and routine computed tomographic (CT) scans of the chest and abdomen demonstrated that ossification in the caudal attachments of the ligamentum flavum is a common anatomic finding, but a much less common CT finding. Its characteristic location should help prevent confusion with other entities. The present study was prompted by a case of thoracic spine trauma, reported here, in which areas of bone density in the spinal canal simulated fracture fragments. The true nature of these bony projections, namely ossification in the ligamentum flavum, was established by computer reconstruction of axial CT images

  18. Computed tomographic findings of the pediatric abdominal masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Seong Ku; Kim, Ok Bae; Suh, Soo Jhi [School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-08-15

    Although the ultrasonography is a useful imaging modality for evaluation of abdominal mass in an infant and child, computed tomography has more advantages over the ultrasonography in assessing anatomic detail, precise extent of tumor and differential diagnostic accuracy. The authors analyzed CT features of 85 cases of pathologically or clinically proven pediatric abdominal mass for recent 4.5 years at Keimyung University Dongsan Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. The most common site was kidney (36 cases: 42.4%), followed by nonrenal retroperitoneal masses (23 cases: 27.1%), hepatobiliary masses (15 cases: 17.6%), gastrointestinal masses (9 cases: 10.6%), and genital mass (2 cases: 2.3%) in order of frequency. 2. Hydronephrosis (17 cases: 20%) and Wilms' tumor (17 cases: 20%) were most common and splenomegaly (8 cases: 9.4%), neuroblastoma (5 cases: 5.9%), teratoma (4 cases: 4.7%), rhabdomyosarcoma (4 cases: 4.7%) were descending order of frequency. 3. The male to female ratio was 2:1, but female was predominant in teratoma, choledochal cyst and genital masses. Twenty three cases (27.1%) were under the age of one year. 4. The diagnosis of hydronephrosis, assessment of its severity and localization of exact level of obstruction were easy with CT examination. 5. Characteristic CT features of Wilms' tumor were round or oval shaped, smooth marginated, large intrarenal mass with displaced or obstructed calyces, pseudocapsule and crescent sign; there were no evidence of retroperitoneal lymph node or contiguous extension, retrocrural lymph node enlargement, prevertebral midline extension, or encasement of the aorta. 6. Typical CT findings of the neuroblastoma were irregular shaped and marginated extrarenal mass with calcification frequently, accompanied by retroperitoneal lymph node or contiguous extension, retrocrural lymph node enlargement, prevertebral midline extension and encasement of the aorta; there were no evidence of pseudocapsule or crescent

  19. High resolution computed tomographic features of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare, chronic lung disease with unknown etiology and with a nonuniform clinical course. Nonuniformity of clinical course might be related to the degree of pulmonary parenchymal alterations, which can be revealed with high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). However, HRCT findings of PAM were not fully described in the current literature. Aim: The aim of this study was to interpret and to contribute to describe HRCT findings of PAM and to investigate a correlation between profusion of micro nodules (MN) and pulmonary parenchymal alterations in patients with PAM. Material and methods: Ten male patients with PAM (mean age: 22 ± 3.2) were included into the study. HRCT images were assessed for patterns, distribution, and profusion of pulmonary abnormalities. Dividing the lungs into three zones, profusion of abnormalities was assessed. A profusion score (1-4) was given and the scores of each zone were then summed to obtain a global profusion score for HRCT ranging from 0 to 12. Also a parenchymal alteration score (PAS) was defined with respect to profusion of abnormalities. Chest X-rays were also scored. Results: All of ten patients with PAM had findings of interstitial lung disease in varying degrees on their HRCTs. HRCT findings of patients with PAM were as following: MN, parenchymal bands (PB), ground glass opacity (GGO) and, sub pleural interstitial thickening (SPIT) in 10 patients; interlobular septal thickening (ILST), in 9 patients; paraseptal emphysema (PSA) in 8 patients; centrilobular emphysema (CLA) in 7 patients; bronchiectasis (BE), confluent micro nodules (CMN) in 6 patients; peri bronchovascular interstitial thickening (PBIT) in 5 patients; panacinar emphysema (PANAA) in 3 patients; pleural calcification (PC) in 2 patients. A significant correlation between MN scores and PAS (r = 0.68, p = 0.031, MN scores and GGO scores (r = 0.69, p = 0.027) and, MN scores and CLA scores (r = 0.67, p = 0

  20. The computed tomographic appearance of cerebral cysticercosis in adults and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computed tomographic (CT) scans of 45 patients (30 adults, 15 children) with cerebral cysticercosis were reviewed. These patients had undergone complete diagnostic evaluations including skin tests, laboratory tests, plain skull radiography, radionuclide brain scanning, CT, and cerebral angiography. All of these tests were unrewarding except CT and the indirect hemagglutination tests on the serum. A classification of cerebral cysticercosis based on the location of the lesions in the brain and the CT appearance was developed. Cerebral cysticercosis can be diagnosed by CT findings when there is also a history of seizures and of the patient having lived in an area where the disease is endemic

  1. The computed tomographic appearance of cerebral cysticercosis in adults and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, S.E.; Locke, G.E.; Biggers, S.; Percy, A.K.

    1982-09-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) scans of 45 patients (30 adults, 15 children) with cerebral cysticercosis were reviewed. These patients had undergone complete diagnostic evaluations including skin tests, laboratory tests, plain skull radiography, radionuclide brain scanning, CT, and cerebral angiography. All of these tests were unrewarding except CT and the indirect hemagglutination tests on the serum. A classification of cerebral cysticercosis based on the location of the lesions in the brain and the CT appearance was developed. Cerebral cysticercosis can be diagnosed by CT findings when there is also a history of seizures and of the patient having lived in an area where the disease is endemic.

  2. Hybrid computing: CPU+GPU co-processing and its application to tomographic reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern computers are equipped with powerful computing engines like multicore processors and GPUs. The 3DEM community has rapidly adapted to this scenario and many software packages now make use of high performance computing techniques to exploit these devices. However, the implementations thus far are purely focused on either GPUs or CPUs. This work presents a hybrid approach that collaboratively combines the GPUs and CPUs available in a computer and applies it to the problem of tomographic reconstruction. Proper orchestration of workload in such a heterogeneous system is an issue. Here we use an on-demand strategy whereby the computing devices request a new piece of work to do when idle. Our hybrid approach thus takes advantage of the whole computing power available in modern computers and further reduces the processing time. This CPU+GPU co-processing can be readily extended to other image processing tasks in 3DEM. -- Highlights: ► Hybrid computing allows full exploitation of the power (CPU+GPU) in a computer. ► Proper orchestration of workload is managed by an on-demand strategy. ► Total number of threads running in the system should be limited to the number of CPUs.

  3. Predictors of internal mammary vessel diameter: A computed tomographic angiography-assisted anatomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Julia A; Tholpady, Sunil S; Momeni, Arash; Chu, Michael W

    2016-10-01

    The internal mammary vessels are the most common recipient vessels in free flap breast reconstruction. The literature on internal mammary vascular anatomy is limited by small sample sizes, cadaveric studies, or intraoperative changes. The purpose of this study is to analyze internal mammary anatomy using computed tomographic angiography. A retrospective review of 110 consecutive computed tomographic angiography studies of female patients was performed. Measurements of vessel caliber, distance of internal mammary vessels to sternum, location of internal mammary vein bifurcation, intercostal space height, and chest width were analyzed. Patient demographics and comorbidities were reviewed. The right internal mammary artery and vein were larger than the left in all intercostal spaces (p = 0.02 and p anatomy, bifurcation, and caliber of internal mammary vessels can aid preoperative planning of autologous, free flap breast reconstruction. On average, the internal mammary vein bifurcates at the third intercostal space; patients with larger chest widths and body mass index had larger caliber internal mammary vessels, and 25% of patients had third intercostal space <1.5 cm and, thus, may not be suitable candidates for rib-sparing techniques. PMID:27475336

  4. Biomass exposure and the high resolution computed tomographic and spirometric findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslan, Mubeccel E-mail: isalk@mynet.com; Akkurt, Ibrahim; Egilmez, Hulusi; Atalar, Mehmet; Salk, Ismail

    2004-11-01

    Background: The adverse health effects of biomass fuel exposure (BFE) is complex and widespread. According to our knowledge, the interstitial lung disease due to BFE is not clear in literature. Objective: In this descriptive crossectional study, the main objective was to assess the effects of BFE on the respiratory system. Methods: Patient group was included non-smoker 21 woman and the control group was included non-smoker 22 woman. High resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) examinations were made with supin and prone positions in two groups. The spirometric measurements, including the diffusion capacity at rest for carbon monoxide, single breath (DLCO), were also made. Results: It was found that BFE caused obstructive and restrictive spirometric impairments. The prevalence of the fibrotic bands, peribronchovascular thickenings, nodular radio opacities, and curvilinear densities in the high resolution computed tomographic examinations were 7, 5, 7, and 16 times higher in the exposure group than the control group, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume first second (FEV{sub 1}), FEV{sub 1}/FVC, forced expiratory flow during middle half of forced vital capacity (FEF25-75), DLCO and the volumetric densities of the HRCT slices with deep expiration in prone position. Conclusions: We think that, the findings due to BFE, pose a special situation and it can be named 'biomass lung'.

  5. Microwave Tomographic Imaging of Cerebrovascular Accidents by Using High-Performance Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Tournier, P -H; Bonazzoli, M; de Buhan, M; Darbas, M; Dolean, V; Hecht, F; Jolivet, P; Kanfoud, I El; Migliaccio, C; Nataf, F; Pichot, C; Semenov, S

    2016-01-01

    The motivation of this work is the detection of cerebrovascular accidents by microwave tomographic imaging. This requires the solution of an inverse problem relying on a minimization algorithm (for example, gradient-based), where successive iterations consist in repeated solutions of a direct problem. The reconstruction algorithm is extremely computationally intensive and makes use of efficient parallel algorithms and high-performance computing. The feasibility of this type of imaging is conditioned on one hand by an accurate reconstruction of the material properties of the propagation medium and on the other hand by a considerable reduction in simulation time. Fulfilling these two requirements will enable a very rapid and accurate diagnosis. From the mathematical and numerical point of view, this means solving Maxwell's equations in time-harmonic regime by appropriate domain decomposition methods, which are naturally adapted to parallel architectures.

  6. Computed tomographic findings in children with spastic diplegia; Correlation with the severity of their motor abnormality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokochi, Kenji; Horie, Masayo; Inukai, Kazuhisa; Kito, Hideyuki (Seirei-Mikatabara General Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan)); Shimabukuro, Satoshi; Kodama, Kazuo

    1989-08-01

    Computed tomographic findings of 46 children with spastic diplegia examined at nine months to three years of age corrected for preterm births were analyzed. Both the size of the lateral ventricles measured by the width of the anterior horns, and the volume of the extracerebral low-density areas were enlarged in some patiens. Both enlargements did not, however, correlate to the severity of the motor abnormality in the patients. The low-density areas of the periventricular white matter, especially adjacent to the trigone, were reduced in many children, probably due to the atrophy of the cerebral white matter having periventricular leukomalacia. The anterior expansion of the white matter reduction from the trigone corresponded to the severer motor abnormality in the children with spastic diplegia. (author).

  7. Optical tomographic detection of rheumatoid arthritis with computer-aided classification schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Christian D.; Klose, Alexander D.; Netz, Uwe; Beuthan, Jürgen; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2009-02-01

    A recent research study has shown that combining multiple parameters, drawn from optical tomographic images, leads to better classification results to identifying human finger joints that are affected or not affected by rheumatic arthritis RA. Building up on the research findings of the previous study, this article presents an advanced computer-aided classification approach for interpreting optical image data to detect RA in finger joints. Additional data are used including, for example, maximum and minimum values of the absorption coefficient as well as their ratios and image variances. Classification performances obtained by the proposed method were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden index and area under the curve AUC. Results were compared to different benchmarks ("gold standard"): magnet resonance, ultrasound and clinical evaluation. Maximum accuracies (AUC=0.88) were reached when combining minimum/maximum-ratios and image variances and using ultrasound as gold standard.

  8. Computed Tomographic Features in a case of Bilateral Neoplastic Cryptorchidism with Suspected Torsion in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eStokowski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old male German Shepherd dog presented for inappetence and weight loss. Physical examination and initial bloodwork revealed palpable abdominal masses, mild non-regenerative anemia and thrombocytopenia. Survey radiography and abdominal ultrasonography confirmed the presence of bilateral abdominal masses and lymphadenopathy. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT was performed in order to further investigate the origin of the intraabdominal masses, confirming two enlarged cryptorchid testes, one of which had an associated CT whirl sign. Histopathology of the testes and lymph nodes revealed bilateral malignant Sertoli cell tumors and seminomas with lymph node metastasis of both neoplasms. The purpose of this case report is to discuss the benefits of CT in the diagnosis of cryptorchid testes and describe an additional organ that may display CT whirl sign.

  9. Unusual manifestations of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: clinical, endocrinological and computed tomographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, B D; Chow, C C; Cockram, C S

    1994-01-01

    Clinical, endocrinological and computed tomographic features of three patients with unusual manifestations or complications of craniofacial involvement of fibrous dysplasia are presented. One patient with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia presented in late pregnancy with acute onset of bilateral optic nerve compression and blindness secondary to a rapidly expanding mass of fibrous dysplasia tissue involving the sphenoid, pituitary and optic chiasm regions. A second patient with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia developed thyrotoxicosis and probable gigantism/acromegaly in keeping with a rare form of McCune-Albright syndrome. Extensive bony distortion of the skull and facial bones by fibrous dysplasia made clinical recognition of these complications more difficult. A third patient had monostotic fibrous dysplasia with marked sclerosis of the sphenoid bone on plain radiographs which mimicked appearances of a meningioma and resulted in a negative craniotomy as computed tomography was not yet available at the time of presentation. Each case demonstrated rare complications of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia and highlighted the wide spectrum of appearances in which it may manifest, often resulting in overlap and diagnostic confusion with other disease processes. The value of computed tomography in assessment is emphasized. PMID:8140010

  10. Comparison between clinical indicators of transmembrane oxygenator thrombosis and multidetector computed tomographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigada, Mauro; L'Acqua, Camilla; Passamonti, Serena Maria; Mietto, Cristina; Protti, Alessandro; Riva, Roberto; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to assess whether multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) could accurately confirm the clinical suspicion of transmembrane oxygenator thrombosis (MOT) during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Twenty-seven oxygenators were examined using MDCT at the end of patient treatment. Transmembrane oxygenator thrombosis was suspected in 15 of them according to the presence of at least 2 of the following clinical indicators: (1) increase in d-dimer, (2) decrease in platelet count, (3) decrease in oxygenator performance, and (4) presence of clots on the surface of the oxygenator. Transmembrane oxygenator thrombosis was confirmed by MDCT in 5 (33%) of them. Transmembrane oxygenator thrombosis was unexpectedly found in 5 (41%) of the remaining 12 oxygenators not suspected for MOT. Eight (80%) of these oxygenators had clots accounting for less than 1% of total volume. Clots were mainly detectable at the apical corner of the oxygenator, most likely due to greater blood stasis. We found a significant increase in d-dimer and in membrane oxygenator shunt and a decrease in platelet count from the start to the discontinuation of ECMO. Hemostatic abnormalities significantly reverted 48 hours after oxygenator removal, suggesting the role of ECMO in activation of the coagulation cascade. Multidetector computed tomographic scan could not accurately confirm the clinical suspicion of MOT.

  11. Aortic dissection or renal infarction: Multislice computed tomographic angiography can tell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute renal infarction as a consequence of renal artery occlusion often goes unrecognized, mostly due to the non-specific clinical features. A quick diagnosis, ideally within three hours of presentation, is a key to renal function recovery. Case Outline. A 62-year-old male patient was admitted with a sudden abdominal pain, right flank pain and nausea. He had a diastolic hypertension at admission and his previous medical history showed atrial fibrillation. Initial clinical diagnosis was aortic dissection. Laboratory findings included elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and serum creatinine levels. There were no signs of aortic dissection or aneurismatic lesions registered during a multislice computed tomographic (MSCT angiography. However, MSCT angiography demonstrated left “upper” renal artery thrombosis and renal infarction - avascular area of the upper two thirds of the left kidney sharply demarcated from the surrounding parenchyma. Both kidneys excreted the contrast. Anticoagulant therapy was initiated, along with antiarrythmic and antihypertensive medications. The follow-up by computed tomography was performed after nine weeks, and it showed a partial revascularization of the previously affected area. Conclusion. Concomitant presence of flank/abdominal pain, an increased risk for thromboembolism and an elevated LDH suggested a possibility of renal infarction. MSCT angiography is a non-invasive and accurate method in the diagnosis of renal artery occlusion and the resulting renal infarction.

  12. Subclinical coronary atherosclerosis identified by coronary computed tomographic angiography in asymptomatic morbidly obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. McCullough

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a common public health problem and obese individuals in particular have a disproportionate incidence of acute coronary events. This study was undertaken to identify coronary artery lesions as well as associated clinical features, risk factors and demographics in patients with a body mass index (BMI >40 kg/m2 without known coronary artery disease (CAD. Morbidly obese subjects were prospectively recruited to undergo coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA using a dual-source computed tomography (CT system. CAD was defined as the presence of any atherosclerotic lesion in any one coronary artery segment. The presence, location, and severity of atherosclerosis were related to patient characteristics. Forty-one patients (28 women, mean age, 50.4±10.0 years, mean BMI, 43.8±4.8 kg/m2 served as the study population. Of these, 25 patients (61% had at least one coronary stenosis. All but 2 patients within the CAD cohort had coronary artery calcium (CAC scores >0, and most plaques identified (75.4% were non-calcified. There was a predilection of calcified and non-calcified atherosclerosis involving the left anterior descending (LAD coronary artery compared with other coronary segments. Univariate predictors of CAD included older age, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. In this preliminary study of young morbidly obese patients, CCTA detected a high prevalence of calcified and non-calcified CAD, although the later predominated.

  13. Computed tomographic features of 23 sporadic cases with Legionella pneumophila pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the chest computed tomographic (CT) findings of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia. Methods: CT scans obtained from 23 sporadic cases of L. pneumophila pneumonia were retrospectively reviewed. Chest CT findings were analyzed with regard to the patterns and distributions of pulmonary abnormalities. We also analyzed the histopathology of lungs from guinea pigs with experimentally induced L. pneumophila pneumonia. Results: Consolidation and ground-glass opacity (GGO) were the main findings of CT scans in L. pneumophila pneumonia. The distribution of opacities was categorized as non-segmental (n = 20) and segmental (n = 4). Non-segmental distribution may follow an onset of segmental distribution. Pleural effusion was observed in 14 (58.3%) patients, of which 13 were accompanied with non-segmental distribution. Abscess formation was observed in only one immunocompromised patient. In the animal pneumonia model, the lesions comprised of terminal bronchioles, alveolar spaces, and interstitia. Small bacilli were observed to be contained by many macrophages within the alveoli. Conclusion: Non-segmental distribution was significantly more frequent than segmental distribution in L. pneumophila pneumonia. It is possible that L. pneumophila infection initially results in segmental pneumonia, which progresses to typical non-segmental distribution.

  14. Assessment of Potential Live Kidney Donors and Computed Tomographic Renal Angiograms at Christchurch Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Stephen; Armstrong, Sarah; McGregor, David

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To examine the outcome of potential live kidney donors (PLKD) assessment program at Christchurch Hospital and, also, to review findings of Computed Tomographic (CT) renal angiograms that led to exclusion in the surgical assessment. Methods. Clinical data was obtained from the database of kidney transplants, Proton. Radiological investigations were reviewed using the hospital database, Éclair. The transplant coordinator was interviewed to clarify information about PLKD who did not proceed to surgery, and a consultant radiologist was interviewed to explain unfavorable findings on CT renal angiograms. Results. 162 PLKD were identified during the period January 04–June 08. Of those, 65 (40%) proceeded to have nephrectomy, 15 were accepted and planned to proceed to surgery, 13 were awaiting further assessment, and 69 (42.5%) did not proceed to nephrectomy. Of the 162 PLKD, 142 (88%) were directed donors. The proportion of altruistic PLKD who opted out was significantly higher than that of directed PLKD (45% versus 7%, P = 0.00004). Conclusions. This audit demonstrated a positive experience of live kidney donation at Christchurch Hospital. CT renal angiogram can potentially detect incidental or controversial pathologies in the kidney and the surrounding structures. Altruistic donation remains controversial with higher rates of opting out. PMID:27034659

  15. Thoracic pathologies on scout views and bolus tracking slices for computed tomographic cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groth, M.; Fiehler, J.; Buhk, J.H. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology; Henes, F.O. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-08-15

    To evaluate the incidence of additional thoracic pathologic findings (TPF) detected on scout views and corresponding bolus tracking slices (SVBT) for computed tomographic cerebral angiography (CTCA) and to test the reliability and accuracy of these findings. The study collective included 505 consecutive patients who underwent multidetector CTCA. Appendant SVBT of all patients were reviewed for any pathologic findings and patient medical reports were analyzed, if any medical treatment was initiated for the detected pathologic findings. In 18 patients thoracic CT scans were performed in the same session. These were additionally reviewed by two blinded observers to test for intra- and interobserver reliability as well as for accuracy of detecting thoracic pathologies on SVBT. TPF were detected in 165 (33 %) SVBT. The five most common pathologic findings were: pleural effusion, 12 %; pneumonia, 8 %; atelectasis/dystelecatsis, 6 %; pericardial effusion, 2 % and elevated diaphragm, 1 %. For 48 % of these findings medical treatment was initiated. SVBT showed a sensitivity of 53 %, a specificity of 99 %, a positive predictive value of 89 %, a negative predictive value of 94 % and accuracy of 94 % for the detection of TPF. The intraobserver reliability was very good and the interobserver reliability showed moderate agreement. SVBT for CTCA should be reviewed with care by radiologists, since additional TPF can affect patient management. Nevertheless, despite a high specificity of SVBT for detecting TPF, an only moderate sensitivity has to be taken into account.

  16. Comparison of primary thyroid lymphoma with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma on computed tomographic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Niibe, Hideo [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine; Tamaki, Yoshio; Takahashi, Mitsuhiro; Higuchi, Keiko; Sakaino, Kouji; Nonaka, Tetsuo; Shioya, Mariko [Gunma Cancer Center, Ota (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (LY) and anaplastic carcinoma (AC) of the thyroid gland are rare malignant tumors, and the initial symptoms of these diseases are very similar. The aim of our study was to compare the characteristics of the two diseases using computed tomographic (CT) scans in order to make an accurate differential diagnosis. Ten patients with LY and 10 with AC were analyzed. Differences in the CT findings of the two diseases were evaluated before treatment and statistically tested with either Student's t-test or the chi-square test. In the analysis of characteristics of CT imaging, the existence of calcification and necrosis, and heterogeneous tumor were dominant findings in AC, and there was a statistically significant difference in frequency between the two diseases (p<0.01). Calcification detected in AC was usually multiple and/or gross (mean size: {phi}8.2 mm). All lymphadenopathies were delineated as having the same homogeneous attenuation as the tumors in the thyroid gland in LY, but were shown as irregular rim enhancement in AC. The CT features of the two diseases are characteristic in terms of calcification, necrosis, and tumor composition. Evaluation by means of CT imaging is useful in distinguishing between LY and AC. (author)

  17. X-rays computed tomographic scans of lower limb and trunk muscles in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-rays computed tomographic (CT) scans of muscles of the lower limbs and the trunk in 14 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSH) were studied. The CT scans showed that the affected muscles were decreased in density and size. The laterality of muscular involvement was sometimes observed. The muscular lesions in the lower limbs showed proximal distribution. In the thigh, the hamstrings were affected first, the adductor muscles second, and then the muscular involvement progressed to the quadriceps femoris muscle. In the lower leg, the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were relatively spared as compared with the tibialis anterior muscle. In the lumbar girdle, the abdominal muscles were involved first, the gluteal muscles second, the back muscles third, and the psoas major muscle were relatively spared. The muscular weakness of this distribution exacerbated lumbar lordosis. The neck muscles were less affected than those of the lumbar girdle. The CT scans in FSH demonstrated the characteristic pattern of muscular involvement, which differed from the inherited muscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, and others. (author)

  18. Coronary computer tomographic angiography for preoperative risk stratification in patients undergoing liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of the cardiovascular risk profile in patients with end-stage liver disease is essential prior to liver transplantation (LT) as cardiovascular diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the posttransplant course. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a 64-slice coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and coronary calcium scoring (CCS) to predict the postoperative cardiovascular risk of patients assessed for LT. In this single center, observational study we included 54 consecutive patients who were assessed for LT and consequently transplanted. Twenty-four patients (44%) presented with a high CCS above 300 and/or a significant stenosis (>50% percent narrowing due to stenotic plaques) and were further referred to coronary angiography. Three of these patients had a more than 70% LAD stenosis with subsequent angioplasty (n = 1) or conservative therapy (n = 2). The other patients showed only diffuse CAD without significant stenosis. The remaining 30 patients with normal CTA findings were listed for LT without further tests. None of the 54 patients developed cardiovascular events peri- and postoperatively. This study indicated that CTA combined with CCS is a useful non-invasive imaging technique for pre-LT assessment of coronary artery disease and safe tool in the risk assessment of peri- and postoperative cardiovascular events in patients undergoing LT

  19. Computed tomographic features of 23 sporadic cases with Legionella pneumophila pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Hui [Department of Respiratory Diseases, Shanghai Pneumology Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Higa, Futoshi; Hibiya, Kenji; Furugen, Makoto [Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases (First Department of Internal Medicine), Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Sato, Yoko [Tomishiro Chuo Hospital, Okinawa (Japan); Shinzato, Takashi [Nakagami General Hospital, Okinawa (Japan); Haranaga, Shusaku; Yara, Satomi; Tateyama, Masao [Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases (First Department of Internal Medicine), Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Fujita, Jiro, E-mail: fujita@med.u-ryukyu.ac.j [Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases (First Department of Internal Medicine), Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Li, Huiping [Department of Respiratory Diseases, Shanghai Pneumology Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China)

    2010-06-15

    Objective: To describe the chest computed tomographic (CT) findings of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia. Methods: CT scans obtained from 23 sporadic cases of L. pneumophila pneumonia were retrospectively reviewed. Chest CT findings were analyzed with regard to the patterns and distributions of pulmonary abnormalities. We also analyzed the histopathology of lungs from guinea pigs with experimentally induced L. pneumophila pneumonia. Results: Consolidation and ground-glass opacity (GGO) were the main findings of CT scans in L. pneumophila pneumonia. The distribution of opacities was categorized as non-segmental (n = 20) and segmental (n = 4). Non-segmental distribution may follow an onset of segmental distribution. Pleural effusion was observed in 14 (58.3%) patients, of which 13 were accompanied with non-segmental distribution. Abscess formation was observed in only one immunocompromised patient. In the animal pneumonia model, the lesions comprised of terminal bronchioles, alveolar spaces, and interstitia. Small bacilli were observed to be contained by many macrophages within the alveoli. Conclusion: Non-segmental distribution was significantly more frequent than segmental distribution in L. pneumophila pneumonia. It is possible that L. pneumophila infection initially results in segmental pneumonia, which progresses to typical non-segmental distribution.

  20. Coronary computer tomographic angiography for preoperative risk stratification in patients undergoing liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jodocy, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.jodocy@klinikum-minden.de [Department of Internal Medicine III (Cardiology), Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Abbrederis, Susanne, E-mail: susanne.abbrederis@uki.at [Department of Internal Medicine II (Gastroenterology and Hepatology), Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Graziadei, Ivo W., E-mail: ivo.graziadei@i-med.ac.at [Department of Internal Medicine II (Gastroenterology and Hepatology), Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Vogel, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.vogel@uki.at [Department of Internal Medicine II (Gastroenterology and Hepatology), Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pachinger, Otmar, E-mail: otmar.pachinger@uki.at [Department of Internal Medicine III (Cardiology), Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Feuchtner, Gudrun M., E-mail: gudrun.feuchtner@i-med.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Jaschke, Werner, E-mail: werner.jaschke@i-med.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Friedrich, Guy, E-mail: guy.friedrich@uki.at [Department of Internal Medicine III (Cardiology), Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-09-15

    The assessment of the cardiovascular risk profile in patients with end-stage liver disease is essential prior to liver transplantation (LT) as cardiovascular diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the posttransplant course. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a 64-slice coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and coronary calcium scoring (CCS) to predict the postoperative cardiovascular risk of patients assessed for LT. In this single center, observational study we included 54 consecutive patients who were assessed for LT and consequently transplanted. Twenty-four patients (44%) presented with a high CCS above 300 and/or a significant stenosis (>50% percent narrowing due to stenotic plaques) and were further referred to coronary angiography. Three of these patients had a more than 70% LAD stenosis with subsequent angioplasty (n = 1) or conservative therapy (n = 2). The other patients showed only diffuse CAD without significant stenosis. The remaining 30 patients with normal CTA findings were listed for LT without further tests. None of the 54 patients developed cardiovascular events peri- and postoperatively. This study indicated that CTA combined with CCS is a useful non-invasive imaging technique for pre-LT assessment of coronary artery disease and safe tool in the risk assessment of peri- and postoperative cardiovascular events in patients undergoing LT.

  1. Assessment of Potential Live Kidney Donors and Computed Tomographic Renal Angiograms at Christchurch Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamer Alsulaiman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine the outcome of potential live kidney donors (PLKD assessment program at Christchurch Hospital and, also, to review findings of Computed Tomographic (CT renal angiograms that led to exclusion in the surgical assessment. Methods. Clinical data was obtained from the database of kidney transplants, Proton. Radiological investigations were reviewed using the hospital database, Éclair. The transplant coordinator was interviewed to clarify information about PLKD who did not proceed to surgery, and a consultant radiologist was interviewed to explain unfavorable findings on CT renal angiograms. Results. 162 PLKD were identified during the period January 04–June 08. Of those, 65 (40% proceeded to have nephrectomy, 15 were accepted and planned to proceed to surgery, 13 were awaiting further assessment, and 69 (42.5% did not proceed to nephrectomy. Of the 162 PLKD, 142 (88% were directed donors. The proportion of altruistic PLKD who opted out was significantly higher than that of directed PLKD (45% versus 7%, P=0.00004. Conclusions. This audit demonstrated a positive experience of live kidney donation at Christchurch Hospital. CT renal angiogram can potentially detect incidental or controversial pathologies in the kidney and the surrounding structures. Altruistic donation remains controversial with higher rates of opting out.

  2. Assessment of Potential Live Kidney Donors and Computed Tomographic Renal Angiograms at Christchurch Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulaiman, Thamer; Mark, Stephen; Armstrong, Sarah; McGregor, David

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To examine the outcome of potential live kidney donors (PLKD) assessment program at Christchurch Hospital and, also, to review findings of Computed Tomographic (CT) renal angiograms that led to exclusion in the surgical assessment. Methods. Clinical data was obtained from the database of kidney transplants, Proton. Radiological investigations were reviewed using the hospital database, Éclair. The transplant coordinator was interviewed to clarify information about PLKD who did not proceed to surgery, and a consultant radiologist was interviewed to explain unfavorable findings on CT renal angiograms. Results. 162 PLKD were identified during the period January 04-June 08. Of those, 65 (40%) proceeded to have nephrectomy, 15 were accepted and planned to proceed to surgery, 13 were awaiting further assessment, and 69 (42.5%) did not proceed to nephrectomy. Of the 162 PLKD, 142 (88%) were directed donors. The proportion of altruistic PLKD who opted out was significantly higher than that of directed PLKD (45% versus 7%, P = 0.00004). Conclusions. This audit demonstrated a positive experience of live kidney donation at Christchurch Hospital. CT renal angiogram can potentially detect incidental or controversial pathologies in the kidney and the surrounding structures. Altruistic donation remains controversial with higher rates of opting out.

  3. Comparison of the Multidetector-row Computed Tomographic Angiography Axial and Coronal Planes' Usefulness for Detecting Thoracodorsal Artery Perforators

    OpenAIRE

    Jong Gyu Kim; Soo Hyang Lee

    2012-01-01

    Background During the planning of a thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) free flap, preoperative multidetector-row computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography is valuable for predicting the locations of perforators. However, CT-based perforator mapping of the thoracodorsal artery is not easy because of its small diameter. Thus, we evaluated 1-mm-thick MDCT images in multiple planes to search for reliable perforators accurately. Methods Between July 2010 and October 2011, 19 consecutive patients...

  4. The Role of Bone Subtraction Computed Tomographic Angiography in Determining Intracranial Aneurysms in Non-Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Kayhan, Aysegul; Koc, Osman; Keskin, Suat; Keskin, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Background: The presence of blood in the subarachnoid space is an acute pathology with a serious risk of death and complications. The most common etiology (approximately 80%) is intracranial aneurysm. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the role of bone subtracted computed tomographic angiography (BSCTA), a novel and noninvasive method for determining and characterizing intracranial aneurysms. Patients and Methods: Sixty consecutive patients with clinically suspected non-traumatic...

  5. Head computed tomographic measurement as a predictor of outcome in patients with subdural hematoma with cerebral edema

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamura, Hitoshi; Morioka, Takasei; Yamamoto, Tomonori; Mizobata, Yasumitsu

    2016-01-01

    Background The ability to predict outcome in patients with cerebral edema is important because it can influence treatment strategy. We evaluated whether differences in head computed tomographic (CT) measurements in Hounsfield units (HU) of white matter and gray matter can be used as a predictor of outcome in patients with subdural hematoma with cerebral edema. Methods We evaluated 34 patients who had subdural hematoma with cerebral edema following acute closed head trauma and had undergone he...

  6. Consistency between computed tomographic enterography and enteroscopy in the detection of small intestinal Crohn’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐安涛

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of computed tomographic enterography(CTE)in the detection of small intestinal Crohn’s disease(CD)with balloon-assisted enterography(BAE)as reference standard.Methods The CTE and BAE data of 81 patients with CD were retrospectively analyzed.The small intestine of CD patients was divided into four segments,such as duode-

  7. [¹³N]Ammonia positron emission tomographic/computed tomographic imaging targeting glutamine synthetase expression in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xinchong; Zhang, Xiangsong; Yi, Chang; Liu, Yubo; He, Qiao

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of glutamine synthetase (GS) in prostate cancer (PCa) and the utility of [¹³N]ammonia positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the imaging of PCa. The uptake ratio of [¹³N]ammonia and the expression of GS in PC3 and DU145 cells was measured. Thirty-four patients with suspected PCa underwent [¹³N]ammonia PET/CT imaging, and immunohistochemistry staining of GS was performed. The uptake of [¹³N]ammonia in PC3 and DU145 cells elevated along with the decrease in glutamine in medium. The expression of GS messenger ribonucleic acid and protein also increased when glutamine was deprived. In biopsy samples, the GS expression scores were significantly higher in PCa tissue than in benign tissues (p glutamine. GS is the main reason for the uptake of [¹³N]ammonia, and [¹³N]ammonia is a useful tracer for PCa imaging.

  8. Therapeutic decision and management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage based on computed tomographic angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehdashti, A R; Rufenacht, D A; Delavelle, J; Reverdin, A; de Tribolet, N

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of high quality computed tomographic angiography (CTA) to replace digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in cases of ruptured saccular aneurysms and perform early surgical clipping or coiling on the basis of CTA alone. In a prospective study, 100 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) diagnosed by computed tomography underwent CTA. CTA revealed a total of 118 aneurysms including all ruptured aneurysms. A decision of direct surgical clipping, endovascular coiling or therapeutic abstention was made in 89 cases (89%) on the basis of CTA alone. Sixty-one direct surgical procedures were performed after CTA. Twenty-six cases underwent DSA for immediate endovascular treatment of the ruptured aneurysm. In 11 cases (11%), a DSA was performed prior to the therapeutic decision because of unclear aneurysm. Four cases were not treated because of initial poor clinical grade. The surgical findings were compared with CTA data and were considered accurate in all but one case. All patients underwent postoperative DSA within 10 days after SAH. The sensitivity and the specificity of CTA for the detection of all aneurysms, as compared with postoperative DSA, were 95.1 and 100%, respectively. A total of six unruptured aneurysms were missed initially, but were visible retrospectively on CTA in all but one case and were found in patients with multiple aneurysms in whom the ruptured aneurysm was detected by CTA. Current quality CTA allows reliable pretreatment planning for the majority of cases of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage and diminishes the pretreatment evaluation time critically. Complementary pretreatment DSA is required in situations where CTA characteristics of the ruptured aneurysm is unsatisfactory. PMID:12779201

  9. Automatic centerline extraction of coronary arteries in coronary computed tomographic angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guanyu; Kitslaar, Pieter; Frenay, Michel; Broersen, Alexander; Boogers, Mark J; Bax, Jeroen J; Reiber, Johan H C; Dijkstra, Jouke

    2012-04-01

    Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is a non-invasive imaging modality for the visualization of the heart and coronary arteries. To fully exploit the potential of the CCTA datasets and apply it in clinical practice, an automated coronary artery extraction approach is needed. The purpose of this paper is to present and validate a fully automatic centerline extraction algorithm for coronary arteries in CCTA images. The algorithm is based on an improved version of Frangi's vesselness filter which removes unwanted step-edge responses at the boundaries of the cardiac chambers. Building upon this new vesselness filter, the coronary artery extraction pipeline extracts the centerlines of main branches as well as side-branches automatically. This algorithm was first evaluated with a standardized evaluation framework named Rotterdam Coronary Artery Algorithm Evaluation Framework used in the MICCAI Coronary Artery Tracking challenge 2008 (CAT08). It includes 128 reference centerlines which were manually delineated. The average overlap and accuracy measures of our method were 93.7% and 0.30 mm, respectively, which ranked at the 1st and 3rd place compared to five other automatic methods presented in the CAT08. Secondly, in 50 clinical datasets, a total of 100 reference centerlines were generated from lumen contours in the transversal planes which were manually corrected by an expert from the cardiology department. In this evaluation, the average overlap and accuracy were 96.1% and 0.33 mm, respectively. The entire processing time for one dataset is less than 2 min on a standard desktop computer. In conclusion, our newly developed automatic approach can extract coronary arteries in CCTA images with excellent performances in extraction ability and accuracy. PMID:21637981

  10. Computed tomographic-guided iodine-125 interstitial implants for malignant thoracic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qiming [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China); The Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 34 Zhongshan Bei Road, Quanzhou 362000 (China); Chen, Jin; Chen, Qunlin [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China); Lai, Qingquan; Cai, Siqing [The Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 34 Zhongshan Bei Road, Quanzhou 362000 (China); Luo, Kaidong [The Department of Radiology, Longyan Hosptial of Traditional Chinese Medical, 59 Longteng Middle Road, Longyan 364000 (China); Lin, Zhengyu, E-mail: linsinlan@yahoo.com.cn [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of percutaneous interstitial brachytherapy using iodine-125 ({sup 125}I) radioactive seeds under computed tomographic (CT) guidance for malignant thoracic tumors. Materials and methods: Forty-one patients (34 males, 7 females; 18–90 years; mean, 63.7 years) with 77 lesions (3 in the mediastinum, 7 in the chest wall, 67 in the lung) underwent percutaneous interstitial implantation of {sup 125}I radioactive seeds under CT guidance. A treatment planning system (TPS) was employed to calculate the number and distribution of seeds preoperatively. An 18-G needle was inserted into the lesions under CT guidance and send the seeds according to TPS. Two patients with mediastinal lesions undergoing seed implantation received an artificial pneumothorax. One patient with lung carcinoma adjacent to the anterior mediastinum underwent seed implantation through the sternum. Follow-up CT was done every 2 months postoperatively. Results: The procedure was successful in all patients. No major procedure-associated death occurred. The mean duration of follow-up was 19.4 ± 1.3 months (3–49 months). A complete response (CR) was seen in 49 lesions (63.6%), partial response (PR) in 9 lesions (11.7%), stable disease (SD) in 12 lesions (12.8%), and progressive disease (PD) in 7 lesions (7.4%). The overall response rate (CR + PR) was 75.3%; the local control rate (CR + PR + SD) was 90.9%. The 1-, 2- and 3-year progression-free rates for local tumors were 91%, 88% and 88%, respectively. The 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates were 87%, 74% and 68%, respectively. Conclusion: Implantation of CT-guided {sup 125}I seeds is feasible and effective for patients with malignant thoracic tumors.

  11. Role of computed tomographic colonoscopy of postoperative surveillance in patient with gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dae Won Jun; Dong Hoo Lee; Oh Young Lee; Hyun Chul Lim; Sung Joon Kwon; Hang Lak Lee; Byung Chul Yoon; Ho Soon Choi; Joon Soo Hahm; Min Ho Lee

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine the diagnostic yield of colorectal neoplasia at computed tomographic colonoscopy (CTC) as well as the feasibility of contrast enhanced CTC in patients with gastric cancer.METHODS: To examine the incidence of colon polyp we selected postoperative 188 gastric cancer patients, which we refer to as the 'colon polyp survey group'. To examine the feasibility of CTC for early detection of colon cancer or advanced colon adenoma, we selected 47 gastric cancer patients (M:F 29:18, mean age 53.8 years), which we call the 'CT colonoscopy group'. All the 47 patients underwent successive CTC and colonoscopy on the same day.RESULTS: Totally 109 colon polyps were observed from 59 out of 188 gastric cancer patients, the incidence rate of colon polyps in gastric cancer patients being 31.4%. The sensitivity of CTC in detecting individuals with at least 1 lesion of any size was 57.1%, the specificity was 72.7%, the positive predictive value was 47.1%, and the negative predictive value was 71.9%. When the cutoff size was decreased to 6 mm, the sensitivity and specificity were 80.0% and 92.9%, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values of 57.1% and 97.5%, respectively. Only one patient was classified as false negative by virtual colonoscopy.CONCLUSION: The diagnostic yield of colorectal polyp was 31.4% in patients with gastric cancer, and contrast enhanced CTC is an acceptable tool for the detection of synchronous colorectal advanced adenoma and postoperative surveillance of gastric cancer patients.

  12. Fibromuscular dysplasia in living renal donors: Still a challenge to computed tomographic angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondin, D., E-mail: blondin@med.uni-duesseldorf.d [Institute of Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Lanzman, R.; Schellhammer, F. [Institute of Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Oels, M. [Department of Nephrology (Germany); Grotemeyer, D. [Department of Vascular Surgery and Renal Transplantation (Germany); Baldus, S.E. [Institute of Pathology (Germany); Rump, L.C. [Department of Nephrology (Germany); Sandmann, W. [Department of Vascular Surgery and Renal Transplantation (Germany); Voiculescu, A. [Department of Nephrology (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Background: Computed tomographic angiography has become the standard evaluating method of potential living renal donors in most centers. Although incidence of fibromuscular dysplasia is low (3.5-6%), this pathology may be relevant for success of renal transplantation. The incidence of FMD in our population of LRD and reliability of CTA for detecting vascular pathology were the aims of this study. Materials and methods: 101 living renal donors, examined between 7/2004 and 9/2008 by CTA, were included in a retrospective evaluation. The examinations were carried out using a 64 Multi-detector CT (Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen). The presence or absence of the characteristic signs of fibromuscular dysplasia, as 'string-of-beads' appearance, focal stenosis or aneurysms, were assessed and graded from mild (=1) to severe (=3). Furthermore, vascular anatomy and arterial stenosis were investigated in this study. Retrospective analysis of CTA and ultrasound were compared with operative and histological reports. Results: Four cases of fibromuscular dysplasia (incidence 3.9%) in 101 renal donors were diagnosed by transplanting surgeons and histopathology, respectively. Three cases could be detected by CTA. In one donor even retrospective analysis of CTA was negative. Ten accessory arteries, 14 venous anomalies and 12 renal arteries stenosis due to atherosclerosis were diagnosed by CTA and could be confirmed by the operative report. Conclusion: CTA is sufficient for detection of hemodynamic relevant stenosis and vascular anatomy. Only one patient with a mild form of FMD was under estimated. Therefore, if the CTA shows slightest irregularities which are not typical for atherosclerotic lesions, further diagnostic work up by DSA might still be necessary.

  13. High-resolution computed tomographic findings of Aspergillus infection in lung transplant patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzoni, Fernando Ferreira, E-mail: gazzoni4@gmail.com [Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Av. Cristovão Colombo 4105, ap.603-C, Post Code: 90560-005, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Hochhegger, Bruno, E-mail: brunohochhegger@gmail.com [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Severo, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: severo@santacasa.tche.br [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2400, 2° andar, Post Code: 90035-003, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Radiology Department, Av. Pedro Calmon, n° 550 – Cidade Universitária, Post Code: 21941-901, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pasqualotto, Alessandro, E-mail: acpasqualotto@hotmail.com [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Sartori, Ana Paula Garcia, E-mail: ana_sartori@hotmail.com [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Schio, Sadi, E-mail: smschio@hotmail.com [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Camargo, José, E-mail: jjcamargo@terra.com.br [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings at presentation in lung transplant patients diagnosed with pulmonary Aspergillus infection. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed HRCT findings from 23 patients diagnosed with pulmonary aspergillosis. Imaging studies were performed 2–5 days after the onset of symptoms. The patient sample comprised 12 men and 11 women aged 22–59 years (mean age, 43.6 years). All patients had dyspnea, tachypnea, and cough. Diagnoses were established with Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassays for galactomannan antigen detection in bronchoalveolar lavage and recovery of symptoms, and HRCT findings after voriconazole treatment. The HRCT scans were reviewed independently by two observers who reached a consensus decision. Results: The main HRCT pattern, found in 65% (n = 15) of patients, was centrilobular tree-in-bud nodules associated with bronchial thickening. This pattern was described in association with areas of consolidation and ground-glass opacities in 13% (n = 3) of patients. Consolidation and ground-glass opacities were the main pattern in 22% (n = 5) of patients. The pattern of large nodules with and without the halo sign was observed in 13% (n = 3) of patients, and were associated with consolidation and ground-glass opacities in one case. Conclusion: The predominant HRCT findings in lung transplant patients with pulmonary aspergillosis were bilateral bronchial wall thickening and centrilobular opacities with the tree-in-bud pattern. Ground-glass opacities and/or bilateral areas of consolidation were also common findings. Pulmonary nodules with the halo sign were found in only 13% of patients.

  14. High-resolution computed tomographic findings of Aspergillus infection in lung transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings at presentation in lung transplant patients diagnosed with pulmonary Aspergillus infection. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed HRCT findings from 23 patients diagnosed with pulmonary aspergillosis. Imaging studies were performed 2–5 days after the onset of symptoms. The patient sample comprised 12 men and 11 women aged 22–59 years (mean age, 43.6 years). All patients had dyspnea, tachypnea, and cough. Diagnoses were established with Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassays for galactomannan antigen detection in bronchoalveolar lavage and recovery of symptoms, and HRCT findings after voriconazole treatment. The HRCT scans were reviewed independently by two observers who reached a consensus decision. Results: The main HRCT pattern, found in 65% (n = 15) of patients, was centrilobular tree-in-bud nodules associated with bronchial thickening. This pattern was described in association with areas of consolidation and ground-glass opacities in 13% (n = 3) of patients. Consolidation and ground-glass opacities were the main pattern in 22% (n = 5) of patients. The pattern of large nodules with and without the halo sign was observed in 13% (n = 3) of patients, and were associated with consolidation and ground-glass opacities in one case. Conclusion: The predominant HRCT findings in lung transplant patients with pulmonary aspergillosis were bilateral bronchial wall thickening and centrilobular opacities with the tree-in-bud pattern. Ground-glass opacities and/or bilateral areas of consolidation were also common findings. Pulmonary nodules with the halo sign were found in only 13% of patients

  15. Computed Tomographic Virtual Colonoscopy to Screen for Colorectal Neoplasia in asymptomatic adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the performance characteristics of computed tomographic (CT) virtual colonospy for the detection of colorectal neoplasia in an average-risk screening population. A total of 1233 symptomatic adults (mean age, 57.8 years) underwent same-day virtual and optical colonoscopy. Radiologists used the three-dimensional endoluminal display for the initial detection of polyps on CT virtual colonoscopy. For the initial examination of each colonic segment, the colonoscopists were unaware of the findings on virtual colonoscopy, which were revealed to them before any subsequent reexamination. The sensitivity and specificity of virtual colonoscopy and the sensitivity of optical colonoscopy were calculated with the use of the findings of the final, unblinded optical colonoscopy as the reference standard. The sensitivity of virtual colonoscopy for adenomatous polyps was 93.8 percent for polyps at least 10 mm in diameter, 93.9 percent for polyps at least 8 mm in diameter, and 88.7 percent for polyps at least 6 mm in diameter. The sensitivity of optical colonoscopy for adenomatous polyps was 87.5 percent, 91.5 percent, and 92.3 percent for the three sizes of polyps, respectively. The specificity of virtual colonoscopy for adenomatous polyps was 96.0 percent for polyps at least 10 mm in diameter, 92.2 percent for polyps at least 8 mm in diameter, and 79.6 percent for polyps at least 6 mm in diameter.Two polyps were malignant; both were detected on virtual colonoscopy, and one of them was missed on optical colonoscopy before the results on virtual colonoscopy were revealed. CT virtual colonoscopy with the use of a three-dimensional approach is an accurate screening method for the detection of colorectal neoplasia in symptomatic average-risk adults and compares favorably with optical colonoscopy in terms of the detection of clinically relevant lesions

  16. Radiation dose to patients and image quality evaluation from coronary 256-slice computed tomographic angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liang-Kuang [Department of Radiology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiological Technology, Yuan Pei University, Taiwan (China); Wu, Tung-Hsin [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Section 2, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Yang, Ching-Ching [Department of Radiological Technology, Tzu Chi College of Technology, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Chia-Jung [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Section 2, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jason J.S., E-mail: jslee@ym.edu.t [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Section 2, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)

    2010-07-21

    The aim of this study is to assess radiation dose and the corresponding image quality from suggested CT protocols which depends on different mean heart rate and high heart rate variability by using 256-slice CT. Fifty consecutive patients referred for a cardiac CT examination were included in this study. All coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) examinations were performed on a 256-slice CT scanner with one of five different protocols: retrospective ECG-gating (RGH) with full dose exposure in all R-R intervals (protocol A), RGH of 30-80% pulsing window with tube current modulation (B), RGH of 78{+-}5% pulsing window with tube current modulation (C), prospective ECG-triggering (PGT) of 78% R-R interval with 5% padding window (D) and PGT of 78% R-R interval without padding window (E). Radiation dose parameters and image quality scoring were determined and compared. In this study, no significant differences were found in comparison on image quality of the five different protocols. Protocol A obtained the highest radiation dose comparing with those of protocols B, C, D and E by a factor of 1.6, 2.4, 2.5 and 4.3, respectively (p<0.001), which were ranged between 2.7 and 11.8 mSv. The PGT could significantly reduce radiation dose delivered to patients, as compared to the RGH. However, the use of PGT has limitations and is only good in assessing cases with lower mean heart rate and stable heart rate variability. With higher mean heart rate and high heart rate variability circumstances, the RGH within 30-80% of R-R interval pulsing window is suggested as a feasible technique for assessing diagnostic performance.

  17. Clinical utility of multislice computed tomographic angiography for detection of cerebral vasospasm in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, S P; Kim, T S; Kim, Y S; Moon, K S; Lee, J K; Kim, J H; Kim, S H

    2006-10-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has been used as the standard method for detecting cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Multislice computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is a relatively recent method used for evaluating the vasculature of the intracranial arteries. The purpose of this study was to compare multislice CTA and DSA for the detection and quantification of cerebral vasospasm after SAH, and to analyze the usefulness of multislice CTA. Eight patients with SAH underwent initial CTA with DSA within 72 hours after the onset of symptoms and follow-up multislice CTA and DSA 8 to 48 days after SAH. Five arterial locations were established in the A1 and A2 segments of the anterior cerebral artery, the M1 and M2 segments of the middle cerebral artery and the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) on both multislice CTA and DSA images. Vasospasm was classified as none, mild (up to 30% reduction in luminal diameter), moderate (31-60% reduction), and marked (at least 60% reduction) using the scale of Schneck and Kricheff. The multislice CT system used the following parameters: 1.25 mm collimation and 3.75 pitch with a 4-channel system. The degree of vasospasm revealed by the multislice CTA was significantly correlated with the degree of vasospasm revealed by DSA. In general, most discrepancies between CTA and DSA were in the detection of mild and moderate vasospasm. We found that the consistency between multislice CTA and DSA was greater for mild (100%, n=3) or moderate (100%, n=3) vasospasm than none (n=1) or marked vasospasm (n=1). However, it was unclear whether multislice CTA was more specific for a proximal location (A1, M1, PCA) or distal location (A2, M2) for evaluation of cerebral arteries. Multislice CTA can detect angiographic vasospasm after SAH with an accuracy similar to that of DSA. Multislice CTA is highly sensitive, specific and accurate in detecting mild and moderate cerebral vasospasm. It is less accurate for detecting no vasospasm

  18. Pipelining Computational Stages of the Tomographic Reconstructor for Multi-Object Adaptive Optics on a Multi-GPU System

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2014-11-01

    The European Extremely Large Telescope project (E-ELT) is one of Europe\\'s highest priorities in ground-based astronomy. ELTs are built on top of a variety of highly sensitive and critical astronomical instruments. In particular, a new instrument called MOSAIC has been proposed to perform multi-object spectroscopy using the Multi-Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) technique. The core implementation of the simulation lies in the intensive computation of a tomographic reconstruct or (TR), which is used to drive the deformable mirror in real time from the measurements. A new numerical algorithm is proposed (1) to capture the actual experimental noise and (2) to substantially speed up previous implementations by exposing more concurrency, while reducing the number of floating-point operations. Based on the Matrices Over Runtime System at Exascale numerical library (MORSE), a dynamic scheduler drives all computational stages of the tomographic reconstruct or simulation and allows to pipeline and to run tasks out-of order across different stages on heterogeneous systems, while ensuring data coherency and dependencies. The proposed TR simulation outperforms asymptotically previous state-of-the-art implementations up to 13-fold speedup. At more than 50000 unknowns, this appears to be the largest-scale AO problem submitted to computation, to date, and opens new research directions for extreme scale AO simulations. © 2014 IEEE.

  19. Tuning the cache memory usage in tomographic reconstruction on standard computers with Advanced Vector eXtensions (AVX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulleiro, Jose-Ignacio; Fernandez, Jose-Jesus

    2015-06-01

    Cache blocking is a technique widely used in scientific computing to minimize the exchange of information with main memory by reusing the data kept in cache memory. In tomographic reconstruction on standard computers using vector instructions, cache blocking turns out to be central to optimize performance. To this end, sinograms of the tilt-series and slices of the volumes to be reconstructed have to be divided into small blocks that fit into the different levels of cache memory. The code is then reorganized so as to operate with a block as much as possible before proceeding with another one. This data article is related to the research article titled Tomo3D 2.0 - Exploitation of Advanced Vector eXtensions (AVX) for 3D reconstruction (Agulleiro and Fernandez, 2015) [1]. Here we present data of a thorough study of the performance of tomographic reconstruction by varying cache block sizes, which allows derivation of expressions for their automatic quasi-optimal tuning. PMID:26217710

  20. Spontaneously reversible portal vein thrombosis complicating acute pancreatits - computed tomographic findings; Computertomographische Verlaufsbeobachtungen der spontanen Rueckbildung von Portalvenenthrombosen bei akuter Pankreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, J.; Lorenz, F.; Vlahovic, J. [Klinikum Niederberg Velbert (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Kirchner, E.M. [Klinikum Duisburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Innere Medizin

    2008-07-01

    Portal vein thrombosis complicating acute pancreatitis is more often diagnosed today due to the improved imaging techniques (computed tomography, ultrasound, nmr). Nevertheless the outcome of recent portal vein thrombosis is ill-known. We report on the computed tomographic findings and clinical course of portal vein thrombosis in two patients suffering from acute pancreatitis. Both patients showed spontaneous recanalization of the thrombosis. (orig.)

  1. Thanatophoric dysplasia: case report of an autopsy complemented by postmortem computed tomographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éber Emanuel Mayoral

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD is one of the most common lethal skeletal dysplasias, which was first designated as thanatophoric dwarfism and described in 1967. The authors report a case of a Caucasian girl with TD, born to a 31-year-old woman without comorbidities. The newborn presented respiratory distress immediately after delivery, progressing to death in less than 2 hours. An autopsy was carried out after postmortem tomographic examination. The autopsy findings depicted extensive malformations of the skeletal system and the brain. The aim of this report is to discuss the pathogenesis and correlate the morphologic features of TD that were disclosed at the tomography and the autopsy.

  2. Dental computed tomographic imaging as age estimation: morphological analysis of the third molar of a group of Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantekin, Kenan; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmis

    2013-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is capable of providing accurate and measurable 3-dimensional images of the third molar. The aims of this study were to analyze the development of the mandibular third molar and its relation to chronological age and to create new reference data for a group of Turkish participants aged 9 to 25 years on the basis of cone-beam CT images. All data were obtained from the patients' records including medical, social, and dental anamnesis and cone-beam CT images of 752 patients. Linear regression analysis was performed to obtain regression formulas for dental age calculation with chronological age and to determine the coefficient of determination (r) for each sex. Statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between age and third-molar development for the males (r2 = 0.80) and the females (r2 = 0.78). Computed tomographic images are clinically useful for accurate and reliable estimation of dental ages of children and youth.

  3. Computed tomographic study of 50 patients with hypodense hepatic injuries in childhood; Estudo de 50 casos por tomografia computadorizada de lesoes hipodensas hepaticas fundamentais na infancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Ines Minniti Rodrigues; Alvares, Beatriz Regina; Baracat, Jamal; Martins, Daniel Lahan [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: iminniti@fcm.unicamp.br; Pereira, Ricardo Minniti Rodrigues [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2006-03-15

    Objective: To describe the different tomographic findings in hypodense hepatic lesions in children and its differential diagnosis. Materials and methods: computed tomographic studies were obtained from 50 patients (age range: 0-16 years) with low-density liver lesions previously diagnosed by ultrasound. Images were made before and after administration of intravenous contrast medium. Image findings were analyzed and afterwards correlated with anatomopathological diagnosis. Results: forty-seven of 50 cases were confirmed, 30 by anatomopathological diagnosis. Most of then were benign lesions, hemangioma in 20%. Such lesions presented a homogeneous contrast absorption, mainly at the delayed phase, differing from malignant lesions. Metastasis was the most frequently found malignant lesion (18%). Conclusion: computed tomographic study is of great value in complementing the diagnosis of hypodense hepatic lesions in children, and must follow ultrasound diagnosis as a routine procedure. (author)

  4. Comparison of alveolar ridge preservation method using three dimensional micro-computed tomographic analysis and two dimensional histometric evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Seok; Kim, Sung Tae; Oh, Seung Hee; Park, Hee Jung; Lee, Sophia; Kim, Taeil; Lee, Young Kyu; Heo, Min Suk [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    This study evaluated the efficacy of alveolar ridge preservation methods with and without primary wound closure and the relationship between histometric and micro-computed tomographic (CT) data. Porcine hydroxyapatite with polytetrafluoroethylene membrane was implanted into a canine extraction socket. The density of the total mineralized tissue, remaining hydroxyapatite, and new bone was analyzed by histometry and micro-CT. The statistical association between these methods was evaluated. Histometry and micro-CT showed that the group which underwent alveolar preservation without primary wound closure had significantly higher new bone density than the group with primary wound closure (P<0.05). However, there was no significant association between the data from histometry and micro-CT analysis. These results suggest that alveolar ridge preservation without primary wound closure enhanced new bone formation more effectively than that with primary wound closure. Further investigation is needed with respect to the comparison of histometry and micro-CT analysis.

  5. Computed tomographic findings of radiation-induced acute adrenal injury with associated radiation nephropathy: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation nephropathy was first recognized in 1906. The kidney is a radiosensitive organ with a tolerance dose (5% complications in 5 years) of 20 Gray. The imaging findings of acute and chronic radiation induced renal injury are previously described. Radiation-induced adrenal injury, to our knowledge, has not been described in the literature. Unlike the kidneys and other upper abdominal organs, the adrenal glands are traditionally thought to be radio-resistant, protected from radiation-induced injury by proximity to adjacent organs and by the adrenal medulla which reportedly has increased radio-resistance. We present the computed tomographic imaging findings of a patient with acute radiation induced adrenal injury which resulted in adrenal insufficiency following radiotherapy of an adjacent thecal metastasis

  6. Three-dimensional multislice spiral computed tomographic angiography: a potentially useful tool for safer free tissue transfer to complicated regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirtas, Yener; Cifci, Mehmet; Kelahmetoglu, Osman;

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional multislice spiral computed tomographic angiography (3D-MSCTA) is a minimally invasive method of vascular mapping. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of this imaging technique in delineating the recipient vessels for safer free tissue transfer...... to complicated regions. 3D-MSCTA was performed preoperatively in 26 patients scheduled for free tissue transfer, in whom the availability of the recipient vessels were considered to be uncertain, and 23 of these were operated on. Radiographic and operative findings regarding the availability of the recipient......-MSCTA provides a noninvasive means of preoperatively assessing recipient site vessels for anatomic variations and suitability before free tissue transfer and enables the surgeon to establish an appropriate treatment plan. But it is not 100% reliable yet and the possibility of false-positive results should...

  7. Hepatic Rupture Caused by Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzyme, and Low Platelet Count Syndrome: A Case Report with Computed Tomographic and Conventional Angiographic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheong Bok; Ahn, Jae Hong; Choi, Soo Jung; Lee, Jong Hyeog; Park, Man Soo; Jung, Seung Mun; Ryu, Dae Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Foundation, Gangneung Asan Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    The authors recently obtained successful clinical outcome after embolization of the hepatic artery and right inferior phrenic artery in a pregnant patient with hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome causing hepatic rupture. We report the computed tomographic and conventional angiographic findings in a case of HELLP syndrome, resulting in hepatic infarction and rupture with active bleeding.

  8. Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography in the assessment of severity of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim was to investigate the role of computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in the assessment of severity and right ventricular function in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Materials and methods: Clinical and radiological data of 56 patients with CTEPH January 2006–October 2009 were retrospectively reviewed in the present study. All patients received CTPA with a 64-row CT using the retrospective ECG-Gated mode before digital subtraction pulmonary angiography and right-heart catheterization. CTPA findings including Right Ventricular diameter (RVd) and left ventricular diameter (LVd) were measured at the end diastole. CT Pulmonary Artery Obstruction Indexes including Qanadli Index and Mastora Index were used in the assessment of severity of pulmonary arterial obstruction. Hemodynamic parameters and pulmonary hypertension classification were evaluated by right-heart catheterization in all patients. Right ventricular function was measured with echocardiography in 49 patients. Results: Qanadli Index and Mastora Index respectively were (37.93 ± 14.74)% and (30.92 ± 16.91)%, which showed a significant difference (Z = −5.983, P = 0.000) and a good correlation (r = 0.881, P = 0.000). Neither Qanadli nor Mastora Index correlated with pulmonary hypertension classification (r = −0.009, P = 0.920) or New York Heart Association heart function classification (r = −0.031, P = 0.756). Neither Qanadli nor Mastora Index correlated with any echocardiographic right ventricular parameters (P > 0.05), while RVd/LVd by CTPA correlated with echocardiographic right ventricular functional parameters (P 2. CTPA findings correlated with hemodynamic variables. Backward linear regression analysis revealed that the RVd/LVd, Right Ventricular Anterior Wall Thickness (RVAWT), Main Pulmonary Artery trunk diameter (MPAd) were shown to be independently associated with mean Pulmonary Artery Pressure (mPAP) levels (model: r2 = 0.351, P = 0.025; RVd

  9. Positron tomographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specifications of position emission tomographs used for examination of brain and internal organs of human beings are presented. The tomograph comprises a detecting system, devices for detector displacement, sighting, calibration, electronics units (discriminators-formers, coincidence circuits, coders, buffer memory), detectors for detecting system position, bed for patient. Spatial resolution of the tomograph is determined by sizes of the detectors and their dispositin relatively to the object of examination. Besides, it depends on positron path in the investigated medium, deflections of the angle of scatter of annihilation quanta from 180 deg, distribution of points of gamma-quantum interaction by depth of the detector, filter and algorithm of image reconstruction, motion of organs of a patient, motion of labelled pharm-preparation in the organism. Such factors as absorption of annihilation radiation by substance of an object, radiation scattering and registration of random coincidences essentially affect the quality of tomographic image. It is shown that use of asseblies of microchannel plates and a scintillator on the base of barium fluoride permits to produce a coordinate-sensitive detector for a tomograph complying with highest requirements

  10. Measurement of cochlea to facial nerve canal with thin-section computed tomographic image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Liu, Xiangliang; Yao, Jihang; Tian, Yong; Xia, Changli; Li, Youqiong; Fu, Yan; Luo, Qi

    2013-03-01

    Facial nerve (FN) paralysis is a rare but devastating complication of cochlear implant surgery. This study aimed to measure the cupula of the cochlea to the tympanic segment of the FN canal, cupula of the cochlea to the mastoid segment of the FN canal, and the geniculate ganglion to provide a more secure and accurate orientation of the FN canal and to facilitate operation on the cochlea by avoiding potential damage to FN. Using computed tomography, we scanned skulls of 120 volunteers who suffer no cases of skull base lesions. Multiplane reconstruction images were prepared with high-resolution computed tomography. Preoperative evaluation of the FN anatomy within the temporal bone by high-resolution computed tomography helps in minimizing surgical trauma to the nerve, and these results can help guide clinical surgery on the cochlea.

  11. Computer tomographic investigation of subcutaneous adipose tissue as an indicator of body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan; Madsen, Mads T.; Nielsen, Mai B.;

    2009-01-01

    Background Modern computer tomography (CT) equipment can be used to acquire whole-body data from large animals such as pigs in minutes or less. In some circumstances, computer assisted analysis of the resulting image data can identify and measure anatomical features. The thickness of subcutaneous...... and expressed as a proportion of total volume (fat-index). A computer algorithm was used to determined 10,201 subcutaneous adipose thickness measurements in each pig for each scan. From these data, sites were selected where correlation with fat-index was optimal. Results Image analysis correctly identified...... intercostal spaces cranially. Conclusion The approach to image analysis reported permits the creation of various maps showing adipose thickness or correlation of thickness with other variables by location on the surface of the pig. The method identified novel adipose thickness measurement positions...

  12. Renal ultrasonographic and computed tomographic appearance, volume, and function of cats with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Jean K; DiBartola, Stephen P; Léveillé, Renée

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic (US) and computed tomographic (CT) appearance of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in cats; to compare renal volume in cats with ADPKD (n = 5; mean age 59 +/- 10 months)) and normal cats (n = 5; mean age 66 +/- 10 months) using 2 imaging modalities, US and CT; and to calculate cyst volume using CT. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined by 2 methods: 99mTc-diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DPTA) scintigraphic uptake and 99-Tc-DTPA plasma clearance. Sonographically, ADPKD affected kidneys were characterized by multiple anechoic to hypoechoic, round to irregularly shaped structures with variation in size. Affected kidneys had indistinct corticomedullary junctions and foci of mineralization. Intravenous (IV) contrast medium administration allowed more definitive identification of cysts with CT, and identification of distortion of renal pelves by cysts. A significant difference (Welch ANOVA, P = 0.05) was detected between the US-estimated renal volumes of normal and affected cats. No statistically significant differences were detected in CT volume (between the normal and affected cats, or between US and CT volume measurements) or the 2 GFR methods. In this group of clinically normal, middle-aged ADPKD cats, renal function was within normal limits and not significantly different than normal. PMID:12175002

  13. 256-Slice coronary computed tomographic angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation: optimal reconstruction phase and image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the optimal reconstruction phase and the image quality of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We performed CCTA in 60 patients with AF and 60 controls with sinus rhythm. The images were reconstructed in multiple phases in all parts of the cardiac cycle, and the optimal reconstruction phase with the fewest motion artefacts was identified. The coronary artery segments were visually evaluated to investigate their assessability. In 46 (76.7 %) patients, the optimal reconstruction phase was end-diastole, whereas in 6 (10.0 %) patients it was end-systole or mid-diastole, and in 2 (3.3 %) patients it was another cardiac phase. In 53 (88.3 %) of the controls, the optimal reconstruction phase was mid-diastole, whereas it was end-systole in 4 (6.7 %), and in 3 (5.0 %) it was another cardiac phase. There was a significant difference between patients with AF and the controls in the optimal phase (p < 0.01) but not in the visual image quality score (p = 0.06). The optimal reconstruction phase in most patients with AF was the end-diastolic phase. The end-systolic phase tended to be optimal in AF patients with higher average heart rates. (orig.)

  14. The use of a computed tomographic application for mobile devices in the diagnosis of oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Eduardo Massaharu; Cortes, Arthur Rodriguez Gonzalez; Arita, Emiko Saito

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current technical report was to introduce a computed tomographic (CT) application for mobile devices as a diagnostic tool for analyzing CT images. An iPad and an iPhone (Apple, Cuppertino, CA) were used to navigate through multiplanar reconstructions of cone beam CT scans, using an application derived from the OsiriX CT software. Tools and advantages of this method were recorded. In addition, images rendered in the iPad were manipulated during dental implant placement and grafting procedures to follow up and confirm the implant digital planning in real time. The study population consisted of 10 patients. In all cases, it was possible to use image manipulation tools, such as changing contrast and brightness, zooming, rotating, panning, performing both linear and area measurements, and analyzing gray-scale values of a region of interest. Furthermore, it was possible to use the OsiriX application in the dental clinic where the study was conducted, to follow-up the analyzed implant placement and grafting procedures at the chairside. The current findings suggest that technological and practical methods to visualize radiographic images are invaluable resources to improve training, teaching, networking, and the performance of real-time follow-up of oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of introducing this new technology in the clinical routine. PMID:25565229

  15. The impact of reorienting cone-beam computed tomographic images in varied head positions on the coordinates of anatomical landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hun; Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the coordinates of anatomical landmarks on cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images in varied head positions before and after reorientation using image analysis software. Materials and Methods CBCT images were taken in a normal position and four varied head positions using a dry skull marked with 3 points where gutta percha was fixed. In each of the five radiographic images, reference points were set, 20 anatomical landmarks were identified, and each set of coordinates was calculated. Coordinates in the images from the normally positioned head were compared with those in the images obtained from varied head positions using statistical methods. Post-reorientation coordinates calculated using a three-dimensional image analysis program were also compared to the reference coordinates. Results In the original images, statistically significant differences were found between coordinates in the normal-position and varied-position images. However, post-reorientation, no statistically significant differences were found between coordinates in the normal-position and varied-position images. Conclusion The changes in head position impacted the coordinates of the anatomical landmarks in three-dimensional images. However, reorientation using image analysis software allowed accurate superimposition onto the reference positions. PMID:27358821

  16. 256-Slice coronary computed tomographic angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation: optimal reconstruction phase and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Seitaro; Yuki, Hideaki; Kidoh, Masafumi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Nakaura, Takeshi; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Chuou-ku, Kumamoto (Japan); Honda, Keiichi; Yoshimura, Akira; Katahira, Kazuhiro [Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Minami-ku, Kumamoto (Japan); Noda, Katsuo; Oshima, Shuichi [Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Minami-ku, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    To assess the optimal reconstruction phase and the image quality of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We performed CCTA in 60 patients with AF and 60 controls with sinus rhythm. The images were reconstructed in multiple phases in all parts of the cardiac cycle, and the optimal reconstruction phase with the fewest motion artefacts was identified. The coronary artery segments were visually evaluated to investigate their assessability. In 46 (76.7 %) patients, the optimal reconstruction phase was end-diastole, whereas in 6 (10.0 %) patients it was end-systole or mid-diastole, and in 2 (3.3 %) patients it was another cardiac phase. In 53 (88.3 %) of the controls, the optimal reconstruction phase was mid-diastole, whereas it was end-systole in 4 (6.7 %), and in 3 (5.0 %) it was another cardiac phase. There was a significant difference between patients with AF and the controls in the optimal phase (p < 0.01) but not in the visual image quality score (p = 0.06). The optimal reconstruction phase in most patients with AF was the end-diastolic phase. The end-systolic phase tended to be optimal in AF patients with higher average heart rates. (orig.)

  17. Comparison of the Multidetector-row Computed Tomographic Angiography Axial and Coronal Planes' Usefulness for Detecting Thoracodorsal Artery Perforators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Gyu Kim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background During the planning of a thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP free flap,preoperative multidetector-row computed tomographic (MDCT angiography is valuablefor predicting the locations of perforators. However, CT-based perforator mapping of thethoracodorsal artery is not easy because of its small diameter. Thus, we evaluated 1-mm-thickMDCT images in multiple planes to search for reliable perforators accurately.Methods Between July 2010 and October 2011, 19 consecutive patients (13 males, 6females who underwent MDCT prior to TDAP free flap operations were enrolled in this study.Patients ranged in age from 10 to 75 years (mean, 39.3 years. MDCT images were acquired ata thickness of 1 mm in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes.Results The thoracodorsal artery perforators were detected in all 19 cases. The reliableperforators originating from the descending branch were found in 14 cases, of which 6 hadtransverse branches. The former were well identified in the coronal view, and the latter in theaxial view. The location of the most reliable perforators on MDCT images corresponded wellwith the surgical findings.Conclusions Though MDCT has been widely used in performing the abdominal perforatorfree flap for detecting reliable perforating vessels, it is not popular in the TDAP free flap.The results of this study suggest that multiple planes of MDCT may increase the probabilityof detecting the most reliable perforators, along with decreasing the probability of missingavailable vessels.

  18. Three-dimensional computed tomographic evaluation of Le Fort III distraction osteogenesis with an external device in syndromic craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wery, M F; Nada, R M; van der Meulen, J J; Wolvius, E B; Ongkosuwito, E M

    2015-03-01

    There is little anteroposterior growth of the midface in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis who are followed up over time without intervention. A Le Fort III with distraction osteogenesis can be done to correct this. This is a controlled way in which to achieve appreciable stable advancement of the midface without the need for bone grafting, but the vector of the movement is not always predictable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 3-dimensional effect of Le Fort III distraction osteogenesis with an external frame. Ten patients (aged 7-19 years) who had the procedure were included in the study. The le Fort III procedure and the placement of the external frame were followed by an activation period and then a 3-month retention period. Computed tomographic (CT) images taken before and after operation were converted and loaded into 3-dimensional image rendering software and compared with the aid of a paired sample t test and a colour-coded qualitative analysis. Comparison of the CT data before and after distraction indicated that the amount of midface advancement was significant. Le Fort III distraction osteogenesis is an effective way to advance the midface. However, the movement during osteogenesis is not always exactly in the intended direction, and a secondary operation is often necessary. Three-dimensional evaluation over a longer period of time is necessary.

  19. Tomographic measurement of temperature change in phantoms of the human body by chirp radar-type microwave computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, M

    1993-07-01

    The chirp radar-type microwave computed tomograph (CT) measures the temperature change in a human body noninvasively. The paper examines its feasibility. A chirp pulse signal between 1 and 2 GHz is radiated from the transmitting antenna to the phantom. The transmitted waves are detected by the receiving antenna, which is placed on the opposite side of the object, and the beat signal between the incident wave and the transmitted wave is produced by the mixer. By spectral analysis of the beat signal, only those signals transmitted on the straight line between the transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna are discriminated from multipath signals. The microwave tomogram can therefore be reconstructed easily using the conventional algorithms for an X-ray CT image. The microwave CT can use the chirp signal to remove the influence of multipath signals caused by diffraction and reflection. The imaging of dielectric materials with complicated structures is thus possible. The experimental results using phantoms show that the spatial resolution of this microwave CT is about 10 mm and that a two-dimensional distribution of temperature change can be measured.

  20. Analysis of factors influencing the integrated bolus peak timing in contrast-enhanced brain computed tomographic angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Soon Yong [Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwan Woo [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [Baekseok Culture University College, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Seo Goo [Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Young [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jung Soo [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Won [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ah; Son, Jin Hyun; Min, Jung Whan [Shingu University College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze the factors influencing integrated bolus peak timing in contrast- enhanced computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and to determine a method of calculating personal peak time. The optimal time was calculated by performing multiple linear regression analysis, after finding the influence factors through correlation analysis between integrated peak time of contrast medium and personal measured value by monitoring CTA scans. The radiation exposure dose in CTA was 716.53 mGy·cm and the radiation exposure dose in monitoring scan was 15.52 mGy (2 - 34 mGy). The results were statistically significant (p < .01). Regression analysis revealed, a -0.160 times decrease with a one-step increase in heart rate in male, and -0.004, -0.174, and 0.006 times decrease with one-step in DBP, heart rate, and blood sugar, respectively, in female. In a consistency test of peak time by calculating measured peak time and peak time by using the regression equation, the consistency was determined to be very high for male and female. This study could prevent unnecessary dose exposure by encouraging in clinic calculation of personal integrated peak time of contrast medium prior to examination.

  1. Computer tomographic and sonographic demonstration of renal haematomas following percutaneous renal biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebel, G.; Lingg, G.; Berg, E.; Fischer, R.

    1982-04-01

    The incidence of post-puncture haematomas following percutaneous renal biopsy in 23 patients (24 punctures) is reported. The incidence of renal haematomas was 29.1%. The diagnostic value of computer tomography and sonography is discussed. Amongst small haematomas (less than 7 ml. blood), which could only be demonstrated by computer tomography, 8.2% were purely intrarenal, 8.2% were sub-capsular and 12.3% showed combined intrarenal, subcapsular and perirenal bleeding. The incidence of sub-capsular and perirenal haematomas of 20.5% is considerably lower than has previously been reported in literature.

  2. Magnetic resonance and computed tomographic features of 4 cases of canine congenital thoracic vertebral anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlanda, Michele; Zotti, Alessandro; Brandazza, Giada; Poser, Helen; Calò, Pietro; Bernardini, Marco

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic resonance and computed tomography features of 4 cases of canine congenital vertebral anomalies (CVAs) are discussed. Two of the cases represent unusual presentations for such anomalies that commonly affect screw-tail or toy breeds. Moreover, the combination of CVAs and a congenital peritoneo-pericardial diaphragmatic hernia has never before been imaged. PMID:22654139

  3. Magnetic resonance and computed tomographic features of 4 cases of canine congenital thoracic vertebral anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Berlanda, Michele; Zotti, Alessandro; Brandazza, Giada; Poser, Helen; Calò, Pietro; Bernardini, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance and computed tomography features of 4 cases of canine congenital vertebral anomalies (CVAs) are discussed. Two of the cases represent unusual presentations for such anomalies that commonly affect screw-tail or toy breeds. Moreover, the combination of CVAs and a congenital peritoneo-pericardial diaphragmatic hernia has never before been imaged.

  4. Computed tomographic characteristics of interval and post screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.T.; Horeweg, N.; Koning, H.J. de; Vliegenthart, R.; Oudkerk, M.; Mali, W.P.; Jong, P.A. de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse computed tomography (CT) findings of interval and post-screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening. METHODS: Consecutive interval and post-screen carcinomas from the Dutch-Belgium lung cancer screening trial were included. The prior screening and the diagnostic chest CT were re

  5. Middle east respiratory syndrome-corona virus infection: A case report of sieral computed tomographic findings in a young male patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Won Jin; Lee, Ki Nam; Kang, Eun Ju; Lee, Hyuck [Dong A University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Radiologic findings of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), a novel coronavirus infection, have been rarely reported. We report a 30-year-old male presented with fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, who was diagnosed with MERS. A chest computed tomographic scan revealed rapidly developed multifocal nodular consolidations with ground-glass opacity halo and mixed consolidation, mainly in the dependent and peripheral areas. After treatment, follow-up imaging showed that these abnormalities markedly decreased but fibrotic changes developed.

  6. Anemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Anemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Anemia Print A A A ... With Anemia Preventing Anemia en español Anemia About Anemia Anemia, one of the more common blood disorders, ...

  7. Computed Tomographic Angiography under Sedation in the Diagnosis of Suspected Canine Pancreatitis: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian, A.M.; Twedt, D.C.; Kraft, S L; Marolf, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Computed tomography (CT) is highly accurate for diagnosing pancreatitis in humans. The diagnosis of pancreatitis in dogs is based on clinical signs, laboratory findings, and ultrasonographic (US) changes. There are, however, inherent limitations in relying on laboratory and ultrasound findings for the clinical diagnosis of pancreatitis in dogs. Hypothesis/Objectives We hypothesized that CT angiography would be a rapid and reliable method to confirm pancreatitis in dogs compared to ...

  8. Computed tomographic analysis of deformity and dimensional changes in the eyeball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, D.R.; Foulks, G.N.

    1984-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed in 40 patients with a confirmed ophthalmic diagnosis and a change in the dimensions or configuration of the eyeball. Abnormalities studied included coloboma, microphthalmus, buphthalmos, axial myopia, macrophthalmus, phthisis bulbi, trauma, neoplasm, posterior staphyloma, granuloma, pseudotumor, and surgicalscleral banding for retinal detachment. CT findings could be grouped into three categories depending upon whether the eye was small, large, or normal in size, with the findings in each group allowing distinction of most disease processes.

  9. Micro-computed tomographical imaging of soft biological materials using contrast techniques.

    OpenAIRE

    Faraj, K.A.; Cuijpers, V.M.J.I.; Wismans, P.G.P.; Walboomers, X.F.; Jansen, J. A.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Daamen, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to introduce high-resolution computed tomography (micro-CT) for scaffolds made from soft natural biomaterials, and to compare these data with the conventional techniques scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Collagen-based scaffolds were used as examples. Unlike mineralized tissues, collagen scaffolds do not provide enough X-ray attenuation for micro-CT imaging. Therefore, various metal-based contrast agents were applied and evaluated using two structural...

  10. Computed Tomographic Anatomy of the Nose in Meso- and Brachyzephalic Cats and Potential Clinical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nöller, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    In order to enlighten the dark labyrinth of the nasal cavity, a comparative examination of brachycephalic (short-headed or round shaped respectively) and mesocephalic (normal shaped or mesatocephalic respectively) cats was carried out. The study was based on 26 Persian and 18 domestic cats in total, with the chance of examining 13 animals (9 Persians and 4 domestic cats) under anaesthesia. Thus, computed tomography (CT) with concomitant intravenous contrast media application of six animals (4...

  11. Computed tomographic evaluation of the proximal femur: A predictive classification in displaced femoral neck fracture management

    OpenAIRE

    Narender Kumar Magu; Sarita Magu; Rajesh Kumar Rohilla; Amit Batra; Abhishek Jaipuria; Amanpreet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Femoral neck fracture is truly an enigma due to the high incidence of avascular necrosis and nonunion. Different methods have been described to determine the size of the femoral head fragment, as a small head has been said to be associated with poor outcome and nonunion due to inadequate implant purchase in the proximal fragment. These methods were two dimensional and were affected by radiography techniques, therefore did not determine true head size. Computed tomography (CT) is a...

  12. Computed tomographic findings in a case of renal vein thrombosis with nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, J; Greweldinger, J; Hallac, R; Frier, S

    1981-01-01

    Renal vein thrombosis is a complication of the nephrotic syndrome presumably related to compression of renal veins by edematous parenchyma and a concomitant hypercoagulable state. The diagnosis has been made by demonstrating marked widening of the left renal vein as it crosses horizontally anterior to the aorta on computed tomography. Inferior venacavography confirmed the presence of thrombosis within the vessels. CT is suggested as a method for noninvasive imaging of the renal veins which might eliminate the need for venography.

  13. Fusion imaging of computed tomographic pulmonary angiography and SPECT ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy: initial experience and potential benefit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Benjamin [Royal North Shore Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, St Leonards (Australia); University of Sydney, Northern Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Sydney (Australia); Bailey, Dale [Royal North Shore Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, St Leonards (Australia); University of Sydney, Schools of Physics and Medical Radiation Science, Sydney (Australia); Roach, Paul; Bailey, Elizabeth [Royal North Shore Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, St Leonards (Australia); King, Gregory [Royal North Shore Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, St Leonards (Australia); University of Sydney, Northern Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Sydney (Australia); The Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Camperdown (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of fusing ventilation and perfusion data from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) ventilation perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy together with computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) data. We sought to determine the accuracy of this fusion process. In addition, we correlated the findings of this technique with the final clinical diagnosis. Thirty consecutive patients (17 female, 13 male) who had undergone both CTPA and SPECT V/Q scintigraphy during their admission for investigation of potential pulmonary embolism were identified retrospectively. Image datasets from these two modalities were co-registered and fused using commercial software. Accuracy of the fusion process was determined subjectively by correlation between modalities of the anatomical boundaries and co-existent pleuro-parenchymal abnormalities. In all 30 cases, SPECT V/Q images were accurately fused with CTPA images. An automated registration algorithm was sufficient alone in 23 cases (77%). Additional linear z-axis scaling was applied in seven cases. There was accurate topographical co-localisation of vascular, parenchymal and pleural disease on the fused images. Nine patients who had positive CTPA performed as an initial investigation had co-localised perfusion defects on the subsequent fused CTPA/SPECT images. Three of the 11 V/Q scans initially reported as intermediate could be reinterpreted as low probability owing to co-localisation of defects with parenchymal or pleural pathology. Accurate fusion of SPECT V/Q scintigraphy to CTPA images is possible. This technique may be clinically useful in patients who have non-diagnostic initial investigations or in whom corroborative imaging is sought. (orig.)

  14. Fusion imaging of computed tomographic pulmonary angiography and SPECT ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy: initial experience and potential benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of fusing ventilation and perfusion data from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) ventilation perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy together with computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) data. We sought to determine the accuracy of this fusion process. In addition, we correlated the findings of this technique with the final clinical diagnosis. Thirty consecutive patients (17 female, 13 male) who had undergone both CTPA and SPECT V/Q scintigraphy during their admission for investigation of potential pulmonary embolism were identified retrospectively. Image datasets from these two modalities were co-registered and fused using commercial software. Accuracy of the fusion process was determined subjectively by correlation between modalities of the anatomical boundaries and co-existent pleuro-parenchymal abnormalities. In all 30 cases, SPECT V/Q images were accurately fused with CTPA images. An automated registration algorithm was sufficient alone in 23 cases (77%). Additional linear z-axis scaling was applied in seven cases. There was accurate topographical co-localisation of vascular, parenchymal and pleural disease on the fused images. Nine patients who had positive CTPA performed as an initial investigation had co-localised perfusion defects on the subsequent fused CTPA/SPECT images. Three of the 11 V/Q scans initially reported as intermediate could be reinterpreted as low probability owing to co-localisation of defects with parenchymal or pleural pathology. Accurate fusion of SPECT V/Q scintigraphy to CTPA images is possible. This technique may be clinically useful in patients who have non-diagnostic initial investigations or in whom corroborative imaging is sought. (orig.)

  15. 3D computed tomographic evaluation of the upper airway space of patients undergoing mandibular distraction osteogenesis for micrognathia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, A; Betti, E; Badiali, G; Ricotta, F; Marchetti, C; Tarsitano, A

    2015-10-01

    Mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) is currently an accepted method of treatment for patients requiring reconstruction of hypoplastic mandibles. To date one of the unsolved problems is how to assess the quantitative increase of mandible length needed to achieve a significant change in the volume of the posterior airway space (PAS) in children with mandibular micrognathia following distraction osteogenesis. The purpose of this study is to present quantitative volumetric evaluation of PAS in young patients having distraction osteogenesis for micrognathia using 3D-CT data sets and compare it with pre-operative situation. In this observational retrospective study, we report our experience in five consecutive patients who underwent MDO in an attempt to relieve severe upper airway obstruction. Each patient was evaluated before treatment (T0) and at the end of distraction procedure (T1) with computer tomography (CT) in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes and three-dimensional CT of the facial bones and upper airway. Using parameters to extract only data within anatomic constraints, a digital set of the edited upper airway volume was obtained. The volume determination was used for volumetric qualification of upper airway. The computed tomographic digital data were used to evaluate the upper airway volumes both pre-distraction and post-distraction. The mean length of distraction was 23 mm. Quantitative assessment of upper airway volume before and after distraction demonstrated increased volumes ranging from 84% to 3,087% with a mean of 536%. In conclusion, our study seems to show that DO can significantly increase the volume of the PAS in patients with upper airway obstruction following micrognathia, by an average of 5 times. Furthermore, the worse is the starting volume, the greater the increase in PAS to equal distraction.

  16. Computed tomographical (CT) anatomy of the thoracoabdominal cavity of the male turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petnehazy, O; Benczik, J; Takacs, I; Petrasi, Zs; Süto, Z; Horn, P; Repa, I

    2012-02-01

    In the present work, our goal was to match high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scans with cross-sectional anatomical pictures of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Two male BUT 6 (a commercial line) turkeys were used. CT scans with 1 mm slice thickness were performed. The images covered the trunk from the level of the 9th cervical vertebra to the end of the coccyx. The anatomical sections and the CT scans were matched, and the important structures were identified and labelled on the corresponding pictures. The aim of this study was to create a reference for evaluating CT scans of avian species.

  17. Evidence for dysanapsis using computed tomographic imaging of the airways in older ex-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Sheel, A William; Jordan A. Guenette; Yuan, Ren; Holy, Lukas; Mayo, John R; McWilliams, Annette M.; Lam, Stephen; Coxson, Harvey O.

    2009-01-01

    We sought to determine the relationship between lung size and airway size in men and women of varying stature. We also asked if men and women matched for lung size would still have differences in airway size and if so where along the pulmonary airway tree would these differences exist. We used computed tomography to measure airway luminal areas of the large and central airways. We determined airway luminal areas in men (n = 25) and women (n = 25) who were matched for age, body mass index, smo...

  18. Imaging of Anal Fistulas: Comparison of Computed Tomographic Fistulography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Changhu [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Lu, Yongchao [Traditional Chinese Medicine Department, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Zhao, Bin [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Du, Yinglin [Shandong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Institute, Jinan 250014 (China); Wang, Cuiyan [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Jiang, Wanli [Department of Radiology, Taishan Medical University, Taian 271000 (China)

    2014-07-01

    The primary importance of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in evaluating anal fistulas lies in its ability to demonstrate hidden areas of sepsis and secondary extensions in patients with fistula in ano. MR imaging is relatively expensive, so there are many healthcare systems worldwide where access to MR imaging remains restricted. Until recently, computed tomography (CT) has played a limited role in imaging fistula in ano, largely owing to its poor resolution of soft tissue. In this article, the different imaging features of the CT and MRI are compared to demonstrate the relative accuracy of CT fistulography for the preoperative assessment of fistula in ano. CT fistulography and MR imaging have their own advantages for preoperative evaluation of perianal fistula, and can be applied to complement one another when necessary.

  19. Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Evaluation and Diagnosis of Mandibular First Molar with 6 Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiraz Pasha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Root canal treatment of tooth with aberrant root canal morphology is very challenging. So thorough knowledge of both the external and internal anatomy of teeth is an important aspect of root canal treatment. With the advancement in technology it is imperative to use modern diagnostic tools such as magnification devices, CBCT, microscopes, and RVG to confirm the presence of these aberrant configurations. However, in everyday endodontic practice, clinicians have to treat teeth with atypical configurations for root canal treatment to be successful. This case report presents the management of a mandibular first molar with six root canals, four in mesial and two in distal root, and also emphasizes the use and importance of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT as a diagnostic tool in endodontics.

  20. Electroencephalographic and computed X-ray tomographic findings in 99 Japanese cases of herpes simplex encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, Satoshi; Takasu, Toshiaki; Tamura, Masato; Otani, Sugishi.

    1988-10-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of electroencephalograms (EEG) and computed tomograms (CT) obtained from 99 Japanese patients with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Abnormal findings of EEG were seen in 89 patients (99 %). Focal abnormality, which was frequently detected in the first EEG recording, was seen in 68 patients (76 %). Periodic synchronous discharge was observed in 25 patients (28 %). There were abnormal findings on CT in 88 patients (81 %). Low and high density areas were seen in 64 patients (73 %) and 26 patients (37 %), respectively, with the most frequent site being the temporal lobe. Mass effect was demonstrated in 33 patients (37 %). Electroencephalography detected the abnormal findings earlier than CT during the early stage of HSE in many instances. There was concordance between EEG and CT in the detection of HSE lesions in 45 patients (58 %). (Namekawa, K.).

  1. Computed tomographic scanning of the heart, coronary arteries, and great vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diseases of the heart and vascular system have become the major medical health care problem in developed countries. These disorders not only represent the most significant cause of death, but also are responsible for acute and chronic illness involving a broad spectrum of disability. Cardiac diagnosis is one of the most challenging areas for diagnostic imaging, because the heart moves continuously. This chapter presents an overview of the field of x-ray transmission tomography with specific reference to its use in evaluating heart disease. The arguments for developing this new technique are presented, as well as a description of how currently available computed tomography (CT) whole body scanners are being used in cardiovascular diagnosis. Finally, the future role and potential of CT are discussed

  2. Correlation between computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of parenchymal lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) is considered to be the gold standard method for the assessment of morphological changes in the pulmonary parenchyma. Although its spatial resolution is lower than that of CT, MRI offers the advantage of characterizing different aspects of tissue based on the degree of contrast on T1-weighted image (WI) and T2-WI. In this article, we describe and correlate the MRI and CT features of several common patterns of parenchymal lung disease (air trapping, atelectasis, bronchiectasis, cavitation, consolidation, emphysema, ground-glass opacities, halo sign, interlobular septal thickening, masses, mycetoma, nodules, progressive massive fibrosis, reverse halo sign and tree-in-bud pattern). MRI may be an alternative modality for the collection of morphological and functional information useful for the management of parenchymal lung disease, which would help reduce the number of chest CT scans and radiation exposure required in patients with a variety of conditions

  3. Correlation between computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of parenchymal lung diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Miriam Menna; Rafful, Patricia Piazza [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rodrigues, Rosana Souza [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); D’Or Institute for Research and Education, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zanetti, Gláucia [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Hochhegger, Bruno [Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza, Arthur Soares [Department of Radiology, Medical School of Rio Preto (FAMERP) and Ultra X, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Guimarães, Marcos Duarte [Department of Imaging, Hospital AC Camargo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is considered to be the gold standard method for the assessment of morphological changes in the pulmonary parenchyma. Although its spatial resolution is lower than that of CT, MRI offers the advantage of characterizing different aspects of tissue based on the degree of contrast on T1-weighted image (WI) and T2-WI. In this article, we describe and correlate the MRI and CT features of several common patterns of parenchymal lung disease (air trapping, atelectasis, bronchiectasis, cavitation, consolidation, emphysema, ground-glass opacities, halo sign, interlobular septal thickening, masses, mycetoma, nodules, progressive massive fibrosis, reverse halo sign and tree-in-bud pattern). MRI may be an alternative modality for the collection of morphological and functional information useful for the management of parenchymal lung disease, which would help reduce the number of chest CT scans and radiation exposure required in patients with a variety of conditions.

  4. Computed tomographic evaluation of silicosis and coal workers' pneumoconiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy-Jardin, M.; Remy, J.; Farre, I.; Marquette, C.H. (Department of Radiology, Hopital Calmette, CHRU, Lille (France))

    1992-11-01

    The introduction of computed tomography (CT) has modified the radiologic approach to silicosis and coal worker's pneumoconiosis considerably, allowing earlier recognition and more precise characterization of pulmonary abnormalities than chest radiography. An optimal approach to CT recognition requires an understanding of the main physiologic and pathologic features that are known to occur in both pneumoconioses. This report focuses on the most common CT features of simple and complicated forms of silicosis and coal worker's pneumoconiosis as well as on the optimal scanning protocol. The respective roles of chest radiographs and CT scans in the recognition of pneumoconiosis and follow-up of exposed workers are discussed.58 references.

  5. Development of an electrical impedance computed tomographic two-phase flows analyzer. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovacik, L.; Jones, O.C.

    1998-08-01

    This report summarizes the work on the research project on this cooperative program between DOE and Hitachi, Ltd. Major advances were made in the computational reconstruction of images from electrical excitation and response data with respect to existing capabilities reported in the literature. A demonstration is provided of the imaging of one or more circular objects within the measurement plane with demonstrated linear resolution of six parts in two hundred. At this point it can be said that accurate excitation and measurement of boundary voltages and currents appears adequate to obtain reasonable images of the real conductivity distribution within a body and the outlines of insulating targets suspended within a homogeneous conducting medium. The quality of images is heavily dependent on the theoretical and numerical implementation of imaging algorithms. The overall imaging system described has the potential of being both fast and cost effective in comparison with alternative methods. The methods developed use multiple plate-electrode excitation in conjunction with finite element block decomposition, preconditioned voltage conversion, layer approximation of the third dimension and post processing of boundary measurements to obtain optimal boundary excitations. Reasonably accurate imaging of single and multiple targets of differing size, location and separation is demonstrated and the resulting images are better than any others found in the literature. Recommendations for future effort include the improvement in computational algorithms with emphasis on internal conductivity shape functions and the use of adaptive development of quadrilateral (2-D) or tetrahedral or hexahedral (3-D) elements to coincide with large discrete zone boundaries in the fields, development of a truly binary model and completion of a fast imaging system. Further, the rudimentary methods shown herein for three-dimensional imaging need improving.

  6. Computed tomographic evaluation of the proximal femur: A predictive classification in displaced femoral neck fracture management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender Kumar Magu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral neck fracture is truly an enigma due to the high incidence of avascular necrosis and nonunion. Different methods have been described to determine the size of the femoral head fragment, as a small head has been said to be associated with poor outcome and nonunion due to inadequate implant purchase in the proximal fragment. These methods were two dimensional and were affected by radiography techniques, therefore did not determine true head size. Computed tomography (CT is an important option to measure true head size as images can be obtained in three dimensions. Henceforth, we subjected patients to CT scan of hip in cases with displaced fracture neck of femur. The study aims to define the term "small head or inadequate size femoral head" objectively for its prognostic significance. Materials and Methods: 70 cases of displaced femoral neck fractures underwent CT scan preoperatively for proximal femoral geometric measurements of both hips. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was done in all cases. Patients were treated with either intertrochanteric osteotomy or lag screw osteosynthesis based on the size of the head fragment on plain radiographs. Results: The average femoral head fragment volume was 57 cu cm (range 28.3-84.91 cu cm; standard deviation 14 cu cm. Proximal fragment volume of >43 cu cm was termed adequate size (type I and of ≤43 cu cm as small femoral head (type II. Fractures which united (n = 54 had a relatively large average head size (59 cu cm when compared to fractures that did not (n = 16, which had a small average head size (49 cu cm and this difference was statistically significant. In type I fractures union rate was comparable in both osteotomy and lag screw groups (P > 0.05. Lag screw fixation failed invariably, while osteotomy showed good results in type II fractures (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Computed tomography scan of the proximal femur is advisable for measuring true size of head fragment. An objective

  7. Clinical and Radiographic Findings and Usefulness of Computed Tomographic Assessment in Two Children with Regional Odontodysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Matsuyama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional odontodysplasia is a rare, severe, and nonhereditary developmental disorder in tooth formation and involves epithelial and mesenchymal-derived dental tissue. On radiographs, affected teeth have an abnormal morphology, a hypoplastic crown, and only a faint outline of hard tissue, a condition termed “ghost teeth.” We report clinical and radiographic findings from two children with regional odontodysplasia. Using computed tomography (CT, we calculated attenuation coefficients (i.e., Hounsfield units for affected teeth and assessed the condition of dental follicles. To measure density, regions of interest were delimited and CT values were calculated. In our two patients, the CT values for enamel were lower in affected teeth than in sound teeth, while CT values for dentin were similar for affected and sound teeth. The average CT value for dental follicles in affected teeth was about 65 to 120, which suggests that dense fibrous connective tissues or hard tissue-like structures might be present in dental follicles. Analysis of CT values may be quite useful in the diagnosis and treatment of regional odontodysplasia.

  8. Analysis of fibrosing process in diffuse alveolar damage. Computed tomographic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the clinical usefulness of computed tomography (CT) in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), CT-pathologic correlation was studied using inflated fixed lungs having diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Twenty five cases of DAD as determined by post-mortem pathologic examinations were investigated. The lungs were inflated and fixed with a fixative including polyethylene glycol 400, 95% ethyl alcohol, 37% formaldehyde and water, then contact radiographs and high-resolution CT (HRCT) images of the specimens were obtained and histologic sections were prepared. Direct one-to-one correlative studies between HRCT images, macroscopic, submacroscopic and histological features prepared from the same slices were carried out. Ground-glass opacity correlated mainly to acute stage of DAD with extant alveoli. Air-space consolidation correlated to a filling process of the distal air-spaces with dense fibrosis or severe exudations. Fibrosis in the area of air-space consolidation was recognized by a distortion in lung architecture, bronchiectasis, and air-bronchiologram as seen on HRCT images. CT may have the potential to characterize pulmonary structural changes such as those seen in the fibrosing process in DAD. (author)

  9. Hyperbaric computed tomographic measurement of lung compression in seals and dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael John; Hammar, Terrence; Arruda, Julie; Cramer, Scott; Dennison, Sophie; Montie, Eric; Fahlman, Andreas

    2011-07-15

    Lung compression of vertebrates as they dive poses anatomical and physiological challenges. There has been little direct observation of this. A harbor and a gray seal, a common dolphin and a harbor porpoise were each imaged post mortem under pressure using a radiolucent, fiberglass, water-filled pressure vessel rated to a depth equivalent of 170 m. The vessel was scanned using computed tomography (CT), and supported by a rail and counterweighted carriage magnetically linked to the CT table movement. As pressure increased, total buoyancy of the animals decreased and lung tissue CT attenuation increased, consistent with compression of air within the lower respiratory tract. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the external surface of the porpoise chest showed a marked contraction of the chest wall. Estimation of the volumes of different body compartments in the head and chest showed static values for all compartments except the lung, which showed a pressure-related compression. The depth of estimated lung compression ranged from 58 m in the gray seal with lungs inflated to 50% total lung capacity (TLC) to 133 m in the harbor porpoise with lungs at 100% TLC. These observations provide evidence for the possible behavior of gas within the chest of a live, diving mammal. The estimated depths of full compression of the lungs exceeds previous indirect estimates of the depth at which gas exchange ceases, and concurs with pulmonary shunt measurements. If these results are representative for living animals, they might suggest a potential for decompression sickness in diving mammals.

  10. Computed tomographic findings of abdominal complications of Crohn's disease - pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, transmural, inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract (CIT) most often affecting the terminal ileum and colon. Diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia, nausea, and weight loss are the most common clinical symptoms. Abdominal complications of CD, both intestinal and extraintestinal, are frequent and variable. The most common intestinal complications include ileocolitis with external or internal fistulas and abscess formation, strictures, and bowel obstruction. Less common are free perforation, intussusception, and malignancy. The extraintestinal complications include nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, fatty liver, portal vein gas, and thromboembolic events. Nowadays, computed tomography (CT) provides superb anatomic detail and diagnostic accuracy of various intra-abdominal pathological processes, and it thus has become an essential diagnostic tool in the evaluation and management of patients wit known CD for the assessment of bowel wall involvement, the mesenteric extent of the disease, and inn-abdominal complications. In addition, as CT is frequently performed to evaluate patients with acute abdomen, it may encounter clinically unsuspected complications in patients with CD. This article reviews the CT features of various intra-abdominal complications of CD. (author)

  11. Computed tomographic findings of abdominal complications of Crohn's disease - pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zissin, R. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel)]. E-mail: zisinrivka@clalit.org.il; Hertz, M. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Osadchy, A. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Novis, B. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Gastroenterology, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Gayer, G. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Assaf Harode Medical Center, Zrifin, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2005-02-15

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, transmural, inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract (CIT) most often affecting the terminal ileum and colon. Diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia, nausea, and weight loss are the most common clinical symptoms. Abdominal complications of CD, both intestinal and extraintestinal, are frequent and variable. The most common intestinal complications include ileocolitis with external or internal fistulas and abscess formation, strictures, and bowel obstruction. Less common are free perforation, intussusception, and malignancy. The extraintestinal complications include nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, fatty liver, portal vein gas, and thromboembolic events. Nowadays, computed tomography (CT) provides superb anatomic detail and diagnostic accuracy of various intra-abdominal pathological processes, and it thus has become an essential diagnostic tool in the evaluation and management of patients wit known CD for the assessment of bowel wall involvement, the mesenteric extent of the disease, and inn-abdominal complications. In addition, as CT is frequently performed to evaluate patients with acute abdomen, it may encounter clinically unsuspected complications in patients with CD. This article reviews the CT features of various intra-abdominal complications of CD. (author)

  12. A computed tomographic scan assessment of endotracheal suctioning-induced bronchoconstriction in ventilated sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Q; Capderou, A; Cluzel, P; Mourgeon, E; Abdennour, L; Law-Koune, J D; Straus, C; Grenier, P; Zelter, M; Rouby, J J

    2000-11-01

    This study was directed at assessing changes in bronchial cross-sectional surface areas (BCSA) and in respiratory resistance induced by endotracheal suctioning in nine anesthetized sheep. Cardiorespiratory parameters (Swan-Ganz catheter), respiratory resistance (inspiratory occlusion technique), BCSA, and lung aeration (computed tomography) were studied at baseline, during endotracheal suctioning, and after 20 consecutive hyperinflations. Measurements performed initially at an inspired oxygen fraction (FI(O(2))) of 0.3 were repeated at an FI(O(2)) of 1.0. At an FI(O(2)) of 0.3, endotracheal suctioning resulted in atelectasis, a reduction in BCSA of 29 +/- 23% (mean +/- SD), a decrease in arterial oxygen saturation from 95 +/- 3% to 87 +/- 12% (p = 0.02), an increase in venous admixture from 19 +/- 10% to 31 +/- 19% (p = 0. 006), and an increase in lung tissue resistance (DR(rs)) (p = 0. 0003). At an FI(O(2)) of 1.0, despite an extension of atelectasis and an increase in pulmonary shunt from 19 +/- 5% to 36 +/- 2% (p sheep, the endotracheal suctioning-induced reduction of BCSA was entirely prevented. These data suggest that the endotracheal suctioning-induced decrease in BCSA is related to atelectasis and bronchoconstriction. Both effects can be reversed by hyperoxygenation maneuver before suctioning in combination with recruitment maneuver after suctioning.

  13. Computed tomographic characteristics of interval and post screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholten, Ernst T. [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kennemer Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Haarlem (Netherlands); Horeweg, Nanda [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Harry J. de [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    To analyse computed tomography (CT) findings of interval and post-screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening. Consecutive interval and post-screen carcinomas from the Dutch-Belgium lung cancer screening trial were included. The prior screening and the diagnostic chest CT were reviewed by two experienced radiologists in consensus with knowledge of the tumour location on the diagnostic CT. Sixty-one participants (53 men) were diagnosed with an interval or post-screen carcinoma. Twenty-two (36 %) were in retrospect visible on the prior screening CT. Detection error occurred in 20 cancers and interpretation error in two cancers. Errors involved intrabronchial tumour (n = 5), bulla with wall thickening (n = 5), lymphadenopathy (n = 3), pleural effusion (n = 1) and intraparenchymal solid nodules (n = 8). These were missed because of a broad pleural attachment (n = 4), extensive reticulation surrounding a nodule (n = 1) and extensive scarring (n = 1). No definite explanation other than human error was found in two cases. None of the interval or post-screen carcinomas involved a subsolid nodule. Interval or post-screen carcinomas that were visible in retrospect were mostly due to detection errors of solid nodules, bulla wall thickening or endobronchial lesions. Interval or post-screen carcinomas without explanation other than human errors are rare. (orig.)

  14. Computed tomographic cephalometric analysis of chinese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variations of craniofacial and upper airway structures are recognized to contribute to the phenomenon of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Most previous cephalometric studies were performed using erect lateral radiographs in Caucasian patients. The present project aims to determine cephalometric measurements, utilizing CT, in normal Chinese subjects and in Chinese patients with OSA. Computed tomography of 25 patients with OSA (proven using overnight polysomnography), and of 25 age-, sex-, height-, bodyweight- and body mass index (BMI)-matched control subjects were prospectively performed. Thirteen standard bony and soft-tissue measurements were obtained from the CT lateral scout view of the head and neck, taken with each subject in the neutral supine position. The cross-sectional area was calculated at two axial levels (velopharynx and hypopharynx). The measurements in the two groups, OSA and control subjects, were compared. The measurements for hyoid position (P=0.00), nasal cavity length (P=0.01), mandibular prognathism (P = 0.05), tongue size (P = 0.02), oropharyngeal airway space (P = 0.02), posterior tongue airway space (P = 0.04) and cross-sectional areas at the level of the velopharynx (P = 0.00) and hypopharynx (P = 0.01) differed significantly between the two groups. In conclusion, CT cephalometric measurements show that certain anatomical variations in the head and neck are likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of OSA in Chinese patients. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  15. Three-dimensional helical computed tomographic evaluation of three obturation techniques: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Chokkalingam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of three obturation techniques namely lateral condensation, EQ Fil (backfill obturation and thermafil (core carrier obturation techniques using three-dimensional (3D helical computed tomography (CT by volume rendering method. Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted teeth were randomly divided into three groups of 10 teeth each. Biomechanical preparation was done in all the teeth using rotary instruments. All three sets of teeth were placed in helical CT slice scanner and were imaged before obturation. The three sets were then obturated by following methods: Group I: lateral condensation, Group II: EQ Fil (backfill and Group III: thermafil (core carrier obturation.Volume of the pulp chamber and gutta-percha after obturation were calculated using volume rendering technique and adequacy of the obturation techniques were calculated. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way ANOVA and Multiple-Range Tukey Test by Tukey-HSD procedure Results: Mean change in lateral condensation (0.005±0.002 was significantly higher than that of thermafil obturation (0.002±0.001 [P<0.05]. Conclusions: Conventional lateral condensation technique showed maximal inadequacy of obturation and thermafil obturation technique showed the least inadequacy of obturation when the volume of the specimens were calculated and reconstructed

  16. A statistical observation on some subjects in the whole body computed tomographic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the whole body CT (computed tomography) unit (GE, CT/T) was installed in our hospital in April, 1982, a total of 2884 cases have been examined by this whole body scanner for one year from April, 1982 to March, 1983. An analysis of the relationship between the situations of the subjects in and the results of whole body CT examination disclosed some very interesting facts. Up to the present time such a study has scarcely made. That is why we wanted to make this report. The results obtained are as follows: 1. Whole body CT examinations were performed on the patients of advanced age more frequently than on those of young age and performed most frequently on the group in the sixties. 2. The number of CT examinations performed on head and abdomen of the patients was 86.7% of a total of 2884 cases. 3. Enhanced CT examinations were perfomed on 26.1% of 2884 cases and most frequently on the group in the teens. 4. The percentage of the abnormal findings found in 2884 cases was 61.5% and this rate was higher than that shown in the reports made by us in 1980 and 1982, respectively. (author)

  17. Real-time 3D computed tomographic reconstruction using commodity graphics hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Mueller, Klaus

    2007-07-01

    The recent emergence of various types of flat-panel x-ray detectors and C-arm gantries now enables the construction of novel imaging platforms for a wide variety of clinical applications. Many of these applications require interactive 3D image generation, which cannot be satisfied with inexpensive PC-based solutions using the CPU. We present a solution based on commodity graphics hardware (GPUs) to provide these capabilities. While GPUs have been employed for CT reconstruction before, our approach provides significant speedups by exploiting the various built-in hardwired graphics pipeline components for the most expensive CT reconstruction task, backprojection. We show that the timings so achieved are superior to those obtained when using the GPU merely as a multi-processor, without a drop in reconstruction quality. In addition, we also show how the data flow across the graphics pipeline can be optimized, by balancing the load among the pipeline components. The result is a novel streaming CT framework that conceptualizes the reconstruction process as a steady flow of data across a computing pipeline, updating the reconstruction result immediately after the projections have been acquired. Using a single PC equipped with a single high-end commodity graphics board (the Nvidia 8800 GTX), our system is able to process clinically-sized projection data at speeds meeting and exceeding the typical flat-panel detector data production rates, enabling throughput rates of 40-50 projections s-1 for the reconstruction of 5123 volumes.

  18. Real-time 3D computed tomographic reconstruction using commodity graphics hardware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Fang; Mueller, Klaus [Center for Visual Computing, Computer Science Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-4400 (United States)

    2007-07-21

    The recent emergence of various types of flat-panel x-ray detectors and C-arm gantries now enables the construction of novel imaging platforms for a wide variety of clinical applications. Many of these applications require interactive 3D image generation, which cannot be satisfied with inexpensive PC-based solutions using the CPU. We present a solution based on commodity graphics hardware (GPUs) to provide these capabilities. While GPUs have been employed for CT reconstruction before, our approach provides significant speedups by exploiting the various built-in hardwired graphics pipeline components for the most expensive CT reconstruction task, backprojection. We show that the timings so achieved are superior to those obtained when using the GPU merely as a multi-processor, without a drop in reconstruction quality. In addition, we also show how the data flow across the graphics pipeline can be optimized, by balancing the load among the pipeline components. The result is a novel streaming CT framework that conceptualizes the reconstruction process as a steady flow of data across a computing pipeline, updating the reconstruction result immediately after the projections have been acquired. Using a single PC equipped with a single high-end commodity graphics board (the Nvidia 8800 GTX), our system is able to process clinically-sized projection data at speeds meeting and exceeding the typical flat-panel detector data production rates, enabling throughput rates of 40-50 projections s{sup -1} for the reconstruction of 512{sup 3} volumes.

  19. Computed tomographic differentiation between alcoholic and gallstone pancreatitis: Significance of distribution of infiltration or fluid collection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young-Sun Kim; Yongsoo Kim; Sung-Kyu Kim; Hyunchul Rhim

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the usefulness of various computed tomography (CT) findings including distribution of infiltration or fluid collection in differentiating the major etiologies of acute pancreatitis.METHODS: We reviewed 75 relatively severe cases of acute pancreatitis of alcoholic (n=43) or biliary stone(n=32) etiology having infiltration or fluid collection on CT. We compared the pancreatic size, CT grading,presence or absence of biliary calculi, and dilatation of pancreatic or bile duct. We also evaluated degree and the distribution of infiltration and fluid collection in each group.RESULTS: The sizes of pancreas were not different between alcohol group and stone group. Alcohol group showed higher CT grading than stone group (P<0.05). Presence of biliary stone and duct dilatation was statistically significant in differentiating etiology (P <0.05). Alcohol group showed significantly prominent peripancreatic pathology than stone group only in left peritoneal compartment (P = 0.020).CONCLUSION: Alcoholic pancreatitis tends to form more prominent peripancreatic changes than gallstone pancreatitis in relatively severe cases. This is evident on the anterior aspect of left abdomen. Although clinical history and some CT findings usually are a major determinant of the etiology, this pattern of peripancreatic pathology may have an ancillary role in determining the etiologies of acute pancreatitis in the equivocal cases.

  20. Single-photon emission computed tomographic findings and motor neuron signs in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    123I-amphetamine-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed on 16 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to investigate the correlation between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and upper motor neuron signs. Significant decreased blood flow less than 2 SDs below the mean of controls was observed in the frontal lobe in 4 patients (25%) and in the frontoparietal lobe including the cortical motor area in 4 patients, respectively. The severity of extermity muscular weakness was significantly correlate with decrease in blood flow through the frontal lobe (p<0.05) and through the frontoparietal lobe (p<0.001). A significant correlation was also noted to exist between the severity of bulbar paralysis and decrease in blood flow through the frontoparietal lobe. No correlation, however, was observed between rCBF and severity of spasticity, presence or absence of Babinski's sign and the duration of illness. Although muscular weakness in the limbs and bulbar paralysis are not pure upper motor neuron signs, the observed reduction in blood flow through the frontal or frontoparietal lobes appears to reflect extensive progression of functional or organic lesions of cortical neurons including the motor area. (author)

  1. Original Protocol Using Computed Tomographic Angiography for Diagnosis of Brain Death: A Better Alternative to Standard Two-Phase Technique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Marcin; Sołek-Pastuszka, Joanna; Jurczyk, Krzysztof; Skrzywanek, Piotr; Guziński, Maciej; Czajkowski, Zenon; Mańko, Witold; Burzyńska, Małgorzata; Safranow, Krzysztof; Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Walecka, Anna; Rowiński, Olgierd; Walecki, Jerzy; Bohatyrewicz, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The application of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) for the diagnosis of brain death (BD) is limited because of the low sensitivity of the commonly used two-phase method consisting of assessing arterial and venous opacification at the 60th second after contrast injection. The hypothesis was that a reduction in the scanning delay might increase the sensitivity of the test. Therefore, an original technique using CTA was introduced and compared with catheter angiography as a reference. MATERIAL AND METHODS In a prospective multicenter trial, 84 clinically brain-dead patients were examined using CTA and catheter angiography. The sensitivities of original CTA technique, involving an arterial assessment at the 25th second and a venous assessment at the 40th second, and the standard CTA, involving an arterial and venous assessment at the 60th second, were compared to catheter angiography. RESULTS Catheter angiography results were consistent with the clinical diagnosis of BD in all cases. In comparison to catheter angiography, the sensitivity of original CTA technique was 0.93 (95%CI, 0.85-0.97; p<0.001) and 0.57 (95%CI, 0.46-0.68; p<0.001) for the standard protocol. The differences were statistically significant (p=0.03 for original CTA and p<0.001 for standard CTA). Decompressive craniectomy predisposes to a false-negative CTA result with a relative risk of 3.29 (95% CI, 1.76-5.81; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Our original technique using CTA for the assessment of the cerebral arteries during the arterial phase and the deep cerebral veins with a delay of 15 seconds is a highly sensitive test for the diagnosis of BD. This method may be a better alternative to the commonly used technique. PMID:26250464

  2. Femoral neck anteversion, acetabular anteversion and combined anteversion in the normal Indian adult population: A computed tomographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwari Aditya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal femoral neck anteversion (FNA and/or acetabulum anteversion (AA have long been implicated in the etiogenesis of hip osteoarthritis (OA, developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH, and impingement, instability and wear in total hip arthroplasty (THA. Since studies on the Indian population are sparse on this topic, the purpose of this study was to report the normal values of FNA, AA and the combined anteversion (CA= FNA+ AA in Indian adults. Materials and Methods: FNA, AA and CA were prospectively measured in 172 normal hips in 86 Indian adults using standardized computed tomographic (CT methods and this data was compared with the established Western values. Results: The median values and interquartile ranges were 8 o (6.5-10.0 o for FNA, 19 o (16.0-22.0 o for AA and 27 o (23.5-30.0 o for CA. AA and CA values were significantly (P< 0.05 lower in males, and there was also a trend towards lower FNA in males. Although a negative correlation was observed between the FNA and AA, this was not strong and may not be clinically relevant. Conclusion: When compared with the Western data, the FNA values were 3-12 o lower and the CA values were 3-5 o lower in Indian adults. The AA values were comparable, but were skewed towards the higher side. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical relevance of our basic science data in pathogenesis of OA, and to validate it in relation to hip surgeries like corrective osteotomies and THA.

  3. Combined application of virtual imaging techniques and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography in diagnosing intracranial aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background The diagnostic value of virtual imaging combined with three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3D-CTA) for intracranial aneurysms has not been fully elucidated yet. This study aimed to evaluate the value of combined application of virtual imaging techniques and 3D-CTA in diagnosing patients with aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) at the acute stage. Methods Eighty patients with non-traumatic SAH received 3D-CTA examinations. The raw CT data of these patients were reconstructed and transferred into the 3D mode through the surgical plan system based on virtual reality (VR) image, and the 3D virtual images of skulls and brain blood vessels were acquired. The location, size and shape of aneurysms and their anatomic relationship with adjacent tissues were measured from many points of view. Results Seventy-three aneurysms were detected in 68 of the 80 patients, but 2 aneurysms were detected in 2 of the 5 patients who had been found free of aneurysms previously and had received 3D-CTA examinations for a second time one month later. The 3D virtual images produced by the virtual imaging system were clear and vivid, and they could reveal the location and size of the aneurysm and its relations to the parent artery and skull directly. Conclusions The imaging of 3D-CTA is convenient, reliable and fast in diagnosing intracranial aneurysms and can be regarded as the first choice for the diagnosis and treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Combined with the surgical plan system based on the VR image, 3D-CTA may obtain more imaging information about aneurysms.

  4. Rapid estimation of split renal function in kidney donors using software developed for computed tomographic renal volumetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Fumi, E-mail: fumikato@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Kamishima, Tamotsu, E-mail: ktamotamo2@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Morita, Ken, E-mail: kenordic@carrot.ocn.ne.jp [Department of Urology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Muto, Natalia S., E-mail: nataliamuto@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Okamoto, Syozou, E-mail: shozo@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Omatsu, Tokuhiko, E-mail: omatoku@nirs.go.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Oyama, Noriko, E-mail: ZAT04404@nifty.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Terae, Satoshi, E-mail: saterae@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Kanegae, Kakuko, E-mail: IZW00143@nifty.ne.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Nonomura, Katsuya, E-mail: k-nonno@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Urology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki, E-mail: shirato@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the speed and precision of split renal volume (SRV) measurement, which is the ratio of unilateral renal volume to bilateral renal volume, using a newly developed software for computed tomographic (CT) volumetry and to investigate the usefulness of SRV for the estimation of split renal function (SRF) in kidney donors. Method: Both dynamic CT and renal scintigraphy in 28 adult potential living renal donors were the subjects of this study. We calculated SRV using the newly developed volumetric software built into a PACS viewer (n-SRV), and compared it with SRV calculated using a conventional workstation, ZIOSOFT (z-SRV). The correlation with split renal function (SRF) using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy was also investigated. Results: The time required for volumetry of bilateral kidneys with the newly developed software (16.7 {+-} 3.9 s) was significantly shorter than that of the workstation (102.6 {+-} 38.9 s, p < 0.0001). The results of n-SRV (49.7 {+-} 4.0%) were highly consistent with those of z-SRV (49.9 {+-} 3.6%), with a mean discrepancy of 0.12 {+-} 0.84%. The SRF also agreed well with the n-SRV, with a mean discrepancy of 0.25 {+-} 1.65%. The dominant side determined by SRF and n-SRV showed agreement in 26 of 28 cases (92.9%). Conclusion: The newly developed software for CT volumetry was more rapid than the conventional workstation volumetry and just as accurate, and was suggested to be useful for the estimation of SRF and thus the dominant side in kidney donors.

  5. Relationship between cerebrospinal fluid flow through the ventriculo-peritoneal shunt and computed tomographic images of hydrocephalic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Kiyonobu; Itoh, Haruhide; Someya, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Shinjiro

    1988-04-01

    Quantitative measurements of cerebrospinal fluid flow through the ventriculo-peritoneal shunt using radioisotope were carried out on 34 hydrocepalic patients (18 children and 16 adults) and the relationship between the flow rates and the computed tomographic (CT) images was studied. 1) The flow rates in the prone position was 0.04 - 0.20(mean +- SD, 0.10 +- 0.05) ml/min in 13 patients whose shunt systems were functioning adequately. There was a good correlation between the flow rates and closing pressures of the shunt valves. 2) The 21 patients with malfunctioning shunt systems were devided into two groups as follows; the obstruction or lower flow group in which the shunt flow was in 0 approx. 0.05 ml/min and the over-flow groups with rates over 0.20 ml/min. In the former group, there were 3 cases in which the shunt flow in a sitting position was very low and the cause of the malfunction was thought to be placement of an inadequate system with a higher pressure valve. 3) In 4 cases of 5 children in which the ventricles were of normal size during shunt malfunction, their ventricular sizes on CT images changed to small or slit-like ventricles after shunt revision. 4) A few cases of hydrocephalic adults, in which the shunt-catheters were thought to be obstructed with no shunt flow in the prone and sitting positions showing no progressive dilatation of the ventricles on CT images, were diagnosed with the added findings of RI cisternography as shunt-dependent arrested hydrocephalus. In the diagnosis of shunt malfunction and selection of the most adequate system in shunt revision, it is necessary to analyze together the data on CT images, quantitative measurement of shunt flow rates and RI cisternography as well as the clinical manifestations.

  6. Computed tomographic demonstrations of HIV seropositive pulmonary tuberculosis and their relationship with CD4+T-lymphocyte count

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-zhong; LI Hong-jun; CHENG Jing-liang; WU Hao; BAO Dong-ying

    2011-01-01

    Background Factors of cell-mediated immunity and allergy together play their roles in the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and its prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the computed tomographic demonstrations of HIV seropositive PTB and the relationship between its pathogenesis and CD4+ T-lymphocyte count.Methods The documented CT images of a total of 44 patients with HIV seropositive PTB, definitely diagnosed by etiological or pathological examinations, their clinical data and their CD4+ T-lymphocyte count were retrospectively reviewed.Results There were 15 cases of miliary tuberculosis, accounting for 34.1% of the total cases; 15 cases of nodular tuberculosis, 34.1%; 6 cases of ground-glass opacity, 13.6%; 5 cases of cord-liked fiber shadows, 11.4%; 16 cases of flaky and flocculating shadows, 36.4%; 5 cases of cavitation, 11.4%; 5 cases of tumor shadows, 11.4%; 2 cases of pleural thickening, 4.5% and 11 cases of pleural effusion, 25.0%; 1 case of calcification, 2.3%; 16 cases of lymphadenectasis,36.4%. The foci were located around the pulmonary hilum, anterior segment of superior lobe, basal segment of inferior lobe, medial lobe and lingual lobe. CD4+ T-lymphocyte count was closely related to the imaging demonstrations of HIV seropositive PTB.Conclusions CT scanning can demonstrate various signs of PTB. CD4+ T-lymphocyte level determines the variety of imaging demonstrations of HIV seropositive PTB and its prognosis.

  7. Tiny staining spots in liver cirrhosis associated with HCV infection observed by computed tomographic hepatic arteriography. Follow-up study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiyama, Tomoya; Terasaki, Shuichi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Kaji, Kyosuke; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Matsui, Osamu [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2002-10-01

    It is important to distinguish small lesions with increased arterial perfusion observed by computed tomographic arteriography (CT-A) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the clinical characteristics and prognosis of such lesions have not been clarified. We retrospectively examined 200 patients with cirrhosis related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who had undergone both CT-A and CT arterioportography between 1995 and 1998, and found 80 tiny staining spots (TSS)s, with a diameter of 5-10 mm, by CT-A (35 patients). The mean TSS observation period was 29.0 months. If the major axis was larger than 10 mm and showed a 1.5-fold or more increase, the lesion was regarded as tumor growth (TG). The TSS lesions were divided into two groups according to whether the patient had or did not have HCC. The prognosis of TSS was classified into three groups; HCC-suspected group, nontumor group, and unclassified group, in which TG was negative although transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) had been performed. Of the 40 TSSs in 14 patients without HCC, 2 (5%) were suspected as HCC. Of the 40 TSSs in 21 patients with HCC, 13 (32.5%) were suspected as HCC. There were no significant differences in the size, position, and morphology of TSSs among the three prognostic groups. Of the 7 TSSs with a high signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images, 5 were in the HCC-suspected group. We recommend early treatment of TSSs accompanying HCC or showing features of malignancy at the imaging workup. (author)

  8. Minimal-flow xenon and semiclosed circuit anesthesia for computed tomographic measurement of local cerebral blood flow (LCBF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of decreasing the volume of expensive xenon, anesthesia with minimal-flow xenon and semiclosed circuit were induced for computed tomographic LCBF measurement. Eighteen patients with ischemic cerebral disease were studied. Xenon inhalation programs were subdivided into three groups, each of them consisted of 6 patients. The formula for calculating fresh gas flow for low flow semiclosed circuit was introduced according to Shimoji's which was based on the original formula of Foldes. O2 concentration in circuit was predicted to be 25%. Mean xenon uptake for initial 20 minutes was predicted to be125 ml/min. or 360 ml/min. The first group started xenon inhalation during pure xenon inflow into semic losed circuit for two minutes and followed by about 68% xenon in O2 inhalation for 23 munites. FXe and VXe were fixed at 700 ml/min and 360 ml/min respectively. The second group was set at the same conditions as the first group except FXe and VXe as shown in Fig.2. The third group inhaled about 63% xenon-oxygen mixture affer four minutes pure xenon inflow. Xenon concentrations in trachea, carotid artery and jugular vein were estimated from the conversion into equivalent enhancement in CT units for every four minutes on line. Fig. 3 shows the O2 concentration change in semiclosed circuit, endtidal CO2 tension and percent change of mean arterial pressure. After 20 minutes xenon inhalation O2 concentration in each group closed to 25% which was predicted O2 concentration of the third group closed more rapidly to 25% than other groups. Normocarbia and stable hemodynamics could be confirmed throughout the procedures in each group. Fig. 5 shows xenon washin curves in trachea and xenon concentration change in carotid artery and jugular vein during xenon inhalation. The washin curves in trachea are quite different in each group. (J.P.N.)

  9. Computed tomographic angiography criteria in the diagnosis of brain death - comparison of sensitivity and interobserver reliability of different evaluation scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicki, Marcin; Walecka, A. [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Szczecin (Poland); Bohatyrewicz, R.; Solek-Pastuszka, J. [Pomeranian Medical University, Clinic of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Szczecin (Poland); Safranow, K. [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, Szczecin (Poland); Walecki, J. [The Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw (Poland); Rowinski, O. [Medical University of Warsaw, 2nd Department of Clinical Radiology, Warsaw (Poland); Czajkowski, Z. [Regional Joint Hospital, Szczecin (Poland); Guzinski, M. [Wroclaw Medical University, Department of General Radiology, Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Wroclaw (Poland); Burzynska, M. [Wroclaw Medical University, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, Wroclaw (Poland); Wojczal, J. [Medical University of Lublin, Department of Neurology, Lublin (Poland)

    2014-08-15

    The standardized diagnostic criteria for computed tomographic angiography (CTA) in diagnosis of brain death (BD) are not yet established. The aim of the study was to compare the sensitivity and interobserver agreement of the three previously used scales of CTA for the diagnosis of BD. Eighty-two clinically brain-dead patients underwent CTA with a delay of 40 s after contrast injection. Catheter angiography was used as the reference standard. CTA results were assessed by two radiologists, and the diagnosis of BD was established according to 10-, 7-, and 4-point scales. Catheter angiography confirmed the diagnosis of BD in all cases. Opacification of certain cerebral vessels as indicator of BD was highly sensitive: cortical segments of the middle cerebral artery (96.3 %), the internal cerebral vein (98.8 %), and the great cerebral vein (98.8 %). Other vessels were less sensitive: the pericallosal artery (74.4 %), cortical segments of the posterior cerebral artery (79.3 %), and the basilar artery (82.9 %). The sensitivities of the 10-, 7-, and 4-point scales were 67.1, 74.4, and 96.3 %, respectively (p < 0.001). Percentage interobserver agreement in diagnosis of BD reached 93 % for the 10-point scale, 89 % for the 7-point scale, and 95 % for the 4-point scale (p = 0.37). In the application of CTA to the diagnosis of BD, reducing the assessment of vascular opacification scale from a 10- to a 4-point scale significantly increases the sensitivity and maintains high interobserver reliability. (orig.)

  10. Computed tomographic angiography study of the relationship between the lingual artery and lingual markers in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, T.-N., E-mail: dr-htn@hotmail.co [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated SIR RUN RUN SHAW Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310016 (China); Zhou, L.-N.; Hu, H.-J. [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated SIR RUN RUN SHAW Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310016 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Aim: To determine the relationship between the lingual artery and lingual markers for preoperative evaluation of the lingual artery in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS). Methods: A 16-section computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the lingual artery was performed in 87 inpatient cases with OSAHS, from December 2007 to May 2009. The course of the lingual artery and the anatomic relationship between the lingual artery and the lingual markers were analyzed using CTA imaging. Results: The course of the lingual artery with the tongue in a resting position was similar to that of the Big Dipper constellation (Plough) in the sagittal view of CTA imaging. The first segment of the lingual artery declined approximately 19.27 {+-} 5.24 mm, the middle segment of the lingual artery was forward approximately 19.30 {+-} 6.79 mm, and the ascending segment of the lingual artery rose approximately 52.49 {+-} 10.98 mm. The entry point where the lingual artery entered into the tongue was adjacent to the tip of the greater horn of the hyoid bone. The relationship between the second segment of the lingual artery and the greater horn of the hyoid bone was relatively steady with the tongue in whatever position. The interval between the bilateral greater horn of the hyoid bone equalled that between the bilateral lingual arteries. Conclusions: Recognizing some lingual markers in the patients with OSAHS, such as the greater horn of the hyoid bone, foramen cecum, circumvallate papilla, lingual vein and tongue midline, may facilitate the surgeon's ability to define the course of the lingual artery accurately in the treatment of OSAHS.

  11. Computerized detection of pulmonary embolism in computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA): improvement of vessel segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Kuriakose, Jean W.; Chughtai, Aamer; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Wei, Jun; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2011-03-01

    Vessel segmentation is a fundamental step in an automated pulmonary embolism (PE) detection system. The purpose of this study is to improve the segmentation scheme for pulmonary vessels affected by PE and other lung diseases. We have developed a multiscale hierarchical vessel enhancement and segmentation (MHES) method for pulmonary vessel tree extraction based on the analysis of eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. However, it is difficult to segment the pulmonary vessels accurately when the vessel is occluded by PEs and/or surrounded by lymphoid tissues or lung diseases. In this study, we developed a method that combines MHES with level set refinement (MHES-LSR) to improve vessel segmentation accuracy. The level set was designed to propagate the initial object contours to the regions with relatively high gray-level, high gradient, and high compactness as measured by the smoothness of the curvature along vessel boundaries. Two and eight CTPA scans were randomly selected as training and test data sets, respectively. Forty volumes of interest (VOI) containing "representative" vessels were manually segmented by a radiologist experienced in CTPA interpretation and used as reference standard. The results show that, for the 32 test VOIs, the average percentage volume error relative to the reference standard was improved from 31.7+/-10.9% using the MHES method to 7.7+/-4.7% using the MHES-LSR method. The correlation between the computer-segmented vessel volume and the reference standard was improved from 0.954 to 0.986. The accuracy of vessel segmentation was improved significantly (p<0.05). The MHES-LSR method may have the potential to improve PE detection.

  12. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF MELANOMAS IN THE EQUINE HEAD: 13 CASES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jonathon; Smith, Ken; Perkins, Justin; Sherlock, Ceri; Mair, Tim; Weller, Renate

    2016-05-01

    Melanomas are one of the most common neoplasms in the horse and are frequently found in the head region. There is a genetic predisposition in horses with a gray hair coat. Computed tomography (CT) is frequently used in referral practice to evaluate the equine head but there are few reports describing the CT appearance of melanomas in this location. The aim of this retrospective, case series study was to describe characteristics in a group of horses with confirmed disease. Case records from two referral hospitals were reviewed, and 13 horses were identified that had undergone CT of the head, with a diagnosis of melanoma based on cytology, histopathology, or visual assessment of black (melanotic) tissue. A median of 11 melanomas was identified per horse (range 3-60), with a total of 216 masses. Melanomas were found most frequently in the parotid salivary gland, guttural pouches, surrounding the larynx and pharynx and adjacent to the hyoid apparatus. In noncontrast CT images, all melanomas were hyperattenuating (median; 113.5 Hounsfield units (HU), IQR; 26 HU) compared to masseter musculature (median; 69 HU, IQR; 5.5 HU). Fifty-six (25.9%) masses were partially mineralized and 41 (19.4%) included hypoattenuating areas. Histopathological assessment of these melanomas suggested that the hyperattenuation identified was most likely a result of abundant intracytoplasmic melanin pigment. Melanomas of the equine head appeared to have consistent CT features that aided detection of mass lesions and their distribution, although histopathological analysis or visual confirmation should still be obtained for definitive diagnosis. PMID:26799704

  13. 3D printing of preclinical X-ray computed tomographic data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Evan; Krumdick, Lauren A; Diener, Justin M; Wathen, Connor A; Chapman, Sarah E; Stamile, Brian; Scott, Jeremiah E; Ravosa, Matthew J; Van Avermaete, Tony; Leevy, W Matthew

    2013-03-22

    Three-dimensional printing allows for the production of highly detailed objects through a process known as additive manufacturing. Traditional, mold-injection methods to create models or parts have several limitations, the most important of which is a difficulty in making highly complex products in a timely, cost-effective manner.(1) However, gradual improvements in three-dimensional printing technology have resulted in both high-end and economy instruments that are now available for the facile production of customized models.(2) These printers have the ability to extrude high-resolution objects with enough detail to accurately represent in vivo images generated from a preclinical X-ray CT scanner. With proper data collection, surface rendering, and stereolithographic editing, it is now possible and inexpensive to rapidly produce detailed skeletal and soft tissue structures from X-ray CT data. Even in the early stages of development, the anatomical models produced by three-dimensional printing appeal to both educators and researchers who can utilize the technology to improve visualization proficiency. (3, 4) The real benefits of this method result from the tangible experience a researcher can have with data that cannot be adequately conveyed through a computer screen. The translation of pre-clinical 3D data to a physical object that is an exact copy of the test subject is a powerful tool for visualization and communication, especially for relating imaging research to students, or those in other fields. Here, we provide a detailed method for printing plastic models of bone and organ structures derived from X-ray CT scans utilizing an Albira X-ray CT system in conjunction with PMOD, ImageJ, Meshlab, Netfabb, and ReplicatorG software packages.

  14. CHRONIC OTITIS MEDIA: HIGH RESOLUTION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE TEMPORAL BONE WITH SURGICAL CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakenahalli P.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE To correlate the sensitivity and specificity of High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT findings of temporal bone in chronic otitis media with surgical findings. MATERIALS & METHODS HRCT of temporal bone of fifty patients with chronic otitis media were evaluated prospectively between July 2012 and December 2013. The various pathological findings, complications and important anatomical variations were evaluated. These findings were compared with intraoperative findings. Statistical methods were carried out using SPSS for Windows (Version 16.0 and Minitab (Version 11.0 for windows. The sensitivity, specificity, false positive and false negative rates were calculated. The level of significance was considered significant for P-values <0.05. RESULTS HRCT is reliable for all the parameters like scutum erosion, ossicular erosion, mastoid pneumatisation, low lying dura, anterior lying sigmoid, Korner’s septum, cholesteatoma extension in middle ear and mastoid, and presence of complications like mastoiditis, mastoid abscess, mastoid cortex dehiscence, sigmoid sinus plate erosion, facial canal dehiscence, tegmen mastoideum erosion, labyrinthine fistula and intracranial complications with a P value <0.05 but not reliable for tegmen tympani erosion and posterior fossa dural plate erosion. Among the findings related to adjacent neurovascular structures, facial canal dehiscence was commonest followed by anterior lying sigmoid sinus and low lying dura. In ossicular erosion, incus was most commonly involved followed by stapes and malleus. Most of the mastoid in this study was sclerotic followed by pneumatised and diploic. The epitympanum and mastoid antrum were the most commonly involved areas in cholesteatoma followed by aditus, mastoid air cells, posterior tympanum, mesotympanum, hypotympanum, protympanum and perilabyrinthine air cells in decreasing order of frequency. CONCLUSIONS HRCT temporal bone is a reliable investigation in preoperative

  15. Evaluation of condylar positions in patients with temporomandibular disorders: A cone-beam computed tomographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanimoghaddam, Mahrokh; Madani, Azam Sadat; Mahdavi, Pirooze; Bagherpour, Ali; Darijani, Mansoreh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to compare the condylar position in patients with temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs) and a normal group by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods In the TMD group, 25 patients (5 men and 20 women) were randomly selected among the ones suffering from TMD according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). The control group consisted of 25 patients (8 men and 17 women) with normal temporomandibular joints (TMJs) who were referred to the radiology department in order to undergo CBCT scanning for implant treatment in the posterior maxilla. Linear measurements from the superior, anterior, and posterior joint spaces between the condyle and glenoid fossa were made through defined landmarks in the sagittal view. The inclination of articular eminence was also determined. Results The mean anterior joint space was 2.3 mm in the normal group and 2.8 mm in the TMD group, respectively. The results showed that there was a significant correlation between the superior and posterior joint spaces in both the normal and TMD groups, but it was only in the TMD group that the correlation coefficient among the dimensions of anterior and superior spaces was significant. There was a significant correlation between the inclination of articular eminence and the size of the superior and posterior spaces in the normal group. Conclusion The average dimension of the anterior joint space was different between the two groups. CBCT could be considered a useful diagnostic imaging modality for TMD patients. PMID:27358820

  16. Multi-Rate Mass Transfer : Computing the Memory Function Using Micro-Tomographic Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouze, P.; Melean, Y.; Leborgne, T.; Carrera, J.

    2006-12-01

    Several in situ and laboratory experiments display strongly dissymmetrical breakthrough curves (BTC), ending up with a concentration decrease with time close to C(t) ~ t ^{-γ}. Matrix diffusion is a widely recognized process producing this class of non-Fickean transport behavior characterized by an apparently infinite variance of the temporal distribution. The matrix diffusion sink/source term in the macroscopic advection dispersion transport equation can be expressed by the convolution product of a memory function G(t) times the concentration measured in the mobile (advective) part of the aquifer. Memory function, displaying power law decrease C(t) ~ t ^{1-γ} at early time, can be obtained by assuming an immobile domain made of single diffusion length structures, such as spheres or slabs. Indeed, diffusion in a distribution of spheres of different size may produce a large spectrum of power law memory function. However, the structure of the immobile domain of real rocks is generally completely different from spheres-made rocks. Here, we present a method for calculating the true memory function of heterogeneous structures (reef calcareous rocks) using 3D X-Ray micro-tomography images of rock samples. Several steps of data processing are required to quantify precisely the structure, the porosity distribution and the properties of the mobile/immobile interface, before solving the diffusion problem (here using random walk approach). Conversely, tracer experiments (at meter scale) are performed in the same medium. The obtained BTCs display long tailing decrease over several orders of magnitude. Using very few assumptions, one compute memory functions (measured on centimeter scale samples) similar to those expected to control the BTCs at meter scale. Results show that the memory function is strongly controlled by the diffusivity distribution in the matrix and, to a lesser extent, by the mobile-immobile interface geometry; so that power law exponents of the BTCs tail

  17. Aplastic Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplastic anemia is a rare but serious blood disorder. If you have it, your bone marrow doesn't make ... blood cells. There are different types, including Fanconi anemia. Causes include Toxic substances, such as pesticides, arsenic, ...

  18. Hemolytic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jager U, Lechner K. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, ... Price EA, Schrier SS. Extrinsic nonimmune hemolytic anemias. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, ...

  19. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana , common tegu ( Tupinambis merianae and bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banzato Tommaso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of the green iguana, tegu and bearded dragon. Results 6 adult green iguanas, 4 tegus, 3 bearded dragons, and, the adult cadavers of : 4 green iguana, 4 tegu, 4 bearded dragon were included in the study. 2 cadavers were dissected following a stratigraphic approach and 2 cadavers were cross-sectioned for each species. These latter specimens were stored in a freezer (−20°C until completely frozen. Transversal sections at 5 mm intervals were obtained by means of an electric band-saw. Each section was cleaned and photographed on both sides. Radiographs of the head of each subject were obtained. Pre- and post- contrast computed tomographic studies of the head were performed on all the live animals. CT images were displayed in both bone and soft tissue windows. Individual anatomic structures were first recognised and labelled on the anatomic images and then matched on radiographs and CT images. Radiographic and CT images of the skull provided good detail of the bony structures in all species. In CT contrast medium injection enabled good detail of the soft tissues to be obtained in the iguana whereas only the eye was clearly distinguishable from the remaining soft tissues in both the tegu and the bearded dragon. Conclusions The results provide an atlas of the normal anatomical and in vivo radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of lizards, and this may be

  20. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana) , common tegu ( Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of the green iguana, tegu and bearded dragon. Results 6 adult green iguanas, 4 tegus, 3 bearded dragons, and, the adult cadavers of : 4 green iguana, 4 tegu, 4 bearded dragon were included in the study. 2 cadavers were dissected following a stratigraphic approach and 2 cadavers were cross-sectioned for each species. These latter specimens were stored in a freezer (−20°C) until completely frozen. Transversal sections at 5 mm intervals were obtained by means of an electric band-saw. Each section was cleaned and photographed on both sides. Radiographs of the head of each subject were obtained. Pre- and post- contrast computed tomographic studies of the head were performed on all the live animals. CT images were displayed in both bone and soft tissue windows. Individual anatomic structures were first recognised and labelled on the anatomic images and then matched on radiographs and CT images. Radiographic and CT images of the skull provided good detail of the bony structures in all species. In CT contrast medium injection enabled good detail of the soft tissues to be obtained in the iguana whereas only the eye was clearly distinguishable from the remaining soft tissues in both the tegu and the bearded dragon. Conclusions The results provide an atlas of the normal anatomical and in vivo radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of lizards, and this may be useful in interpreting any

  1. Neuroblastoma: computed tomographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Choon Sik; Ahn, Chang Su; Kim, Myung Jun; Oh, Ki Keun [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-15

    To evaluate the characteristic CT findings of neuroblastoma, we studied neuroblastomas. We analysed CT findings of available 25 cases among pathologically proved 51 neuroblastomas from Jan. 1983 to Sept. 1990. The most frequent site of origin is adrenal gland (40%) and the second is retroperitoneum (32%) and the third ismediastinum (16%). Characteristic CT findings are as follows: Calcifications within the tumor is detected in 86% of abdominal neuroblastomas and 50% of mediastinal origin. Hemorrhagic and necrotic changes within the tumor is noted at 86% in the tumor of abdominal origin and 25% in mediastinal neuroblastomas. Contrast enhanced study showed frequently seperated enhanced appearance with/without solid contrast enhancement. Encasements of major great vessels such as aorta and IVC with/without displacement by metastatic lymph nodes or tumor are frequently seen in 90% of abdominal neuroblastomas. Multiple lymphadenopathy are detected in 95% of abdominal neuroblastomas and 25% of mediastinal neuroblastomas. The most common organ or contiguous direct invasion is kidney in 6 cases and the next one is liver but intraspinal canal invasion is also noted in 2 cases. We concluded that diagnosis of neuroblastoma would be easily obtained in masses of pediatric group from recognition of above characteristic findings.

  2. Quantitative strain analysis in analogue modelling experiments: insights from X-ray computed tomography and tomographic image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, J.; Klinkmueller, M.; Schreurs, G.; Wieneke, B.

    2009-04-01

    deformation. We have adapted our analogue modelling setups for optimal analysis of complex deformation processes using leading-edge volumetric strain monitoring techniques (3D volume DIC, Tomographic DIC). In this study, we apply DIC on X-ray CT images of analogue models. Our first results indicate that DIC can successfully be applied to quantify the 2D and 3D spatial and temporal patterns of strain accumulation. REFERENCES Adam, J., Urai, J.L, Wieneke, B., Oncken, O., Pfeiffer, K., Kukowski, N., Lohrmann, J., Hoth, S. van der Zee, W., and Schmatz, J.; 2005: Shear localisation and strain distribution during tectonic faulting - new insights from granular-flow experiments and high-resolution optical image correlation techniques. Journal of Structural Geology, 27, 283-301. Lohrmann, J., Kukowski, N., Adam, J. & Oncken, O.; 2003: The control of sand wedges by material properties: sensitivity analyses and application to convergent margin mechanics. - Journal of Structural Geology, 25, 1691-1711 Panien, M., Schreurs, G., and Pfiffner, A.; 2006. Mechanical behaviour of granular materials used in analogue modelling: insights from grain characterisation, ring-shear tests and analogue experiments. Journal of Structural Geology, 28, 1710-1724. Schreurs, G., Hänni, R, and Vock, P.; 2002: Analogue modelling of transfer zones in fold and thrust belts: a 4-D analysis. In: Schellart, W.P. and Passchier, C. (eds). Analogue modelling of large-scale tectonic processes. Journal of the Virtual Explorer, 7, 67-73. Schreurs, G., Hänni, R, Panien, M. and Vock, P.; 2003: Analysis of analogue models by helical X-ray computed tomography. In: Mees, F., Swennen, R., Van Geet, M. and Jacobs, P. (eds). Applications of X-ray Computed Tomogaphy in Earth Sciences. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 215, 213-223.

  3. Pulmonary lymphatic drainage to the mediastinum based on computed tomographic observations of the primary complex of pulmonary histoplasmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Koji; Sasaki, Tomoaki; Nabaa, Basim; Aburano, Tamio (Department of Radiology, Asahikawa Medical University and Hospital, Asahikawa (Japan)), Email: taka1019@asahikawa-med.ac.jp; Beek, Edwin Jr. von (Clinical Research Imaging Centre, Queen' s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)); Stanford, William (Department of Radiology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City (United States))

    2012-03-15

    Background. In the primary infection of pulmonary histoplasmosis, pulmonary lesions are commonly solitary and associated with hilar and/or mediastinal nodal diseases, which spontaneously resolve, resulting in calcifications in individuals with normal cellular immunity. Purpose. To assess the lymphatic drainage to the mediastinum from each pulmonary segment and lobe using computed tomographic (CT) observations of a calcified primary complex pulmonary histoplasmosis and predict which patients with N2 disease that would benefit from surgery. Material and Methods. We collected 585 CT studies of patients with primary complex histoplasmosis consisting of solitary calcified pulmonary lesions and calcified hilar and/or mediastinal nodal disease. Using the N stage criteria of non-small cell lung cancer, we assessed the distribution of the involved hilar and mediastinal nodes depending on the pulmonary segment of the lesion, with a focus on skip involvement. We also assessed the correlation between the incidence of N1and skip N2 involvement and the mean number of involved mediastinal nodal stations in the non-skip N2 and skip N2 groups. Results. Skip involvement was common in the apical segment (9/45, 20.0%), posterior segment (7/31, 22.6%), and mediolbasal segment (13/20, 65.0%) in the right lung, and in the apicoposterior segment (7/55, 12.7%), lateral basal segment (6/26, 23.1%), and posterobasal segment (16/47, 34.0%) in the left lung. The incidence of skip involvement in each segment showed a significant inverse correlation with that of N1 involvement (r = -0.51, P <0.05) in both lungs. The mean number of involved mediastinal nodal stations in the non-skip N2 and skip N2 groups in all segments of both lungs were 1.4 (434/301) and 1.2 (93/77), and the former was significantly greater than the latter (P <0.01). Conclusion. Our data showed a predictable pattern of segmental and lobar lymphatic drainage to the mediastinum and suggested that skip involvement could represent

  4. Silent hepatic lesions detected with computed tomography in aplastic anemia patients administered androgens for a long period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, Morihisa (Shiga Univ., Otsu (Japan)); Hiraoka, Atsumobu; Uchino, Haruto

    1982-07-01

    Macroscopic liver lesions were investigated with the use of computed tomography (CT) and radionuclide imaging (RN) in 15 aplastic anemia patients who were administered anabolic steroids for over one year and who showed no apparent physical and biochemical sign of liver tumor. In 3 patients, CT scans showed radiolucent areas in the liver. Contrast enhancements revealed these lesions to be well vascularized, suggesting they were not cysts but probably tumors. RN imaging could not demonstrate any definite space occupying lesions. Total dose of AS administered to each of the three patients exceeded 30,000 mg. It was felt that attention should be paid to the possible development of hepatic tumor when the dose of AS administered exceeds 30,000 mg.

  5. Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrakis, George; Rannou, Fernando R; Chatziioannou, Arion F

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility and limits in performing tomographic bioluminescence imaging with a combined optical-PET (OPET) system was explored by simulating its image formation process. A micro-MRI based virtual mouse phantom was assigned appropriate tissue optical properties to each of its segmented internal organs at wavelengths spanning the emission spectrum of the firefly luciferase at 37 °C. The TOAST finite-element code was employed to simulate the diffuse transport of photons emitted from biolumi...

  6. Pregnancy Complications: Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Anemia Anemia E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... anemia at a prenatal care visit . What causes anemia? Usually, a woman becomes anemic (has anemia) because ...

  7. Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility and limits in performing tomographic bioluminescence imaging with a combined optical-PET (OPET) system were explored by simulating its image formation process. A micro-MRI based virtual mouse phantom was assigned appropriate tissue optical properties to each of its segmented internal organs at wavelengths spanning the emission spectrum of the firefly luciferase at 37 deg. C. The TOAST finite-element code was employed to simulate the diffuse transport of photons emitted from bioluminescence sources in the mouse. OPET measurements were simulated for single-point, two-point and distributed bioluminescence sources located in different organs such as the liver, the kidneys and the gut. An expectation maximization code was employed to recover the intensity and location of these simulated sources. It was found that spectrally resolved measurements were necessary in order to perform tomographic bioluminescence imaging. The true location of emission sources could be recovered if the mouse background optical properties were known a priori. The assumption of a homogeneous optical property background proved inadequate for describing photon transport in optically heterogeneous tissues and led to inaccurate source localization in the reconstructed images. The simulation results pointed out specific methodological challenges that need to be addressed before a practical implementation of OPET-based bioluminescence tomography is achieved

  8. Validation of a technique for integration of a digital dental model into stereophotogrammetric images of the face using cone-beam computed tomographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codari, Marina; Pucciarelli, Valentina; Tommasi, Davide G; Sforza, Chiarella

    2016-06-01

    We wanted to find and validate a new way to visualise patients' faces and their dental arches non-invasively. The stereophotogrammetric images of the faces and the digitised dental casts of seven healthy subjects were analysed. Point-based and surface-based recording techniques matched the facial image with those of the mandibular and maxillary dental arches in their relative positions. The cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) images of the same subjects were analysed retrospectively. Twenty-eight dentofacial distances were obtained on cone-beam CT images and on the recorded facial and dental surfaces. The median (IQR) distances of more than 96% of the measurements did not differ significantly. PMID:26852270

  9. Comparative validity and reproducibility study of various landmark-oriented reference planes in 3-dimensional computed tomographic analysis for patients receiving orthognathic surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Hsia Lin

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging has become popular in clinical evaluation, treatment planning, surgical simulation, and outcome assessment for maxillofacial intervention. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether there is any correlation among landmark-based horizontal reference planes and to validate the reproducibility and reliability of landmark identification.Preoperative and postoperative cone-beam computed tomographic images of patients who had undergone orthognathic surgery were collected. Landmark-oriented reference planes including the Frankfort horizontal plane (FHP and the lateral semicircular canal plane (LSP were established. Four FHPs were defined by selecting 3 points from the orbitale, porion, or midpoint of paired points. The LSP passed through both the lateral semicircular canal points and nasion. The distances between the maxillary or mandibular teeth and the reference planes were measured, and the differences between the 2 sides were calculated and compared. The precision in locating the landmarks was evaluated by performing repeated tests, and the intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver reliability were assessed.A total of 30 patients with facial deformity and malocclusion--10 patients with facial symmetry, 10 patients with facial asymmetry, and 10 patients with cleft lip and palate--were recruited. Comparing the differences among the 5 reference planes showed no statistically significant difference among all patient groups. Regarding intraobserver reproducibility, the mean differences in the 3 coordinates varied from 0 to 0.35 mm, with correlation coefficients between 0.96 and 1.0, showing high correlation between repeated tests. Regarding interobserver reliability, the mean differences among the 3 coordinates varied from 0 to 0.47 mm, with correlation coefficients between 0.88 and 1.0, exhibiting high correlation between the different examiners.The 5 horizontal reference planes were

  10. Computed tomographic scanning in neurosurgery, 3. Application of ACTA 200-FS scanner to neurosurgical disease in the first half year of 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Y. (Kansai Medical School, Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan))

    1981-03-01

    Computed tomographic scannings were performed in overall 727 scans, including 133 enhanced scans, of neurosurgical cases from January 1, 1980 to June 30, 1980 at Kansai Medical University. The computed tomography scanner was not only helpful in screening of neurosurgical disease at outpatient clinics, but of most value in emergency with the rapidity and the abundance of its information. It also gave surgeons the indication and the direction of operations exactly. In this respect, Metrizamide cisternography offered a new development of diagnosis especially in studies of posterior fossa tumor and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid. Moreover, the correlations of periventricular lucency with ventricular size and slit-like ventricles associated with peritoneoventricular shunt were studied. These studies revealed that periventricular lucency and ventricular size reflected function of shunt well and slit-like ventricle was an unfavorable state, although being asymptomatic. Numbers of mainly scanned neurosurgical disease reached at 192 (27.1%) in intracranial tumors, 107 (14.7%) in head injuries, 83 (11.4%) in intracranial hemorrhages and 69 (9.5%) in so called hydrocephalus respectively. About 6.9% of all scans were screening and follow up scans of cerebrovascular diseases. This report showed the usefulness of computed tomography in neurosurgery and the present state of its utilization in our institute.

  11. What Is Aplastic Anemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Aplastic Anemia? Aplastic anemia (a-PLAS-tik uh-NEE-me-uh) is ... heart, heart failure , infections, and bleeding. Severe aplastic anemia can even cause death. Overview Aplastic anemia is ...

  12. What Causes Anemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Anemia? The three main causes of anemia are: Blood ... the blood and can lead to anemia. Aplastic Anemia Some infants are born without the ability to ...

  13. About Anemia (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes About Anemia KidsHealth > For Kids > About Anemia Print A A ... to every cell in your body. What Is Anemia? Anemia occurs when a person doesn't have ...

  14. Types of Hemolytic Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Hemolytic Anemia There are many types of hemolytic anemia. The ... the condition, but you develop it. Inherited Hemolytic Anemias With inherited hemolytic anemias, one or more of ...

  15. Detection and assessment of circle of Willis aneurysms in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage with three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography: correlation with digital substraction angiography findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, P H; Yang, C F; Pan, H B; Chen, C; Ho, J T; Hsu, S S

    1999-10-01

    In this retrospective study, we examined the usefulness of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) for the detection and assessment of circle of Willis aneurysms in patients with acute nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), using selective digital substraction angiography (DSA) as the gold standard. Thirty-five patients who presented with acute, nontraumatic SAH, diagnosed on the basis of unenhanced computed tomography or lumbar puncture findings or both, underwent both CTA and DSA. The CTA images were interpreted for the presence, location, size, and shape of the aneurysm, presence of a neck, and relationship of the aneurysm to adjacent arterial branches. The CTA and DSA images were then compared, with the latter images serving as the gold standard. DSA revealed 37 aneurysms in 32 patients and ruled out intracranial aneurysms in the remaining three. The sensitivity and specificity of CTA for aneurysm detection were 97% and 100%, respectively. The size of the smallest aneurysm shown was 4 mm, and the largest aneurysm was 21 mm. The size and lobularity of the aneurysms estimated from CTA images corresponded well with those estimated from DSA images. In addition, CTA provided a three-dimensional representation of the aneurysmal lesion, which was considered useful for surgical planning. Our results confirm the accuracy of CTA in comparison with DSA. Because of its reliability, minimal invasiveness, and rapidity, CTA may become the technique of choice for neuroradiologic work-up of SAH patients. DSA then would be used to diagnose intracranial aneurysms only in selected, questionable cases. PMID:10575836

  16. Low-density lipoprotein and noncalcified coronary plaque composition in patients with newly diagnosed coronary artery disease on computed tomographic angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Victor Y; Wolak, Arik; Gutstein, Ariel; Gransar, Heidi; Wong, Nathan D; Dey, Damini; Thomson, Louise E J; Hayes, Sean W; Friedman, John D; Slomka, Piotr J; Berman, Daniel S

    2010-03-15

    We sought to determine significant relations between atherogenic lipoproteins and the contribution of calcified plaque (CP), mixed plaque (MP), and noncalcified plaque (NCP) to the total plaque (TP) burden in patients without previous coronary artery disease. From 823 adult patients without previously established coronary artery disease (52% receiving statin therapy, 34% asymptomatic) but with visible coronary plaque on coronary computed tomographic angiography, we obtained segmental CP, MP, NCP, and TP counts from contrast-enhanced, electrocardiographic-gated computed tomography. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to determine the associations of clinical factors and lipoprotein levels to CP, MP, and NCP counts and CP/TP, MP/TP, and NCP/TP count ratios. Age, male gender, diabetes, smoking, and statin therapy were significantly associated with the CP count (p NCP counts (all p values NCP/TP ratios, including an inverse association with CP/TP (p = 0.008) and a positive association with MP/TP (p = 0.032). Analyses using non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in place of LDL cholesterol yielded similar results. In conclusion, among the traditional clinical factors used to estimate cardiovascular event risk, LDL cholesterol is associated with an increased MP and NCP burden and is the sole variable that independently predicted relative predominance of CP, MP, and NCP, suggesting a potentially important role for lipoprotein levels in modulating the type of detectable coronary arterial plaque.

  17. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric and computed tomographic features of the coelomic cavity in the green iguana (Iguana iguana), black and white tegu (Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzato, T; Selleri, P; Veladiano, I A; Zotti, A

    2013-12-01

    Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic studies of the coelomic cavity in four green iguanas, four black and white tegus and four bearded dragons were performed using a conventional CT scanner. Anatomical reference cross sections were obtained from four green iguana, four black and white tegu and six bearded dragon cadavers; the specimens were stored in a -20°C freezer for 24 h then sliced into 5-mm intervals. The frozen sections were cleaned with water and photographed on both sides. The individual anatomical structures were identified by means of the available literature; these were labelled first on the anatomical images and then matched to the corresponding computed tomography images. The results provide an atlas of the normal cross-sectional and computed tomographic anatomy of the coelomic cavity in the green iguana, the black and white tegu and the bearded dragon, which is useful in the interpretation of any imaging modality. PMID:23410482

  18. A unique case of Turner syndrome accompanying prolactinoma and unexpected elongated styloid process: Clinical and cone-beam computed tomographic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatli, Ufuk; Yazicioglu, Iffet; Evlice, Ahmet; Oztunc, Haluk

    2013-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities, with an estimated frequency among female live births of 1/2,000-3,000. The syndrome is characterized by the partial or complete absence of one X chromosome (45,X karyotype). We reported a unique case of a 40-year-old woman with TS accompanying unexpected elongated styloid process specific to Eagle syndrome (ES) and followed up-prolactinoma. The present article is the first report to define the cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) features of TS accompanying ES. Patients with TS carry various risks that make treatment more complicated; thus advanced imaging techniques for proper treatment and follow-up are extremely important. In the light of CBCT examination, craniofacial abnormalities specific to TS and accompanying syndromes such as the crowding of teeth especially in the maxillary anterior region caused by maxillary narrowness, micrognatic maxilla and mandible, relative mandibular retrusion, malocclusion, open-bite, and an elongated styloid process (length of 32.7 mm) on the right side were illustrated in detail. PMID:23807938

  19. Clinical indications for computed tomographic colonography: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) Guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spada, Cristiano; Barbaro, Federico; Petruzziello, Lucio [Catholic University, Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Rome (Italy); Stoker, Jaap; Haan, Margriet C. de [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Alarcon, Onofre [Universidad de La Laguna, Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, Facultad de Medicina, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bellini, Davide; Laghi, Andrea [Sapienza University of Rome, I.C.O.T. Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Latina (Italy); Bretthauer, Michael [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Health Economy and Health Management, University of Oslo, and Department of Transplantation Medicine, Gastroenterology Unit, Oslo (Norway); Dumonceau, Jean-Marc [Gedyt Endoscopy Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferlitsch, Monika [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Vienna (Austria); Halligan, Steve; Helbren, Emma; Plumb, Andrew; Taylor, Stuart A. [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Hellstrom, Mikael [Sahlgrenska University Hospital and Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Department of Radiology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Kuipers, Ernst J. [Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lefere, Philippe [Virtual Colonoscopy Teaching Centre, Hooglede (Belgium); AZ Delta, Roeselare (Belgium); Mang, Thomas [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Neri, Emanuele [University of Pisa, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pisa (Italy); Regge, Daniele [Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo-Torino (Italy); Hassan, Cesare [Catholic University, Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Rome (Italy); Ospedale Nuovo Regina Margherita, Department of Gastroenterology, Rome (Italy)

    2014-10-03

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality [1, 2]. CRC screening by fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) has been shown to reduce CRC mortality [3, 4], and is currently used in several European countries. Colonoscopy is highly effective for detecting advanced neoplasia, and endoscopic polypectomy reduces subsequent CRCspecific incidence and mortality [5]. In Europe, colonoscopy is mainly used to investigate FOBT-positive or symptomatic patients, or as a preventive strategy in those with increased CRC risk [6]. Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive imaging technique that is highly accurate for detecting colorectal cancer (CRC) and adenomatous polyps. The technique is standardized [7], and CTC is more easily performed than barium enema. Evidence-based data suggest that CTC is the natural replacement for barium enema and a complementary rather than an alternative examination to colonoscopy. However, the clinical scenarios for which CTC is indicated remain unclear. To address this uncertainty - 20 years after the first presentation of CTC at a radiological meeting [8] - the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) decided to produce a common guideline regarding indications for CTC in clinical practice. Technical and quality issues of CTC have been deliberately excluded from this work as these have already been discussed separately [7].

  20. Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Analyses of the Position and Course of the Mandibular Canal: Relevance to the Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ercan Sekerci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to document the position and course of the mandibular canal through the region of the mandibular angle and body in dental patients, using cone beam computed tomographic imaging. Methods. The position and course of the mandibular canal from the region of the third molar to the first molar were measured at five specific locations in the same plane: at three different positions just between the first and second molars; between the second and third molars; and just distal to the third molar. Results. The study sample was composed of 500 hemimandibles from 250 dental patients with a mean age of 26.32. Significant differences were found between genders, distances, and positions. B decreased significantly from the anterior positions to the posterior positions in both females and males. The mean values of S and CB increased significantly from the posterior positions to the anterior positions in both females and males. Conclusion. Because the sagittal split ramus osteotomy is a technically difficult procedure, we hope that the findings of the present study will help the surgeon in choosing the safest surgical technique for the treatment of mandibular deformities.

  1. A unique case of Turner syndrome accompanying prolactinoma and unexpected elongated styloid process: Clinical and cone-beam computed tomographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evlice, Burcu; Tatli, Ufuk; Yazicioglu, Iffet; Oztunc, Haluk [Faculty of Dentistry, Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey); Evlice, Ahmet [Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey)

    2013-06-15

    Turner syndrome (TS) is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities, with an estimated frequency among female live births of 1/2,000-3,000. The syndrome is characterized by the partial or complete absence of one X chromosome (45,X karyotype). We reported a unique case of a 40-year-old woman with TS accompanying unexpected elongated styloid process specific to Eagle syndrome (ES) and followed up-prolactinoma. The present article is the first report to define the cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) features of TS accompanying ES. Patients with TS carry various risks that make treatment more complicated; thus advanced imaging techniques for proper treatment and follow-up are extremely important. In the light of CBCT examination, craniofacial abnormalities specific to TS and accompanying syndromes such as the crowding of teeth especially in the maxillary anterior region caused by maxillary narrowness, micrognatic maxilla and mandible, relative mandibular retrusion, malocclusion, open-bite, and an elongated styloid process (length of 32.7 mm) on the right side were illustrated in detail.

  2. Clinical indications for computed tomographic colonography: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) Guideline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality [1, 2]. CRC screening by fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) has been shown to reduce CRC mortality [3, 4], and is currently used in several European countries. Colonoscopy is highly effective for detecting advanced neoplasia, and endoscopic polypectomy reduces subsequent CRCspecific incidence and mortality [5]. In Europe, colonoscopy is mainly used to investigate FOBT-positive or symptomatic patients, or as a preventive strategy in those with increased CRC risk [6]. Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive imaging technique that is highly accurate for detecting colorectal cancer (CRC) and adenomatous polyps. The technique is standardized [7], and CTC is more easily performed than barium enema. Evidence-based data suggest that CTC is the natural replacement for barium enema and a complementary rather than an alternative examination to colonoscopy. However, the clinical scenarios for which CTC is indicated remain unclear. To address this uncertainty - 20 years after the first presentation of CTC at a radiological meeting [8] - the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) decided to produce a common guideline regarding indications for CTC in clinical practice. Technical and quality issues of CTC have been deliberately excluded from this work as these have already been discussed separately [7].

  3. Differences in clinical features and computed tomographic findings between embolic and non-embolic acute ischemic stroke. A quantitative differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diagnosis based on the presumed mechanism of stroke onset is useful for management strategies in acute ischemic stroke. Ninety-two patients with embolic (cardiac or artery-to-artery) and 107 with non-embolic (thrombotic or hemodynamic) stroke were diagnosed on strict cerebral angiographic criteria alone. To clearly discriminate between these two groups, the neurological and computed tomographic (CT) findings were then compared. Rapidity of onset, vomiting, urinary incontinence, level of consciousness, cervical bruit, anisocoria, tongue deviation, sensory disturbance, and CT findings (location of hypodense area, findings of brain edema and hemorrhagic transformation) were discriminatory factors between the two groups (p<0.01). According to these 11 items, we prepared a numerical table for quantitative differential diagnosis. A diagnostic accuracy of 98.9% for embolic and 87.9% for non-embolic stroke in internal verification, and 90.0% and 82.9%, respectively, in external verification was observed. The differences in clinical features and CT findings between embolic and non-embolic stroke may reflect the pathophysiological mechanisms of the occlusive process of cerebral artery as well as the extent and severity of ischemia. (author)

  4. Differences in clinical features and computed tomographic findings between embolic and non-embolic acute ischemic stroke. A quantitative differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Takenori; Minematsu, Kazuo; Sawada, Tohru; Omae, Teruo [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    A diagnosis based on the presumed mechanism of stroke onset is useful for management strategies in acute ischemic stroke. Ninety-two patients with embolic (cardiac or artery-to-artery) and 107 with non-embolic (thrombotic or hemodynamic) stroke were diagnosed on strict cerebral angiographic criteria alone. To clearly discriminate between these two groups, the neurological and computed tomographic (CT) findings were then compared. Rapidity of onset, vomiting, urinary incontinence, level of consciousness, cervical bruit, anisocoria, tongue deviation, sensory disturbance, and CT findings (location of hypodense area, findings of brain edema and hemorrhagic transformation) were discriminatory factors between the two groups (p<0.01). According to these 11 items, we prepared a numerical table for quantitative differential diagnosis. A diagnostic accuracy of 98.9% for embolic and 87.9% for non-embolic stroke in internal verification, and 90.0% and 82.9%, respectively, in external verification was observed. The differences in clinical features and CT findings between embolic and non-embolic stroke may reflect the pathophysiological mechanisms of the occlusive process of cerebral artery as well as the extent and severity of ischemia. (author)

  5. A comparison of echocardiographic and electron beam computed tomographic assessment of aortic valve area in patients with valvular aortic stenosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piers, Lieuwe H.; Dikkers, Riksta; Tio, Rene A.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; Willems, Tineke P.; Zijlstra, Felix; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare electron beam computed tomography (EBT) with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in determining aortic valve area (AVA). Thirty patients (9 females, 21 males) underwent a contrast-enhanced EBT scan (e-Speed, GE, San Francisco, CA, USA) and TTE within 17 +/-

  6. Correlative multiple porosimetries for reservoir sandstones with adoption of a new reference-sample-guided computed-tomographic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jae Hwa; Kim, Junho; Lee, Jeong-Yil; Oh, Young Min

    2016-01-01

    One of the main interests in petroleum geology and reservoir engineering is to quantify the porosity of reservoir beds as accurately as possible. A variety of direct measurements, including methods of mercury intrusion, helium injection and petrographic image analysis, have been developed; however, their application frequently yields equivocal results because these methods are different in theoretical bases, means of measurement, and causes of measurement errors. Here, we present a set of porosities measured in Berea Sandstone samples by the multiple methods, in particular with adoption of a new method using computed tomography and reference samples. The multiple porosimetric data show a marked correlativeness among different methods, suggesting that these methods are compatible with each other. The new method of reference-sample-guided computed tomography is more effective than the previous methods when the accompanied merits such as experimental conveniences are taken into account. PMID:27445105

  7. Correlative multiple porosimetries for reservoir sandstones with adoption of a new reference-sample-guided computed-tomographic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jae Hwa; Kim, Junho; Lee, Jeong-Yil; Oh, Young Min

    2016-07-22

    One of the main interests in petroleum geology and reservoir engineering is to quantify the porosity of reservoir beds as accurately as possible. A variety of direct measurements, including methods of mercury intrusion, helium injection and petrographic image analysis, have been developed; however, their application frequently yields equivocal results because these methods are different in theoretical bases, means of measurement, and causes of measurement errors. Here, we present a set of porosities measured in Berea Sandstone samples by the multiple methods, in particular with adoption of a new method using computed tomography and reference samples. The multiple porosimetric data show a marked correlativeness among different methods, suggesting that these methods are compatible with each other. The new method of reference-sample-guided computed tomography is more effective than the previous methods when the accompanied merits such as experimental conveniences are taken into account.

  8. Correlative multiple porosimetries for reservoir sandstones with adoption of a new reference-sample-guided computed-tomographic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jae Hwa; Kim, Junho; Lee, Jeong-Yil; Oh, Young Min

    2016-07-01

    One of the main interests in petroleum geology and reservoir engineering is to quantify the porosity of reservoir beds as accurately as possible. A variety of direct measurements, including methods of mercury intrusion, helium injection and petrographic image analysis, have been developed; however, their application frequently yields equivocal results because these methods are different in theoretical bases, means of measurement, and causes of measurement errors. Here, we present a set of porosities measured in Berea Sandstone samples by the multiple methods, in particular with adoption of a new method using computed tomography and reference samples. The multiple porosimetric data show a marked correlativeness among different methods, suggesting that these methods are compatible with each other. The new method of reference-sample-guided computed tomography is more effective than the previous methods when the accompanied merits such as experimental conveniences are taken into account.

  9. Downstream Testing and Subsequent Procedures After Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography Following Coronary Stenting in Patients ≥65 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Mudrick, Daniel; Kaltenbach, Lisa A.; Shah, Bimal; Lytle, Barbara; Masoudi, Frederick A; Mark, Daniel B.; Federspiel, Jerome J.; Cowper, Patricia A.; Green, Cynthia; Douglas, Pamela S.

    2012-01-01

    Limited data are available on the use of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in patients who have received percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). To evaluate patterns of cardiac testing including CCTA after PCI, we created a retrospective observational data set linking the National Cardiovascular Data Registry® CathPCI Registry® baseline data with longitudinal inpatient and outpatient Medicare claims data for patients who received coronary stenting between November 1, 2005 and ...

  10. In vivo X-Ray Computed Tomographic Imaging of Soft Tissue with Native, Intravenous, or Oral Contrast

    OpenAIRE

    W Matthew Leevy; Steven Gerstler; Raghuraman Kannan; Chapaman, Sarah E.; Sasser, Todd A.; Bernadette Miramontes; Tony van Avermaete; Wathen, Connor A.; Nathan Foje

    2013-01-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is one of the most commonly utilized anatomical imaging modalities for both research and clinical purposes. CT combines high-resolution, three-dimensional data with relatively fast acquisition to provide a solid platform for non-invasive human or specimen imaging. The primary limitation of CT is its inability to distinguish many soft tissues based on native contrast. While bone has high contrast within a CT image due to its material density from calcium phosphat...

  11. Advances in tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novara, M.

    2013-01-01

    This research deals with advanced developments in 3D particle image velocimetry based on the tomographic PIV technique (Tomo-PIV). The latter is a relatively recent measurement technique introduced by Elsinga et al. in 2005, which is based on the tomographic reconstruction of particle tracers in thr

  12. APLASTIC ANEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Dharma Laksmi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Aplastic Anemia describes a disorder of the clinical syndrome is marked by a deficiency of red blood cells, neutrophils, monocytes and platelets in the absence of other forms of bone marrow damage. Aplastic anemia is classified as a rare disease in developed countries the incidence of 3-6 cases / 1 million inhabitants / year. The exact cause of someone suffering from aplastic anemia also can not be established with certainty, but there are several sources of potential risk factors. Prognosis or course of the disease varies widely aplastic anemia, but without treatment generally gives a poor prognosis /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  13. Multidisciplinary approach to anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Ghiațău

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We present the case of a 65 years- old woman who was admitted with a severe macrocytic anemia Hb= 5.7g/dl and diffuse bone pain. Biologically she has moderate thrombocytopenia 35 000/µl, a hepatic cytolysis and cholestatic syndrome. Material and method: The patient was extensively evaluated before presentation for a mild iron - deficiency anemia for which she underwent endoscopic examination of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract- normal. The bone marrow aspiration on admission revealed a marked hyperplasia of the erythroblastic line with ~50% basophilic erythroblasts suggesting a regenerative erythroid hyperplasia. These changes along with the marked reticulocytosis on the peripheral blood smear oriented us towards a hemolytic anemia; Folic acid, vitamin B12, autoimmune tests and hemolytic tests were all normal. We continued the investigations with a thoraco-abdominopelvic computed tomography which identified diffuse demineralization, vertebral compactation and pelvic stress fractures. The breast examination revealed a right breast nodule, but the breast ultrasonography pleaded for benignity. Lacking a clear definitive diagnosis we decided to perform a bone marrow biopsy. Results: The osteo- medullary biopsy pointed towards a medullar invasion from a lobular mammary carcinoma; In these circumstances we performed an ultrasound guided biopsy of the right mammary lump thus histologically confirming a tumoral invasion of the bone marrow with subsequent anemia. The patient started chemotherapy in the Oncology ward. Conclusion: The particularity of this case consists in the pattern of anemia, which initially seemed iron deficient and afterwards macrocytic – apparently hemolytic and was actually due to the tumoral medullar invasion and also the nonspecific ultrasonographic appearance of the breast tumor.

  14. Assessment of lung X-ray computed tomographic findings in patients with nonspecific pneumothorax in late postoperative periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are studied of examination of 54 patients operated on for nonspecific spontaneous pneumothorax (NSP). Conclusion is drawn that X-ray computed tomography (CT) is of high value. In addition to external respiratory function that identifies pulmonary functional changes, it is recommended that a comprehensive examination should include X-ray CT with parenchymal densitometry of the upper, middle and lower lung to reveal lung tissue structural changes. The examination of patients should be performed as soon as possible when the disease is detected and in the late postoperative period for early surgical correction of an emphysematous process in the lung

  15. 2010年冠状动脉CT血管造影专家共识解读%Interpretation of 2010 Expert Consensus Document on Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 赵世华

    2011-01-01

    专家共识旨在陈述冠状动脉CT血管造影(coronary computed tomographic angiography,CCTA)对于疑似或确诊冠状动脉疾病的临床应用现状.鉴于目前还没有足够的循证医学证据确立CCTA的临床实践指南,故该共识未提供CCTA应用的明确推荐意见.共识的内容旨在根据业已出版的同行评议文献并经专家委员会讨论,总结出CCTA目前在临床应用中的长处和短处.因此既不是一个全面的综述,也不是对CCTA技术进行指导,并且也没有专门陈述CCTA检查的适应证.因为有关心脏CT和磁共振成像的适应证标准以及冠状动脉钙化CT检测的临床意义此前业已发表.%Thia document presents an expert consensus overview of the current and emerging clinical uses of coronary CTA in patients with suspected or known coronary anery disease ( CAD ) . The intention of this document is to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of current clinical uses of coronary CTA as reflected in the published peer-reviewed literature and as interpreted by the writing committee. The document is not intended primarily as either a comprehensive literature review or as an instruction guide for those interested in performing or interpreting coronary computed tomoWaphy ( CT) angiograms. The document also does not offer specific staLements ratjng the appropriateness of various potential clinical uses of coronary CTA , as this has been dealt with in the ACCF/ACR/SCCT/SCMR/ASNC/NASCI/SCAI/SIR 2006 Appropnateness Critena for Cardiac Computed Tomography and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Finally, this document does not address the evaluation of coronary calcium using CT, except as it pertains to CTA studies in patients with suspected or known CAD, since this topic has also been covered in the ACCF/AHA 2007 Clinical Expert Consensus Document on Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring by Computed Tomography in Global Cardiovascular Risk Assessment and in Evaluation of Patients With Chest Pain.

  16. A rare case of maxillary first molar with single root and single canal diagnosed using spiral computed tomographic scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Saxena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in dental anatomy and canal morphology are found in all teeth. Knowledge of these variations, particularly the location and treatment of all canals, plays a key role in the success of endodontic therapy. The presence of extra canals, apical ramification, or lateral canals is commonly encountered, and their incidence and significance have been well-documented. However, the clinician should also be aware of the possibility of the existence of fewer root and/or canal numbers. Here is a case report of left maxillary first permanent molar with a single root and single canal. The goal of this clinical article is to report a maxillary molar with single root and single canal and to highlight the role of spiral computed tomography (SCT as a method to confirm the three-dimensional (3D anatomy of teeth.

  17. Computed tomographic analysis of tibiotarsal bone mineral density and content in turkeys as influenced by age and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of tibiotarsal bones of growing turkeys as affected by birds' age, sex, and within-the-bone location, respectively, were determined by computed tomography. The research was performed on 165 heavy-type BIG 6 turkeys reared between weeks (wk) 3-16 of age. The computed tomography measurement, conducted at 18 and 50% of the bone length, comprised a bone fragment which was 0.07 mm thick for the compact and the spongious substance collectively. It should be noted that the diaphyses of the tibiotarsal bones in turkeys (580 mg/cubic cm) had significantly greater vBMD than the proximal metaphyses (300 mg/cubic cm). BMC was higher in metaphyses for both sexes. Significant differences between the BMC of the metaphyses and the diaphyses were observed in males and females at wk 3, 6 and 9, and at wk 3 and 12, respectively. vBMD in the diaphyses gradually attenuated with age for both sexes, from 688 mg/cubic cm (wk 3) to 532 mg/cubic cm (wk 16). vBMD of the metaphyses was constant in females, but in males it achieved maximum values of 350 mg/cubic cm at wk 6 and 12 and minimum of 260 mg/cubic cm at wk 9 and 16. Correlations between body weight and vBMD of the diaphyses were observed in males (r = -0.85, P less than 0.001) and females (r = -0.52, P less than 0.01). It can be concluded that vBMD loss in diaphyses diminished bone-breaking strength leading in investigated turkeys to deformities and bone fractures

  18. Sickle cell anemia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - sickle cell anemia ... The following organizations are good resources for information on sickle cell anemia : American Sickle Cell Anemia Association -- www.ascaa.org National Heart, Blood, and Lung Institute -- www. ...

  19. Folate-deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000551.htm Folate-deficiency anemia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Folate-deficiency anemia is a decrease in red blood cells (anemia) ...

  20. Fanconi Anemia Research Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support Publications Fundraising News What is the Fanconi Anemia Research Fund? Fanconi anemia is an inherited disease that can lead to ... population. Lynn and Dave Frohnmayer started the Fanconi Anemia Research Fund, in 1989 to find effective treatments ...

  1. Living with Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Anemia Often, you can treat and control anemia. If ... by an inherited or chronic disease or trauma. Anemia and Children/Teens Infants and young children have ...

  2. A Systematic Review of Protocols for the Three-Dimensional Morphologic Assessment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Using Computed Tomographic Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatwary, Tamer M. H.; Patterson, Benjamin O.; Karthikesalingam, Alan; Hinchliffe, Robert J.; Loftus, Ian M. [St. George' s Vascular Institute, St. George' s Hospital, Department of Outcomes Research (United Kingdom); Morgan, Robert [St. George' s Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Thompson, Matt M.; Holt, Peter J. E., E-mail: pholt@sgul.ac.uk [St. George' s Vascular Institute, St. George' s Hospital, Department of Outcomes Research (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    The morphology of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) directly influences the perioperative outcome and long-term durability of endovascular aneurysm repair. A variety of methods have been proposed for the characterization of AAA morphology using reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images. At present, there is lack of consensus as to which of these methods is most applicable to clinical practice or research. The purpose of this review was to evaluate existing protocols that used 3D CT images in the assessment of various aspects of AAA morphology. An electronic search was performed, from January 1996 to the end of October 2010, using the Embase and Medline databases. The literature review conformed to PRISMA statement standards. The literature search identified 604 articles, of which 31 studies met inclusion criteria. Only 15 of 31 studies objectively assessed reproducibility. Existing published protocols were insufficient to define a single evidence-based methodology for preoperative assessment of AAA morphology. Further development and expert consensus are required to establish a standardized and validated protocol to determine precisely how morphology relates to outcomes after endovascular aneurysm repair.

  3. A comparative study of computed tomographic techniques for the detection of emphysema in middle-aged and older patient populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helical-scan computed tomography (CT) is now widely utilized as a mass screening procedure for lung cancer. By adding 3 slices of high-resolution CT (HRCT) to the standard screening procedure, we were able to compare the efficacy of helical-scan CT and HRCT in detecting pulmonary emphysema. Additionally, the prevalence of emphysema detected by HRCT was examined as a function of patient age and smoking history. The subjects (106 men and 28 women) were all community-based middle-aged and older volunteers who participated in a mass lung cancer screening program. Based on visual assessments of the CT films, emphysema was detected in 29 subjects (22%) by HRCT, but in only 4 (3%) by helical-scan CT. Although the prevalence of emphysema was higher among subjects with a higher smoking index, no correlations with age were observed. We concluded that the efficacy of helical scan CT in detecting pulmonary emphysema can be significantly improved with the inclusion of 3 slices of HRCT, and confirmed that cigarette smoking is linked to the development of pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  4. Computed tomographic coronary angiography for diagnosing stable coronary artery disease. A cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the lifetime potential benefits and cost-effectiveness of using 64 multidetector-row computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) as a noninvasive imaging modality for patients at risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). A decision and cost-effective analysis using a Markov model was performed to compare 4 strategies: no examination, routine coronary angiography (CAG), CTCA, or medication without CAG or CTCA in persons at risk for stable CAD. Compared with the no examination and no treatment strategies, CTCA gained 0.551 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$15,581 (in 2007) per QALY. Routine CAG gained 0.012 QALYs compared with the CTCA strategy, with an ICER of US$445,276 per QALY. Using CTCA as the first-line examination for 60-year-old men at risk for stable CAD achieved gains of QALY comparable to that of routine CAG, but at a lower cost. (author)

  5. Anatomical, radiographical and computed tomographic study of the limbs skeleton of the Euphrates soft shell turtle (Rafetus euphraticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi Ahranjani, Behnaz; Shojaei, Bahador; Tootian, Zahra; Masoudifard, Madjid; Rostami, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Euphrates turtle is the only soft shell turtle of Iran, and unfortunately is in danger of extinction due to multiple reasons. Imaging techniques, in addition to their importance in diagnosis of injuries to animals, have been used as non-invasive methods to provide normal anatomic views. A few studies have been conducted to understand body structure of the Euphrates turtle. Since there is only general information about the anatomy of turtle limbs, the normal skeleton of the Euphrates limbs was studied. For this purpose four adult Euphrates turtles were used. Digital radiographic examination was performed by computed radiographic (CR) in dorsoventral (DV) and lateral (L) positions. Spiral CT-scanning was done and 3D images of the bones were reconstructed for anatomical evaluation. For skeletal preparation, the skeleton was cleaned by a combination of boiling and mealworm methods and limbs’ bones were examined anatomically. In the present study, simultaneous anatomic, radiographic and CT studies of bones in individual turtles made us possible to describe bones anatomically and provided comparable and complementary conditions to represent the abilities of the radiography and CT for better understanding of the anatomy. Arrangement and the number of carpal and tarsal bones are used in turtles’ classification. Among the studied species, Euphrates turtle carpal and tarsal bones show the most similarities to the Apolone spinifera.

  6. Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic Assessment of Mandibular Condylar Position in Patients with Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction and in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Paknahad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem. The clinical significance of condyle-fossa relationships in the temporomandibular joint is a matter of controversy. Different studies have evaluated whether the position of the condyle is a predictor of the presence of temporomandibular disorder. Purpose. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the condylar position according to gender in patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD and healthy controls using cone-beam computed tomography. Materials and Methods. CBCT of sixty temporomandibular joints in thirty patients with TMD and sixty joints of thirty subjects without TMJ disorder was evaluated in this study. The condylar position was assessed on the CBCT images. The data were analyzed using Pearson chi-square test. Results. No statistically significant differences were found regarding the condylar position between symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. Posterior condylar position was more frequently observed in women and anterior condylar position was more prevalent in men in the symptomatic group. However, no significant differences in condylar position were found in asymptomatic subjects according to gender. Conclusion. This study showed no apparent association between condylar positioning and clinical findings in TMD patients.

  7. Protein-Poly(amino acid) Nanocore-Shell Mediated Synthesis of Branched Gold Nanostructures for Computed Tomographic Imaging and Photothermal Therapy of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Sisini; Bahadur, Dhirendra; Srivastava, Rohit

    2016-06-29

    Anisotropic noble metal nanoparticles especially branched gold nanoparticles with a large absorption cross-section and high molar extinction coefficient have promising applications in biomedical field. However, sophisticated and cumbersome methodologies of synthesis along with toxic precursors pose serious concern for its use. Herein, we report the synthesis of branched gold nanostructures from protein (albumin) nanoparticles by a simple reduction method. Albumin nanoparticles were synthesized by a modified desolvation technique with poly-l-arginine (cationic poly amino acid) substituting the conventional toxic cross-linker, glutaraldehyde. In silico molecular docking was carried out to study the interaction of poly-l-arginine with albumin which revealed its binding to Pocket 1B of the A-chain of albumin. The poly-l-arginine-albumin core-shell nanoparticles of ∼100 nm in size served as a base for attachment of gold ions and its reduction to form 140 nm sized branched gold nanostructures conjugated with glutathione. These gold nanostructures exhibited near-infrared absorption λmax at 800 nm with extreme compatibility toward non cancerous (NIH 3T3), oral epithelial carcinoma (KB) cell lines, and human blood (red blood cells, platelets, and coagulation mechanisms) even up to a high concentration of 250 μg/mL. These structures demonstrated superior computed tomographic (CT) contrast ability and marked photothermal cytotoxicity on KB cells. This study reports for the first time a method to develop blood and cell compatible branched gold nanostructures from protein nanoparticles as a dual CT diagnostic and photothermal therapeutic agent. PMID:27243100

  8. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with whole-body computed tomographic angiography in critically ill patients with suspected severe sepsis with no definite diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timely identification of septic foci is critical in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock of unknown origin. This prospective pilot study aimed to assess 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), combined with whole-body computed tomographic angiography (CTA), in patients with suspected severe sepsis and for whom the prior diagnostic workup had been inconclusive. Patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit with a suspected severe sepsis but no definite diagnosis after 48 h of extensive investigations were prospectively included and referred for a whole body FDG-PET/CTA. Results from FDG-PET/CTA were assessed according to the final diagnosis obtained after follow-up and additional diagnostic workup. Seventeen patients were prospectively included, all on mechanical ventilation and 14 under vasopressor drugs. The FDG-PET/CTA exam 1) was responsible for only one desaturation and one hypotension, both quickly reversible under treatment; 2) led to suspect 16 infectious sites among which 13 (81 %) could be confirmed by further diagnostic procedures; and 3) triggered beneficial changes in the medical management of 12 of the 17 study patients (71 %). The FDG-PET/CTA images showed a single or predominant infectious focus in two cases where CTA was negative and in three cases where CTA exhibited multiple possible foci. Whole-body FDG-PET/CTA appears to be feasible, relatively safe, and provides reliable and useful information, when prospectively planned in patients with suspected severe sepsis and for whom prior diagnostic workup had been inconclusive. The FDG-PET images are particularly helpful when CTA exhibits no or multiple possible sites. (orig.)

  9. Use of a Diagnostic Score to Prioritize Computed Tomographic (CT) Imaging for Patients Suspected of Ischemic Stroke Who May Benefit from Thrombolytic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bots, Michiel L.; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Abdul Aziz, Zariah; Sidek, Norsima Nazifah; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2016-01-01

    Background A shortage of computed tomographic (CT) machines in low and middle income countries often results in delayed CT imaging for patients suspected of a stroke. Yet, time constraint is one of the most important aspects for patients with an ischemic stroke to benefit from thrombolytic therapy. We set out to assess whether application of the Siriraj Stroke Score is able to assist physicians in prioritizing patients with a high probability of having an ischemic stroke for urgent CT imaging. Methods From the Malaysian National Neurology Registry, we selected patients aged 18 years and over with clinical features suggesting of a stroke, who arrived in the hospital 4.5 hours or less from ictus. The prioritization of receiving CT imaging was left to the discretion of the treating physician. We applied the Siriraj Stroke Score to all patients, refitted the score and defined a cut-off value to best distinguish an ischemic stroke from a hemorrhagic stroke. Results Of the 2176 patients included, 73% had an ischemic stroke. Only 33% of the ischemic stroke patients had CT imaging within 4.5 hours. The median door-to-scan time for these patients was 4 hours (IQR: 1;16). With the recalibrated score, it would have been possible to prioritize 95% (95% CI: 94%–96%) of patients with an ischemic stroke for urgent CT imaging. Conclusions In settings where CT imaging capacity is limited, we propose the use of the Siriraj Stroke Score to prioritize patients with a probable ischemic stroke for urgent CT imaging. PMID:27768752

  10. A Pilot Evaluation of a 4-Dimensional Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic Scheme Based on Simultaneous Motion Estimation and Image Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Jun; Gu, Xuejun [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Pan, Tinsu [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Jing, E-mail: jing.wang@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a 4-dimensional (4-D) cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) reconstruction scheme based on simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) through patient studies. Methods and Materials: The SMEIR algorithm contains 2 alternating steps: (1) motion-compensated CBCT reconstruction using projections from all phases to reconstruct a reference phase 4D-CBCT by explicitly considering the motion models between each different phase and (2) estimation of motion models directly from projections by matching the measured projections to the forward projection of the deformed reference phase 4D-CBCT. Four lung cancer patients were scanned for 4 to 6 minutes to obtain approximately 2000 projections for each patient. To evaluate the performance of the SMEIR algorithm on a conventional 1-minute CBCT scan, the number of projections at each phase was reduced by a factor of 5, 8, or 10 for each patient. Then, 4D-CBCTs were reconstructed from the down-sampled projections using Feldkamp-Davis-Kress, total variation (TV) minimization, prior image constrained compressive sensing (PICCS), and SMEIR. Using the 4D-CBCT reconstructed from the fully sampled projections as a reference, the relative error (RE) of reconstructed images, root mean square error (RMSE), and maximum error (MaxE) of estimated tumor positions were analyzed to quantify the performance of the SMEIR algorithm. Results: The SMEIR algorithm can achieve results consistent with the reference 4D-CBCT reconstructed with many more projections per phase. With an average of 30 to 40 projections per phase, the MaxE in tumor position detection is less than 1 mm in SMEIR for all 4 patients. Conclusion: The results from a limited number of patients show that SMEIR is a promising tool for high-quality 4D-CBCT reconstruction and tumor motion modeling.

  11. {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with whole-body computed tomographic angiography in critically ill patients with suspected severe sepsis with no definite diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandry, Damien [CHU Nancy, Pole d' imagerie, Nancy (France); University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM, UMR 947, Nancy (France); Tatopoulos, Alexis; Lemarie, Jeremie; Bollaert, Pierre-Edouard; Gibot, Sebastien [University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); CHU de Nancy - Hopital Central, Service de Reanimation Medicale, Nancy (France); INSERM, UMR 1116, Nancy (France); Chevalier-Mathias, Elodie [CHU Nancy, Pole d' imagerie, Nancy (France); INSERM, UMR 947, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep, Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Roch, Veronique [CHU Nancy, Pole d' imagerie, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep, Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Olivier, Pierre [CHU Nancy, Pole d' imagerie, Nancy (France); University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep, Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Marie, Pierre-Yves [CHU Nancy, Pole d' imagerie, Nancy (France); University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM, UMR 1116, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep, Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France)

    2014-10-15

    Timely identification of septic foci is critical in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock of unknown origin. This prospective pilot study aimed to assess {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), combined with whole-body computed tomographic angiography (CTA), in patients with suspected severe sepsis and for whom the prior diagnostic workup had been inconclusive. Patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit with a suspected severe sepsis but no definite diagnosis after 48 h of extensive investigations were prospectively included and referred for a whole body FDG-PET/CTA. Results from FDG-PET/CTA were assessed according to the final diagnosis obtained after follow-up and additional diagnostic workup. Seventeen patients were prospectively included, all on mechanical ventilation and 14 under vasopressor drugs. The FDG-PET/CTA exam 1) was responsible for only one desaturation and one hypotension, both quickly reversible under treatment; 2) led to suspect 16 infectious sites among which 13 (81 %) could be confirmed by further diagnostic procedures; and 3) triggered beneficial changes in the medical management of 12 of the 17 study patients (71 %). The FDG-PET/CTA images showed a single or predominant infectious focus in two cases where CTA was negative and in three cases where CTA exhibited multiple possible foci. Whole-body FDG-PET/CTA appears to be feasible, relatively safe, and provides reliable and useful information, when prospectively planned in patients with suspected severe sepsis and for whom prior diagnostic workup had been inconclusive. The FDG-PET images are particularly helpful when CTA exhibits no or multiple possible sites. (orig.)

  12. Quantification of normative ranges and baseline predictors of aortoventricular interface dimensions using multi-detector computed tomographic imaging in patients without aortic valve disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooley, Robert P., E-mail: robert.gooley@monashhealth.org [MonashHeart, Monash Health, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Cameron, James D., E-mail: james.cameron@monash.edu [MonashHeart, Monash Health, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Soon, Jennifer, E-mail: jenn.sa@gmail.com [MonashHeart, Monash Health, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Loi, Duncan, E-mail: dloi2@student.monash.edu [Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Chitale, Gauri, E-mail: gchi21@student.monash.edu [Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Syeda, Rifath, E-mail: rssye1@student.monash.edu [Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Meredith, Ian T., E-mail: ian.meredith@myheart.id.au [MonashHeart, Monash Health, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • MDCT imaging of the aortoventricular interface is increasingly common. • We present normative ranges for aortoventricular interface dimensions. • Such techniques and ranges should be used to standardise reporting and research. - Abstract: Background: Multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) assessment of the aortoventricular interface has gained increased importance with the advent of minimally invasive treatment modalities for aortic and mitral valve disease. This has included a standardised technique of identifying a plane through the nadir of each coronary cusp, the basal plane, and taking further measurements in relation to this plane. Despite this there is no published data defining normal ranges for these aortoventricular metrics in a healthy cohort. This study seeks to quantify normative ranges for MDCT derived aortoventricular dimensions and evaluate baseline demographic and anthropomorphic associates of these measurements in a normal cohort. Methods: 250 consecutive patients undergoing MDCT coronary angiography were included. Aortoventricular dimensions at multiple levels of the aortoventricular interface were assessed and normative ranges quantified. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify baseline predictors of each metric. Results: The mean age was 59 ± 12 years. The basal plane was eccentric (EI = 0.22 ± 0.06) while the left ventricular outflow tract was more eccentric (EI = 0.32 ±0.06), with no correlation to gender, age or hypertension. Male gender, height and body mass index were consistent independent predictors of larger aortoventricular dimensions at all anatomical levels, while age was predictive of supra-annular measurements. Conclusions: Male gender, height and BMI are independent predictors of all aortoventricular dimensions while age predicts only supra-annular dimensions. Use of defined metrics such as the basal plane and formation of normative ranges for these metrics allows reference for clinical

  13. Impact of Clinical Guideline Recommendations on the Application of Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography in Patients with Suspected Stable Coronary Artery Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Zhou; Jun-Jie Yang; Xia Yang; Zhi-Ye Chen; Bai He; Luo-Shan Du; Yun-Dai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Background:Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) has been widely used in patients who are at intermediate risk for having stable coronary artery disease (SCAD),and 2013 European Society of Cardiology Guidelines on the Management of SCAD (2013G) recommended the appropriate application of CCTA.However,2013G has not been subjected to systematic analyses for subsequent impact on clinical practice.Methods:A total of 5320 patients suspected with SCAD were enrolled and scheduled for CCTA from March 2013 to September 2014.For each patient,pretest probability of SCAD was calculated according to updated Diamond-Forrester model (UDFM).Appropriate CCTA or appropriate stress test was determined as described in the 2013G.A generalized estimating equation model was used to determine the trends in the half-monthly rate of appropriate CCTA.Results:Overall,only 61.37% of patients received appropriate CCTA,and there was insignificant change over time (P =0.8701).The application of CCTA in patients who should have had a stress test accounted for most of the inappropriate CCTA before (22.29%) or after (19.98%) the publication of the 2013G.In all patients or any subgroup,no significant change in the adjusted half-monthly rate of appropriate CCTA was found after the publication of the 2013G (odds ratio,1.002;95% confidence interval,0.982-1.021;P =0.8678).Conclusions:These findings suggest that the 2013G have not,to date,been fully incorporated into clinical practice,and the clinical utilization of CCTA remains unreasonable to some extent.

  14. Impact of Clinical Guideline Recommendations on the Application of Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography in Patients with Suspected Stable Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jia; Yang, Jun-Jie; Yang, Xia; Chen, Zhi-Ye; He, Bai; Du, Luo-Shan; Chen, Yun-Dai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) has been widely used in patients who are at intermediate risk for having stable coronary artery disease (SCAD), and 2013 European Society of Cardiology Guidelines on the Management of SCAD (2013G) recommended the appropriate application of CCTA. However, 2013G has not been subjected to systematic analyses for subsequent impact on clinical practice. Methods: A total of 5320 patients suspected with SCAD were enrolled and scheduled for CCTA from March 2013 to September 2014. For each patient, pretest probability of SCAD was calculated according to updated Diamond-Forrester model (UDFM). Appropriate CCTA or appropriate stress test was determined as described in the 2013G. A generalized estimating equation model was used to determine the trends in the half-monthly rate of appropriate CCTA. Results: Overall, only 61.37% of patients received appropriate CCTA, and there was insignificant change over time (P = 0.8701). The application of CCTA in patients who should have had a stress test accounted for most of the inappropriate CCTA before (22.29%) or after (19.98%) the publication of the 2013G. In all patients or any subgroup, no significant change in the adjusted half-monthly rate of appropriate CCTA was found after the publication of the 2013G (odds ratio, 1.002; 95% confidence interval, 0.982–1.021; P = 0.8678). Conclusions: These findings suggest that the 2013G have not, to date, been fully incorporated into clinical practice, and the clinical utilization of CCTA remains unreasonable to some extent. PMID:26830982

  15. DOSIMETRIC CONSEQUENCES OF USING CONTRAST-ENHANCED COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGES FOR INTENSITY-MODULATED STEREOTACTIC BODY RADIOTHERAPY PLANNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroto; Roback, Donald M; Larue, Susan M; Nolan, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Potential benefits of planning radiation therapy on a contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan (ceCT) should be weighed against the possibility that this practice may be associated with an inadvertent risk of overdosing nearby normal tissues. This study investigated the influence of ceCT on intensity-modulated stereotactic body radiotherapy (IM-SBRT) planning. Dogs with head and neck, pelvic, or appendicular tumors were included in this retrospective cross-sectional study. All IM-SBRT plans were constructed on a pre- or ceCT. Contours for tumor and organs at risk (OAR) were manually constructed and copied onto both CT's; IM-SBRT plans were calculated on each CT in a manner that resulted in equal radiation fluence. The maximum and mean doses for OAR, and minimum, maximum, and mean doses for targets were compared. Data were collected from 40 dogs per anatomic site (head and neck, pelvis, and limbs). The average dose difference between minimum, maximum, and mean doses as calculated on pre- and ceCT plans for the gross tumor volume was less than 1% for all anatomic sites. Similarly, the differences between mean and maximum doses for OAR were less than 1%. The difference in dose distribution between plans made on CTs with and without contrast enhancement was tolerable at all treatment sites. Therefore, although caution would be recommended when planning IM-SBRT for tumors near "reservoirs" for contrast media (such as the heart and urinary bladder), findings supported the use of ceCT with this dose calculation algorithm for both target delineation and IM-SBRT treatment planning. PMID:26242716

  16. Use of Computed X-ray Tomographic Data for Analyzing the Thermodynamics of a Dissociating Porous Sand/Hydrate Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifeld, Barry M.; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Stern, Laura A.; Kirby, Stephen H.

    2002-02-28

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a method that has been used extensively in laboratory experiments for measuring rock properties and fluid transport behavior. More recently, CT scanning has been applied successfully to detect the presence and study the behavior of naturally occurring hydrates. In this study, we used a modified medical CT scanner to image and analyze the progression of a dissociation front in a synthetic methane hydrate/sand mixture. The sample was initially scanned under conditions at which the hydrate is stable (atmospheric pressure and liquid nitrogen temperature, 77 K). The end of the sample holder was then exposed to the ambient air, and the core was continuously scanned as dissociation occurred in response to the rising temperature. CT imaging captured the advancing dissociation front clearly and accurately. The evolved gas volume was monitored as a function of time. Measured by CT, the advancing hydrate dissociation front was modeled as a thermal conduction problem explicitly incorporating the enthalpy of dissociation, using the Stefan moving-boundary-value approach. The assumptions needed to perform the analysis consisted of temperatures at the model boundaries. The estimated value for thermal conductivity of 2.6 W/m K for the remaining water ice/sand mixture is higher than expected based on conduction alone; this high value may represent a lumped parameter that incorporates the processes of heat conduction, methane gas convection, and any kinetic effects that occur during dissociation. The technique presented here has broad implications for future laboratory and field testing that incorporates geophysical techniques to monitor gas hydrate dissociation.

  17. Comparison of volume and diameter measurement in assessing small abdominal aortic aneurysm expansion examined using computed tomographic angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, Adam; Jayaratne, Chanaka; Buttner, Petra [Vascular Biology Unit, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Golledge, Jonathan, E-mail: Jonathan.Golledge@jcu.edu.au [Vascular Biology Unit, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    Aim: First we aimed to assess the reproducibility of a computer tomography angiography (CTA) based technique for measuring infra-renal aortic volume and diameter. Second we sought to investigate whether changes in aortic volume and diameter were similar during follow-up. Materials and methods: A prospective series of 57 patients, with aortic diameter initially measuring between 25 and 55 mm, were assessed with 2 CTAs a median of 14 months apart. Aortic volume and maximum diameter (both axial and orthogonal) were measured by a semi-automated workstation protocol based on previously defined techniques. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility were assessed by repeat assessment of the initial CTA images of the first 33 patients included in the study, in order to estimate the 95% limits of agreements. Changes in aortic dimensions between the first and follow-up CTA, were defined for volume and diameter separately as changes greater than their respective 95% limits of agreement. Results: Reproducibility of aortic volume and diameter was excellent with an average coefficient of variation <4%. The median (inter-quartile range) increases in total volume, orthogonal and axial diameters were 4.9 cm{sup 3} (0.01-14.18), 1.2 mm (0.40-3.50) and 1.4 mm (-0.15 to 3.55) respectively. Forty-two percent of patients who had increased aortic volume above the 95% limit of agreement did not display corresponding axial or orthogonal diameter changes. Conclusions: Infra-renal total aortic volume, axial and orthogonal diameter can all be measured reproducibly from CTA. Aortic volume changes are not always reflected by similar changes in diameter and therefore provide complementary information when assessing AAA expansion over time.

  18. The use of computed tomographic three-dimensional reconstructions to develop instructional models for equine pelvic ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Mary Beth; Doval, John; Peters, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonography has gained increased utility to diagnose pelvic fractures in horses; however, internal pelvic contours can be difficult to appreciate from external palpable landmarks. We developed three-dimensional (3D) simulations of the pelvic ultrasonographic examination to assist with translation of pelvic contours into two-dimensional (2D) images. Contiguous 1mm transverse computed tomography (CT) images were acquired through an equine femur and hemipelvis using a single slice helical scanner. 3D surface models were created using a DICOM reader and imported into a 3D modeling and animation program. The bone models were combined with a purchased 3D horse model and the skin made translucent to visualize pelvic surface contours. 3D models of ultrasound transducers were made from reference photos, and a thin sector shape was created to depict the ultrasound beam. Ultrasonographic examinations were simulated by moving transducers on the skin surface and rectally to produce images of pelvic structures. Camera angles were manipulated to best illustrate the transducer-beam-bone interface. Fractures were created in multiple configurations. Animations were exported as QuickTime movie files for use in presentations coupled with corresponding ultrasound videoclips. 3D models provide a link between ultrasonographic technique and image generation by depicting the interaction of the transducer, ultrasound beam, and structure of interest. The horse model was important to facilitate understanding of the location of pelvic structures relative to the skin surface. While CT acquisition time was brief, manipulation within the 3D software program was time intensive. Results were worthwhile from an instructional standpoint based on user feedback. PMID:21699617

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy of Early Computed Tomographic Angiography for Visualizing Medium Sized Inferior and Posterior Projecting Carotid System Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:Conventional angiography, generally referred to as intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography, still remains the gold standard reference method for the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms,helical computed tomography angiography (CTA is a new non-invasive volumetric imaging method.Objectives:This study was conducted to screen patients presenting with subarachnoidhemorrhage by CTA before conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA and subsequently comparing the results for various aneurysm projections.Patients and Methods: In a prospective study, 99 consecutive patients with an initial diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage were screened for aneurysms with CTA followed by conventional DSA. There were 17 cases with negative angiograms in whom repeat angiograms, three months later were negative for 15 cases, while two cases were found to bear aneurysm on the repeat examination. Eighty two patients had at least one proven aneurysm on initial DSA and two on the repeat angiogram.Out of 84 patients, five underwent endovascular treatment and 79 patients who underwent surgical clipping were considered for projection evaluation.Results: Sensitivity of CTA was 98.78% (95% confidence interval [CI], 93.4-99.7%, while the specificity was 100% (95% CI, 81.57-100% and the kappa coefficient of agreement between CTA and DSA was 96.5%. The most significant discrepancies with DSA findings were for visualizing the projection of inferior and posterior projecting proximal anterior circulation aneurysms.Conclusions:Helical CTA was in good concordance with DSA for screening of cerebral aneurysms; however, for exact visualization of the aneurysm neck and its projection, especially if it is inferior or posterior, DSA remains the gold standard.

  20. In vivo X-Ray Computed Tomographic Imaging of Soft Tissue with Native, Intravenous, or Oral Contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Matthew Leevy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available X-ray Computed Tomography (CT is one of the most commonly utilized anatomical imaging modalities for both research and clinical purposes. CT combines high-resolution, three-dimensional data with relatively fast acquisition to provide a solid platform for non-invasive human or specimen imaging. The primary limitation of CT is its inability to distinguish many soft tissues based on native contrast. While bone has high contrast within a CT image due to its material density from calcium phosphate, soft tissue is less dense and many are homogenous in density. This presents a challenge in distinguishing one type of soft tissue from another. A couple exceptions include the lungs as well as fat, both of which have unique densities owing to the presence of air or bulk hydrocarbons, respectively. In order to facilitate X-ray CT imaging of other structures, a range of contrast agents have been developed to selectively identify and visualize the anatomical properties of individual tissues. Most agents incorporate atoms like iodine, gold, or barium because of their ability to absorb X-rays, and thus impart contrast to a given organ system. Here we review the strategies available to visualize lung, fat, brain, kidney, liver, spleen, vasculature, gastrointestinal tract, and liver tissues of living mice using either innate contrast, or commercial injectable or ingestible agents with selective perfusion. Further, we demonstrate how each of these approaches will facilitate the non-invasive, longitudinal, in vivo imaging of pre-clinical disease models at each anatomical site.

  1. Tomographs based on non-conventional radiation sources and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer techniques for tomographic reconstruction of objects X-rayed with a compact plasma focus (PF) are presented. The implemented reconstruction algorithms are based on stochastic searching of solutions of Radon equation, using Genetic Algorithms and Monte Carlo methods. Numerical experiments using actual projections were performed concluding the feasibility of the application of both methods in tomographic reconstruction problem. (author)

  2. Video-assisted breast surgery and 3-dimensional computed tomographic mammary lymphography (1). Aesthetic results and curability of video-assisted breast surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I have studied endoscopic surgery for breast diseases and have studied 3-dimensional computed tomographic lymphography for sentinel node biopsy. In this chapter, I introduced my works of the endoscopic breast surgery. I devised a new endoscopic operation for breast diseases: video-assisted breast surgery. The goal of endoscopic breast surgery is to obtain better cosmetic outcomes. A 2.5-cm axillary or periareolar skin incision was made. Under video assistance, the mammary gland was partially or totally resected with a gasless method. A transaxillary retromammary route approach was used even for tumors of the medial aspect of the breast. For malignant tumors, sentinel node biopsy was performed, and axillary nodes were dissected. Breast reconstruction was performed simultaneously. Cosmetic results were assessed with a standard 4-step method and the method described in the Japanese guidelines for breast-conserving therapy. More-objective quantitative methods are breast retraction assessment, the method reported by the research group of Sawai, and ABNSW, a 5-item, 4-step method that evaluates asymmetry (A), breast shape (B), nipple deformation (N), skin condition (S), and wound scar (W). The cosmetic results in endoscopic breast surgery showed that almost 90% of patients received a total score greater than 11 points, which indicates that this video-assisted breast surgery achieves better cosmetic results. The reconstruction methods in breast-conserving therapy are mammary gland translocation, the lateral tissue flap filling method, and absorbable thread mesh filling. The filling methods are superior to the translocation at the point of less deformation of the breast shape. Reconstruction with filling methods will allow wider excision of the mammary gland while achieving better cosmetic results. Video-assisted breast surgery is less invasive, produces no scars on the breast skin, and achieves better aesthetic outcomes for patients with breast cancer. It also improves

  3. Performance of computed tomographic colonography for the screening of colorectal polyp in acromegalic patients: a prospective study Desempenho da colonografia tomográfica computadorizada para o rastreamento de pólipo colorretal em pacientes acromegálicos: um estudo prospectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odery Ramos Jr.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Acromegalic patients have better chances to develop colorectal polyps and cancer and, considered a high-risk group, need to undergo frequent screening examinations. Moreover, in acromegalia, the increased bowel length and the intestinal loop complexity can lead to higher levels of technical difficulties and increase the risks of complications at conventional colonoscopy. Computed tomographic colonography, also known as virtual colonoscopy, is an innovative and secure technology which is revolutionizing the diagnosis of colon and rectum neoplasias. OBJECTIVE: To analyze computed tomographic colonography performance for the screening of colorectal polyps in acromegalic patients. METHODS: A prospective study of 21 asymptomatic acromegalic patients, 12 male and 9 female, average age 49, who underwent computed tomographic colonography and conventional colonoscopy. Computed tomographic colonography was performed with a GE Helical Multislice Computed Tomography Apparatus. Conventional colonoscopy was performed in the same day, without previous knowledge of the computed tomographic colonography diagnostics. The study evaluated the capacity of computed tomographic colonography to detect patients with colorectal polyps and identify each colorectal lesion described by the colonoscopy. RESULTS: In two patients (2/21, conventional colonoscopy was incomplete. However, in all patients computed tomographic colonography was complete. In Phase I ("per patient", computed tomographic colonography diagnosed eight of the nine patients with colorectal polyps and showed 88% sensitivity, 75% specificity and 81% accuracy. In Phase II ("per polyp", out of the 21 acromegalic patients included in this study, 12 presented normal findings at conventional colonoscopy. A total of 19 polyps were identified in 9 patients. Ten of the 19 polyps were smaller than 10 mm, and 9 were equal to or larger than 10 mm. Computed tomographic colonography identified 7 of the 9 polyps

  4. Design and performance of a new positron computed tomograph (P.C.T.) using the time-of-flight (T.O.F.) information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new tomograph for positron imaging using the time of flight measurement is described. Fast CsF crystals are used in this first prototype. Compared to the classical reconstruction method, the results of adding this information is a substantial increase of sensitivity, a reduced random coincidence count rate, and slight decrease of a scatter contribution in the images. Further improvements in the T.O.F. accuracy can be expected in using faster crystals

  5. Inborn anemias in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    hereditary anemias of mice have been the chief objects of investigation. At present under study are four macrocytic anemias, five hemolytic anemias, nonhemolytic microcytic anemia, transitory siderocytic anemia, sex-linked iron-transport anemia, an α-thalassemia, and a new target-cell anemia. Each of these blood dyscrasias is caused by the action of a unique mutant gene, which determines the structure of different intracellular molecules, and thus controls a different metabolic process. Thus our wide range of different hereditary anemias has considerable potential for uncovering many different aspects of hemopoietic homeostatic mechanisms in the mouse. Each anemia is studied through: (a) characterization of peripheral blood values, (b) determinations of radiosensitivity under a variety of conditions, (c) measurements of iron metabolism and heme synthesis, (d) histological and biochemical study of blood-forming tissue, (e) functional tests of the stem cell component, (f) examination of responses to erythroid stimuli, and (g) transplantation of tissue between individuals of differently affected genotypes

  6. Computed tomographic anatomy of the larynx in mesaticephalic dogs Tomografía computarizada de la laringe en perros mesocefálicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Pérez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to describe the normal anatomy of the larynx and its adjacent structures in mesaticephalic dogs by computed tomographic (CT images and correlate those with anatomical sections. For that, 2 clinically normal young-adult mesaticephalic dogs with body weight of 12.8 kg and 18.5 kg, respectively were used. Computed tomography of the larynx was performed in 2 dogs under general anesthesia and in dorsal recumbency. Transverse images of the larynx with a slice thickness of 3 mm and a gap of 2 mm interval were obtained using a soft tissue window. CT images were correlated with anatomical cross-sections views. The central cavity of the larynx that includes the laryngeal vestibule, glottis and infraglottic cavities were observed as hypodense areas in all CT images. Other spaces also identified included the piriform recess, the epiglottic vallecula and the laryngeal ventricles. The thyroid and the cricoid cartilages were clearly represented as linear hyperdense structures. The arytenoid cartilages were only minimally calcified due to the young age of the animals therefore poorly seen on CT. The epiglottis was identified as a transverse concave isodense structure. Results indicated that CT provides an excellent method for imaging evaluation of the complex anatomy of the larynx in dogs.El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir mediante tomografía computarizada (TC la anatomía normal de la laringe y sus estructuras anexas en perros mesocéfalos y además correlacionar las imágenes obtenidas con cortes anatómicos. Para ello se utilizaron dos perros adultos sin signos de alteraciones respiratorias con pesos de 12,8 a 18,5 kg respectivamente. En ambos animales se obtuvieron imágenes de TC a nivel de la laringe, bajo anestesia general y con los animales posicionados en decúbito dorsal. Los parámetros técnicos incluyeron imágenes de 3 mm de grosor y 2 mm de intervalo y utilizando una ventana para tejidos blandos. Posteriormente

  7. Tomographic PIV: principles and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarano, F.

    2013-01-01

    A survey is given of the major developments in three-dimensional velocity field measurements using the tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The appearance of tomo-PIV dates back seven years from the present review (Elsinga et al 2005a 6th Int. Symp. PIV (Pasadena, CA)) and this approach has rapidly spread as a versatile, robust and accurate technique to investigate three-dimensional flows (Arroyo and Hinsch 2008 Topics in Applied Physics vol 112 ed A Schröder and C E Willert (Berlin: Springer) pp 127-54) and turbulence physics in particular. A considerable number of applications have been achieved over a wide range of flow problems, which requires the current status and capabilities of tomographic PIV to be reviewed. The fundamental aspects of the technique are discussed beginning from hardware considerations for volume illumination, imaging systems, their configurations and system calibration. The data processing aspects are of uppermost importance: image pre-processing, 3D object reconstruction and particle motion analysis are presented with their fundamental aspects along with the most advanced approaches. Reconstruction and cross-correlation algorithms, attaining higher measurement precision, spatial resolution or higher computational efficiency, are also discussed. The exploitation of 3D and time-resolved (4D) tomographic PIV data includes the evaluation of flow field pressure on the basis of the flow governing equation. The discussion also covers a-posteriori error analysis techniques. The most relevant applications of tomo-PIV in fluid mechanics are surveyed, covering experiments in air and water flows. In measurements in flow regimes from low-speed to supersonic, most emphasis is given to the complex 3D organization of turbulent coherent structures.

  8. Radiation and contrast agent doses reductions by using 80-kV tube voltage in coronary computed tomographic angiography: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Jian-xin [Department of Radiology, Wuhan 161th Hospital, Wuhan (China); Wang, Yi-min, E-mail: wym6669@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Wuhan 161th Hospital, Wuhan (China); Lu, Jin-guo [Department of Cardiology, Asia Heart Hospital, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Yu; Wang, Peng; Yang, Cheng [Department of Radiology, Wuhan 161th Hospital, Wuhan (China)

    2014-02-15

    Objective: To investigate the effects of 80-kilovoltage (kV) tube voltage coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) with a reduced amount of contrast agent on qualitative and quantitative image quality parameters and on radiation dose in patients with a body mass index (BMI) <23.0 kg/m{sup 2}. Methods: One hundred and twenty consecutive patients with a BMI <23.0 kg/m{sup 2} and a low calcium load undergoing retrospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated dual-source CCTA were randomized into two groups [standard-tube voltage (120-kV) vs. low-tube voltage (80-kV)]. The injection flow rate of contrast agent (350 mg I/mL) was adjusted to body weight of each patient (4.5–5.5 mL/s in the 120-kV group and 2.8–3.8 mL/s in the 80-kV group). Radiation and contrast agent doses were evaluated. Quantitative image quality parameters and figure of merit (FOM) of coronary artery were evaluated. Each coronary segment was evaluated for image quality on a 4-point scale. Results: Compared with the 120-kV group, effective dose and amount of contrast agent in the 80-kV group were decreased by 57.8% and 30.5% (effective dose:2.7 ± 0.5vs. 6.4 ± 1.3 mSv; amount of contrast agent:57.1 ± 3.2 vs. 82.1 ± 6.1 mL; both p < 0.0001), respectively. Image noise was 22.7 ± 2.1 HU for 120-kV images and 33.2 ± 5.2 HU for 80-kV images (p < 0.0001). Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the proximal right coronary artery (RCA) and left main coronary artery (LMA) were all lower in 80-kV than 120-kV images (SNR in the proximal RCA: 16.5 ± 1.8 vs. 19.4 ± 2.8; SNR in the LMA: 16.3 ± 2.0 vs.19.6 ± 2.7; CNR in the proximal RCA: 19.4 ± 2.3 vs.22.9 ± 3.0; CNR in the LMA: 18.8 ± 2.4 vs. 22.7 ± 2.9; all p < 0.0001). FOM were all significantly higher in 80-kV than 120-kV images (proximal RCA: 146.7 ± 45.1 vs. 93.4 ± 32.0; LMA: 139.1 ± 47.2 vs. 91.6 ± 31.1; all p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in image quality score between the two groups (3.3 ± 0

  9. Perforator flap transplantation assisted by the multislice spiral computed tomographic angiography: the clincal report%MSCTA辅助穿支皮瓣移植的初步报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建明; 薛峰; 夏云宝; 储旭东; 华国军; 李坤; 骆宇春; 潘功茂

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨MSCTA在穿支皮瓣移植中应用的可行性.方法 自2009年5月~2010年9月,我们对6例小腿、足踝软组织缺损病人拟行穿支皮瓣移植修复术,术前行MSCTA检查,下肢血管三维成像,术中根据穿支皮瓣的穿支血管的位置、直径、分布情况,设计穿支皮瓣的血管蒂,皮瓣轴心线,以及皮瓣的大小,行穿支皮瓣移植手术.结果 MSCTA图像显示:2例膝上外侧动脉穿支、4例胫后动脉穿支图像清晰,而且与皮瓣移植手术中解剖穿支血管情况完全一致.2例穿支皮瓣行吻合血管游离移植,4例穿支皮瓣带蒂转移,手术顺利完成.5例皮瓣完全成活,1例皮瓣边缘坏死,1个月后皮瓣整形后愈合良好.结论 MSCTA图像在穿支皮瓣移植手术中提供有价值的解剖路径,对穿支血管显影有良好的敏感性,缩短了手术时间,明显提高手术的准确性.因此,MSCTA在穿支皮瓣移植中的应用具有良好的可行性.%Objective To investigate the potentiality of multislice spiral computed tomographic angiography(MSCTA) on preoperative planning of the perforator flap transplantation. Methods From May 2009 to September 2010, 6 cases with soft tissue defects of lower extremity, ankle and foot were treated in our department using perforator flaps. MSCTA was performed preoperatively in all patients scheduled for tissue transfer. MSCTA showed three dimensional images of blood vessels of the lower extremities and perforators. During perforator surgery, MSCTA image assessment allowed us to plan the axis, size and shape of perforator flaps according to the position, calibre and course of pedicled vessels. Results MSCTA images showed perforator vessels clearly, including lateral superior genicular artery perforating rami and posterior tibial artery perforating rami in 2 and 4 cases respectively, which was consistant to the course of perforator vessels observed during the operation. 2 cases were treated with the vascularized

  10. Radiation and contrast agent doses reductions by using 80-kV tube voltage in coronary computed tomographic angiography: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effects of 80-kilovoltage (kV) tube voltage coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) with a reduced amount of contrast agent on qualitative and quantitative image quality parameters and on radiation dose in patients with a body mass index (BMI) <23.0 kg/m2. Methods: One hundred and twenty consecutive patients with a BMI <23.0 kg/m2 and a low calcium load undergoing retrospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated dual-source CCTA were randomized into two groups [standard-tube voltage (120-kV) vs. low-tube voltage (80-kV)]. The injection flow rate of contrast agent (350 mg I/mL) was adjusted to body weight of each patient (4.5–5.5 mL/s in the 120-kV group and 2.8–3.8 mL/s in the 80-kV group). Radiation and contrast agent doses were evaluated. Quantitative image quality parameters and figure of merit (FOM) of coronary artery were evaluated. Each coronary segment was evaluated for image quality on a 4-point scale. Results: Compared with the 120-kV group, effective dose and amount of contrast agent in the 80-kV group were decreased by 57.8% and 30.5% (effective dose:2.7 ± 0.5vs. 6.4 ± 1.3 mSv; amount of contrast agent:57.1 ± 3.2 vs. 82.1 ± 6.1 mL; both p < 0.0001), respectively. Image noise was 22.7 ± 2.1 HU for 120-kV images and 33.2 ± 5.2 HU for 80-kV images (p < 0.0001). Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the proximal right coronary artery (RCA) and left main coronary artery (LMA) were all lower in 80-kV than 120-kV images (SNR in the proximal RCA: 16.5 ± 1.8 vs. 19.4 ± 2.8; SNR in the LMA: 16.3 ± 2.0 vs.19.6 ± 2.7; CNR in the proximal RCA: 19.4 ± 2.3 vs.22.9 ± 3.0; CNR in the LMA: 18.8 ± 2.4 vs. 22.7 ± 2.9; all p < 0.0001). FOM were all significantly higher in 80-kV than 120-kV images (proximal RCA: 146.7 ± 45.1 vs. 93.4 ± 32.0; LMA: 139.1 ± 47.2 vs. 91.6 ± 31.1; all p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in image quality score between the two groups (3.3 ± 0.8 vs. 3.3

  11. Sickle cell anemia.

    OpenAIRE

    ŘÍHOVÁ, Tereza

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is about the disease called sickle cell anemia, or drepanocytosis. In this thesis is described the history of the disease, pathophysiology, laboratory features, various clinical features, diferencial diagnosis, quality of life in sickle cell anemia and therapy.

  12. Cooley's Anemia Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley's Anemia Foundation Leading the Fight against Thalassemia About Us Mission/Purpose History About Thomas Benton Cooley Medical Research ... Gabriella was diagnosed with thalassemia, and the Cooley’s Anemia Foundation continues to play an almost-daily role ...

  13. Anemia and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most recent scientific research View all publications Home Anemia and Pregnancy Your body goes through significant changes ... becoming anemic. back to top Is Pregnancy-Related Anemia Preventable? Good nutrition is the best way to ...

  14. Anemia in the Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video) Meconium Aspiration Syndrome Additional Content Medical News Anemia in the Newborn By Arthur E. Kopelman, MD ... Prematurity (ROP) Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) Jaundice in Newborns Anemia in the Newborn Polycythemia in the Newborn Thyroid ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Deficiency Anemia What Is... CAUSES WHO IS AT RISK SIGNS & SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS TREATMENTS PREVENTION LIVING WITH CLINICAL ... and women are the two groups at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Outlook Doctors usually can ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video— ... treatment. For more information about living with and managing iron-deficiency anemia, go to the Health Topics ...

  17. Anemia in Elderly Koreans

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the geriatric population in Korea has grown to comprise approximately 10% of the total population, and anemia has become a significant problem among elderly patients. Many elderly patients have anemia due to nutritional deficiency, chronic inflammation, or comorbid diseases; however, in a significant fraction of the patients with anemia, the cause remains obscure. Anemia of any degree is recognized as a significant independent contributor to morbidity and mortality in elderly patien...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily ... Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Low iron levels usually are due to blood loss, poor diet, or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia . The term "anemia" usually refers to ...

  1. Who Is at Risk for Anemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aplastic Anemia Hemolytic Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Pernicious Anemia Sickle Cell Disease Send a link to NHLBI to someone ... A family history of inherited anemia, such as sickle cell anemia or thalassemia Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: May ...

  2. Tomographic anthropomorphic models. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first generation of heterogenoeous anthropomorphic mathematical models to be used in dose calculations was the MIRD-5 adult phantom, followed by the pediatric MIRD-type phantoms and by the GSF sex-specific phantoms ADAM and EVA. A new generation of realistic anthropomorphic models is now introduced. The organs and tissues of these models consist of a well defined number of volume elements (voxels), derived from computer tomographic (CT) data; consequently, these models were named voxel or tomographic models. So far two voxel models of real patients are available: one of an 8 week old baby and of a 7 year old child. For simplicity, the model of the baby will be referred to as BABY and that of the child as CHILD. In chapter 1 a brief literature review is given on the existing mathematical models and their applications. The reasons that lead to the construction of the new CT models is discussed. In chapter 2 the technique is described which allows to convert any physical object into computer files to be used for dose calculations. The technique which produces three dimensional reconstructions of high resolution is discussed. In chapter 3 the main characteristics of the models of the baby and child are given. Tables of organ masses and volumes are presented together with three dimensional images of some organs and tissues. A special mention is given to the assessment of bone marrow distribution. Chapter 4 gives a short description of the Monte Carlo code used in conjunction with the models to calculate organ and tissue doses resulting from photon exposures. Some technical details concerning the computer files which describe the models are also given. (orig./HP)

  3. Clinical outcomes of fractional flow reserve by computed tomographic angiography-guided diagnostic strategies vs. usual care in patients with suspected coronary artery disease: the prospective longitudinal trial of FFRCT: outcome and resource impacts study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Pamela S.; Pontone, Gianluca; Hlatky, Mark A.; Patel, Manesh R.; Norgaard, Bjarne L.; Byrne, Robert A.; Curzen, Nick; Purcell, Ian; Gutberlet, Matthias; Rioufol, Gilles; Hink, Ulrich; Schuchlenz, Herwig Walter; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Gilard, Martine; Andreini, Daniele; Jensen, Jesper M.; Hadamitzky, Martin; Chiswell, Karen; Cyr, Derek; Wilk, Alan; Wang, Furong; Rogers, Campbell; De Bruyne, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Aims In symptomatic patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD), computed tomographic angiography (CTA) improves patient selection for invasive coronary angiography (ICA) compared with functional testing. The impact of measuring fractional flow reserve by CTA (FFRCT) is unknown. Methods and results At 11 sites, 584 patients with new onset chest pain were prospectively assigned to receive either usual testing (n = 287) or CTA/FFRCT (n = 297). Test interpretation and care decisions were made by the clinical care team. The primary endpoint was the percentage of those with planned ICA in whom no significant obstructive CAD (no stenosis ≥50% by core laboratory quantitative analysis or invasive FFR < 0.80) was found at ICA within 90 days. Secondary endpoints including death, myocardial infarction, and unplanned revascularization were independently and blindly adjudicated. Subjects averaged 61 ± 11 years of age, 40% were female, and the mean pre-test probability of obstructive CAD was 49 ± 17%. Among those with intended ICA (FFRCT-guided = 193; usual care = 187), no obstructive CAD was found at ICA in 24 (12%) in the CTA/FFRCT arm and 137 (73%) in the usual care arm (risk difference 61%, 95% confidence interval 53–69, P< 0.0001), with similar mean cumulative radiation exposure (9.9 vs. 9.4 mSv, P = 0.20). Invasive coronary angiography was cancelled in 61% after receiving CTA/FFRCT results. Among those with intended non-invasive testing, the rates of finding no obstructive CAD at ICA were 13% (CTA/FFRCT) and 6% (usual care; P = 0.95). Clinical event rates within 90 days were low in usual care and CTA/FFRCT arms. Conclusions Computed tomographic angiography/fractional flow reserve by CTA was a feasible and safe alternative to ICA and was associated with a significantly lower rate of invasive angiography showing no obstructive CAD. PMID:26330417

  4. Laboratory Evaluation of Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wallerstein, Ralph O.

    1987-01-01

    The laboratory evaluation of anemia begins with a complete blood count and reticulocyte count. The anemia is then categorized as microcytic, macrocytic or normocytic, with or without reticulocytosis. Examination of the peripheral smear and a small number of specific tests confirm the diagnosis. The serum iron level, total iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin level and hemoglobin electrophoresis generally separate the microcytic anemias. The erythrocyte size-distribution width may be particul...

  5. Evaluation of Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujovich, Jody L

    2016-06-01

    Anemia is a common problem in primary care. Classification based on mean cell volume narrows the differential diagnosis and directs testing. A marked macrocytosis is characteristic of vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies, certain medications, and primary bone marrow disorders. The three most common causes of microcytic anemia are iron deficiency, thalassemia trait, and anemia of inflammation. Additional laboratory testing is required for diagnosis. Determination of the rate of development of anemia and examination of a blood smear may provide diagnostic clues to guide more specialized testing. Diagnosis of iron, vitamin B12, or folate deficiency mandates determination of the underlying cause. PMID:27212091

  6. Sickle Cell Anemia (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can You Do to Stay Well? en español Anemia falciforme What Is Sickle Cell Disease? Sickle cell ... about 10 to 20 days. This usually causes anemia . Anemia is what happens when the body's number ...

  7. Aplastic Anemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organizations (PDF, 270 KB). Alternate Language URL Aplastic Anemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes Page Content On this page: ... References For More Information Acknowledgments What are aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)? Aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Fanconi anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Fanconi anemia Fanconi anemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Fanconi anemia is a condition that affects many parts of ...

  9. How Is Aplastic Anemia Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Aplastic Anemia Treated? Treatments for aplastic anemia include blood transfusions , blood and marrow stem cell ... a transplant. Removing a known cause of aplastic anemia, such as exposure to a toxin, also may ...

  10. How Is Pernicious Anemia Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Pernicious Anemia Treated? Doctors treat pernicious anemia by replacing the missing vitamin B12 in the body. People who have pernicious anemia may need lifelong treatment. The goals of treating ...

  11. Uniaxial Compression of Cellular Materials at a 10-1 s-1 Strain Rate Simultaneously with Synchrotron X-ray Computed Tomographic Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Brian M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The topic is presented as a series of slides. Motivation for the work included the following: X-ray tomography is a fantastic technique for characterizing a material’s starting structure as well as for non-destructive, in situ experiments to investigate material response; 3D X-ray tomography is needed to fully characterize the morphology of cellular materials; and synchrotron micro-CT can capture 3D images without pausing experiment. Among the conclusions reached are these: High-rate radiographic and tomographic imaging (0.25 s 3D frame rate) using synchrotron CT can capture full 3D images of hyper-elastic materials at a 10-2 strain rate; dynamic true in situ uniaxial loading can be accurately captured; the three stages of compression can be imaged: bending, buckling, and breaking; implementation of linear modeling is completed; meshes have been imported into LANL modeling codes--testing and validation is underway and direct comparison and validation between in situ data and modeled mechanical response is possible.

  12. Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is a disease in which your body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. The cells are shaped like a crescent or sickle. They ... last as long as normal, round red blood cells. This leads to anemia. The sickle cells also ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Restless Legs Syndrome Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily treated condition that occurs if you ...

  14. Total Variation and Tomographic Imaging from Projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Jørgensen, Jakob Heide

    2011-01-01

    Total Variation (TV) regularization is a powerful technique for image reconstruction tasks such as denoising, in-painting, and deblurring, because of its ability to produce sharp edges in the images. In this talk we discuss the use of TV regularization for tomographic imaging, where we compute a 2D...... or 3D reconstruction from noisy projections. We demonstrate that for a small signal-to-noise ratio, this new approach allows us to compute better (i.e., more reliable) reconstructions than those obtained by classical methods. This is possible due to the use of the TV reconstruction model, which...

  15. Evaluation of Macrocytic Anemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ralph; Dwyre, Denis M

    2015-10-01

    Macrocytic anemia, defined as a mean cell volume (MCV) ≥100 fL in adults, has a narrow differential diagnosis that requires evaluation of the peripheral blood smear as well as additional laboratory testing taken in conjunction with clinical information that includes patient history and physical examination findings. This review is an update on the approach to a patient with macrocytic anemia with attention paid to the differentiation of megaloblastic and non-megaloblastic macrocytic anemias. Critical to the determination of the diagnosis is the judicious use of laboratory testing and the evaluation of those findings in conjunction with the patient medical, surgical, and medication history. PMID:26404440

  16. Unexplained Anemia in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Makipour, Sasan; Kanapuru, Bindu; Ershler, William B.

    2008-01-01

    Among the elderly, anemia occurs with increasing frequency with each advancing decade. Unlike when anemia occurs in younger adults, the cause of anemia in the elderly is oftentimes not readily apparent or attributable to a single cause. However, this commonly observed form of anemia in the elderly (termed unexplained anemia [UA]) can generally be dissected to its root causes, which include renal insufficiency, inflammation, testosterone deficiency, and stem cell proliferative decline. Myelody...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... intravenous iron therapy. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in ... 18/2011 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Entire Site Health Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Public Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health ... Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in children, ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health Information Center Health Professionals Systematic Evidence Reviews & Clinical Practice ... and see the benefits of treatment. For more information about living with and managing iron-deficiency anemia, ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CAUSES WHO IS AT RISK SIGNS & SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS TREATMENTS PREVENTION LIVING WITH CLINICAL TRIALS LINKS Related Topics ... Doctors usually can successfully treat iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment will depend on the cause and severity of ...

  2. Sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for avascular necrosis of the hip Surgery for eye problems Treatment for overuse or abuse of narcotic pain medicines Wound care for leg ulcers Bone marrow or stem cell transplants can cure sickle cell anemia, but this treatment ...

  3. When Planning Screw Fracture Fixation Why the 5.5 mm Screw is the Goldilocks Screw. An Observational Computer Tomographic Study of Fifth Metatarsal Bone Anatomy in a Sample of Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iselin, Lukas D; Ramawat, Sunil; Hanratty, Brian; Klammer, Georg; Stavrou, Peter

    2015-05-01

    We wanted to verify our clinical experience that the 5.5 mm screw was ideal in the majority of fifth metatarsal fracture fixation. The size of a screw is important for the successful surgical treatment of these fractures in order to obtain the maximal stability while reducing the risk for iatrogenic fracture.A sample of patients undergoing computer tomographic imaging of the foot for investigation other than fifth metatarsal pathology were recruited. The parameters of the fifth metatarsal bone anatomy were measured.These parameters of the 5.5 mm screw were correlated with this data. The upper parameter (the diameter of the threads) was 5.5 and the lower parameter (the diameter of the shank) was 4.0 mm.Twenty seven patients were recruited.The proximal third internal diameter ranged from 3.6 to 7.0 mm with a mean of 5.0 mm. 93% of the metatarsals could easily accommodate the 5.5 mm screw. Two of the metatarsals had an internal diameter of < 4 mm (7%).It is our belief that the 5.5 mm screw may be used safely in the majority of patients with fifth metatarsal fractures.

  4. Gynecologic electrical impedance tomograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korjenevsky, A.; Cherepenin, V.; Trokhanova, O.; Tuykin, T.

    2010-04-01

    Electrical impedance tomography extends to the new and new areas of the medical diagnostics: lungs, breast, prostate, etc. The feedback from the doctors who use our breast EIT diagnostic system has induced us to develop the 3D electrical impedance imaging device for diagnostics of the cervix of the uterus - gynecologic impedance tomograph (GIT). The device uses the same measuring approach as the breast imaging system: 2D flat array of the electrodes arranged on the probe with handle is placed against the body. Each of the 32 electrodes of the array is connected in turn to the current source while the rest electrodes acquire the potentials on the surface. The current flows through the electrode of the array and returns through the remote electrode placed on the patient's limb. The voltages are measured relative to another remote electrode. The 3D backprojection along equipotential surfaces is used to reconstruct conductivity distribution up to approximately 1 cm in depth. Small number of electrodes enables us to implement real time imaging with a few frames per sec. rate. The device is under initial testing and evaluation of the imaging capabilities and suitability of usage.

  5. Improving analytical tomographic reconstructions through consistency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Arcadu, Filippo; Stampanoni, Marco; Marone, Federica

    2016-01-01

    This work introduces and characterizes a fast parameterless filter based on the Helgason-Ludwig consistency conditions, used to improve the accuracy of analytical reconstructions of tomographic undersampled datasets. The filter, acting in the Radon domain, extrapolates intermediate projections between those existing. The resulting sinogram, doubled in views, is then reconstructed by a standard analytical method. Experiments with simulated data prove that the peak-signal-to-noise ratio of the results computed by filtered backprojection is improved up to 5-6 dB, if the filter is used prior to reconstruction.

  6. Computed tomographic aspects of primary brain tumors in dogs and cats; Aspectos tomograficos de tumores cerebrais primarios em caes e gatos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babicsak, Viviam Rocco; Zardo, Karen Maciel; Santos, Debora Rodrigues dos; Silva, Luciana Carandina da; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: viviam.babicsak@gmail.com [Setor de Diagnostico por Imagem - FMVZ - UNESP/Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Over the years, the Veterinary Medicine has made great advances, enabling thus the diagnosis of many diseases. As a result of this new situation, there was an increased expectation of life of animals resulting in an increase in the number of clinical care of older animals. Thus, diseases considered unusual in the past, begin to be diagnosed more frequently, as is the case of brain damage. Recently, computed tomography has been widely used in Brazil as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of several diseases. This noninvasive imaging technique allows the identification and evaluation of lesions of central nervous tissue such as brain tumors. This provides information about the size, shape and location of the lesion, in addition to the magnitude of compression and invasion of adjacent structures by the tumor and its side effects (such as the peritumoral edema and hydrocephalus). The image obtained from computed tomography may suggest the presence of a certain type brain tumor, data of great importance for the prognosis and treatment of the animal. This review covers the computed tomography aspects of primary brain tumors such as meningiomas, astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, choroid plexus tumors and ependymomas. However, despite the computed tomography provide much information about the changes inside the skull; no way replace histopathological examination in determining the definitive diagnosis. (author)

  7. Mouse models of Fanconi anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Kalindi; D' Andrea, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Niedernhofer, Laura J., E-mail: niedernhoferl@upmc.edu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Cancer Institute, 5117 Centre Avenue, Hillman Cancer Center, Research Pavilion 2.6, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-1863 (United States)

    2009-07-31

    Fanconi anemia is a rare inherited disease characterized by congenital anomalies, growth retardation, aplastic anemia and an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia and squamous cell carcinomas. The disease is caused by mutation in genes encoding proteins required for the Fanconi anemia pathway, a response mechanism to replicative stress, including that caused by genotoxins that cause DNA interstrand crosslinks. Defects in the Fanconi anemia pathway lead to genomic instability and apoptosis of proliferating cells. To date, 13 complementation groups of Fanconi anemia were identified. Five of these genes have been deleted or mutated in the mouse, as well as a sixth key regulatory gene, to create mouse models of Fanconi anemia. This review summarizes the phenotype of each of the Fanconi anemia mouse models and highlights how genetic and interventional studies using the strains have yielded novel insight into therapeutic strategies for Fanconi anemia and into how the Fanconi anemia pathway protects against genomic instability.

  8. A comparative evaluation of root canal area increase using three different nickel-titanium rotary systems: An ex vivo cone-beam computed tomographic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrija Deka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to compare and evaluate the area increase of root canals with ProTaper, iRaCe and Revo-S systems using cone beam computed tomography for analysis. Materials and Methodology: Forty five extracted human mandibular premolars having single canal and straight root were collected. Teeth were randomly assigned to three groups (n=15. Samples were decoronized by maintaining root length at 14 mm. Pre-instrumentation cone beam computed tomography scan was done after stabilizing the samples on wax blocks. The working length was determined at 1 mm short from the apical foramen by using a ISO 15 K-file tip protruding at apical foramen. Preparation was carried out according to the manufacturer′s instructions. Finally, canals were instrumented upto 30/.06 apically for each group. After each instrumentation, root canals were irrigated with 2ml of 3% sodium hypochlorite solution followed by 2 ml of 17% EDTA solution. Final irrigation was done with 5ml of saline. Post instrumentation cone beam computed tomography scans of all samples in the 3 groups were acquired. Results: Mean percentage of area increase in different thirds of the canal was highest for ProTaper followed by i-RaCe and Revo-s system which was statistically significant. Interpretation and Conclusion: Root canal area increase was highest for ProTaper followed by i-Race and Revo-S systems.

  9. Megaloblastic anemia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taguchi,Hirokuni

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 1903, 744 cases of megaloblastic anemia have been reported in Japan: 490 cases of pernicious anemia; 95 cases associated with pregnancy; 66 cases after gastrectomy; 22 cases of megaloblastic anemia of infants; 21 cases of folic acid deficiency other than pregnancy and 19 cases of vitamin B12 malabsorption after ileal resection. It is generally agreed among hematologists in Japan that pernicious anemia is relatively rare, as in other Asian countries. The diagnosis of pernicious anemia in Japan is usually made by stained marrow films, radioisotopic assay of serum vitamin B12, Schilling test and good response to vitamin B12 therapy. Serum folate level, intrinsic factor or its antibody, methylmalonic acid excretion, formiminoglutamic acid excretion and deoxyuridine suppression test are performed only at a small number of laboratories. The drugs of choice are hydroxocobalamin, deoxyadenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Cyanocobalamin has nearly disappeared from commercial sources in Japan. Vitamin B12 administration is common in patients with neurological disorders. Megaloblastic anemia due to folic acid deficiency is extremely rare in Japan. Low serum folate levels are frequently observed among patients receiving anticonvulsants or in pregnant women, but in such samples megaloblastic anemia is almost never detected. The folic acid content of hospital diets indicates that satisfactory amounts of folate are taken in Japan. The intake of folic acid from rice is well over the minimum daily requirement of folate. Other factors in folic acid deficiency, such as food taboos, severe alcoholism and malabsorption syndrome are not frequently found in Japanese. The inadequate intake of folate was the critical factor in most reported cases.

  10. Microstructural and Tomographic Analyses in Geotechnical Assessment of Soil Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumor Maciej Kordian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses two different approaches to microanalysis of the soil medium. It presents testing results collected by electromicroscopy, which requires special sample preparation, and a non-destructive method, requiring no sample preparation and using a computer-assisted tomograph. The paper presents:

  11. Cone-beam Computed Tomographic Assessment of Canal Centering Ability and Transportation after Preparation with Twisted File and Bio RaCe Instrumentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiamars Honardar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Use of rotary Nickel-Titanium (NiTi instruments for endodontic preparation has introduced a new era in endodontic practice, but this issue has undergone dramatic modifications in order to achieve improved shaping abilities. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT has made it possible to accurately evaluate geometrical changes following canal preparation. This study was carried out to compare canal centering ability and transportation of Twisted File and BioRaCe rotary systems by means of cone-beam computed tomography.Thirty root canals from freshly extracted mandibular and maxillary teeth were selected. Teeth were mounted and scanned before and after preparation by CBCT at different apical levels. Specimens were divided into 2 groups of 15. In the first group Twisted File and in the second, BioRaCe was used for canal preparation. Canal transportation and centering ability after preparation were assessed by NNT Viewer and Photoshop CS4 software. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test and two-way ANOVA.All samples showed deviations from the original axes of the canals. No significant differences were detected between the two rotary NiTi instruments for canal centering ability in all sections. Regarding canal transportation however, a significant difference was seen in the BioRaCe group at 7.5mm from the apex.Under the conditions of this in vitro study, Twisted File and BioRaCe rotary NiTi files retained original canal geometry.

  12. Central odontogenic fibroma (simple type) in a four year old boy: Atypical cone-beam computed tomographic appearance with periosteal reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbiaee, Najme; Ebrahimnejad, Hamed; Sanaei, Alireza [Dept. of , Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Maxillofacial Diseases Research Center, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a rare benign tumor that accounts for 0.1% of all odontogenic tumors. A case of COF (simple type) of the mandible in a four-year-old boy is described in this report. The patient showed asymptomatic swelling in the right inferior border of the lower jaw for one week. A panoramic radiograph showed a poorly-defined destructive unilocular radiolucent area. Cone-beam computed tomography showed expansion and perforation of the adjacent cortical bone plates. A periosteal reaction with the Codman triangle pattern was clearly visible in the buccal cortex. Since the tumor had destroyed a considerable amount of bone, surgical resection was performed. No recurrence was noted.

  13. The advantage of the three dimensional computed tomographic (3 D-CT for ensuring accurate bone incision in sagittal split ramus osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen Pramono D

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional and aesthetic dysgnathia surgery requires accurate pre-surgical planning, including the surgical technique to be used related with the difference of anatomical structures amongst individuals. Programs that simulate the surgery become increasingly important. This can be mediated by using a surgical model, conventional x-rays as panoramic, cephalometric projections and another sophisticated method such as a three dimensional computed tomography (3 D-CT. A patient who had undergone double jaw surgeries with difficult anatomical landmarks was presented. In this case the mandible foramens were seen highly relatively related to the sigmoid notches. Therefore, ensuring the bone incisions in sagittal split was presumed to be difficult. A 3D-CT was made and considered to be very helpful in supporting the pre-operative diagnostic.

  14. Automated detection of pulmonary embolism (PE) in computed tomographic pulmonary angiographic (CTPA) images: multiscale hierachical expectation-maximization segmentation of vessels and PEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chughtai, Aamer; Patel, Smita; Cascade, Philip N.; Sahiner, Berkman; Wei, Jun; Ge, Jun; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2007-03-01

    CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has been reported to be an effective means for clinical diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). We are developing a computer-aided detection (CAD) system to assist radiologist in PE detection in CTPA images. 3D multiscale filters in combination with a newly designed response function derived from the eigenvalues of Hessian matrices is used to enhance vascular structures including the vessel bifurcations and suppress non-vessel structures such as the lymphoid tissues surrounding the vessels. A hierarchical EM estimation is then used to segment the vessels by extracting the high response voxels at each scale. The segmented vessels are pre-screened for suspicious PE areas using a second adaptive multiscale EM estimation. A rule-based false positive (FP) reduction method was designed to identify the true PEs based on the features of PE and vessels. 43 CTPA scans were used as an independent test set to evaluate the performance of PE detection. Experienced chest radiologists identified the PE locations which were used as "gold standard". 435 PEs were identified in the artery branches, of which 172 and 263 were subsegmental and proximal to the subsegmental, respectively. The computer-detected volume was considered true positive (TP) when it overlapped with 10% or more of the gold standard PE volume. Our preliminary test results show that, at an average of 33 and 24 FPs/case, the sensitivities of our PE detection method were 81% and 78%, respectively, for proximal PEs, and 79% and 73%, respectively, for subsegmental PEs. The study demonstrates the feasibility that the automated method can identify PE accurately on CTPA images. Further study is underway to improve the sensitivity and reduce the FPs.

  15. Multivariable Discriminant Analysis for the Differential Diagnosis of Microcytic Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Urrechaga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Iron deficiency anemia and thalassemia are the most common causes of microcytic anemia. Powerful statistical computer programming enables sensitive discriminant analyses to aid in the diagnosis. We aimed at investigating the performance of the multiple discriminant analysis (MDA to the differential diagnosis of microcytic anemia. Methods. The training group was composed of 200 β-thalassemia carriers, 65 α-thalassemia carriers, 170 iron deficiency anemia (IDA, and 45 mixed cases of thalassemia and acute phase response or iron deficiency. A set of potential predictor parameters that could detect differences among groups were selected: Red Blood Cells (RBC, hemoglobin (Hb, mean cell volume (MCV, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH, and RBC distribution width (RDW. The functions obtained with MDA analysis were applied to a set of 628 consecutive patients with microcytic anemia. Results. For classifying patients into two groups (genetic anemia and acquired anemia, only one function was needed; 87.9% β-thalassemia carriers, and 83.3% α-thalassemia carriers, and 72.1% in the mixed group were correctly classified. Conclusion. Linear discriminant functions based on hemogram data can aid in differentiating between IDA and thalassemia, so samples can be efficiently selected for further analysis to confirm the presence of genetic anemia.

  16. Optimization of tomographic reconstruction workflows on geographically distributed resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Tekin; Gürsoy, Dogˇa; Kettimuthu, Rajkumar; De Carlo, Francesco; Foster, Ian T

    2016-07-01

    New technological advancements in synchrotron light sources enable data acquisitions at unprecedented levels. This emergent trend affects not only the size of the generated data but also the need for larger computational resources. Although beamline scientists and users have access to local computational resources, these are typically limited and can result in extended execution times. Applications that are based on iterative processing as in tomographic reconstruction methods require high-performance compute clusters for timely analysis of data. Here, time-sensitive analysis and processing of Advanced Photon Source data on geographically distributed resources are focused on. Two main challenges are considered: (i) modeling of the performance of tomographic reconstruction workflows and (ii) transparent execution of these workflows on distributed resources. For the former, three main stages are considered: (i) data transfer between storage and computational resources, (i) wait/queue time of reconstruction jobs at compute resources, and (iii) computation of reconstruction tasks. These performance models allow evaluation and estimation of the execution time of any given iterative tomographic reconstruction workflow that runs on geographically distributed resources. For the latter challenge, a workflow management system is built, which can automate the execution of workflows and minimize the user interaction with the underlying infrastructure. The system utilizes Globus to perform secure and efficient data transfer operations. The proposed models and the workflow management system are evaluated by using three high-performance computing and two storage resources, all of which are geographically distributed. Workflows were created with different computational requirements using two compute-intensive tomographic reconstruction algorithms. Experimental evaluation shows that the proposed models and system can be used for selecting the optimum resources, which in turn can

  17. Optimization of tomographic reconstruction workflows on geographically distributed resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Tekin; Gürsoy, Dogˇa; Kettimuthu, Rajkumar; De Carlo, Francesco; Foster, Ian T

    2016-07-01

    New technological advancements in synchrotron light sources enable data acquisitions at unprecedented levels. This emergent trend affects not only the size of the generated data but also the need for larger computational resources. Although beamline scientists and users have access to local computational resources, these are typically limited and can result in extended execution times. Applications that are based on iterative processing as in tomographic reconstruction methods require high-performance compute clusters for timely analysis of data. Here, time-sensitive analysis and processing of Advanced Photon Source data on geographically distributed resources are focused on. Two main challenges are considered: (i) modeling of the performance of tomographic reconstruction workflows and (ii) transparent execution of these workflows on distributed resources. For the former, three main stages are considered: (i) data transfer between storage and computational resources, (i) wait/queue time of reconstruction jobs at compute resources, and (iii) computation of reconstruction tasks. These performance models allow evaluation and estimation of the execution time of any given iterative tomographic reconstruction workflow that runs on geographically distributed resources. For the latter challenge, a workflow management system is built, which can automate the execution of workflows and minimize the user interaction with the underlying infrastructure. The system utilizes Globus to perform secure and efficient data transfer operations. The proposed models and the workflow management system are evaluated by using three high-performance computing and two storage resources, all of which are geographically distributed. Workflows were created with different computational requirements using two compute-intensive tomographic reconstruction algorithms. Experimental evaluation shows that the proposed models and system can be used for selecting the optimum resources, which in turn can

  18. How Is Hemolytic Anemia Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines rituximab and cyclosporine. If you have severe sickle cell anemia , your doctor may recommend a medicine called hydroxyurea. ... hemoglobin that newborns have. In people who have sickle cell anemia, fetal hemoglobin helps prevent red blood cells from ...

  19. Spiral computed tomographic pulmonary angiography in patients with acute pulmonary emboli and no pre-existing comorbidity: a prospective prognostic panel study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadrashid, Reza; Mozayan, Maryam; Tarzamni, Mohammad Kazem [Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaffari, Mohammad Reza [Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Lung and Respiratory Disease, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fouladi, Daniel F. [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    To investigate the prognostic validity of the right ventricular to left ventricular diameter (RVD/LVD) ratio and Qanadli pulmonary artery obstruction score (PAOS) in hemodynamically stable patients with no pre-existing comorbidities. Sixty-three patients with no previous comorbidity were recruited for this study. The RVD/LVD ratio was calculated based on axial image measurements obtained from contrast-enhanced non-electrocardiography-gated spiral computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiographic studies. Patients were followed up for 60 days after the initial CT and study variables including demographic data, the RVD/LVD ratio and PAOS were compared between deceased cases and survivors via univariate and multivariate statistical models. The 60-day mortality rate was 22.2 %. The deceased and surviving groups were comparable for PAOS, whereas both the median age and RVD/LVD ratio were significantly higher in the first group. In multivariate analysis, however, age was the only significant, independent predictor of 60-day mortality (p = 0.02, Exp(B) = 1.06). At a cut-off age of 63 years the 60-day mortality was predicted with a sensitivity and specificity of 64.3 % and 69.4 %, respectively. The RVD/LVD ratio and PAOS are not independent predictors of mortality in hemodynamically stable patients with acute PE and no pre-existing comorbidities. (orig.)

  20. An appraisal of the computed axial tomographic appearance of the human mesentery based on mesenteric contiguity from the duodenojejunal flexure to the mesorectal level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, J.C.; Culligan, Kevin; Walsh, Leon G.; Sehgal, Rishab; Dunne, Colum; McGrath, Deirdre; Walsh, Dara [University Hospital Limerick, Centre for Interventions in Infection, Inflammation and Immunity (4i), Graduate Entry Medical School and Department of Surgery, Limerick (Ireland); Moore, Michael [Cork University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Staunton, Marie [Mercy University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Scanlon, Timothy; Dewhurst, Catherine; Kenny, Bryan; O' Brien, Julie M. [University Hospital Limerick, Department of Radiology, Limerick (Ireland); O' Riordan, Conor [Kilkenny General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kilkenny (Ireland); Quondamatteo, Fabio; Dockery, Peter [National University of Ireland Galway, Anatomy, School of Medicine, Galway (Ireland)

    2016-03-15

    The human mesentery is now regarded as contiguous from the duodenojejunal (DJ) to anorectal level. This interpretation prompts re-appraisal of computed tomography (CT) images of the mesentery. A digital model and reference atlas of the mesentery were generated using the full-colour data set of the Visible Human Project (VHP). Seventy one normal abdominal CT images were examined to identify mesenteric regions. CT appearances were correlated with cadaveric and histological appearances at corresponding levels. Ascending, descending and sigmoid mesocolons were identifiable in 75 %, 86 % and 88 % of the CTs, respectively. Flexural contiguity was evident in 66 %, 68 %, 71 % and 80 % for the ileocaecal, hepatic, splenic and rectosigmoid flexures, respectively. A posterior mesocolic boundary corresponding to the anterior renal fascia was evident in 40 % and 54 % of cases on the right and left, respectively. The anterior pararenal space (in front of the boundary) corresponded to the mesocolon. Using the VHP, a mesenteric digital model and reference atlas were developed. This enabled re-appraisal of CT images of the mesentery, in which contiguous flexural and non-flexural mesenteric regions were repeatedly identifiable. The anterior pararenal space corresponded to the mesocolon. (orig.)

  1. Humidifier disinfectant-associated children's interstitial lung disease: Computed tomographic features, histopathologic correlation and comparison between survivors and non-survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hee Mang; Lee, Jin Seong; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Jung, Ah Young; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Cho, Young Ah [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun; Hong, Soo-Jong [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon-Ok [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Se-Jin [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Departments of Pathology, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    To report radiologic findings with histopathologic correlations of humidifier disinfectant-associated children's interstitial lung disease (HD-chILD) and to compare computed tomography (CT) findings between survivors and non-survivors. Forty-seven children with HD-chILD (27.4 ± 12.4 months old) were categorized as survivors (n = 25) and non-survivors (n = 22). The patterns, distributions, and chronological changes in lung lesions at follow-up CT were investigated. Histopathologic correlations were performed in 23 patients. CT features were characterized by chronological changes, from consolidation to centrilobular opacities, and lesions eventually became faint centrilobular nodules. Histopathologic features were bronchocentric-distributed fibro-inflammatory lesions, which were more profound in the advanced stage than the early stage. Consolidation ≥30 % [hazard ratio (HR), 2.932], centrilobular opacities ≥60 % of the total lung volume (TLV; HR, 0.206) and spontaneous air leaks (HR, 3.457) were significant factors associated with patient survival, as per univariate analysis. Consolidation ≥30 % (HR, 3.519), centrilobular opacities ≥60 % (HR, 0.205) and diffuse ground glass opacity (GGO) ≥70 % of the TLV (HR, 3.521) were significant factors associated with patient survival, as determined via multivariate analysis. Distinctive chronological CT features were observed in the HD-chILD images. Spontaneous air leaks, consolidation, GGO, and centrilobular opacities were prognostic factors. (orig.)

  2. An appraisal of the computed axial tomographic appearance of the human mesentery based on mesenteric contiguity from the duodenojejunal flexure to the mesorectal level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human mesentery is now regarded as contiguous from the duodenojejunal (DJ) to anorectal level. This interpretation prompts re-appraisal of computed tomography (CT) images of the mesentery. A digital model and reference atlas of the mesentery were generated using the full-colour data set of the Visible Human Project (VHP). Seventy one normal abdominal CT images were examined to identify mesenteric regions. CT appearances were correlated with cadaveric and histological appearances at corresponding levels. Ascending, descending and sigmoid mesocolons were identifiable in 75 %, 86 % and 88 % of the CTs, respectively. Flexural contiguity was evident in 66 %, 68 %, 71 % and 80 % for the ileocaecal, hepatic, splenic and rectosigmoid flexures, respectively. A posterior mesocolic boundary corresponding to the anterior renal fascia was evident in 40 % and 54 % of cases on the right and left, respectively. The anterior pararenal space (in front of the boundary) corresponded to the mesocolon. Using the VHP, a mesenteric digital model and reference atlas were developed. This enabled re-appraisal of CT images of the mesentery, in which contiguous flexural and non-flexural mesenteric regions were repeatedly identifiable. The anterior pararenal space corresponded to the mesocolon. (orig.)

  3. Magnetic Resonance Enterography Findings in Crohn′s disease in the Pediatric Population and Correlation with Fluoroscopic and Multidetector Computed Tomographic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, fluoroscopic examinations such as enteroclysis, upper GI studies, and small bowel follow through exams have been the procedures of choice in evaluating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in pediatric populations. With the advent of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT, it has subsequently become a complementary examination in imaging inflammatory bowel disease. A major advantage of MDCT over fluoroscopic examination is its ability to directly visualize bowel mucosa, as well as demonstrate extra-enteric complications of IBD such as abscesses, fistulae, and sinus tracts. The major disadvantage of CT however is exposure to ionizing radiation, especially in IBD patients of the pediatric age group who maybe repeatedly imaged due to exacerbations. As a result, magnetic resonance enterography (MRE is becoming increasingly important in the evaluation and follow-up of pediatric patients with IBD. This pictorial essay will summarize the multi-modality imaging findings of IBD with emphasis on MRE including the imaging protocol and procedure. For the purposes of this article, patients less than 17 years of age have been considered to represent the pediatric population.

  4. Non-obstructive low attenuation coronary plaque predicts three-year acute coronary syndrome events in patients with hypertension. Multidetector computed tomographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arterial hypertension is an established risk factor for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is an accurate and less invasive technique for assessment of the degree of coronary artery luminal narrowing and characterization of coronary atherosclerosis. We therefore aimed to investigate the predictive power of MDCT for future ACS events and compared with traditional parameters in patients with hypertension. One hundred and thirty-four patients (93 men, mean age 70±11 years) with hypertension underwent MDCT for evaluation of coronary artery disease. MDCT analysis focused on the presence of plaques, the degree of stenosis, and the plaque characteristics. Traditional parameters included Framingham risk score, carotid intima-media thickness, and left ventricular mass index. During a mean follow-up of 39±10 months, ACS events occurred in 10 patients, including myocardial infarction (n=3) and unstable angina (n=7). Multivariate analysis identified total number of low attenuation plaques as an independent predictor of ACS events (p<0.001). We demonstrated that non-obstructive low attenuation coronary plaques on MDCT predicted more accurately future ACS events in patients with hypertension than traditional parameters. (author)

  5. Cone beam computed tomographic evaluation of two access cavity designs and instrumentation on the thickness of peri-cervical dentin in mandibular anterior teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Vinny Sara; George, John V.; Mathew, Sylvia; Nagaraja, Shruthi; Indiresha, H. N.; Madhu, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of two access cavity designs on the peri-cervical dentin thickness before and after instrumentation using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: Sixty mandibular anterior teeth were divided into two groups of thirty teeth each: Group I: conventional access cavity preparation, where access was prepared just above the cingulum and Group II: incisal access cavity preparation, where access was prepared in proximity to the incisal edge. CBCT scans were taken preoperatively, following access cavity preparation and post instrumentation. 200 μm thick slices were obtained 4mm apical and coronal to the cemento-enamel junction. The peri-cervical dentin thickness was calculated on the facial, lingual, mesial, and distal for all the three obtained scans. Results: The analysis showed that access cavity preparation and instrumentation resulted in a significant loss of tooth structure in Group I on all surfaces, but in Group II, there was a significant loss of tooth structure only in the mesial, lingual, and distal surfaces (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Incisal access cavity preparation resulted in lesser loss of dentin in the peri-cervical region. PMID:27656065

  6. Cone beam computed tomographic evaluation of two access cavity designs and instrumentation on the thickness of peri-cervical dentin in mandibular anterior teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Vinny Sara; George, John V.; Mathew, Sylvia; Nagaraja, Shruthi; Indiresha, H. N.; Madhu, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of two access cavity designs on the peri-cervical dentin thickness before and after instrumentation using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: Sixty mandibular anterior teeth were divided into two groups of thirty teeth each: Group I: conventional access cavity preparation, where access was prepared just above the cingulum and Group II: incisal access cavity preparation, where access was prepared in proximity to the incisal edge. CBCT scans were taken preoperatively, following access cavity preparation and post instrumentation. 200 μm thick slices were obtained 4mm apical and coronal to the cemento-enamel junction. The peri-cervical dentin thickness was calculated on the facial, lingual, mesial, and distal for all the three obtained scans. Results: The analysis showed that access cavity preparation and instrumentation resulted in a significant loss of tooth structure in Group I on all surfaces, but in Group II, there was a significant loss of tooth structure only in the mesial, lingual, and distal surfaces (P cavity preparation resulted in lesser loss of dentin in the peri-cervical region. PMID:27656065

  7. Anemia in the Preoperative Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Manish S; Carson, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Anemia is commonly encountered in the preoperative patient. With variable etiology, determination of the cause of the anemia can impact perioperative surgical and medical management and outcome. Red blood cell transfusions are often administered during the perioperative time period in patients with preoperative anemia, although evidence to support the optimal transfusion threshold is limited. We review the evaluation of anemia, as well as evidence regarding perioperative blood transfusions. R...

  8. [Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becheur, M; Bouslama, B; Slama, H; Toumi, N E H

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare condition in children which differs from the adult form. It is defined by immune-mediated destruction of red blood cells caused by autoantibodies. Characteristics of the autoantibodies are responsible for the various clinical entities. Classifications of autoimmune hemolytic anemia include warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia, cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria. For each classification, this review discusses the epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, laboratory evaluation, and treatment options. PMID:26575109

  9. Hallazgos de tomografía computarizada en coenurosis cerebral crónica con hidrocéfalo secundario en una oveja joven Computed tomographic findings in chronic cerebral coenurosis associated with secondary hydrocephalus in a young ewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gómez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue caracterizar, en una hembra ovina con signos clínicos de coenurosis cerebral, los hallazgos radiográficos observados mediante tomografía computarizada (TC. La TC de cráneo fue realizada sin contraste utilizando un escáner de cuarta generación. En las imágenes transversales de TC el quiste fue observado como una estructura hipodensa rodeada por un anillo hiperdenso y localizada en los hemisferios cerebrales a nivel del sistema ventricular. La presencia de ventriculomegalia y atrofia cortical indicaron la presencia de hidrocéfalo secundario. El Coenurus fue removido quirúrgicamente por trepanación a través del hueso frontal y luego de algunos días el animal recuperó su estado de salud. Los resultados observados indican que la TC constituye un método útil en demostrar la localización anatómica del quiste y en el planeamiento quirúrgico para la remoción de ésteThe purpose of this study was to describe the computed tomographic (CT features of a 14 month old ewe showing clinical signs of cerebral coenurosis. The CT analysis of the head was made using a fourth generation CT scanner. On transverse CT images the cyst was seen as an hipodense, ring enhanced mass located in the cerebral hemispheres and ventricular system. Ventriculomegaly and atrophy of the cortical tissue was also observed indicating the presence of secondary hydrocephalus. The Coenurus was surgically removed by skull trepanation through the frontal bone and after a few days the animal recovered its healthy status. CT proved to be useful in demonstrating the anatomic location of the cyst and was helpful in surgical planning

  10. 3D Reconstruction Technique for Tomographic PIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜楠; 包全; 杨绍琼

    2015-01-01

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry(Tomo-PIV) is a state-of-the-art experimental technique based on a method of optical tomography to achieve the three-dimensional(3D) reconstruction for three-dimensional three-component(3D-3C) flow velocity measurements. 3D reconstruction for Tomo-PIV is carried out herein. Meanwhile, a 3D simplified tomographic reconstruction model reduced from a 3D volume light inten-sity field with 2D projection images into a 2D Tomo-slice plane with 1D projecting lines, i.e., simplifying this 3D reconstruction into a problem of 2D Tomo-slice plane reconstruction, is applied thereafter. Two kinds of the most well-known algebraic reconstruction techniques, algebraic reconstruction technique(ART) and multiple algebraic reconstruction technique(MART), are compared as well. The principles of the two reconstruction algorithms are discussed in detail, which has been performed by a series of simulation images, yielding the corresponding recon-struction images that show different features between the ART and MART algorithm, and then their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Further discussions are made for the standard particle image reconstruction when the background noise of the pre-initial particle image has been removed. Results show that the particle image recon-struction has been greatly improved. The MART algorithm is much better than the ART. Furthermore, the computa-tional analyses of two parameters(the particle density and the number of cameras), are performed to study their effects on the reconstruction. Lastly, the 3D volume particle field is reconstructed by using the improved algorithm based on the simplified 3D tomographic reconstruction model, which proves that the algorithm simplification is feasible and it can be applied to the reconstruction of 3D volume particle field in a Tomo-PIV system.

  11. Computer-Aided Tomographic Analysis of Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis (SSc. Correlation with Pulmonary Physiologic Tests and Patient-Centred Measures of Perceived Dyspnea and Functional Disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Salaffi

    dyspnea and functional disability. Computer-aided tomographic analysis is computationally efficient, and in combination with physiologic and patient-centred measures, it could allow a means for accurately assessing and monitoring the disease progression or response to therapy.

  12. Anemia in People with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My ACS » Your Local Offices Close + - Text Size Anemia in People With Cancer What is anemia? When you don’t have enough healthy red ... the symptoms that bother people most. What causes anemia? There are many different reasons a person with ...

  13. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Anemia in CKD Page Content On this page: What ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which the body ...

  14. How Is Fanconi Anemia Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Fanconi Anemia Diagnosed? People who have Fanconi anemia (FA) are born with the disorder. They may ... questions about: Any personal or family history of anemia Any surgeries you’ve had related to the ...

  15. How Is Fanconi Anemia Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Fanconi Anemia Treated? Doctors decide how to treat Fanconi anemia (FA) based on a person's age and how ... Long-term treatments for FA can: Cure the anemia. Damaged bone marrow cells are replaced with healthy ...

  16. How Is Aplastic Anemia Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Aplastic Anemia Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose aplastic anemia based on your medical and family histories, a ... your primary care doctor thinks you have aplastic anemia, he or she may refer you to a ...

  17. Severe Anemia in Malawian Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calis, J.C.J.; Kamija, S.P.; Faragher, E.B.; Brabin, B.J.; Bates, I.; Cuevas, L.E.; Haan, de R.J.; Phiri, A.I.; Malange, P.; Khoka, M.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Lieshout, L.; Beld, M.G.H.M.; Teo, Y.Y.; Rockett, K.A.; Richardson, A.; Kwiatkowski, D.P.; Molyneux, M.E.; Hensbroek, van M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Background Severe anemia is a major cause of sickness and death in African children, yet the causes of anemia in this population have been inadequately studied. Methods We conducted a case¿control study of 381 preschool children with severe anemia (hemoglobin concentration,

  18. Correlation of lung collapse and gas exchange - a computer tomographic study in sheep and pigs with atelectasis in otherwise normal lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J Wolf

    Full Text Available Atelectasis can provoke pulmonary and non-pulmonary complications after general anaesthesia. Unfortunately, there is no instrument to estimate atelectasis and prompt changes of mechanical ventilation during general anaesthesia. Although arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 and intrapulmonary shunt have both been suggested to correlate with atelectasis, studies yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, we investigated these correlations.Shunt, PaO2 and atelectasis were measured in 11 sheep and 23 pigs with otherwise normal lungs. In pigs, contrasting measurements were available 12 hours after induction of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Atelectasis was calculated by computed tomography relative to total lung mass (Mtotal. We logarithmically transformed PaO2 (lnPaO2 to linearize its relationships with shunt and atelectasis. Data are given as median (interquartile range.Mtotal was 768 (715-884 g in sheep and 543 (503-583 g in pigs. Atelectasis was 26 (16-47 % in sheep and 18 (13-23 % in pigs. PaO2 (FiO2 = 1.0 was 242 (106-414 mmHg in sheep and 480 (437-514 mmHg in pigs. Shunt was 39 (29-51 % in sheep and 15 (11-20 % in pigs. Atelectasis correlated closely with lnPaO2 (R2 = 0.78 and shunt (R2 = 0.79 in sheep (P-values<0.0001. The correlation of atelectasis with lnPaO2 (R2 = 0.63 and shunt (R2 = 0.34 was weaker in pigs, but R2 increased to 0.71 for lnPaO2 and 0.72 for shunt 12 hours after induction of ARDS. In both, sheep and pigs, changes in atelectasis correlated strongly with corresponding changes in lnPaO2 and shunt.In lung-healthy sheep, atelectasis correlates closely with lnPaO2 and shunt, when blood gases are measured during ventilation with pure oxygen. In lung-healthy pigs, these correlations were significantly weaker, likely because pigs have stronger hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV than sheep and humans. Nevertheless, correlations improved also in pigs after blunting of HPV during ARDS. In humans, the observed

  19. Expansion of the Multi-Link Frontier™ coronary bifurcation stent: micro-computed tomographic assessment in human autopsy and porcine heart samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kralev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions remains challenging, beyond the introduction of drug eluting stents. Dedicated stent systems are available to improve the technical approach to the treatment of these lesions. However dedicated stent systems have so far not reduced the incidence of stent restenosis. The aim of this study was to assess the expansion of the Multi-Link (ML Frontier™ stent in human and porcine coronary arteries to provide the cardiologist with useful in-vitro information for stent implantation and selection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nine ML Frontier™ stents were implanted in seven human autopsy heart samples with known coronary artery disease and five ML Frontier™ stents were implanted in five porcine hearts. Proximal, distal and side branch diameters (PD, DD, SBD, respectively, corresponding opening areas (PA, DA, SBA and the mean stent length (L were assessed by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT. PD and PA were significantly smaller in human autopsy heart samples than in porcine heart samples (3.54±0.47 mm vs. 4.04±0.22 mm, p = 0.048; 10.00±2.42 mm(2 vs. 12.84±1.38 mm(2, p = 0.034, respectively and than those given by the manufacturer (3.54±0.47 mm vs. 4.03 mm, p = 0.014. L was smaller in human autopsy heart samples than in porcine heart samples, although data did not reach significance (16.66±1.30 mm vs. 17.30±0.51 mm, p = 0.32, and significantly smaller than that given by the manufacturer (16.66±1.30 mm vs. 18 mm, p = 0.015. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Micro-CT is a feasible tool for exact surveying of dedicated stent systems and could make a contribution to the development of these devices. The proximal diameter and proximal area of the stent system were considerably smaller in human autopsy heart samples than in porcine heart samples and than those given by the manufacturer. Special consideration should be given to the stent deployment procedure (and to the follow

  20. Detection of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina in the acute setting: meta-analysis of diagnostic performance of multi-detector computed tomographic angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarno Giovanna

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-detector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA has been increasingly used in the evaluation of the coronary arteries. The purpose of this study was to review the literature on the diagnostic performance of MDCTA in the acute setting, for the detection of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI and unstable angina pectoris (UAP. Methods A Pubmed and manual search of the literature published between January 2000 and June 2007 was performed. Studies were included that compared MDCTA with clinical outcome and/or CA in patients with acute chest pain, presenting at the emergency department. More specifically, studies that only included patients with initially negative cardiac enzymes suspected of having NSTEMI or UAP were included. Summary estimates of diagnostic odds ratio (DOR, sensitivity and specificity, negative (NLR and positive likelihood ratio (PLR were calculated on a patient basis. Random-effects models and summary receiver operating curve (SROC analysis were used to assess the diagnostic performance of MDCTA with 4 detectors or more. The proportion of non assessable scans (NAP on MDCTA was also evaluated. In addition, the influence of study characteristics of each study on diagnostic performance and NAP was investigated with multivariable logistic regression. Results Nine studies totalling 566 patients, were included in the meta-analysis: one randomised trial and eight prospective cohort studies. Five studies on 64-detector MDCTA and 4 studies on MDCTA with less than 64 detectors were included (32 detectors n = 1, 16 detectors n = 2, 16 and 4 detectors n = 1. Pooled DOR was 131.81 (95%CI, 50.90–341.31. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.95 (95%CI, 0.90–0.98 and 0.90 (95%CI, 0.87–0.93. The pooled NLR and PLR were 0.12 (95%CI, 0.06–0.21 and 8,60 (95%CI, 5.03–14,69. The results of the logistic regressions showed that none of the investigated variables had influence on the diagnostic

  1. Change over time in brain computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings in healthy elderly persons. A 10 year prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early detection, treatment and prevention of dementia have become increasingly important as the population ages. I have performed a follow-up study of changes in the brains of healthy elderly persons with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since 1982. One hundred thirty-three healthy elderly volunteers were first examined in 1982 with CT or MRI, electroencephalography, the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), blood pressure measurement, and interview. Subsequent examinations were done in 1986, 1989, and 1992. On CT, microinfarctions were found in 15.0% of subjects in 1982 and in 13.0% in 1986, and periventricular lucency (PVL) was found in 6.0% and 8.3%. The most frequent findings were vascular changes, which were observed in six persons (5.6%), followed by PVL, which was found in four persons (3.7%). Thus, vascular changes became more pronounced during the follow-up period. Lesions with high signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2HSI) were found in 69.5% of subjects and increased in prevalence with age in the 1989 study. Such T2HSI lesions were found most frequently in the basal ganglia (61.9%), followed by the thalamus (39.0%), parietal lobe (37.0%), temporal lobe (12.7%), and the pons (8.5%). Of these lesions, lacunar infarctions showed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and were found in 24.6% of subjects; their prevalence also increased with age. Results of BVRT were closely correlated with T2HSI lesions, suggesting that T2HSIs lesions may affect cognitive function. By 1992, 10 years after the start of the study, 34 (25.6%) of subjects had died and 19 (14.3%) had become demented. Subjects were divided into surviving and dead groups and dementia and non-dementia groups. Findings on CT and BVRT in this study have provided clear clinical indices of death and dementia, especially maximal width of third ventricule in impairment of the diagnosis of dementia. (author)

  2. Variações anatômicas e sinusopatias: estudo por tomografia computadorizada Anatomical variations and sinusitis: a computed tomographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio M. Kinsui

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A tomografia computadorizada tem sido cada vez mais utilizada para a identificação e avaliação das variações anatômicas das cavidades nasais que podem levar às sinusites. Objetivo: Avaliar, por meio da tomografia computadorizada, a incidência de espessamento mucoso nos seios paranasais de pacientes com sintomas de sinusite e a correlação entre sinusopatias e presença de célula de Haller, concha média bolhosa e desvio de septo nasal localizado no meato médio. Forma de Estudo: Clínico retrospectivo. Material e Método: Foram avaliadas retrospectivamente 150 tomografias computadorizadas de seios paranasais de pacientes com idade igual ou superior a 13 anos, realizadas no Departamento de Diagnóstico por Imagem da Universidade Federal de São Paulo - Escola Paulista de Medicina, no período de julho de 1999 a outubro de 2001. Foram excluídos os exames de pacientes com pós-operatório de cirurgias de seios paranasais e de base de crânio, além dos portadores de lesões tumorais envolvendo estas regiões. Resultados: 70% dos pacientes apresentavam espessamento mucoso em pelo menos um dos seios paranasais. Observou-se a freqüência de 52,7% de sinusopatia maxilar, 28,0% de etmoidal, 13,0% de esfenoidal e 8,3% de frontal. Concha média bolhosa foi encontrada em 33,3% das cavidades nasais, desvio de septo nasal localizado no meato médio em 23,3% e célula de Haller em 9,3%. Conclusões: Os seios paranasais mais freqüentemente acometidos foram, em ordem decrescente: maxilar, etmoidal, esfenoidal e frontal. Não foi observado correlação entre sinusopatias e presença de célula de Haller, concha média bolhosa e desvio de septo nasal localizado no meato médio.Introduction: Computed tomography has been increasingly used both to identify and to evaluate anatomy variations of nasal cavities that can lead to the development of sinusitis. Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to determine the incidence of mucosal

  3. Tomographic characteristics of spin states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chernega, VN; Man'ko, OV; Man'ko, [No Value; Pilyavets, OV; Zborovskii, VG

    2006-01-01

    Spin states are studied in the tomographic-probability representation. The standard probability distribution of spin projection onto a direction in space is used instead of the spinor or the density matrix to identify the quantum state. The Shannon entropy and information are associated with the spi

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a lower than normal number of red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen and remove carbon dioxide (a waste ... Anemia also can occur if your red blood cells don't contain enough hemoglobin (HEE-muh-glow- ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time if your body doesn't have enough iron ... Institutes of Health—shows how Susan, a full-time worker and student, has coped with having iron- ...

  6. Sickle Cell Anemia Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Steven C.

    Presents sources for the acquisition of medical, social, psychological, educational, and practical knowledge of sickle cell anemia. The materials listed are designed to help parents, educators, and public service workers. Materials include journal articles, films, brochures, slides, and fact sheets. The usual bibliographic information is given.…

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen and remove carbon dioxide (a waste product) from your body. Anemia ... Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen and remove carbon dioxide (a waste product) from your body. Anemia also can occur if your red blood cells don't contain enough hemoglobin (HEE-muh-glow-bin). Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood has a lower than normal number of red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen and remove carbon dioxide ( ... your body. Anemia also can occur if your red blood cells don't contain enough hemoglobin (HEE- ...

  10. FEBRILE SEIZURE AND ANEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talebian

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveConsidering the controversial results in present day literature regarding the relationship between febrile seizures and anemia and the high rate of such seizures in children, this study was conducted to evaluate the association between pediatric febrile seizures and anemia.Material and MethodsIn this case-control study, conducted in 2003, 60 children with febrile seizure(cases and 60 febrile children without seizure(controls were evaluated in the Kashan Shahid Beheshti hospital; all patients were matched for age, sex, type of feeding, and use of supplemental iron. Thirty-six (60% and 39 (65% of the patients in case and control groups respectively were male, and the remaining female. Levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cell indices were determined in all children and Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to analyze data.ResultsOf the case group, 13.3% (6 male, 2 female and of controls, 20% (9 male, 3 female of children had anemia (p= 0.327, the condition being more common in male children aged over 6 months. Febrile seizures were found to occur mostly between the ages of 6 to 24 months.ConclusionThe risk of febrile seizure occurrence in anemic children seems to be less than that in children who do not suffer from the condition.Keywords:Febrile seizure, Anemia, Children

  11. Anemia and School Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobonis, Gustavo J.; Miguel, Edward; Puri-Sharma, Charu

    2006-01-01

    Anemia is among the most widespread health problems for children in developing countries. This paper evaluates the impact of a randomized health intervention delivering iron supplementation and deworming drugs to Indian preschool children. At baseline, 69 percent were anemic and 30 percent had intestinal worm infections. Weight increased among…

  12. Twin anemia polycythemia sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaghekke, Femke

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we describe that Twin Anemia Polycythemia Sequence (TAPS) is a form of chronic feto-fetal transfusion in monochorionic (identical) twins based on a small amount of blood transfusion through very small anastomoses. For the antenatal diagnosis of TAPS, Middle Cerebral Artery – Peak Syst

  13. Single photon tomographic imaging of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomographic imaging of the heart, utilizing gamma-emitting radionuclides, a rotating camera and computer reconstruction (SPECT), represents an important advance in cardiac nuclear imaging over standard 2-dimensional planar techniques. In addition to more precise 3-dimensional localization of cardiac lesions, tomography provides improved resistivity for lesion detection, improved lesion contrast, and enhanced ability to accurately quantify lesion severity and extent. The authors determined that tomographic imaging of exercise induced pefusion defects, using the flow tracer thallium-201, is superior to conventional planar imaging. By random selection, first one technique and then the other was performed in 3 groups of subjects: 54 patients with cardiac catheterization-proven coronary artery disease (CAD) defined as >50% stenosis of one or more major coronary arteries; 13 patients with no significant CAD at catheterization, and 20 normal volunteers, age 30-51. For SPECT imaging, 60 acquisitions were performed over 1800, transaxial images were reconstructed with a Hanning filter (cut-off 0.30), and data was reoriented to display short and long axis slices. Equal numbers of studies or normal volunteers and catheterization patients were interpreted without knowledge of patient identity using a five point scale. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, in which false positives were plotted against true positives, was used to determine the full sensitivity-specificity relationships for both imaging modalities. The SPECT ROC curve was higher and to the left, indicating improved performance

  14. On the tomographic description of classical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a general description of the tomographic picture for classical systems, a tomographic description of free classical scalar fields is proposed both in a finite cavity and the continuum. The tomographic description is constructed in analogy with the classical tomographic picture of an ensemble of harmonic oscillators. The tomograms of a number of relevant states such as the canonical distribution, the classical counterpart of quantum coherent states and a new family of so-called Gauss–Laguerre states, are discussed. Finally the Liouville equation for field states is described in the tomographic picture offering an alternative description of the dynamics of the system that can be extended naturally to other fields.

  15. On the tomographic description of classical fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibort, A., E-mail: albertoi@math.uc3m.es [Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); López-Yela, A., E-mail: alyela@math.uc3m.es [Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); Man' ko, V.I., E-mail: manko@na.infn.it [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Marmo, G., E-mail: marmo@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Università “Federico II” e Sezione INFN di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Simoni, A., E-mail: simoni@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Università “Federico II” e Sezione INFN di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Sudarshan, E.C.G., E-mail: bhamathig@gmail.com [Physics Department, Center for Particle Physics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ventriglia, F., E-mail: ventriglia@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Università “Federico II” e Sezione INFN di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy)

    2012-03-26

    After a general description of the tomographic picture for classical systems, a tomographic description of free classical scalar fields is proposed both in a finite cavity and the continuum. The tomographic description is constructed in analogy with the classical tomographic picture of an ensemble of harmonic oscillators. The tomograms of a number of relevant states such as the canonical distribution, the classical counterpart of quantum coherent states and a new family of so-called Gauss–Laguerre states, are discussed. Finally the Liouville equation for field states is described in the tomographic picture offering an alternative description of the dynamics of the system that can be extended naturally to other fields.

  16. On the tomographic description of classical fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ibort, A; Man'ko, V I; Marmo, G; Simoni, A; Sudarshan, E C G; Ventriglia, F

    2012-01-01

    After a general description of the tomographic picture for classical systems, a tomographic description of free classical scalar fields is proposed both in a finite cavity and the continuum. The tomographic description is constructed in analogy with the classical tomographic picture of an ensemble of harmonic oscillators. The tomograms of a number of relevant states such as the canonical distribution, the classical counterpart of quantum coherent states and a new family of so called Gauss--Laguerre states, are discussed. Finally the Liouville equation for field states is described in the tomographic picture offering an alternative description of the dynamics of the system that can be extended naturally to other fields.

  17. Varied computed tomographic appearance of intracranial cryptococcosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT findings in 12 cases of intracranial cryptococcal infection were reviewed. Five patients had a normal scan. Seven patients had communicating or noncommunicating hydrocephalus. Additional findings included meningeal opacification, cerebritis, abscess, and granuloma. Although not specific for cryptococcosis, the CT scan is helpful for evaluating and following the status of the ventricles, subarachnoid spaces, and meninges

  18. Varied computed tomographic appearance of intracranial cryptococcosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornell, S.H.; Jacoby, C.G.

    1982-06-01

    CT findings in 12 cases of intracranial cryptococcal infection were reviewed. Five patients had a normal scan. Seven patients had communicating or noncommunicating hydrocephalus. Additional findings included meningeal opacification, cerebritis, abscess, and granuloma. Although not specific for cryptococcosis, the CT scan is helpful for evaluating and following the status of the ventricles, subarachnoid spaces, and meninges.

  19. Computed tomographic appearances of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated longitudinal changes in chest CT images in six cases (5 males and one female, age: 35-57 yr) of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis treated with bronchopulmonary lavage. Chest CT images on admission showed a mixed pattern of air-space consolidation and reticular or reticulonodular shadows in most cases and showed a peripheral clear zone in all cases. These shadows gradually diminished after bronchopulmonary lavage. Some cases revealed early improvement in the hilar zone while others had equal improvement in all lung lesions. In one case, consolidation was changed into reticular shadows by treatment. Previous reports have indicated that 'interstitial shadows which disappeared with lavage' reflect edematous thickening of interlobular septa. However, our longitudinal evaluation suggests that interstitial shadows on CT images may reflect not only real interstitial infiltration but also inhomogeneous distribution of intralobular deposits. (author)

  20. Xenon computed tomographic blood flow mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xenon CT flow information appears to be clinically useful in the diagnosis and management of a broad spectrum of clinical disorders. It also appears to be a useful tool for the experimental study of the cerebral circulation, with recent work also extending to application to the study of solid abdominal organs. The authors therefore found xenon CT CBF mapping to be a useful new blood flow methodology and are of the opinion that as CT technology improves, one will be able to obtain still better flow information with less accompanying radiation exposure and/or a reduction in the level of xenon inhalation required

  1. Computed tomographic metrizamide myelography in spinal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isu, T.; Ito, T.; Iwasaki, Y.; Tsuru, M. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine); Kitaoka, K.

    1981-03-01

    Methods: Either EMT Head Scanner, CT 1010 (slice thickness 10 mm) or EMI Body Scanner, CT 5005 (slice thickness 13 mm) was used. The concentration of metrizamide was 170 - 250 mgI/ml and the amount was 7 - 10 ml. Either lumbar puncture or lateral C sub(1 - 2) puncture was made. Materials: 26 cases were included in this study. 1) disc disease: 11 cases, 2) spinal cord tumor: 6 cases, 3) Arnold-Chiari malformation: 3 cases, 4) atlantoaxial dislocation: 3 cases, 5) ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (associated with ossification of the ligamentum flavum): 2 cases (1 case), 6) spinal foreign body (acupuncture needle): 1 case. Results: 1) CT metrizamide myelography visualizes the subarachnoid space and makes it possible to know the lesion in the spinal canal in relation to the spinal cord in transverse plane. 2) It is difficult to determine the exact level of the lesion in axial plane. 3) The present technique does not allow to visualize the root sleeves. 4) It is difficult to delineate a compression of the subarachnoid space by small localized lesions (esp., disc diseases) due to overlapping the patent adjacent subarachnoid space within a slice 10 mm to 13 mm thick.

  2. Computed tomographic findings of intracranial cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Duk; Choi, Byung Ihn; Hong, Sung Mo; Chang, Kee Hyun [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Cysticercosis, like other parasitic disease, is still endemic in many parts of the world, and is not infrequently found in Korea. The authors reviewed CT findings of 54 cases of the cysticercosis involving the central nervous system which were proven by pathology and clinical findings. The results are as follows: 1. Male to female ratio is 3 : 1 and the most prevalent age group is the fifth decade. The most common symptom is seizure (56%). 2. Involved areas in the brain are parenchymal (66%), intraventricular (15%), leptomeningeal (40%) and the mixed (15%). 3. Pre-contrast CT findings are the round low density in 46 cases (85%), multiple pin- point calcification in 18 cases (33%), variable degrees of hydrocephalus in 20 cases (37%) and peripheral edematous change in 8 cases (15%). 4. Post- enhancement CT findings are complete or partial wall enhancement in 28 cases (50%), nodular enhancement in 18 cases (32%) and pin-point enhancement in 10 cases (18%) which represents the enhancement of the scolex per se. Basal cisternal enhancement is seen in one case, which is very unusual finding of cysticercosis cellulosae.

  3. Computed tomographic findings of intracranial cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cysticercosis, like other parasitic disease, is still endemic in many parts of the world, and is not infrequently found in Korea. The authors reviewed CT findings of 54 cases of the cysticercosis involving the central nervous system which were proven by pathology and clinical findings. The results are as follows: 1. Male to female ratio is 3 : 1 and the most prevalent age group is the fifth decade. The most common symptom is seizure (56%). 2. Involved areas in the brain are parenchymal (66%), intraventricular (15%), leptomeningeal (40%) and the mixed (15%). 3. Pre-contrast CT findings are the round low density in 46 cases (85%), multiple pin- point calcification in 18 cases (33%), variable degrees of hydrocephalus in 20 cases (37%) and peripheral edematous change in 8 cases (15%). 4. Post- enhancement CT findings are complete or partial wall enhancement in 28 cases (50%), nodular enhancement in 18 cases (32%) and pin-point enhancement in 10 cases (18%) which represents the enhancement of the scolex per se. Basal cisternal enhancement is seen in one case, which is very unusual finding of cysticercosis cellulosae

  4. Computed tomographic appearances of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takiguchi, Yasuo; Uchiyama, Takashi; Nagao, Keiichi; Kuriyama, Takayuki (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Fujita, Akira; Hashizume, Ikko

    1994-03-01

    We evaluated longitudinal changes in chest CT images in six cases (5 males and one female, age: 35-57 yr) of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis treated with bronchopulmonary lavage. Chest CT images on admission showed a mixed pattern of air-space consolidation and reticular or reticulonodular shadows in most cases and showed a peripheral clear zone in all cases. These shadows gradually diminished after bronchopulmonary lavage. Some cases revealed early improvement in the hilar zone while others had equal improvement in all lung lesions. In one case, consolidation was changed into reticular shadows by treatment. Previous reports have indicated that 'interstitial shadows which disappeared with lavage' reflect edematous thickening of interlobular septa. However, our longitudinal evaluation suggests that interstitial shadows on CT images may reflect not only real interstitial infiltration but also inhomogeneous distribution of intralobular deposits. (author).

  5. CT-guided Irreversible Electroporation in an Acute Porcine Liver Model: Effect of Previous Transarterial Iodized Oil Tissue Marking on Technical Parameters, 3D Computed Tomographic Rendering of the Electroporation Zone, and Histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of previous transarterial iodized oil tissue marking (ITM) on technical parameters, three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided irreversible electroporation (IRE) in an acute porcine liver model as a potential strategy to improve IRE performance.MethodsAfter Ethics Committee approval was obtained, in five landrace pigs, two IREs of the right and left liver (RL and LL) were performed under CT guidance with identical electroporation parameters. Before IRE, transarterial marking of the LL was performed with iodized oil. Nonenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT examinations followed. One hour after IRE, animals were killed and livers collected. Mean resulting voltage and amperage during IRE were assessed. For 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, parameters for size and shape were analyzed. Quantitative data were compared by the Mann–Whitney test. Histopathological differences were assessed.ResultsMean resulting voltage and amperage were 2,545.3 ± 66.0 V and 26.1 ± 1.8 A for RL, and 2,537.3 ± 69.0 V and 27.7 ± 1.8 A for LL without significant differences. Short axis, volume, and sphericity index were 16.5 ± 4.4 mm, 8.6 ± 3.2 cm3, and 1.7 ± 0.3 for RL, and 18.2 ± 3.4 mm, 9.8 ± 3.8 cm3, and 1.7 ± 0.3 for LL without significant differences. For RL and LL, the electroporation zone consisted of severely widened hepatic sinusoids containing erythrocytes and showed homogeneous apoptosis. For LL, iodized oil could be detected in the center and at the rim of the electroporation zone.ConclusionThere is no adverse effect of previous ITM on technical parameters, 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided IRE of the liver

  6. Application of dual energy cerebral arteries computed tomographic angiography in diagnosis of cerebral aneurysm%双能量脑动脉CT血管造影在脑动脉瘤诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莉; 张岩睿; 刘艳; 李江红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the value of dual energy cerebral arteries computed tomographic angiography (CTA) in diagnosis of cerebral aneurysm.Methods As a gold standard of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings,the dual energy cerebral arteries CTA imaging features of 30 cases confirmed by DSA for cerebral aneurysm were retrospectively analyzed.The diagnosis accuracy of cerebral aneurysm between dual energy cerebral arteries and DSA was compared.Results Dual energy cerebral arteries CTA could display the direct signs of cerebral aneurysms,it played better in the signs of aneurysm of the siphon segment of internal carotid artery than that by conventional cerebral arteries CTA.The measurement of the size and neck by dual energy cerebral arteries CTA had good agreement to DSA,there was no statistical difference (P > 0.05).The radiation dose of dual energy cerebral arteries CTA was 19.1-25.4(21.7 ± 0.5)mSv.Conclusion The dual energy cerebral arteries CTA can show the size and neck of cerebral aneurysm clearly,has high value in clinical application of the diagnosis of cerebral aneurysm.%目的 探讨双能量脑动脉CT血管造影(CTA)在脑动脉瘤诊断中的价值.方法 以数字减影血管造影(DSA)结果为金标准,回顾性分析30例经DSA证实为脑动脉瘤患者的双能量脑动脉CTA影像学特点,比较双能量脑动脉CTA和DSA检查对脑动脉瘤诊断准确性.结果 双能量脑动脉CTA能较好地显示脑动脉瘤的直接征象,对颈内动脉虹吸段的动脉瘤征象显示优于常规脑动脉CTA扫描.对瘤体及瘤颈的测量与DSA有较高的一致性,两种方法比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).双能量脑动脉CTA辐射剂量为19.1~25.4(21.7±0.5) mSv.结论 双能量脑动脉CTA能够清晰显示脑动脉瘤的瘤体大小及瘤颈,对脑动脉瘤的诊断有较高的临床应用价值.

  7. CT-guided Irreversible Electroporation in an Acute Porcine Liver Model: Effect of Previous Transarterial Iodized Oil Tissue Marking on Technical Parameters, 3D Computed Tomographic Rendering of the Electroporation Zone, and Histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, C. M., E-mail: christof.sommer@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Fritz, S., E-mail: stefan.fritz@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of General Visceral and Transplantation Surgery (Germany); Vollherbst, D., E-mail: dominikvollherbst@web.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Zelzer, S., E-mail: s.zelzer@dkfz-heidelberg.de [German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Medical and Biological Informatics (Germany); Wachter, M. F., E-mail: fredericwachter@googlemail.com; Bellemann, N., E-mail: nadine.bellemann@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Gockner, T., E-mail: theresa.gockner@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Mokry, T., E-mail: theresa.mokry@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Schmitz, A., E-mail: anne.schmitz@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Aulmann, S., E-mail: sebastian.aulmann@mail.com [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of General Pathology (Germany); Stampfl, U., E-mail: ulrike.stampfl@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Pereira, P., E-mail: philippe.pereira@slk-kliniken.de [SLK Kliniken Heilbronn GmbH, Clinic for Radiology, Minimally-invasive Therapies and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Kauczor, H. U., E-mail: hu.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Werner, J., E-mail: jens.werner@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of General Visceral and Transplantation Surgery (Germany); Radeleff, B. A., E-mail: boris.radeleff@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of previous transarterial iodized oil tissue marking (ITM) on technical parameters, three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided irreversible electroporation (IRE) in an acute porcine liver model as a potential strategy to improve IRE performance.MethodsAfter Ethics Committee approval was obtained, in five landrace pigs, two IREs of the right and left liver (RL and LL) were performed under CT guidance with identical electroporation parameters. Before IRE, transarterial marking of the LL was performed with iodized oil. Nonenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT examinations followed. One hour after IRE, animals were killed and livers collected. Mean resulting voltage and amperage during IRE were assessed. For 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, parameters for size and shape were analyzed. Quantitative data were compared by the Mann–Whitney test. Histopathological differences were assessed.ResultsMean resulting voltage and amperage were 2,545.3 ± 66.0 V and 26.1 ± 1.8 A for RL, and 2,537.3 ± 69.0 V and 27.7 ± 1.8 A for LL without significant differences. Short axis, volume, and sphericity index were 16.5 ± 4.4 mm, 8.6 ± 3.2 cm{sup 3}, and 1.7 ± 0.3 for RL, and 18.2 ± 3.4 mm, 9.8 ± 3.8 cm{sup 3}, and 1.7 ± 0.3 for LL without significant differences. For RL and LL, the electroporation zone consisted of severely widened hepatic sinusoids containing erythrocytes and showed homogeneous apoptosis. For LL, iodized oil could be detected in the center and at the rim of the electroporation zone.ConclusionThere is no adverse effect of previous ITM on technical parameters, 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided IRE of the liver.

  8. Detector Based Radio Tomographic Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Yiğitler, Hüseyin; Jäntti, Riku; Kaltiokallio, Ossi; Patwari, Neal

    2016-01-01

    Received signal strength based radio tomographic imaging is a popular device-free indoor localization method which reconstructs the spatial loss field of the environment using measurements from a dense wireless network. Existing methods solve an associated inverse problem using algebraic or compressed sensing reconstruction algorithms. We propose an alternative imaging method that reconstructs spatial field of occupancy using a back-projection based reconstruction algorithm. The introduced sy...

  9. SPICE benchmark for global tomographic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yilong; Capdeville, Yann; Maupin, Valerie; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Lebedev, Sergei; Beucler, Eric

    2008-11-01

    The existing global tomographic methods result in different models due to different parametrization, scale resolution and theoretical approach. To test how current imaging techniques are limited by approximations in theory and by the inadequacy of data quality and coverage, it is necessary to perform a global-scale benchmark to understand the resolving properties of each specific imaging algorithm. In the framework of the Seismic wave Propagation and Imaging in Complex media: a European network (SPICE) project, it was decided to perform a benchmark experiment of global inversion algorithms. First, a preliminary benchmark with a simple isotropic model is carried out to check the feasibility in terms of acquisition geometry and numerical accuracy. Then, to fully validate tomographic schemes with a challenging synthetic data set, we constructed one complex anisotropic global model, which is characterized by 21 elastic constants and includes 3-D heterogeneities in velocity, anisotropy (radial and azimuthal anisotropy), attenuation, density, as well as surface topography and bathymetry. The intermediate-period (>32 s), high fidelity anisotropic modelling was performed by using state-of-the-art anisotropic anelastic modelling code, that is, coupled spectral element method (CSEM), on modern massively parallel computing resources. The benchmark data set consists of 29 events and three-component seismograms are recorded by 256 stations. Because of the limitation of the available computing power, synthetic seismograms have a minimum period of 32 s and a length of 10 500 s. The inversion of the benchmark data set demonstrates several well-known problems of classical surface wave tomography, such as the importance of crustal correction to recover the shallow structures, the loss of resolution with depth, the smearing effect, both horizontal and vertical, the inaccuracy of amplitude of isotropic S-wave velocity variation, the difficulty of retrieving the magnitude of azimuthal

  10. Thiamine– Responsive Megaloblastic Anemia Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Motavaselian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thiamine Responsive megaloblastic anemia in DIDMOA (Wolfram syndrome has an autosomal- recessive mode of inheritance . Megaloblastic anemia and sideroblastic anemia is accompanied by diabetes insipidus (DI, diabetes mellitus (DM ,optic atrophy (OA and deafness (D. Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia are also present. We report a 7 month old girl with congenital macrocytic anemia; a rare clinical feature of Wolfram,s syndrome with increased plasma levels of blood glucose, both of which dramatically responded to administration of thiamine in large doses . The patient also had neurosensorial deafness, but no improvement was observed in the deafness. We presented the case because thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia is a rare clinical presentation of Wolfram syndrome and after institution of treatment with thiamine, the anemia and hyperglycemia returned to normal.

  11. Understanding anemia of chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Paula G

    2015-01-01

    The anemia of chronic disease is an old disease concept, but contemporary research in the role of proinflammatory cytokines and iron biology has shed new light on the pathophysiology of the condition. Recent epidemiologic studies have connected the anemia of chronic disease with critical illness, obesity, aging, and kidney failure, as well as with the well-established associations of cancer, chronic infection, and autoimmune disease. Functional iron deficiency, mediated principally by the interaction of interleukin-6, the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, and the iron exporter ferroportin, is a major contributor to the anemia of chronic disease. Although anemia is associated with adverse outcomes, experimental models suggest that iron sequestration is desirable in the setting of severe infection. Experimental therapeutic approaches targeting interleukin-6 or the ferroportin-hepcidin axis have shown efficacy in reversing anemia in either animal models or human patients, although these agents have not yet been approved for the treatment of the anemia of chronic disease.

  12. Anemia, Growth Failure and Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Chaytors, Richard Gordon; Higgins, Gerald

    1980-01-01

    A 12-year-old Caucasian female presented to her family physician with an old complaint of anemia and a new complaint of failure to grow. The anemia, first observed four years previously, had been diagnosed as iron deficiency, but had never satisfactorily responded to adequate iron therapy. Investigation of the failure to grow resulted in a diagnosis of hypothyroidism with related normochromic normocytic anemia.

  13. Anemia of Chronic Liver Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyun Chung; Lee, Jhung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-09-15

    The pathogenetic mechanisms of anemia in patients with chronic liver disease were observed. Seventeen patients with moderate to advanced hepatic diseases were studied by various methods. Only patients without previous blood loss were included : 14 had cirrhosis, 2 had active chronic hepatitis, and one had inferior vena cava obstruction with associated liver cirrhosis. The followings were the results: 1. The anemia based on red blood cell count, Hb., and Ht. was found in 76.5-78.6% of the patients. 2. Red cell indices indicated that normo-macrocytic and normochromic anemia was present is the majority of the patients. 3. No evidence of megaloblastic anemia was found on the basis of the morphological examinations. 4. Serum iron, TIBC, % saturation and iron content in the bone marrow indicated that iron deficiency anemia was present in about half of the patients. 5. In the view of the erythrocyte dynamics, primary increase in the red cell destruction was ascribed to the cause of the anemia. 6. Decrease in the red cell survival time was not correlated with MCV, % saturation and S.L. ratio. Also, hemoglobin level was not correlated with MCV, % saturation and T{sub 50} Cr. Therefore, multiple causes may be involved in the pathogenesis of the anemia. 7. Anemia as determined by the red cell volume was found in only 60% of the patients. It may be possible that hemodilutional anemia is present.

  14. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breymann, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Anemia is a common problem in obstetrics and perinatal care. Any hemoglobin below 10.5 g/dL can be regarded as true anemia regardless of gestational age. Reasons for anemia in pregnancy are mainly nutritional deficiencies, parasitic and bacterial diseases, and inborn red blood cell disorders such as thalassemias. The main cause of anemia in obstetrics is iron deficiency, which has a worldwide prevalence between estimated 20%-80% and consists of a primarily female population. Stages of iron deficiency are depletion of iron stores, iron-deficient erythropoiesis without anemia, and iron deficiency anemia, the most pronounced form of iron deficiency. Pregnancy anemia can be aggravated by various conditions such as uterine or placental bleedings, gastrointestinal bleedings, and peripartum blood loss. In addition to the general consequences of anemia, there are specific risks during pregnancy for the mother and the fetus such as intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, feto-placental miss ratio, and higher risk for peripartum blood transfusion. Besides the importance of prophylaxis of iron deficiency, the main therapy options for the treatment of pregnancy anemia are oral iron and intravenous iron preparations.

  15. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells If you’re ... and sluggish, you might have a condition called anemia. Anemia is a common blood disorder that many ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Diamond-Blackfan anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Diamond-Blackfan anemia Diamond-Blackfan anemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a disorder of the bone marrow . The ...

  17. Special Issues for People with Aplastic Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menu Donate Special Issues for People with Aplastic Anemia Because you have aplastic anemia , everyday events can ... bleeding, such as contact sports. Pregnancy and Aplastic Anemia Pregnancy is possible for women who have been ...

  18. Anemia of Inflammation and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 270 KB). Alternate Language URL Anemia of Inflammation and Chronic Disease Page Content On ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which a person ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Iron-Deficiency Anemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Iron-Deficiency Anemia Print A ... common nutritional deficiency in children. About Iron-Deficiency Anemia Every red blood cell in the body contains ...

  20. X-ray tomographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An x-ray tomographic system consists of a radiation source such as gamma or x radiation which produces a fan-shaped beam. The fan is wide enough to encompass the patient circle. The system further includes means for rotating the radiation source about the patient for less than a full rotation, and detectors for detecting the radiation at positions that surround the patient by 1800 plus the angle of the fan beam plus the angle between adjacent fan detectors. Attenuation data from the detectors is sorted into detector fans of attenuation data, then processed. The convolved data is back-projected into an image memory and displayed on a video monitor

  1. Sickle cell anemia Review

    OpenAIRE

    Antmen, Bülent

    2009-01-01

    Sickle hemoglobin HbS so called because of the sickle shape it imparts to deoxynated red cells is responsible for a wide spectrum of disorders that vary with respect to degree of anemia frequency of crises extent of organ injury and duration of survival The sickle mutation substitutes thymine for adenine in the sixth codon of the b gene GAGÆGTG thereby encoding valine instead of glutamine in the sixth position of the ß chain This ostensibly minor change in structure is responsible for profoun...

  2. 双源CT颈部血管造影检查中DEBR和CoBR应用比较%COMPARISON BETWEEN APPLICATION OF DEBR AND COBR IN DUAL ENERGY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC CERVICAL ANGIOGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽响; 袁莹莹; 张秀丽; 徐凯; 程广军

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较双源CT(DSCT)在颈部血管造影检查中双能量自动去骨(DEBR)和常规3D软件自动去骨(CoBR)的应用效果.方法 30例临床怀疑颈部血管病变的病人行DSCT血管造影检查,获双能量数据(140 kV及80 kV)及融合数据(120 kV),对双能量数据与融合数据分别采用DEBR及CoBR生成容积再现(VR)图像,然后手动去除残余骨质.比较DEBR及CoBR时间、最终后处理时间以及残余骨质情况与椎动脉缺损的长度.结果 DEBR及CoBR图像质量均达到诊断要求,但DEBR残余骨质少(t=2.69~12.96,P<0.05),椎动脉缺如也少于CoBR (t=12.96,P<0.05),且DEBR的最终后处理时间少于CoBR(t=6.82,P<0.05).结论 DEBR与传统CoBR比较,图像残余骨质少,可节省工作人员图像后处理时间,同时保证图像质量.%Objective To study the application of dual energy-based bone removal (DEBR) versus conventional bone removal (CoBR) in dual energy computed tomographic cervical angiography (DECTCA). Methods DECTCA was conducted in 30 patients with suspicious cervical vascular lesion. 140 kVp and 80 kVp datasets were obtained. The imaging of the two groups was separately bone-removed automatically with dual energy and conventional 3D software, as well as manual bone remove. The time of DEBR and CoBR, final handling time, residual bone and defect of the length of vertebral artery were compared. Results The image quality of both DEBR and CoBR met the requirements for diagnosis. The residual bone was less, defect of vertebral artery shorter, and final handling time less in DEBR versus CoBR (t = 2. 69-12. 96,P<0. 05), (t=12. 96,P<0. 05) and (t = 6. 82,P< 0.05). respectively. Conclusion Compared with CoBR, DEBR has advantages as follows: reducing residual bone, saving time for image postprocessing, and ensuring the quality of image.

  3. Spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery:multi-slice computed tomographic angiography findings in seven cases%MSCT血管成像对孤立性肠系膜上动脉夹层的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈则君; 谢旭纲; 孟宪平; 朱建新; 王伯元

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨MSCT血管成像诊断孤立性肠系膜上动脉夹层(SISAMD)的临床应用价值.方法:对7例急性肠缺血患者行MSCT血管成像,采用容积再现(VR)、多平面重组(MPR)、曲面重组(CPR)及最大密度投影(MIP)重组图像,由两位经验丰富的心血管影像医师评估夹层的部位和范围.结果:SISAMD与主动脉夹层CT血管成像(CTA)表现相同,CTA清晰显示撕裂内膜5例,破裂口均位于肠系膜上动脉(SMA)近心端.根据Yun分型:Ⅰ型1例,Ⅱa型3例,Ⅱb型2例,Ⅲ型1例.SMA直径增粗2例,SMA周围脂肪间隙模糊2例,局部回肠壁增厚、水肿2例,升结肠扩张、积液1例,腹腔及盆腔内少量积液2例.结论:MSCTA能清晰显示病变特征和累及范围,是孤立性肠系膜上动脉夹层首选的检查方法.%Objective : To asscss the value of multi-slice computed tomographic angiography (MSCTA) in the diagno sis of spontancous isolated dissection of superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Methods:7 patients with clinically suspected a cute mesenteric ischemia underwent MSCTA. Multiplanar and three-dimensional images were obtained by imaging postpro cessing techniques including volume rendering technique (VRT) , multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) , curved planar reforma tion (CPR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP) on a workstation. Image reading was performed in consensus by two experienced cardiovascular radiologists. Results: According to Yun's classification,there were one case of type Ⅰ , three type Ⅱ a,two type Ⅱ b and one type Ⅲ . Spontaneous isolated dissection of SMA displays the same MSCTA features as aortic dis section. Intimal flaps were seen in five patients,with intimal tears at the proximal SMA. Other MSCTA findings associated with spontaneous isolated dissection of SMA were enlarged diameter of the SMA (n=2) ,increased attenuation of the fat a round the SMA (n=2) ,local ileum wall thickening due to edema (n=2) , dilated ascending colon (n=1) and hemorrhagic

  4. Downscaling Smooth Tomographic Models: Separating Intrinsic and Apparent Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Thomas; Capdeville, Yann; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, a number of tomographic models based on full waveform inversion have been published. Due to computational constraints, the fitted waveforms are low pass filtered, which results in an inability to map features smaller than half the shortest wavelength. However, these tomographic images are not a simple spatial average of the true model, but rather an effective, apparent, or equivalent model that provides a similar 'long-wave' data fit. For example, it can be shown that a series of horizontal isotropic layers will be seen by a 'long wave' as a smooth anisotropic medium. In this way, the observed anisotropy in tomographic models is a combination of intrinsic anisotropy produced by lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of minerals, and apparent anisotropy resulting from the incapacity of mapping discontinuities. Interpretations of observed anisotropy (e.g. in terms of mantle flow) requires therefore the separation of its intrinsic and apparent components. The "up-scaling" relations that link elastic properties of a rapidly varying medium to elastic properties of the effective medium as seen by long waves are strongly non-linear and their inverse highly non-unique. That is, a smooth homogenized effective model is equivalent to a large number of models with discontinuities. In the 1D case, Capdeville et al (GJI, 2013) recently showed that a tomographic model which results from the inversion of low pass filtered waveforms is an homogenized model, i.e. the same as the model computed by upscaling the true model. Here we propose a stochastic method to sample the ensemble of layered models equivalent to a given tomographic profile. We use a transdimensional formulation where the number of layers is variable. Furthermore, each layer may be either isotropic (1 parameter) or intrinsically anisotropic (2 parameters). The parsimonious character of the Bayesian inversion gives preference to models with the least number of parameters (i.e. least number of layers, and

  5. Analysis of the Spectral Resolving Power in Tomographic Imaging Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方俊永; 赵达尊; 蒋月娟

    2004-01-01

    From the point of view of design requirements, influence of the width of the output image of an imaging subsystem in a tomographic imaging spectrometer, namely width of the slit, the grating and the size of the CCD pixel are analyzed. For the tomographic imaging spectrometry, if the amplification ratio of the imaging subsystem is not high enough to make the whole object to be compressed within the slit, then either the slit width should be increased or the slit width kept unchanged but scanned to receive information of the object. While the width-increase method reduces the spectral resolving power and the SNR; the scanning method reduces the SNR. Analysis of the two cases and computer simulation results are given.

  6. Evaluation of a multicore-optimized implementation for tomographic reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose-Ignacio Agulleiro

    Full Text Available Tomography allows elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of an object from a set of projection images. In life sciences, electron microscope tomography is providing invaluable information about the cell structure at a resolution of a few nanometres. Here, large images are required to combine wide fields of view with high resolution requirements. The computational complexity of the algorithms along with the large image size then turns tomographic reconstruction into a computationally demanding problem. Traditionally, high-performance computing techniques have been applied to cope with such demands on supercomputers, distributed systems and computer clusters. In the last few years, the trend has turned towards graphics processing units (GPUs. Here we present a detailed description and a thorough evaluation of an alternative approach that relies on exploitation of the power available in modern multicore computers. The combination of single-core code optimization, vector processing, multithreading and efficient disk I/O operations succeeds in providing fast tomographic reconstructions on standard computers. The approach turns out to be competitive with the fastest GPU-based solutions thus far.

  7. First tomographic image of neutron capture rate in a BNCT facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work discusses the development of online dosimetry of the boron dose via Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) during a BNCT treatment irradiation. Such a system will allow the online computation of boron dose maps without the large current uncertainties in the assessment of the boron concentration in different tissues. The first tomographic boron dose image with a SPECT prototype is shown.

  8. First tomographic image of neutron capture rate in a BNCT facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsky, D.M., E-mail: minsky@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, , UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Conicet, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, , UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina); Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, , UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Conicet, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Green, S.; Wojnecki, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, B15 2 TT (United Kingdom)] [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TH (United Kingdom); Ghani, Z. [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TH (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    This work discusses the development of online dosimetry of the boron dose via Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) during a BNCT treatment irradiation. Such a system will allow the online computation of boron dose maps without the large current uncertainties in the assessment of the boron concentration in different tissues. The first tomographic boron dose image with a SPECT prototype is shown.

  9. Complement in hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Complement is increasingly being recognized as an important driver of human disease, including many hemolytic anemias. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) cells are susceptible to hemolysis because of a loss of the complement regulatory proteins CD59 and CD55. Patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) develop a thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) that in most cases is attributable to mutations that lead to activation of the alternative pathway of complement. For optimal therapy, it is critical, but often difficult, to distinguish aHUS from other TMAs, such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; however, novel bioassays are being developed. In cold agglutinin disease (CAD), immunoglobulin M autoantibodies fix complement on the surface of red cells, resulting in extravascular hemolysis by the reticuloendothelial system. Drugs that inhibit complement activation are increasingly being used to treat these diseases. This article discusses the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy for PNH, aHUS, and CAD.

  10. Managing anemia in lymphoma and multiple myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnar Birgegård

    2008-01-01

    Gunnar BirgegårdDepartment of Haematology, University Hospital, Uppsala, SwedenAbstract: Anemia is common in cancer, and lymphoproliferative disease is no exception. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) have been used for renal anemia since 1986, and considerably later in cancer anemia. The first studies were published around 1993, but the use of ESA did not become common in cancer anemia until in the late 1990s. Cancer anemia is still under-treated. This review gives an overview...

  11. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational

  12. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  13. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  14. Multimodality tomographic scintimammography with PET, PECI, and SPECT: initial evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Andrzej; Feiglin, David H.; Thomas, Frank D.; Hellwig, Bradford J.; Gagne, George M.

    2002-04-01

    We compared tomographic scintimammography performed using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission coincidence imaging (PECI) and positron emission tomography (PET). A female thorax phantom was used. Activities of the myocardium, thorax and breasts were adjusted to emulate the count rate observed with patients. Hollow plastic spheres, imitating hot lesions (1.5-20ml), filled with radioactive saline were inserted in the center of each breast. Specific activities of internal organs were adjusted to emulate the count rate observed with patients. SPECT data were acquired with Tc-99m using gamma cameras with NaI(Tl) detectors. A modified FBP (CODE) reconstruction algorithm was used to render SPECT tomographic images. PECI (Siemens E.CAM with NaI(Tl)) and PET (GE Advance with BGO) data were acquired using F-18 FDG. Vendor supplied reconstruction algorithms were used. The reconstructed hot lesions contrast and resolution were investigated. Image quality obtained can be ranked as follows: (1) PET(BGO), (2) PECI(NaI), (3) SPECT(NaI) In conclusion, assuming comparable uptake values of Tc-99m-sestamibi and F-18 FDG, PET seems to be a superior methodology in visualization of breast lesion as compared to SPECT and PECI. All these tomographic methods appear to be promising adjunct to x-ray mammography in difficult to interpret cases.

  15. Sexuality and sickle cell anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane de Almeida Côbo; Cibele Alves Chapadeiro; João Batista Ribeiro; Helio Moraes-Souza; Paulo Roberto Juliano Martins

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease, the most common hereditary blood disease in the world, is the result of an atypical hemoglobin called S (Hb S) which, when homozygous (Hb SS) is the cause of sickle cell anemia. Changes of puberty, correlated with a delayed growth spurt, begin late in both male and female sickle cell anemia individuals with repercussions on sexuality and reproduction. The objectives of this exploratory and descriptive study were to characterize the development of sexuality in ...

  16. Computerized tomographic studies in cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomographic (CT) findings in 200 children with cerebral palsy (CP) were analysed from the viewpoint of clinical manifestations, disease complications and etiological factors. CT scans of 135 cases (67.5%) were found to be abnormal and there were 14 (7%) borderline cases. The major abnormality found on CT scans was cerebral atrophy. Other important changes included focal or diffuse low density area in the brain tissue, congenital malformation, and cerebellar atrophy. From the clinical point of view, a large number of patients with spastic tetraplegia and spastic diplegia showed highly abnormal CT scans. On the other hand, in patients with spastic monoplegia, spastic paraplegia, and athetotic type, CT findings were normal or revealed only minor cerebral atrophy. Most children showing asymmetric clinical symptoms had corresponding asymmetric CT abnormalities which included ventricular enlargement, low density area in the brain tissue, and hemispherical volume. There was a significant correlation between the severity of physical impairment and the extent of CT abnormalities. Severely affected children had grossly abnormal CT scans such as hydranencephaly, polycystic change, and extensive cerebral atrophy. In the patients complicated with epilepsy, the incidence and severity of abnormal CT were higher than those of non-epileptic patients. Mentally retarded patients had variable enlargement of the subarachnoidal space depending on the severity of their mental retardation. Patients with suspected postnatal etiology also had high incidence of severe CT abnormality. CT scan is a valuable tool for evaluating patients with CP and in some cases, possible etiology of the disease may be discovered. (author)

  17. Tomographic display of ventilation-perfusion ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomographic displays of the distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratio in six subjects with a single photon radionuclide computed tomography (RCT) were obtained. The distribution of ventilation (V) and perfusion (Q) were measured separately with continuous breathing of Kr-81m and with intravenous administration of Tc-99m labelled macroaggregates of human serum albumin (MAA). V/Q was calculated pixel-by-pixel and the distributions of V/Q were displayed in a logarithmic scale with the surrounding thoracic cage obtained from transmission CT. The number of voxel, ventilation and perfusion were plotted against log(V/Q). They had almost log normal distributions with smaller variances in healthy subjects than those with emphysema or bronchitis. In the former, much coincidence between V and Q was observed, whereas in the latter, dissociation was seen between them. This noninvasive technique provided not only the visualization of the distribution of V/Q in a transaxial images, but also the quantifications of the V-Q mismatch

  18. Novel Ultrasound Tomograph for Anatomical Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouyer, Julien; Lasaygues, Philippe; Mensah, Serge

    A device for ultrasound computed tomography (UCT) is introduced here. An half-ring transducer array was designed in conformity with the breast anatomy and the cancer growth region to perform an early detection. The array comprises 1,024 elements set in a 190-degree circular arc with a radius of 100 mm. The nominal frequency is 3 MHz with a 79% -6 dB bandwidth. The front-end electronics incorporate 32 independent transmit/receive parallel channels and a 32-to-1,024 multiplexer unit. The acquisition circuitries have a variable sampling frequency of up to 80 MHz and a precision of 12 bits. Arbitrary waveforms are synthesized to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and to increase the in-depth resolution. Tomographic acquisitions were realized in diffraction mode using a restricted aperture. The backscattered field was recorded in the case of a string phantom (0.08-mm diameter steel threads) and a breast-shaped phantom containing inclusions. Data were processed with dedicated correction tools processes such as pulse compression. Objects were reconstructed with the ellipsoidal back-projection method.

  19. Mieloma Múltiplo e anemia Multiple Myeloma and anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo D. Cançado

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Anemia é uma complicação comum em pacientes com mieloma múltiplo (MM e ocorre em mais de 2/3 dos pacientes. Anemia de doença crônica, deficiência de eritropoetina (EPO devido à insuficiência renal e efeito mielossupressivo da quimioterapia são os principais mecanismos patofisiológicos que contribuem para o desenvolvimento de anemia no MM. Nos pacientes que obtêm remissão completa com tratamento quimioterápico, anemia usualmente se normaliza. Nos pacientes que não respondem ou apresentam recaída do mieloma, anemia freqüentemente persiste. As opções de tratamento dos pacientes anêmicos com MM incluem transfusões de hemácias e EPO recombinante humana. Essa proteína é biologicamente equivalente à EPO endógena e sua administração promove aumento dos valores de hemoglobina por tempo mais prolongado sem os riscos das transfusões de sangue. Vários estudos têm relatado melhora significante da eritropoese, redução da necessidade transfusional e melhora da qualidade de vida com o uso da EPO como tratamento a longo prazo da anemia associada ao mieloma. Nesse artigo, propomos o tratamento da anemia do MM baseado nas recomendações propostas pela Sociedade Americana de Hematologia (ASH em conjunto com a Sociedade Americana de Oncologia Clínica (ASCO, pela Organização Européia para Pesquisa e Tratamento do Câncer (EORTC, pelo IMF (Internacional Myeloma Foundation e pelo NCCN (National Comprehensive Cancer Network.Anemia is a common complication in patients with multiple myeloma (MM occurring in more than two thirds of all patients. Anemia of chronic diseases, erythropoietin (EPO deficiency due to renal impairment and the myelosuppressive effect of chemotherapy are the most important pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to the development of anemia in MM. In patients who achieve complete remission after chemotherapy, anemia usually normalizes. Non-responders and relapsing myeloma patients often continue to suffer

  20. Method of tomographic examination of objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for tomographic examination of objects is suggested to increase informative investigation. The point of the method is to obtain transemission and emission tomographic images inside an investigating cycle and bring them into coincidence with each other so, that the resulting image gave information on tissue density distribution in the body region studied and on isotope distribution in the given tissues of the same region

  1. Precision tomographic analysis of reactor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Deok; Lee, Chang Hee; Kim, Jong Soo; Jeong, Jwong Hwan; Nam, Ki Yong

    2001-03-01

    For the tomographical assay, search of current status, analysis of neutron beam characteristics, MCNP code simulation, sim-fuel fabrication, neutron experiment for sim-fuel, multiaxes operation system design were done. In sensitivity simulation, the reconstruction results showed the good agreement. Also, the scoping test at ANL was very helpful for actual assay. Therefore, the results are applied for HANARO tomographical system setup and consecutive next research.

  2. Tomographic Image Reconstruction Using Training Images with Matrix and Tensor Formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Sara

    Reducing X-ray exposure while maintaining the image quality is a major challenge in computed tomography (CT); since the imperfect data produced from the few view and/or low intensity projections results in low-quality images that are suffering from severe artifacts when using conventional...... machine learning technique (here, the dictionary learning), prototype elements from the training images are extracted and then incorporated in the tomographic reconstruction problem both with matrix and tensor representations of the training images. First, an algorithm for the tomographic image...... reconstruction using training images, where the training images are represented as vectors in a training matrix, is described. The dictionary learning problem is formulated as a regularized non-negative matrix factorization in order to compute a nonnegative dictionary. Then a tomographic solution with a sparse...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  4. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Anemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Anemia? The most common symptom of anemia is fatigue ( ... mild symptoms or none at all. Complications of Anemia Some people who have anemia may have arrhythmias ( ...

  5. Tomographic PIV: particles versus blobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagnat, Frédéric; Cornic, Philippe; Cheminet, Adam; Leclaire, Benjamin; Le Besnerais, Guy; Plyer, Aurélien

    2014-08-01

    We present an alternative approach to tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV) that seeks to recover nearly single voxel particles rather than blobs of extended size. The baseline of our approach is a particle-based representation of image data. An appropriate discretization of this representation yields an original linear forward model with a weight matrix built with specific samples of the system’s point spread function (PSF). Such an approach requires only a few voxels to explain the image appearance, therefore it favors much more sparsely reconstructed volumes than classic tomo-PIV. The proposed forward model is general and flexible and can be embedded in a classical multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) or a simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (SMART) inversion procedure. We show, using synthetic PIV images and by way of a large exploration of the generating conditions and a variety of performance metrics, that the model leads to better results than the classical tomo-PIV approach, in particular in the case of seeding densities greater than 0.06 particles per pixel and of PSFs characterized by a standard deviation larger than 0.8 pixels.

  6. A fast multi-resolution approach to tomographic PIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Discetti, Stefano; Astarita, Tommaso [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Aerospace Engineering (DIAS), Naples (Italy)

    2012-03-15

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV) is a recently developed three-component, three-dimensional anemometric non-intrusive measurement technique, based on an optical tomographic reconstruction applied to simultaneously recorded images of the distribution of light intensity scattered by seeding particles immersed into the flow. Nowadays, the reconstruction process is carried out mainly by iterative algebraic reconstruction techniques, well suited to handle the problem of limited number of views, but computationally intensive and memory demanding. The adoption of the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) has become more and more accepted. In the present work, a novel multi-resolution approach is proposed, relying on the adoption of a coarser grid in the first step of the reconstruction to obtain a fast estimation of a reliable and accurate first guess. A performance assessment, carried out on three-dimensional computer-generated distributions of particles, shows a substantial acceleration of the reconstruction process for all the tested seeding densities with respect to the standard method based on 5 MART iterations; a relevant reduction in the memory storage is also achieved. Furthermore, a slight accuracy improvement is noticed. A modified version, improved by a multiplicative line of sight estimation of the first guess on the compressed configuration, is also tested, exhibiting a further remarkable decrease in both memory storage and computational effort, mostly at the lowest tested seeding densities, while retaining the same performances in terms of accuracy. (orig.)

  7. Genetics Home Reference: congenital dyserythropoietic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions CDA congenital dyserythropoietic anemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia ( CDA ) is an inherited blood disorder that affects ...

  8. Anemia Boosts Stroke Death Risk, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160476.html Anemia Boosts Stroke Death Risk, Study Finds Blood condition ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Older stroke victims suffering from anemia -- a lack of red blood cells -- may have ...

  9. FastStats: Anemia or Iron Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Anemia or Iron Deficiency Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... visits Number of visits to emergency departments with anemia as the primary hospital discharge diagnosis: 237,000 ...

  10. Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immune hemolytic anemia secondary to drugs; Anemia - immune hemolytic - secondary to drugs ... In some cases, a drug can cause the immune system to mistake your own red blood cells for foreign substances. The body responds by making ...

  11. Iron deficiency anemia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Girish; Girish, Meenakshi

    2015-06-01

    Iron deficiency is not just anemia; it can be responsible for a long list of other manifestations. This topic is of great importance, especially in infancy and early childhood, for a variety of reasons. Firstly, iron need is maximum in this period. Secondly, diet in infancy is usually deficient in iron. Thirdly and most importantly, iron deficiency at this age can result in neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits, which may not be reversible. Hypochromia and microcytosis in a complete blood count (CBC) makes iron deficiency anemia (IDA) most likely diagnosis. Absence of response to iron should make us look for other differential diagnosis like β thalassemia trait and anemia of chronic disease. Celiac disease is the most important cause of true IDA not responding to oral iron therapy. While oral ferrous sulphate is the cheapest and most effective therapy for IDA, simple nonpharmacological and pharmacological measures can go a long way in prevention of iron deficiency. PMID:25636824

  12. Towards a micrometer resolution x-ray tomographic microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near-micrometer resolution, three-dimensional computed tomographic images were made of a test object using the hard x-ray microscope developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The microscope uses a cooled CCD camera with direct conversion of the incident x rays by a 512 x 512 chip with 19 microm by 19microm cells. Magnification by a factor of 20 is achieved using asymmetric Bragg diffraction from a pair of silicon crystals. The imaging system is designed for samples of the order of 0.50 mm diameter by 0.50 mm height. 8.17 keV x-rays were used from beamline X23A3 at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Two hundred, 512 x 512 two-dimensional projections were collected every 0.9 degree about the test object using the NIST microscope. The projections were digitized and sent to a computer for volume tomographic reconstruction by a parallel-beam, convolution-backprojection algorithm into a 5123 image with (1 microm)3 voxels. The test object consisted of glass and nickel microspheres with distributions from about 4 to 40 microm (glass) or to 24 microm (nickel) diameters suspended in epoxy in order to demonstrate near one micrometer resolution in all three dimensions and probe contrast sensitivity. The effect and interplay of photon statistics and energy, and sample composition, density and size on tomographic performance are discussed as are resolution limitations and image artifacts from Fresnel diffraction

  13. Morphological study of the maxillary sinus using three-dimensional reconstruction of the tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A morphological study of the maxillary sinus using the computerized three-dimensional reconstruction of the tomographic images was made. Materials of this study were 86 adult dry skulls of the Second Department of Oral Anatomy of Fukuoka Dental College. The results were as follows: 1. A tomographic apparatus which could select varius X-ray tube shifts was used. The hypocycloidal shift was the best for the tomography of the maxillary sinus. 2. In the tomographs of the maxillary sinus, the images of some sections in the maximum cross-section area presented real shapes. However, the images of other sections were indistinct and influenced by the shape of the maximum cross-section. 3. Reconstruction of the tomographic images of the maxillary sinus by computer made it easy and precise to recognize the three-dimensional image. 4. The dimensions in the maximum cross-section of the maxillary sinus of the 86 adult dry skulls obtained from the reconstructed three-dimensional images were 4.59 ± 1.26 cm2 in frontal, 5.21 ± 1.36 cm2 in transversal and 8.09 ± 1.82 cm2 in sagittal tomographs. The majority of the skulls were symmetry, and a few were asymmetry in correlation between the right and left side sinuses. 5. According to the reconstructed three-dimensional images the shapes of the maxillary sinus of the 86 adult dry skulls were classified into 10 types in frontal, 4 types in transversal and 8 types in sagittal tomographs. The most familiar shape was triangular in frontal, trapezoidal in sagittal and triangular in transversal tomographs. 6. The dimension and shape of the maxillary sinus had no correlation with the frontal width of the nasal cavity. (author)

  14. Introduction to curved rotary tomographic apparatus 'TOMOREX'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, panorama X-ray photographic method is widely used for the X-ray diagnosis of teeth, jawbones and faces. One type based on the principle of tomography is curved surface rotary tomographic method utilizing fine-gap X-ray beam. With the synchronous rotation of an X-ray tube and a photographic film around a face, describing a U-shaped tomographic plane along a dental arch, an upper or lower jawbone is photographed. In the ''TOMOREX'' belonging to this type, is different tomographic planes are available, so that by selecting any position in advance, the part can be photographed. Furthermore, patients can be subjected to examination as laid on a stretcher. The mechanism and equipment, and the photographic method for eye sockets, cheekbones, upper jaw cavities and stereoscopic images are described. (J.P.N.)

  15. Anemia and survival in human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Mocroft, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    The prospective, multicenter cohort study EuroSIDA has previously reported on predictors and outcomes of anemia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. In a Cox proportional-hazards model with serial measures of CD4+ cell count, plasma viral load, and degrees of anemia fitted...... as time-dependent variables, the relative hazard of death increased markedly for patients with anemia versus no anemia. A clinical scoring system was developed and validated for patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy using the most recent laboratory measures. Mild and severe anemia were...... independently (Panemia. The mechanisms underlying why hemoglobin is such a strong prognostic...

  16. Cooley's Anemia: A Psychosocial Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    The directory is intended to aid patients and their families who are coping with the genetic disorder of Cooley's anemia. A brief review of the disease covers background, genetics, symptoms, effect on the patient, treatment, and current research. The next section looks at psychosocial needs at various times (time of diagnosis, infancy and toddler…

  17. Anemia in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsson, Andreas; Andersson, Charlotte; Andell, Pontus;

    2014-01-01

    Low hemoglobin concentration is associated with increased mortality, but there is disagreement with regard to the clinical definition of anemia. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical correlates and association with total and cause-specific long-term mortality across the hemoglobin distrib...

  18. An anemia of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faux, N G; Rembach, A; Wiley, J; Ellis, K A; Ames, D; Fowler, C J; Martins, R N; Pertile, K K; Rumble, R L; Trounson, B; Masters, C L; Bush, A I

    2014-11-01

    Lower hemoglobin is associated with cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since brain iron homeostasis is perturbed in AD, we investigated whether this is peripherally reflected in the hematological and related blood chemistry values from the Australian Imaging Biomarker and Lifestyle (AIBL) study (a community-based, cross-sectional cohort comprising 768 healthy controls (HC), 133 participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 211 participants with AD). We found that individuals with AD had significantly lower hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentrations, packed cell volume and higher erythrocyte sedimentation rates (adjusted for age, gender, APOE-ɛ4 and site). In AD, plasma iron, transferrin, transferrin saturation and red cell folate levels exhibited a significant distortion of their customary relationship to hemoglobin levels. There was a strong association between anemia and AD (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=2.43, confidence interval (CI) (1.31, 4.54)). Moreover, AD emerged as a strong risk factor for anemia on step-down regression, even when controlling for all other available explanations for anemia (adjusted OR=3.41, 95% CI (1.68, 6.92)). These data indicated that AD is complicated by anemia, which may itself contribute to cognitive decline. PMID:24419041

  19. Steering in spin tomographic probability representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man'ko, V. I.; Markovich, L. A.

    2016-09-01

    The steering property known for two-qubit state in terms of specific inequalities for the correlation function is translated for the state of qudit with the spin j = 3 / 2. Since most steering detection inequalities are based on the correlation functions we introduce analogs of such functions for the single qudit systems. The tomographic probability representation for the qudit states is applied. The connection between the correlation function in the two-qubit system and the single qudit is presented in an integral form with an intertwining kernel calculated explicitly in tomographic probability terms.

  20. Tomographic causal analysis of two-qubit states and tomographic discord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a behavior of two-qubit states subject to tomographic measurement. In this Letter we propose a novel approach to definition of asymmetry in quantum bipartite state based on its tomographic Shannon entropies. We consider two types of measurement bases: the first is one that diagonalizes density matrices of subsystems and is used in a definition of tomographic discord, and the second is one that maximizes Shannon mutual information and relates to symmetrical form quantum discord. We show how these approaches relate to each other and then implement them to the different classes of two-qubit states. Consequently, new subclasses of X-states are revealed.

  1. [Neuropsychiatric manifestations ushering pernicious anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrabet, S; Ellouze, F; Ellini, S; Mrad, M F

    2015-12-01

    Biermer disease or pernicious anemia is an autoimmune atrophic gastritis characterized by the lack of secretion of gastric intrinsic factor. This leads to an insufficient absorption of vitamin B12 in the ileum. Clinical manifestations are mainly hematologic. Neuropsychiatric manifestations are known but are less frequent especially early in the disease. Inaugural neuropsychiatric arrays are rare and various thus making diagnosis difficult. In this article, we report through two clinical cases different neuropsychiatric manifestations revealing pernicious anemia. Mrs. C.O., aged 56, presented after surgery for gallstones, an acute psychiatric array associated with gait disorders. She had no history of neurological or psychiatric problems. The psychiatric interview revealed delirious syndrome, depressive symptoms and anxiety. Neurological examination noted a flaccid paraplegia with peripheral neuropathic syndrome and myoclonus in the upper limbs. At the full blood count, a macrocytosis (VGM: 112.2fl) without anemia was found. The level of vitamin B12 in the blood was low. Cerebro-spinal MRI was suggestive of a neuro-Biermer and showed hyper signal in the cervical cord on T2-weighted sagittal section. In axial section, hyper signal appears at the posterior columns in the form of V. There were no brain abnormalities. A sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy was diagnosed. The patient received vitamin B12 intramuscularly for ten days associated with neuroleptic treatment. Mrs. R.M., aged 40, was brought to the psychiatry consultation for acute behavioral disorders progressively worsening over a month. An anxiety syndrome, depressive syndrome and delirious syndrome were identified. Neurological examination showed a posterior cordonal syndrome with quadripyramidal syndrome. Full blood count showed a macrocytic anemia. Serum B12 level was collapsed. Cerebro-spinal MRI was normal. She received vitamin B12 with clinical and biological improvement. Features of pernicious anemia

  2. [Hemolytic anemias and vitamin B12 deficieny].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzfelbinger, Hermann; Hubmann, Max

    2015-08-01

    Hemolytic anemias consist of corpuscular, immun-hemolytic and toxic hemolytic anemias. Within the group of corpuscular hemolytic anemias, except for the paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), all symptoms are caused by underlying heredetiary disorders within the red blood cell membran (hereditary spherocytosis), deficiencies of red cell enzymes (G6PDH- and pyrovatkinase deficiency) or disorders in the hemoglobin molecule (thalassaemia and sickle cell disease). Immune-hemolytic anemias are acquired hemolytic anemias and hemolysis is caused by auto- or allo-antibodies which are directed against red blood cell antigens. They are classified as warm, cold, mixed type or drug-induced hemolytic anemia. Therapy consists of glucocorticoids and other immunsuppressive drugs. Pernicious anemia is the most important vitamin B12 deficiency disorder. Diagnosis relies on cobalamin deficiency and antibodies to intrinsic factor. The management should focus on a possibly life-long replacement treatment with cobalamin. PMID:26306021

  3. Decomposition of time-resolved tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, P.J.; Violato, D.; Scarano, F.

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted on a transitional water jet at a Reynolds number of Re = 5,000. Flow fields have been obtained by means of time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry capturing all relevant spatial and temporal scales. The measured threedimensional flow fields have

  4. Tomographic Heating Holder for In Situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gontard, Lionel C.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Fernández, Asunción;

    2014-01-01

    A tomographic heating holder for transmission electron microscopy that can be used to study supported catalysts at temperatures of up to ~1,500°C is described. The specimen is placed in direct thermal contact with a tungsten filament that is oriented perpendicular to the axis of the holder withou...

  5. Performance of analytical methods for tomographic gamma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of gamma-ray computerized tomography for nondestructive assay of radioactive materials has led to the development of specialized analytical methods. Over the past few years, Los Alamos has developed and implemented a computer code, called ARC-TGS, for the analysis of data obtained by tomographic gamma scanning (TGS). ARC-TGS reduces TGS transmission and emission tomographic data, providing the user with images of the sample contents, the activity or mass of selected radionuclides, and an estimate of the uncertainty in the measured quantities. The results provided by ARC-TGS can be corrected for self-attenuation when the isotope of interest emits more than one gamma-ray. In addition, ARC-TGS provides information needed to estimate TGS quantification limits and to estimate the scan time needed to screen for small amounts of radioactivity. In this report, an overview of the analytical methods used by ARC-TGS is presented along with an assessment of the performance of these methods for TGS

  6. Fanconi anemia - learning from children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Svahn

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi Anemia (FA is a rare autosomic recessive and X-linked disease with chromosomal instability after exposure to crosslinking agents as the hallmark. Clinical features of FA are somatic malformations, progressive bone marrow failure and cancer proneness, however there is wide clinical heterogeneity. The symptom most frequently and early associated with morbidity and mortality is progressive pancytopenia in the first decade of life although acute myelogenous leukemia (AML or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS can appear before aplastic anemia. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the head-neck, intestinal or genital tract has a very high incidence in FA and can appear at young age. This paper will focus on treatment of bone marrow failure in FA.

  7. Pathophysiology of anemia and erythrocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Vivien M; Rainey, Susan; Lappin, Terence R; Maxwell, A Peter

    2007-11-01

    An increasing understanding of the process of erythropoiesis raises some interesting questions about the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of anemia and erythrocytosis. The mechanisms underlying the development of many of the erythrocytoses, previously characterised as idiopathic, have been elucidated leading to an increased understanding of oxygen homeostasis. Characterisation of anemia and erythrocytosis in relation to serum erythropoietin levels can be a useful addition to clinical diagnostic criteria and provide a rationale for treatment with erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs). Recombinant human erythropoietin as well as other ESAs are now widely used to treat anemias associated with a range of conditions, including chronic kidney disease, chronic inflammatory disorders and cancer. There is also heightened awareness of the potential abuse of ESAs to boost athletic performance in competitive sport. The discovery of erythropoietin receptors outside of the erythropoietic compartment may herald future applications for ESAs in the management of neurological and cardiac diseases. The current controversy concerning optimal hemoglobin levels in chronic kidney disease patients treated with ESAs and the potential negative clinical outcomes of ESA treatment in cancer reinforces the need for cautious evaluation of the pleiotropic effects of ESAs in non-erythroid tissues. PMID:17656101

  8. Diamond-Blackfan anemia and nutritional deficiency-induced anemia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbart, David

    2014-04-01

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a rare, inherited disease that characteristically presents as a chronic, normochromic macrocytosis due to red cell lineage bone marrow failure. Although studies are elaborating on the genetic basis for its associated comorbidities, little has been published comparing this anemia to other chronic anemias that have similar laboratory results in children. This article offers a global perspective of the disease and compares it with anemia due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiency in children.

  9. PERSEPSI TENTANG ANEMIA GIZI PADA REMAJA PUTRI PENDERITA ANEMIA DI SMAN 10 MAKASSAR

    OpenAIRE

    Hatma, Zumrah; Indriasari, Rahayu; Jafar, Nurhaedar

    2014-01-01

    Anemia gizi merupakan kelainan gizi yang paling sering ditemui di negara berkembang dan bersifat epidemik. Anemia gizi umumnya terjadi pada perempuan dalam usia reproduktif dan anak-anak. Keadaan ini membawa efek keseluruhan terbesar dalam hal gangguan kesehatan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui persepsi tentang anemia gizi pada remaja putri penderita anemia. Teknik pengumpulan data melalui metode wawancara mendalam, serta focus group discussion (FGD). Selain itu juga dilakukan m...

  10. Bayesian tomographic reconstruction of microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Sofia Fekih; Vabre, Alexandre; Mohammad-Djafari, Ali

    2007-11-01

    The microtomography by X ray transmission plays an increasingly dominating role in the study and the understanding of microsystems. Within this framework, an experimental setup of high resolution X ray microtomography was developed at CEA-List to quantify the physical parameters related to the fluids flow in microsystems. Several difficulties rise from the nature of experimental data collected on this setup: enhanced error measurements due to various physical phenomena occurring during the image formation (diffusion, beam hardening), and specificities of the setup (limited angle, partial view of the object, weak contrast). To reconstruct the object we must solve an inverse problem. This inverse problem is known to be ill-posed. It therefore needs to be regularized by introducing prior information. The main prior information we account for is that the object is composed of a finite known number of different materials distributed in compact regions. This a priori information is introduced via a Gauss-Markov field for the contrast distributions with a hidden Potts-Markov field for the class materials in the Bayesian estimation framework. The computations are done by using an appropriate Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique. In this paper, we present first the basic steps of the proposed algorithms. Then we focus on one of the main steps in any iterative reconstruction method which is the computation of forward and adjoint operators (projection and backprojection). A fast implementation of these two operators is crucial for the real application of the method. We give some details on the fast computation of these steps and show some preliminary results of simulations.

  11. Tomographic applications of wavelets in passive nondestructive assay of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Lance David

    1998-07-01

    An economically reliable and technologically feasible methodology for assaying radioactive waste is essential for properly disposing of newly generated and legacy radioactive waste. The present research has investigated, developed, and integrated tomographic applications of wavelets into the present segmented gamma scanning (SGS) measurement methodology used for passive nondestructive assay of radioactive waste. The SGS measurement methodology was specifically developed to nondestructively measure the radionuclide content within only low-density, homogeneously drum-packaged scrap and waste using the techniques of gamma-ray spectrometry. A result of this research has been the Tomographic Segmented Gamma Scanner (TSGS) system. This TSGS system supplements a rotation-averaged SGS measurement system with tomographic gamma scanning (TGS) capability that can specifically take into account the effects of larger density and radionuclide distribution non-uniformities when present. This TSGS system allows the throughput to remain high with a less detailed but faster rotation-averaged segment measurement of homogenous radioactive waste, while the TGS capability provides a more detailed but slower spatial radionuclide measurement for assaying heterogeneous radionuclide waste as necessary. Within the experimental part of this research, (1) the tomographic experimental feasibility was established, (2) a TSGS system integrated calibration was designed, (3) collimation sampling problems were studied, (4) SGS and TGS modality-specific comparisons were shown, and finally, (5) the TSGS system precision was measured. An investigation of the applications of wavelets in computerized tomography has lead to the development of a radionuclide computerized tomography (RCT) algorithm able to accurately calculate the measured radionuclide content within heterogeneously packaged scrap and waste. Within the computational part of this research, (1) the optimization of a relaxation parameter that

  12. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked sideroblastic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions X-linked sideroblastic anemia X-linked sideroblastic anemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description X-linked sideroblastic anemia is an inherited disorder that prevents developing red ...

  13. Do You Know about Sickle Cell Anemia? (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lunch Recipes Do You Know About Sickle Cell Anemia? KidsHealth > For Kids > Do You Know About Sickle ... stay in the hospital. What Causes Sickle Cell Anemia? Sickle cell anemia is an inherited (say: in- ...

  14. Treatment of anemia with darbepoetin alfa in systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swedberg, Karl; Young, James B; Anand, Inder S;

    2013-01-01

    Patients with systolic heart failure and anemia have worse symptoms, functional capacity, and outcomes than those without anemia. We evaluated the effects of darbepoetin alfa on clinical outcomes in patients with systolic heart failure and anemia....

  15. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anemia and ataxia X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Close All Description X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia is a rare condition characterized by a blood ...

  16. Addition of Tomographic Capabilities to NMIS

    CERN Document Server

    Mullens, J A

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes tomographic capabilities for the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS). The tomographic capabilities add weapons component spatial and material properties information that result in a more detailed item signature (template) and provide more information for physical attributes analyses. The Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) is used routinely to confirm the identity of HEU components in sealed containers. It does this through a radiation signature acquired by shining a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf source through the container and measuring the radiation at four detectors stacked vertically on the other side. This measurement gives a gamma and neutron radiation transmission profile of the weapons component, mixed with the radiation production due to the induced fissions in the fissile materials. This information is sufficient to match an ''unknown'' weapons component signature to a template signature from a reference item when measuring under controlled conditions. Tomography m...

  17. Tomographic Techniques for Radar Ice Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik

    challenge. This dissertation deals with tomographic techniques based on multiphase-center radars that represent state-of-the-art technology within thefield of ice sounding. The use of advanced tomographic processing forclutter suppression is investigated, which up to this point has beenlargely unexplored...... in the literature. The investigation also includes atheoretical study of beamforming and direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimationtechniques. In addition to the primary treatment of clutter suppression,additional novel applications of tomography are also explored. Based on an experimental multi-phase-center dataset...... discrimination of the desired bed return from strong surface clutter ispresented. The technique is applied to data from the channel of the challengingJakobshavn Glacier acquired with the Multi-channel CoherentiiiRadar Depth Sounder/Imager (MCoRDS/I), where it is shown how thetechnique can be used to close some...

  18. On the tomographic picture of quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibort, A., E-mail: albertoi@math.uc3m.e [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Man' ko, V.I., E-mail: manko@na.infn.i [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Marmo, G., E-mail: marmo@na.infn.i [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita ' Federico II' e Sezione INFN di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Simoni, A., E-mail: simoni@na.infn.i [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita ' Federico II' e Sezione INFN di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Ventriglia, F., E-mail: ventriglia@na.infn.i [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita ' Federico II' e Sezione INFN di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy)

    2010-06-07

    We formulate necessary and sufficient conditions for a symplectic tomogram of a quantum state to determine the density state. We establish a connection between the (re)construction by means of symplectic tomograms with the construction by means of Naimark positive definite functions on the Weyl-Heisenberg group. This connection is used to formulate properties which guarantee that tomographic probabilities describe quantum states in the probability representation of quantum mechanics.

  19. On the Tomographic Picture of Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Ibort, A; Marmo, G; Simoni, A; Ventriglia, F

    2010-01-01

    We formulate necessary and sufficient conditions for a symplectic tomogram of a quantum state to determine the density state. We establish a connection between the (re)construction by means of symplectic tomograms with the construction by means of Naimark positive-definite functions on the Weyl-Heisenberg group. This connection is used to formulate properties which guarantee that tomographic probabilities describe quantum states in the probability representation of quantum mechanics.

  20. On the tomographic picture of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibort, A.; Man'ko, V. I.; Marmo, G.; Simoni, A.; Ventriglia, F.

    2010-06-01

    We formulate necessary and sufficient conditions for a symplectic tomogram of a quantum state to determine the density state. We establish a connection between the (re)construction by means of symplectic tomograms with the construction by means of Naimark positive definite functions on the Weyl-Heisenberg group. This connection is used to formulate properties which guarantee that tomographic probabilities describe quantum states in the probability representation of quantum mechanics.

  1. On the tomographic picture of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We formulate necessary and sufficient conditions for a symplectic tomogram of a quantum state to determine the density state. We establish a connection between the (re)construction by means of symplectic tomograms with the construction by means of Naimark positive definite functions on the Weyl-Heisenberg group. This connection is used to formulate properties which guarantee that tomographic probabilities describe quantum states in the probability representation of quantum mechanics.

  2. Cosmological dynamics in tomographic probability representation

    OpenAIRE

    Man'ko, V. I.; G. Marmo(Università di Napoli and INFN, Napoli, Italy); Stornaiolo, C.

    2004-01-01

    The probability representation for quantum states of the universe in which the states are described by a fair probability distribution instead of wave function (or density matrix) is developed to consider cosmological dynamics. The evolution of the universe state is described by standard positive transition probability (tomographic transition probability) instead of the complex transition probability amplitude (Feynman path integral) of the standard approach. The latter one is expressed in te...

  3. Robustness of tomographic reconstructors versus real atmospheric profiles in the ELT perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, E.; Morel, C.; Osborn, J.; Martin, O.; Gratadour, D.; Vidal, F.; Le Louarn, M.; Rousset, G.

    2014-08-01

    In this article we revisit a subject that has partly already been examined in previous studies: the behavior of tomographic reconstructors in adaptive optics systems, facing to an atmospheric profile (C2n(h)) different from the one they've been optimized for. We develop a new approach for that. The current usual approach is to simulate the performance of the reconstructor when slightly varying the C2n(h) profile around a nominal one, and show how far the deviation may go. This has the disadvantage that, as the parameter space for potential errors on the C2n(h) profile is basically infinite, it is particularly uneasy to span. Our approach consists in deriving a sort of sensitivity function, that we call vertical error distribution (VED), from the knowledge of any tomographic reconstructor. This function can be computed even for non-tomographic reconstructors, ground-layers reconstructors, single-conjugate AO reconstructors, etc. In any case, it allows us to derive the error when applied to a particular C2n(h) profile, have a direct, global visualization of the error variation with layer altitude, for any number at any altitude. This also allows us to understand what a given reconstructor is sensitive to, at what altitudes or altitude range, or explain why some GLAO reconstructors may perform better than optimized MMSE tomographic reconstructors if low-altitude layers pop up. We also discuss the case of ELTs and apply our approach to large scale reconstructors.

  4. Association of maxillary sinus mucosa thickness with dental root apex:a retrospective helical computed tomographic study%牙源性上颌窦炎中窦腔黏膜增厚与牙根尖关联螺旋CT研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艺渊; 王珮华; 范新东

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of sinus mucosal thickness with dental root apex intruding into the cavity of maxillary sinus or not among patients with odontogenic maxillary sinusitis on helical computed tomographic image. Method A retrospective study was carried out among 52 patients (104 sides) with odontogenic maxillary sinusitis, received helical computed tomography imaging to paranasal sinus to analyze the association if dental root apex being intruding into sinus cavity with sinus mucosal thickness in case of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis. Result In this group of cases, 58 sides (55.7%) were identified, based on the images, with dental root apex intruding into the cavity of maxillary sinus, and among these involved sinus, 46 sides (79.3%) were found with a local mucosal thickness thickened more than 2 mm. The thickness of cases with root apex intruding into the cavity of maxillary sinus was (7.76±8.39 mm), significantly thicker than that (3.17±4.14 mm) of cases without root apex intruding into the cavity of sinus (P=0.001). Conclusions As shown on helical computed tomographic images, cases with odontogenic maxillary sinusitis will have obviously thickened sinus mucosa, with its development and severity positively associated with the presence of dental root apex intruding into maxillary sinus.%目的:探讨牙根尖是否突入上颌窦与牙源性上颌窦炎患者窦腔黏膜厚度之间的CT影像学关联性。方法回顾性分析牙源性上颌窦炎患者52例(104侧)的螺旋CT影像学资料,评估上颌窦黏膜厚度与牙根尖是否突入上颌窦窦腔的关系。结果本组患者检出58侧(55.7%)有牙根尖突入窦腔,其中46侧(79.3%)存在上颌窦局部黏膜增厚大于2mm。牙根突入窦腔的上颌窦黏膜厚度(7.76±8.39mm)和无牙根突入窦腔的黏膜厚度(3.17±4.14mm)组间差异统计学意义显著(P=0.001)。结论螺旋CT影像提示,牙源性上颌窦炎患者上颌窦黏

  5. Colonic lymphangiomatosis associated with anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woo Chul Chung; Hye-Kang Kim; Jin Young Yoo; Jeong Rok Lee; Kang-Moon Lee; Chang Nyol Paik; U-Im Jang; Jin Mo Yang

    2008-01-01

    lymphangioma is an uncommon malformation of lymphatic system.Multiple colonic lymphangioma named as lymphangiomatosis is considered an extremely rare disease.Although lymphangioma is a benign tumor and most colonic lymphangiomas do not cause symptoms and do not require treatment,resection of lymphangioma is necessary in the presence of symptoms such as abdominal pain,bleeding,intussusceptions.We report a case of colonic lymphangiomatosis in a man who presented with abdominal discomfort and anemia,which was diagnosed and treated with endoscopic snare polyperctomy.

  6. Anemia of Inflammation and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 699–710. 4 Anemia of Inflammation and Chronic Disease Eating, Diet, and Nutrition People with anemia caused by ... Phone: 202–776–0544 Fax: 202–776–0545 Internet: www. hematology. org Iron Disorders Institute P.O. Box 675 Taylors, SC 29687 ...

  7. The Student with Sickle Cell Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetrault, Sylvia M.

    1981-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is the most common and severe of inherited chronic blood disorders. In the United States, sickle cell anemia is most common among the Black population. Among the most commonly occurring symptoms are: an enlarged spleen, episodes of severe pain, easily contracted infections, skin ulcers, and frequent urination. (JN)

  8. Anemia and survival in human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Mocroft, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    The prospective, multicenter cohort study EuroSIDA has previously reported on predictors and outcomes of anemia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. In a Cox proportional-hazards model with serial measures of CD4+ cell count, plasma viral load, and degrees of anemia fitted...

  9. 9 CFR 311.34 - Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anemia. 311.34 Section 311.34 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.34 Anemia. Carcasses...

  10. Silent Infarcts with Sickle Cell Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    The effect of transfusion therapy on the risk for new silent infarct or stroke in children with sickle cell anemia and abnormal transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography was determined at the University of Miami, FL, and other centers in the STOP trial (Stroke Prevention in Sickle Cell Anemia).

  11. Unexplained Aspects of Anemia of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Price

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia of inflammation (AI, also known as anemia of chronic inflammation or anemia of chronic disease was described over 50 years ago as anemia in association with clinically overt inflammatory disease, and the findings of low plasma iron, decreased bone marrow sideroblasts and increased reticuloendothelial iron. Pathogenic features underlying AI include a mild shortening of red cell survival, impaired erythropoietin production, blunted responsiveness of the marrow to erythropoietin, and impaired iron metabolism mediated by inflammatory cytokines and the iron regulatory peptide, hepcidin. Despite marked recent advances in understanding AI, gaps remain, including understanding of the pathogenesis of AI associated with “noninflammatory” or mildly inflammatory diseases, the challenge of excluding iron deficiency anemia in the context of concomitant inflammation, and understanding more precisely the contributory role of hepcidin in the development of AI in human inflammatory diseases.

  12. A comparative evaluation of the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation in curved root canals by three rotary systems: A cone-beam computed tomographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanthi, Nalam NVD; Rambabu, Tanikonda; Sajjan, Girija S; Varma, K Madhu; Satish, R Kalyan; Padmaja, M

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to measure the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation after biomechanical preparation at 1, 3, and 5 mm short of the apex with three different rotary systems in both continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary motions. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted human mandibular molars with mesial root canal curvatures between 20° and 30° were included in the study. Teeth were randomly distributed into three groups (n = 20). Biomechanical preparations were done in all the mesial canals. In Group 1, instrumentation was done with ProTaper universal rotary files, Group 2, with K3XF rotary files, and Group 3, with LSX rotary files. Each group was further subdivided into subgroups A and B (n = 10) where instrumentation was done by continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques, respectively. Increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation was measured using the preoperative and postoperative cone-beam computed tomography scans. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey pairwise multiple comparison tests. Results: Increase in root canal surface area was significantly more (P 0.05) in increase of root canal surface area and canal transportation between continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques for ProTaper Universal, K3XF and LSX groups. Conclusion: LSX rotary system showed minimal increase of root canal surface area and minimal canal transportation when compared to ProTaper and K3XF rotary systems. PMID:27656062

  13. Examination of a new type nasogastric tube used for the small bowel computed tomographic virtual endoscopy%使用新型鼻胃导管向小肠内引入空气介质进行小肠CT仿真内镜检查的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵淑琳; 陈雪; 肖鲁瑶; 张镭; 刘家祎; 张杰

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the safety,efficacy and feasibility of self-made nasogastric tube which was used for the small bowel computed tomographic virtual endoscopy. Method Totally 63 patients undergoing computed tomo-graphic enteroclysis with the contrast medium of air were included,33 patients used the self-made new type nasogas-tric tube to introduce air into lumen and 30 cases used normal stomach tube assisted by electronic gastroscope. Anal-ysis and compare catheterization success rate,operating time,degree of patient’ s discomfort,incidence of adverse re-actions and intestinal filling degree between two groups of patients. Result The catheterization success rate was not significantly different among two groups (P=0. 615). The average operating time of self-made nasogastric tube group was (10. 0±4. 4) minutes,and in the other group it was (15. 2±6. 0) minutes,the difference was statistically significant (P=0. 01). The intestinal filling degree was not significantly different among two groups(P=0. 480). In self-made nasogastric tube group, 26 cases of 4 scores,7 cases of 3 scores;in normal stomach tube assisted by elec-tronic gastroscope group,3 cases of 4 scores,17 cases of 3 scores,10 cases of 2 scores,the degree of patient’ s dis-comfort was significantly different among two groups(P<0. 001). Conclusion During the process of small bowel computed tomographic virtual endoscopy,the new type nasogastric tube can be quickly inserted into duodenal de-scending part through nostril without vision with the advantages of easy operation,consuming less time,better toler-ance and less pain,compared with the traditional tube technology.%目的:评估自制新型鼻胃导管进行小肠CT仿真内镜检查的安全性、有效性及可行性。方法纳入行以空气为介质的CT仿真小肠镜检查的患者63例,其中使用自制新型鼻胃导管引入空气介质患者33例,电子胃镜辅助普通鼻胃导管引入空气介质30例。分析比较两组患者

  14. RTOG Sarcoma Radiation Oncologists Reach Consensus on Gross Tumor Volume and Clinical Target Volume on Computed Tomographic Images for Preoperative Radiotherapy of Primary Soft Tissue Sarcoma of Extremity in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dian, E-mail: dwang@mcw.edu [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Bosch, Walter [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Roberge, David [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Finkelstein, Steven E. [Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Petersen, Ivy; Haddock, Michael [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Chen, Yen-Lin E.; Saito, Naoyuki G. [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Hitchcock, Ying J. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wolfson, Aaron H. [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); DeLaney, Thomas F. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To develop a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) atlas delineating gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) to be used for preoperative radiotherapy of primary extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Methods and Materials: A consensus meeting was held during the RTOG meeting in January 2010 to reach agreement about GTV and CTV delineation on computed tomography (CT) images for preoperative radiotherapy of high-grade large extremity STS. Data were presented to address the local extension of STS. Extensive discussion ensued to develop optimal criteria for GTV and CTV delineation on CT images. Results: A consensus was reached on appropriate CT-based GTV and CTV. The GTV is gross tumor defined by T1 contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images. Fusion of magnetic resonance and images is recommended to delineate the GTV. The CTV for high-grade large STS typically includes the GTV plus 3-cm margins in the longitudinal directions. If this causes the field to extend beyond the compartment, the field can be shortened to include the end of a compartment. The radial margin from the lesion should be 1.5 cm, including any portion of the tumor not confined by an intact fascial barrier, bone, or skin surface. Conclusion: The consensus on GTV and CTV for preoperative radiotherapy of high-grade large extremity STS is available as web-based images and in a descriptive format through the RTOG. This is expected to improve target volume consistency and allow for rigorous evaluation of the benefits and risks of such treatment.

  15. Assessment of Acute Antivascular Effects of Vandetanib with High-Resolution Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomographic Imaging in a Human Colon Tumor Xenograft Model in the Nude Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Ho Tai

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tumor size is not a reliable marker for the assessment of early antivascular effects of antiangiogenics. In the present study, we used 200-µm in-plane high-resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT to noninvasively assess the immediate antivascular effects of vandetanib in a subcutaneous human colon cancer (LoVo xenograft model in nude rats and to investigate correlation between changes in CT perfusion parameters and tumor volume or immunohistochemical end points. At 3 to 4 weeks after LoVo cell implantation, the animal was gavaged with either vandetanib (50 mg/kg or vehicle twice (22 hours apart and scanned with a preclinical DCE-CT scanner before (0 hour and after treatment (24 hours. Quantitative maps of blood flow (BF and volume (BV of the tumor were calculated from the acquired DCE-CT images. The rats were divided into nonhypovascular, hypovascular, and combined (regardless of vascularity groups. In the nonhypovascular group, significant decreases in both tumor BF and BV were observed in the vandetanib-treated rats compared with increases in the vehicle-treated rats. A significant decrease in BV was detected in the vandetanib-treated rats in the combined group as well. No differences in tumor growth, vascular endothelial growth factor expression, microvessel density, or apoptosis were observed between vandetanib- and vehicle-treated rats in all three groups. These results demonstrate that BF and BV imaging biomarkers from DCE-CT imaging can be used for rapid monitoring of immediate (24 hours after antimicrovascular effects of vandetanib on tumors, even in the absence of significant changes of tumor volume or clinically relevant immunohistochemical end points.

  16. Computed tomographic imaging of subchondral fatigue cracks in the distal end of the third metacarpal bone in the thoroughbred racehorse can predict crack micromotion in an ex-vivo model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Dubois

    Full Text Available Articular stress fracture arising from the distal end of the third metacarpal bone (MC3 is a common serious injury in Thoroughbred racehorses. Currently, there is no method for predicting fracture risk clinically. We describe an ex-vivo biomechanical model in which we measured subchondral crack micromotion under compressive loading that modeled high speed running. Using this model, we determined the relationship between subchondral crack dimensions measured using computed tomography (CT and crack micromotion. Thoracic limbs from 40 Thoroughbred racehorses that had sustained a catastrophic injury were studied. Limbs were radiographed and examined using CT. Parasagittal subchondral fatigue crack dimensions were measured on CT images using image analysis software. MC3 bones with fatigue cracks were tested using five cycles of compressive loading at -7,500N (38 condyles, 18 horses. Crack motion was recorded using an extensometer. Mechanical testing was validated using bones with 3 mm and 5 mm deep parasagittal subchondral slots that modeled naturally occurring fatigue cracks. After testing, subchondral crack density was determined histologically. Creation of parasagittal subchondral slots induced significant micromotion during loading (p<0.001. In our biomechanical model, we found a significant positive correlation between extensometer micromotion and parasagittal crack area derived from reconstructed CT images (SR = 0.32, p<0.05. Correlations with transverse and frontal plane crack lengths were not significant. Histologic fatigue damage was not significantly correlated with crack dimensions determined by CT or extensometer micromotion. Bones with parasagittal crack area measurements above 30 mm2 may have a high risk of crack propagation and condylar fracture in vivo because of crack micromotion. In conclusion, our results suggest that CT could be used to quantify subchondral fatigue crack dimensions in racing Thoroughbred horses in-vivo to

  17. Anemia of Chronic Disease and Iron Deficiency Anemia in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawska, Natalia; Fabisiak, Adam; Fichna, Jakub

    2016-05-01

    Anemia coexists with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in up to two-thirds of patients, significantly impairing quality of life. The most common types of anemia in patients with IBD are iron deficiency anemia and anemia of chronic disease, which often overlap. In most cases, available laboratory tests allow successful diagnosis of iron deficiency, where difficulties appear, recently established indices such as soluble transferrin-ferritin ratio or percentage of hypochromic red cells are used. In this review, we discuss the management of the most common types of anemia in respect of the latest available data. Thus, we provide the mechanisms underlying pathophysiology of these entities; furthermore, we discuss the role of hepcidin in developing anemia in IBD. Next, we present the treatment options for each type of anemia and highlight the importance of individual choice of action. We also focus on newly developed intravenous iron preparations and novel, promising drug candidates targeting hepcidin. Concurrently, we talk about difficulties in differentiating between the true and functional iron deficiency, and discuss tools facilitating the process. Finally, we emphasize the importance of proper diagnosis and treatment of anemia in IBD. We conclude that management of anemia in patients with IBD is tricky, and appropriate screening of patients regarding anemia is substantial. PMID:26818422

  18. Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not have enough hemoglobin. The body needs certain vitamins, minerals, and nutrients to make enough red blood cells. ... of iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, and other vitamins and minerals Red blood count and hemoglobin level Reticulocyte count ...

  19. Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B-12 (meat and dairy), and folic acid (citrus juices, dark green leafy vegetables, legumes, and fortified ... ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ...

  20. Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leafy green vegetables, fruits, and dried beans and peas. Folic acid is found in fortified breads, pastas, ... Changes in skin color, making it look gray, yellow or bronze (not caused by sun) Treatment depends ...

  1. Medical imaging with a microwave tomographic scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofre, L; Hawley, M S; Broquetas, A; de los Reyes, E; Ferrando, M; Elias-Fusté, A R

    1990-03-01

    A microwave tomographic scanner for biomedical applications is presented. The scanner consists of a 64 element circular array with a useful diameter of 20 cm. Electronically scanning the transmitting and receiving antennas allows multiview measurements with no mechanical movement. Imaging parameters are appropriate for medical use: a spatial resolution of 7 mm and a contrast resolution of 1% for a measurement time of 3 s. Measurements on tissue-simulating phantoms and volunteers, together with numerical simulations, are presented to assess the system for absolute imaging of tissue distribution and for differential imaging of physiological, pathological, and induced changes in tissues. PMID:2329003

  2. Primary Three-Dimensional Analysis with Perspective-Filet View Versus Primary Two-Dimensional Analysis: Evaluation of Lesion Detection by Inexperienced Readers at Computed Tomographic Colonography in Symptomatic Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: 'Perspective-filet view' is a novel three-dimensional (3D) viewing technique for computed tomography colonography (CTC). Studies with experienced readers have shown a sensitivity for perspective-filet view similar to that of 2D or 3D endoluminal fly-through in detection of colorectal lesions. It is not known whether perspective-filet view, compared to axial images, improves lesion detection by inexperienced readers. Purpose: To compare primary 3D analysis using perspective-filet view (3D Filet) with primary 2D analysis, as used by inexperienced CTC readers. Secondary aims were to compare lesion detection by 3D Filet when used by experienced and inexperienced readers, and to evaluate the effect of combined 3D Filet + 2D analysis. Material and Methods: Fifty symptomatic patients were prospectively enrolled. An experienced reader performed 3D Filet analysis followed by complete 2D analysis (3D Filet + 2D), before colonoscopy with segmental unblinding. Two inexperienced readers (readers 2 and 3), blinded to CTC and colonoscopy findings, retrospectively performed 3D Filet analysis and, after 5 weeks, 2D analysis. True positives =6 mm detected by the inexperienced readers with 3D Filet and/or 2D were combined to obtain 3D Filet + 2D. Results: Colonoscopy revealed 116 lesions: 16 lesions =10 mm, 19 lesions 6-9 mm, and 81 lesions =5 mm. For the experienced reader, sensitivities for lesions =6 mm with 3D Filet and 3D Filet + 2D were 77% and 83%, respectively. For the inexperienced readers, sensitivities for lesions =6 mm with 3D Filet and 2D were 51% and 57% (reader 2) and 40% and 43% (reader 3), respectively. There was no significant difference between 3D Filet and 2D regarding sensitivity and reading time. For lesions =6 mm, 3D Filet + 2D improved the sensitivity of reader 2 to 63% and of reader 3 to 51%. Conclusion: Lesion detection by inexperienced readers using perspective-filet view is comparable to that obtained by 2D. Lesion detection improves by

  3. Primary Three-Dimensional Analysis with Perspective-Filet View Versus Primary Two-Dimensional Analysis: Evaluation of Lesion Detection by Inexperienced Readers at Computed Tomographic Colonography in Symptomatic Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisichella, V.A.; Horvath, S.; Hellstroem, M. (Dept. of Radiology, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital and Sahlgrenska Academy, Univ. of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)); Jaederling, F. (Dept. of Radiology, St. Goerans Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Stotzer, P.O.; Kilander, A. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden))

    2009-04-15

    Background: 'Perspective-filet view' is a novel three-dimensional (3D) viewing technique for computed tomography colonography (CTC). Studies with experienced readers have shown a sensitivity for perspective-filet view similar to that of 2D or 3D endoluminal fly-through in detection of colorectal lesions. It is not known whether perspective-filet view, compared to axial images, improves lesion detection by inexperienced readers. Purpose: To compare primary 3D analysis using perspective-filet view (3D Filet) with primary 2D analysis, as used by inexperienced CTC readers. Secondary aims were to compare lesion detection by 3D Filet when used by experienced and inexperienced readers, and to evaluate the effect of combined 3D Filet + 2D analysis. Material and Methods: Fifty symptomatic patients were prospectively enrolled. An experienced reader performed 3D Filet analysis followed by complete 2D analysis (3D Filet + 2D), before colonoscopy with segmental unblinding. Two inexperienced readers (readers 2 and 3), blinded to CTC and colonoscopy findings, retrospectively performed 3D Filet analysis and, after 5 weeks, 2D analysis. True positives =6 mm detected by the inexperienced readers with 3D Filet and/or 2D were combined to obtain 3D Filet + 2D. Results: Colonoscopy revealed 116 lesions: 16 lesions =10 mm, 19 lesions 6-9 mm, and 81 lesions =5 mm. For the experienced reader, sensitivities for lesions =6 mm with 3D Filet and 3D Filet + 2D were 77% and 83%, respectively. For the inexperienced readers, sensitivities for lesions =6 mm with 3D Filet and 2D were 51% and 57% (reader 2) and 40% and 43% (reader 3), respectively. There was no significant difference between 3D Filet and 2D regarding sensitivity and reading time. For lesions =6 mm, 3D Filet + 2D improved the sensitivity of reader 2 to 63% and of reader 3 to 51%. Conclusion: Lesion detection by inexperienced readers using perspective-filet view is comparable to that obtained by 2D. Lesion detection improves

  4. 健康男性直肠周围筋膜的CT和MRI影像学观察%Observation on computed tomographic and magnetic resonance images of perirectal fasciae of healthy men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张策; 成官迅; 李国新; 钟世镇

    2012-01-01

    目的 阐明健康男性直肠周围筋膜和神经的CT和MRI影像特点.方法 观察健康成年男性的CT和MRI影像资料各10例、男性尸体骨盆标本MRI扫描影像5例.结果 直肠固有筋膜和骶前筋膜显示为环形直肠系膜后外侧的联合层;此联合层于S5椎体水平增厚为直肠骶骨筋膜.Denonvilliers筋膜是联合层在直肠系膜前面的延续.下腹下丛为联合层后外侧,联系直肠、膀胱和盆侧壁的网孔结构.直肠周围筋膜的MRI T2影像较T1和CT影像更清晰.结论 直肠固有筋膜和骶前筋膜在MRI T2影像中为连续、清晰的联合层,在指导直肠癌的影像学评估方面具有潜在的临床价值.%Objective To explore iconography of computed tomography( CT )and magnetic resonance imaging( MRI )of perirectal fasciae and autonomic nerves of healthy subjects. Methods CT and MRI images of 10 healthy male were collected. Five healthy male cadaveric pelvises underwent MRI examination. Images were reviewed. Results Rectal proper fascia and presacral fascia were combined single layer covering annular mesorectum from posterolateral aspect. The combined layer was bolded at the level of the fifth sacral vertebra that indicated rectosacral fascia. Denonvilliers fascia was continuation of the combined layer and covered the mesorectum from anterior aspect. Inferior hypogastric plexus was a mesh posterolateral to the combined layer and linked rectum and bladder to lateral wall of pelvis. Perirectal fasciae were observed more clearly on T2 weighed MRI images than on Tl images or CT images. Conclusion Rectal proper fascia and presacral fascia were continued and clear combined layer on T2 MRI images, which may play potential roles on iconographic evaluation of rectal caner. .

  5. The cardio-renal anemia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimković Siniša

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The problem of anemia in congestive heart failure and chronic kidney disease was thought to be insignificant for a long period of time. Recent investigations pointed out that the problem of anemia should be defined in the context of the cardio-renal anemia syndrome. A positive feedback mechanism indicates that cardio-renal anemia syndrome is due to an interaction between congestive heart failure, chronic renal failure and anemia. The aim of the study was to present the possible pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome, epidemiological characteristics and therapeutic results of the former investigations. Results. The results of the retrospective and prospective controlled trails have shown that management of anemia with subcutaneous administration of recombinant human erythropoietin together with intravenous iron infusion for at least 3-6 months lead to: relief of symptoms (improved NYHA functional class; increased left ventricular ejection fraction; reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; reduced number of rehospitalizations; reduced requirements for usual therapeutic agents (especially diuretics; and improved renal function. Conclusion. In patients with heart and kidney disease anemia should be routinely identified and appropriately treated. Subcutaneous recombinant erythropoietin and intravenous iron may significantly improve overall survival and quality of life of these patients. .

  6. 减影CT灌注成像技术及对犬股骨头坏死观察应用%Subtraction computed tomographic perfusion imaging and observation of ischemic necrosis of femoral head on dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀军; 任其乐; 李巍; 胥文娟

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨减影计算机体层摄影灌注成像(sCTP)技术及观察犬缺血性股骨头坏死的方法与可行性.方法 对16只犬于旋股动脉内结扎术前后行股骨头CTP扫描,以观察股骨头坏死.在AW 4.2工作站利用减影软件对CTP源影像进行减影处理,再以Perfusion 3软件对减影图像数据和源影像数据分别作血流量(BF)、血容量(BV)、平均通过时间(MTT)色阶图分析并测量兴趣区其参数值. 结果 ①对CTP源影像减影所得新图像数据行灌注成像软件后处理成功率为100%,均获得了BF、BV、MTT色阶图及其数值,sCTP后处理时间约需1~5 h;②sCTP提供的BF、BV、MTT数值及色阶图能对比显示股骨头坏死,常规骨CTP难以揭示这些改变. 结论 sCTP技术可行,适用于骨的CT灌注成像、定量诊断骨坏死.%Objective To investigate the technical protocols and feasibility of subtraction computed tomography perfusion imaging (sCTP) on observation of ischemic necrosis of femoral head (ANFH) on dog. Methods Sixteen laboratory canines underwent CT perfusion imaging (CTP) of femoral head before and after selective femoral circumflex artery embolization, and ANFH were observed. Then new sequence imaging data, created by sources imaging of CT perfusion scan using subtraction software, were analyzed at workstation (AW 4.2) with CT perfusion 3 analysis program, and data of sCTP were obtained. The parametric maps and indexes of capillary-level hemodynamics including blood volume (BV), blood flow (BF) and mean transit time (MTT) of CTP and sCTP were compared. Results ①The technical success rate of sCTP post-processing created from CTP sources imaging data was 100%. The values and mappings of BF, BV and MTT of region of interest (ROI) were all obtained from subtraction sequence images data. The post-processing time of sCTP was about 1-5 h. ② sCTP depicted ANFH well, though the values and mappings of BF, BV and MTT were different from those obtained with

  7. Avaliação da concordância interobservadores na análise da polipose nasossinusal por meio da tomografia computadorizada Evaluation of the concordance between observers in sinunasal polyposis through computed tomographic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine A. Mendes

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Polipose nasossinusal (PNS é uma entidade de etiologia controversa, caracterizada por uma condição inflamatória da superfície mucosa das fossas nasais e seios paranasais, bilateralmente. A queixa principal do paciente consiste na obstrução nasal e, ao exame físico, observam-se freqüentemente massas polipóides ocupando as cavidades nasais em extensões variáveis. Além da rinoscopia anterior e da endoscopia nasal, o uso da tomografia computadorizada (TC torna-se necessário para avaliação das fossas nasais e da presença ou não do acometimento dos seios paranasais por essas massas, bem como a sua extensão. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a concordância interobservadores, por meio da análise da tomografia computadorizada, de 32 casos de PNS. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 32 TC de pacientes portadores PNS por dois observadores experientes, separadamente, em relação à presença ou não de 3 sinais tomográficos sugestivos dessa doença: (1 alargamento infundibular do complexo ostiomeatal, (2 abaulamento lateral da lâmina papirácea e (3 apagamento do trabeculado ósseo etmoidal. RESULTADOS: Observou-se Qui-quadrado não significante para o primeiro e segundo sinais (p=0,7055 e p=0,2057 e significante para o terceiro (p=0,0040. Contudo, o coeficiente de correlação de Kendall entre os dois observadores foi significante para os três sinais tomográficos acima citados (pSinonasal polyposis (SNP is a condition with a controversial aethiology, known by bilaterally inflammatory mucous membranes of nasal and paranasal sinuses. The major patient's complaint is nasal obstruction, and polypoid masses in different sizes can be found during nasal cavity examination. Beyond anterior rhinoscophy and nasal endoscopy, screening sinus computed tomography (SSCT is necessary to measure the size and the extent of the polyps into nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses. The purpose of this

  8. Anemia in the Neonate: The Differential Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassin, Michele L; Lapping-Carr, Gabrielle; de Jong, Jill L O

    2015-07-01

    Anemia is a common problem in the neonatal period. Presenting symptoms may suggest numerous possible diagnoses ranging from anemia seen as a normal part of development to anemia due to critical pathology. An illustrative case is presented to highlight the appropriate evaluation of the neonate with significant anemia. Several important features of the evaluation of neonatal anemia are highlighted. The constellation of signs and symptoms that occur in conjunction with the anemia are critical for the evaluation. The evaluation should be performed in a step-wise process that starts by eliminating common causes of anemia. Manual review of the peripheral blood smear with a hematologist can be helpful. PMID:26171704

  9. Correlates of anemia in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia during pregnancy is a global public health challenge facing the world today. Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy in all the age groups is higher in India as compared to other developing countries. Objective: This study is aimed at determining the magnitude and to explore the socio-demographic and other correlates of anemia among pregnant women. Methodology: This descriptive study with cross-sectional design was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Pregnant who were attending antenatal clinic for a period of one year were comprised the study material. Correlation between variables was analyzed using the chi-square and odd ratio. Results: Three hundred and thirty eight pregnant women were registered for the present study, whose age ranged from 16 to 45 years with a mean age of 26.08 years. Majority (81.95% participants were found to be anemic. It was observed that anemia was more prevalent in pregnant women age groups i.e. 25-29 years and 30+years i.e. 86.67% and 86.21% respectively. Anemia was 82.92% in women were belonging to Hindu and others religion and 82.24% in women having vegetarian diet. Maximum prevalence (83.93% of anemia was observed in women who were booked for antenatal care in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The prevalence of anemia is higher (>85% in women having parity two or more, but this association was not statistically significant. Very few (6.21% were found to be severely anemic as compared to women who were moderately anemic (43.19%. Multiple logistic regression analysis of these factors showed that possibility of anemia is less in women who belong to rural area and it is highly significant. Analysis further showed significant association between anemia and type of diet and other factors like women having parity 1 and 4. Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia amongst the pregnant participants was very high. The socio-demographic and obstetrics factors were found to be associated with anemia. To prevent

  10. Syngeneic transplantation in aplastic anemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerull, Sabine; Stern, Martin; Apperley, Jane;

    2013-01-01

    . About half of transplants with data available (39 of 86) were followed by posttransplant immunosuppression. Graft source was bone marrow in the majority of cases (n=77). Transplant practice changed over time with more transplants with conditioning and anti-thymocyte globulin as well as peripheral blood...... stem cells performed in later years. Ten year overall survival was 93% with 5 transplant-related deaths. Graft failure occurred in 32% of transplants. Risk of graft failure was significantly increased in transplants without conditioning, and with bone marrow as graft source. Lack of posttransplant...... a retrospective analysis of all syngeneic transplants for aplastic anemia reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Between 1976 and 2009, 88 patients received 113 transplants. Most transplants (n=85) were preceded by a conditioning regimen, 22 of these including anti-thymocyte globulin...

  11. Assessment in dogs tympanic bulla, through virtual tomographic endoscopy; Avaliacao de bulas timpanicas em caes, por meio da endoscopia tomografica virtual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luciana Carandina da; Sabino, Emanuelle Guidugli, E-mail: lucianacarandina@uol.com.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria. Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria

    2012-07-01

    Dogs usually have problems related to the auditory canal. For the diagnosis of these pathologies, it is necessary a physical examination and, in some cases radiographic examination and computed tomography. The tympanic bulla is not easily visualized radiographically, since there is many structures of the brain overlaying the image obtained. The computed tomography has been the technique of choice to assess this structure faithfully. A new alternative assessment of the tympanic bulla is tomographic virtual endoscopy, which allows an improvement of the image obtained through the virtual tomographic technique. This paper provides information on the use of computed tomography, and a new technique, tomographic virtual endoscopy, in order to make the improvement of these techniques, and prove the reliability of these changes in the diagnosis of ear canals of dogs. Therefore, we performed the computed tomography of the tympanic bulla on healthy animals, and later performed image reconstruction in three-dimensional (3D) mode for virtual endoscopy. (author)

  12. Advances in Time-Resolved Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch, K.P.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis details advanced developments in 3-D particle image velocimetry (PIV) based on the tomographic PIV technique, with an emphasis on time-resolved experiments. Tomographic PIV is a technique introduced in 2006 to measure the flow velocity in a three-dimensional volume. When measurements are

  13. Complete removal of ghost particles in Tomographic-PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsinga, G.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses and compares several methods, which aim to remove spurious peaks, i.e. ghost particles, from the volume intensity reconstruction in Tomographic-PIV. The assessment is based on numerical simulations of timeresolved tomographic-PIV experiments in linear shear flows. Within the r

  14. Terahertz wave tomographic imaging with a Fresnel lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Wang; X.-C. Zhang

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate three-dimensional tomographic imaging using a Fresnel lens with broadband terahertz pulses. Objects at various locations along the beam propagation path are uniquely imaged on the same imaging plane using a Fresnel lens with different frequencies of the imaging beam. This procedure allows the reconstruction of an object's tomographic contrast image by assembling the frequency-dependent images.

  15. Computerized tomographic in non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of computerized tomography has been developed for medical imaging purposes using tomographs with X-ray, and little attention has been given to others possibles applications of technique, because of its cost. As an alternative for the problem, we constructed a Tomographic System (STAC-1), using gamma-rays, for nonmedical applications. In this work we summarize the basic theory of reconstructing images using computerized tomography and we describe the considerations leading to the development of the experimental system. The method of reconstruction image implanted in the system is the filtered backprojection or convolution, with a digital filters system to carried on a pre-filtering in the projections. The experimental system is described, with details of control and the data processing. An alternative and a complementary system, using film as a detector is shown in preliminary form . This thesis discuss and shows the theorical and practical aspects, considered in the construction of the STAC-1, and also its limitations and apllications

  16. Tomographic capabilities of the new GEM based SXR diagnostic of WEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, A.; Mazon, D.; O'Mullane, M.; Mlynar, J.; Loffelmann, V.; Imrisek, M.; Chernyshova, M.; Czarski, T.; Kasprowicz, G.; Wojenski, A.; Bourdelle, C.; Malard, P.

    2016-07-01

    The tokamak WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady-State Tokamak) will start operating by the end of 2016 as a test bed for the ITER divertor components in long pulse operation. In this context, radiative cooling of heavy impurities like tungsten (W) in the Soft X-ray (SXR) range [0.1 keV; 20 keV] is a critical issue for the plasma core performances. Thus reliable tools are required to monitor the local impurity density and avoid W accumulation. The WEST SXR diagnostic will be equipped with two new GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) based poloidal cameras allowing to perform 2D tomographic reconstructions in tunable energy bands. In this paper tomographic capabilities of the Minimum Fisher Information (MFI) algorithm developed for Tore Supra and upgraded for WEST are investigated, in particular through a set of emissivity phantoms and the standard WEST scenario including reconstruction errors, influence of noise as well as computational time.

  17. Alleviating anemia and thrombocytopenia in myelofibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Francisco; Correa, Juan-Gonzalo; Hernandez-Boluda, Juan Carlos

    2016-05-01

    Anemia and thrombocytopenia are frequent clinical manifestations of myelofibrosis as well as important prognostic factors of the disease. Concerning the treatment of anemia, the first step should be the correction of reversible contributing factors, such as possible iron, folate and vitamin B12 deficiency. Then, treatment options include erythropoiesis stimulating agents, androgens, immunomodulating drugs, corticosteroids, and splenectomy. Anemia responses may also be observed in some patients treated with JAK inhibitors. However, most patients eventually fail to such therapies and become transfusion dependent. Some of the aforementioned therapies can also improve thrombocytopenia, but the responses are usually observed in patients with moderate platelet count decrease. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the only curative treatment of myelofibrosis, can be an alternative for selected patients with cytopenias who are refractory to conventional therapies. However, for the majority of patients, the management of anemia and severe thrombocytopenia remains an unmet need. PMID:26891375

  18. Anemia caused by low iron - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency - children ... able to absorb iron well, even though the child is eating enough iron Slow blood loss over ... bleeding in the digestive tract Iron deficiency in children can also be related to lead poisoning .

  19. The tuning algorithms used by the Donner 600 crystal tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe the computer algorithms used to adjust the energy thresholds and timing delays in the Donner 600 Crystal Tomograph. These thresholds and delays are adjusted using 1890 computer controlled digital to analog converters (DAC's) and a orbiting positron source. The energy threshold for each crystal is adjusted by measuring the counting rate of each crystal-crystal coincidence as a function of the DAC settings that control a pulse height window for the crystal in question. The DAC settings that correspond to the 511 keV photopeak are noted, thus determining the conversion from DAC setting to energy, and allowing the DAC's to be set to any desired energy window. The DAC settings controlling the timing delay for each channel are systematically adjusted to maximize the overall event rate. As these 1890 adjustments are coupled, the authors discuss the convergence of the tuning algorithms, and also report on the photomultiplier tube gain and timing variations over a period of 18 months

  20. Pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in rare anemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Aessopos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rare anemias encompass a large and markedly heterogeneous group of nearly 90 different conditions, mostly congenital or genetically determined, that, according to the definition of the European Commission, have a global prevalence of less than 5 per 10,000 individuals. However, the geographical distribution of several of those anemias varies considerably and thus their local prevalence may be significantly higher in certain regions...

  1. Megaloblastic, dyserythropoietic anemia following arsenic ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, B B; Ali, N; Green, D

    1980-01-01

    Following acute arsenic ingestion, a 35 year old woman experienced multiple organ failure, including renal and respiratory insufficiency, toxic hepatitis, peripheral neuropathy, and encephalopathy. In addition, she developed an anemia; the bone marrow showed a striking dyserythropoiesis with megaloblastic features. Her recovery was heralded by normalization of the bone marrow morphology, followed by improvement in all other organ dysfunction except for the peripheral neuropathy. Arsenic poisoning is a cause of megaloblastic anemia; early hematologic recovery suggests favorable prognosis.

  2. [Anemia in obstetrics and gynecological surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredilla Díaz, E

    2015-06-01

    Iron deficiency is more common in women due to uterine bleeding, which affects them throughout their fertile life. Additionally, iron needs increase physiologically during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Pregnant women therefore constitute one of the risk groups for iron deficiency. During the postpartum period, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia. Longer hospital stays and greater susceptibility to infections are potential consequences of postpartum anemia.

  3. Imaging Automation and Volume Tomographic Visualization at Texas Neutron Imaging Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermal neutron imaging facility for real-time neutron radiography and computed tomography has been developed at the University of Texas reactor. The facility produced good-quality radiographs and two-dimensional tomograms. Further developments have been recently accomplished. A computer software has been developed to automate and expedite the data acquisition and reconstruction processes. Volume tomographic visualization using Interactive Data Language (IDL) software has been demonstrated and will be further developed. Volume tomography provides the additional flexibility of producing slices of the object using software and thus avoids redoing the measurements

  4. Imaging automation and volume tomographic visualization at Texas Neutron Imaging Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermal neutron imaging facility for real-time neutron radiography and computed tomography has been developed at the University of Texas reactor. The facility produced a good-quality radiographs and two-dimensional tomograms. Further developments have been recently accomplished. Further developments have been recently accomplished. A computer software has been developed to automate and expedite the data acquisition and reconstruction processes. Volume tomographic visualization using Interactive Data Language (IDL) software has been demonstrated and will be further developed. Volume tomography provides the additional flexibility of producing slices of the object using software and thus avoids redoing the measurements

  5. Computed tomographic scan of amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Yutaka; Inoue, Yuichi; Takemoto, Kazumasa; Oda, Atsuo; Yahata, Satoshi (Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1984-05-01

    Thin (2 mm) section CT scans of a pituitary gland of 30 amenorrhea-galactorrhea patients were reviewed. Eleven out of 30 patients were diagnosed as having a pituitary adenoma (tumor group); nine prolactionomas were verified by surgery. Tumor density compared with normal pituitary gland was low in five, low-mixed in three and isodense in four. The upper margin of a prolactinoma was convexed upward in seven, flat in two and concaved downward in two. Pituitary stalk was deviated in two and not visualized in four. Serum prolactine level (PRL) was more than 130 ng/ml in tumor group. There was a positive correlation between the size of a prolactinoma and PRL. Four prolactinomas invaded the cavernous sinus; three of them showed higher PRL than 1,000 ng/ml.

  6. The computed tomographic evaluation of diseases involving parotid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyo In; Kim, Dong Ik; Suh, Jung Ho; Park, Jung Soo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-10-15

    During 1983.3.-1986.8., CT findings of 35 cases of parotid lesions were retrospectively reviewed together with their surgical and histologic findings to determine its value in 3 points. 1) Anatomical localization of the lesion 2) Differentiation between benign and malignant tumors 3) The relationship with the facial nerve And also CT Sialography was done in 4 cases. The results were as follows. 1) The age distribution was 1 month-66 years of age. Male to female ratio was 4:3. 2) The most common benign tumor was pleomorphic adenoma (15%) and the most common malignant tumor was carcinoma (15%). 3) Anatomical localization was possible in all cases by noticing the direction toward the fat plane was displaced. 4) Invasion to facial nerve was determined by obliteration of the normal 'bull's 'eye'. 5) Malignancy was rather suggested when the lesion shows ill-defined border, necrotic central low density, lymphadenopathy, and ductal obstruction without a stone. Most of the diagnosis difficulties were in cases of inflammatory mass lesions and sialography was more useful than CT in such cases.

  7. Normal computed tomographic anatomy of the cisterns and cranial nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study, based on the normal CT anatomy of the cisterns investigated with Metrizamide, aims at attempting to find out with accuracy which plane of section is the most suitable for the investigation of each group of cisterns (posterior fossa, mesencephalon, suprasellar). Moreover we felt it necessary to include our study the normal appearance of the cranial nerves as their normal CT anatymy - optic nerves expected - is not well known yet. (orig./AJ)

  8. Computed tomographic (CT) scans in cerebral palsy (CP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolawole, T.M.; Patel, P.J. (King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Radiology); Mahdi, A.H. (King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Paediatrics)

    1989-11-01

    The CT findings in 120 cerebral palsied children are analysed. The 72.5% positive findings are correlated with the clinical types, as well as the aetiological basis for the cerebral palsy. The spastic type, 83.3% of the total number of children, had the highest positive findings. The yield was increased in children with seizures (91.3%) and those in the postnatal group (90%), as well as those with birth trauma and neonatal asphyxia (94%). The findings were those of atrophy in 30.8%, hydrocephalus, in 10%, infarct in 11.6%, porencephaly in 8.3% and others. The atropic changes and their patterns are explained. Treatable lesions, such as tumour, hydrocephalus, subdural haematoma, porencephaly and hygroma were identified in 22.5% of cases. It is concluded that CT scan is definitely efficacious in the management of cerebral palsied children. (orig.).

  9. Computed Tomographic Findings in Cats with Mycobacterial Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Major, Alison; Holmes, Andrea; Warren-Smith, Christopher; Lalor, Stephanie; Littler, Rebecca; Schwarz, Tobias; Gunn-Moore, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to describe the CT imaging findings associated with confirmed mycobacterial infection in cats.Methods: CT images from 20 cats with confirmed mycobacterial disease were retrospectively reviewed. Five cats underwent conscious full-body CT in a VetMouseTrapTM device. All other cats had thoracic CT performed under general anaesthesia, with the addition of CT investigation of the head/neck, abdomen and limbs in some cases.Results: Mycobacterial infection...

  10. Computed tomographic (CT) scans in cerebral palsy (CP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CT findings in 120 cerebral palsied children are analysed. The 72.5% positive findings are correlated with the clinical types, as well as the aetiological basis for the cerebral palsy. The spastic type, 83.3% of the total number of children, had the highest positive findings. The yield was increased in children with seizures (91.3%) and those in the postnatal group (90%), as well as those with birth trauma and neonatal asphyxia (94%). The findings were those of atrophy in 30.8%, hydrocephalus, in 10%, infarct in 11.6%, porencephaly in 8.3% and others. The atropic changes and their patterns are explained. Treatable lesions, such as tumour, hydrocephalus, subdural haematoma, porencephaly and hygroma were identified in 22.5% of cases. It is concluded that CT scan is definitely efficacious in the management of cerebral palsied children. (orig.)

  11. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF SEIZURES (EPILEPSY IN PEDIATRIC AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The study is aimed to reassess the role of CT in detecting various epileptogenic lesions with multi detector CT imaging, to know the value of CECT is evaluation of various lesions and to know the commonest CNS lesions ca using afebrile se i zures in Paediatric age group is the local population. METHODOLOGY: The study consists of 70 Pediatric patients suffering from afebrile seizures referred to Radio – diagnostic department S.V.R.R. Hospital at Tirupati for C.T. brain invest igation. EXCLUSION CRITERIA : A s our study is to evaluate epilepsy characterized by recurrent (more than two episodes seizures, with no immediate identifiable and avoidable cause (sleep deprivation, known metabolic disorders, alcohol withdrawal, pyrexia. Therefore we excluded patients below one month ago. Febrile convulsions, acute infections, toxic and known metabolic disorders Equipment used is Fourth generation Four slice CT with scan time 0.7 seconds Matrix size 640, gantry tilt 120, KV – 120 MAs – 100 to 200, Slice thickness 5mm and 2mm Auto power injector 3 to 3.5 ml per second. NECT : Continuous axial sections of brain, posterior fossa 3mm and rest of brain 5mm sections and 2mm sections were taken wherever necessary CECT is carried out logically in th ose cases which were inconclusive or ambiguous and NECT excluding more definite cases like congenital anomalies and calcified granulomas without peri lesion edema. IV CONTRAST : Non - ionic contrast medium at 1mg / kg body weight was used whenever indicated, n o adverse reactions were noted after injection of contrast medium and sedation was advised whenever the patient was un co - operative. RESULTS: In the present study we evaluated to cases of Pediatric Se i zures and observed and analyzed our findings with the available relevant clinical data and concluded that ; Out of 70 cases there are a Slight female Predilection 57%. And maximum incidence of Seizures was in the first 3 years, but no age is spared. Generalized Seizures accounted for 63.85% in our local Pediat ric age group. We were able to detect various epileptogenic foci, in 61.4% (40 cases. And with available CT findings we could able to distinguish and diagnose various Pathological lesions, including infections, congenital anomalies, calcified lesions and neoplasm. CECT should be done in evaluation of low and mixed density lesions, CECT helped more in evaluation of low density lesions and revealed ring enhancing lesions. Delayed (5 - 7 min and thin (2mm sections are more useful. Ring entrancing lesions due to infections are the commonest epileptogenic foci in our study accounting for 28%. And CECT is not helped much in evaluation other than low density lesions. As normal neurological examination can’t rule out an epileptogenic focus. Therefore CT brain shou ld be included. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: Based on our study and on reviewing the literature, we are able to detect epileptogenic foci. CECT is very essential is evaluation of low density lesions. Only on contrast study we can detect and distinguish v arious lesions. Moreover delayed and thin sections are more useful CECT is may not play any role in evaluation of most of the congenital anomalies and calcified lesions. Ring en hancing lesions of infections etiology especially NCC are the commonest epilept ogenic foci in our local paediatric population. Therefore CT is the prime mode of investigation is evaluation of epilepsy in Paediatric

  12. Iron deficiency anemia in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2015-08-21

    Iron is an important micronutrient that may be depleted in celiac disease. Iron deficiency and anemia may complicate well-established celiac disease, but may also be the presenting clinical feature in the absence of diarrhea or weight loss. If iron deficiency anemia occurs, it should be thoroughly evaluated, even if celiac disease has been defined since other superimposed causes of iron deficiency anemia may be present. Most often, impaired duodenal mucosal uptake of iron is evident since surface absorptive area in the duodenum is reduced, in large part, because celiac disease is an immune-mediated disorder largely focused in the proximal small intestinal mucosa. Some studies have also suggested that blood loss may occur in celiac disease, sometimes from superimposed small intestinal disorders, including ulceration or neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma. In addition, other associated gastric or colonic disorders may be responsible for blood loss. Rarely, an immune-mediated hemolytic disorder with increased urine iron loss may occur that may respond to a gluten-free diet. Reduced expression of different regulatory proteins critical in iron uptake has also been defined in the presence and absence of anemia. Finally, other rare causes of microcytic anemia may occur in celiac disease, including a sideroblastic form of anemia reported to have responded to a gluten-free diet.

  13. Family structure and child anemia in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K

    2013-10-01

    Utilizing longitudinal data from the nationally-representative Mexico Family Life Survey, this study assesses the association between family structure and iron-deficient anemia among children ages 3-12 in Mexico. The longitudinal models (n = 4649), which control for baseline anemia status and allow for consideration of family structure transitions, suggest that children living in stable-cohabiting and single-mother families and those who have recently experienced a parental union dissolution have higher odds of anemia than those in stable-married, father-present family structures. Interaction effects indicate that unmarried family contexts have stronger associations with anemia in older children (over age five); and, that the negative effects of parental union dissolution are exacerbated in poorer households. Resident maternal grandparents have a significant beneficial effect on child anemia independent of parental family structure. These results highlight the importance of family structure for child micronutrient deficiencies and suggest that understanding social processes within households may be critical to preventing child anemia in Mexico. PMID:23294876

  14. Mouse models of anemia of cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airie Kim

    Full Text Available Anemia of cancer (AC may contribute to cancer-related fatigue and impair quality of life. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis of AC could facilitate better treatment, but animal models to study AC are lacking. We characterized four syngeneic C57BL/6 mouse cancers that cause AC. Mice with two different rapidly-growing metastatic lung cancers developed the characteristic findings of anemia of inflammation (AI, with dramatically different degrees of anemia. Mice with rapidly-growing metastatic melanoma also developed a severe anemia by 14 days, with hematologic and inflammatory parameters similar to AI. Mice with a slow-growing peritoneal ovarian cancer developed an iron-deficiency anemia, likely secondary to chronically impaired nutrition and bleeding into the peritoneal cavity. Of the four models, hepcidin mRNA levels were increased only in the milder lung cancer model. Unlike in our model of systemic inflammation induced by heat-killed Brucella abortus, ablation of hepcidin in the ovarian cancer and the milder lung cancer mouse models did not affect the severity of anemia. Hepcidin-independent mechanisms play an important role in these murine models of AC.

  15. Myocardial disease,anemia and heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donald S Silverberg; Dov Wexler; Adrian Iaina; Doron Schwartz

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Many patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) fail to respond to maximal CHF therapy and progress to end stage CHF with many hospitalizations, very poor quality of life, end stage renal failure, or die of cardiovascular complications within a short time. One factor that has generally been ignored in many of these patients is the fact that they are often anemic.The anemia is due mainly to renal failure but also to the inhibitory effects of cytokines on the bone marrow. Anemia itself may further worsen the cardiac function and make the patients resistant to standard CHF therapies. Indeed anemia has been associated with increased severity of CHF, increased hospitalization, worse cardiac function and functional class, higher doses of diuretics,worsening of renal function and reduced quality of life. In both controlled and uncontrolled studies the correction of the anemia with erythropoietin (EPO) and oral or Ⅳ iron is associated with improvement in all these parameters. EPO itself may also play a direct role in improving the heart unrelated to the improvement of the anemia. Anemia may also play a role in the worsening of coronary heart disease even without CHF.

  16. Motion tracking-enhanced MART for tomographic PIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel technique to increase the accuracy of multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) reconstruction from tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) recordings at higher seeding density than currently possible is presented. The motion tracking enhancement (MTE) method is based on the combined utilization of images from two or more exposures to enhance the reconstruction of individual intensity fields. The working principle is first introduced qualitatively, and the mathematical background is given that explains how the MART reconstruction can be improved on the basis of an improved first guess object obtained from the combination of non-simultaneous views reduced to the same time instant deforming the 3D objects by an estimate of the particle motion field. The performances of MTE are quantitatively evaluated by numerical simulation of the imaging, reconstruction and image correlation processes. The cases of two or more exposures obtained from time-resolved experiments are considered. The iterative application of MTE appears to significantly improve the reconstruction quality, first by decreasing the intensity of the ghost images and second, by increasing the intensity and the reconstruction precision for the actual particles. Based on computer simulations, the maximum imaged seeding density that can be dealt with is tripled with respect to the MART analysis applied to a single exposure. The analysis also illustrates that the maximum effect of the MTE method is comparable to that of doubling the number of cameras in the tomographic system. Experiments performed on a transitional jet at Re = 5000 apply the MTE method to double-frame recordings. The velocity measurement precision is increased for a system with fewer views (two or three cameras compared with four cameras). The ghost particles' intensity is also visibly reduced although to a lesser extent with respect to the computer simulations. The velocity and vorticity field obtained from a three

  17. Correlative study on anemia and radiotherapy effects in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the effect of oxygen-carrying ability of blood efficacy of radiotherapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Altogether 161 cases of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were classified according to severity of anemia, and Hb, RBC, MCH, HCT, MCV, MCHC and RDW were tested before, during and after radiotherapy. The patients were followed-up for up to 5 years, the relationship and mechanism among anemia, radiotherapy effects and survival rate was discussed. Results: The survival rate between anemia group and non-anemia group was different significantly (P<0.05). Anemia before radiotherapy, anemia appearance or anemia deterioration during radiotherapy were sensitive factors affecting radiotherapy results. The anemia more severe, the radiotherapy worse. Conclusion: Anemia-hypohemoglobinemia leads to decrease of oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, resulting in oxygen deficiency of tumor cells and their radiotherapy resistance. Therefore this method is worthy of further studies

  18. ANEMIA IN INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE MORE THAN AN EXTRAINTESTINAL COMPLICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeş, Roxana Maria; Pop, Corina Silvia; Calagiu, Dorina; Dobrin, Denisa; Chetroiu, Diana; Jantea, Petruta; Postolache, Paraschiva

    2016-01-01

    The most common hematologic complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)--ulcerative colitis and Crohn's Disease is anemia. Anemia in patients with IBD may be a result of iron, vitamin B12 or folate deficiency; anemia of chronic disease and hemolytic anemia are other causes in these patients. Factors contributing to the development of anemia include chronic gastrointestinal blood loss, vitamin B12 malabsorption secondary to terminal ileitis, folate deficiency as a result of sulfasalazine therapy. Approximately 30% of patients with IBD have hemoglobin levels below 12 g/dl. The risk of developing anemia relates to disease activity, given that blood loss and inflammatory anemia are triggered by intestinal inflammation. In the management strategy of IBD patients with anemia it is important to distinguish between the different types of anemia in order to decide an appropriate manner of treatment.

  19. Tomographic phase microscopy and its biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonshik

    2012-12-01

    Conventional interferometric microscopy techniques such as digital holographic microscopy and quantitative phase microscopy are often classified as 3D imaging techniques because a recorded complex field image can be numerically propagated to a different depth. In a strict sense, however, a single complex field image contains only 2D information on a specimen. The measured 2D image is only a subset of the 3D structure. For the 3D mapping of an object, multiple independent 2D images are to be taken, for example at multiple incident angles or wavelengths, and then combined by the so-called optical diffraction tomography (ODT). In this Letter, tomographic phase microscopy (TPM) is reviewed that experimentally realizes the concept of the ODT for the 3D mapping of biological cells in their native state, and some of its interesting biological and biomedical applications are introduced. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Collimated trans-axial tomographic scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objects of this invention are first to reduce the time required to obtain statistically significant data in trans-axial tomographic radioisotope scanning using a scintillation camera. Secondly, to provide a scintillation camera system to increase the rate of acceptance of radioactive events to contribute to the positional information obtainable from a known radiation source without sacrificing spatial resolution. Thirdly to reduce the scanning time without loss of image clarity. The system described comprises a scintillation camera detector, means for moving this in orbit about a cranial-caudal axis relative to a patient and a collimator having septa defining apertures such that gamma rays perpendicular to the axis are admitted with high spatial resolution, parallel to the axis with low resolution. The septa may be made of strips of lead. Detailed descriptions are given. (U.K.)