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Sample records for anechoic water tank

  1. Processing of Prosthetic Heart Valve Sounds from Anechoic Tank Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J V; Meyer, A W

    2001-03-20

    People with serious cardiac problems have had their life span extended with the development of the prosthetic heart valve. However, the valves operate continuously at approximately 39 million cycles per year and are therefore subject to structural failures either by faulty design or material fatigue. The development of a non-invasive technique using an acoustic contact microphone and sophisticated signal processing techniques has been proposed and demonstrated on limited data sets. In this paper we discuss an extension of the techniques to perform the heart valve tests in an anechoic like. Here the objective is to extract a ''pure'' sound or equivalently the acoustical vibration response of the prosthetic valves in a quiet environment. The goal is to demonstrate that there clearly exist differences between values which have a specific mechanical defect known as single leg separation (SLS) and non-defective valves known as intact (INT). We discuss the signal processing and results of anechoic acoustic measurements on 50 prosthetic valves in the tank. Finally, we show the results of the individual runs for each valve, point out any of the meaningful features that could be used to distinguish the SLS from INT and summarize the experiments.

  2. Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber comprises a power anechoic chamber and one transverse electromagnetic cell for characterizing radiofrequency (RF) responses of...

  3. Dwelling Water Tanks in Diyarbakir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ceylan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this connection, the object of this study has been to identify and compare the microbiological contamination and residue chlorine levels in the main network water that is taken from the Dicle Dam and distributed in Diyarbakir Province Centre and in the tanks of dwellings that use this water as well as the effects of the maintenance, hygiene, and physical conditions of these tanks on microbiological contamination. METHODS: Water samples were taken from both the tank input side network water and tank output side tank waters of 200 dwellings with water tanks in Diyarbakir city centre (tank entrance network side water for 200 and tank output side tank water for 200 within the framework of the research study. RESULTS: Coliform bacteria were detected in 35% of the tank entrance side network water samples and in 52.0% percent of the tank output side water samples. Faecal coliform bacteria were not detected in tank entrance side network water samples, but they existed in 2.5% of the tank output side water samples. Free residue chlorine level was found to be over 0.2 ppm in 67% of tank entrance side network water samples and in 35% of the tank output side water samples. Coliform bacteria were detected in 95.5% of the tank entrance side network water samples, of which free residue chlorine level were below 0.2 ppm. Total germ growth was detected in 52.0% of the tank entrance side network water samples and in 67.5% of the tank output side water samples. The most frequently isolated bacteria both in tank entrance side network and tank output side water samples were found to be Bacillus spp. Bacillus type bacteria were found in 48% of tank entrance side network water samples and 57.5% of the tank output side water samples. Filamentous fungi were prevalent in 8% of all the samples examined within the study and the most commonly isolated filamentous fungi were Aspergillus spp (5.5% and Penicillum spp (2.5%. Water tanks of dwellings contain more

  4. 49 CFR 230.115 - Feed water tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Feed water tanks. 230.115 Section 230.115... Tenders Steam Locomotive Tanks § 230.115 Feed water tanks. (a) General provisions. Tanks shall be... water. Feed water tanks shall be equipped with a device that permits the measurement of the quantity...

  5. Cold water inlet in solar tanks - valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to make a proposal for how to value a storage tank with a poor design of the cold water inlet. Based on measurements and calculations a number of curves, which are valid for this valuation, are worked out. Based on a simple test with a uniform heated storage tank the ratio...... between the energy tapped in one storage volume and the energy content in the tank before the tapping is measured. Afterwards the mixing factor, corresponding to the measured ratio, can be determined. It is proposed that the mixing factor is taken into consideration when the governmental subsidy for SDHW...

  6. NRAO RF Anechoic Chamber & Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A shielded anechoic chamber measuring 15 by 15 by 37 feet is located in the Jansky Laboratory at Green Bank. This chamber has been outfitted as a far-field antenna...

  7. RADAR Anechoic Chamber/RCS Measurements Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The RF Anechoic Chamber is 56 feet long by 12 feet high by 13.5 feet wide, with an adjoining electronic computer control room. A double door entrance at one end of...

  8. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal stratification and natural convection in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank during standby periods are presented. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by heat loss are investigated by comput......Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal stratification and natural convection in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank during standby periods are presented. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by heat loss are investigated...

  9. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal stratification and natural convection in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank during standby periods are presented. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by heat loss are investigated by comput......Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal stratification and natural convection in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank during standby periods are presented. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by heat loss are investigated...

  10. Utilities:Water:Water Tanks at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:tanks)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents tanks at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. It consists of 2 polygons representing the Tunnel Spring Division Tank and the 1/2...

  11. Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Johnson, F. Thomas (Baldwin Boro, PA); Orr, Richard S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tubesheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tubesheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tubesheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch therebetween. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight.

  12. Water Tank with Capillary Air/Liquid Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Smith, Frederick; Edeen, Gregg; Almlie, Jay C.

    2010-01-01

    A bladderless water tank (see figure) has been developed that contains capillary devices that allow it to be filled and emptied, as needed, in microgravity. When filled with water, the tank shields human occupants of a spacecraft against cosmic radiation. A membrane that is permeable by air but is hydrophobic (neither wettable nor permeable by liquid water) covers one inside surface of the tank. Grooves between the surface and the membrane allow air to flow through vent holes in the surface as the tank is filled or drained. A margin of wettable surface surrounds the edges of the membrane, and all the other inside tank surfaces are also wettable. A fill/drain port is located in one corner of the tank and is covered with a hydrophilic membrane. As filling begins, water runs from the hydrophilic membrane into the corner fillets of the tank walls. Continued filling in the absence of gravity will result in a single contiguous air bubble that will be vented through the hydrophobic membrane. The bubble will be reduced in size until it becomes spherical and smaller than the tank thickness. Draining the tank reverses the process. Air is introduced through the hydrophobic membrane, and liquid continuity is maintained with the fill/drain port through the corner fillets. Even after the tank is emptied, as long as the suction pressure on the hydrophilic membrane does not exceed its bubble point, no air will be drawn into the liquid line.

  13. Inspection and in situ impedance measurements for ballast water tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Buter, S.; Ferrari, G.; Prent, C.S.W.

    2012-01-01

    The application of coatings in ballast water tanks is critical for the safety of cargo ships. International Maritime Organization (IMO) has delivered a standard for the protection of water ballast tanks in which new built cargo vessels have to comply with {resolution MSC.215(82)}. In case the proced

  14. Household rainwater tanks: mediating changing relations with water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Farbotko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestic rainwater tanks have become commonplace in Australia's urban landscape, and have become the physical embodiment of the changing relations between householders, water, and water authorities. The aim of our research was to understand these changing relations by examining how domestic rainwater tanks are inscribed with meanings and assumptions and thus mediate a relationship between households and government. In particular, we considered how domestic rainwater tanks are implicated in various understandings of entitlements to water collected or used in private domains. We examined how tanks can render visible the contestation over rights and obligations of state and citizen as to what is considered private and public water collection, management, and use at the scale of the household. Our exploration of these issues was conducted through a case study of changing water relations in South East Queensland, Australia, where there has been recent widespread installation of domestic rainwater tanks.

  15. Smart solar tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Knudsen, Søren;

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of small SDHW systems based on smart solar tanks are presented. The domestic water in a smart solar tank can be heated both by solar collectors and by means of an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system – in this study electric heating elements – heats up...... systems, based on differently designed smart solar tanks and a traditional SDHW system were investigated by means of laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. The investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of SDHW systems with smart solar tanks is 5-35% higher than the thermal...... performance of traditional SDHW systems. Estimates indicate that the performance/cost ratio can be improved by up to 25% by using a smart solar tank instead of a traditional tank when the backup energy system is electric heating elements. Further, smart solar tanks are suitable for unknown, variable, large...

  16. Reduction of mixing in jet-fed water storage tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Martinson, Brett; Lucey, A.

    2004-01-01

    Contrary to usual mains-water practice, mixing in water storage tanks used in rainwater harvesting systems is undesirable because pathogen die-off can occur in the unmixed water prior to its extraction for use. The principal cause of mixing in these tanks is the momentum of the inflow during a rainfall event. We investigate the effect of inflow-jet configuration on the proportion of stored water in a tank which mixes with the slightly cooler inflow of rooftop water. Scale experiments are cond...

  17. Microbial water quality in clean water tanks following inspection and cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Esbjørn, Anne; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Increased bacterial counts are often registered in drinking water leaving clean water tanks after the tanks have been emptied, inspected and cleaned by flushing. To investigate the reason for the increased bacterial concentrations and consequently limit it, samples from two clean water tanks before, during and after cleaning of the tanks were analysed. Bacteria were quantified, the dominating bacterial groups were identified and re-growth potential in the water was estimated. Bacterial counts...

  18. Where Did the Water Go?: Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

    2007-01-01

    Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be…

  19. Opportunistic pathogens relative to physicochemical factors in water storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, S N; Elshafie, A E; Victor, R; Mahmoud, I Y; Al-Hinai, J A

    2011-06-01

    Household water in Oman, as well as in other countries in the region, is stored in tanks placed on house roofs that can be subjected to physicochemical factors which can promote microbial growth, including pathogens and opportunistic pathogens which pose health risks. Water samples were collected from 30 houses in a heavily populated suburb of Muscat. The tanks used were either glass reinforced plastic (GRP), polyethylene or galvanised iron (GI). Heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms, faecal coliforms and iron sulphur bacteria varied significantly in the three tanks. Yeast and mould count showed significant variations. Isolation of Aeromonas spp., fluorogenic and pathogenic Pseudomonas, Pasteurella, Salmonella, Serratia and Tatumella, and Yersinia and Legionella in biofilms varied in the three tanks. The fungi isolates in the three tanks were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Aspergillus. Nephelometric turbidity unit, threshold odour number and free chlorine varied significantly in the three tanks. True colour unit values did not show a significant difference; however, GRP tanks had algae, autotrophic and pigmented microorganisms. In addition, GI tanks had sediments and corrosion. The results of this investigation are important to evaluate the status of the present household water tanks in countries with high annual temperatures, which may affect public health.

  20. Water Tanks, Water Tanks, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Tanks dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2007. It is described as 'Water...

  1. Environmental and geometric optimisation of cylindrical drinking water storage tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjuan Delmás, David; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan; Hernando-Canovas, Elena; Pujadas, Pablo; De la Fuente, Albert; Josa Garcia-Tornel, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11367-015-0963-y Purpose: Urban water cycle construction processes are an important element to consider when assessing the sustainability of urban areas. The present study focuses on a structural and environmental analysis of cylindrical water tanks. The goal is to optimise cylindrical water tanks from both an environmental (environmental impacts due of life cycle assessment (LCA)) and a geometric perspective (bu...

  2. Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shaft Support Water Storage Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Tekwani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the results of Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shaft Support Water Storage Tank carried out in accordance with IS: 1893- 1984 and IS: 1893-2002 (Part-2 draft code. The analysis is carried out for shaft supported water tank of 500,750 and 1000 Cu.m capacity, located in four seismic zones (Zone-II, Zone -III, Zone-IV, Zone-V and on three different soil types (Hard rock, Medium soil, Soft soil. Further, 1000 kl tank for conditions - tank full, tank empty are also considered in this study. The analysis was performed using MAT LAB. The parameters of comparison include base shears, base moments and time history analysis. The above models are analyzed for different time history data such as El Centro, Kobe, Ji-Ji, Erzincan. The comparison is made between the structural responses of one mass and two mass models of above capacity.

  3. Water Tanks, wtr tank, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Tanks dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'wtr tank'. The...

  4. Water Tanks, tank txt, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Tanks dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'tank txt'. The...

  5. Where Did the Water Go? Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

    2007-03-01

    Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be close to 50 gallons. However, only a surprisingly small percentage of the total tank volume is available to provide water that can be drawn from the tank before the pump must cycle back on. Boyle's law ( PV is constant) provides mathematical insight into the workings of this type of tank, including predictions of the quantities of available water resulting from different initial conditions of the water tank system.

  6. DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

    2009-07-31

    Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

  7. Microbial water quality in clean water tanks following inspection and cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Esbjørn, Anne; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    , during and after cleaning of the tanks were analysed. Bacteria were quantified, the dominating bacterial groups were identified and re-growth potential in the water was estimated. Bacterial counts did not exceed drinking water guideline values but ATP concentrations in the water were high right after......Increased bacterial counts are often registered in drinking water leaving clean water tanks after the tanks have been emptied, inspected and cleaned by flushing. To investigate the reason for the increased bacterial concentrations and consequently limit it, samples from two clean water tanks before...... start-up of the tanks, which may indicate that a substantial part of the bacteria in the drinking water leaving the tanks originated from the sand filter. This was supported by 16S DNA analyses....

  8. Safety evaluation for adding water to tank 101-SY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a new water limit for Tank 241-SY-101. The original limit was set at 9600 gallons. The new limit is now 20,000 gallons. There are various activities that require the use of additional water to the tank. The main activity is the removal of the temporary mixer pump. This requires a large amount of water which will exceed the original limit. Also, other activities such as flushing, adding a viscometer, and adding a void fraction meter requires additional water. The new limit safely incorporates these activities and allows room for more future activities

  9. Juvenile turtles for mosquito control in water storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjas, G; Marten, G G; Fernandez, E; Portillo, H

    1993-09-01

    Juvenile turtles, Trachemys scripta, provided highly effective control of mosquito larvae in cement tanks (pilas) where water was stored for household cleaning. When single turtles were introduced to tanks with histories of high mosquito production, nearly all turtles remained in good health and no mosquito larvae survived to the pupal stage. Families welcome turtles in their water storage containers in Honduras. Humane conditions for turtles can be assured by providing small quantities of table scraps to supplement their diet and by placing a small floating platform in the tank for basking. Although turtles can serve as alternate hosts for Salmonella, available evidence suggests that turtles in tanks should not be a source of human infection. Further confirmation that there is no Salmonella hazard should precede routine use of turtles for mosquito control. PMID:7902872

  10. Application of Tank Model for Predicting Water Balance and Flow Discharge Components of Cisadane Upper Catchment

    OpenAIRE

    Nana Mulyana Arifjaya; Cecep Kusmana; Kamarudin Abdulah; Lilik Budi Prasetyo; Budi Indra Setiawan

    2012-01-01

    The concept of hydrological tank model was well described into four compartments (tanks). The first tank (tank A) comprised of one vertical (qA0) and two lateral (qA1 and qA2) water flow components and tank B comprised of one vertical (qB0) and one lateral (qB1) water flow components. Tank C comprised of one vertical (qC0) and one lateral (qC1) water flow components, whereas tank D comprised of one lateral water flow component (qD1).  These vertical water flows would also contribute to the de...

  11. Commissioning and cross-comparison of four scanning water tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Saenz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Water scanning systems are commonly used for data collection to characterize dosimetric properties of photon and electron beams, and the commissioning of such systems has been previously described. The aim in this study, however, was to investigate tank-specific dependencies as well as conduct a dosimetric comparison between four distinct water scanning systems.Methods: Four water scanning systems were studied including the PTW MP3-M Phantom Tank, the Standard Imaging DoseView 3D, the IBA Blue Phantom, and the Sun Nuclear 3D Scanner. Mechanical accuracy and reproducibility was investigated by driving the chamber holder to nominal positions relative to a zero point and using a leveled caliper with 30 cm range to measure the actual position. Dosimetric measurements were also performed not only to compare percent-depth-dose (PDD curves and profiles between tanks but also to assess dependencies such as directionality, scanning speed, and reproducibility for each tank individually. A PTW Semiflex 31010 ionization chamber with a sensitive volume of 0.125 cc was used at a Varian Clinac 2300 linear accelerator.Results: Mechanical precision was ensured to within 0.1 mm with the standard deviation (SD of reproducibility <0.1 mm for measurements made with calipers. Dependencies on scanning direction and speed are presented. 6 MV PDDs between tanks agreed to within 0.6% relative to an averaged PDD beyond dmax and within 2.5% in the build-up region. Specifically, the maximum difference was 1.0% between MP3-M and Blue Phantom at 6.1 cm depth. Lateral profiles agreed between tanks within 0.5% in the central 80% of the field. 6 MeV PDD maximum difference was 1.3% occurring at the steepest portion, where the R50 was nevertheless within 0.6 mm across tanks. Setup uncertainties estimated at ≤1 mm are presumed to have contributed some of the difference between water tank data.Conclusion: Modern water scanning systems have achieved high accuracy across

  12. Anechoic chamber in industrial plants. [construction materials and structural design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, E.; Juncu, O.; Lorian, R.; Marfievici, D.; Mararu, I.

    1974-01-01

    A light anechoic chamber for routine acoustical measurements in the machine building industry is reported. The outer housing of the chamber consists of modules cast in glass fiber reinforced polyester resin; the inner housing consists of pyramidal modules cut out of sound absorbing slates. The parameters of this anechoic chamber facilitate acoustical measurements according to ISO and CAEM recommendations.

  13. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33 Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. A new vessel may not carry ballast water in a fuel oil tank....

  14. The Kevlar-walled anechoic wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenport, William J.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Borgoltz, Aurelien; Ravetta, Patricio A.; Barone, Matthew F.; Brown, Kenneth A.; Morton, Michael A.

    2013-08-01

    The aerodynamic and acoustic performance of an anechoic wind tunnel test section with walls made from thin Kevlar cloth have been measured and analyzed. The Kevlar test section offers some advantages over a conventional free-jet arrangement. The cloth contains the bulk of the flow but permits the transmission of sound with little loss. The containment results in smaller far-field aerodynamic corrections meaning that larger models can be tested at higher Reynolds numbers. The containment also eliminates the need for a jet catcher and allows for a much longer test section. Model-generated noise is thus more easily separated from facility background using beamforming. Measurements and analysis of acoustic and aerodynamic corrections for a Kevlar-walled test section are presented and discussed, along with benchmark trailing edge noise measurements.

  15. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Tank design parameters such as tank volume, height to diameter ratio and insulation and different initial conditions of the tank are investigated.It is elucidated how thermal stratification in the tank is influenced by the natural convection and how...... to diameter ratio, tank insulation and initial conditions of the tank. The equation is validated for a 150–500l tank insulated with 0–7cm mineral wool and a tank height to diameter ratio of 1–5. The equation will be implemented in an existing tank optimization and design program for calculation of thermal...

  16. The biological treatment of petroleum tank draw waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Jose L. [Envirosystems Supply, Inc., Hollywood, FL (United States); Stephens, Greg [Plantation Pipeline, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This work reviews and summarizes the performance of a biological process (followed by the state-of-the-art) for the removal of organic compounds in petroleum tank draw waters. Trickling filter and the extended aeration modification of activated sludge were selected as the biological processes tested in pilot units. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Temperature stratification in a hot water tank with circulation pipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the project is to investigate the change in temperature stratification due to the operation of a circulation pipe. Further, putting forward rules for design of pipe inlet in order not to disturb the temperature stratification in the hot water tank. A validated computer model based...

  18. Investigation on Kombiterm GE Domestic Hot Water Tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Heuer, Andreas Walter

    1996-01-01

    Investigation of a hot water tank with a high heat exchanger spiral with a small pipe diameter in the upper part of the heat exchanger spiral and a large pipe diameter in the lower part of the heat exchanger spiral in cooperation with Kãhler&Breum Beholder- og Maskinfabrik K/S. First preprint...

  19. LLNL heart valve condition classification project anechoic testing results at the TRANSDEC evaluation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J V

    1999-10-31

    This report first briefly outlines the procedures and support/activation fixture developed at LLNL to perform the heart valve tests in an anechoic-like tank at the US Navy Transducer Evaluation Facility (TransDec) located in San Diego, CA. Next they discuss the basic experiments performed and the corresponding experimental plan employed to gather meaningful data systematically. The signal processing required to extract the desired information is briefly developed along with some of the data. Finally, they show the results of the individual runs for each valve, point out any of the meaningful features and summaries.

  20. Development of a hot water tank simulation program with improved prediction of thermal stratification in the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon; Yue, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    A simulation program SpiralSol was developed in previous investigations to calculate thermal performance of a solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system with a hot water tank with a built-in heat exchanger spiral [1]. The simulation program is improved in the paper in term of prediction of thermal...... stratification in the tank. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the hot water tank during cooling caused by standby heat loss are investigated by validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. Detailed CFD investigations are carried out to determine the influence of thickness and material...

  1. RF Anechoic Chambers, Tri-Service Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In collaboration with the Navy, there are 12 RF Anechoic and static free exposure chambers located at TSRL. These chambers cover the majority of the RF spectrum and...

  2. Parametric study and optimization of water-tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Hernando Cánovas, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to improve the optimization of the resources required to the design and construction of water tanks. The criteria and methodology proposed by the standards and studies is analyzed and have contributed to develop the structural design and the associated parametric study. Likewise, the methodology applied to develop the environmental analysis; Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is addressed. The present work consists of two studies that has been developed at the same time an...

  3. Deductive Reasoning Under Uncertainty: A Water Tank Analogy

    OpenAIRE

    Politzer, Guy

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a cubic water tank equipped with a movable partition receiving various amounts of liquid used to represent joint probability distributions. This device is applied to the investigation of deductive inferences under uncertainty. The analogy is exploited to determine by qualitative reasoning the limits in probability of the conclusion of twenty basic deductive arguments (such as Modus Ponens, And-introduction, Contraposition, etc.) often used as benchmark problems by the var...

  4. Deductive Reasoning Under Uncertainty Using a Water Tank Analogy

    OpenAIRE

    Politzer, Guy

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a cubic water tank equipped with a movable partition receiving various amounts of liquid used to represent joint probability distributions. This device is applied to the investigation of deductive inferences under uncertainty. The analogy is exploited to determine by qualitative reasoning the limits in probability of the conclusion of twenty basic deductive arguments (such as Modus Ponens, And-introduction, Contraposition, etc.) often used as benchmark problems by the var...

  5. Pitting corrosion in austenitic stainless steel water tanks of hotel trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water storage tanks of hotel trains suffered pitting corrosion. To identify the cause, the tanks were subjected to a detailed metallographic study and the chemical composition of the austenitic stainless steels used in their construction was determined. Both the tank water and the corrosion products were further examined by physicochemical and microbiological testing. Corrosion was shown to be related to an incompatibility between the chloride content of the water and the base and filler metals of the tanks. These findings formed the basis of recommendations aimed at the prevention and control of corrosion in such tanks. (Author) 18 refs.

  6. Water Tanks, Water Tanks in Brooks County, GA, Published in 1999, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Tanks dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 1999. It is described as 'Water...

  7. Buoyancy driven flow in a hot water tank due to standby heat loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    show that the CFD model predicts satisfactorily water temperatures at different levels of the tank during cooling by standby heat loss. It is elucidated how the downward buoyancy driven flow along the tank wall is established by the heat loss from the tank sides and how the natural convection flow...

  8. Regrowth in ship's ballast water tanks: Think again!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Carolina; Pollet, Bruno G

    2016-08-15

    With the imminent ratification of the International Maritime Organisation's Ballast Water Management Convention, ship owners and operators will have to choose among a myriad of different Ballast Water Treatment Systems (BWTS) and technologies to comply with established discharge standards. However, it has come to our attention that decision-makers seem to be unaware of the problem of regrowth occurring in ballast water tanks after treatment. Furthermore, the information available on the subject in the literature is surprisingly and unfortunately very limited. Herein we summarise previous research findings that suggest that regrowth of bacteria and phytoplankton could occur 18h to 7days and 4 to 20days after treatment, respectively. By highlighting the problem of regrowth, we would like to encourage scientists and engineers to further investigate this issue and to urge ship owners and ship operators to inform themselves on the risks of regrowth associated with the implementation of different BWTS. PMID:27184126

  9. Regrowth in ship's ballast water tanks: Think again!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Carolina; Pollet, Bruno G

    2016-08-15

    With the imminent ratification of the International Maritime Organisation's Ballast Water Management Convention, ship owners and operators will have to choose among a myriad of different Ballast Water Treatment Systems (BWTS) and technologies to comply with established discharge standards. However, it has come to our attention that decision-makers seem to be unaware of the problem of regrowth occurring in ballast water tanks after treatment. Furthermore, the information available on the subject in the literature is surprisingly and unfortunately very limited. Herein we summarise previous research findings that suggest that regrowth of bacteria and phytoplankton could occur 18h to 7days and 4 to 20days after treatment, respectively. By highlighting the problem of regrowth, we would like to encourage scientists and engineers to further investigate this issue and to urge ship owners and ship operators to inform themselves on the risks of regrowth associated with the implementation of different BWTS.

  10. Rainwater Harvesting in South India: Understanding Water Storage and Release Dynamics at Tank and Catchment Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, N. B.; Van Meter, K. J.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Steiff, M.

    2015-12-01

    Rainwater harvesting, the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional rainwater harvesting systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. With elevated declines in groundwater resources, there is increased effort at the state and national levels to revive older systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient water-provisioning systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these rainwater harvesting "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water level variations to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration, and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28.2 km2. Our results indicate a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflow events (as opposed to outflow) increasing down the cascade of tanks. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with catchment-scale runoff:rainfall ratios decreasing from 0.29 without tanks to 0.04 - 0.09 with tanks. Recharge:rainfall ratios increase in the presence of tanks, from ~0.17 in catchments without tanks to ~ 0.26 in catchments with tanks. Finally, our results demonstrate how more efficient management of sluice outflows can lead to the tanks meeting a higher fraction of crop water requirements.

  11. Corrosion analysis of decommissioned carbon steel waste water tanks at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, P.; Roberts, T.C.

    1995-07-01

    A corrosion analysis was carried out on available sections of carbon steels taken from two decommissioned radioactive waste water tanks at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One of the 100,000 gallon tanks suffered from a pinhole failure in the wall which was subsequently patched. From the analysis it was shown that this leak, and two adjacent leaks were initiated by a discarded copper heating coil that had been dropped into the tank during service. The failure mechanism is postulated to have been galvanic attack at points of contact between the tank structure and the coil. Other leaks in the two tanks are also described in this report.

  12. Water Tanks, Allegany County Utilities Water Tanks/Towers, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Allegany County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Tanks dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described as 'Allegany...

  13. Thermal performance behavior of a domestic hot water solar storage tank during consumption operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient thermal performance behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar water heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the discharge/consumption mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially stratified during its previous heat storing/charging operation. During the discharging period, the city cold water is fed at the bottom of the tank and hot water is extracted from its top outlet port for consumption. Meanwhile, the collector loop is assumed to be active. The conservation equations in the axis-symmetric cylindrical co-ordinate have been used and discretised by employing the finite volume method. The low Reynolds number (LRN) k - ω model is utilized for treating turbulence in the fluid. The influence of the tank Grashof number, the incoming cold fluid Reynolds number and the size of the inlet port of the heat storage tank on the transient thermal characteristics of the tank is investigated and discussed. It is found that for higher values of Grashof number, the pre-established thermal stratification is well preserved during the discharging operation mode. It is also noticed that in order to have a tank with a proper thermal performance and or have least mixing inside the tank during the consumption period, the tank inflow Reynolds number and or its inflow port diameter should be kept below certain values. In these cases, the storage tank is enabling to provide proper amount of hot water with a proper temperature for consumption purposes.

  14. An underwater robot controls water tanks in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enterprises Newton Research Labs and IHI Southwest Technologies have developed a robot equipped with sensors to inspect the inside walls (partially) and bottom of water tanks without being obliged to empty them. The robot called 'Inspector' is made up of 4 main components: a chassis with 4 independent steering wheels, a camera video system able to provide a 360 degree view, various non-destructive testing devices such as underwater laser scanners, automated ultra-sound or Foucault current probes and an operation system for both driving the robot and controlling the testing. The Inspector robot has been used to inspect the inside bottom of an operating condensate tank at the Palo Verde nuclear station. The robot was able to check all the welds joining the bottom plates and the welds between the walls and the bottom. The robot is also able to come back to the exact place where a defect was detected during a previous inspection. (A.C.)

  15. WATER-LEVEL MONITOR FOR BOREWELL AND WATER TANK BASED ON GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Ramani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Now a days, home automation & remote control and monitoring systems have seen a rapid growth in terms of technology. Apparently there is no early warning system to monitor the tank water level and bore well water level when it has reached the critical level. In this paper we have provided water level monitoring in the tank as well as in the bore well. If the water level in a bore well drops below the threshold level for pumping its pump motor may get air locked or more burn out due to dry running. It is awkward for farmers to walk all the way to their fields at night just to switch the pump motor off. Besides, he may never get to identify the problem. This problem can be solved by using this GSM based system that will automatically make a call to the user mobile phone, when the water Level in the bore well drops threshold below or rises to the threshold level for pumping. The user can also remotely switch on or off the pump motor by sending a SMS from his mobile phone. The system is simple, reliable, portable and affordable. We proposed the work in which, Whenever water level in the tankdrops below the required level the system try to fill the tank by switching on the bore well motor to pump the water into the tank It is must to have enough water in the bore well to avoid the formation of air gap or empty running of bore well motor. High precision water level sensor is used to identify the reference water level to activate and deactivate the motor and system properly by interfacing the sensor devices into the well definedembedded system.

  16. Impact on Water Heater Performance of Heating Methods that Promote Tank Temperature Stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL; BushPE, John D [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

    2016-01-01

    During heating of a water heater tank, the vertical temperature stratification of the water can be increased or decreased, depending on the method of heating. Methods that increase stratification during heating include (1) removing cold water from the tank bottom, heating it, and re-introducing it to the tank top at relatively low flow rate, (2) using a heat exchanger wrapped around the tank, through which heating fluid (with finite specific heat) flows from top to bottom, and (3) using an immersed heat element that is relatively high in the tank. Using such methods allows for improved heat pump water heater (HPWH) cycle efficiencies when the heat pump can take advantage of the lower temperatures that exist lower in the tank, and accommodate the resulting glide. Transcritical cycles are especially well-suited to capitalize on this opportunity, and other HPWH configurations (that have been proposed elsewhere) may benefit as well. This work provides several stratification categories of heat pump water heater tank configurations relevant to their stratification potential. To illustrate key differences among categories, it also compiles available experimental data for (a) single pass pumped flow, (b) multi-pass pumped flow, and (c) top-down wrapped tank with transcritical refrigerant.

  17. CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING OF A WATER TANK WITH RECYCLABLE MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIANE FARINASSO RODRIGUES

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of electric power became a factor of citizenship and quality of life, but most of this energy comes from energy sources that cause serious damage to the environment and its use depends on the socioeconomic characteristics of the population. The cost of energy offered by the utilities is still significant, and equipment used to capture alternative sources are still expensive. Therefore, many studies are being conducted in this area, seeking new technologies and alternative ways to reduce those costs. From this need, we developed a reservoir for hot water by using recycled materials in order to preserve the temperature of water heated by solar collectors, in order to achieve efficiency similar to equipment found in the market, but with an affordable cost to lowincome. Manual method was used to construct the reservoir, using materials easily found in our market. The tests were performed by comparing the thermal inertia between the reservoirs and proposed commercial and the results were presented in graphical and tabular. Proposals submitted with thermal efficiency exceeding 20% over the proposal without thermal insulation. Regarding the financial part of the proposed system represents an investment of one tenth of the trading system and the rate of return of the complete system (plate + tank is around 11 months.

  18. Operation Performance of Central Solar Heating System with Seasonal Storage Water Tank in Harbin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ling; JIANG Yi-qiang; YAO Yang; ZHANG Shi-cong

    2009-01-01

    This paper presented a preliminary research on the central solar heating system with seasonal stor-age(CSHSSS)used in cold climate in China.A mathematical model of the solar energy seasonal storage water tank used in the central solar heating system was firstly developed based on energy conservation.This was fol-lowed by the simulation of the CSHSSS used in a two-floor villa in Harbin,and analysis of the impacts on storage water temperature of tank volume,solar collector area,tank burial depth,insulation thickness around the tank,etc.The results show there is a relatively economical tank volume to optimize the system efficiency,which de-creases with increasing tank volume at the constant collector area,and increases with increasing collector area at the constant tank volume.Furthermore,the insulation thickness has obvious effect on avoiding heat loss,while the tank burial depth doesn't.In addition-the relationship between the solar collector efficiency and storage wa-ter temperature is also obtained,it decreases quickly with increasing storing water temperature,and then in-creases slowly after starting space heating system.These may be helpful for relevant design and optimization in cold climates in China and all over the world.

  19. MIXING IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE TANKS: ITS EFFECT ON WATER QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly all distribution systems in the US include storage tanks and reservoirs. They are the most visible components of a wate distribution system but are generally the least understood in terms of their impact on water quality. Long residence times in storage tanks can have nega...

  20. On the acoustic wedge design and simulation of anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changyong; Zhang, Shangyu; Huang, Lixi

    2016-10-01

    This study proposes an alternative to the classic wedge design for anechoic chambers, which is the uniform-then-gradient, flat-wall (UGFW) structure. The working mechanisms of the proposed structure and the traditional wedge are analyzed. It is found that their absorption patterns are different. The parameters of both structures are optimized for achieving minimum absorber depth, under the condition of absorbing 99% of normal incident sound energy. It is found that, the UGFW structure achieves a smaller total depth for the cut-off frequencies ranging from 100 Hz to 250 Hz. This paper also proposes a modification for the complex source image (CSI) model for the empirical simulation of anechoic chambers, originally proposed by Bonfiglio et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134 (1), 285-291 (2013)]. The modified CSI model considers the non-locally reactive effect of absorbers at oblique incidence, and the improvement is verified by a full, finite-element simulation of a small chamber. With the modified CSI model, the performance of both decorations with the optimized parameters in a large chamber is simulated. The simulation results are analyzed and checked against the tolerance of 1.5 dB deviation from the inverse square law, stipulated in the ISO standard 3745(2003). In terms of the total decoration depth and anechoic chamber performance, the UGFW structure is better than the classic wedge design.

  1. Comparison of biofilm formation and water quality when water from different sources was stored in large commercial water storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Venessa; Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

    2013-03-01

    Rain-, ground- and municipal potable water were stored in low density polyethylene storage tanks for a period of 90 days to determine the effects of long-term storage on the deterioration in the microbial quality of the water. Total viable bacteria present in the stored water and the resultant biofilms were enumerated using heterotrophic plate counts. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Colilert-18(®) tests were performed to determine if the faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli was present in the water and in the biofilm samples collected throughout the study. The municipal potable water at the start of the study was the only water source that conformed to the South African Water Quality Guidelines for Domestic Use. After 15 days of storage, this water source had deteriorated microbiologically to levels considered unfit for human consumption. E. coli was detected in the ground- and potable water and ground- and potable biofilms periodically, whereas it was detected in the rainwater and associated biofilms at every sampling point. Imperfections in the UV resistant inner lining of the tanks were shown to be ecological niches for microbial colonisation and biofilm development. The results from the current study confirmed that long-term storage can influence water quality and increase the number of microbial cells associated with biofilms on the interior surfaces of water storage tanks.

  2. Analysis of nonlinear shallow water waves in a tank by concentrated mass model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Satoshi; Kondou, Takahiro; Matsuzaki, Kenichiro; Yamamura, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    The sloshing of liquid in a tank is an important engineering problem. For example, liquid storage tanks in industrial facilities can be damaged by earthquakes, and conversely liquid tanks, called tuned liquid damper, are often used as passive mechanical dampers. The water depth is less often than the horizontal length of the tank. In this case, shallow water wave theory can be applied, and the results indicate that the surface waveform in a shallow excited tank exhibits complex behavior caused by nonlinearity and dispersion of the liquid. This study aims to establish a practical analytical model for this phenomenon. A model is proposed that consists of masses, connecting nonlinear springs, connecting dampers, base support dampers, and base support springs. The characteristics of the connecting nonlinear springs are derived from the static and dynamic pressures. The advantages of the proposed model are that nonlinear dispersion is considered and that the problem of non-uniform water depth can be addressed. To confirm the validity of the model, numerical results obtained from the model are compared with theoretical values of the natural frequencies of rectangular and triangular tanks. Numerical results are also compared with experimental results for a rectangular tank. All computational results agree well with the theoretical and experimental results. Therefore, it is concluded that the proposed model is valid for the numerical analysis of nonlinear shallow water wave problems.

  3. Temperature distribution of a hot water storage tank in a simulated solar heating and cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 2,300-liter hot water storage tank was studied under conditions simulating a solar heating and cooling system. The initial condition of the tank, ranging from 37 C at the bottom to 94 C at the top, represented a condition midway through the start-up period of the system. During the five-day test period, the water in the tank gradually rose in temperature but in a manner that diminished its temperature stratification. Stratification was found not to be an important factor in the operation of the particular solar system studied.

  4. [Diurnal variations in purifying-tanks when use Pontederia cordata treating the Malodorous River water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-jun; Lu, Xiao-ming; Lu, Shao-yong; Jin, Xiang-can; Huang, Min-sheng; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Feng

    2009-12-01

    Aquatic plants (Ponsederie cordaza) were waked in two purifying-tanks to investigate the effects of illumination intensity and aeration on diurnal variations of Chla, SP, POD of Ponsederia cordaza and pH, DO, COD, NH4+ -N, TP of water from purifying-tanks when treating the malodorous river water at seven different times, another blank purifying-tank was set as a control. Comparative studies and correlation analysis of these different indicators were carried out to improve the plants working efficiency and provide scientific basis for optimal operation of plant purifying-tanks. Results showed that all indicators affected by changes of light, TP shows best correlation coefficient Cr = 0.93, p tank;aeration is necessary as diurnal average of DO shows an increase of 0.13 mg/L by treatment of plant meanwhile 1.8 mg/L by plant with aeration,purifying-tanks with aeration got 7.1%, 6.3% higher removing rates of COD, NH4+ -N and 38% less TP removing rate than non-aeration plant purifying-tanks (p tanks.

  5. STS-55 crewmembers repair waste water tank under OV-102's middeck subfloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Pilot Terence T. Henricks uses a spotlight and pen to point out a possible problem area on a waste water tank in the bilge area below Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, middeck. Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross records the activity with a video camcorder. The crewmembers are participating in an inflight maintenance (IFM) exercise to counter problems experienced with the waste water tank.

  6. Experimental Validation of a Domestic Stratified Hot Water Tank Model in Modelica for Annual Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2015-01-01

    The use of stratified hot water tanks in solar energy systems - including ORC systems - as well as heat pump systems is paramount for a better performance of these systems. However, the availability of effective and reliable models to predict the annual performance of stratified hot water tanks...... coupled with energy system solutions is limited. In this poster, a discretized model of a stratified tank developed in Modelica is presented. The physical phenoma to be considered are the thermal transfers by conduction and convection – stratification, heat loss to ambient, charging and discharging...... with direct inlet and outlet and immersed heat exchangers. Results of experimental and numerical investigations in a residential hot water tank with two immersed heat exchangers, one inlet and one outlet are presented and the performance of the model is assessed....

  7. Recreational vehicle water tanks as a possible source for legionella infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Christine M; Asebiomo, Bankole; Wilson, Katherine; Hafez, Michael; Stevens, Valerie; Fliermans, Carl B; Fields, Barry S; Fisher, John F

    2013-01-01

    We investigated recreational vehicle (RV) water reservoirs in response to a case of pneumonia in which Legionella pneumophila was cultured both from the patient and a RV reservoir in which he travelled. Water samples processed and cultured at the CDC according to standard protocol were positive for Legionella spp. in 4/17 (24%) faucets, 1/11 (9%) water tanks from 4/20 (20%) RVs from three different campsites. Legionella spp. that were isolated included L. pneumophila (serogroups 1 and 6), L. anisa, L. feeleii, and L. quateriensis. Environmental controls from the potable water of the three campsites were culture-negative. A survey of maintenance practices by the RV users at the campsites revealed that chlorine disinfection of the water tanks was rarely performed. To prevent the possibility of Legionella infections, RV owners should implement regular chlorine disinfection of their water tanks and follow the recommended maintenance guidelines according to their owner's manuals.

  8. Recreational Vehicle Water Tanks as a Possible Source for Legionella Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Litwin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated recreational vehicle (RV water reservoirs in response to a case of pneumonia in which Legionella pneumophila was cultured both from the patient and a RV reservoir in which he travelled. Water samples processed and cultured at the CDC according to standard protocol were positive for Legionella spp. in 4/17 (24% faucets, 1/11 (9% water tanks from 4/20 (20% RVs from three different campsites. Legionella spp. that were isolated included L. pneumophila (serogroups 1 and 6, L. anisa, L. feeleii, and L. quateriensis. Environmental controls from the potable water of the three campsites were culture-negative. A survey of maintenance practices by the RV users at the campsites revealed that chlorine disinfection of the water tanks was rarely performed. To prevent the possibility of Legionella infections, RV owners should implement regular chlorine disinfection of their water tanks and follow the recommended maintenance guidelines according to their owner's manuals.

  9. Farmers’ Willingness to Pay for Irrigation Water: A Case of Tank Irrigation Systems in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Karthikeyan Chandrasekaran; Sureshkumar Devarajulu; Palanisami Kuppannan

    2009-01-01

    The economic value of tank irrigation water was determined through Contingency Valuation Method by analyzing farmers’ willingness to pay for irrigation water under improved water supply conditions during wet and dry seasons of paddy cultivation. Quadratic production function was also used to determine the value of irrigation water. The comparison of the economic value of water estimated using different methods strongly suggests that the present water use pattern will not lead to sustainable u...

  10. Method for material characterization in a non-anechoic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pometcu, L.; Sharaiha, A.; Benzerga, R.; Tamas, R. D.; Pouliguen, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a characterization method for extracting the reflection coefficient of materials and the real part of their permittivity. The characterization is performed in a real environment, as opposed to the classical measurement methods that require an anechoic chamber. In order to reduce the effects of the multipath propagation, a free space bistatic measurement was performed at different distances material-antennas in far field. By using a Teflon sample and a commercial absorbing material sample, measurements have been performed in order to validate the characterization technique.

  11. Experimental Anechoic Chamber Measurements of a Target Near an Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Marquart, Nicolas Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Abstract-The backscattered field of an illuminated sphere with diameter Ø = 30.5 cm above a perfect conducting plate is measured in an anechoic chamber at different heights for a varying incidence angle φ in the range 5° to 75°. A high frequency field λ « Ø is transmitted, so that two significant transitions from lit to shadow regions are given over the entire incidence angle range for the considered ray field. The polarimetric behavior of the measured scattering matrix [S] is investigated by...

  12. Building Rain Water Tanks and Building Skills: A Case Study of a Women's Organization in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Deborah; Nakato, Margaret; Nabalango, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Water collection in rural areas of Uganda is left primarily to women and children. Katosi Women Development Trust, an NGO based in rural Uganda has focused on addressing the gender-linked issue of increased water sources near the home through the construction of rain water collection tanks. In an effort to improve the income of members as well as…

  13. Application of Tank Model for Predicting Water Balance and Flow Discharge Components of Cisadane Upper Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Mulyana Arifjaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of hydrological tank model was well described into four compartments (tanks. The first tank (tank A comprised of one vertical (qA0 and two lateral (qA1 and qA2 water flow components and tank B comprised of one vertical (qB0 and one lateral (qB1 water flow components. Tank C comprised of one vertical (qC0 and one lateral (qC1 water flow components, whereas tank D comprised of one lateral water flow component (qD1.  These vertical water flows would also contribute to the depletion of water flow in the related tanks but would replenish tanks in the deeper layers. It was assumed that at all lateral water flow components would finally accumulate in one stream, summing-up of the lateral water flow, much or less, should be equal to the water discharge (Qo at specified time concerns. Tank A received precipitation (R and evapo-transpiration (ET which was its gradientof (R-ET over time would become the driving force for the changes of water stored in the soil profiles and thosewater flows leaving the soil layer.  Thus tank model could describe th vertical and horizontal water flow withinthe watershed. The research site was Cisadane Upper Catchment, located at Pasir Buncir Village of CaringinSub-District within the Regency of Bogor in West Java Province.  The elevations ranged 512 –2,235 m above sealevel, with a total drainage area of 1,811.5 ha and total length of main stream of 14,340.7 m.  The land cover wasdominated by  forest  with a total of 1,044.6 ha (57.67%,  upland agriculture with a total of 477.96 ha (26.38%,mixed garden with a total of 92.85 ha(5.13% and semitechnical irigated rice field with a total of 196.09 ha (10,8%.  The soil was classified as hydraquent (96.6% and distropept (3.4%.  Based on the calibration of tank model application in the study area, the resulting coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.72 with model efficiency (NSEof= 0.75, thus tank model could well illustrate the water flow distribution of

  14. Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases

  15. On the Behavior of Different PCMs in a Hot Water Storage Tank against Thermal Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Porteiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Advantages, such as thermal storage improvement, are found when using PCMs (Phase Change Materials in storage tanks. The inclusion of three different types of materials in a 60 l test tank is studied. Two test methodologies were developed, and four tests were performed following each methodology. A thermal analysis is performed to check the thermal properties of each PCM. The distributions of the water temperatures inside the test tanks are evaluated by installing four Pt-100 sensors at different heights. A temperature recovery is observed after exposing the test tank to an energy demand. An energetic analysis that takes into account the energy due to the water temperature, the energy due to the PCM and the thermal loss to the ambient environment is also presented. The percentage of each PCM that remains in the liquid state after the energy demand is obtained.

  16. Leaf Hydraulic Conductance for a Tank Bromeliad: Axial and Radial Pathways for Moving and Conserving Water

    OpenAIRE

    North, Gretchen B.; Lynch, Frank H.; Maharaj, Franklin D. R.; Phillips, Carly A.; Woodside, Walter T.

    2013-01-01

    Epiphytic plants in the Bromeliaceae known as tank bromeliads essentially lack stems and absorptive roots and instead take up water from reservoirs formed by their overlapping leaf bases. For such plants, leaf hydraulic conductance is plant hydraulic conductance. Their simple strap-shaped leaves and parallel venation make them suitable for modeling leaf hydraulic conductance based on vasculature and other anatomical and morphological traits. Plants of the tank bromeliad Guzmania lingulata wer...

  17. Leaf hydraulic conductance for a tank bromeliad: axial and radial pathways for moving and conserving water

    OpenAIRE

    North, Gretchen B.; Lynch, Frank H.; Maharaj, Franklin D. R.; Phillips, Carly A.; Woodside, Walter T.

    2013-01-01

    Plants in the Bromeliaceae known as tank bromeliads essentially lack stems and absorptive roots and instead take up water from reservoirs formed by their overlapping leaf bases. For such plants, leaf hydraulic conductance is plant hydraulic conductance. Their simple strap-shaped leaves and parallel venation make them suitable for modeling leaf hydraulic conductance based on vasculature and other anatomical and morphological traits. Plants of the tank bromeliad Guzmania lingulata were investig...

  18. Pore-Water Extraction Scale-Up Study for the SX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Last, George V.; Lanigan, David C.

    2013-01-15

    The phenomena related to pore-water extraction from unsaturated sediments have been previously examined with limited laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. However, key scale-up issues have not yet been addressed. Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling were conducted to specifically examine pore-water extraction for sediment conditions relevant to the vadose zone beneath the SX Tank Farm at Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Available SX Tank Farm data were evaluated to generate a conceptual model of the subsurface for a targeted pore-water extraction application in areas with elevated moisture and Tc-99 concentration. The hydraulic properties of the types of porous media representative of the SX Tank Farm target application were determined using sediment mixtures prepared in the laboratory based on available borehole sediment particle size data. Numerical modeling was used as an evaluation tool for scale-up of pore-water extraction for targeted field applications.

  19. Energy efficiency of elevated water supply tanks for high-rise buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We evaluate energy efficiency for water supply tank location in buildings. ► Water supply tank arrangement in a building affects pumping energy use. ► We propose a mathematical model for optimal design solutions. ► We test the model with measurements in 22 Hong Kong buildings. ► A potential annual energy saving for Hong Kong is up to 410 TJ. -- Abstract: High-rise housing, a trend in densely populated cities around the world, increases the energy use for water supply and corresponding greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents an energy efficiency evaluation measure for water supply system designs and a mathematical model for optimizing pumping energy through the arrangement of water tanks in a building. To demonstrate that the model is useful for establishing optimal design solutions that integrate energy consumption into urban water planning processes which cater to various building demands and usage patterns, measurement data of 22 high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong are employed. The results show the energy efficiency of many existing high-rise water supply systems is about 0.25 and can be improved to 0.26–0.37 via water storage tank relocations. The corresponding annual electricity that can be saved is 160–410 TJ, a 0.1–0.3% of the total annual electricity consumption in Hong Kong.

  20. Water washes and caustic leaches of sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 and water washes of sludge from Hanford Tank C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the enhanced sludge washing (ESW) process as the baseline for pretreatment of Hanford tank sludges. The ESW process uses a series of water washes and caustic leaches to separate nonradioactive components such as aluminum, chromium, and phosphate from the high-level waste sludges. If the ESW process is successful, the volume of immobilized high-level waste will be significantly reduced. The tests on the sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 focused on the effects of process variables such as sodium hydroxide concentration (1 and 3 M), temperature (70 and 95 C), and leaching time (5, 24, 72, and 168 h) on the efficacy of the ESW process with realistic liquid-to-solid ratios. Another goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of water washes on a sludge sample from hanford Tank C-103. The final objective of this study was to test potential process control monitors during the water washes and caustic leaches with actual sludge. Both 137Cs activity and conductance were measured for each of the water washes and caustic leaches. Experimental procedures, a discussion of results, conclusions and recommendations are included in this report

  1. Water washes and caustic leaches of sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 and water washes of sludge from Hanford Tank C-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.D.; Collins, J.L.; Chase, C.W.

    1998-07-01

    In 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the enhanced sludge washing (ESW) process as the baseline for pretreatment of Hanford tank sludges. The ESW process uses a series of water washes and caustic leaches to separate nonradioactive components such as aluminum, chromium, and phosphate from the high-level waste sludges. If the ESW process is successful, the volume of immobilized high-level waste will be significantly reduced. The tests on the sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 focused on the effects of process variables such as sodium hydroxide concentration (1 and 3 M), temperature (70 and 95 C), and leaching time (5, 24, 72, and 168 h) on the efficacy of the ESW process with realistic liquid-to-solid ratios. Another goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of water washes on a sludge sample from hanford Tank C-103. The final objective of this study was to test potential process control monitors during the water washes and caustic leaches with actual sludge. Both {sup 137}Cs activity and conductance were measured for each of the water washes and caustic leaches. Experimental procedures, a discussion of results, conclusions and recommendations are included in this report.

  2. Bidet toilet seats with warm-water tanks: residual chlorine, microbial community, and structural analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyo, Toru; Asakura, Keiko; Nakano, Makiko; Yamada, Mutsuko; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2016-02-01

    Despite the reported health-related advantages of the use of warm water in bidets, there are health-related disadvantages associated with the use of these toilet seats, and the bacterial research is sparse. We conducted a survey on the hygienic conditions of 127 warm-water bidet toilet seats in restrooms on a university campus. The spray water from the toilet seats had less residual chlorine than their tap water sources. However, the total viable microbial count was below the water-quality standard for tap water. In addition, the heat of the toilet seats' warm-water tanks caused heterotrophic bacteria in the source tap water to proliferate inside the nozzle pipes and the warm-water tanks. Escherichia coli was detected on the spray nozzles of about 5% of the toilet seats, indicating that the self-cleaning mechanism of the spray nozzles was largely functioning properly. However, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected on about 2% of the toilet seats. P. aeruginosa was found to remain for long durations in biofilms that formed inside warm-water tanks. Infection-prevention measures aimed at P. aeruginosa should receive full consideration when managing warm-water bidet toilet seats in hospitals in order to prevent opportunistic infections in intensive care units, hematology wards, and other hospital locations. PMID:26837831

  3. Bidet toilet seats with warm-water tanks: residual chlorine, microbial community, and structural analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyo, Toru; Asakura, Keiko; Nakano, Makiko; Yamada, Mutsuko; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2016-02-01

    Despite the reported health-related advantages of the use of warm water in bidets, there are health-related disadvantages associated with the use of these toilet seats, and the bacterial research is sparse. We conducted a survey on the hygienic conditions of 127 warm-water bidet toilet seats in restrooms on a university campus. The spray water from the toilet seats had less residual chlorine than their tap water sources. However, the total viable microbial count was below the water-quality standard for tap water. In addition, the heat of the toilet seats' warm-water tanks caused heterotrophic bacteria in the source tap water to proliferate inside the nozzle pipes and the warm-water tanks. Escherichia coli was detected on the spray nozzles of about 5% of the toilet seats, indicating that the self-cleaning mechanism of the spray nozzles was largely functioning properly. However, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected on about 2% of the toilet seats. P. aeruginosa was found to remain for long durations in biofilms that formed inside warm-water tanks. Infection-prevention measures aimed at P. aeruginosa should receive full consideration when managing warm-water bidet toilet seats in hospitals in order to prevent opportunistic infections in intensive care units, hematology wards, and other hospital locations.

  4. Analysis of first flush to improve the water quality in rainwater tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, B; Kandasamy, J; Vigneswaran, S; Shon, H K

    2010-01-01

    Although most Australians receive their domestic supply from reticulated mains or town water, there are vast areas with very low population densities and few reticulated supplies. In many of these areas rainwater collected in tanks is the primary source of drinking water. Heavy metals have recently become a concern as their concentration in rain water tanks was found to exceed recommended levels suitable for human consumption. Rainwater storage tanks also accumulate contaminants and sediments that settle to the bottom. Although not widely acknowledged, small amounts of contaminants such as lead found in rain water (used as drinking water) may have a cumulative and poisonous effect on human health over a life time. This is true for certain factors that underlie many of the chronic illnesses that are becoming increasingly common in contemporary society. The paper reports on a study which is part of a project that aims to develop a cost effective in-line filtration system to improve water quality in rainwater tanks. To enable this, the characteristics of rainwater need to be known. One component of this characterization is to observe the effects of the first flush on a rainwater tank. Samples of the roof runoff collected from an urban residential roof located in the Sydney Metropolitan Area in the initial first few millimetres of rain were analysed. The results show that bypassing the first 2 mm of rainfall gives water with most water quality parameters compliant with the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG) standards. The parameters that did not comply were lead and turbidity, which required bypassing approximately the first 5 mm of rainfall to meet ADWG standards. Molecular weight distribution (MWD) analysis showed that the concentration of rainwater organic matter (RWOM) decreased with increasing amount of roof runoff.

  5. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of Hanford's underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford's organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes' future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as at sign ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures

  6. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

  7. Assessment of irradiation effects on beryllium reflector and heavy water tank of JRR-3M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Yoji; Kakehuda, Kazuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    The JRR-3M, a swimming pool type research reactor with beryllium and heavy water reflectors, has been operated since 1990. Since the beryllium reflectors are close to fuel and receive high fast neutron fluence in a relatively short time, they may be subject to change their dimensions by swelling due mostly to entrapped helium gaseous. This may bend the reflectors to the outside and narrow gaps between the reflectors and the fuel elements. The gaps have been measured with an ultrasonic thickness gage in an annual inspection. The results in 1996 show that the maximum of expansion in the diametral directions was 0.6 mm against 1.6 mm of a managed value for replacement of the reflector. A heavy water tank of the JRR-3M is made of aluminum alloy A5052. Surveillance tests of the alloy have been conducted to evaluate irradiation effects of the heavy water tank. Five sets of specimens of the alloy have been irradiated in the beryllium reflectors where fast neutron flux is higher than that in the heavy water tank. In 1994, one set of specimens had been unloaded and carried out the post-irradiation tests. The results show that the heavy water tank preserved satisfactory mechanical properties. (author)

  8. Water quality and zooplankton in tanks with larvae of Brycon Orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1949).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Alvarez, E J da S; Braga, F M de S

    2008-02-01

    Due to the importance of water variables conditions and available food in the development and survival of fish larvae, the current research evaluates the effects of two different food treatments (ration + zooplankton and only zooplankton) and water quality in tanks with Brycon orbignyanus larvae. Total water transparency (45 cm) has been mainly associated with short residence time, continuous water flow and shallowness. Dissolved oxygen ranged between 1.32 and 7.00 mg.L(-1) in tanks with ration + zooplankton and between 1.82 and 7.60 mg.L(-1) in tanks with only zooplankton treatments. Nutrients were directly affected by the addition of ration in water, with the exception of nitrite. Ten Rotifera species were found represented by high densities, ranging between 8.7 x 10(5) and 1.3 x 10(6) org.m(-3), throughout the experimental period (January to March/1996). Cladocera had the lowest density in the four tanks under analysis and ranged between 4.7 x 10(4) and 2.1 x 10(5) org.m(-3) for the six species. Diaphanosoma birgei has been classified as the most frequent species. Since ration + zooplankton produced better larvae yield, this treatment is recommended for Brycon orbignyanus larvae.

  9. Analysis for the thermal mixing characteristics of steam jet in the subcooled water tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H. S.; Kim, Y. S.; Chun, H. G.; Yoon, Y. J.; Song, C. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The experimental research has been performed to evaluate the steam condensation load and the thermal mixing phenomena in the subcooled water tank when the steam is discharged into the tank through the sparger. The test facility was modified from the previous one by installing several thermocouples around the sparger to measure the temperature of the steam and the entrained water flowing into the steam. Major of objective of this test is to develop a condensation regime map for the design and the operation of APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400MWe) IRWST(In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank). A CFD benchmark calculation for the test results has been performed to develop the methodology of a numerical analysis for thermal mixing between the steam and subcooled water. In the CFD analysis, the steam condensation phenomenon is treated by a simple model of the steam condensation region. The CFD analysis results for 30 seconds show a good agreement for the temperature distribution in the tank with those of the experiment.

  10. Processes to improve energy efficiency during pumping and aeration of recirculating water in circular tank systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional gas transfer technologies for aquaculture systems occupy a large amount of space, require considerable capital investment, and can contribute to high electricity demand. In addition, diffused aeration in a circular tank can interfere with the hydrodynamics of water rotation and the spee...

  11. 78 FR 70076 - Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... availability was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35510). The NRC staff has developed... SRP- LR. On April 12, 2013, (78 FR 21980) the NRC requested public comments on draft LR-ISG-2012-02... COMMISSION Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks,...

  12. Theoretical comparison between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon; Bales, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have shown that solar combisystems based on bikini tanks for low energy houses perform better than solar domestic hot water systems based on mantle tanks. Tank-in-tank solar combisystems are also attractive from a thermal performance point of view. In this paper......, theoretical comparisons between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems are presented....

  13. The socio-ecohydrology of rainwater harvesting in India: understanding water storage and release dynamics at tank and catchment scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.; McLaughlin, D. L.; Steiff, M.

    2015-11-01

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH), the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional RWH systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. This dependence has contributed to an accelerated decline in groundwater resources, which has in turn led to increased efforts at the state and national levels to revive older RWH systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these RWH "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water-level variation to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration (ET), and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28 km2. At the tank scale, our results indicate that groundwater recharge and irrigation outflows comprise the largest fractions of the tank water budget, with ET accounting for only 13-22 % of the outflows. At the scale of the cascade, we observe a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflows increasing down the cascade of tanks. The significant magnitude of return flows along the tank cascade leads to the most downgradient tank in the cascade having an outflow-to capacity ratio greater than 2. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with runoff decreasing by nearly 75 %, and

  14. FSI effects and seismic performance evaluation of water storage tank of AP1000 subjected to earthquake loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Water sloshing and oscillation of water tank under earthquake are simulated by FEM. • The influences of various water levels on seismic response are investigated. • ALE algorithm is applied to study the fluid–structure interaction effects. • The effects of different water levels in reducing seismic response are compared. • The optimal water level of water tank under seismic loading is obtained. - Abstract: The gravity water storage tank of AP1000 is designed to cool down the temperature of containment vessel by spray water when accident releases mass energy. However, the influence of fluid–structure interaction between water and water tank of AP1000 on dynamic behavior of shield building is still a hot research question. The main objective of the current study is to investigate how the fluid–structure interaction affects the dynamic behavior of water tank and whether the water sloshing and oscillation can reduce the seismic response of the shield building subjected to earthquake. For this purpose, a fluid–structure interaction algorithm of finite element technique is employed for the seismic analysis of water storage tank of AP1000. In the finite element model, 8 cases height of water, such as 10.8, 9.8, 8.8, 7.8, 6.8, 5.8, 4.8, and 3.8 m, are established and compared with the empty water tank in order to demonstrate the positive effect in mitigating the seismic response. An Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) algorithm is used to simulate the fluid–structure interaction, fluid sloshing and oscillation of water tank under the El-Centro earthquake. The correlation between seismic response and parameters of water tank in terms of height of air (h1), height of water (h2), height ratio of water to tank (h2/Hw) and mass ratio of water to total structure (mw/mt) is also analyzed. The numerical results clearly show that the optimal h2, h2/Hw and mw/mt to structure are 8.8 m, 0.7458 and 5.7235%, which can reduce the

  15. Impact of Untreated Sedimentation Tank Sludge Water Recycle on Water Quality During Treatment of Low Turbidity Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronggang Xu; Yongpeng Xu; Fuyi Cui; Li He; Dong Wang; Qingfeng Su

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this research is to examine the impact of untreated sedimentation tank sludge water ( USTSW) recycle on water quality during treatment of low turbidity water in coagulation—sedimentation processes. 950 mL of raw water and different concentrations of 50 mL USTSW are injected into six 1 000 mL beakers without coagulant.The results indicate that USTSW characterized as accumulated suspended solids and organic matter has active ingredients, which possess the equivalent function of coagulant. The optimal blended water turbidity is in the range of 10-20 NTU, within which USTSW recycle achieves the highest save coagulant rate. The mechanism of strengthening coagulation effect when USTSW recycle mainly depends on the chemical effect and physical effect. What is more, through scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) , it is found that the floc structures with USTSW recycle are more compact than those without USTSW recycle. Besides, the water quality parameters of color, NH3⁃N, CODMn , UV254 , total aluminum, total manganese when USTSW recycle is better than the raw water without recycle, indicating that USTSW recycle can improve water quality with strengthening coagulation effect.

  16. Implications of the modelling of stratified hot water storage tanks in the simulation of CHP plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Celador, A., E-mail: alvaro.campos@ehu.es [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Odriozola, M.; Sala, J.M. [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Three different modelling approaches for simulation of hot water tanks are presented. {yields} The three models are simulated within a residential cogeneration plant. {yields} Small differences in the results are found by an energy and exergy analysis. {yields} Big differences between the results are found by an advanced exergy analysis. {yields} Results on the feasibility study are explained by the advanced exergy analysis. - Abstract: This paper considers the effect that different hot water storage tank modelling approaches have on the global simulation of residential CHP plants as well as their impact on their economic feasibility. While a simplified assessment of the heat storage is usually considered in the feasibility studies of CHP plants in buildings, this paper deals with three different levels of modelling of the hot water tank: actual stratified model, ideal stratified model and fully mixed model. These three approaches are presented and comparatively evaluated under the same case of study, a cogeneration plant with thermal storage meeting the loads of an urbanisation located in the Bilbao metropolitan area (Spain). The case of study is simulated by TRNSYS for each one of the three modelling cases and the so obtained annual results are analysed from both a First and Second-Law-based viewpoint. While the global energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant for the three modelling cases agree quite well, important differences are found between the economic results of the feasibility study. These results can be predicted by means of an advanced exergy analysis of the storage tank considering the endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction terms caused by the hot water storage tank.

  17. Effects of the light--dark cycle on a water tank social interaction test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejdi, A; Guastavino, J M; Lalonde, R

    1996-01-01

    Mice were exposed to a water tank interaction test in which food could be obtained either by wading in the water or by attacking littermates. A tank with progressively rising water levels caused mice in groups of four to differentiate into those willing to wade (carrier mice) from those unwilling to wade (noncarrier mice). Noncarrier mice could only obtain food by stealing it from carrier mice or from other noncarrier mice. It was found that mice during the dark period of the light--dark cycle were more willing to wade in the search for food rather than attempt to steal food from other mice. Because mice are generally more active during the dark period, this result suggests that higher activity levels increase the willingness to share the work load, a form of altruism, rather than promote parasitic behavior and aggression.

  18. Pitting corrosion in austenitic stainless steel water tanks of hotel trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The water storage tanks of hotel trains suffered pitting corrosion. To identify the cause, the tanks were subjected to a detailed metallographic study and the chemical composition of the austenitic stainless steels used in their construction was determined. Both the tank water and the corrosion products were further examined by physicochemical and microbiological testing. Corrosion was shown to be related to an incompatibility between the chloride content of the water and the base and filler metals of the tanks. These findings formed the basis of recommendations aimed at the prevention and control of corrosion in such tanks.

    Se han detectado problemas de corrosión por picaduras en los depósitos de agua de trenes hotel. Para identificar las causas se llevó a cabo un detallado estudio metalográfico así como de la composición química de los aceros inoxidables austeníticos utilizados en su construcción. También se realizaron estudios fisicoquímicos y microbiológicos de los productos de corrosión. Se ha encontrado que los problemas de corrosión están relacionados con la incompatibilidad entre el contenido en cloruros del agua y los metales base y de aporte de la soldadura de los tanques. En base a estos hallazgos se proponen una serie de recomendaciones encaminadas a la prevención y control de la corrosión de dichos depósitos.

  19. Water Quality Index (WQI Approach to Evaluate the Water Quality of Certain Tank Waters of Tiptur Taluk in Tumkur District, Karnataka, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Shivanna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of water quality using different parameters is complex and not easy to understand as it is variable by variable discussion. Water quality index is a single value indicator used to evaluate and present the water quality to the public and the related management in precise and understandable manner. Measured values of eleven physico-chemical parameters namely, pH, TDS, TH, Cl-,NO3-,SO42-,HCO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ were used to calculate WQI of six tanks in Tiptur taluk. The study was taken up to understand the impact of agriculture run off from the respective catchment area, domestic sewage input and human activities which contribute to pollution load. During the investigation period from December-2010 to November-2012, it was found that the overall water quality index of the studied tanks ranged from 46.72 to 92.22 indicating the quality ranging from good quality to very poor quality. Values of variables TDS, HCO3-, Na+ and K+exceeded their desirable limits of BIS/ICMR in Karadi, Halkurke and Honnavalli tanks which depend on rain water. Waters in these tanks were of moderately poor to very poor quality. Waters of Canal fed tanks were of good to moderately poor quality.

  20. Uniform and non-uniform inlet temperature of a vertical hot water jet injected into a rectangular tank

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2010-12-01

    In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet with uniform inlet temperature (UIT) injected into a cold water tank, and the other is a cold water jet with non-uniform inlet temperature (NUIT) injected into a hot water tank. Three different temperature differences and three different flow rates are studied for the hot water jet with UIT which is injected into a cold water tank. Also, three different initial temperatures with constant flow rate as well as three different flow rates with constant initial temperature are considered for the cold jet with NUIT which is injected into a hot water tank. Turbulence intensity at the inlet as well as Reynolds number for the NUIT cases are therefore functions of inlet temperature and time. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations are carried out for the same measured flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k-ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. The simulated results are compared to the measured results, and they show a good agreement at low temperatures. © 2010 IEEE.

  1. Instrumented Water Tanks can Improve Air Shower Detector Sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, R; Berley, D; Chen, M L; Coyne, D G; Delay, R S; Dingus, B L; Dorfan, D E; Ellsworth, R W; Evans, D; Falcone, A D; Fleysher, L; Fleysher, R; Gisler, G; Goodman, J A; Haines, T J; Hoffman, C M; Hugenberger, S; Kelley, L A; Leonor, I; Macri, J R; McConnell, M; McCullough, J F; McEnery, J E; Miller, R S; Mincer, A I; Morales, M F; Némethy, P; Ryan, J M; Schneider, M; Shen, B; Shoup, A L; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sullivan, G W; Thompson, T N; Tümer, T O; Wang, K; Wascko, M O; Westerhoff, S; Williams, D A; Yang, T; Yodh, G B

    1999-01-01

    Previous works have shown that water Cherenkov detectors have superior sensitivity to those of scintillation counters as applied to detecting extensive air showers (EAS). This is in large part due to their much higher sensitivity to EAS photons which are more than five times more numerous than EAS electrons. Large area water Cherenkov detectors can be constructed relatively cheaply and operated reliably. A sparse detector array has been designed which uses these types of detectors to substantially increase the area over which the Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory collects EAS information. Improvements to the Milagro detector's performance characteristics and sensitivity derived from this array and preliminary results from a prototype array currently installed near the Milagro detector will be presented.

  2. Experimental, Numerical, and Analytical Slosh Dynamics of Water and Liquid Nitrogen in a Spherical Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Jedediah Morse

    2016-01-01

    Understanding, predicting, and controlling fluid slosh dynamics is critical to safety and improving performance of space missions when a significant percentage of the spacecraft's mass is a liquid. Computational fluid dynamics simulations can be used to predict the dynamics of slosh, but these programs require extensive validation. Many experimental and numerical studies of water slosh have been conducted. However, slosh data for cryogenic liquids is lacking. Water and cryogenic liquid nitrogen are used in various ground-based tests with a spherical tank to characterize damping, slosh mode frequencies, and slosh forces. A single ring baffle is installed in the tank for some of the tests. Analytical models for slosh modes, slosh forces, and baffle damping are constructed based on prior work. Select experiments are simulated using a commercial CFD software, and the numerical results are compared to the analytical and experimental results for the purposes of validation and methodology-improvement.

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Microbes in Water Tank of G.A. Siwabessy Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of water in reactor system has an important role because it could effect the function as a coolant and the operation of reactor indirectly. The study of microbe analyzes has been carried out to detect the existence of microbes in water tank and quantitative analyzes of microbes also has been applied as a continuation of the previous study. The samples is taken out from the end side of reactor GA Siwabessy's tank, inoculated in TSA (Tripcase Soy Agar) medium, put in incubator at 30 - 35 oC for 4 days. The results of experiment show the reconfirmation for the existence of bacteria and the un-existence of yield. The quantitative analysis with TPC method show the growth rate of bacteria is twice in 24 hours. (author)

  4. STS-55 crewmembers repair waste water tank on OV-102's middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Three STS-55 crewmembers participate in an inflight maintenance (IFM) exercise to counter problems experienced with a waste water tank below Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, middeck. Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Bernard A. Harris, Jr, inside the airlock, holds middeck floor access panel MD54G and looks below at Pilot Terence T. Henricks who is in the bilge area. Commander Steven R. Nagel is lying on middeck floor at the left.

  5. Effects of inlet momentum and orientation on the hydraulic performance of water storage tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Manoel Lucas Machado; Janzen, Johannes Gérson

    2016-07-01

    The influence of inlet momentum and inlet orientation on hydraulic performance of cylindrical water process tanks were investigated using a factorial design strategy. The hydraulic performance of the tanks was assessed with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, which calculated the flow fields and the residence time distribution (RTD). RTDs were used to quantify the tanks hydraulic performance using hydraulic indexes that represent short-circuiting, mixing, and moment. These indexes were later associated with the effluent fraction of disinfectant (inlet and outlet disinfectant ratio). For small depth-to-diameter ratios, the inlet orientation and the inlet momentum were the most important factors regarding the hydraulic indexes and the effluent fraction of disinfectant, respectively. A poor correlation was obtained between the hydraulic indexes and the effluent fraction of disinfectant, indicating that they are not good predictors for water quality. For large depth-to-diameter ratios, the inlet orientation had the most significant effect on both the hydraulic indexes and effluent fraction of disinfectant. The short-circuiting and mixing indexes presented a good correlation with water quality for this case.

  6. Water Tanks, Published in 2000, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, City of Fort Wayne.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Tanks dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2000. Data by this publisher are...

  7. Testing of Alternative Abrasives for Water-Jet Cutting at C Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogstad, Eirik J.

    2013-08-01

    Legacy waste from defense-related activities at the Hanford Site has predominantly been stored in underground tanks, some of which have leaked; others may be at risk to do so. The U.S. Department of Energy’s goal is to empty the tanks and transform their contents into more stable waste forms. To do so requires breaking up, and creating a slurry from, solid wastes in the bottoms of the tanks. A technology developed for this purpose is the Mobile Arm Retrieval System. This system is being used at some of the older single shell tanks at C tank farm. As originally planned, access ports for the Mobile Arm Retrieval System were to be cut using a high- pressure water-jet cutter. However, water alone was found to be insufficient to allow effective cutting of the steel-reinforced tank lids, especially when cutting the steel reinforcing bar (“rebar”). The abrasive added in cutting the hole in Tank C-107 was garnet, a complex natural aluminosilicate. The hardness of garnet (Mohs hardness ranging from H 6.5 to 7.5) exceeds that of solids currently in the tanks, and was regarded to be a threat to Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant systems. Olivine, an iron-magnesium silicate that is nearly as hard as garnet (H 6.5 to 7), has been proposed as an alternative to garnet. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory proposed to test pyrite (FeS2), whose hardness is slightly less (H 6 to 6.5) for 1) cutting effectiveness, and 2) propensity to dissolve (or disintegrate by chemical reaction) in chemical conditions similar to those of tank waste solutions. Cutting experiments were conducted using an air abrader system and a National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (SRM 1767 Low Alloy Steel), which was used as a surrogate for rebar. The cutting efficacy of pyrite was compared with that of garnet and olivine in identical size fractions. Garnet was found to be most effective in removing steel from the target; olivine and pyrite were less

  8. Heavy metal concentrations and toxicity in water and sediment from stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Kristin; Viklander, Maria; Scholes, Lian; Revitt, Mike

    2010-06-15

    Sedimentation is a widely used technique in structural best management practices to remove pollutants from stormwater. However, concerns have been expressed about the environmental impacts that may be exerted by the trapped pollutants. This study has concentrated on stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks and reports on the accumulated metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and the associated toxicity to the bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The metal concentrations are compared with guidelines and the toxicity results are assessed in relation to samples for which metal concentrations either exceed or conform to these values. The water phase metal concentrations were highest in the ponds whereas the sedimentation tanks exhibited a distinct decrease towards the outlet. However, none of the water samples demonstrated toxicity even though the concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn exceeded the threshold values for the compared guidelines. The facilities with higher traffic intensities had elevated sediment concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn which increased towards the outlet for the sedimentation tanks in agreement with the highest percentage of fine particles. The sediments in both treatment facilities exhibited the expected toxic responses in line with their affinity for heavy metals but the role of organic carbon content is highlighted.

  9. Optimal operation of water supply systems with tanks based on genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ting-chao; ZHANG Tu-qiao; LI Xun

    2005-01-01

    In view of the poor water supply system's network properties, the system's complicated network hydraulic equations were replaced by macroscopic nodal pressure model and the model of relationship between supply flow and water source head. By using pump-station pressure head and initial tank water levels as decision variables, the model of optimal allocation of water supply between pump-sources was developed. Genetic algorithm was introduced to deal with the model of optimal allocation of water supply. Methods for handling each constraint condition were put forward, and overcome the shortcoming such as premature convergence of genetic algorithm;a solving method was brought forward in which genetic algorithm was combined with simulated annealing technology and self-adaptive crossover and mutation probabilities were adopted. An application example showed the feasibility of this algorithm.

  10. Field Test Design Simulations of Pore-Water Extraction for the SX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus

    2013-09-01

    A proof of principle test of pore water extraction is being performed by Washington River Protection Solutions for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection. This test is being conducted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989) Milestone M 045-20, and is described in RPP-PLAN-53808, 200 West Area Tank Farms Interim Measures Investigation Work Plan. To support design of this test, numerical simulations were conducted to help define equipment and operational parameters. The modeling effort builds from information collected in laboratory studies and from field characterization information collected at the test site near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. Numerical simulations were used to evaluate pore-water extraction performance as a function of the test site properties and for the type of extraction well configuration that can be constructed using the direct-push installation technique. Output of simulations included rates of water and soil-gas production as a function of operational conditions for use in supporting field equipment design. The simulations also investigated the impact of subsurface heterogeneities in sediment properties and moisture distribution on pore-water extraction performance. Phenomena near the extraction well were also investigated because of their importance for pore-water extraction performance.

  11. Modelling of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell CHP System Coupled with a Hot Water Storage Tank for a Single Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Liso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. The use of a storage tank with thermal stratification allows one to increase the annual operating hours of CHP: heat can be produced when the request is low (for instance during the night, taking advantage of thermal stratification to increases the heat recovery performance. A model of the SOFC system is presented to estimate the energy required to meet the average electric energy demand of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas produced by gasification and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation are used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small household using two different fuels. In particular it was shown that in the case of syngas, due to larger system heat output, a larger tank volume was required in order to accumulate unused heat over the night. The detailed description of the tank model will be useful to energy system modelers when sizing hot water tanks. Problem formulation is reported also using a Matlab script.

  12. Home tank water versus novel water differentially affect alcohol-induced locomotor activity and anxiety related behaviours in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Steven; Facciol, Amanda; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The zebrafish may be uniquely well suited for studying alcohol's mechanisms of action in vivo, since alcohol can be administered via immersion in a non-invasive manner. Despite the robust behavioural effects of alcohol administration in mammals, studies reporting the locomotor stimulant and anxiolytic effects of alcohol in zebrafish have been inconsistent. In the current study, we examined whether differences in the type of water used for alcohol exposure and behavioural testing contribute to these inconsistencies. To answer this question, we exposed zebrafish to either home water from their housing tanks or novel water from an isolated reservoir (i.e. water lacking zebrafish chemosensory and olfactory cues) with 0% or 1% v/v alcohol for 30min, a 2×2 between subject experimental designs. Behavioural responses were quantified throughout the 30-minute exposure session via a video tracking system. Although control zebrafish exposed to home water and novel water were virtually indistinguishable in their behavioural responses, alcohol's effect on locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavioural responses were dependent on the type of water used for testing. Alcohol exposure in home tank water produced a mild anxiolytic and locomotor stimulant effect, whereas alcohol exposure in novel water produced an anxiogenic effect without altering locomotor activity. These results represent a dissociation between alcohol's effects on locomotor and anxiety related responses, and also illustrate how environmental factors, in this case familiarity with the water, may interact with such effects. In light of these findings, we urge researchers to explicitly state the type of water used. PMID:26921455

  13. Leaf hydraulic conductance for a tank bromeliad: axial and radial pathways for moving and conserving water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen B. North

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants in the Bromeliaceae known as tank bromeliads essentially lack stems and absorptive roots and instead take up water from reservoirs formed by their overlapping leaf bases. For such plants, leaf hydraulic conductance is plant hydraulic conductance. Their simple strap-shaped leaves and parallel venation make them suitable for modeling leaf hydraulic conductance based on vasculature and other anatomical and morphological traits. Plants of the tank bromeliad Guzmania lingulata were investigated in a lowland tropical forest in Costa Rica and a shaded glasshouse in Los Angeles, CA, USA. Stomatal conductance to water vapor and leaf anatomy related to hydraulic conductance were measured for both groups. Tracheid diameters and number of veins were used with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation to calculate axial hydraulic conductance. Measurements of leaf hydraulic conductance using the evaporative flux method were also made for glasshouse plants. Values for axial conductance and leaf hydraulic conductance were used in a model based on leaky cable theory to estimate the conductance of the radial pathway from the vein to the leaf surface and to assess the relative contributions of both axial and radial pathways. In keeping with low stomatal conductance and density, low vein density, and narrow tracheid diameters, leaf hydraulic conductance for G. lingulata was quite low in comparison with most other angiosperms. Using the predicted axial conductance in the leaky cable model, the radial resistance across the leaf mesophyll was predicted to predominate; lower, more realistic values of axial conductance resulted in predicted radial resistances that were closer to axial resistance in their impact on total leaf resistance. Tracer dyes suggested that water uptake through the tank region of the leaf was not limiting. Both dye movement and the leaky cable model indicated that the leaf blade of G. lingulata was structurally and hydraulically well-suited to conserve

  14. Leaf hydraulic conductance for a tank bromeliad: axial and radial pathways for moving and conserving water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Gretchen B; Lynch, Frank H; Maharaj, Franklin D R; Phillips, Carly A; Woodside, Walter T

    2013-01-01

    Epiphytic plants in the Bromeliaceae known as tank bromeliads essentially lack stems and absorptive roots and instead take up water from reservoirs formed by their overlapping leaf bases. For such plants, leaf hydraulic conductance is plant hydraulic conductance. Their simple strap-shaped leaves and parallel venation make them suitable for modeling leaf hydraulic conductance based on vasculature and other anatomical and morphological traits. Plants of the tank bromeliad Guzmania lingulata were investigated in a lowland tropical forest in Costa Rica and a shaded glasshouse in Los Angeles, CA, USA. Stomatal conductance to water vapor and leaf anatomical variables related to hydraulic conductance were measured for both groups. Tracheid diameters and numbers of vascular bundles (veins) were used with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation to calculate axial hydraulic conductance. Measurements of leaf hydraulic conductance using the evaporative flux method were also made for glasshouse plants. Values for axial conductance and leaf hydraulic conductance were used in a model based on leaky cable theory to estimate the conductance of the radial pathway from the vein to the leaf surface and to assess the relative contributions of both axial and radial pathways. In keeping with low stomatal conductance, low stomatal density, low vein density, and narrow tracheid diameters, leaf hydraulic conductance for G. lingulata was quite low in comparison with most other angiosperms. Using the predicted axial conductance in the leaky cable model, the radial resistance across the leaf mesophyll was predicted to predominate; lower, more realistic values of axial conductance resulted in predicted radial resistances that were closer to axial resistance in their impact on total leaf resistance. Tracer dyes suggested that water uptake through the tank region of the leaf was not limiting. Both dye movement and the leaky cable model indicated that the leaf blade of G. lingulata was structurally and

  15. Scaling Characteristics of Developing Sea Breezes Simulated in a Water Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Renmin; Sun, Jianning; Luo, Tao; Wu, Xuping

    2013-09-01

    Sea-breeze circulations in a stably stratified environment have been simulated in a water tank. The floor of the tank was divided into two halves representing land and sea; the land side was heated from the bottom of the tank, and the sea side was insulated by an underlying sponge slab. The temperature profiles over both land and sea sides, the land-sea temperature difference, and the horizontal temperature distributions were measured. Particle tracking velocimetry was applied to obtain the two-dimensional velocity field orthogonal to the coastline. It was shown that the overall flow consists of a closed circulation caused by the horizontal temperature difference between land and sea, and a strong updraft occurring at the sea-breeze front. The dimensionless governing parameters are calculated from the measurements and used to characterize the developing sea breezes. The analysis confirms the scaling laws for sea-breeze velocity and depth. The results indicate that the scaling characteristics of the sea-breeze translation speed during the developing period are different to those during the following maintaining period. A criterion for the onset of the sea breeze is proposed based on these results.

  16. Modelling of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for a single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan;

    2015-01-01

    is low (for instance during the night), taking advantage of thermal stratification to increases the heat recovery performance. A model of the SOFC system is presented to estimate the energy required to meet the average electric energy demand of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas...... that in the case of syngas, due to larger system heat output, a larger tank volume was required in order to accumulate unused heat over the night. The detailed description of the tank model will be useful to energy system modelers when sizing hot water tanks. Problem formulation is reported also using a Matlab...

  17. Aeroacoustic Study of a Model-Scale Landing Gear in a Semi-Anechoic Wind Tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    Remillieux, Marcel Christophe

    2007-01-01

    An aeroacoustic study was conducted on a 26%-scale Boeing 777 main landing gear in the Virginia Tech (VT) Anechoic Stability Wind Tunnel. The VT Anechoic Stability Wind Tunnel allowed noise measurements to be carried out using both a 63-elements microphone phased array and a linear array of 15 microphones. The noise sources were identified from the flyover view under various flow speeds and the phased array positioned in both the near and far-field. The directivity pattern of the landing ge...

  18. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks.

  19. Bacterioneuston control of air-water methane exchange determined with a laboratory gas exchange tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upstill-Goddard, Robert C.; Frost, Thomas; Henry, Gordon R.; Franklin, Mark; Murrell, J. Colin; Owens, Nicholas J. P.

    2003-12-01

    The apparent transfer velocities (kw) of CH4, N2O, and SF6 were determined for gas invasion and evasion in a closed laboratory exchange tank. Tank water (pure Milli-RO® water or artificial seawater prepared in Milli-RO®) and/or tank air gas compositions were adjusted, with monitoring of subsequent gas transfer by gas chromatography. Derived kw was converted to "apparent k600," the value for CO2 in freshwater at 20°C. For CH4, analytical constraints precluded estimating apparent k600 based on tank air measurements. In some experiments we added strains of live methanotrophs. In others we added chemically deactivated methanotrophs, non-CH4 oxidizers (Vibrio), or bacterially associated surfactants, as controls. For all individual controls, apparent k600 estimated from CH4, N2O, or SF6 was indistinguishable. However, invasive estimates always exceeded evasive estimates, implying some control of gas invasion by bubbles. Estimates of apparent k600 differed significantly between methanotroph strains, possibly reflecting species-specific surfactant release. For individual strains during gas invasion, apparent k600 estimated from CH4, N2O, or SF6 was indistinguishable, whereas during gas evasion, k600-CH4 was significantly higher than either k600-N2O or k600-SF6, which were identical. Hence evasive k600-CH4/k600-SF6 was always significantly above unity, whereas invasive k600-CH4/k600-SF6 was not significantly different from unity. Similarly, k600-CH4/k600-SF6 for the controls and k600-N2O/k600-SF6 for all experiments did not differ significantly from unity. Our results are consistent with active metabolic control of CH4 exchange by added methanotrophs in the tank microlayer, giving enhancements of ˜12 ± 10% for k600-CH4. Hence reactive trace gas fluxes determined by conventional tracer methods at sea may be in error, prompting a need for detailed study of the role of the sea surface microlayer in gas exchange.

  20. Study of Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Controller for the Twin-tank Water Level System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵涛岩; 李平; 曹江涛

    2012-01-01

    For dealing with large static error due to poor immunity of the traditional fuzzy control, a novel interval type-2 fuzzy control system is proposed. By extending the typical membership functions to interval type-2 membership functions, the proposed control system can efficiently reduce the uncertain disturbance from real environment without increasing the design complexity. The simulation results on the water tank level control system showed that the proposed method succeeded in better static and dynamic control with stronger robust performance than the traditional fuzzy control method.

  1. Kazachstania rupicola sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from water tanks of a bromeliad in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Silvana Vilas Boas; Gomes, Fátima C O; Marques, Andréa R; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2013-03-01

    Two isolates of a novel yeast species were obtained from water tanks (phytotelmata) of the bromeliad Vriesea minarum collected in a tableland ('campo rupestre') ecosystem in Brazil. The sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rRNA gene showed that this species is related to Kazachstania exigua and others, from which it differs by 8-10 nucleotide substitutions. The novel species Kazachstania rupicola sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain is UFMG-BRO-80(T) ( = CBS 12684(T)  = CBMAI 1466(T)).

  2. Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) coupling to complex systems : aperture coupling into canonical cavities in reverberant and anechoic environments and model validation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charley, Dawna R.; Higgins, Matthew B.

    2007-12-01

    Mode-stirred chamber and anechoic chamber measurements were made on two sets of canonical test objects (cylindrical and rectangular) with varying numbers of thin slot apertures. The shielding effectiveness was compared to determine the level of correction needed to compensate the mode-stirred data to levels commensurate with anechoic data from the same test object.

  3. Study of the Thermal Behaviour of Water for Residential Use in Tanks of Concrete and Polyethylene in Humid Subtropical Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego-Ayala Ulises

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comparative study of the thermal behavior of residential water tanks of polyethylene and concrete exposed to the sun over a year in the state of Yucatan. The energy for radiation and their corresponding temperatures in each system were measured. Daily patterns of elevation and reduction of temperature were identified and the amount of energy acquired during the day as well as the heat dissipated overnight were determined, aiming to determine the possibility of using residential water tanks as a source of hot water in residential homes in the Yucatan region. Based on this study it has been found that the periods of the day with hot water temperature for showering with comfort is limited and that, interestingly, both systems show similar temperatures at the bottom of the tanks throughout the year.

  4. 33 CFR 155.370 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ships of 400 gross tons and above that carry ballast water in their fuel oil tanks. 155.370 Section 155... mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000 gross tons and above and oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above that carry ballast water in their fuel oil...

  5. Emulating Spherical Wave Channel Models in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Carreño, Xavier; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum;

    2015-01-01

    Spherical wave channel modeling has attracted huge research attention for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and short-distance MIMO systems. Current research work in multi-probe anechoic chamber systems is limited to reproduce radio channels assuming planar wavefronts. There is a need...

  6. Application of Multi-Layered Polyurethane Foams for Flat-Walled Anechoic Linings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, J. F.; Buchholz, Jörg; Fricke, Fergus R.

    2006-01-01

    application of multi-layered polyurethane foams as the flat-walled anechoic lining. The investigation includes aspects such as the efficacy of a single layer of material, the minimum number of layers of linings to achieve the minimum overall thickness for low (100Hz), mid (250Hz) and high (500Hz) cut...

  7. Acoustic anechoic layers with singly periodic array of scatterers: Computational methods, absorption mechanisms, and optimal design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai-Bin; Li, Yue; Zhao, Hong-Gang; Wen, Ji-Hong; Wen, Xi-Sen

    2014-10-01

    The acoustic properties of anechoic layers with a singly periodic array of cylindrical scatterers are investigated. A method combined plane wave expansion and finite element analysis is extended for out-of-plane incidence. The reflection characteristics of the anechoic layers with cavities and locally resonant scatterers are discussed. The backing is a steel plate followed by an air half space. Under this approximate zero transmission backing condition, the reflection reduction is induced by the absorption enhancement. The absorption mechanism is explained by the scattering/absorption cross section of the isolated scatterer. Three types of resonant modes which can induce efficient absorption are revealed. Due to the fact that the frequencies of the resonant modes are related to the size of the scatterers, anechoic layers with scatterers of mixed size can broaden the absorption band. A genetic optimization algorithm is adopted to design the anechoic layer with scatterers of mixed size at a desired frequency band from 2 kHz to 10 kHz for normal incidence, and the influence of the incident angle is also discussed.

  8. Emulating Ray-Tracing Channels in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups for Virtual Drive Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Llorente, Ines Carton; Kyösti, Pekka;

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses virtual drive testing (VDT) for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) capable terminals in multi-probe anechoic chamber (MPAC) setups. We propose to perform VDT, via reproducing ray tracing (RT) simulated channels with the field synthesis technique. Simulation results...

  9. Water Level Gauging in a Tube by Using a Special Ultrasonic Shoe in an Immersion Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultrasonic pulse travels through the thickness of a material, then finally it is reflected by the back or inside surface, and it can be returned to a transducer. In most applications this time interval is only a few microseconds or less. The measured two-way transit time is divided by two to account for the down-and-back travel path, and then multiplied by the velocity of the sound in a test material. The result is expressed by a well-known relationship as equation. In this experiment, a residual water level measurement in a bellow tube is obtained by using an immersion ultrasonic technique and a special UT probe attachment. This system was designed and fabricated for a convenient control in a water tank, which has a combination of a sensor and a position control function. The shoes are specially made with Lusite material which has the same shape as the bellows tube and then the immersion transducers are controlled by a 3-axis position control system, and it can be operated within a moving distance as small as 0.5mm. Certain specialized applications such as an underwater testing require a long cable between the transducer and the ultrasonic gauging target in an immersion tank

  10. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  11. Development of smart solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar tanks. A smart solar tank is a tank in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated...

  12. Deconvolution of gamma-ray spectra obtained with NAI(Tl) detector in a water tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Sohelur; Cho, Gyuseong; Kang, Bo-Sun

    2009-07-01

    Maximum-likelihood fitting by the expectation maximization deconvolution method is presented to analyse gamma-ray spectra recorded using an NaI(Tl) detector for a water monitoring system. The applicability of the method was tested by deconvolving measured spectra taken using an industry standard 3'' x 3'' cylindrical NaI(Tl) detector in a model water tank with several calibration sources. The results show significant removal of the Compton continuum counts and efficient transfer of the counts into the corresponding photo-peaks. The peak-to-total count ratio and the number of counts in the photo-peaks in the deconvolved spectra increased approximately 4.67 and 5.29 times, respectively, compared with those of measured spectra taken using an NaI(Tl) scintillation detector in the case of (137)Cs. PMID:19502359

  13. Behavioral differentiation of mice exposed to a water tank social interaction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejdi, A; Guastavino, J M; Lalonde, R; Desor, D; Krafft, B

    1996-02-01

    Male or female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to a water tank in which food could be obtained only by wading in the water towards a feeder. Behavioral differentiation occurred in that three distinct categories could be distinguished: major carriers (transporting over 80% of the food pellets), sporadic carriers (transporting less than 20% of the food pellets) and non-carriers. In the elevated + -maze, major carriers were more willing to explore open spaces than non-carriers. Sporadic carriers showed some evidence of the same tendency of decreased anxiety, but in a minor way. The willingness of mice to become carriers is associated with their willingness to explore novel areas. This test may be useful for the assessment of anxiolytic compounds in a social situation.

  14. Project W-519 CDR supplement: Raw water and electrical services for privatization contractor, AP tank farm operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-07-31

    This supplement to the Project W-519 Conceptual Design will identify a means to provide RW and Electrical services to serve the needs of the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) at AP Tank Farm as directed by DOE-RL. The RW will serve the fire suppression and untreated process water requirements for the PC. The purpose of this CDR supplement is to identify Raw Water (RW) and Electrical service line routes to the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) feed delivery tanks, AP-106 and/or AP-108, and establish associated cost impacts to the Project W-519 baseline.

  15. The effect of influent temperature variations in a sedimentation tank for potable water treatment--a computational fluid dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goula, Athanasia M; Kostoglou, Margaritis; Karapantsios, Thodoris D; Zouboulis, Anastasios I

    2008-07-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is used to assess the effect of influent temperature variation on solids settling in a sedimentation tank for potable water treatment. The model is based on the CFD code Fluent and exploits several specific aspects of the potable water application to derive a computational tool much more efficient than the corresponding tools employed to simulate primary and secondary wastewater settling tanks. The linearity of the particle conservation equations allows separate calculations for each particle size class, leading to the uncoupling of the CFD problem from a particular inlet particle size distribution. The usually unknown and difficult to be measured particle density is determined by matching the theoretical to the easily measured experimental total settling efficiency. The present model is adjusted against data from a real sedimentation tank and then it is used to assess the significance of influent temperature variation. It is found that a temperature difference of only 1 degrees C between influent and tank content is enough to induce a density current. When the influent temperature rises, the tank exhibits a rising buoyant plume that changes the direction of the main circular current. This process keeps the particles in suspension and leads to a higher effluent suspended solids concentration, thus, worse settling. As the warmer water keeps coming in, the temperature differential decreases, the current starts going back to its original position, and, thus, the suspended solids concentration decreases.

  16. A two dimensional finite difference time domain analysis of the quiet zone fields of an anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Deirdre A.; Luebbers, Raymond J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Kunz, Karl S.; Steich, David J.

    1992-01-01

    Prediction of anechoic chamber performance is a difficult problem. Electromagnetic anechoic chambers exist for a wide range of frequencies but are typically very large when measured in wavelengths. Three dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of anechoic chambers is possible with current computers but at frequencies lower than most chamber design frequencies. However, two dimensional FDTD (2D-FTD) modeling enables much greater detail at higher frequencies and offers significant insight into compact anechoic chamber design and performance. A major subsystem of an anechoic chamber for which computational electromagnetic analyses exist is the reflector. First, an analysis of the quiet zone fields of a low frequency anechoic chamber produced by a uniform source and a reflector in two dimensions using the FDTD method is presented. The 2D-FDTD results are compared with results from a three dimensional corrected physical optics calculation and show good agreement. Next, a directional source is substituted for the uniform radiator. Finally, a two dimensional anechoic chamber geometry, including absorbing materials, is considered, and the 2D-FDTD results for these geometries appear reasonable.

  17. A novel method to design water spray cooling system to protect floating roof atmospheric storage tanks against fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon bulk storage tank fires are not very common, but their protection is essential due to severe consequences of such fires. Water spray cooling system is one of the most effective ways to reduce damages to a tank from a fire. Many codes and standards set requirements and recommendations to maximize the efficiency of water spray cooling systems, but these are widely different and still various interpretations and methods are employed to design such systems. This article provides a brief introduction to some possible design methods of cooling systems for protection of storage tanks against external non-contacting fires and introduces a new method namely “Linear Density Method” and compares the results from this method to the “Average Method” which is currently in common practice. The average Method determines the flow rate for each spray nozzle by dividing the total water demand by the number of spray nozzles while the Linear Density Method determines the nozzle flow rate based on the actual flow over the surface to be protected. The configuration of the system includes a one million barrel crude oil floating roof tank to be protected and which is placed one half tank diameter from a similar adjacent tank with a full surface fire. Thermal radiation and hydraulics are modeled using DNV PHAST Version 6.53 and Sunrise PIPENET Version 1.5.0.2722 software respectively. Spray nozzles used in design are manufactured by Angus Fire and PNR Nozzles companies. Schedule 40 carbon steel pipe is used for piping. The results show that the cooling system using the Linear Density Method consumes 3.55% more water than the design using the average method assuming a uniform application rate of 4.1 liters per minute. Despite higher water consumption the design based on Linear Density Method alleviates the problems associated with the Average Method and provides better protection.

  18. Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Waste Tanks Suspected of Water Intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feero, Amie J.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.; Schofield, John S.

    2013-11-14

    Intrusions evaluations for twelve single-shell tanks were completed in 2013. The evaluations consisted of remote visual inspections, data analysis, and calculations of estimated intrusion rates. The observation of an intrusion or the preponderance of evidence confirmed that six of the twelve tanks evaluated had intrusions. These tanks were tanks 241-A-103, BX-101, BX-103, BX-110, BY-102, and SX-106.

  19. Direct and indirect measurement of rain drop size distributions using an acoustic water tank disdrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several rain drop size distribution (DSD) point measurement technologies exist, but all are unable to sample either short timescales or the large drop tail of the DSD due to inherent instrumental limitations. The development of an acoustic water tank disdrometer (AWTD) is described, which improves the sampling statistics by increasing the catchment area. This is achieved by distinguishing individual drops, locating them on the surface of the tank then converting the impact pressure into a drop size. Wavelet decomposition is used to distinguish the broadband, short duration impact events and a fast multilateration method is used to position the drop. Issues relating to the different types of noise are also investigated and mitigated. Also, further work on inverting the measured acoustic intensity into a DSD, by fitting sampling distributions, is presented. Six months of data were collected in the Eastern UK. The AWTD then converted the data into DSDs and the results were compared to a commercially available co-located laser precipitation monitor. The sampling errors are far lower due to the increased catchment size, and hence the large drop sized tail of the DSD is greatly improved. DSD results compare favourably to other disdrometers for drop diameters greater than 1.8 mm. Below this size individual drops become increasingly difficult to detect and are underestimated. (paper)

  20. Health improvement of domestic hot tap water supply Gusev, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. Make-up water tank project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    This report describes the project `Health Improvement of Domestic Hot Tap Water Supply, Gusev, Kaliningrad, Russia`, which was carried out in the autumn of 1996 and financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, the Danish Energy Agency and Gusev Municipality. The project proposal and application outlined the following objectives: Erection of system so that hot tap water, which is tapped directly from the district heating system, obtains an acceptable quality in health terms; Complete training and education, so that the plant can be operated and maintained by the power station`s staff and rehabilitation projects within supply of domestic water and district heating can be promoted to the greatest possible extent; Systems for heat treatment of make-up water were implemented in less than three months; The project was carried out in close Danish-Russian co-operation from the beginning of engineering to the commissioning and resulted in transfer and demonstration of know-how and technology; Information was recorded on the existing domestic water and heat supply systems as well as on the treatment of sewage, and recommendations for rehabilitation projects were made. Previously, when the temperature in the district heating system was relatively high, a heat treatment apparently took place in the district heating system. However, due to the current poor economic situation there are no means with which to buy the fuel quantities necessary to maintain the previously normal district heating temperature. In the new concept the cold make-up water is heated to >80 deg. C as required by the health authorities before it is led to the district heating return system and subsequently heated to the actual supply temperature of 50-60 deg. C. The energy consumption in the two concepts is approximately the same. A 1,000 m{sup 3} tank with heating coils was erected between the make-up water system and the district heating system. The tank should equalise the daily capacity

  1. 33 CFR 155.350 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less than 400 gross... mixtures from bilges or fuel oil tank ballast and discharges into the sea according to § 151.10 of this... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oily mixture (bilge...

  2. Efficacy of water spray protection against propane and butane jet fires impinging on LPG storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvill, L.C. [Shell Global Solutions (UK), Chester (United Kingdom)

    2004-03-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage tanks are often provided with water sprays to protect them in the event of a fire. This protection has been shown to be effective in a hydrocarbon pool fire but uncertainties remained regarding the degree of protection afforded in a jet fire resulting from a liquid or two-phase release of LPG. Two projects, sponsored by the Health and Safety Executive, have been undertaken to study, at full scale, the performance of a water spray system on an empty 13 tonne LPG vessel under conditions of jet fire impingement from nearby releases of liquid propane and butane. The results showed that a typical water deluge system found on an LPG storage vessel cannot be relied upon to maintain a water film over the whole vessel surface in an impinging propane or butane jet fire scenario. The deluge affects the fire itself, reducing the luminosity and smoke, resulting in a lower rate of wall temperature rise at the dry patches, when compared with the undeluged case. The results of these studies will be used by the HSE in assessing the risk of accidental fires on LPG installations leading to boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE) incidents. (Author)

  3. Scaling and parametric studies of condensation oscillation in an in-containment refueling water storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to study the condensation oscillation phenomena by steam-jetting into subcooled water through a sparger, implementing a scaling methodology and the similarity correlation between the test facility and model prototype. In additon, the results of this study can provide suitable guidelines for sparger design utilized in the IRWST for the Advanced Passive Reactor 1400 (APR 1400). To corroborate the scaling methodology, various experimental tests were conducted. The scaling-related parameters experimentally considered were water temperatures, mass flux, discharge system volumes, tank sizes, source pressure, steam-jetting directions, and numbers of sparger discharge holes. To preserve the scaling similarity, the thickness of the minimum water volume created by the boundary layer that encloses the steam cavity was found to be equal to the maximum length of the steam cavity formed. Four key scaling parameters were identified and empirically correlated with the maximum amplitude of pressure oscillation. They are as follows: Volume of the steam cavity, flow restriction coefficient, discharge hole area, and density ratio of steam to water. Variations of the oscillation amplitude were small when steam-jetting directions were altered. The concept of a reduction factor was introduced for estimating the oscillation amplitude of the multi-hole sparger with test data from a single-hole sparger

  4. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a heavy-water reactor moderator tank using the CUPID Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Su Ryong; Jeong, Jae Jun [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Tae; Yoon, Han Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this study, a preliminary analysis is performed for the CANDU moderator tank. The calculation results using the basic case input showed a unrealistic, thermal stratification in the upper region, which was caused by the lack of the momentum of the cooling water from the inlet nozzle. To increase the flow momentum from the inlet nozzle, the cross-section area of each inlet nozzle was reduced by half and, then, the calculation showed very realistic results. It is clear that the modeling of the inlet nozzle affects the calculation result significantly. Further studies are needed for a realistic and efficient simulation of the flow in the Calandria tank. When the core cooling system fails to remove the decay heat from the fuel channels during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA), the pressure tube (PT) could strain to contact its surrounding Calandria tube (CT), which leads to sustained CTs dry out, finally resulting in damages to nuclear fuel. This situation can occur when the degree of the subcooling of the moderator inside the Calandria vessel is insufficient. In this regard, to estimate the local subcooling of the moderator inside the Calandria vessel is very important. However, the local temperature is measured at the inlet and outlet of the vessel only. Therefore, we need to accurately predict the local temperature inside the Calandria vessel.In this study, the thermal-hydraulic analysis of the real-scale heavy-water reactor moderator is carried out using the CUPID code. The applicability of the CUPID code to the analysis of the flow in the Calandria vessel has been assessed in the previous studies.

  5. Comparative Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality in Sri Lanka's Tank-Cascade and Mahaweli Irrigation Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Two distinct irrigation systems dominate the landscape in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The tank-cascade system, which originates from third century BC, is a small-scale system that has been the traditional method for communities to meet their farming water needs. The Mahaweli reservoir system, in contrast, is a large-scale irrigation scheme initiated in the 1970s that diverts water across hundreds of kilometers from the headwaters of the Mahaweli River to farmers. Although approximately equal amounts of paddy land are irrigated under these two systems, very little comparative analysis has been conducted on the spatial variation of irrigation water quality in Sri Lanka. An exploratory study was conducted in June 2013 in Anuradhapura district, an area that experiences the highest level of paddy production instability and has had long-standing irrigation water quality issues. A total of 30 water samples from both cascade systems and Mahaweli system H-7 were analyzed for pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, and chromatic dissolved organic matter using field instruments. A subset of these samples was further analyzed for nitrate and ammonia using colorimetric methods. While the sparse data from our study revealed some interesting trends, it is difficult to extrapolate in detail. Therefore, we compare inferences drawn about the Sri Lanka data to a more detailed analysis of chromatic dissolved organic matter in a Tennessee watershed. This comparison will provide insight into possible interpretations relative to the water quality data collected in Sri Lanka. As Sri Lanka continues to develop its irrigation resources, water quality assessments such as this one are critical for identifying factors limiting paddy production in the country.

  6. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William T.; Castro-Wallace, Sarah L.; Kuo, C. K. Mike; Loh, Leslie J.; Hudson, Edgar; Gazda, Daniel B.; Lewis, John F.

    2016-01-01

    additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  7. An effect of a horizontal buoyant jet on the temperature distribution inside a hot water storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A vortex is generated when the buoyant jet impinges the opposite wall linearly. • The vortex height “Zb” is nearly equal to the edge of the temperature gradient layer. • Empirical formulas were proposed between Zb and the buoyant jet’s length scale lM. • A 1D model for simulating temperature distribution was proposed. • The performance of the model was verified by comparing the unsteady test results. -- Abstract: The hot water storage tank (for stratified thermal storage) with a heat pump draws a lot of attention nowadays due to its high performance. In Japan, reheating of the bath is commonly used, and as this mode, the jet injects horizontally at the middle of the tank, so the temperature distribution of the tank changes complexly with time. Hence a model is needed to simulate this phenomenon, precisely. Additionally, in the process of designing a hot water storage system, it is necessary to simulate temperature distribution quickly, since a test run itself is a time consuming process. In this study, visualization experiments were performed using tracer particles and thermo-sensitive liquid crystals. Experiments were also carried out to find the unsteady temperature distribution in a tank when the positively or negatively buoyant jet was injected horizontally in the middle of the tank whose size is limited and has an influence from the opposite wall. If the momentum effect of the buoyant jet is stronger than that of buoyancy, the buoyant jet impinge against the opposite wall of the tank, and a vortex was observed near the opposite wall. Empirical formulas were proposed to predict the height of the vortex “Zb” under various conditions, such as the momentum and the buoyancy of the buoyant jet, and the Prandtl number of the tank water. Furthermore, the 3D-CFD was carried out to supplement the 3D behavior of the inner tank fluid. A one dimensional model, “uniformly distributed injection model”, for simulating temperature

  8. Seismic Analysis of Elevated Water Storage Tanks Subjected to Six Correlated Ground Motion Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kalani Sarokolayi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, rotational components of ground motion acceleration were defined according toimproved method from the corresponding available translational components based on transversely isotropicelastic wave propagation in the soil. With such improvement, it becomes possible to consider frequencydependent wave velocities on rotational components of ground motion. For this purpose, three translationalcomponents of El Centro earthquake (24 January 1951 were adopted to generate their relative rotationalcomponents based on SV and SH wave incidence by Fast Fourier transform with 4096 discrete frequencies.The translational and computed rotational motions were then applied to the concrete elevated water storagetanks with different structural characteristics and water elevations. The finite element method is used for thenonlinear analysis of water storage tanks considering the fluid-structure interaction using Lagrangian-Lagrangian approach and the concrete material nonlinearities have been taken into account through William-Warnke model. The nonlinear response of these structures considering the six components of ground motionshowed that the rotational components of ground motion can increase or decrease the maximum displacementand reaction force of the structure. These variations are depending on the frequency of structure andpredominant frequencies of translational and rotational components of ground motion.

  9. Subjective evaluation of auralizations created from multi-channel anechoic recordings of a talker in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeant, Michelle C.; Wang, Lily M.

    2005-04-01

    A high degree of speech intelligibility is very important in educational environments. When designing such spaces, like classrooms, auralizations can be used to subjectively assess the degree of speech intelligibility and clarity. Auralizations are most commonly made by convolving the impulse response (IR) of an omni-directional source with a single channel anechoic speech recording. This paper explores the idea of using multi-channel recordings to create the auralizations, using a female talker in motion. An omni-directional source is split into quadrants and the IR is calculated for each section. These IR's are convolved with the appropriate channel of the anechoic recording and then the four auralizations are mixed to create one final auralization. The auralizations were made using four-channel anechoic recordings of a person walking on a platform while talking. Subjective tests were conducted to determine the ease with which subjects could identify the direction of the movement of the source in rooms with varying amounts of absorption. This method can be used to create more realistic classroom auralizations, as teachers typically move around the room as they teach. [Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

  10. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads, were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter were filled as a layer of 10 cm in the water treatment tank of control-2. While in the treatment tank, Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis was planted at 334 plants/m2 in baked clay beads layer. During 35 days of experiment, the average fish wet-weight in control-1, control-2 and treatment systems increased from 16.31±1.49, 15.18±1.28 and 11.31±1.49 g to 29.43±7.06, 28.65±3.12 and 27.20±6.56 g, respectively. It was found that the growth rate of 0.45±0.15 g-wet weight/day in a treatment tank was higher than in those 2 controls, which were rather similar at 0.37±0.16 and 0.38±0.05 g-wet weight/day, respectively. The fish survival rate of all experimental units was 100%. The average Chinese cabbage wet-weight in treatment system increased from 0.15±0.02 g to 1.00±0.38 g. For water quality, all parameters were within the acceptable range for aquaculture. The assimilation inorganic nitrogen in a treatment tank showed a slower rate and lower nitrite accumulation relative to those in control tanks. The nitrogen and phosphorus balance analysis illustrated that most of the nitrogen and phosphorus input in all systems was from feed (82-87% and 21-87% while at the final day of experiments, nitrogen and phosphorus in tilapia culture revealed at 15-19% and 4-13%. The accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in the water, up to 56% and 70%, was found in control-1 while water in the tank with baked clay beads had substantial lower nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. The

  11. STUDY ON APPLICATION OF AERATION BIOLOGICAL FLUID TANK TECHNOLGY IN NH4+—N WASTE WATER TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENYi; LUJian-guo

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces an application of "Aeration biological fluid tank"technology (ABFT) for the treatment of waste water containing NH4+-N and high concentrated chemicals.Highlights were focused on the effects of dissolved oxygen,pH,temperature and retention time on waste water bilogical treatment in order to find out a new approach in treatment of waste time on containing high concentrated NH4+-N.

  12. Investigation and optimisation of heat storage tanks for low-flow SDHW systems[Solar Domestic Hot Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Soeren

    2004-07-01

    This thesis, 'Investigation and optimisation of heat storage tanks for low-flow SDHW systems', describes a study of the heat transfer and flow structure in vertical mantle heat exchangers for low-flow Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems. The heat storage is a key component in SDHW systems and the vertical mantle heat exchanger is one of the most promising heat storage designs for low-flow SDHW systems. The study was carried out using a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Thermal experiments of mantle heat exchangers with different mantle inlet designs showed that the mantle inlet port with advantage can be located a distance from the top of the mantle. Consequently, the mantle heat exchangers marketed today can be improved by changing the mantle inlet position. The heat transfer and flow structure in mantle heat exchangers are rather complex and the thermal experiments were followed by investigations by means of advanced experimental and numerical techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Using a transparent glass mantle tank, experimental flow visualisation was carried out with a PIV system. The flow structures inside the mantle and inside the tank were visualised and then compared with the flow structures predicted by CFD-models. The investigations showed that the CFD-models were able to model the flow in the mantle and in the tank correctly. The CFD-models were also validated by means of thermal experiments with a steel mantle tank. With the verified CFD-models, a parameter analysis was carried out for differently designed mantle heat exchangers for different typical conditions to reveal how the mantle tank parameters influence the flow structure and heat transfer in mantle heat exchangers. The heat transfer in the mantle near the mantle inlet port showed to be in the mixed convection regime, and as the distance from the inlet increased, natural convection started to dominate. The

  13. Technical Schemes and Characteristics of Water-cooling Milk Tanks%水冷式奶罐的技术方案及其特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田雅颂; 陈东; 谢继红; 李国盛

    2015-01-01

    Direct cooling milk tanks need high power and energy consumption, so four technical schemes of water-cooling milk tanks are put forward: water-cooling milk tank using groundwater, water-cooling milk tank using outdoor air, water-cooling milk tank with ice storage and water-cooling milk tank producing hot water. Working principle and characteristics of four technical schemes are introduced and compared based on 10 tons of milk tanks. It shows that compared with direct cooling milk tanks, equipment cost and electricity consumption of water-cooling milk tanks using groundwater is about half of that, water-cooling milk tanks using outdoor air can decrease electricity consumption cost more than 30%, electricity consumption cost of water-cooling milk tanks with ice storage can decrease more than 50%, water-cooling milk tanks preparing hot water can get 1~3 tons hot water of 40~80℃ to meet needs of cleaning milking equipment and milk tanks.%针对直冷式奶罐功率配置较高、能耗较大等不足,给出了4种水冷式奶罐技术方案:采用地下水冷源的水冷式奶罐、采用室外空气冷源的水冷式奶罐、采用冰蓄冷的水冷式奶罐和同时制取热水的水冷式奶罐。对4种技术方案的工作流程和特点进行了介绍,并以10吨奶罐为例,对4种水冷式奶罐和直冷式奶罐进行了计算比较。结果表明:与直冷式奶罐相比,采用地下水冷源的水冷式奶罐设备费用和电耗费用均降低约50%;采用室外空气冷源的水冷式奶罐电耗费用可降低30%以上;采用冰蓄冷的水冷式奶罐耗电费用降低约50%;同时制取热水的水冷式奶罐可免费获得1~3吨40~80℃的热水,可满足挤奶装置和奶罐的清洗需要。

  14. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W. T.; Wallace, S. L.; Gazda, D. B.; Lewis, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. One major aspect of that is ensuring that microbial growth is minimized. Historically, this challenge has been addressed through the use of biocides. When using biocides, the choice of materials for the storage containers is important, because surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system (ionic silver) will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting of the system. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  15. 33 CFR 155.330 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships. (a) No person may operate a U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships. 155.330 Section 155.330 Navigation...

  16. Parametric and scaling studies of condensation oscillation in subcooled water of the in-containment refueling water storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condensation oscillation by jetting the steam into subcooled water through spargers is studied. To provide a suitable guideline for oscillation phenomena in the IRWST of the next generation reactor, scaling methodology is introduced. Through scaling methodology and subsequent tests, it shows that the volume of steam cavity determines the dynamic characteristics of condensation oscillation. The second-order linear differential equation for frequency analysis is derived and its results are compared with those from the test data. Two types of condensation phenomena exist according to steam flow rates. At subsonic jet, condensation interface becomes irregular in shape and upper system volumes affect the dynamic characteristics of condensation oscillation. At sonic jet, a regular steam cavity forms at the exit of discharge holes. Parametric effects and subsequent dynamic responses of the pool tank are investigated through experiments in applicable test ranges. When the temperature of pool water becomes lower, the amplitude becomes larger. Critical parameters are derived from the scaling methodology and are system volume, cavity volume, discharge hole area, and density ration. It is found that system friction factors affect frequency components of condensation oscillation. Oscillations of a steam cavity occur mainly on the face of the axial direction and pressure amplitudes become larger than that of the lateral direction

  17. Development of a CFD Model for Secondary Final Settling Tanks in Water Pollution Control Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Minwei; Xanthos, Savvas; Ramalingam, Krish; Fillos, John

    2007-11-01

    To assess performance and evaluate alternatives to improve efficiency of the New York City the Wards Island Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) FSTs at peak loads, a 3D CFD model has been developed. Fluent was utilized as the base platform, where sub-models of the Suspended Solids (SS), settling characteristics, density currents and SS flocculation were incorporated. This was supplemented by field and bench scale experiments to quantify the coefficients integral to the sub-models. Model calibration and validation have been carried out by using the extensive set of data collected. The model can be used to evaluate different modes of operation, alternate hydraulic and solids loading rates, as well as addition of auxiliary components such as baffles to improve process performance. The model is being used to compare potential benefits for different alternatives of design and operation of the existing FSTs. After comparing series of inlet baffles, a baffle with 4 horizontal and 7 vertical slots has been recommended for installation in the FSTs. Additional baffle type, configurations and locations within the tank are also being evaluated to improve the performance of the FSTs especially during periods of poor settling and peak flow conditions.

  18. Study on computation of optimal depth increase of embossed panels of stainless water tank for energy storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hung Kang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compute the optimal depth increase of the embossed panels of a stainless water tank used for an energy storage system. The pressing used to emboss the panels of the stainless water tank decreases their thickness. By assuming that the panels had the same volume before ( V o and after the change ( V c , we found an equation that computed how much the thickness of the panels decreased. According to the obtained thickness equation, the thickness of arch-embossed panels decreased by 50% relative to flat panels, and that of pyramid-embossed panels decreased by up to 30%. We also performed finite element method analyses of four flat panels, four arch-embossed panels, and four pyramid-embossed panels by applying the thickness equation for different depth increase. As a result, the optimal depth increase of the arch-embossed panels was 70–90 mm, and that of the pyramid-embossed panels was 150–200 mm. We concluded that these computed optimal depth increase could be useful in the economic design of a stainless water tank for an energy storage system.

  19. Water Tanks, MFRDC has WT for some of the counties and cities., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Middle Flint RDC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Tanks dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2008. It is described as 'MFRDC...

  20. Directional loudness in an anechoic sound field, head-related transfer functions, and binaural summation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivonen, Ville Pekka; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The effect of sound incidence angle on loudness was investigated using real sound sources positioned in an anechoic chamber. Eight normal-hearing listeners produced loudness matches between a frontal reference location and seven sources placed at other directions, both in the horizontal and median...... a range of up to 10 dB, exhibiting considerable frequency dependence, but only minor effects of overall level. The pattern of results varied substantially between subjects, but was largely accounted for by variations in individual head-related transfer functions. Modeling of binaural loudness based...

  1. A hybrid model for chaotic front dynamics: From semiconductors to water tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Amann, A; Peters, K.; Parlitz, U.; Wacker, A.; Schöll, E.

    2003-01-01

    We present a general method for studying front propagation in nonlinear systems with a global constraint in the language of hybrid tank models. The method is illustrated in the case of semiconductor superlattices, where the dynamics of the electron accumulation and depletion fronts shows complex spatio-temporal patterns, including chaos. We show that this behavior may be elegantly explained by a tank model, for which analytical results on the emergence of chaos are available. In particular, f...

  2. Multi-dimensional scattering properties diagnosis system of scale aircraft model in an anechoic chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chufeng Hu; Zhou Zhou; Nanjing Li; Kun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the concept of “diagnosis”, a simple and ef-fective broadband radar cross section (RCS) measurement system is constructed, and some multi-dimensional scattering properties diagnosis techniques are presented based on the system. Firstly, a stepped-frequency signal is employed to achieve high range resolution, combining with a variety of signal processing tech-niques. Secondly, cross-range resolution is gained with a rotating table, and the high-resolution two-dimensional (2-D) imaging of the scale model is obtained by the microwave imaging theory. Fi-nal y, two receiving antennas with a smal distance in altitude are used, and the three-dimensional (3-D) height distribution of scattering points on the scale model is extracted from the phase of images. Some typical bodies and a scale aircraft model are diagnosed in an anechoic chamber. The experimental results show that, after scaling with a metal sphere, the accurate one-dimensional (1-D) RCS pattern of the model is obtained, and it has a large dynamic range. When the bandwidth of the transmit-ting signal is 4 GHz, the resolution of the 2-D image can reach to 0.037 5 m. The 3-D height distribution of scattering points is given by interferometric measurement. This paper provides a feasible way to obtain high-precision scattering properties parameters of the scale aircraft model in a conventional rectangular anechoic chamber.

  3. A Review of Common Problems in Design and Installation of Water Spray Cooling and Low Expansion Foam System to Protect Storage Tanks Containing Hydrocarbons Against Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tank fires are rare but carry significant potential risk to life and property. For this reason fire protection of tanks is critical. Fixed Low expansion foam and water spray cooling systems are one of the most effective and economical ways to reduce damages to a tank from fire. Such systems are currently installed in many companies but are not effective enough and require involvement of firefighters which in turn threaten their lives. This paper studies in a systematic way the problems of foam and cooling systems currently installed in a few domestic companies which operate storage tanks with focus on floating and fixed roof atmospheric tanks containing hydrocarbons and offers possible solutions for more efficient installation, design and operation of such systems.

  4. A Review of Common Problems in Design and Installation of Water Spray Cooling and Low Expansion Foam System to Protect Storage Tanks Containing Hydrocarbons Against Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alimohammadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tank fires are rare but carry significant potential risk to life and property. For this reason fire protection of tanks is critical. Fixed Low expansion foam and water spray cooling systems are one of the most effective and economical ways to reduce damages to a tank from fire. Such systems are currently installed in many companies but are not effective enough and require involvement of firefighters which in turn threaten their lives. This paper studies in a systematic way the problems of foam and cooling systems currently installed in a few domestic companies which operate storage tanks with focus on floating and fixed roof atmospheric tanks containing hydrocarbons and offers possible solutions for more efficient installation, design and operation of such systems.

  5. An old water tank from the time of the ISR is being converted into a temporary store for ATLAS muon chambers.

    CERN Multimedia

    maximilien brice

    2005-01-01

    This large underground water tank dates from the construction of the ISR when CERN had its own independent water supply. No longer needed for water storage, this interesting example of 1960s industrial architecture represents 6000 m3 of useful storage space that can now be accessed via a 4 m x 5 m door made in the wall.

  6. Location determination of overflow port for flare water sealed tank%火炬水封罐溢流口位置的设置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾一斐; 于安峰

    2013-01-01

    Water sealed tank is one of the key equipments for backfire protection of the flare system. Its overflow mode will produce the problems in condensed oil discharge, while skimming and water charge operations of the water sealed tanks also will affect the flare system. Typical water sealed tank structure and overflow mode are summarized and analyzed. The results show that the water sealed tank equipped with baffles can significantly reduce water volume used and the overflow port designed at the tank wall can effectively skim oil and avoid potential safety hazards during skimming. Through a case, structure and operating parameters of typical water sealed tank with tank wall openings are proposed and suggestion to design the location for overflow port of flare water sealed tank is provided. It is considered that opening at different heights of the water sealed tank should be be a priority in the design. If communicating pipe overflow mode is used, the detailed operating procedures for skimming and water changing should be formulated and strictly followed them.%水封罐是火炬系统防回火的重要设备之一,其溢流方式直接影响凝缩油的排放,而水封罐撇油、换水操作亦会对火炬系统产生影响.对典型的水封罐结构及溢流方式进行总结分析,结果表明:采用带挡板的水封罐可以明显减少换水量,而将溢流口设置在罐壁上可以有效撇油,并且能够避免撇油过程中的安全隐患.通过具体实例,给出典型罐壁开孔的水封罐结构及运行参数,并提出对于火炬水封罐溢流口位置设置的建议:设计中,优选在水封罐壁不同高度开口的方法,若采用连通管溢流方式,则需制定详细的撇油、换水作业操作规程,并严格执行.

  7. Wave tank tests to determine the effectiveness of Corexit 9500 dispersant on Hibernia crude oil under cold water conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belore, R. [S.L. Ross Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    A test at SL Ross's wave tank in Ottawa, Canada, was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a dispersant on spilled Hibernia crude oil. The dispersant, Corexit 9500, was tested on both fresh and weathered oils under cold water conditions. The objective of the study was to confirm that Hibernia crude is dispersible and that the use of dispersants is a viable spill countermeasure. Preliminary testing of Hibernia crude was done in the summer but none was done at winter temperatures. For that reason, this study was conducted at a water temperature of 1 degrees C. The dispersant application system was used at full scale. A sizable oil slick was produced and allowed to spread. The wave tank made it possible to realistically mix the oil through the water surface using wave action. Corexit 9500 was found to be between 85 to 95 per cent effective when applied at 1:100 to 1:22 dispersant to oil ratios. Test results showed that Hibernia crude oil spills are amenable to chemical dispersion in cold, winter conditions until the oil loses about 10 per cent by volume through evaporation, at which point it comes semi-solid and difficult to disperse. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  8. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system

  9. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, W Y; Wu, M H; Wu, K L; Lin, M H; Teng, H H; Tsai, Y F; Ko, C C; Yang, E C; Jiang, J A; Barnett, L R; Chu, K R

    2014-08-01

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system. PMID:25173291

  10. Research into Noise Generated by Domestic Appliances in the Anechoic Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnė Žukauskienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Loud noise has a negative impact on the entire body, especially on listening. We can hear daily noise everywhere – in the street, at work or at home. The Department of Environmental Protection of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University has adjusted an anechoic chamber adapted for suppressing sound. Under the above introduced conditions, 15 appliances (5 vacuum cleaners, 5 hair dryers and 5 shaving machines have been tested. Equivalent sound pressure level of the vacuum cleaner has varied from 66 dBA to 83 dBA, that of the hair dryer has made from 64 dBA to 70 dBA and for the shaving machine – from 39 to 56 dBA.Article in Lithuanian

  11. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, W. Y.; Wu, M. H.; Wu, K. L.; Lin, M. H.; Teng, H. H.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R., E-mail: krchu@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Y. F.; Ko, C. C.; Yang, E. C. [Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jiang, J. A. [Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-15

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  12. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, W. Y.; Wu, M. H.; Wu, K. L.; Lin, M. H.; Teng, H. H.; Tsai, Y. F.; Ko, C. C.; Yang, E. C.; Jiang, J. A.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R.

    2014-08-01

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  13. A pilot study on water pollution and characterization of multidrug-resistant superbugs from Byramangala tank, Ramanagara district, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Lokesh, Priyanka; Rao, Reshma; Kumar, Arushi Umesh; Vasist, Kiran S; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2013-07-01

    Urbanization and industrialization has increased the strength and qualities of municipal sewage in Bangalore, India. The disposal of sewage into natural water bodies became a serious issue. Byramangala reservoir is one such habitat enormously polluted in South India. The water samples were collected from four hotspots of Byramangala tank in 3 months. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and bacterial counts were determined. The fecal coliforms were identified by morphological, physiological, and biochemical studies. The antibiotics sensitivity profiling of isolated bacteria were further carried out. We have noticed that a high content of BOD in the tank in all the 3 months. The total and fecal counts were found to be varied from 1.6 × 10(6) to 8.2 × 10(6) colony forming unit/ml and >5,500/100 ml, respectively. The variations in BOD and total count were found to be statistically significant at p > 0.05. Many pathogenic bacteria were characterized and most of them were found to be multidrug resistant. Salmonella showed resistance to cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefixime, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, co-trimoxazole, levofloxacin, trimethoprim, and ceftazidime. Escherichia coli showed resistance to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, co-trimoxazole, rifampicin, and nitrofurantoin while Enterobacter showed resistant to ampicillin, cefepime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone, and cefotaxime. Klebsiella and Shigella exhibited multiple drug resistance to conventional antibiotics. Staphylococcus showed resistance to vancomycin, methicillin, oxacillin, and tetracycline. Furthermore, Salmonella and Klebsiella are on the verge of acquiring resistance to even the strongest carbapenems-imipenem and entrapenem. Present study revealed that Byramanagala tank has become a cesspool of multidrug-resistant "superbugs" and will be major health concern in South Bangalore, India. PMID:23114918

  14. Investigation of underwater sound scattering on a cylindrical shell coated with anechoic coatings by the finite element metho d based on an equivalent parameter inversion%基于等效参数反演的敷设声学覆盖层的水下圆柱壳体声散射研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金国梁; 尹剑飞; 温激鸿; 温熙森

    2016-01-01

    Anechoic coating attached to the surface of an underwater object is used for absorbing sound wave thereby reducing the reflection. The anechoic coating is often made of viscoelastic materials embedded with designed acoustic substruc-tures, such as air cavities. The prediction of sound scattering on underwater object coated with such materials can be challenging due to the complex geometry of the anechoic coating, and it has been a research subject of interest in underwater acoustics. In this paper, we study the sound scattering on an infinite cylindrical shell coated with anechoic coating. Two types of coatings are considered: one is a layer of homogeneous isotropic material, and the other is a layer of homogeneous isotropic material with periodically embedded cylindrical air cavities. We use an equivalent method, in which the anechoic coating with air-filled cavities is regarded as a homogeneous isotropic material with equivalent material properties. The key point of the equivalent method is to ignore the internal structure of the anechoic coating, and the anechoic coating is considered as a homogeneous isotropic layer with the same complex reflection coefficient. These equivalent material properties are acquired based on the data of complex reflection coefficient obtained from either the physical experiment using water-filled impedance tube or the numerical experiment using the finite element method with COMSOL Multiphysics software. Then a genetic algorithm is used to inversely calculate the equivalent Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and damping loss factor of the coating which has the same reflection coefficient as the original coating. The results of the equivalent material properties show that 1) the three properties are all frequency dependent;2) in general, equivalent Young’s modulus increases with the increase of frequency, meanwhile the equivalent damping loss factor tends to decrease; 3) there is a wide variation in the results of equivalent

  15. Do Fish Enhance Tank Mixing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Laursen, Jesper; Craig, Steven R.;

    2005-01-01

    The design of fish rearing tanks represents a critical stage in the development of optimal aquaculture systems, especially in the context of recirculating systems. Poor hydrodynamics can compromise water quality, waste management and the physiology and behaviour of fish, and thence, production...... potential and operational profitability. The hydrodynamic performance of tanks, therefore, represents an important parameter during the tank design process. Because there are significant complexities in combining the rigid principles of hydrodynamics with the stochastic behaviour of fish, however, most data...... upon tank hydrokinetics has been derived using tanks void of fish. Clearly, the presence of randomly moving objects, such as fish, in a water column will influence not only tank volumes by displacing water, but due to their activity, water dynamics and associated in-tank processes. In order...

  16. NACA Tow Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    1930-01-01

    L4695 shows the interior view of construction of the Tow Tank. In the late 1920s, the NACA decided to investigate the aero/hydro dynamics of floats for seaplanes. A Hydrodynamics Branch was established in 1929 and special towing basin was authorized in March of that same year. Starr Truscott (the first head of the new division) described the tank in NACA TR 470: 'The N.A.C.A. tank is of the Froude type; that is, the model which is being tested is towed through still water at successive constant speeds from a carriage spanning the tank. At each constant speed the towing pull is measured, the trim and the rise, or change of draft, are recorded and, if the model is being towed at a fixed trim, the moment required to hold it there is measured and recorded.' 'The reinforced concrete basin containing the water has the following dimensions: (1) Length on water, extreme, 2,020 feet; (2) Normal width of water surface, 24 feet; (3) Normal depth of water, 12 feet; (4) Length of 12 foot depth, 1,980 feet.' This picture shows the tank before the coving was added. This brought the rails for the carriage closer together and helped suppress waves produced by the models. The finished tank would be filled with approximately 4 million gallons of salt water pumped in from the Back River. The tank was covered by a shelter which protected the water surface. The tank was dedicated on May 27, 1931. In 1936 the tank was extended to a total length of 2,960 feet. In 1959 the facility was turned over to the U.S. Navy.

  17. Tow Tank #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1930-01-01

    Digging the channel for the Tow Tank. In the late 1920s, the NACA decided to investigate the aero/hydro dynamics of floats for seaplanes. A Hydrodynamics Branch was established in 1929 and special towing basin was authorized in March of that same year. Starr Truscott (the first head of the new division) described the tank in NACA TR 470: 'The N.A.C.A. tank is of the Froude type; that is, the model which is being tested is towed through still water at successive constant speeds from a carriage spanning the tank. At each constant speed the towing pull is measured, the trim and the rise, or change of draft, are recorded and, if the model is being towed at a fixed trim, the moment required to hold it there is measured and recorded.' 'The reinforced concrete basin containing the water has the following dimensions: (1) Length on water, extreme, 2,020 feet; (2) Normal width of water surface, 24 feet; (3) Normal depth of water, 12 feet; (4) Length of 12 foot depth, 1,980 feet.' The tank was dedicated on May 27, 1931. In 1936 the tank was extended to a total length of 2,960 feet. In 1959 the facility was turned over to the U.S. Navy.Published in NACA TR No. 470, 'The N.A.C.A. Tank: A High-Speed Towing Basin for Testing Models of Seaplane Floats,' by Starr Truscott, 1933.

  18. Integrated Surface and Ground Water modeling of a tank cascaded sub basin using physically based model in a semi-arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilampooranan, I.; Muthiah, K.; Athikesavan, R.

    2013-05-01

    Hydrological Modeling of tank (small reservoirs) cascaded sub-basin of a semi-arid region is a complex process. Physically based approach can simulate the various processes in surface, unsaturated and saturated ground water zones of such sub basin in an integrated manner. The objectives of the study are (i) to characterize the study area to replicate the physical conditions of surface and saturated zones (ii) to carryout overland flow routing of a tank cascaded basin using physically based modular approach (iii) To simulate the ground water levels in the unconfined aquifer (iv) to study the surface and groundwater dynamics on incorporation of tank cascades in the integrated model. An integrated, physically based model MIKE 11 & MIKE SHE was applied to study the hydrological processes of a tank cascaded semi-arid basin in which flow through tanks were modeled using MIKE 11 and coupled with MIKE SHE in-order to best represent the surface water dynamics in a distributed manner. Sindapalli Uppodai sub-basin, Southern Tamilnadu, India is chosen as study area. There are 15 tanks connected in series forming a tank cascade. Other tanks and depressions in the sub basin are also considered for the study and their effectiveness were analysed. DEM was obtained from SRTM data. The maps such as drainage network, land use and soil are prepared. Soil sampling was carried out. The time series data of rainfall and climate parameters are given as input. The characterization of unconfined aquifer formation was done by Geo-Resistivity survey. 71 observation and pumping wells are monitored within and periphery of sub basin which are used for calibration of the model. The flow routing over the land is done by MIKE SHE's Overland Flow Module, using the diffusive wave approximation of the Saint Venant equation. The hydrograph of routed runoff from the tank cascaded catchment was obtained. The spatial and temporal variation of hydraulic head of the saturated ground water zone is simulated

  19. Perched-Water Evaluation for the Deep Vadose Zone Beneath the B, BX, and BY Tank Farms Area of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Carroll, KC; Chronister, Glen B.

    2013-06-28

    Perched-water conditions have been observed in the vadose zone above a fine-grained zone that is located a few meters above the water table within the B, BX, and BY Tank Farms area. The perched water contains elevated concentrations of uranium and technetium-99. This perched-water zone is important to consider in evaluating the future flux of contaminated water into the groundwater. The study described in this report was conducted to examine the perched-water conditions and quantitatively evaluate 1) factors that control perching behavior, 2) contaminant flux toward groundwater, and 3) associated groundwater impact.

  20. Dismantlement and removal of Old Hydrofracture Facility bulk storage bins and water tank, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF), located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was constructed in 1963 to allow experimentation and operations with an integrated solid storage, mixing, and grout injection facility. During its operation, OHF blended liquid low-level waste with grout and used a hydrofracture process to pump the waste into a deep low-permeable shale formation. Since the OHF Facility was taken out of service in 1980, the four bulk storage bins located adjacent to Building 7852 had deteriorated to the point that they were a serious safety hazard. The ORNL Surveillance and Maintenance Program requested and received permission from the US Department of Energy to dismantle the bins as a maintenance action and send the free-released metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. A 25,000-gal stainless steel water tank located at the OHF site was included in the scope. A fixed-price subcontract was signed with Allied Technology Group, Inc., to remove the four bulk storage bins and water tank to a staging area where certified Health Physics personnel could survey, segregate, package, and send the radiologically clean scrap metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. All radiologically contaminated metal and metal that could not be surveyed was packaged and staged for later disposal. Permissible personnel exposure limits were not exceeded, no injuries were incurred, and no health and safety violations occurred throughout the duration of the project. Upon completion of the dismantlement, the project had generated 53,660 lb of clean scrap metal (see Appendix D). This resulted in $3,410 of revenue generated and a cost avoidance of an estimated $100,000 in waste disposal fees.

  1. Design and analysis of a hemi-anechoic chamber at Michigan Technological University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Jason; Jangale, Ashish; Rao, Mohan D.

    2005-09-01

    A four-wheel chassis roll dynamometer test facility was installed on the campus of Michigan Technological University (MTU). The chassis dynamometer was enclosed in a soundproof hem-anechoic room in order to conduct noise radiation measurements on test vehicles. All surfaces of the room, except the floor and control room window, were acoustically treated with donated tetrahedral acoustic cones and panels. The acoustic absorption properties of these materials were characterized through reverberation chamber and impedance tube testing, and the effects of air gaps, cone orientation, and cone mounting materials were qualitatively evaluated. The design of the wall, ceiling, and door treatments of the chamber was based on the sound absorption properties of these materials, in addition to spatial constraints and cost considerations. The treated chamber acoustics were predicted based on the amount of acoustic material that could be applied to given chamber dimensions and would still preserve the functionality of the room. These predictions were validated through evaluation of the actual room treatment based on average reverberation time at 100-Hz third-octave band, free sound field characteristic 6-dB reduction in sound pressure level (SPL) per doubling in distance from source, noise reduction at the chamber boundaries, and background SPL Noise Criteria (NC) Rating.

  2. Supervised Self-Organizing Classification of Superresolution ISAR Images: An Anechoic Chamber Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoi Emanuel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the automatic classification of superresolution ISAR images is addressed in the paper. We describe an anechoic chamber experiment involving ten-scale-reduced aircraft models. The radar images of these targets are reconstructed using MUSIC-2D (multiple signal classification method coupled with two additional processing steps: phase unwrapping and symmetry enhancement. A feature vector is then proposed including Fourier descriptors and moment invariants, which are calculated from the target shape and the scattering center distribution extracted from each reconstructed image. The classification is finally performed by a new self-organizing neural network called SART (supervised ART, which is compared to two standard classifiers, MLP (multilayer perceptron and fuzzy KNN ( nearest neighbors. While the classification accuracy is similar, SART is shown to outperform the two other classifiers in terms of training speed and classification speed, especially for large databases. It is also easier to use since it does not require any input parameter related to its structure.

  3. A Test Model in a RF Anechoic Chamber for the Application of Wi-Fi Communication in Korean Operating NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to make a test model and confirm its effectiveness in a radio frequency (RF) anechoic chamber before conducting a field test in Korean operating NPPs for use of Wi-Fi communication technology. This paper is focused on electromagnetic/radio-frequency interference (EMI/RFI) issue and discusses a methodology and its test result for overcoming that issue. Whenever wireless communication is performed between an access point (AP) and a smart phone, EMI/RFI problem always happens around those devices. It is necessary to decide how many wireless devices local workers will use and select what facilities and systems to protect from EMI/RFI, which are so-called EMI/RFI sensitive equipment. The number of wireless devices was decided as many as possible in the area where those devices could be used, and some sensitive equipment that shall not malfunction under electromagnetic environment were chosen. The test bed which considered above mentioned conditions was constructed and an experiment was carried out inside a radio-frequency anechoic chamber. Comparing with the allowable operating envelopes for electromagnetic level from RG-1.180, each maximum level of the test results acquired from a RF anechoic chamber is not over the limit even in case of considering the maximum local workers' usage. This result shows that it is highly likely that Wi-Fi communication can be used without any problem if sensitive equipment has observed the electromagnetic susceptibility limit of RG-1.180

  4. Sidewall-box airlift pump provides large flows for aeration, CO2 stripping, and water rotation in large dual-drain circular tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional gas transfer technologies for aquaculture systems occupy a large amount of space, require a considerable capital investment, and can contribute to high electricity demand. In addition, diffused aeration in a circular culture tank can interfere with the hydrodynamics of water rotation a...

  5. Technology Review of Nondestructive Methods for Examination of Water Intrusion Areas on Hanford’s Double-Shell Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Michael L.; Pardini, Allan F.

    2008-05-09

    necessary to de-rate critical components. There are currently no tools that automatically convert the NDE data to formats compatible with structural analysis programs. While radiographic techniques still provide significant advantages in spatial resolution, non-ionizing techniques are still preferred. Radar imagining in the 1–5 GHz has become the most useful. Unfortunately the algorithms and underlying assumptions used in these reconstructions are proprietary, and it is not possible to assess the quality and limitations of the analytical methods used to generate the derived structural data. The hypothesis that water intrusion may contribute to potential rebar corrosion of the tank domes provided the primary guidance in reviewing and evaluating available NDE technologies. Of primary concern is the need to employ technologies that provide the best opportunity for visualizing the rebar and providing quantitative data that can be integrated into structural analysis efforts to better understand and quantify the structural capacity of the domes. The conclusion is that an imaging system capable of locating and quantifying the distribution and conditions of the cement, aggregate, and rebar will provide the most valuable baseline upon which to build a case for the integrity of the structure. If successful, such a system would fulfill the need to incorporate valuable data into current structural load capacity analysis.

  6. Optimum values of tank volume to collector area ratios of thermosyphon solar water heaters for Libyan families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermosyphon solar water heaters are the best choice to be utilized in residential sector to provide the required hot water in Libya. These systems are autonomy in operation and as a result require less maintenance, and hence low operation and initial costs than active systems. In this paper, GenOpt optimization technique provided in TRNSYS simulation program is used for sizing thermosyphon systems to obtain the optimum size (namely V1/Ac ratio) of thermosyphon systems that suits Libyan families according to the weather and operating conditions of Tripoli. The typical hot water load pattern nd quantity of the Libyan families are taken from a field study conducted on a number of solar systems for a whole year. Whereas, the typical weather data are taken from five year measurements recorded at CSERS weather station. The results showed that the optimum storage tank volume to collector area ratio of thermosyphon systems is between 49-60 Lit/m'2 for the most common collector characteristics ratio (FRUL/FR(τα)=6-8) and the auxility heater set point temperature ranges from (45-60 degree centigrade).(author)

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A SMART SOLAR TANK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of small SDHW systems based on so-called smart solar tanks are presented. A smart solar tank is a hot water tank in which the domestic water can both be heated by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply....... The investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of small SDHW systems can be increased by up to about 30 % if a smart solar tank is used instead of a traditional solar combi tank. The thermal increase is strongly influenced by the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. Recommendations...... for future development of smart solar tanks are given....

  8. 某水厂翻板滤池工艺的设计%Design on Process of Flap Filter Tank for a Certain Water Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奕

    2014-01-01

    Combining with design practice of process of flap filter tank for a certain water plant, the paper systematically introduces the main steps of design of flap filter tank from the aspects of structure of filter tank, process properties, key equipment, working principles, design parameters, operation and control flow, and summarizes application scope of this process.%结合某水厂翻板滤池工艺的设计实践,从滤池构造、工艺特点、核心设备、工作原理、设计参数以及运行和控制流程等方面,对翻板滤池设计的主要环节作了系统而全面的介绍,并对该工艺的应用范围进行了总结。

  9. Task 7c: Worm tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worm tank has a unique shape. In the seismic design of a worm tank, it is desirable to clear the behavior of the worm tank under the seismic loading. We assumed that there are two phenomena in the seismic behavior of the worm tank same as the behavior of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. One is a sloshing behavior of the water and another is the dynamic response of the worm tank. In this study, we investigate the dynamic characteristics of the worm tank during the strong earthquakes. We conducted the vibration tests to clarify the seismic behaviors of the worm tanks and obtained the valuable data to verify the analytical method. It was found that the natural frequency can be calculated using the eigenvalue formula of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. Lower modes of the worm tank are identical with that of the rectangular tank. We can estimate the surface behavior and the impact mode using the data of the rectangular tank. (author)

  10. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin; Wiboonluk Pungrasmi; Sorawit Powtongsook

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage) and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only) and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads), were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter) were fi...

  11. Tank design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that aboveground tanks can be designed with innovative changes to complement the environment. Tanks can be constructed to eliminate the vapor and odor emanating from their contents. Aboveground tanks are sometimes considered eyesores, and in some areas the landscaping has to be improved before they are tolerated. A more universal concern, however, is the vapor or odor that emanates from the tanks as a result of the materials being sorted. The assertive posture some segments of the public now take may eventually force legislatures to classify certain vapors as hazardous pollutants or simply health risks. In any case, responsibility will be leveled at the corporation and subsequent remedy could increase cost beyond preventive measures. The new approach to design and construction of aboveground tanks will forestall any panic which might be induced or perceived by environmentalists. Recently, actions by local authorities and complaining residents were sufficient to cause a corporation to curtail odorous emissions through a change in tank design. The tank design change eliminated the odor from fuel oil vapor thus removing the threat to the environment that the residents perceived. The design includes reinforcement to the tank structure and the addition of an adsorption section. This section allows the tanks to function without any limitation and their contents do not foul the environment. The vapor and odor control was completed successfully on 6,000,000 gallon capacity tanks

  12. Numerical modelling of disintegration of basin-scale internal waves in a tank filled with stratified water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Stashchuk

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of numerical experiments performed with the use of a fully non-linear non-hydrostatic numerical model to study the baroclinic response of a long narrow tank filled with stratified water to an initially tilted interface. Upon release, the system starts to oscillate with an eigen frequency corresponding to basin-scale baroclinic gravitational seiches. Field observations suggest that the disintegration of basin-scale internal waves into packets of solitary waves, shear instabilities, billows and spots of mixed water are important mechanisms for the transfer of energy within stratified lakes. Laboratory experiments performed by D. A. Horn, J. Imberger and G. N. Ivey (JFM, 2001 reproduced several regimes, which include damped linear waves and solitary waves. The generation of billows and shear instabilities induced by the basin-scale wave was, however, not sufficiently studied. The developed numerical model computes a variety of flows, which were not observed with the experimental set-up. In particular, the model results showed that under conditions of low dissipation, the regimes of billows and supercritical flows may transform into a solitary wave regime. The obtained results can help in the interpretation of numerous observations of mixing processes in real lakes.

  13. Energy Performance and Economic Evaluation of a HP/ORC (heat pump/organic Rankine cycle) system with different hot water tank storage configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh;

    2016-01-01

    -life conditions knowledge, the paper considers two different sensible energy storage (TES) configurations for the reversible heat pump/organic Rankine cycle (HP/ORC) system: a buffer tank for both space heating and domestic hot water and a hot water storage tank used exclusively for domestic hot water...... power. This paper combines a dynamic model based on empirical data of the HP/ORC system with lessons learned from 140 heat pump installations operating in real-life conditions in a cold climate. These installations were monitored for a period up to 5 years. Based on the aforementioned model and real......The interaction between electrical and thermal energy demands represent a potential area for balancing supply and demand that could contribute to the integration of intermittent renewables in energy systems. To enable the interaction between thermal and electric energy, an innovative concept...

  14. 33 CFR 183.512 - Fuel tanks: Prohibited materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tanks: Prohibited materials... tanks: Prohibited materials. (a) A fuel tank must not be constructed from terneplate. (b) Unless it has an inorganic sacrificial galvanic coating on the inside and outside of the tank, a fuel tank must...

  15. The utilization of excess wind-electric power from stock water pumping systems to heat a sector of the stock tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nydahl, J.E.; Carlson, B.O. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    On the high plains, a wind-electric stock water pumping system produces a significant amount of excess power over the winter months due to intense winds and the decreased water consumption by cattle. The University of Wyoming is developing a multi-tasking system to utilize this excess energy to resistively heat a small sector of the stock tank at its demonstration/experimental site. This paper outlines the detailed heat transfer analysis that predicted drinking water temperature and icing conditions. It also outlines the optimization criteria and the power produced by the Bergey 1500 wind electric system. Results show that heating a smaller insulated tank inserted into the larger tank would raise the drinking water temperature by a maximum of 6.7 {degrees}C and eliminate icing conditions. The returns associated with the additional cattle weight gain, as a result of the consumption of warmer water, showed that system modification costs would be recovered the first year. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Pandemic serotypes of Vibrio cholerae isolated from ships' ballast tanks and coastal waters: assessment of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes (tcpA and ctxA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Fred C; Goodrich, Amanda L; Thomson, Frank K; Hynes, Wayne

    2013-05-01

    There is concern that ships' ballasting operations may disseminate Vibrio cholerae to ports throughout the world. Given evidence that the bacterium is indeed transported by ships, we isolated pandemic serotypes O1 and O139 from ballast tanks and characterized them with respect to antibiotic resistance and virulence genes ctxA and tcpA. We carried out concurrent studies with V. cholerae isolated from coastal waters. Of 284 isolates, 30 were serotype O1 and 59 were serotype O139. These serotypes were overrepresented in ballast tanks relative to the coastal waters sampled. All locations, whether coastal waters or ballast tanks, yielded samples from which serotype O1, O139, or both were isolated. There were three groups among the 62 isolates for which antibiotic characterization was conclusive: those exhibiting β-lactamase activity and resistance to at least one of the 12 antibiotics tested; those negative for β-lactamase but having antibiotic resistance; those negative for β-lactamase and registering no antibiotic resistance. When present, antibiotic resistance in nearly all cases was to ampicillin; resistance to multiple antibiotics was uncommon. PCR assays revealed that none of the isolates contained the ctxA gene and only two isolates, one O139 and one O1, contained the tcpA gene; both isolates originated from ballast water. These results support the bacteriological regulations proposed by the International Maritime Association for discharged ballast water.

  17. A Calculation Method for the Sloshing Impact Pressure Imposed on the Roof of a Passive Water Storage Tank of AP1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daogang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a large water storage tank installed at the top of containment of AP1000, which can supply the passive cooling. In the extreme condition, sloshing of the free surface in the tank may impact on the roof under long-period earthquake. For the safety assessment of structure, it is necessary to calculate the impact pressure caused by water sloshing. Since the behavior of sloshing impacted on the roof is involved into a strong nonlinear phenomenon, it is a little difficult to calculate such pressure by theoretical or numerical method currently. But it is applicable to calculate the height of sloshing in a tank without roof. In the present paper, a simplified method was proposed to calculate the impact pressure using the sloshing wave height, in which we first marked the position of the height of roof, then produced sloshing in the tank without roof and recorded the maximum wave height, and finally regarded approximately the difference between maximum wave height and roof height as the impact pressure head. We also designed an experiment to verify this method. The experimental result showed that this method overpredicted the impact pressure with a certain error of no more than 35%. By the experiment, we conclude that this method is conservative and applicable for the engineering design.

  18. Replacement of the level control of draining tanks MSRS and powered water heaters with the OVATION system in Asco NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current MSR drains and heaters tanks level control is local control individual, pneumatic and without action from Control room. The system has level switches for the generation of alarms, isolations and shots of bombs. Single control room operators have level alarms, final race of valves of control and indication of temperature and pressure of some tanks.

  19. Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    household using two different fuels. In particular it was shown that in the case of syngas, due to larger system heat output, a larger tank volume was required in order to accumulate unused heat over the night. The detailed description of the tank model will be useful to energy system modelers when sizing...

  20. Reuse of drinking water treatment residuals in a continuous stirred tank reactor for phosphate removal from urban wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Leilei; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng; Zhao, Jinbo

    2014-01-01

    This work proposed a new approach of reusing drinking water treatment residuals (WTR) in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) to remove phosphate (P) from urban wastewater. The results revealed that the P removal efficiency of the WTR was more than 94% for urban wastewater, in the condition of initial P concentration (P0) of 10 mg L⁻¹, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 h and WTR dosage (M0) of 10 g L⁻¹. The P mass transfer from the bulk to the solid-liquid interface in the CSTR system increased at lower P0, higher M0 and longer HRT. The P adsorption capacity of WTR from urban wastewater was comparable to that of the 201 × 4 resin and unaffected by ions competition. Moreover, WTR had a limited effect on the metals' (Fe, Al, Zn, Cu, Mn and Ni) concentrations of the urban wastewater. Based on the principle of waste recycling, the reuse of WTR in CSTR is a promising alternative technology for P removal from urban wastewater.

  1. Reuse of drinking water treatment residuals in a continuous stirred tank reactor for phosphate removal from urban wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Leilei; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng; Zhao, Jinbo

    2014-01-01

    This work proposed a new approach of reusing drinking water treatment residuals (WTR) in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) to remove phosphate (P) from urban wastewater. The results revealed that the P removal efficiency of the WTR was more than 94% for urban wastewater, in the condition of initial P concentration (P0) of 10 mg L⁻¹, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 h and WTR dosage (M0) of 10 g L⁻¹. The P mass transfer from the bulk to the solid-liquid interface in the CSTR system increased at lower P0, higher M0 and longer HRT. The P adsorption capacity of WTR from urban wastewater was comparable to that of the 201 × 4 resin and unaffected by ions competition. Moreover, WTR had a limited effect on the metals' (Fe, Al, Zn, Cu, Mn and Ni) concentrations of the urban wastewater. Based on the principle of waste recycling, the reuse of WTR in CSTR is a promising alternative technology for P removal from urban wastewater. PMID:25176310

  2. Anechoic Performance Analysis of Porous Ceramics%某种多孔陶瓷的消声性能试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨碧君; 潘国培; 贺华; 丁炜; 周相荣

    2014-01-01

    调研了多孔陶瓷材料在声学领域的应用,阐述了其作为吸声材料、隔声材料及消声器使用时的声学原理。基于多孔陶瓷作为消声器使用的相关研究较少,为确定影响多孔陶瓷消声性能的主要因素,在两种试验工况下对不同规格的多孔陶瓷管进行排气试验。孔隙率是表征多孔陶瓷的基本参量,它与多项物理性能存在紧密联系,为排除它的影响,选择40%孔隙率的多孔陶瓷进行试验,结果表明壁厚越厚,消声效果越好,孔径为20μ的多孔陶瓷管消声效果最佳。随着温度的升高,多孔陶瓷管的消声频谱特性曲线向高频移动。%Application of porous ceramics to acoustics area is summarized. Acoustics theory of the porous ceramics is expatiated when they are used as sound absorption material, sound insulation material and in mufflers. However, the researches of application of porous ceramics to mufflers are very few. In order to determine the major factors affecting anechoic properties of the porous ceramics, exhaust experiments on different porous ceramics are carried out in two different conditions. Porosity is a basic parameter of the porous ceramics related to the physical performance. The porosity of the porous ceramic is chosen to be a 40%constant in the experiments to eliminate the porosity effect. The results show that the thicker the porous ceramic is, the better the anechoic property is. And anechoic property of the porous ceramic with 20 μaperture is the best. With the temperature rising, the anechoic spectrum curve of the porous ceramic moves towards the high frequency direction.

  3. Investigation on High Performance of 10m Semi Anechoic Chamber by using Open-Top Hollow Pyramidal Hybrid EM Wave Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Hiroshi; Saito, Toshifumi; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Nishikata, Atsuhiro; Hashimoto, Osamu

    The emission radiated from electric and electronic equipments is evaluated through OATS. Recently, it is not fully prepared the environment for OATS because of a variety of communication radiation sources (e.g., digital television broadcast and cellular phone station). Therefore, the EM anechoic chambers are becoming more and more important as EMI test site. On the other hand, the EM anechoic chambers are needed high performance in order to cut down EMI countermeasure cost and calculate the antenna factor. The objective of this paper is mainly to present the EM wave absorber design in order to obtain within ±2dB against the theoretical site attenuation values in the 10m semi anechoic chamber at 30MHz to 300MHz. We get the necessary reflectivity of EM wave absorber by the basic site attenuation equation. We design the open-top hollow pyramidal new hybrid EM wave absorber consisted of 180cm long dielectric loss foam and ferrite tiles. Then, we design the 10m semi anechoic chamber by using the ray-tracing simulation and construct it in the size of L24m×W15.2m×H11.2m. More over, we measure the site attenuation of the constructed 10m semi anechoic chamber by using the broadband calculable dipole antennas. As the result, we confirm the validity of the designed open-top hollow pyramidal new hybrid EM wave absorber.

  4. Flashing characteristics in pipe downstream from a depressurizing tank and temperature fluctuation characteristics at a mixing tee junction with cold water injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flashing characteristics in a pipe downstream from a depressurizing tank were experimentally and analytically investigated on the basis of the transient test and two-phase flow analysis. The following three conclusions were obtained. (1) When the pressure margin of the pump inlet side and the distance to obtain an isothermal condition were sufficient, flashing phenomena did not occur in spite of the decreasing pressure. (2) When the ratio of the cold water injection flow rate to the hot water flow rate Mc/Mh increased, the peak distance of the water temperature fluctuation moved from L/D=1 to 0, and the maximum water temperature fluctuation ratio was about 40% of the temperature difference between hot and cold water near the mixing tee junction. But no problem occurred regarding the pipe material thermal fatigue, so reliability of the mixing tee junction was assured. (3) Due to suppression of flashing phenomena of the mixing pipe system, the decision diagram on the flashing occurrence was obtained from test and analytical results, taking into consideration three factors : the depressurizing ratio in the tank ; the cold water injection flow rate due to remaining sub-cooling ; and the delay time of thermal mixing. The simplified analytical equation was used to decrease the cold water injection flow rate by the optimized pipe length between the mixing tee junction and drain pump. The cold water injection flow rate was minimized when pipe length was about 15 to 20 times the pipe inner diameter. (author)

  5. Sound-light Warning Device on Low-water Display of Self-control High-level Water Tank%自制高位水箱低位显示水位声光报警装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟育东

    2013-01-01

      水位报警装置,实现了对高位水箱水位的实时监测低位显示功能,其功能的实现主要由水箱、连通管、浮筒、控制器等组成。与现有技术相比,方便了由于水箱设置较高,在相对低位水箱水位的观察与监测,从而根据水箱水温变化,及时控制出水温度。同时降低了员工的劳动强度,提高了工作效率。%The water level warning device complete real-time supervision display on water level of head water tank. Its functions enforcement depends on water tank, communicating pipe, float and controller. The main operating principles of water level monitoring device are as follows:1. connect the communicating pipe and set magnetic float on side wall of the water tank; 2.set the magnetic switch on the ectotheca of communicating pipe that may make magnetic float change with the water table, thus the magnetic switch is under control and the corresponding water level condition can be displayed. Compared with the available technology, it is convenient to observe and monitor the water level;accordingly, the temperature of exceeding water can change by water temperature in the tank;meanwhile, it lowers labour intensity and improves work efficiency.

  6. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. It is probable that tank 241-C-112 exceeds the 1,000 g-mol inventory criteria established for the Ferrocyanide USQ; however, extensive energetic analysis of the waste has determined a maximum exothermic value of -9 cal/g dry waste. This value is substantially below any levels of concern (-75 cal/g). In addition, an investigation of potential mechanisms to generate concentration levels of radionuclides high enough to be of concern was performed. No credible mechanism was postulated that could initiate the formation of such concentration levels in the tank. Tank 241-C-112 waste is a complex material made up primarily of water and inert salts. The insoluble solids are a mixture of phosphates, sulfates, and hydroxides in combination with aluminum, calcium, iron, nickel, and uranium. Disodium nickel ferrocyanide and sodium cesium nickel ferrocyanide probably exist in the tank; however, there appears to have been significant degradation of this material since the waste was initially settled in the tank

  7. Captive sea turtle rearing inventory, feeding, and water chemistry in sea turtle rearing tanks at NOAA Galveston 1995-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains daily records of sea turtle inventories by species feeding rates type of food fed sick sea turtles sea turtles that have died log of tanks...

  8. A MICRO ZERO HEAD TURBINE POWER GENERATION FOR BUILDING’S WATER TANK OVER FLOW & ROOF RAIN WATER FLOW SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Pasupuleti Sreenivasulu*, Dr. G. Prasanthi

    2016-01-01

    Energy is a major input for overall socio-economic development of any society. Hydel energy is the fastest growing renewable energy. From Decades man has been trying to convert Hydel power to mechanical &, more recently, electric power. Hydel technology has improved significantly over the past two decades, and Hydel energy has become increasingly competitive with other power generation options. A zero head water turbine can be used as a Hydro-Electricity device referring to generate the e...

  9. Sampling and analysis of water from Upper Three Runs and its wetlands near Tank 16 and the Mixed Waste Management Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April and September 1993, sampling was conducted to characterize the Upper Three Runs (UTR) wetland waters near the Mixed Waste Management Facility to determine if contaminants migrating from MWMF are outcropping into the floodplain wetlands. For the spring sampling event, 37 wetlands and five stream water samples were collected. Thirty-six wetland and six stream water samples were collected for the fall sampling event. Background seepline and stream water samples were also collected for both sampling events. All samples were analyzed for RCRA Appendix IX volatiles, inorganics appearing on the Target Analyte List, tritium, gamma-emitting radionuclides, and gross radiological activity. Most of the analytical data for both the spring and fall sampling events were reported as below method detection limits. The primary exceptions were the routine water quality indicators (e.g., turbidity, alkalinity, total suspended solids, etc.), iron, manganese, and tritium. During the spring, cadmium, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, potassium-40, ruthenium-106, and trichloroethylene were also detected above the MCLs from at least one location. A secondary objective of this project was to identify any UTR wetland water quality impacts resulting from leaks from Tank 16 located at the H-Area Tank Farm

  10. The Impact of Traditional Septic Tank Soakaway Systems and the Effects of Remediation on Water Quality in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilroy, Kate; Keggan, Mary; Barrett, Maria; Dubber, Donata; Gill, Laurence W.; O'Flaherty, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    In Ireland the domestic wastewater of over 1/3 of the population is treated by on-site systems. These systems are based on a traditional design for disposal of domestic wastewater and rely on the surrounding subsoil for further treatment. Inefficient treatment is often associated with these systems and can cause pollution of local aquifers and waterways. The effluent nutrient load can contribute to eutrophication, depletion of dissolved oxygen and excessive algae growth in surface water bodies. Human enteric pathogens associated with faecal pollution of water sources may promote the outbreak of disease through contamination of drinking water supplies. The subsoil attenuation plays an important role in the protection of groundwater from effluent pollution. Therefore, as over 25% of the countries domestic water supplies are provided by groundwater, the protection of groundwater resources is crucial. This project involves both the assessment of traditional septic tank soakaway systems and the effects of remediation in low permeability subsoil settings on water quality in Ireland. The study aims to confirm by microbial source tracking (MST), the source (human and/or animal) of faecal microorganisms detected in groundwater, surface water and effluent samples, and to monitor the transport of pathogens specific to on-site wastewater outflows. In combination with MST, the evaluation of nitrification and denitrification in surrounding soil and effluent samples aims to assess nitrogen removal at specific intervals; pre-remediation and post-remediation. Two experimental sites have been routinely sampled for effluent, soil and groundwater samples as well as soil moisture samples using suction lysimeters located at various depths. A robust and reproducible DNA extraction method was developed, applicable to both sites. MST markers based on host-specific Bacteriodales bacteria for universal, human and cow-derived faecal matter are being employed to determine quantitative target

  11. Water-Tank Experiment on the Thermal Circulation Induced by the Bottom Heating in an Asymmetric Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉志; 梁彬; 朱凤荣; 张伯寅; 桑建国

    2004-01-01

    Water tank experiments were carried out to investigate the thermal convection due to the bottom heating in an asymmetrical valley under neutral and stably stratified approach flows with the Particle Image Velometry (PIV) visualization technique. In the neutral stratification approach flow, the ascending draft induced by bottom heating is mainly located in the center of the valley in calm ambient wind. However,with ambient wind flow, the thermal convection is shifted leeward, and the descending draft is located on the leeward side of the valley, while the ascending draft is located on the windward side. The descending draft is minorly turbulent and organized, while the ascending draft is highly turbulent. With the increase of the towing speed, the descending and ascending drafts induced by the mechanical elevation begin to play a more dominant role in the valley flow, while the role of the thermal convection in the valley airflow becomes limited. In the stable stratification approach flow, the thermal convection is limited by the stable stratification and no distinct circulation is formed in calm ambient wind. With ambient wind, agravity wave appears in the upper layer in the valley. With the increase of the ambient wind speed, a gravity wave plays an important role in the valley flow, and the location and intensity of the thermal convection are also modulated by the gravity internal waves. The thermal convection has difficulty penetrating the upper stable layer. Its exchange is limited between the air in the upper layer and that in the lower layer in the valley, and it is adverse to the diffusion of pollutants in the valley.

  12. 33 CFR 183.510 - Fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tanks. 183.510 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.510 Fuel tanks. (a) Each fuel tank in a boat must have been tested by its manufacturer under § 183.580 and not leak...

  13. Nitrogen tank

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Wanted The technical file about the pressure vessel RP-270 It concerns the Nitrogen tank, 60m3, 22 bars, built in 1979, and installed at Point-2 for the former L3 experiment. If you are in possession of this file, or have any files about an equivalent tank (probably between registered No. RP-260 and -272), please contact Marc Tavlet, the ALICE Glimos.

  14. 长距离供水工程单向塔设置分析%Study on water hammer control by one-way surge tank in long-distance water-supply project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 索丽生; 胡建永; 马世波

    2011-01-01

    Arrangement of one-way surge tank that is an effective measure for water hammer control is crucial to the safety of long-distance water-supply project.This paper establishes a general framework of theoretical analysis and numerical optimization for the tank arrangement by using water hammer analysis with a criterion of avoiding negative pressure during operation.A general rule of arrangement on long-distance water-supply pipeline under different conditions is proposed, and the relationship between tank location and tank height is demonstrated.Application of numerical simulation aiming at arrangement optimization to a practical project suggests that the proposed framework provides an effective approach for the design of one-way surge tank.%单向塔作为长距离有压供水工程重要的水锤防护措施,其合理布置涉及到工程运行安全.本文以水锤分析为基础,在确保管道运行不出现负压的前提下,构建了单向塔布置的理论分析和数值优化总体框架,明确了多个串联单向塔的设置位置与高度的关系,提出了不同工况下长距离供水管线中设置单向塔应满足的通用准则,同时结合工程实例,通过数值仿真进行了单向塔布置方案的优化,为长距离供水管道中单向塔的合理布置提供了科学依据.

  15. Stabilization of In-Tank Residual Wastes and External-Tank Soil Contamination for the Hanford Tank Closure Program: Applications to the AX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.L.; Dwyer, B.P.; Ho, C.; Krumhansl, J.L.; McKeen, G.; Molecke, M.A.; Westrich, H.R.; Zhang, P.

    1998-11-01

    Technical support for the Hanford Tank Closure Program focused on evaluation of concepts for immobilization of residual contaminants in the Hanford AX tanks and underlying soils, and identification of cost-effective approaches to improve long-term performance of AX tank farm cIosure systems. Project objectives are to develop materials or engineered systems that would significantly reduce the radionuclide transport to the groundwater from AX tanks containing residual waste. We pursued several studies that, if implemented, would help achieve these goals. They include: (1) tank fill design to reduce water inilltration and potential interaction with residual waste; (2) development of in-tank getter materials that would specifically sorb or sequester radionuclides; (3) evaluation of grout emplacement under and around the tanks to prevent waste leakage during waste retrieval or to minimize water infiltration beneath the tanks; (4) development of getters that will chemically fix specific radionuclides in soils under tanks; and (5) geochemical and hydrologic modeling of waste-water-soil-grout interactions. These studies differ in scope from the reducing grout tank fill employed at the Savannah River Site in that our strategy improves upon tank fill design by providing redundancy in the barriers to radionuclide migration and by modification the hydrogeochemistry external to the tanks.

  16. Hot water tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumont, Olivier; Carmo, Carolina; Dickes, Rémi;

    2016-01-01

    There is a rising interest for optimal use of thermal energy storages (TES) in buildings for load shifting in demand response programs and to improve energy efficiency. In this context, a state of the art of the different methods for simulating sensible TES is performed. Mathematical equations wh...

  17. Time-Domain Measurement of the Ear-to-Ear On-Body Path Gain at 2.45 GHz in a Radio Anechoic Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    The ear-to-ear on-body path gain (jS21j) at 2:45 GHz is measured in the time domain. The measurements were conducted in a radio anechoic environment to study the effects of the on-body paths only. Two different monopole antenna configurations that are polarized normal and tangential to the surface...

  18. Separation of radiated sound field components from waves scattered by a source under non-anechoic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    A method of estimating the sound field radiated by a source under non-anechoic conditions has been examined. The method uses near field acoustic holography based on a combination of pressure and particle velocity measurements in a plane near the source for separating outgoing and ingoing wave...... components. The outgoing part of the sound field is composed of both radiated and scattered waves. The method compensates for the scattered components of the outgoing field on the basis of the boundary condition of the problem, exploiting the fact that the sound field is reconstructed very close...... to the source. Thus the radiated free-field component is estimated simultaneously with solving the inverse problem of reconstructing the sound field near the source. The method is particularly suited to cases in which the overall contribution of reflected sound in the measurement plane is significant....

  19. A Water Tank Prototype for the Cerenkov Calorimeter%水基切伦科夫量能器模型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明君; 王贻芳; 何景棠; 孟祥承; 俞梅凌; 杨长根; 曹俊

    2005-01-01

    The water tank prototype with a dimension of 1m × 1m × 13m was constructed as a building block of the Cerenkov calorimeter for very long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. The effective attenuation length of the water tank was measured to be (5.74±0.29)m, and the light collection probability as a function of the incident angle of the particle is studied. Results are compared with a Monte Carlo simulation based on GEANT4 package which incorporates detailed optical processes. A good agreement is achieved and the water tank is feasible for the construction of the Cerenkov calorimeter.%为了研究极长基线中微子振荡,构造了一个大小为1m×1m×13m水基切伦科夫量能器模型.测量得到的水箱的有效衰减长度为(5.74±0.29)m,并且研究了光的收集能力随入射粒子角度变化的关系.同时发展了基于GEANT4软件包,包含有详细的光学过程的模拟程序,所得到的模拟结果与实验测量有很好的一致性.说明水箱可以作为水基切伦科夫量能器的可行性的方案.

  20. 33 CFR 183.520 - Fuel tank vent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tank vent systems. 183.520...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.520 Fuel tank vent systems. (a) Each fuel tank must have a vent system that prevents pressure in the tank from exceeding...

  1. 33 CFR 157.17 - Oil residue (sludge) tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oil residue (sludge) tank. 157.17... Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.17 Oil residue (sludge) tank. (a) A tank vessel of 400 gross tons or more must have a tank that receives and holds oil residue resulting from purification of...

  2. Effects of laser irradiation on aluminum alloy tank containing water%1053nm脉冲激光对铝合金/水结构辐照效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦路光; 赵国民; 袁立国

    2011-01-01

    Experimental measurement and numerical simulation are employed to study the effects of laser irradiation on aluminum alloy tank containing water. Firstly, by analyzing the surface pictures and measuring the temperature histories, the effects of water on the ablation of aluminum alloy plate irradiated by I 053 nm pulsed laser are investigated. The results show that heat conduction and convection play a very important role in the ablation of the aluminum alloy plate. When the tank is empty, the aluminum alloy plate is melt through after eight laser pulses irradiation. And when the tank is filled with water, the aluminum alloy plate has not been melt through after ten laser pulses irradiation. Then, a numerical model is presented to calculate the temperature distribution of the aluminum alloy tank, and the dimension of the region that has melted is obtained. The difference between the numerical result and the experimental result is not apparent when the tank is empty, but when the tank is filled with water the difference is a little large. The reason is that the natural convection and boiling of water are not considered in the numerical model.%使用1053 nm脉冲激光分别辐照铝合金单板和铝合金/水结构,通过表面形貌观察、温度场分析、熔穿时间测量等手段,分析了水的存在对铝合金壳体烧蚀的影响.运用有限元软件ANSYS,建立了脉冲激光辐照下单板及结构温度变化的数值模型,计算了铝合金表面熔凝区域的尺寸,并与实验结果进行了对比.结果表明:在相同的实验条件下,辐照8个激光脉冲时,铝合金单板即被熔穿,而辐照10个脉冲后铝合金/水结构仍未发生熔穿,且结构中铝合金表面的熔凝区域要小于单板情形中的熔凝区域,这表明水的存在对延缓铝合金板的烧蚀有较大的作用.对于单板情形,计算结果与实验结果符合较好,而对于铝合金/水结构情形,数值模拟放大了铝合金壳体的温升,这主

  3. Hanford waste tank cone penetrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new tool is being developed to characterize tank waste at the Hanford Reservation. This tool, known as the cone penetrometer, is capable of obtaining chemical and physical properties in situ. For the past 50 years, this tool has been used extensively in soil applications and now has been modified for usage in Hanford Underground Storage tanks. These modifications include development of new ''waste'' data models as well as hardware design changes to accommodate the hazardous and radioactive environment of the tanks. The modified cone penetrometer is scheduled to be deployed at Hanford by Fall 1996. At Hanford, the cone penetrometer will be used as an instrumented pipe which measures chemical and physical properties as it pushes through tank waste. Physical data, such as tank waste stratification and mechanical properties, is obtained through three sensors measuring tip pressure, sleeve friction and pore pressure. Chemical data, such as chemical speciation, is measured using a Raman spectroscopy sensor. The sensor package contains other instrumentation as well, including a tip and side temperature sensor, tank bottom detection and an inclinometer. Once the cone penetrometer has reached the bottom of the tank, a moisture probe will be inserted into the pipe. This probe is used to measure waste moisture content, water level, waste surface moisture and tank temperature. This paper discusses the development of this new measurement system. Data from the cone penetrometer will aid in the selection of sampling tools, waste tank retrieval process, and addressing various tank safety issues. This paper will explore various waste models as well as the challenges associated with tank environment

  4. Analysis of nodalization effects on the prediction error of generalized finite element method used for dynamic modeling of hot water storage tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołowicz Marcin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents dynamic model of hot water storage tank. The literature review has been made. Analysis of effects of nodalization on the prediction error of generalized finite element method (GFEM is provided. The model takes into account eleven various parameters, such as: flue gases volumetric flow rate to the spiral, inlet water temperature, outlet water flow rate, etc. Boiler is also described by sizing parameters, nozzle parameters and heat loss including ambient temperature. The model has been validated on existing data. Adequate laboratory experiments were provided. The comparison between 1-, 5-, 10- and 50-zone boiler is presented. Comparison between experiment and simulations for different zone numbers of the boiler model is presented on the plots. The reason of differences between experiment and simulation is explained.

  5. Coagulation and oxidation for controlling ultrafiltration membrane fouling in drinking water treatment: Application of ozone at low dose in submerged membrane tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenzheng; Graham, Nigel J D; Fowler, Geoffrey D

    2016-05-15

    Coagulation prior to ultrafiltration (UF) is widely applied for treating contaminated surface water sources for potable supply. While beneficial, coagulation alone is unable to control membrane fouling effectively in many cases, and there is continuing interest in the use of additional, complementary methods such as oxidation in the pre-treatment of raw water prior to UF. In this study, the application of ozone at low dose in the membrane tank immediately following coagulation has been evaluated at laboratory-scale employing model raw water. In parallel tests with and without the application of ozone, the impact of applied ozone doses of 0.5 mg L(-1) and 1.5 mg L(-1) (approximately 0.18 mg L(-1) and 0.54 mg L(-1) consumed ozone, respectively) on the increase of trans-membrane pressure (TMP) was evaluated and correlated with the quantity and nature of membrane deposits, both as a cake layer and within membrane pores. The results showed that a dose of 0.5 mgO3 L(-1) gave a membrane fouling rate that was substantially lower than without ozone addition, while a dose of 1.5 mgO3 L(-1) was able to prevent fouling effects significantly (no increase in TMP). Ozone was found to decrease the concentration of bacteria (especially the concentration of bacteria per suspended solid) in the membrane tank, and to alter the nature of dissolved organic matter by increasing the proportion of hydrophilic substances. Ozone decreased the concentration of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), such as polysaccharides and proteins, in the membrane cake layer; the reduced EPS and bacterial concentrations resulted in a much thinner cake layer, although the suspended solids concentration was much higher in the ozone added membrane tank. Ozone also decreased the accumulation and hydrophobicity of organic matter within the membrane pores, leading to minimal irreversible fouling. Therefore, the application of low-dose ozone within the UF membrane tank is a potentially important

  6. [Death in a relaxation tank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Wolf; Simon, Karl-Heinz; Bohnert, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Complete relaxation can be achieved by floating in a darkened, sound-proof relaxation tank filled with salinated water kept at body temperature. Under these conditions, meditation exercises up to self-hypnosis may lead to deep relaxation with physical and mental revitalization. A user manipulated his tank, presumably to completely cut off all optical and acoustic stimuli and accidentally also covered the ventilation hole. The man was found dead in his relaxation tank. The findings suggested lack of oxygen as the cause of death.

  7. Application of seismic isolation to industrial tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas, V.A.; Low, S.S. [Earthquake Protection Systems, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The state-of-the-art in the application of seismic isolation to industrial tanks is presented. Use of seismic isolation in industrial tanks can reduce lateral shaking forces by factors of 3 to 5 for strong earthquake loadings. This level of force reduction offers a practical and economical means of designing tanks on a linear elastic basis, and thereby reduces the risk of local failures and leakage during earthquakes. The case studies presented include: LNG Storage Tanks, an Ammonia Storage Tank, and an Emergency Fire and Cooling Water Tank. The tank capacities range from 50 thousand gallons to 19 million gallons. Two applications are new tanks, and one is a retrofit of an existing tank. The methodology for the design of the isolation bearings and tank structures is presented. The dynamic analysis methods used to perform the seismic analysis of the isolated tanks are reviewed, including the hydrodynamic modeling methods. The engineering principles and theory of the Friction Pendulum isolation bearings are discussed. This pendulum based isolation system results in the same natural period of vibration regardless of changes in the fluid levels in the tank, or temperature, aging, and environmental conditions. Test results for the isolation bearings are presented, including comparisons of experimental and analytical results for dynamic loadings, and strength, temperature and aging tests.

  8. Simple characterisation of solar DHW tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the project is to compare different methods used for testing small solar domestic hot water tanks. A small hot water tank is tested at three different European laboratories by means of the test methods normally used at the laboratories. The tank is marketed in Denmark.The test carried...... out at the Department for Buildings and Energy compromises determination of the heat loss coefficient for the tank and the heat transfer coefficient for the auxiliary helix. A dynamic test is performed and a simulation model of the tank is made and validated against measured energy quantities...... and temperatures. The annual thermal performance for a solar domestic hot water system based on the tested tank is calculated. Further, proposal for a future test on mixing during draw-off as well as proposal for a maximum acceptable mixing during draw-off is given....

  9. 多室多温数控恒温水浴锅的研制与开发%Development of Digital Controlled Multiple Tank Thermostat Water Bath Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文祥; 秦凯胜

    2011-01-01

    Aimed at the limitations of thermostat water bath cauldrons that are used currently, a new type of digital controlled multiple tank thermostat water bath device is developed. The new product pays attention to energy efficient and design of humanity, re- alize the centralized digital control of the temperatures of multiple tank thermostat water bath device, and more applicable than similar products. It is proved that new product has a good dynamic response and high precision, meanwhile, meets the temperature control demand in real thermostat water bath device with its temperature resolving power less than 0.1 °C. The constant temperature fluctuate er- rand is between +02 °C. Moreover, the product has good social benefits, economic benefits and the market prospect.%摘要:针对当前常用恒温水浴锅结构及功能上的局限性,研究开发出了新型多室多温数控恒温水浴锅.所研发的新型系列产品注重高效节能,设计人性化,实现了恒温水浴锅的多室多温集中数控,比同类产品适用性更广.实践证明,该系列产品动态响应好,温度分辨率小于0.1℃,恒温波动度在±0.2°C之间,满足了各相关领域对水浴恒温设备的温控要求,具有较好的社会效益、经济效益和市场前景.

  10. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  11. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented

  12. Surplus energy reuse of circulating water power in alumina decomposition tank%氧化铝分解槽循环水余能利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李延频; 鞠阳; 袁寿其; 陈德新

    2014-01-01

    To make full use of the large number of surplus energy in the circulating water system of a-lumina decomposition tank,and to provide technical support for energy recovery of other similar sys-tem,the characteristics of circulating water system of alumina decomposition tank have been studied. Based on the size of the system,different solutions of energy recovery have been put forward.The solu-tion of using the surplus energy to generate electricity has been mainly focused.And in view of its pe-culiarities,the power generation device of the circulating water system in alumina decomposition tank was designed,which is called as the integrated power generation device for using the surplus of circulat-ing water.A circulating water protection process was proposed to solve the problem that the circulating water should not be cut down unexpectedly.An issue named inverse power will be occurred in genera-tor when the turbine discharge is smaller than that under non-load condition.Therefore,protection method for reverse power of generator was put forward,which included the generator excitation subsys-tem,speed control subsystem,synchronization subsystem and protect subsystem,all the subsystems of control and protect integrated together,forming the four unity comprehensive control panel.Practices have proved that the integrated power generation device for using the surplus energy of circulating water in alumina decomposition tank is safe,reliable and stable.%为充分利用众多的氧化铝生产企业的分解槽循环水系统中存在的大量余能,并为其他类似余能回收提供技术支持,研究了氧化铝分解槽循环水系统中余能的特点。根据余能的多少,提出了不同的余能利用方案。重点研究了余能发电的利用方式。并针对余能发电的特殊性,设计了分解槽水循环系统余能发电装置———集成循环水余能发电装置。针对其循环水不能异常中断的问题,提出了循环水保护方

  13. Tank Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    For NASA's Apollo program, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, Huntington Beach, California, developed and built the S-IVB, uppermost stage of the three-stage Saturn V moonbooster. An important part of the development task was fabrication of a tank to contain liquid hydrogen fuel for the stage's rocket engine. The liquid hydrogen had to be contained at the supercold temperature of 423 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The tank had to be perfectly insulated to keep engine or solar heat from reaching the fuel; if the hydrogen were permitted to warm up, it would have boiled off, or converted to gaseous form, reducing the amount of fuel available to the engine. McDonnell Douglas' answer was a supereffective insulation called 3D, which consisted of a one-inch thickness of polyurethane foam reinforced in three dimensions with fiberglass threads. Over a 13-year development and construction period, the company built 30 tanks and never experienced a failure. Now, after years of additional development, an advanced version of 3D is finding application as part of a containment system for transporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) by ship.

  14. Heat release performance of heat storage water tank with phase-change material in solar drying system%太阳能干燥相变储热水箱的放热性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海涛; 高建民; 陈瑶

    2015-01-01

    为降低传统干燥能耗,强化太阳能干燥用储热水箱的储放热能力,在普通储热水箱中添加了硬脂酸/膨胀石墨相变储热材料,研究了放热温差、储热单元体积对装置放热性能的影响。研究结果表明:相变储热水箱放热时间、放热量随着放热温差和储热水箱中储热单元体积的增加均有所提升,储热单元的添加对储热水箱的放热效果影响更为显著。放热效率则随着放热温差的增大而降低,随着储热水箱中储热单元体积的增加而显著提升;储热水箱中储热单元体积为35%时,相变储热水箱的放热时间比普通储热水箱最多提升了1.26倍,放热温度最大可提高8.7℃,热效率最多可提高22.56%。%Drying is an essential process for a large number of industrial and agricultural products. In order to reduce energy consumption of traditional drying, improve its utilization efficiency and strengthen the capacity of heat storage water tank for solar drying, the stearic acid/expanded graphite composite phase-change material (PCM) with melting point of 52.74℃ and latent heat of 169.90 J/g was added into the conventional heat storage water tank in this paper. The schematic structure of the solar drying system mainly consisted of solar collector, drying oven, heat storage water tank and phase-change thermal energy storage units. The effect of heat release temperature difference and heat storage unit volume on the heat release performance of the device was studied under the same heat release conditions. The total volume of the PCM containers in the heat storage water tank was 15%, 25% and 35%, respectively. The heat storage water tank was heated to 60, 65 and 75℃ by using solar collector in heat storage process. Then the heat storage water tank was used to provide heat for the drying oven, and the heat release process was finished when the temperature of drying oven was 40℃ . The results showed that the

  15. Thermal Stratification in Vertical Mantle Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Furbo, Simon

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that it is important to have a high degree of thermal stratification in the hot water storage tank to achieve a high thermal performance of SDHW systems. This study is concentrated on thermal stratification in vertical mantle tanks. Experiments based on typical operation conditions...... are carried out to investigate how the thermal stratification is affected by different placements of the mantle inlet. The heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the domestic water in the inner tank is analysed by CFD-simulations. Furthermore, the flow pattern in the vertical mantle...... tank is investigated....

  16. Managed aquifer recharge in weathered crystalline basement aquifers in India: Monitoring of the effect of tank infiltration on water quality over several monsoon events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazard, Marina; Boisson, Alexandre; Maréchal, Jean-Christophe; Dewandel, Benoît; Perrin, Jérôme; Pettenati, Marie; Picot-Colbeaux, Géraldine; Ahmed, Shakeel; Thiéry, Dominique; Kloppmann, Wolfram

    2015-04-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) structures like percolation tanks are considered by the Indian national and regional governments as major option for tackling declining groundwater levels due to overexploitation for irrigation purposes (Boisson et al., 2014). Their main purpose is to restore groundwater availability under strong climatic and anthropogenic pressure. Furthermore, MAR-induced dilution with fresh surface water is generally expected to improve groundwater quality with respect to both anthropogenic and geogenic contaminants (total mineralisation, nitrates, chlorides, sulphates and fluoride contents). The impact of a percolation tank on groundwater quality was investigated in a context that is typical for hydro-climatic and geological settings in southern and eastern India: fractured crystalline basement aquifers overlain by a weathering zone under semi-arid climate. Water level data and geochemical indicators (stable isotopes and major ions) were monitored for both groundwater and surface water, over several successive monsoon events. In case of high to very high water levels, the groundwater quality is globally improved. However, in a few cases, the quality of the groundwater can be negatively impacted due to leaching of salts under the tank, particularly during the first rain events of the monsoon. Geogenic fluoride contents in groundwater, induced by water-rock interaction and enhanced by recycling of agricultural return flow under paddy fields, is found to be relatively stable over the year. This finding points out that the underlying processes, mainly dissolution of F-bearing phases like fluorapatites combined with Ca/Na cation exchange and calcite precipitation, both limiting the possibility of F-removal via fluorite precipitation (Pettenati et al., 2013, 2014), are not impacted by the hydrological conditions. This work highlights the complexity of the recharge processes in crystalline aquifers, enhanced by the variability of hydrological conditions

  17. Impact of Dust from Ore Processing Facilities on Rain Water Collection Tanks in a Tropical Environment—The Obvious Source “Ain’t Necessarily So”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Gulson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been expressed that dust from the minerals processing facilities at Karumba Queensland Australia have resulted in elevated lead (Pb concentrations in rain water tanks. The ores derived from the Century mine some 304 km from the port. High precision Pb isotopic measurements on environmental samples have been undertaken to evaluate the source of Pb in rainwaters and acid digests from roof wipes and gutter wipes. There does not appear to be any relationship between sample location and the processing facility but samples from the area subject to the prevailing winds show the highest contribution of Century Pb. All gutter wipes (82 to 1270 µg Pb/wipe have contributions of Century ore ranging from 87% to 96%. The contribution of Century ore to five roof wipes (22 to 88 µg Pb/wipe ranges from 89% to 97% and in the other two samples there is a mix of Century and Broken Hill Pb. Three of the seven rainwater have contributions of Century ore Pb ranging from 33% to 75%. Two of the other four rainwater samples have the highest water Pb concentrations of 88 and 100 µg/L and their isotopic data show Broken Hill Pb contributions ranging from 77% to 80%. The source of the Broken Hill Pb is probably from the galvanized roofing material and/or brass fittings in the rainwater tanks. The discrimination between various sources is only detectable using high precision 204Pb-based isotopic ratios and not the now common inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS data presentations of the higher abundance isotopes 208Pb, 207Pb and 206Pb. Isotopic results for the waters demonstrate that apportioning blame where there is an obvious point source may not always be the correct conclusion. Nevertheless the isotopic data for the gutter wipes indicates that there was widespread contamination from the processing facilities throughout the town.

  18. Impact of Dust from Ore Processing Facilities on Rain Water Collection Tanks in a Tropical Environment--The Obvious Source "Ain't Necessarily So".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian; Korsch, Michael; Bradshaw, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    Concerns have been expressed that dust from the minerals processing facilities at Karumba Queensland Australia have resulted in elevated lead (Pb) concentrations in rain water tanks. The ores derived from the Century mine some 304 km from the port. High precision Pb isotopic measurements on environmental samples have been undertaken to evaluate the source of Pb in rainwaters and acid digests from roof wipes and gutter wipes. There does not appear to be any relationship between sample location and the processing facility but samples from the area subject to the prevailing winds show the highest contribution of Century Pb. All gutter wipes (82 to 1270 µg Pb/wipe) have contributions of Century ore ranging from 87% to 96%. The contribution of Century ore to five roof wipes (22 to 88 µg Pb/wipe) ranges from 89% to 97% and in the other two samples there is a mix of Century and Broken Hill Pb. Three of the seven rainwater have contributions of Century ore Pb ranging from 33% to 75%. Two of the other four rainwater samples have the highest water Pb concentrations of 88 and 100 µg/L and their isotopic data show Broken Hill Pb contributions ranging from 77% to 80%. The source of the Broken Hill Pb is probably from the galvanized roofing material and/or brass fittings in the rainwater tanks. The discrimination between various sources is only detectable using high precision (204)Pb-based isotopic ratios and not the now common inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS ) data presentations of the higher abundance isotopes (208)Pb, (207)Pb and (206)Pb. Isotopic results for the waters demonstrate that apportioning blame where there is an obvious point source may not always be the correct conclusion. Nevertheless the isotopic data for the gutter wipes indicates that there was widespread contamination from the processing facilities throughout the town. PMID:26907319

  19. Impact of Dust from Ore Processing Facilities on Rain Water Collection Tanks in a Tropical Environment--The Obvious Source "Ain't Necessarily So".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian; Korsch, Michael; Bradshaw, Anthony

    2016-02-22

    Concerns have been expressed that dust from the minerals processing facilities at Karumba Queensland Australia have resulted in elevated lead (Pb) concentrations in rain water tanks. The ores derived from the Century mine some 304 km from the port. High precision Pb isotopic measurements on environmental samples have been undertaken to evaluate the source of Pb in rainwaters and acid digests from roof wipes and gutter wipes. There does not appear to be any relationship between sample location and the processing facility but samples from the area subject to the prevailing winds show the highest contribution of Century Pb. All gutter wipes (82 to 1270 µg Pb/wipe) have contributions of Century ore ranging from 87% to 96%. The contribution of Century ore to five roof wipes (22 to 88 µg Pb/wipe) ranges from 89% to 97% and in the other two samples there is a mix of Century and Broken Hill Pb. Three of the seven rainwater have contributions of Century ore Pb ranging from 33% to 75%. Two of the other four rainwater samples have the highest water Pb concentrations of 88 and 100 µg/L and their isotopic data show Broken Hill Pb contributions ranging from 77% to 80%. The source of the Broken Hill Pb is probably from the galvanized roofing material and/or brass fittings in the rainwater tanks. The discrimination between various sources is only detectable using high precision (204)Pb-based isotopic ratios and not the now common inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS ) data presentations of the higher abundance isotopes (208)Pb, (207)Pb and (206)Pb. Isotopic results for the waters demonstrate that apportioning blame where there is an obvious point source may not always be the correct conclusion. Nevertheless the isotopic data for the gutter wipes indicates that there was widespread contamination from the processing facilities throughout the town.

  20. Rehabilitation of Irrigation Tank Cascade System Using Remote Sensing GIS and GPS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.M.Krishnaveni,; Siva Sankari; S.Rajeswari

    2011-01-01

    Many of the irrigation tanks are interconnected forming cascades, allowing surplus flow of the upstream tanks(s) and return flow from the upstream command area(s) to reach the tank immediately downstream. This facilitates reuse of water in the command area of the downstream tank, and in effect, increases available water for irrigation. There are several problems of the irrigation tanks, such as reduction of design discharge as a result of silting of channel and tanks, deterioration of stone m...

  1. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...

  2. STUDY ON APPLICATION OF AERATION BIOLOGICAL FLUID TANK TECHNOLGY IN NH+4-N WASTE WATER TREATMENT%曝气生物流化池(ABFT)技术在含氨氮污水治理的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈怡; 卢建国

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces an application of "Aeration biological fluid tank" technology (ABFT) for the treatment of waste water containing NH+4-N and high concentrated organic chemicals. Highlights were focused on the effects of dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature and retention time on waste water biological treatment in order to find out a new approach in treatment of waste water containing high concentrated NH+4-N.

  3. Application of Pressure Tank Water Supply Mode in Small-scale Rural Water Supply Project%压力罐供水方式在农村小型供水工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳丽

    2013-01-01

    In recent years,the project of rural water supply is developed rapidly,but due to the lack of in-depth analysis in some areas,the unreasonable water supply patterns and equipment matching as well as the poor management make the project not playing a proper role.Here,the pressure tank water supply mode more applicable for small-scale rural water supply project is proposed by comparing with the traditional water tower and direct water supply mode.Then,the working pressure and volume determination method as well as the type and selection of the pressure tank and water pump are given combining with the cases of water supply project.In addition,some operational problems are analyzed,and some refer-ences are provided for the design and operation management as well as the application and extension of the pressure tank water supply mode in rural water supply projects.%近年来,农村供水工程发展迅速,但一些地区由于缺乏对工程的深入分析,供水模式和设备选配不合理,管理不善,使工程不能发挥应有的作用。通过对压力罐供水方式与传统的水塔供水、直供式供水的特点进行比较,提出了压力罐供水方式更适宜于农村小型供水工程。通过工程实例给出了压力罐工作压力与容积的确定方法;并对运行中的一些重要问题进行了分析,为压力罐供水方式在农村供水工程中的推广应用、设计和运行管理提供了参考。

  4. Tank Farms and Waste Feed Delivery - 12507

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, Thomas; Charboneau, Stacy; Olds, Erik [US DOE (United States)

    2012-07-01

    the single-shell tanks are solid and semi-solid wastes. Known as salt-cakes, they have the consistency of wet beach sand. Some of the waste resembles small broken ice, or whitish crystals. Because the original pumps inside the tanks were designed to remove only liquid waste, other methods have been developed to reach the remaining waste. Access to the tank waste is through long, typically skinny pipes, called risers, extending out of the tanks. It is through these pipes that crews are forced to send machines and devices into the tanks that are used to break up the waste or push it toward a pump. These pipes range in size from just a few inches to just over a foot in diameter because they were never intended to be used in this manner. As part of the agreement regulating Hanford cleanup, crews must remove at least 99% of the material in every tank on the site, or at least as much waste that can be removed based on available technology. To date, seven single-shell tanks have been emptied, and work is underway in another 10 tanks in preparation for additional retrieval activities. Two barriers have been installed over single-shell tanks to prevent the intrusion of surface water down to the tanks, with additional barriers planned for the future. Single and double-shell tank integrity analyses are ongoing. Because the volume of the waste generated through plutonium production exceeded the capacity of the single-shell tanks, between 1968 and 1986 Hanford engineers built 28 double-shell tanks. These tanks were studied and made with a second shell to surround the carbon steel and reinforced concrete. The double-shell tanks have not leaked any of their waste. (authors)

  5. Operating characteristics of LNG storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukacek, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    Although liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks might seem to be the most passive components in the LNG plant or ship, this appearance of quiescence arises only because we too easily imagine LNG storage to be like the storage of water. The contents of an LNG storage tank are in continuous dynamic reaction because of heat leak into the tanks, changes in barometric pressure, and the circumstances surrounding the addition and withdrawal of LNG.

  6. Free-field calibration of a pressure gradient receiver in a reflecting water tank using a linear frequency-modulated signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaev, A. E.; Matveev, A. N.; Nekrich, G. S.; Polikarpov, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    This work continues a study of the method for constructing the frequency dependence for a projector-receiver pair in a free field by complex moving weighted averaging of the frequency dependence for a pair measured in the field of a reflecting water tank. The method is applied to the free-field calibration of a pressure gradient receiver using a reference hydrophone when radiating a complex linear frequency-modulated (LFM) signal. To improve the estimates of this method, we edited the initial frequency dependences using functions in the form of the product of the complex LFM projector current multiplied by the powerlaw function of the LFM signal frequency. We consider ways to use a priori information both to improve the results obtained by complex moving weighted averaging and to estimate the distortions introduced by this method are considered.

  7. Environmental process for elimination of phenolic water present in refinery gasoline tanks; Processo ambiental para eliminacao de agua fenolica presente em tanques de gasolina de refinarias de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa Junior, Bentaci; Pedroso, Osmar V.; Furlan, Luis T. [PETROBRAS, SP (Brazil). Refinaria de Paulinia

    2004-07-01

    Gasoline production in petroleum refineries usually implies carrying high phenol contents in water after treatment systems. Phenols are powerful bactericides and, therefore, harmful to microorganisms present in wastewater treatment plants and in rivers. Due to this reason, usually controlled phenolic water drainage is performed, enabling gasoline quality improvement, without jeopardizing the biological treatment. Increase of phenolic contents in the effluent, due to operational disarray during the drainage of gasoline tanks may cause inhibition or even mortality of the existing microorganisms in the wastewater treatment plants. Aiming at changing the traditional treatment logic of environmental demands at the 'end of pipe', sending the phenolic water to the sour water treatment systems was proposed and implemented, which in turn, is reutilized by the latter in the crude desalination of the Distillation Units, where the phenols are reincorporated to the crude oil, preventing negative consequences to the wastewater treatment plant. The implemented process has demonstrated that premises were correct, enabling to implement process flows quite higher than drainage flows, what has meant productivity gains and environmental improvement. (author)

  8. Effect of Position of Upper Connecting Pipe on the Tank on Thermal Performance of Domestic Solar Water Heaters with a Vertical Storage Tank and Flat-plate Collectors%上循环管位置对平板型家用太阳能热水器性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海威; 高文峰; 林文贤; 刘滔; 李泽东

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,the domestic solar water heater with a vertical storage tank and a flat-plat collector,which is commercially available and popular in the market,was experimentally in-vestigated.Firstly, natural circulation experiment platform of flat plate domestic solar water heater was set up.The effect of two different positions of upper connecting pipe on temperature variation in the water tank during the heating stage in the daytime and thermal performances was measured.Through the analysis of test data,The difference of temperature stratification in the water tank with upper connecting pipe at high position and at low position were studied re-spectively.Also the instantaneous efficiency in 10 minutes was defined and compared.The results showed that there was better temperature stratification in the water tank when it’s upper con-necting pipe at high position during heating stage.In addition,the instantaneous efficiency of so-lar water heater,which water tank with upper connecting pipe at high location under the natural circulation condition was superior to the water tank with upper circulation pipe at low position.%对一种常见的平板型立式储热水箱家用太阳能热水器进行试验分析。搭建了自然循环平板型家用太阳能热水器的实验平台。测量了两种不同位置的上循环管对白天加热阶段储热水箱温度变化及对热性能的影响,通过测试数据分析对比了高、低位上循环管循环时,水箱内温度变化、分层状况,定义了十分钟内的平均效率,并进行了比较。结果表明:储热水箱升温阶段采用高位上循环管的水箱内部出现较好的水温分层;高位上循环管热水器的自然循环瞬时效率比低位上循环管热水器的瞬时效率高。

  9. Rapid Migration of Radionuclides Leaked from High-Level Water Tanks: A Study of Salinity Gradients, Wetted Path Geometry and Water Vapor Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis of this study was the hypothesis that the physical and chemical properties of hypersaline tank waste could lead to wetting from instability and fingered flow following a tank leak. Thus, the goal of this project was to develop an understanding of the impacts of the properties of hypersaline fluids on transport through the unsaturated zone beneath Hanford's Tank Farms. There were three specific objectives (i) to develop an improved conceptualization of hypersaline fluid transport in laboratory (ii) to identify the degree to which field conditions mimic the flow processes observed in the laboratory and (iii) to provide a validation data set to establish the degree to which the conceptual models, embodied in a numerical simulator, could explain the observed field behavior. As hypothesized, high ionic strength solutions entering homogeneous pre-wetted porous media formed unstable wetting fronts atypical of low ionic strength infiltration. In the field, this mechanism could for ce flow in vertical flow paths, 5-15 cm in width, bypassing much of the media and leading to waste penetration to greater depths than would be predicted by current conceptual models. Preferential flow may lead to highly accelerated transport through large homogeneous units, and must be included in any conservative analysis of tank waste losses through coarse-textured units. However, numerical description of fingered flow using current techniques has been unreliable, thereby precluding tank-scale 3-D simulation of these processes. A new approach based on nonzero, hysteretic contract angles and fluid-dependent liquid entry has been developed for the continuum scale modeling of fingered flow. This approach has been coupled with and adaptive-grid finite-difference solver to permit the prediction of finger formation and persistence form sub centimeter scales to the filed scale using both scalar and vector processors. Although laboratory experiments demonstrated that elevated surface tens ion

  10. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-02-24

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  11. Evaluation of a treatment system type septic tank - filter anaerobic of upward flow for the residual waters of the ecological benefit of the coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombia is the first country in the production of soft coffee in the world. The benefit for humid way it makes that this quality of coffee is obtained; however, the high consumption of water in the process and the later discharge to the superficial or underground sources, they have generated an environmental problem of great magnitude. Also, the sources of water that they have been contaminated with the discharges of the liquid waste that come from benefit of coffee they present, among other, serious inconveniences to be used as supplying sources of drinkable water. In time of crop, the coffee areas and their superficial sources of water usually register high indexes of contamination like consequence of the discharges of residual waters that come from the benefit of the coffee. In the Departments of Quindio, Valle, Caldas, Antioquia, etc., they have been come executing investigations of the residuals treatment that are derived of the pulp removal of the coffee (via humid), for anaerobic methods with satisfactory results. This project had the collaboration of the Departmental Committee of Coffee of Antioquia and the Environmental Engineering of the Antioquia University and it is formulated toward the evaluation of a Anaerobic filter of Ascendant flow, FAFA, preceded of a septic tank (biological sedimentation), as a treatment system of the coffee residual waters, with a waste native of a ecological benefit area. The obtained results were satisfactory although the generated waste is very intermittent and in times that are not of coffee crop it doesn't take place; what hinders more the application of biological systems for its treatment

  12. Effect of addition of Navicula sp. on plankton composition and postlarvae growth of Litopenaeus vannamei reared in culture tanks with zero water exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yllana Ferreira-Marinho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of Navicula sp. on plankton composition and postlarvae growth of Litopenaeus vannamei reared in culture tanks with zero water exchange systems. Four treatments were considered: zero water exchange (ZWE; ZWE with the addition of feed (ZWE-F; ZWE with the addition of Navicula sp. (ZWE-N and ZWE with the addition of feed and Navicula sp. (ZWE-FN, all in triplicate. Shrimp of 17.7 ± 0.02 mg were stocked at a density of 2500 shrimp m-3 and microalgae added on the 1st, 5th and 15th day at a density of 5x10(4 cell mL-1. The shrimp were fed a commercial feed composed by 42% crude protein four times a day except in the ZWE treatment. For data analysis we used Cochran, Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, Tukey and Student-t tests (P < 0.05. The most frequent genera were: Anabaena, Arcella, Asplanchma, Bosmina, Brachionus, Cylindrotheca, Daphnia, Fragilaria, Hemiaulus, Keratella, Orthoseira, Oscillatoria, Phymatodocis, Rhabdonema, Skeletonema, Sckizothrix and Ulothrix. Significant differences between treatments were observed for TAN, NO2-N, alkalinity, final weight, weight gain, final biomass, biomass gain, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate and survival. The ZWE-FN treatment showed better production parameters, indicating the benefits of the addition of Navicula sp. as a natural food source for L. vannamei postlarvae in zero water exchange systems.

  13. Transabdominal ultrasonography of the small bowel after oral administration of a non-absorbable anechoic solution: Comparison with barium enteroclysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cittadini, Giuseppe; Giasotto, Veronica; Garlaschi, Giacomo; De Cicco, Enzo; Gallo, Alessandra; Cittadini, Giorgio

    2001-03-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to determine if oral administration of a non-absorbable anechoic solution conveys any benefit during abdominal ultrasound (US), with special reference to its accuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-three adult out-patients scheduled for small bowel barium enema (SBE) were included. The day before SBE all patients underwent abdominal US before and after oral administration of an isotonic non-absorbable electrolyte solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG-ELS). Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated using SBE as a gold standard. RESULTS: After ingestion of PEG-ELS satisfactory distension of the intestinal lumen was obtained (11-25 mm) with sequential visualization of jejunoileal loops in 30.9 {+-} 17.3 min. In 15 out of 53 cases both US and SBE showed bowel changes characteristic of Crohn's disease. In three out of 53 cases both US and SBE showed neoplasms. In one out of 53 cases US was negative, SBE positive for local nodularity and ulcerations typical of Crohn's disease. In one out of 53 cases US was negative, SBE positive for macronodularity consistent with coeliac disease. In five out of 53 cases US was negative, while SBE was positive for mininodularity expressive of lymphoid hyperplasia. In 28 out of 53 cases both examinations were negative. CONCLUSION: PEG-ELS administration allows a thorough US investigation of the small bowel, with fair sensitivity (72%) and excellent specificity (100%). False negative findings are mainly due to lymphoid hyperplasia, a feature of uncertain significance in adults. Cittadini G. et al.(2001)

  14. Transabdominal ultrasonography of the small bowel after oral administration of a non-absorbable anechoic solution: Comparison with barium enteroclysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: The aim of this study was to determine if oral administration of a non-absorbable anechoic solution conveys any benefit during abdominal ultrasound (US), with special reference to its accuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-three adult out-patients scheduled for small bowel barium enema (SBE) were included. The day before SBE all patients underwent abdominal US before and after oral administration of an isotonic non-absorbable electrolyte solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG-ELS). Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated using SBE as a gold standard. RESULTS: After ingestion of PEG-ELS satisfactory distension of the intestinal lumen was obtained (11-25 mm) with sequential visualization of jejunoileal loops in 30.9 ± 17.3 min. In 15 out of 53 cases both US and SBE showed bowel changes characteristic of Crohn's disease. In three out of 53 cases both US and SBE showed neoplasms. In one out of 53 cases US was negative, SBE positive for local nodularity and ulcerations typical of Crohn's disease. In one out of 53 cases US was negative, SBE positive for macronodularity consistent with coeliac disease. In five out of 53 cases US was negative, while SBE was positive for mininodularity expressive of lymphoid hyperplasia. In 28 out of 53 cases both examinations were negative. CONCLUSION: PEG-ELS administration allows a thorough US investigation of the small bowel, with fair sensitivity (72%) and excellent specificity (100%). False negative findings are mainly due to lymphoid hyperplasia, a feature of uncertain significance in adults. Cittadini G. et al.(2001)

  15. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked...

  16. RETRIEVAL & TREATMENT OF HANFORD TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EACKER, J.A.; SPEARS, J.A.; STURGES, M.H.; MAUSS, B.M.

    2006-01-20

    The Hanford Tank Farms contain 53 million gal of radioactive waste accumulated during over 50 years of operations. The waste is stored in 177 single-shell and double-shell tanks in the Hanford 200 Areas. The single-shell tanks were put into operation from the early 1940s through the 1960s with wastes received from several generations of processing facilities for the recovery of plutonium and uranium, and from laboratories and other ancillary facilities. The overall hanford Tank Farm system represents one of the largest nuclear legacies in the world driving towards completion of retrieval and treatment in 2028 and the associated closure activity completion by 2035. Remote operations, significant radiation/contamination levels, limited access, and old facilities are just some of the challenges faced by retrieval and treatment systems. These systems also need to be able to successfully remove 99% or more of the waste, and support waste treatment, and tank closure. The Tank Farm retrieval program has ramped up dramatically in the past three years with design, fabrication, installation, testing, and operations ongoing on over 20 of the 149 single-shell tanks. A variety of technologies are currently being pursued to retrieve different waste types, applications, and to help establish a baseline for recovery/operational efficiencies. The paper/presentation describes the current status of retrieval system design, fabrication, installation, testing, readiness, and operations, including: (1) Saltcake removal progress in Tanks S-102, S-109, and S-112 using saltcake dissolution, modified sluicing, and high pressure water lancing techniques; (2) Sludge vacuum retrieval experience from Tanks C-201, C-202, C-203, and C-204; (3) Modified sluicing experience in Tank C-103; (4) Progress on design and installation of the mobile retrieval system for sludge in potentially leaking single-shell tanks, particularly Tank C-101; and (5) Ongoing installation of various systems in the next

  17. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-10-14

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft{sup 3} of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  18. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft3 of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  19. 33 CFR 183.552 - Plastic encased fuel tanks: Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plastic encased fuel tanks... § 183.552 Plastic encased fuel tanks: Installation. (a) Each fuel tank encased in cellular plastic foam or in fiber reinforced plastic must have the connections, fittings, and labels accessible...

  20. 33 CFR 183.550 - Fuel tanks: Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tanks: Installation. 183.550...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.550 Fuel tanks: Installation. (a) Each fuel tank must not be integral with any boat structure or mounted on an engine. (b)...

  1. Photocatalytic inactivation of Flavobacterium and E. coli in water by a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) fed with suspended/immobilised TiO2 medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Yaniv, Vered; Narkis, Nava; Armon, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A photocatalytic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was built at laboratory scale to inactivate two environmental bacteria strains (Flavobacterium and E. coli) in tap water. Several parameters were found to impact reactor efficiency. Bacterial initial concentration is an important factor in inactivation rate. After 30 minutes of irradiation at 10(8)-10(9) CFU mL(-1) starting concentration, a >5 log reduction was achieved while at 10(4)-10(6) CFU mL(-1) only a 2 log reduction was observed. Water hardness and pH have an important influence on the photocatalytic inactivation process. Soft water, with low Ca(+2) and Mg(+2) at low pH approximately 5.3 resulted in increased inactivation of Flavobacterium reaching >6 orders of magnitude reduction. E. coli and Flavobacterium at pH 5 were inactivated by 3 logs more as compared to pH 7 under similar conditions. pH below TiO2 isoelectric point (approximately 5.6) supports better contact between bacteria and anatase particles resulting in superior inactivation. TiO2 powder suspension was compared with immobilised powder in sol-gel coated glass beads in order to exclude the need for particles separation from the treated water. TiO2 suspension was more effective by 3 orders of magnitude when compared to coated glass beads. An interesting observation was found between the two bacterial strains based on their hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity balance. The more hydrophobic Flavobacterium compared to E. coli was inactivated photocatalytically by >3 logs more then E. coli in the first 30 minutes of irradiation interval. The results indicate the importance of the parameters involved in the contact between TiO2 particles and microorganisms that govern the successful inactivation rate in CSTR.

  2. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks

  3. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks.

  4. Analysis of technologies applied in family water tank construction in rocky mountain areas%大石山区家庭水柜工程建设应用技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林学佳; 阮清波; 吴卫熊

    2016-01-01

    With regard to construction of family water tanks in rocky mountain areas, combined with the engineer⁃ing geological problems which had been seen during construction, an introduction was made on the applied technolo⁃gies such as layout of family water tank and structural design of water storage pool. Experience was also summarized.%结合广西大石山区家庭水柜工程建设中遇到的工程地质问题,从家庭水柜工程布置、蓄水池结构设计等方面,对大石山区家庭水柜建设应用技术进行了分析介绍,总结经验,为大石山区家庭水柜工程建设提供参考。

  5. Underground storage tank 431-D1U1, Closure Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancieri, S.

    1993-09-01

    This document contains information about the decommissioning of Tank 431-D1U1. This tank was installed in 1965 for diesel fuel storage. This tank will remain in active usage until closure procedures begin. Soils and ground water around the tank will be sampled to check for leakage. Appendices include; proof of proper training for workers, health and safety briefing record, task hazard analysis summary, and emergency plans.

  6. Tank 241-AW-101 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1994-11-22

    The first section gives a summary of the available information for Tank AW-101. Included in the discussion are the process history and recent sampling events for the tank, as well as general information about the tank such as its age and the risers to be used for sampling. Tank 241-AW-101 is one of the 25 tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. To resolve the Flammable Gas safety issue, characterization of the tanks, including intrusive tank sampling, must be performed. Prior to sampling, however, the potential for the following scenarios must be evaluated: the potential for ignition of flammable gases such as hydrogen-air and/or hydrogen-nitrous oxide; and the potential for secondary ignition of organic-nitrate/nitrate mixtures in crust layer initiated by the burning of flammable gases or by a mechanical in-tank energy source. The characterization effort applicable to this Tank Characterization Plan is focused on the resolution of the crust burn flammable gas safety issue of Tank AW-101. To evaluate the potential for a crust burn of the waste material, calorimetry tests will be performed on the waste. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) will be used to determine whether an exothermic reaction exists.

  7. Linkage of a known level of LPG tank surface water coverage to the degree of jet-fire protection provided

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, T.A. [Health and Safety Lab., Buxton (United Kingdom)

    2004-03-01

    Previous work, described in earlier papers in this special edition of the Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, has shown that directed water deluge systems designed nominally to deliver the current recommended minimum rate of ca. 10 dm{sup 3} m{sup -2} min{sup -1} provide inadequate protection of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage vessels against jet fires. However, the results from this work also suggest that enhanced designs can be effective. This paper describes the work carried out by the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) to validate an improved deluge system with a propane jet-fire trial on a vessel containing LPG. Linkage of the surface water coverage to the fire protection provided and the requirements for a new standard on directed water deluge is also considered. (Author)

  8. OHMSETT (OIL AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SIMULATED ENVIRONMENTAL TEST TANK) EVALUATION TESTS: THREE OIL SKIMMERS AND A WATER JET HERDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of performance tests was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's OHMSETT facility with three selected oil spill pickup devices (Skimmers) and a water jet boom/skimmer transition device. The objective of the skimmer tests were to establish the range of bes...

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling of Hydraulics and Sedimentation in Process Reactors During Aeration Tank Settling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam Jensen, Mette; Ingildsen, Pernille; Rasmussen, Michael R.;

    2005-01-01

    Aeration Tank Settling is a control method alowing settling in the process tank during high hydraulic load. The control method is patented. Aeration Tank Settling has been applied in several waste water treatment plant's using present design of the process tanks. Some process tank designs have...... and outlet causing a disruption of the sludge blanket at the outlet and thereby reducing the retention of sludge in the process tank. The model has allowed us to establish a clear picture of the problems arising at the plant during Aeration Tank Settling. Secondly, several process tank design changes have...

  10. Tank characterization report: Tank 241-C-109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-shell tank 241-C-109 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in September 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-109 were conducted to support the resolution of the ferrocyanide unreviewed safety question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and consent Order (Tri- Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. This report describes this analysis

  11. Mixing Suspensions in Slender Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rieger

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial suspension mixing processes are carried out both in standard tanks (H/D =1 and in the tanks with height H/D > 1. When only one impeller is used in such slender tanks, it may be difficult to produce a suspension of desired homogeneity. Hence it may be necessary to install a larger number of impellers on the shaft.The aim of this study was to explain the mechanism of suspension formation in slender tanks (H/D = 2 with an increased number of impellers. On the basis of the solid bed height on the tank bottom, the position of the suspension - water interface and the concentration profile of solid particles in the suspension (standard deviation of solid body concentration the operation of the impellers was estimated and conclusions were drawn on how and at what distance from each other to install them were presented.The location of the upper, highest impeller appeared to be specially significant. On the basis of this study it is recommended to locate the upper impeller so that its distance from the free liquid surface is less than 0.8 D. It was found that such a position of the highest impeller was also advantageous from the energy point of view.

  12. 铝、铜水箱热平衡试验研究%On the Experiment of Heat Balance of Aluminum and Copper Water Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江; 曾宪杰; 曾宪任

    2015-01-01

    液压挖掘机工作环境十分恶劣,尤其对于液压挖掘机,由于其冷却风道空间有限,很容易造成发动机冷却水温过高的现象,从而导致挖掘机工作效率以及使用寿命的降低。目前挖掘机厂家对于发动机冷却系统的设计主要通过经验和反复试验来完成,这一方面延长了设计的周期,同时也增加了试验的强度。本文针对液压挖掘机发动机冷却系统设计过程中存在的共性问题,介绍目前常用的散热器型式,揭示间壁式散热器的传热机理。其次,建立管带式散热器散热特性数学模型,分析散热器传热系数、冷却水温度、散热量、风阻、水阻以及功耗等性能参数与散热器尺寸及流体流速之间的关系。对铝水箱和铜水箱的热平衡进行试验测试,结果表明,铜水箱散热性能较好。%Hydraulic excavator working environment is very bad, especially for hydraulic excavator, due to its limited space of cooling air duct, it is easy to cause the phenomenon of high temperature of engine cooling water, resulting in the reduction of work efficiency and service life of the excavator. Currently, the excavator manufacturers design the engine cooling system mainly through experience and trial and error, which extends the cycle of design, and also increases the strength of the test. Based on the common problems existing in the design process of hydraulic excavator engine cooling system, this paper introduces the type of radiator, reveals the recuperative heat transfer mechanism of the radiator. Secondly, belt type radiator thermal characteristics mathematical model is established, and analyzes the relationship among the performance parameters of the radiator heat transfer coefficient, cooling water temperature, heat release, wind resistance, water resistance and power consumption, the size of radiator and the velocity of flow. The heat balance of aluminum and copper water tank is tested

  13. Tank 244A tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Double-Shell Tank (DST) System currently receives waste from the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System in support of SST stabilization efforts or from other on-site facilities which generate or store waste. Waste is also transferred between individual DSTs. The mixing or commingling of potentially incompatible waste types at the Hanford Site must be addressed prior to any waste transfers into the DSTs. The primary goal of the Waste Compatibility Program is to prevent the formation of an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) as a result of improper waste management. Tank 244A is a Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) which serves as any overflow tank for the East Area Farms. Waste material is able to flow freely between the underground storage tanks and tank 244A. Therefore, it is necessary to test the waste in tank 244A for compatibility purposes. Two issues related to the overall problem of waste compatibility must be evaluated: Assurance of continued operability during waste transfer and waste concentration and Assurance that safety problems are not created as a result of commingling wastes under interim storage. The results of the grab sampling activity prescribed by this Tank Characterization Plan shall help determine the potential for four kinds of safety problems: criticality, flammable gas accumulation, energetics, and corrosion and leakage

  14. Tank 241-B-101 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-04-28

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues (Conway 1993). The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify the sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ``A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process``. This document satisfies that requirement for tank 241-B-101 (B-101) sampling activities. Tank B-101 is identified as a low-heat load non-Watch List tank, and is classified as an assumed leaker. The tank is passively ventilated, interim stabilized, and intrusion prevention measures have been completed. As of January 31, 1995, approximately 428,000 liters of non-complexed waste was contained in the tank. Tank B-101 is expected to have two primary layers. A layer of saltcake waste generated from the 242-B evaporator, followed by a top layer of sludge composed of B-Plant high-level, B-Plant low-level, and unknown waste.

  15. Experimental Study of a Turbulent Jet Induced by a Steam Jet Condensation through a Hole in a Water Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Nam-Hyun; Youn, Young-Jung; Park, Jong-Kook; Kim, Yeon-Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    A turbulent jet induced by a steam jet condensation in a water pool was investigated experimentally. An experimental apparatus equipped with a steam boiler, a single-hole steam sparger, and a water pool, etc. was used. For the measurements, a pitot tube and thermocouples were used for the turbulent flow velocity and temperatures, respectively. Overall flow shapes of the turbulent jet by the steam jet condensation are similar to those of axially symmetric turbulent jet flows. The angular coefficients of the turbulent rays are quantitatively comparable between the traditional turbulent jet flows and the turbulent jet flows induced by the steam jet condensation in this work. Although the turbulent flows were induced by a steam jet condensation, the general theory for turbulent jets was found to be applicable to the turbulent flows of this work.

  16. Tank Characterization Report for Single Shell Tank 241-C-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-04-06

    Interprets information about the tank answering a series of six questions covering areas such as information drivers, tank history, tank comparisons, disposal implications, data quality and quantity, and unique aspects of the tank.

  17. From the waters of the empire to the tanks of Paris: the creation and early years of the Aquarium Tropical, Palais de la Porte Dorée.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Sofie; Mistry, Heena

    2014-01-01

    From May to November 1931, the Exposition coloniale internationale was held in Paris. Publicized as a trip around the world in a single day, it was designed to stimulate investments and general enthusiasm for the colonies. Along with exotic temporary pavilions representing the various colonies, model villages inhabited by colonial natives, and pavilions representing commercial product brands and other colonial powers, the exposition included a zoo and an aquarium featuring animals from the colonies. Installing a large aquarium had been a costly and difficult process, and construction was plagued by many delays and problems. But when the aquarium finally opened a few months into the exposition, it quickly became a favorite of the public. With the double mission to provide a living synthesis of the products of the warm waters of the French empire and give visitors a sense of the diversity, beauty, and economic resources of their colonial possessions, the aquarium functioned as a panorama that presented a striking visual metaphor for the empire. This article follows the aquarium during the exposition and in the years that followed. We explore its place in the history of aquaria in general and pay particular attention to its role in the exposition and within the French colonial context of the 1930s and onward. Here, both the scientists in charge of the site and the aquatic animals living in its tanks and terrariums provide a window into the relationship of marine biology, public education, consumerism, and colonialism at mid-twentieth century. PMID:23820673

  18. Defluoridation of drinking water by electrocoagulation/electroflotation in a stirred tank reactor with a comparative performance to an external-loop airlift reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essadki, A.H., E-mail: essadki@hotmail.com [Ecole Superieure de Technologie de Casablanca, BP 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Gourich, B. [Ecole Superieure de Technologie de Casablanca, BP 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Vial, Ch. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique et Biochimique, LGCB-UBP/ENSCCF, 24 avenue des Landais, BP 206, 63174 Aubiere Cedex (France); Delmas, H. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, ENSIACET-INPT, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, 31106 Toulouse (France); Bennajah, M. [Ecole Superieure de Technologie de Casablanca, BP 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, ENSIACET-INPT, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, 31106 Toulouse (France)

    2009-09-15

    Defluoridation using batch electrocoagulation/electroflotation (EC/EF) was carried out in two reactors for comparison purpose: a stirred tank reactor (STR) close to a conventional EC cell and an external-loop airlift reactor (ELAR) that was recently described as an innovative reactor for EC. The respective influences of current density, initial concentration and initial pH on the efficiency of defluoridation were investigated. The same trends were observed in both reactors, but the efficiency was higher in the STR at the beginning of the electrolysis, whereas similar values were usually achieved after 15 min operation. The influence of the initial pH was explained using the analyses of sludge composition and residual soluble aluminum species in the effluents, and it was related to the prevailing mechanisms of defluoridation. Fluoride removal and sludge reduction were both favored by an initial pH around 4, but this value required an additional pre-treatment for pH adjustment. Finally, electric energy consumption was similar in both reactors when current density was lower than 12 mA/cm{sup 2}, but mixing and complete flotation of the pollutants were achieved without additional mechanical power in the ELAR, using only the overall liquid recirculation induced by H{sub 2} microbubbles generated by water electrolysis, which makes subsequent treatments easier to carry out.

  19. From the waters of the empire to the tanks of Paris: the creation and early years of the Aquarium Tropical, Palais de la Porte Dorée.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Sofie; Mistry, Heena

    2014-01-01

    From May to November 1931, the Exposition coloniale internationale was held in Paris. Publicized as a trip around the world in a single day, it was designed to stimulate investments and general enthusiasm for the colonies. Along with exotic temporary pavilions representing the various colonies, model villages inhabited by colonial natives, and pavilions representing commercial product brands and other colonial powers, the exposition included a zoo and an aquarium featuring animals from the colonies. Installing a large aquarium had been a costly and difficult process, and construction was plagued by many delays and problems. But when the aquarium finally opened a few months into the exposition, it quickly became a favorite of the public. With the double mission to provide a living synthesis of the products of the warm waters of the French empire and give visitors a sense of the diversity, beauty, and economic resources of their colonial possessions, the aquarium functioned as a panorama that presented a striking visual metaphor for the empire. This article follows the aquarium during the exposition and in the years that followed. We explore its place in the history of aquaria in general and pay particular attention to its role in the exposition and within the French colonial context of the 1930s and onward. Here, both the scientists in charge of the site and the aquatic animals living in its tanks and terrariums provide a window into the relationship of marine biology, public education, consumerism, and colonialism at mid-twentieth century.

  20. Hagleromyces gen. nov., a yeast genus in the Saccharomycetaceae, and description of Hagleromyces aurorensis sp. nov., isolated from water tanks of bromeliads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Francisca M P; Morais, Paula B; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-08-01

    Three strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from water tanks (phytotelmata) of a bromeliad species collected in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Analysis of sequences for the region spanning the SSU rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer, the 5.8S rRNA gene and the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene and RNA polymerase II gene showed that these novel yeasts belong to a species that is distinct from all recognized ascomycetous yeast species. Based on the results of gene sequence analyses, a novel species representing a new genus in the Saccharomycetaceae is proposed. The novel species is assigned to the genus Hagleromyces gen. nov. The three isolates of the novel yeast species failed to form sexual spores alone or in mixtures. The name Hagleromyces aurorensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain of H. aurorensis sp. nov. is UFMG-CM-Y311(T) ( = CBS 13264(T)).

  1. THE SOURCE OF ACID CONTAINED IN THE WATER OF STORAGE TANK BOTTOM%储罐罐底水含酸及对喷气燃料性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵升红; 黄毅; 孙建章; 顾敏莉

    2001-01-01

    The source of aci d contained in the water of storage tank bottom and its harmful effect on jet fuel were studied. The low pH value of the tank bottom water was caused by the gro wing and breeding of thiobacillus thiooxidans that producing sulfuric acid. Hydr ogen sulfide was formed from the reaction of the sulfuric acid and sulfide, and resulted in silver strip corrosion unqualified of the jet fuel.%对喷气燃料储罐罐底含酸的原因及危害进行了研究, 指出氧化硫硫杆菌生长繁殖产生的硫 酸导致罐底水 pH 降低, 硫酸与罐底水中的硫化物反应生成硫化氢导致喷气燃料银片腐蚀不合格。

  2. Investigations of fabric stratifiers for solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    in different ways. For instance, water heated by the solar collectors or water returning from the heating system can enter the water storage through stratification inlet devices in such a way that the water enters the tank in a level, where the tank temperature is the same as the temperature of the entering......The thermal performance of solar heating systems is strongly influenced by the thermal stratification in the heat storage. The higher the degree of thermal stratification is, the higher the thermal performance of the solar heating systems. Thermal stratification in water storages can be achieved...

  3. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external tank soil contamination for the Hanford tank closure program: application to the AX tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    1998-10-12

    Mixed high-level waste is currently stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The plan is to retrieve the waste, process the water, and dispose of the waste in a manner that will provide less long-term health risk. The AX Tank Farm has been identified for purposes of demonstration. Not all the waste can be retrieved from the tanks and some waste has leaked from these tanks into the underlying soil. Retrieval of this waste could result in additional leakage. During FY1998, the Sandia National Laboratory was under contract to evaluate concepts for immobilizing the residual waste remaining in tanks and mitigating the migration of contaminants that exist in the soil column. Specifically, the scope of this evaluation included: development of a layered tank fill design for reducing water infiltration; development of in-tank getter technology; mitigation of soil contamination through grouting; sequestering of specific radionuclides in soil; and geochemical and hydrologic modeling of waste-water-soil interactions. A copy of the final report prepared by Sandia National Laboratory is attached.

  4. Solution Effect Aanalysis of Gravity Desilting Filter Tank in Processing River Water with High Sand Content%重力沉沙过滤池对高含沙河水的沉沙效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚印鑫; 孙娟; 耿凡坤

    2015-01-01

    River will gradually become the major farmland water source in water-saving irrigation scheme in Xinjiang ,due to the serious over exploitation of groundwater .Science and technology teams are developing all sorts of devices to reduce the sediment in the river water ,because the removal rate of sediment in the river water stands for the major obstacle to the promotion of the river water in irrigation .Gravity desilting filtration is a better method ,the filter tank includes a sedi-mentation tank ,a filter net ,a clear water tank and a set sewage tank .According to the experimental research and analy-sis of the gravity desilting filter tank in Wushenggong ,Manasi county ,the device can significantly reduce the sediment concentration through the sedimentation tank and the filter net with the highest sand removal rate of 46% ,and sediment particle sizes under 0 .05 mm .After the installation of the filter net structure ,the desilting efficiency can be increased more than 30% .Therefore the gravity desilting filter tank has certain advantages over the conventional tanks ,the appli-cation of the filter net enhances the efficiency of separating sand and water ,which has a great effect on desilting fine sed-iment .%由于地下水的严重超采,河水将逐步作为新疆农田节水灌溉的替代水源,河水中泥沙的去除率是河水能否推广的主要障碍,目前科技人员在研究各种装置用于降低河水中的泥沙。其中重力沉沙过滤池是清除泥沙比较好的一种除沙装置,其构造包括沉沙池、过滤网、清水池、集污槽等。该工程利用沉淀池与过滤网对泥沙进行两级处理,出池水质泥沙含量有明显降低。通过对玛纳斯县五圣宫村重力沉沙池一个灌溉期的现场含沙量试验研究和分析,结果表明,该重力沉沙过滤池对河水泥沙总处理率可以达到46%左右,出池泥沙粒径在0.05 mm 以下。重力沉沙池增加过滤网结构型式

  5. Development of a sublation system in atmospheric tank using sunflower oil surfactant to reduce oily water concentration; Desenvolvimento de um sistema de sublacao em tanque atmosferico utilizando tensoativo de oleo de girassol para reducao da concentracao de aguas oleosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Rodrigo F. de; Dantas, Iuri A.C.; Quintaes, Filipe de O.; Salazar, Andres O.; Barros Neto, Eduardo L. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In order to reduce the rate of oil in water, was developed a system capable to be inserted in a tank and make air bubbles move to top of the tank, where is a layer of oil, similar that occurs in flotation, but in this case is called sublation. This system is composed by drilled PVC pipes and connected in way of four identical squares, joined by a high pressure hose. A compressor located in a region near to the tank supplies air to the system through the hose, that is connected in the central point of the system. The preliminary results had shown that the concentration after the sublation, without the surfactants use, decrease of 70 ppm to 35 ppm. After the sublation using surfactants this concentration decrease of 70ppm to 24,8 ppm. The efficiency of the sublation process using surfactants made of vegetal oil - OGS - was proved by the experimental results. This process, beyond allowing a bigger reutilization of the water in the tests of the laboratory, makes possible the reduction of the rate of oil in water to permitted levels by CONAMA. (author)

  6. Cause anaIysis and treatment of the conductivity increase of effIuent in demineraIized water tank%除盐水箱出水电导率升高原因分析及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海荣

    2016-01-01

    除盐水箱出水电导率升高在电厂时有发生,针对除盐水箱出水电导率升高现象,通过理论计算和案例介绍,从3个方面进行了原因分析。分析原因包括:除盐水箱顶部密封不严,水箱内壁防腐层缺陷,以及锅炉补给水系统出现设备异常。在对各项原因进行分析的基础上,指出了相应的解决方法。%In power plants,the conductivity increase of effluent in demineralized water tanks occurs frequently. By means of theoretical calculation and case introduction ,the causes have been analyzed in three aspects ,including:the top sealing of demineralized water tank is not tight enough ,the anticorrosion coating on the tank inner walls has many defects,and the equipment of boiler make-up water system may be abnormal. Based on these analyses,the co-rresponding solutions are brought forward.

  7. Think tanks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsten, Mark; Nørgaard Kristensen, Nete

    2016-01-01

    Though think tanks have a long history internationally, they have especially in recent years come to play an increasingly important role in both policy-formulation and public debate. In this article, we analyse the growing presence of think tanks in a Danish context during the 2000s and the first...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...... outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re...

  8. Rheology of Savannah River site tank 42 and tank 51 HLW radioactive sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the rheology of the radioactive sludge slurries at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is necessary in order to ensure that they can be retrieved from waste tanks and processed for final disposal. The high activity radioactive wastes stored as caustic slurries at SRS result from the neutralization of acid waste generated from production of nuclear defense materials. During storage, the wastes separate into a supernate layer and a sludge layer. In the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS, the radionuclides from the sludge and supernate will be immobilized into borosilicate glass for long term storage and eventual disposal. Before transferring the waste from a storage tank to the DWPF, a portion of the aluminum in the waste sludge will be dissolved and the sludge will be extensively washed to remove sodium. Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive sludges represent the first batch of HLW sludge to be processed in the DWPF. This paper presents results of rheology measurements of Tank 51 and Tank 42 at various solids concentrations. The rheologies of Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive slurries were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells Operations (SCO) at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) using a modified Haake Rotovisco RV-12 with an M150 measuring drive unit and TI sensor system. Rheological properties of the Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive sludges were measured as a function of weight percent solids. The weight percent solids of Tank 42 sludge was 27, as received. Tank 51 sludge had already been washed. The weight percent solids were adjusted by dilution with water or by concentration through drying. At 12, 15, and 18 weight percent solids, the yield stresses of Tank 51 sludge were 5, 11, and 14 dynes/cm2, respectively. The apparent viscosities were 6, 10, and 12 centipoises at 300 sec-1 shear rate, respectively

  9. Tank 241-U-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-105

  10. Tank 241-TY-101 Tank Characterization Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-03-20

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TY-101.

  11. Reconnaissance investigations of potential ground-water and sediment contamination at three former underground storage tank locations, Fort Jackson, South Carolina, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J.F.; Nagle, Douglas D.; Rhodes, Liesl C.

    1994-01-01

    Investigations to provide initial qualitative delineation of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at three former underground storage tank locations at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, were made during March 1994. Ground-water and sediment samples were collected using direct-push technology and analyzed on-site with a gas chromatograph, which provided real-time, semi-quantitative data. In addition, ground-water and sediment samples were collected at selected sites for laboratory analyses to provide a confirmation of the on-site data. These analyses provided qualitative data on the lateral distri- bution of petroleum hydrocarbons. Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected by on-site analysis in ground-water samples from nine locations at Site 1062, suggesting the presence of a contaminant plume. Concentrations ranged from less than the minimum detection limit to 4,511 mg/L (micrograms per liter) for benzene, 15,594 mg/L for toluene, 16,501 mg/L for ethylbenzene, and 19,391 mg/L for total xylenes. Concentrations of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Gasoline Range Organics ranged from 323 mg/L to 3,364 mg/L; Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Diesel Range Organics were not detected. Three samples from this site were analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylenes at a laboratory and results showed concentrations ranging from less than the minimum detection limit to 1,070 mg/L for benzene, 7,930 mg/L for toluene, 6,890 mg/L for ethylbenzene, and 1,524 mg/L for total xylenes. Petroleum hydro- carbons were detected by on-site analysis in only one sample at Site 2438. A concentration of 131,000 micrograms per kilogram Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Diesel Range Organics was detected in sample number GP-2-4-13.5. Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected by on-site analysis in only one ground-water sample from Site 2444. A concentration of 3,145 mg/L Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Gasoline Range Organics was detected at sampling location GP-3-2.

  12. Point-spread function associated with underwater imaging through a wavy air-water interface: theory and laboratory tank experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W C; Majumdar, A K

    1992-12-20

    The point-spread function needed for imaging underwater objects is theoretically derived and compared with experimental results. The theoretical development is based on the emergent-ray model, in which the Gram-Charlier series for the non-Gaussian probability-density function for emergent angles through a wavy water surface was assumed. To arrive at the point-spread model, we used a finite-element methodology with emergent-ray angular probability distributions as fundamental building functions. The model is in good agreement with the experiment for downwind conditions. A slight deviation between theory and experiment was observed for the crosswind case; this deviation may be caused by the possible interaction of standing waves with the original air-ruffled capillary waves that were not taken into account in the model.

  13. Smart solar tanks - Heat storage of the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of a smart solar tank concept for small SDHW-systems have been carried out. In the tank the operation of the auxiliary energy supply system is controlled by the hot water demand and by the consumption pattern. Water at the top of the tank is only heated by the auxiliary...... energy supply system to a required temperature in periods with hot water demand. The tank is heated by the auxiliary energy supply system from the top so that the volume of water heated to the required temperature can be controlled in a flexible way. In periods with a large hot water demand the volume...... can be large and in periods with a small hot water demand the volume can be small. For instance, the energy supply system can be controlled on measurements of the energy content of the tank during all hours of the week and based on a required hot water consumption and consumption pattern which can...

  14. Decontamination of MMH- and NTO/MON-propellant Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, K.; Kaelsch, I.

    2004-10-01

    Decontamination of liquid propellant tanks, namely MMH and NTO/MON tanks, due to emergency off- loading of a spacecraft can cause damage to the propellant tank material if safety precautions are not taken into account. MMH (Mono-Methyl Hydrazine) reacts with water with an exothermic reaction that causes temperature rise and hydrous reaction product formation. NTO and MON (Nitrogen Tetroxide Oxidiser / Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen) react with water forming nitrous and nitric acid, which may cause corrosion and enhance Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) in the titanium tank material. To avoid these problems, a new procedure with a numerical prediction tool for decontamination of MMH tank has been developed, used and assessed to decontaminate the MMH tank of the ESA Rosetta spacecraft successfully. The ESA proposed procedure for MON oxidiser tank emergency off-loading and decontamination is also presented.

  15. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  16. Tank 241-AZ-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, A revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) sampling activities. Tank AZ-101 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The contents of Tank AZ-101, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,630 kL (960 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-101 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 132 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,500 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.87 meters

  17. Tank 241-AZ-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process ... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) sampling activities. Tank AZ-102 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The current contents of Tank AZ-102, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,600 kL (950 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-102 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 360 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,240 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.9 meters

  18. Tank 241-A-105 evaporation estimate, 1970 through 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-A-105 was subjected to a severe steam explosion in January 1965 that caused the metal liner on the bottom to bulge upward approximately 8 feet above its concrete foundation. Shortly after this event, radiation was detected in drywells around the tank and it was declared a leaker. Sluicing operations to remove material from the tank began in August 1968 and continued through August 1970. After sluicing was completed, a significant amount of heat generating material still remained in the tank. To keep tank temperatures below operating limits, the water level in the tank was maintained at an approximate depth of 1.5 feet. This practice was continued until January 1979 when it was believed that the contents had decayed sufficiently to discontinue the water addition and put the tank on a portable exhauster system. Recent concern has focused on what portion of this cooling water added to Tank 241-A-105 actually evaporated and how much leaked into the soil during the nine year time period. This report presents the results of a study that estimates the amount of water evaporated from Tank 241-A-105 between 1970 and 1979. The problem was completed in two parts. The first part involved development of a three dimensional heat transfer model which was used to establish the tank heat load. The results of this model were validated against thermocouple data from Tank 241-A-105. The heat removed from the tank by the ventilation air was then used as input to a second computer code, which calculated the water evaporation. Based upon these two models, the amount of water evaporated from Tank 241-A-105, between 1970 and 1979, was between 378,000 and 410,000 gallons. 9 refs., 17 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Mixing of dye in a model scald tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, J A; Shackelford, A D

    1999-10-01

    A model scald tank was constructed to study the mixing pattern of water in a poultry scalding system. Tank dimensions were approximately 6 m long by 10.5 cm wide with a water depth of 18 cm. Water was vigorously agitated with compressed air delivered through a 1.9-cm polyvinyl chloride pipe on the bottom of the tank. Food coloring was added to the tank at a single point, and water samples were taken at distances of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.5 m every 30 s for 10 min, with 0 or 10 L/min water flow through the tank. Dye concentration was determined spectrophotometrically. A chain drive was then installed above the tank with aluminum paddles (area about 25% of tank cross-sectional area) attached to the chain every 15.2 cm to simulate the movement of carcasses through the water at 140 carcasses per minute. Food coloring was added to the tank, and water samples were taken every 15 s for 2.5 min, with 0 or 13.5 L/min water flow through the tank. A computer program based on perfect mixing of water in small slices or cells within the tank was adjusted until predicted dye movement matched sampling data, with correlations of 0.91 or better at all sampling points. For scalder designs with uniform mixing of water, the computer model can predict mixing patterns, including counterflow conditions in a single tank, well enough to yield realistic residence time patterns for bacteria suspended in scald water. PMID:10536796

  20. Filling Tanks with Hydrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, K.

    2004-10-01

    At the Hydrazine workshop in 2002 in Noordwijk several presentations dealt with the filling of satellite tanks. I was a bit surprised about the amount of manpower that is needed for this work. But I saw the same during the filling of the SCA system tanks some years ago in Trauen/Germany. I want to present the work flow of filling RESUS Hydrazine tanks. This bladder tanks have a capacity of 64 litres and are similar to some of the satellite tanks. We fill this tanks 25 to 50 times a year. Although the specifications are not exactly the same as those for satellite tank filling, it might be interesting to see how this work can be done half-automatically, because handling with Hydrazine is not a nice job, and the faster it goes, the better.

  1. Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    The emergence of more think tanks in recent decades has spawned some interest in how they function and impact policy-making in the European Union and its member states. So far however few empirical studies of think tanks have been carried out and think tanks have mainly been studied...... in their national contexts. Questions regarding patterns and differences in think tank organisations and functions across countries have largely been left unanswered. This paper advances a definition and research design that uses different expert roles to categorise think tanks. A sample of 34 think tanks from...... Brussels, Denmark and Germany are categorised according to different expert roles in a pilot analysis. As the analysis is sensitive to the interpretation and weight given to different indicators, besides from picturing the think tank landscape, the analysis is intended to trigger a discussion of how...

  2. Solar Thermal Power Generation 2000: solar-assisted district heating, tight sealing of pit water storage tanks made out of pre-stressed concrete; Solarthermie 2000, TP3: Solarunterstuetzte Nahwaermeversorgung: Dichte Heisswasser - Waermespeicher aus Hochleistungsbeton. Erdbeckenspeicher aus Hochleistungsbeton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reineck, K.H.; Lichtenfels, A.; Schlaich, J. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Konstruktion und Entwurf 2

    1998-12-31

    In 1996 the two large heat storage tanks in Hamburg-Bramfeld (4,750 cubic metres) and Friedrichshafen-Wiggenhausen (12,000 cubic metres) were built out of concrete with an inner stainless steel lining. This was a big step towards economic efficiency. The research project ``Tight sealing of pit water storage tanks made out of pre-stressed concrete`` was launched by the BMBF in order to show that the concrete construction will not only bear loads but also ensure sealing. Building costs for underground hot water storage tanks could then be reduced by at least 25%. The first results of this research project are presented. The paper also contains recommendations for the further development of heat storage tanks built with pre-stressed concrete. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Jahre 1996 wurden die beiden grossen Waermespeicher in Hamburg-Bramfeld mit einem Volumen von 4.750 m{sup 3} und in Friedrichshafen-Wiggenhausen mit 12.000 m{sup 3} aus Beton mit innenliegender Edelstahlauskleidung fertiggestellt. Mit dem Bau dieser beiden Grossspeicher konnte ein richtungsweisender Schritt hin zur Wirtschaftlichkeit gemacht werden, wie man es in Studien vor 15 Jahren nicht fuer moeglich hielt. Mit dem BMBF - Forschungsvorhaben `Dichte Heisswasser - Waermespeicher aus Hochleistungsbeton` soll gezeigt werden, dass das Betontragwerk nicht nur Lasten abtragen sondern auch die Funktion der Abdichtung uebernehmen kann. Damit sollen die Baukosten fuer unterirdische Heisswasser-Waermespeicher um mindestens 25% gesenkt werden. Es werden die ersten Ergebnisse dieses Forschungsvorhabens mitgeteilt und Empfehlungen fuer die weitere Entwicklung von Waermespeichern aus Hochleistungsbeton gegeben. (orig.)

  3. Family water tank's role for rural human drinking water safety in rocky mountain areas of Guangxi and key points of design%浅议家庭水柜在解决广西大石山区农村人饮安全的作用及设计要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴卫熊; 阮清波; 何令祖

    2015-01-01

    An introduction was made on the background, origin and development history of constructing family water tanks in the rocky mountain areas of Guangxi. The authors also analyze and compare the network expansion works, gravity diversion works, pumping diversion works, diversion-storage combined works and family water tanks;summarize the key points of family water tank design, and point out that family water tank is one of the major solutions for rural human drinking safety.%介绍了广西大石山区发展家庭水柜的背景、家庭水柜的由来以及发展历程,对扩网工程、自流引水工程、提水工程、引蓄结合工程及家庭水柜进行了分析和比选,并归纳了家庭水柜的设计要点,指出采用家庭水柜是解决广西大石山区农村人饮安全的主要途径之一.

  4. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank...

  5. Heat transfer correlations in mantle tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Knudsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    the inlet increases, natural convection starts to dominate. The heat transfer between the wall of the inner hot water tank and the domestic water is governed by natural convection. The results of the CFD-calculations are used to determine improved heat transfer correlations based on dimensionless analysis...... of the inner hot water tank and the domestic water in all levels of the tank. The heat transfer analysis showed that the heat transfer near the mantle inlet port between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the walls surrounding the mantle is in the mixed convection regime, and as the distance from....... The heat transfer determined by these correlations is compared to the heat transfer determined by the CFD-calculations. The comparisons showed a good agreement between the heat transfer determined by the heat transfer correlations and the heat transfer determined by CFD-calculations. Consequently, the heat...

  6. Numerical modeling method on the movement of water flow and suspended solids in two-dimensional sedimentation tanks in the wastewater treatment plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Taking the distributing calculation of velocity and concentration as an example, the paper established a series of governing equations by the vorticity-stream function method, and dispersed the equations by the finite differencing method. After figuring out the distribution field of velocity, the paper also calculated the concentration distribution in sedimentation tank by using the two-dimensional concentration transport equation. The validity and feasibility of the numerical method was verified through comparing with experimental data. Furthermore, the paper carried out a tentative exploration into the application of numerical simulation of sedimentation tanks.

  7. 空气能热泵热水机不锈钢内胆焊接工艺优化研究%Optimization of Stainless Steel Tank Welding Procedure in Air-source Heat Pump Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树清; 余文鹏

    2015-01-01

    空气能热泵热水器保温水箱的不锈钢内胆是一个承压承热的容器,是热水机产品的关键构件,其工作环境较为恶劣。在现有的焊接工艺条件下,不锈钢内胆的各个焊缝处的腐蚀失效是整个水箱寿命的短板,严重影响了空气能热泵热水机这种新型的节能减排产品的使用和发展。因此对空气能热泵热水机的焊接工艺作了几个方面的优化调整,使得不锈钢内胆的使用寿命得到了较大幅度的提高,取得了良好的效果。%The stainless steel tank in air-source heat pump water heater was an container which bear pressure and heat. It is the key component of the air-source heat pump water heater and suffered sever environment at working condition. Welding joint corrosion is the Achilles' heel of stainless tank service life at existing welding procedure. This condition restricted air-source heat pump water heater putting into use and popularize widely. Optimization of stainless steel tank welding procedure in air-source heat pump water heater has been applied several aspect and enhance the service life obviously.

  8. The Design of Large Amount Water Swirling Gravity Sedimentation Tank for Guofeng 1450mm Casting and Rolling Project%国丰1450mm连铸连轧项目大水量旋流沉淀池的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉

    2014-01-01

    国丰1450mm连铸连轧项目浊循环水系统,循环水量11220m3/h,采用重力式旋流沉淀池作为浊环水处理的一级沉淀处理,去除绝大部分的氧化铁皮,同时去除少量浮油,运行良好。通过工程实例总结出大水量旋流沉淀池设计的几个要点。%Guofeng 1450mm casting and rolling project turbid circulating water system, circulating water is 11220m3 / h, using swirling gravity sedimentation tank as first precipitation treatment to turbid circulating water system, remove most of the iron oxide, while removing a small amount of float oil, running well. By Projects, summarize a few points for dedign of large amount water swirling gravity sedimentation tank.

  9. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-07-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System`s tank waste retrieval Program.

  10. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System's tank waste retrieval Program

  11. Study on Calibration Method of Very Low Frequency Vector Hydrophone in Water Tank%甚低频矢量水听器水池校准方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师俊杰; 孙大军; 吕云飞; 张俊

    2011-01-01

    为研究水池条件下甚低频矢量水听器的校准方法,利用水池声场理论建模仿真的方法研究了声源位置、水池尺寸等因素改变时近源声场的变化规律.研究表明:在连续信号激励条件下,近源声场分布呈准球面波扩展规律,满足甚低频矢量水听器的校准需求.进而详细阐述了校准方法并仿真评估了标准水听器和待测甚低频矢量水听器所在位置的声场对校准结果的影响.为水池条件下甚低频矢量水听器的校准提供了指导,拓展了甚低频矢量水听器的校准思路.%In order to study the method of calibrating the very low frequency ( VLF) vector hydrophone in water tank, regularity for change of the near-source field is studied through numerical modeling for the sound field in water tank, considering the influence of source position, water tank size and so on. The study indicates that the near field excited by a continuous signal is characterized as a quasi-spherical wave, and can be used to calibrate VLF vector hydrophone. Besides, the study presents the calibration method in detail and evaluates the sound field for standard and tested VLF hydrophones and its impact on calibration results. The results provide some directive suggestions for vector hydrophone calibration and can also inspire new idea for VLF calibration.

  12. Research on the Application of Non-symmetric Fuzzy Algorithm in the Water Tank Level System%非对称模糊算法在水箱系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹昭武; 任开春; 刘鹏; 李璀; 蒋侨; 史志强

    2012-01-01

    The process of change in water tank level is nonlinear, time-variable and uncertain. Using the traditional control theory and method is difficult to obtain satisfactory dynamic response and steadystate accuracy. Basing on conventional fuzzy control system can achieve stability of the water tank level control, but the conventional fuzzy control systems lacks the presence of dynamic performance and its steady-state response time is too long. For these problems, this paper has designed a non-sym- metric fuzzy control system for water tank level control. Through the simulation of the same controlled object, the non-symmetric fuzzy control system obtains a good dynamic response and convergence time, which proves that this method is effective and superior compared with the conventional fuzzy control system.%水箱液位变化过程具有非线性、时变性和不确定性,采用传统的控制理论与方法很难获得较满意的动态性能和稳态响应;基于常规模糊控制系统可以实现水箱液位的稳态控制,但常规模糊控制系统存在动态性能不足和稳态响应时间长等问题。针对以上问题,设计了一种非对称模糊控制系统用于水箱液位的控制。通过仿真实验,验证了非对称模糊控制系统可获得良好的动态响应,同时在稳态收敛时间上优于常规的模糊控制系统,从而证明了该方法的有效性和优越性。

  13. Three-dimensional numerical simulation for combining clear water tank and ozone contactor%臭氧接触池与清水池合建的三维数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 施周; 周石庆; 陆先镭

    2012-01-01

    利用计算流体力学软件Fluent,结合标准κ-ε模型和组分输运模型,建立了臭氧接触池和清水池的三维紊流模型;通过计算流体的停留时间分布曲线(RTD),对臭氧接触池的水力效率进行了模拟研究。在此基础上,提出了在清水池前段第一廊道设置臭氧接触池的合建方案。结果表明:单一的臭氧接触池水力效率较低,T10/HRT值仅为0.42;而臭氧接触池与清水池经过合建后,T10/HRT值达到0.65,其臭氧消毒水力效率提高了55%。%The computational fluid dynamics software Fluent was adopted to build the three dimensional model of ozone contactor and clear water tank,and a standard κ-ε model and a species transport model were employed.An optimized simulation of the hydraulic efficiency for ozone contactor and clear water tank was conducted through simulating and calculating the retention time distribution(RTD) curve.And on the above basis,the modified design of setting an ozone contactor in the first corridor of clear water tank was proposed.The results of our experiments indicated that the single ozone contactor had a low hydraulic efficiency with the T10/HRT=0.42.However,after the optimization of design by combining the clear water tank and the ozone contactor,the hydraulic efficiency increased by 55%,and the value of T10/HRT reached up to 0.65.

  14. 接触网冲洗车组用水罐车的研制%Design of the Water-tank Lorry of the Set of Cars for Washing Overhead Contact System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭英; 张增礼; 苑玉刚

    2013-01-01

      水罐车是为接触网冲洗车组提供水源而研制的新型铁路罐车,该车装用转K2型转向架,采用专用的管路结构,具有进排水速度快、操作方便、运营速度高等特点。文章介绍了该车的用途、技术参数、主要结构、车辆特点、研制情况。%  Water-tank lorry is a new type of railway tank car which is specially designed to provide water for the overhead contact system, it is equipped with type K2 bogies and uses a special canal structure,therefore,it has the following characteristics: higher speed of water flooding and drainage,convenient operation,and travelling faster. This paper mainly introduces its uses, technical parameters,main structure and char⁃acteristics. In conclusion part, the author also mentions the feedback of the production after its being used.

  15. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. 431.102 Section 431.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks § 431.102 Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks....

  16. HANFORD TANK CLEANUP UPDATE MAY 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retrieval of waste from single-shell tank C-110 resumed in January making it the first waste retrieval operation for WRPS since taking over Hanford's Tank Operations Contract last October. Now, with approximately 90 percent of the waste removed, WRPS believes that modified sluicing has reached the limits of the technology to remove any further waste and is preparing documentation for use in decision making about any future retrieval actions. Tank C-110 is located in C Fann near the center of the Hanford Site. It is a 530,000 gallon tank, built in 1946, and held approximately 126,000 gallons of sludge and other radioactive and chemical waste materials when retrieval resumed. Modified sluicing technology uses liquid waste from a nearby double-shell tank to break up, dissolve and mobilize the solid material so it can be pumped. Because of the variety of waste fon11S, sluicing is often not able to remove all of the waste. The remaining waste will next be sampled for analysis, and results will be used to guide decisions regarding future actions. Work is moving rapidly in preparation to retrieve waste from a second single-shell tank this summer and transfer it to safer double-shell tank storage. Construction activities necessary to retrieve waste from Tank C-104, a 530,000 gallon tank built in 1943, are approximately 60 percent complete as WRPS maintains its focus on reducing the risk posed by Hanford's aging single-shell waste tanks. C-104 is one of Hanford's oldest radioactive and chemical waste storage tanks, containing approximately 263,000 gallons of wet sludge with a top layer that is dry and powdery. This will be the largest sludge volume retrieval ever attempted using modified sluicing technology. Modified sluicing uses high pressure water or liquid radioactive waste sprayed from nozzles above the waste. The liquid dissolves and/or mobilizes the waste so it can be pumped. In addition to other challenges, tank C-104 contains a significant amount of plutonium and

  17. New technologies for integrated treatment of vent gas from sour water tank farm in refinery%炼厂酸性水罐区气体减排和治理新技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方向晨; 刘忠生; 郭兵兵; 王海波

    2012-01-01

    Sour water tank farm is the largest waste water tank farm in refinery. The vent gas of which consists of H2S, ammonia, organic sulfides, oil vapor, steam and air. Direct emission of odor gas will pollute the air and waste oil vapor. The emission can be reduced more than 50% by degassing waste water, connecting vent gas pipelines together, reducing gas volume in the tank, arranging the drain time at night, etc. The fire by auto-ignition of FeS can be prevented by introducing inert gases to the tank. The vent gas of the tank farm is treated by "low-temperature diesel oil absorption-alkali absorption" ; The diesel oil comes from FCC fractionator and the rich absorption oil flows to hydrotreating unit. When the hydrogen sulfide is absorbed by sodium hydroxide or ammonia, the spent absorption liquid is treated in sour water tank. When hydrogen sulfide is absorbed by alcohol amine, the rich absorption liquid enters regeneration system. The removal rate of hydrogen sulfide and organic sulfides of the process is close to 100% and the recovery rate of NH3 is 60% -90% , the recovery rate of oil vapor is higher than 95% , and the oil vapor concentration in the purified gas is less than 25 g/cm3, and the emission concentrations (kg/h) of H2S, NH3, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide are all below (GB 14544-93) "Emission Standards for Odor Pollutants".%酸性水罐区是炼油厂最大的污水罐区,排放气中含有高浓度H2S,NH3,有机硫化物、油气、水蒸气和空气,直接排放导致空气恶臭污染严重且浪费油气资源.采用来水脱气罐、罐顶气连通管网、减少罐内气相空间体积、将排水高峰安排在夜间等措施,可减排气体50%以上.采用罐内气相空间惰性气保护,可防止硫化亚铁自燃引发火灾事故.罐区排放气采用“低温粗柴油吸收-碱液吸收”工艺,粗柴油来自催化裂化分馏塔或常压塔,富吸收油进加氢装置处理;采用

  18. Tank characterization reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research

  19. Tank characterization reference guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Simpson, B.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research.

  20. DETERMINACIÓN DEL TIEMPO DE MEZCLA EN UN TANQUE DE ALMACENAMIENTO PARA AGUA POTABLE MEDIANTE DINÁMICA DE FLUIDOS COMPUTACIONAL -CFD- Determining the Blend Time in a Drinking Water Storage Tank through Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Laín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Para estimar el comportamiento hidráulico de un tanque de almacenamiento de agua potable se usó un programa para la simulación de dinámica computacional de fluidos, evaluando numéricamente los perfiles de velocidad y el tiempo de mezcla. Los perfiles de velocidad mostraron un valor máximo a la salida de 0,76 m.s-1 y velocidades de 0,2 m.s-1 cerca de las paredes, propiciando zonas de recirculación cerca del chorro de entrada. La inyección del trazador y el coeficiente de variación para 17 puntos de monitoreo en el tanque resultaron en un tiempo de mezcla de 19,06 horas y se verificó que cerca de las paredes la mezcla es menos eficiente que en la trayectoria del chorro de entrada. El volumen necesario que debe entrar al tanque para que haya buena mezcla resultó inversamente proporcional a la masa de agua almacenada.In order to estimate the hydraulic behavior of a drinking water storage tank, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD simulation program was used to numerically evaluate blend speed and time profiles. Speed profiles showed a maximum value when leaving at 0.76 m.s-1 and 0.2 m.s-1 speeds near walls, creating recirculation areas near the inlet stream. Injection of tracer and the variation coefficient for 17 monitoring points in the tank resulted in a blend time of 19.06 hours and it was found that the blend near walls is less efficient than in the inlet stream trajectory. Necessary volume to enter the tank in order to achieve a good blend was inversely proportional to the water mass stored.

  1. Analysis of the Impact of Parameters on the Quality of Overflowed Water and the Volumes of Stormwater Tanks According to the ATV-A 128E Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Rutar, Andreja

    2008-01-01

    This work focuses on the German ATV-A 128E standard used for the design and dimensioning of stormwater overflows in combined wastewater sewers. The work is divided into four logical sections, while the essential part covers the procedure of specifying the volumes of the stormwater tanks and the parameters used in that procedure. The first part of the work describes the retention and overflow facilities, their purpose and their function. In the second part, the basic points of the standard are...

  2. TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-05-31

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion (<1200 mg/l). (4) Experimental tests with sludge batch 6 simulant and field turbidity data from a recent Tank 21 mixing evolution suggest the solid

  3. Tank 241-C-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-105

  4. Tank 241-TY-104 Tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-15

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-C Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-TY-104.

  5. Tank 241-TY-106 Tank Characterization Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-22

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-TY-106.

  6. Tank 241-BX-103 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, K.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-04-21

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BX-103.

  7. Tank 241-C-203: Tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-03-06

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-C-203.

  8. Tank 241-U-201 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-21

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 22-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-U-201.

  9. Tank 241-SX-115 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1995-04-24

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Project, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-SX-115.

  10. Tank 241-C-202: Tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-03-06

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-C-202.

  11. Tank 241-U-202 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-21

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-U-202.

  12. Tank 241-C-101 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-12-06

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-101.

  13. Enhanced sludge reduction in septic tanks by increasing temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pussayanavin, Tatchai; Koottatep, Thammarat; Eamrat, Rawintra; Polprasert, Chongrak

    2015-01-01

    Septic tanks in most developing countries are constructed without drainage trenches or leaching fields to treat toilet wastewater and /or grey water. Due to the short hydraulic retention time, effluents of these septic tanks are still highly polluted, and there is usually high accumulation of septic tank sludge or septage containing high levels of organics and pathogens that requires frequent desludging and subsequent treatment. This study aimed to reduce sludge accumulation in septic tanks by increasing temperatures of the septic tank content. An experimental study employing two laboratory-scale septic tanks fed with diluted septage and operating at temperatures of 40 and 30°C was conducted. At steady-state conditions, there were more methanogenic activities occurring in the sludge layer of the septic tank operating at the temperature of 40°C, resulting in less total volatile solids (TVS) or sludge accumulation and more methane (CH4) production than in the unit operating at 30°C. Molecular analysis found more abundance and diversity of methanogenic microorganisms in the septic tank sludge operating at 40°C than at 30°C. The reduced TVS accumulation in the 40°C septic tank would lengthen the period of septage removal, resulting in a cost-saving in desluging and septage treatment. Cost-benefit analysis of increasing temperatures in septic tanks was discussed. PMID:25438134

  14. 33 CFR 183.514 - Fuel tanks: Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tested under 33 CFR 183.510(a).” (8) If the tank is tested under § 183.584 at less than 25g vertical... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tanks: Labels. 183.514...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.514 Fuel...

  15. Investigation of the Solvis stratification inlet pipe for solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Jordan, Ulrike; Shah, Louise Jivan;

    2004-01-01

    water tank. The temperature of the storage water heated by the solar collector loop usually varies strongly during the day. In order to reach a good thermal stratification in the tank, different types of pipes, plates, diffusers and other devices have been investigated in the past (e.g. Loehrke, 1979......Since the 1960’ties the influence of the thermal stratification in hot water tanks on the thermal performance of solar heating systems has been studied intensively. It was found, that the thermal performance of a solar heating system is increasing for increasing thermal stratification in the hot...

  16. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Mike [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Herbert, James E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scheele, Patrick W. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m3 to 4921 m3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and

  17. 解读TANKED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    品牌为重、创造为先,Tanked racing用不走“寻常路”给国内众多同行们生动地上了一课。通过持续近四年的高速成长,Tanked racingE成为中国头盔业翘楚,然而Tanked racing并不局限于此,因为未来的舞台还很大。

  18. Tank 241-Z-361 process and characterization history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.A.

    1998-08-06

    An Unreviewed Safety Question (Wagoner, 1997) was declared based on lack of adequate authorization basis for Tank 241-Z-361 in the 200W Area at Hanford. This document is a summary of the history of Tank 241-Z-361 through December 1997. Documents reviewed include engineering files, laboratory notebooks from characterization efforts, waste facility process procedures, supporting documents and interviews of people`s recollections of over twenty years ago. Records of transfers into the tank, past characterization efforts, and speculation were used to estimate the current condition of Tank 241-Z-361 and its contents. Information about the overall waste system as related to the settling tank was included to help in understanding the numbering system and process relationships. The Plutonium Finishing Plant was built in 1948 and began processing plutonium in mid-1949. The Incinerator (232-Z) operated from December 1961 until May 1973. The Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF, 236-Z) began operation in May 1964. The Waste Treatment Facility (242-Z) operated from August 1964 until August 1976. Waste from some processes went through transfer lines to 241-Z sump tanks. High salt and organic waste under normal operation were sent to Z-9 or Z-18 cribs. Water from the retention basin may have also passed through this tank. The transfer lines to 241-Z were numbered D-4 to D-6. The 241-Z sump tanks were numbered D-4 through D-8. The D-4, 5, and 8 drains went to the D-6 sump tank. When D-6 tank was full it was transferred to D-7 tank. Prior to transfer to cribs, the D-7 tank contents was sampled. If the plutonium content was analyzed to be more than 10 g per batch, the material was (generally) reprocessed. Below the discard limit, caustic was added and the material was sent to the cribs via the 241-Z-361 settling tank where solids settled out and the liquid overflowed by gravity to the cribs. Waste liquids that passed through the 241-Z-361 settling tank flowed from PFP to ground in

  19. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... washing. 157.160 Section 157.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  20. Tank 48 - Chemical Destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simner, Steven P.; Aponte, Celia I.; Brass, Earl A.

    2013-01-09

    Small tank copper-catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) is a potentially viable technology to facilitate the destruction of tetraphenylborate (TPB) organic solids contained within the Tank 48H waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A maturation strategy was created that identified a number of near-term development activities required to determine the viability of the CCPO process, and subsequent disposition of the CCPO effluent. Critical activities included laboratory-scale validation of the process and identification of forward transfer paths for the CCPO effluent. The technical documentation and the successful application of the CCPO process on simulated Tank 48 waste confirm that the CCPO process is a viable process for the disposition of the Tank 48 contents.

  1. TANK CAR CONSTRUCTION REFINMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Soberzhansjkyj

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase of volume and load-carrying capacity of tank cars is an urgent task for improving the efficiency of transportation of liquid bulk cargoes. Variants of the constructive and technical approaches, which allow increasing the specified indices, are considered. After the analysis the most rational constructive scheme meeting the modern requirements for tank cars and allowing to raise their productivity is chosen.

  2. TANK 5 SAMPLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrettos, N; William Cheng, W; Thomas Nance, T

    2007-11-26

    Tank 5 at the Savannah River Site has been used to store high level waste and is currently undergoing waste removal processes in preparation for tank closure. Samples were taken from two locations to determine the contents in support of Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) development for chemical cleaning. These samples were obtained through the use of the Drop Core Sampler and the Snowbank Sampler developed by the Engineered Equipment & Systems (EES) group of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL).

  3. 西门子高密度沉淀池在煤化工回用水的应用研究%Applied Research on Recycle Water of Coal Chemical Industry in SIEMENS High-density Sedimentation Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李孝洪

    2012-01-01

      某煤制烯烃项目回用水装置采用德国西门子公司高密度沉淀池专利技术,该装置自2010年5月底运行至今,曾多次出现影响高密度沉淀池正常运行的严重问题,具体表现为沉淀区产生高浓度黏泥无法正常排出和絮凝区产生积泥破坏絮凝区水动力平衡,最终导致高密度沉淀池出水不合格。为了解决这些难题,经过不断摸索,通过控制絮凝区和沉淀区较低的5min沉降比与定时排泥相结合和改变絮凝区搅拌器的转动方向的运行方式,系统运行近3个月后未出现上述问题,表明采取的措施有一定效果。%  The high-density sedimentation tank patent technology, belonging to German Siemens Company, is adopted by water reuse device of a coal-to-olefin project. Since the end of May 2010, the device has appeared serious problems that effect normal operation of high-density sedimentation tank. Settling zone produced high concentration sludge that can not be discharged properly and flocculation zone produced mud that damage its water dynamic balance, eventually it leads to high density tank water unqualified. In order to solve these problems, we adopt a new mode of operation through continuous exploration:1. Control settlement ratio (5 minutes)of flocculation area and sedimentation zone combining with timing dredge;2. Change the rotation direction of agitator in flocculation zone. The system has not appeared afore-mentioned problems after running for nearly three months, showing that the measures adopted have certain effect.

  4. Criticality parameters for tank waste evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.A.; Harris, H.

    1996-08-21

    A summary is provided of basic parameters used to evaluate criticality safety of high-level tank waste at the Hanford Site.Critical sizes and plutonium concentrations are based on a conservative waste model with reduced neutron absorption and optimized water. Figures were provided of sphere and slab minimum critical dimensions and plutonium critical masses.Minimum subcritical limit absorber/plutonium mass ratios are provided for selected waste components. Component contributions to subcriticality can be combined by adding the individual actual-to-minimum subcritical mass fractions. A discussion is provided of the margin of safety inherent in tank waste.

  5. Selective crystallization of tank supernatant liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herting, D.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this task is to demonstrate the feasibility of selectively removing sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}) from Hanford Site tank waste by a large-scale fractional crystallization process. Two thirds of all the nuclear waste stored in Hanford`s underground storage tanks is sodium nitrate (mass basis, excluding water). Fractional crystallization can remove essentially nonradioactive NaNO{sub 3} and other sodium salts from the waste, thereby reducing the volume of low-level waste glass by as much as 90%.

  6. Dynamics of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in septic tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Andrew J; Amador, Manuel; Diaz, Annette; Smith, Josh; Barrera, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were found in large numbers emerging from septic tanks in southern Puerto Rico during the dry season. Previous studies suggested that Ae. aegypti uses subterranean aquatic habitats only during dry periods when surface containers do not have water. This research investigated whether septic tanks are alternative aquatic habitats that this mosquito uses during unfavorable times of the year, or whether Ae. aegypti uses this aquatic habitat throughout the year. To assess temporal change, exit traps were used to collect mosquitoes emerging from septic tanks in Playa/Playita, southern Puerto Rico, from November 2006 to October 2007. We also investigated the hypotheses that (1) the production of Ae. aegypti in septic tanks was larger than in surface containers and (2) adult mosquitoes emerging from septic tanks were larger than those emerging from surface containers. This study demonstrated that unsealed septic tanks produced large numbers of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus throughout the year, without any significant relationship with rainfall. The number of adult Ae. aegypti emerging per day from septic tanks in each community was 3 to 9 times larger than those produced in surface containers. It was also demonstrated that Ae. aegypti emerging from septic tanks were significantly larger than those emerging from surface container habitats. It is recommended that dengue prevention programs include regular inspection and maintenance of septic tanks in communities lacking sewerage.

  7. Analysis of embedded waste storage tanks subjected to seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Savannah River Site, High Activity Wastes are stored in carbon steel tanks that are within reinforced concrete vaults. These soil-embedded tank/vault structures are approximately 80 ft. in diameter and 40 ft. deep. The tanks were studied to determine the essentials of governing variables, to reduce the problem to the least number of governing cases to optimize analysis effort without introducing excessive conservatism. The problem reduced to a limited number of cases of soil-structure interaction and fluid (tank contents)-structure interaction problems. It was theorized that substantially reduced input would be realized from soil structure interaction (SSI) but that it was also possible that tank-to-tank proximity would result in (re)amplification of the input. To determine the governing seismic input motion, the three dimensional SSI code, SASSI, was used. Significant among the issues relative to waste tanks is the determination of fluid response and tank behavior as a function of tank contents viscosity. Tank seismic analyses and studies have been based on low viscosity fluids (water) and the behavior is quite well understood. Typical wastes (salts, sludge), which are highly viscous, have not been the subject of studies to understand the effect of viscosity on seismic response. The computer code DYNA3D was used to study how viscosity alters tank wall pressure distribution and tank base shear and overturning moments. A parallel hand calculation was performed using standard procedures. Conclusions based on this study provide insight into the quantification of the reduction of seismic inputs for soil structure interaction for a open-quotes softclose quotes soil site

  8. 111-B Metal Examination Facility Concrete Tanks Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 111-B Metal Examination Facility was a single-story, wood frame 'L'-shaped building built on a concrete floor slab. The facility served as a fuel failure inspection facility. Irradiated fuel pieces were stored and examined in two below grade concrete storage tanks filled with water. The tanks have been filled with grout to stabilize the contamination they contained, and overall dimensions are 5 ft 9 in. (1.5 m 22.8 cm ) wide, 9 ft 1 in. (2.7 m 2.54 cm ) deep, and 10 ft 8 in. (3.0 m 20.32 cm) long, and are estimated to weigh 39 tons. The tanks were used to store and examine failed fuel rods, using water as a radiation shield. The tanks were lined with stainless steel; however, drawings show the liner has been removed from at least one tank (south tank) and was partially filled with grout. The south tank was used to contain the Sample Storage Facility, a multi-level metal storage rack for failed nuclear fuel rods (shown in drawings H-1-2889 and -2890). Both tanks were completely grouted sometime before decontamination and demolition (D ampersand D) of the above ground facility in 1984. The 111-B Metal Examination Facility contained two concrete tanks located below floor level for storage and examination of failed fuel. The tanks were filled with concrete as part of decommissioning the facility prior to 1983 (see Appendix A for description of previous work). Funding for removal and disposal of the tanks ran out before they could be properly disposed

  9. Oxygen transfer in circular surface aeration tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Achanta Ramakrishna; Patel, Ajey Kumar; Kumar, Bimlesh

    2009-06-01

    Surface aeration systems employed in activated sludge plants are the most energy-intensive units of the plants and typically account for a higher percentage of the treatment facility's total energy use. The geometry of the aeration tank imparts a major effect on the system efficiency. It is said that at optimal geometric conditions, systems exhibits the maximum efficiency. Thus the quantification of the optimal geometric conditions in surface aeration tanks is needed. Optimal geometric conditions are also needed to scale up the laboratory result to the field installation. In the present work, experimental studies have been carried out on baffled and unbaffled circular surface aeration tanks to ascertain the optimal geometric conditions. It is found that no optimal geometric conditions exist for the liquid/water depth in circular surface aeration tanks; however, for design purposes, a standard value has been assumed. Based on the optimal geometric conditions, a scale-up equation has been developed for the baffled circular surface aeration tanks.

  10. F-AREA PUMP TANK 1 MIXING ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The F-area pump tanks are used to transfer supernate, sludge, and other materials. In any transfer, the solution must stay well mixed without allowing particulate matter to settle out of the liquid and, thus, accumulate in the bottom of the pump tank. Recently, the pulse jet mixing in F-area Pump Tank 1 (FPT1) has been decommissioned. An analysis of the liquid transfer through FPT1 has been performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to assess whether or not the velocities throughout the tank will remain high enough to keep all particulate suspended using only transfer and recirculation pumps. The following paragraph is an abbreviated synopsis of the transfer procedure for FPT1 (1, 2). Prior to a transfer, FPT1 begins to be filled with inhibited water through the inlet transfer line (TI). When the tank liquid level reaches 52.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom, the recirculation pump (RI and RO) is activated. At a tank liquid level of 72.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom, the outlet transfer line (TO) is activated to reduce the liquid level in FPT1 and transfer inhibited water to H-area Pump Tank 7 (HPT7). The liquid level is reduced down to 39.5 inches, with an allowable range from 37.5 to 41.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom. HPT7 goes through a similar procedure as FPT1 until both have tank liquid levels of approximately 39.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom. The transfer of inhibited water continues until a steady-state has been reached in both pump tanks. At this point, the supernate/sludge transfer begins with a minimum flow rate of 70 gpm and an average flow rate of 150 gpm. After the transfer is complete, the pump tanks (both FPT1 and HPT7) are pumped down to between 20.5 and 22.5 inches (above absolute bottom) and then flushed with 25,000 gallons of inhibited water to remove any possible sludge heal. After the flushing, the pump tanks are emptied. Note that the tank liquid level is measured using diptubes. Figure 2

  11. Qualidade química da água residual da criação de peixes para cultivo de alface em hidroponia Chemical quality of residual water from fish breeding tanks for cultivation of hydroponic lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco E. P. Cortez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a associação do cultivo de alface em hidroponia com utilização dos resíduos do sistema de criação intensiva de peixe, desenvolveu-se um trabalho no Centro de Aqüicultura, na FCAV-UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal, SP. A integração foi projetada para que a água circulasse de maneira fechada entre os sistemas, passando pelos tanques de criação de peixes, por um decantador, para remo��ão dos resíduos por um reservatório para conversão biológica da amônia em nitrato e pelo sistema hidropônico, retornando aos tanques de criação dos peixes. Foram avaliadas três cultivares de alface, que constituíram os tratamentos com quatro repetições. Os resultados da análise química da água residual da criação indicaram a presença da maioria dos nutrientes minerais necessários ao desenvolvimento vegetal, em concentração próxima aos valores encontrados em soluções nutritivas utilizadas para o cultivo da alface em hidroponia, exceto potássio e magnésio. A baixa concentração de magnésio na água não impediu o desenvolvimento da alface; entretanto, as plantas indicaram sintomas visuais de deficiência deste nutriente. Não houve diferenças entre as cultivares quanto à produtividade e ao peso fresco de plantas.Aiming to evaluate the association of hydroponic lettuce cultivation with residues from a fish intensive breeding system, a project was carried out in the Aquaculture Center in the FCAV-UNESP at Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. A closed system was designed in order to allow the water to circulate through the fish tanks, a clarifier tank for removal of residues, a reservoir for biological conversion of ammonia into nitrate, and the hydroponic system. After this process, water returned back to the fish tanks. Three varieties of lettuce, constituting the treatments with four repetitions were evaluated. The results of the chemical analysis of the residual water from the fish tanks indicated the presence of

  12. Sample preparation for semivolatile organics analysis of Hanford single-shell tank waste with high nitrate/nitrite and water content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stromatt, R.W.; Hoppe, E.W.; Steele, M.J.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes research work carried out to solve sample preparation problems associated with applying gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS) to the analysis of single shell tank (SST) samples from Hanford for semivolatile organic compounds. Poor performance was found when applying the procedures based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Contract Laboratory Program, Statement of Work (CLP SOW). Analysis work was carried out on simulated drainable liquid modeled after the SST core samples which had evidenced analysis problems. Some work was also conducted on true SST samples. It was found that the pH range was too broad in the original procedure. It was also found that by decreasing the amount of methanol used in the extraction process, problems associated with the formation of an azeotrope phase could be avoided. The authors suggest a new procedure, whose eventual application to a wide array of SST samples will lend itself to better quality control limits.

  13. THERMAL STRATIFICATION IN SOLAR DOMESTIC STORAGE TANKS CAUSED BY DRAW-OFFS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Furbo, Simon

    2003-01-01

    As shown in many research studies in the past, the thermal stratification of the tank caused by draw-offs has a high impact on the performance of a Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) system. Nevertheless, in most tank models for system simulations the influence of the draw-off pattern on the mixing...... behaviour is not taken into account sufficiently. Two typical Danish domestic water storage tanks, each with a volume of about 150 l, were investigated. In both tanks the inlet pipes are placed at the bottom and hot water is drawn from the upper part of tank. Above the inlet pipes, differently shaped plates...... are placed in order to reduce the mixing of the incoming cold water with the warmer storage water. To measure the thermal stratification thermocouples were placed in a vertical glass tube inside the tank. Measurements were carried out with different draw-off volumes, flow rates, and initial temperatures...

  14. Thermal Stratification in Small Solar Domestic Storage Tanks caused by Draw-offs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    As shown in many research studies in the past, the thermal stratification of the tank caused by draw-offs has a high impact on the performance of a Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) system. Nevertheless, in most tank models for system simulations the influence of the draw-off pattern on the mixing...... behaviour is not taken into account sufficiently. Two typical Danish domestic water storage tanks, each with a volume of about 150 l, were investigated. In both tanks the inlet pipes are placed at the bottom and hot water is drawn from the upper part of tank. Above the inlet pipes, differently shaped plates...... are placed in order to reduce the mixing of the incoming cold water with the warmer storage water. To measure the thermal stratification thermocouples were placed in a vertical glass tube inside the tank. Measurements were carried out with different draw-off volumes, flow rates, and initial temperatures...

  15. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrick, A.P.; Blackburn, L.D.; Brehm, W.F.; Carlos, W.C.; Hauptmann, J.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Danielson, M.J.; Westerman, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Divine, J.R. [ChemMet Ltd., West Richland, WA (United States); Foster, G.M. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy`s high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provides an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements: assessed. each requirement: and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of ASME SA 515, Grade 70, carbon steel.

  16. Inerting ballast tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, Gabriel L.; Bronneberg, Jos [SBM Offshore, AA Schiedam (Netherlands); Barros, Maria A.S.D. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This report expands upon the work conducted by SBM Offshore to develop a tank preservation treatment, which is intended to achieve a service life of 30 years. This work focuses on the corrosion problems, in the ballast tanks, based on new built hulls, both for the Gas Exploration Market, the FLNG - Floating Liquefied Natural Gas, and for the Oil Exploration market - FPSO's - Floating Production Storage and offloading Units. Herein, the corrosion rate input comes from the various references related to the process of nitrogen injection, which is expected to extend the vessel's time life. The essential elements of this solution comprise the deoxygenation process, corrosion models, coating effects, tests from laboratory, shipboard tests, corrosion institutes and regulations applicable to the operation. The best corrosion protection system for ballast tanks area combines a coating system and an inert gas system. The condition of the tanks will be dependent upon the level of protection applied to the steel structure, including, but not limited to coating, cathodic protection, etc. There is a need for products which extend the life time. It is not sufficient, only have good theoretical base for the corrosion and an excellent treatment system. In addition, the design of the ships structure must also eliminate the presence of local stress concentrations which can result in fatigue cracking and rupture of the protective coating barrier starting the corrosion. As a direct result of this, more problems in corrosion can be mitigated, vessels can have a better corrosion performance with less maintenance and repairs to coating systems in ballast tanks. Furthermore ships will be positively impacted operationally due to less frequent dry docking. There is a huge potential in the application of inert gas to combat the corrosion rate inside the ballast tanks, one of the most corrosive environments on earth. This application can have a direct impact on vessel structure

  17. Solar Storage Tank Insulation Influence on the Solar Systems Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negoitescu Arina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the storage tank of a solar system for domestic hot water production was analyzed the insulation thickness and material influence. To this end, it was considered a private house, occupied by 3 persons, located in zone I of thermal radiation, for which has been simulated the domestic hot water production process. The tank outlet hot water temperature was considered of 45°C. For simulation purposes, as insulation materials for the storage tank were taking into account glass wool and polyurethane with various thicknesses. Finally, was carried out the comparative analysis of two types of tanks, in terms of the insulation thickness influence on the solar fraction, annual solar contribution and solar annual productivity. It resulted that polyurethane is the most advantageous from all points of view.

  18. Septic tanks as larval habitats for the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Playa-Playita, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, R; Barrera, R; Lewis, M; Kluchinsky, T; Claborn, D

    2010-06-01

    Adult Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) were previously recovered from emergence traps on septic tanks in southeastern Puerto Rico. In this study we quantified immature mosquito abundance and its relationship with structural variables of the septic tanks and chemical properties of the water containing raw sewage. A miniaturized floating funnel trap was used to sample 89 septic tanks for larvae in the Puerto Rican community of Playa-Playita. Aedes aegypti larvae were recovered from 18% of the sampled tanks (10.3 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and uncovered access ports. Larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and larger tank surface areas, and inversely associated with the total dissolved solids (TDS). Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) larvae were also recovered from 74% of the septic tanks (129.6 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was negatively associated with TDS in the water and larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls. A screened, plastic emergence trap was used to sample 93 septic tanks within the community for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults. Aedes aegypti adults were recovered from 49% of the sampled tanks (8.7 adults per septic tank per day) and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults were recovered from 97% of the sampled tanks (155.5 adults per septic tank per day). Aedes aegypti adult presence was positively associated with cracking, uncapped openings and septic water pH. The Ae. aegypti adult counts were positively associated with cracking and inversely associated with TDS and conductivity. This study marks the first published record of the recovery of Ae. aegypti larvae from holding tanks containing raw sewage in the Caribbean region. Our study indicates that Ae. aegypti larvae are present in sewage water and that septic tanks have at least the potential to maintain

  19. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  20. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  1. Tank waste isotope contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the results of a calculation to determine the relative contribution of selected isotopes to the inhalation and ingestion doses for a postulated release of Hanford tank waste. The fraction of the dose due to 90Sr, 90Y, 137Cs and the alpha emitters for single shell solids and liquids, double shell solids and liquids, aging waste solids and liquids and all solids and liquids. An effective dose conversion factor was also calculated for the alpha emitters for each composite of the tank waste

  2. Leak-tight hot-water tanks out of ultra-high performance fibre reinforced concrete: Part 1: Design and construction of leak-tight hot-water tanks out of ultra-high performance fibre reinforced concrete. Part 2: Material tests and tests on the density of (ultra) high performance concrete. Final report; Dichte Heisswasser-Waermespeicher aus ultrahochfestem Faserfeinkornbeton. Teilbericht 1: Entwurf und Konstruktion dichter Heisswasser-Waermespeicher aus ultrahochfestem Faserfeinkornbeton. Teilbericht 2: Baustoffversuche und Versuche zur Dichtigkeit von (Ultra)Hochleistungsbeton. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reineck, K.H.; Greiner, S.; Reinhardt, H.W.; Jooss, M.

    2004-03-01

    The technical aims of the research project were achieved and it was proved that ultra-high-performance fibre reinforced concrete (UHPC) attains such a density that hot-water tanks can be built without an inner steel liner needed for normal concrete (NC). This also applies to high temperatures. For example, the steam diffusion coefficient D is 40-times lowe than for normal concrete and 6-times lower than high-strength concrete (HSC). The tensile strength of UHPC is so high that hot-water tanks can be designed without almost any reinforcement thus saving costs. The compressive strength, the axial, splitting and flexural tensile strength were tested with control specimens required for deriving design values. The design assumptions were checked by curved full-scale shell elements. So the basics for the design of hot-water tanks out of UHPC were defined, and the results were also considered in a state-of-the-art report by the DAfStb just being written. UHPC is best used for prefabricated elements, because a heat and/or a pressure treatment may be applied. Thus better material qualities can be assured and the final strength may be attained in 3 to 4 days so that the fabrication or construction process is considerably shortened. A main issue for using prefabricated elements is that the joints safely transfer the forces, and a joint construction was developed and successfully tested in pure tension. A cost comparison was performed of the hot-water-tank in Friedrichshafen (V=11.600 m{sup 3}) out of NC with an inner steel liner with designs out of HSC and UHPC, and the total costs for the tank decreased from 115 Euro/m{sup 3} for NC to 108 Euro/m{sup 3} for HSC and 87 Euro/m{sup 3} for UHPC. It is noteworthy that the costs for the dense concrete structure alone decreased relatively seen far more from 68 Euro/m{sup 3} for NC to 61 Euro/m{sup 3} for HSC and 40 Euro/m{sup 3} for UHPC. For a standardized tank with V=1.000 m{sup 3} the total costs were 132 Euro/m{sup 3} whereby

  3. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS & RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; JOHNSON KI; DEIBLER JE; PILLI SP; RINKER MW; KARRI NK

    2007-02-14

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive I-bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads, based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the I-bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive I-bolt failure leading to global

  4. Hanford waste tanks - light at the end of the tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POPPITI, J.A.

    1999-09-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) faced several problems in its Hanford Site tank farms in the early nineties. It had 177 waste tanks, ranging in size from 55,000 to 1,100,000 gallons, which contained more than 55 million gallons of liquid and solid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from a variety of processes. Unfortunately, waste transfer records were incomplete. Chemical reactions going on in the tanks were not totally understood. Every tank had high concentrations of powerful oxidizers in the form of nitrates and nitrites, and some tanks had relatively high concentrations of potential fuels that could react explosively with oxidizers. A few of these tanks periodically released large quantities of hydrogen and nitrous oxide, a mixture that was potentially more explosive than hydrogen and air. Both the nitrate/fuel and hydrogen/nitrous oxide reactions had the potential to rupture a tank exposing workers and the general public to unacceptably large quantities of radioactive material. One tank (241-C-106) was generating so much heat that water had to be added regularly to avoid thermal damage to the tank's concrete exterior shell. The tanks contained more than 250 million Curies of radioactivity. Some of that radioactivity was in the form of fissile plutonium, which represented a potential criticality problem. As awareness of the potential hazards grew, the public and various regulatory agencies brought increasing pressure on DOE to quantify the hazards and mitigate any that were found to be outside accepted risk guidelines. In 1990, then Representative, now Senator Ron Wyden (D-Oregon), introduced an amendment to Public Law 101-510, Section 3137, that required DOE to identify Hanford tanks that might have a serious potential for release of high-level waste.

  5. A summary description of the flammable gas tank safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive liquid waste may produce hydrogen as result of the interaction of gamma radiation and water. If the waste contains organic chelating agents, additional hydrogen as well as nitrous oxide and ammonia may be produced by thermal and radiolytic decomposition of these organics. Several high-level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks, located underground at the Hanford Site in Washington State, are on a Flammable Gas Watch List. Some contain waste that produces and retains gases until large quantities of gas are released rapidly to the tank vapor space. Tanks nearly-filled to capacity have relatively little vapor space; therefore if the waste suddenly releases a large amount of hydrogen and nitrous oxide, a flammable gas mixture could result. The most notable example of a Hanford waste tank with a flammable gas problem is tank 241-SY-101. Upon occasion waste stored in this tank has released enough flammable gas to burn if an ignition source had been present inside of the tank. Several, other Hanford waste tanks exhibit similar behavior although to a lesser magnitude. Because this behavior was hot adequately-addressed in safety analysis reports for the Hanford Tank Farms, an unreviewed safety question was declared, and in 1990 the Flammable Gas Tank Safety Program was established to address this problem. The purposes of the program are a follows: (1) Provide safety documents to fill gaps in the safety analysis reports, and (2) Resolve the safety issue by acquiring knowledge about gas retention and release from radioactive liquid waste and developing mitigation technology. This document provides the general logic and work activities required to resolve the unreviewed safety question and the safety issue of flammable gas mixtures in radioactive liquid waste storage tanks

  6. LOX Tank Helium Removal for Propellant Scavenging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chato, David J.

    2009-01-01

    System studies have shown a significant advantage to reusing the hydrogen and oxygen left in these tanks after landing on the Moon in fuel cells to generate power and water for surface systems. However in the current lander concepts, the helium used to pressurize the oxygen tank can substantially degrade fuel cell power and water output by covering the reacting surface with inert gas. This presentation documents an experimental investigation of methods to remove the helium pressurant while minimizing the amount of the oxygen lost. This investigation demonstrated that significant quantities of Helium (greater than 90% mole fraction) remain in the tank after draining. Although a single vent cycle reduced the helium quantity, large amounts of helium remained. Cyclic venting appeared to be more effective. Three vent cycles were sufficient to reduce the helium to small (less than 0.2%) quantities. Two vent cycles may be sufficient since once the tank has been brought up to pressure after the second vent cycle the helium concentration has been reduced to the less than 0.2% level. The re-pressurization process seemed to contribute to diluting helium. This is as expected since in order to raise the pressure liquid oxygen must be evaporated. Estimated liquid oxygen loss is on the order of 82 pounds (assuming the third vent cycle is not required).

  7. Development of an Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly for the ISS Urine Processor Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Carter, Donald Layne; Higbie, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Recovering water from urine is a process that is critical to supporting larger crews for extended missions aboard the International Space Station. Urine is collected, preserved, and stored for processing into water and a concentrated brine solution that is highly toxic and must be contained to avoid exposure to the crew. The brine solution is collected in an accumulator tank, called a Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) that must be replaced monthly and disposed in order to continue urine processing operations. In order to reduce resupply requirements, a new accumulator tank is being developed that can be emptied on orbit into existing ISS waste tanks. The new tank, called the Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA) is a metal bellows tank that is designed to collect concentrated brine solution and empty by applying pressure to the bellows. This paper discusses the requirements and design of the ARFTA as well as integration into the urine processor assembly.

  8. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF BLENDING RESIDUAL SOLIDS FROM TANKS 18/19 MOUNDS WITH TANK 7 OPERATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High level waste tanks 18F and 19F have residual mounds of waste which may require removal before the tanks can be closed. Conventional slurry pump technology, previously used for waste removal and tank cleaning, has been incapable of removing theses mounds from tanks 18F and 19F. A mechanical cleaning method has been identified that is potentially capable of removing and transferring the mound material to tank 7F for incorporation in a sludge batch for eventual disposal in high level waste glass by the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been requested to evaluate whether the material transferred from tanks 18F/19F by the mechanical cleaning technology can later be suspended in Tank 7F by conventional slurry pumps after mixing with high level waste sludge. The proposed mechanical cleaning process for removing the waste mounds from tanks 18 and 19 may utilize a high pressure water jet-eductor that creates a vacuum to mobilize solids. The high pressure jet is also used to transport the suspended solids. The jet-eductor system will be mounted on a mechanical crawler for movement around the bottom of tanks 18 and 19. Based on physical chemical property testing of the jet-eductor system processed IE-95 zeolite and size-reduced IE-95 zeolite, the following conclusions were made: (1) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite has a mean and median particle size (volume basis) of 115.4 and 43.3 microns in water. Preferential settling of these large particles is likely. (2) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite rapidly generates settled solid yield stresses in excess of 11,000 Pascals in caustic supernates and will not be easily retrieved from Tank 7 with the existing slurry pump technology. (3) Settled size-reduced IE-95 zeolite (less than 38 microns) in caustic supernate does not generate yield stresses in excess of 600 Pascals in less than 30 days. (4) Preferential settling of size-reduced zeolite is a function of the amount of

  9. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF BLENDING RESIDUAL SOLIDS FROM TANKS 18/19 MOUNDS WITH TANK 7 OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibling, R; Erich Hansen, E; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2007-03-29

    High level waste tanks 18F and 19F have residual mounds of waste which may require removal before the tanks can be closed. Conventional slurry pump technology, previously used for waste removal and tank cleaning, has been incapable of removing theses mounds from tanks 18F and 19F. A mechanical cleaning method has been identified that is potentially capable of removing and transferring the mound material to tank 7F for incorporation in a sludge batch for eventual disposal in high level waste glass by the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been requested to evaluate whether the material transferred from tanks 18F/19F by the mechanical cleaning technology can later be suspended in Tank 7F by conventional slurry pumps after mixing with high level waste sludge. The proposed mechanical cleaning process for removing the waste mounds from tanks 18 and 19 may utilize a high pressure water jet-eductor that creates a vacuum to mobilize solids. The high pressure jet is also used to transport the suspended solids. The jet-eductor system will be mounted on a mechanical crawler for movement around the bottom of tanks 18 and 19. Based on physical chemical property testing of the jet-eductor system processed IE-95 zeolite and size-reduced IE-95 zeolite, the following conclusions were made: (1) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite has a mean and median particle size (volume basis) of 115.4 and 43.3 microns in water. Preferential settling of these large particles is likely. (2) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite rapidly generates settled solid yield stresses in excess of 11,000 Pascals in caustic supernates and will not be easily retrieved from Tank 7 with the existing slurry pump technology. (3) Settled size-reduced IE-95 zeolite (less than 38 microns) in caustic supernate does not generate yield stresses in excess of 600 Pascals in less than 30 days. (4) Preferential settling of size-reduced zeolite is a function of the amount of

  10. Tank Bump Accident Potential and Consequences During Waste Retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRATZEL, D.R.

    2000-09-27

    This report provides an evaluation of Hanford tank bump accident potential and consequences during waste retrieval operations. The purpose of this report is to consider the best available new information to support recommendations for safety controls. A new tank bump accident analysis for safe storage (Epstein et al. 2000) is extended for this purpose. A tank bump is a postulated event in which gases, consisting mostly of water vapor, are suddenly emitted from the waste and cause tank headspace pressurization. Tank bump scenarios, physical models, and frequency and consequence methods are fully described in Epstein et al. (2000). The analysis scope is waste retrieval from double-shell tanks (DSTs) including operation of equipment such as mixer pumps and air lift circulators. The analysis considers physical mechanisms for tank bump to formulate criteria for bump potential during retrieval, application of the criteria to the DSTs, evaluation of bump frequency, and consequence analysis of a bump. The result of the consequence analysis is the mass of waste released from tanks; radiological dose is calculated using standard methods (Cowley et al. 2000).

  11. Analysis of waste storage tanks subjected to seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Savannah River Site, High Activity Wastes are stored in carbon steel tanks that are within reinforced concrete vaults. These soil-embedded tank/vault structures are approximately 24m in diameter and 12m deep. Twenty-seven of these tanks required seismic analysis. The problem was reduced to a limited number of cases of soil-structure interaction and fluid-structure interaction problems. It was theorized that substantially reduced seismic input could be realized from soil structure interaction (SSI) but that it was also possible that tank-to-tank proximity could result in (re)amplification of the input. To determine the governing seismic input motion, the three dimensional SSI code, SASSI, was used. Also of concern was fluid response and tank behavior as a function of tank contents viscosity. Tank seismic analyses and studies have been based on low viscosity fluids (water) and the behavior is quite well understood. Typical wastes (salts, sludge), which are highly viscous, have not been the subject of studies to understand the effect of viscosity on seismic response. Conclusions based on this study provide insight into the quantification of the of seismic inputs for soil structure interaction for a 'soft' soil site and provides some conclusions for dealing with the viscosity variable. (author)

  12. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    closure operations. Subsequent down selection was based on compressive strength and saturated hydraulic conductivity results. Fresh slurry property results were used as the first level of screening. A high range water reducing admixture and a viscosity modifying admixture were used to adjust slurry properties to achieve flowable grouts. Adiabatic calorimeter results were used as the second level screening. The third level of screening was used to design mixes that were consistent with the fill material parameters used in the F-Tank Farm Performance Assessment which was developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closures.

  13. Effective use RAS technolgy for breeding of ornamental fish in garden tanks.

    OpenAIRE

    MITÁŠ, Jaromír

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the efficiency of the technology RAS for water cleaning and conditioning for ornamental tanks with an emphasis on sustainable conservation of water transparency. Initial costs for building the tank, operational costs and costs of purchasing fish were compared. Results include measurements that have been carried out on private property of the author, who breeds ornamental koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). The filtration of breeding tank was formed by vortex, by...

  14. CORRELATION OF EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL HEAT TRANSFER IN MANTLE TANKS USED IN LOW FLOW SDHW SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations of vertical mantle tanks for solar domestic hot water systems have been carried out. Differently designed mantle tanks have been evaluated in a laboratory test facility and a transient three-dimensional CFD-model of one of the mantle tanks is developed......-calculations are used to carry out a detailed analysis of the heat transfer from the solar collector fluid to the wall of the inner tank. The analysis has resulted in a local Nusselt-Rayleigh correlation for the heat transfer between the solar collector fluid and the wall of the inner tank....

  15. 炼油厂酸性水原料罐恶臭气体综合治理新方法%New comprehensive treatment method of effluvial gas of sour water feed tanks in refineries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成军; 邓建勇; 温世昌

    2013-01-01

    提供了一种对酸性水原料罐排放气污染进行综合治理的方法。该法不同于以往的吸附法、吸收法或冷凝法,而是根据酸性水汽提装置的工艺特点,通过改变工艺流程和操作条件,最大限度地降低酸性水原料罐中易挥发组分的浓度,实现污染治理。主要措施包括:①将酸性水脱气罐操作压力降低到0.05~0.10 M Pa;②用汽提塔塔底净化水的低温余热将进酸性水脱气罐的酸性水加热至55~60℃,使酸性水脱气罐在较高的操作温度下操作;③将单塔汽提中的一、二、三级分凝液或双塔汽提中的氨汽提塔塔顶回流罐的液相返回物流送入一个循环液缓冲罐中,然后用泵升压并送至酸性水原料泵出口的酸性水管线上;④将酸性水原料罐中油层厚度适当增加至600~900 mm ,形成油封,以有效地阻止H2 S等恶臭气体组分从酸性水原料罐中逃逸等。上述措施实施后,酸性水原料罐在正常操作状态下无恶臭气体排出。该法具有不需要外部的吸附剂、吸收剂或冷冻剂,投资及运行费用低,操作简单,没有二次污染的优点。%This article provides a comprehensive treatment of the effluvial gas of sour water feed tanks .Different from normal treatment such as adsorption ,absorption or condensation ,and based on the process characteristics of sour water stripper ,this method decreases the volatile components content maximally by changing process flow and operating conditions . The main measures include :① The operating pressure of sour water degassing drum is kept as low as pos-sible (0 .05-0 .1 MPa);② Sour water in degassing drum is heated to 55-60 ℃ using low tem-perature waste heat of purifying water from the stripping bottom to make the degassing drum op-erated in higher temperature .③ The first ,second and third stage condensate liquid in single stripping tower or the return liquid from ammonia

  16. Low-Power Anechoic Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Develops and evaluates the effectiveness of electronic attack (EA) techniques against antiship cruise missiles. All terminal countermeasures programmed in...

  17. Radio Frequency Anechoic Chamber Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the design, manufacture, and test of antenna systems. The facility is also used as an electromagnetic compatibility/radio frequency interference...

  18. Design of a Surge Tank Throttle for Tonstad Hydropower Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Gomsrud, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis has been to evaluate the effect of throttling the surge tanks at Tonstad Hydropower Plant, by the means of one-dimensional numerical modelling in the program LVTrans. The background of the thesis is problems with the amplitude of mass oscillations in the surge tanks at Tonstad, causing restrictions on operation, due to the fear of drawing the surge tank water level down to a level where air enters the sand trap and initiates free surface flow. The numerical mod...

  19. Solar combi system based on a mantle tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    . The thermal performance of the solar combisystem is compared to the thermal performance of a solar domestic hot water system based on a mantle tank. In the experimental study, tank temperatures and the heat transfer coefficient for the top mantle for a discharge test is determined. The investigations showed......A solar combisystem based on a mantle tank is investigated numerically and experimentally. Three different houses with four different radiator systems are considered for the simulations. The needed temperature for the auxiliary heater is determined for different houses and radiator systems...

  20. Tank characterization technical sampling basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.M.

    1998-04-28

    Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis (this document) is the first step of an in place working process to plan characterization activities in an optimal manner. This document will be used to develop the revision of the Waste Information Requirements Document (WIRD) (Winkelman et al. 1997) and ultimately, to create sampling schedules. The revised WIRD will define all Characterization Project activities over the course of subsequent fiscal years 1999 through 2002. This document establishes priorities for sampling and characterization activities conducted under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Characterization Project. The Tank Waste Characterization Project is designed to provide all TWRS programs with information describing the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of the contents of waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. These tanks contain radioactive waste generated from the production of nuclear weapons materials at the Hanford Site. The waste composition varies from tank to tank because of the large number of chemical processes that were used when producing nuclear weapons materials over the years and because the wastes were mixed during efforts to better use tank storage space. The Tank Waste Characterization Project mission is to provide information and waste sample material necessary for TWRS to define and maintain safe interim storage and to process waste fractions into stable forms for ultimate disposal. This document integrates the information needed to address safety issues, regulatory requirements, and retrieval, treatment, and immobilization requirements. Characterization sampling to support tank farm operational needs is also discussed.

  1. 锅炉储水罐液位控制系统的创新设计%Innovative Design of Liquid Level Control System of Boiler Water Storage Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡江平

    2014-01-01

    In view of the imperfect of the existing boiler whose control device of liquid level of water storage tank can't accu-rately control water level, this paper designed a kind of safe ,reliable and accurate ultrasonic liquid level control system. Through the ultrasonic non-contact measurement, the chemical and physical properties of liquid of the system turned out to be adaptively strong. Simple structure, easy installation, high measurement precision, wide applicability integrate the system.%针对现有锅炉储水罐液位控制装置,不能精确控制水位的缺陷,设计了一种安全可靠、精确度高的超声波液位控制系统。该系统通过超声波非接触测量,液体的物理、化学性质的适应性极强。该系统结构简单、安装方便、测量精度高、适用性广。

  2. Upgrading a 1950s tank farm to meet the environmental standards of the 1990S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Texaco Inc. Research and Development (Texaco) facility in Beacon, New York includes an above ground storage tank (AST) farm, known as Tank Farm No. 1, which consists of eighteen tanks with capacities ranging from 10,000 to 21,000 gallons. A second tank farm, at the Texaco, Beacon facility, designated as the Boiler House Tank Farm, includes three additional tanks with capacities from 10,000 to 44,900 gallons. The Tank Farm No. 1 AST systems are all vertical, carbon steel tanks which were initially installed in several phases in the 1950s. The Boiler House Tank Farm ASTs are also vertical, carbon steel tanks, including one riveted construction tank that was installed in 1931. Each of the Texaco ASTs are used to store a variety of petroleum products, including diesel fuel, stoddard solvent, used oil, and various grades of gasoline and gasoline components. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) has established regulations for petroleum bulk storage in 6 NYCRR Parts 612 through 614. These regulations include requirements for monitoring and inspecting AST systems, including a rigorous ''out of service'' inspection, to be completed at least once every ten years. Although several revisions had been completed at Tank Farm No. 1 in recent years, including installation of a reinforced concrete secondary containment dike system and new above ground piping, the tank shells and most appurtenances (e.g. water drawoff valves), were unmodified since they were initially installed. On this basis, Texaco decided to upgrade the AST systems in conjunction with the NYSDEC ten-year inspections, by installing reinforced fiberglass liners in the tank floors, and by removing and/or replacing tank appurtenances to meet current industry standards and fire code requirements. This paper presents a summary of the program implemented to upgrade the Texaco, Beacon tank farm AST systems

  3. Reducing a solar-assisted air-conditioning system’s energy consumption by applying real-time occupancy sensors and chilled water storage tanks throughout the summer: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We present an innovative occupancy and chilled water storage-based operation mode. • This mode was implemented to the solar-assisted air-conditioning system. • It permits to save 42% of total electrical energy during one cooling period. • It allows storing the excess cooling capacity of the absorption chiller. • It prevents the sudden start/stop (on/off cycles) of the absorption chiller. - Abstract: This study describes an innovative occupancy and chilled-water storage-based operation sequence implemented in a solar-assisted air-conditioning system. The core purpose of this solar-assisted air-conditioning system is to handle the cooling and heating load of the Solar Energy Research Centre (CIESOL), thus minimising its environmental impact. In this study, the cooling mode was investigated with special attention focused on the chilled-water storage circuit. The critical concern is that the solar-assisted air-conditioning system should always operate considering the actual load conditions, not using an abstract maximum load that is predetermined during the system’s design process, which can lead to energy waste during periods of low occupancy. Thus, the fundamental problem is to identify the optimum operation sequence for the solar-assisted air-conditioning system that provides the best energy performance. The significance of this work lies in the demonstration of a new operation strategy that utilises real-time occupancy monitoring and chilled-water storage tanks to improve the efficiency of solar-assisted air-conditioning systems, thereby reducing their electricity consumption. Adopting this strategy resulted in a large energy-saving potential. The results demonstrate that during one cooling period, it is possible to conserve approximately 42% of the total electrical energy consumed by the system prior to the adoption of this operation strategy

  4. 27 CFR 25.145 - Tanks, vehicles, and vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Marks, Brands, and Labels § 25.145 Tanks, vehicles, and... mark each tank, tank car, tank truck, tank ship, barge, or deep tank of a vessel in accordance...

  5. Optimize Sedimentation Tank and Lab Flocculation Unit by CFD

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Duo

    2014-01-01

    This work aim at introduce basic knowledge of CFD and it’s application in optimization of sedimentation tank and lab flocculation units. A series of specialized strategies are developed for the simulation of the sedimentation tanks and lab flocculation units. Chapter 1 is general introduction of particle removal in water and wastewater treatment, includes particle separation, as well as particle removal during chemical treatment and biological treatment. In chapter 2, background and appli...

  6. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 157 - Damage Assumptions, Hypothetical Outflows, and Cargo Tank Size and Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Outflows, and Cargo Tank Size and Arrangements A Appendix A to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Pt. 157, App. A Appendix A to Part 157... from tank vessels, three dimensions of the extent of damage of a parallelepiped on the side and...

  7. 33 CFR 157.110 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.110 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank...

  8. 33 CFR 157.108 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.108 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for U.S. tank...

  9. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks. 1304.403 Section 1304.403 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE... OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.403 Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks. All...

  10. Thermal layering in a 6000 litre accumulator tank with a perforated intake pipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    1996-01-01

    The thermal stratification in a 6000 l hot water tank with an advanced inlet pipe was studied, both theoretical and experimental.......The thermal stratification in a 6000 l hot water tank with an advanced inlet pipe was studied, both theoretical and experimental....

  11. Theoretical study of solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - Low flow bikini solar combisystems and high flow tank-in-tank solar combisystems have been studied theoretically. The aim of the paper is to study which of these two solar combisystem designs is suitable for different houses. The thermal performance of solar combisystems based on the two...... different heat storage types is compared. Design/methodology/approach - The thermal performance of Low flow bikini solar combisystems and high flow tank-in-tank solar combisystems is calculated with the simulation program TRNSYS. Two different TRNSYS models based on measurements were developed and used....... Findings - Based on the calculations it is concluded that low flow solar combisystems based on bikini tanks are promising for low energy buildings, while solar combisystems based on tank-in-tank stores are attractive for the houses with medium heating demand and old houses with high heating demand...

  12. A science think tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning

  13. Design of an Distributed Oil -water Interface Monitoring System for Crude Oil Tank%一种分布式原油储罐油水界面监测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 张彩丽; 任喜伟

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the technical demand of oil recovery factory for auto measuring oil - water interface parameters, a designing method of composed of matrix form distributed micro - capacitance oil - water interface measuring device is provided based on introducing the principle of capacitor method for level measuring, the analysis algorithm is put forward for processing the measured data array, and a distributed oil - water interface monitoring system for crude oil tank is implemented with RS485 communication network. The system composition, protocols of RS485 communication, and main programming flow of the system is expatiated in detail. Application result indicates that the system has measuring precision of less than 10cm, and has the features of reliably function, which can play significant performance in the application of actual production process.%针对采油厂原油储罐油水界面参数自动化测量的技术需求,在介绍电容法测量液位原理的基础上,给出了一种矩阵式分布的微电容串组结构的油水界面测量仪的设计方法,探讨了测量结果的阵列数据获取界面参数的数据分析方法,并借助RS485通信网络实现了原油储罐油水界面的分布式测量;详细阐述了该分布式测量系统的组成、通信协议和主要程序流程;实际应用结果表明,该系统测量精度可达到≤10cm,工作可靠,可以在生产过程中发挥积极作用.

  14. INVESTIGATIONS OF THE FLOW INTO A STORAGE TANK BY MEANS OF ADVANCED EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL METHODS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Advanced experimental methods were applied to study flow structures of a water jet entering a tank from the bottom. A squared experimental glass tank with a volume of about 140 l was used. Above the inlet pipe a flat plate was installed, as shown in the figure. The goal of the investigations is t...... investigations the validated CFD models can be utilized to develop more accurate simulation tank models for performance studies of solar domestic hot water systems and to enhance the geometry of inlet devices for solar storage tanks....

  15. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable.

  16. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable

  17. Effect of three innovative culture systems on water quality and whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV) viral load in WSSV-fed Penaeus monodon cultured in indoor tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alapide-Tendencia, E.V.; Bosma, R.H.; Rose Sorio, L.

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus is the most important among the shrimp diseases. It has been devastating the shrimp industry for more than 3 decades. Previous studies reported that greater percentage of yellow colonies on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar (yellow vibrios) in the rearing water, ab

  18. GIS Analysis to Assess where Shallow Ground Water Supplies in the United States are Vulnerable to Contamination by Releases of Motor Fuel from Underground Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data reported on the long form of the 1990 United State Census were used to identify the number of households in each census block group that obtained water from a private source. A data file was purchased form ESRI Business Solutions (ESRI, 2009) that contained the latitude and ...

  19. HYDRAULICS AND MIXING EVALUATIONS FOR NT-21/41 TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Barnes, O.

    2014-11-17

    The hydraulic results demonstrate that pump head pressure of 20 psi recirculates about 5.6 liters/min flowrate through the existing 0.131-inch orifice when a valve connected to NT-41 is closed. In case of the valve open to NT-41, the solution flowrates to HB-Line tanks, NT-21 and NT-41, are found to be about 0.5 lpm and 5.2 lpm, respectively. The modeling calculations for the mixing operations of miscible fluids contained in the HB-Line tank NT-21 were performed by taking a three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach. The CFD modeling results were benchmarked against the literature results and the previous SRNL test results to validate the model. Final performance calculations were performed for the nominal case by using the validated model to quantify the mixing time for the HB-Line tank. The results demonstrate that when a pump recirculates a solution volume of 5.7 liters every minute out of the 72-liter tank contents containing two acid solutions of 2.7 M and 0 M concentrations (i.e., water), a minimum mixing time of 1.5 hours is adequate for the tank contents to get the tank contents adequately mixed. In addition, the sensitivity results for the tank contents of 8 M existing solution and 1.5 M incoming species show that the mixing time takes about 2 hours to get the solutions mixed.

  20. Tank waste remediation system integrated technology plan. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors. Starting in 1943, Hanford supported fabrication of reactor fuel elements, operation of production reactors, processing of irradiated fuel to separate and extract plutonium and uranium, and preparation of plutonium metal. Processes used to recover plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel and to recover radionuclides from tank waste, plus miscellaneous sources resulted in the legacy of approximately 227,000 m3 (60 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste, currently in storage. This waste is currently stored in 177 large underground storage tanks, 28 of which have two steel walls and are called double-shell tanks (DSTs) an 149 of which are called single-shell tanks (SSTs). Much of the high-heat-emitting nuclides (strontium-90 and cesium-137) has been extracted from the tank waste, converted to solid, and placed in capsules, most of which are stored onsite in water-filled basins. DOE established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program in 1991. The TWRS program mission is to store, treat, immobilize and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. Technology will need to be developed or improved to meet the TWRS program mission. The Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) is the high-level consensus plan that documents all TWRS technology activities for the life of the program

  1. Tank waste remediation system integrated technology plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, B.; Ignatov, A.; Johnson, S.; Mann, M.; Morasch, L.; Ortiz, S.; Novak, P. [eds.] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-28

    The Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors. Starting in 1943, Hanford supported fabrication of reactor fuel elements, operation of production reactors, processing of irradiated fuel to separate and extract plutonium and uranium, and preparation of plutonium metal. Processes used to recover plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel and to recover radionuclides from tank waste, plus miscellaneous sources resulted in the legacy of approximately 227,000 m{sup 3} (60 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste, currently in storage. This waste is currently stored in 177 large underground storage tanks, 28 of which have two steel walls and are called double-shell tanks (DSTs) an 149 of which are called single-shell tanks (SSTs). Much of the high-heat-emitting nuclides (strontium-90 and cesium-137) has been extracted from the tank waste, converted to solid, and placed in capsules, most of which are stored onsite in water-filled basins. DOE established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program in 1991. The TWRS program mission is to store, treat, immobilize and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. Technology will need to be developed or improved to meet the TWRS program mission. The Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) is the high-level consensus plan that documents all TWRS technology activities for the life of the program.

  2. Tank Characterization Report for Double Shell Tank (DST) 241-AN-107

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-03-23

    This report interprets information about the tank answering a series of six questions covering areas such as information drivers, tank history, tank comparisons, disposal implications, data quality and quantity, and unique aspects of the tank.

  3. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  4. 27 CFR 25.35 - Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tanks. 25.35 Section 25.35... TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Construction and Equipment Equipment § 25.35 Tanks. Each stationary tank, vat, cask... contents of tanks or containers in lieu of providing each tank or container with a measuring device....

  5. 14 CFR 23.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 23.1013 Section 23.1013... tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank must be installed to— (1) Meet the requirements of § 23.967 (a...) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion space must be provided so that— (1) Each oil tank used with...

  6. 49 CFR 230.116 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oil tanks. 230.116 Section 230.116 Transportation... Locomotive Tanks § 230.116 Oil tanks. The oil tanks on oil burning steam locomotives shall be maintained free... adjacent to the fuel supply tank or in another safe location; (b) Closes automatically when tripped...

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARATERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-01-20

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  8. Analysis Of The Tank 5F Final Characterization Samples-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  10. 炼油厂酸性水罐排放气恶臭治理技术工业应用%Application of Odor Treatment Technology in Treating Effluent Gas From Sour Water Tanks in Refineries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海波; 廖昌建; 刘忠生; 戴金玲

    2013-01-01

    Successful application of "the diesel low temperature critical absorption and lye desulfurization " odor treatment technology in treating effluent gas from sour water tanks was introduced. The rate of oil gas recovery was as high as 95%. Treated gas can be in full compliance with the emission limit of Emission standard of air pollutant for bulk gasoline terminals and Emission standards for odor pollutants. The amount of oil and gas recovery can reach more than 300 t/a, this technology has obvious economic benefit and social benefit.%  全面介绍了“柴油低温临界吸收-碱液脱硫”恶臭治理技术在某炼油厂酸性水罐排放气治理上的成功应用。装置的油气回收率高达95%。排放气经过治理后完全符合《储油库大气污染物排放标准》和《恶臭污染物排放标准》污染物排放限值的要求。装置年回收油气量可达300 t以上,该技术具有明显的经济效益和社会效益。

  11. Successfully Mapping the U-Tank to an Electric Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seok-In

    2010-01-01

    Water-flow analogies are helpful in understanding electricity. For example, in the Lodge model, the constant DC voltage source (a battery) is represented by a U-tank with two water columns of the same cross-sectional area connected by a horizontal duct in which a pump is installed. The pump maintains the difference of the levels of the two water…

  12. Reliable tank gauging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Agne [SAAB Tank Control, Houston, TX (United States)

    1998-07-01

    There are three non-contact methods for tank gauging: Ultrasonic (Sound method), Infrared (Light method) and Radar (Microwave). All these methods send out signals in a beam and are therefore good for level measurement on liquid. The method that best fits the petrochemical industry is the RADAR. It is going to be explained different methods of tank gauging by radar: F.M.C.W. (Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave), F.H.A.S.T (Fast Hardware Adaptive Signal Technology), etc. It is going to be shown which method is good for which system, what is the secret behind the difference between a good and a bad radar level gauge. There is no obvious connection between emitted power and sensitivity in radar gauging. In fact, the grater the power emitted, the larger is the inherent disturbance from the microwave transducer. The combination of common signal filtering and strong emitted power can therefore produce a disaster from in terms of sensitivity. To measure under all conditions and in all applications you must have different antenna types and antenna diagrams. SAAB has four different antenna types that in combination with different antenna diagrams can assure you of maximum performance. The number of suppliers of radar based level measuring is increasing and to choose a supplier becomes more difficult for the costumer. Therefore, some key points are going to be discussed for having this task simplified, such as: when is a radar needed? A radar is a radar? How microwave radar gauge works? Sensitivity-finding the neal? How to recognise a high sensitivity gauge? For the newcomers on the market, the limited experience makes it easy to believe that the radar gauges are the solution for all applications. However, not all tanks are suitable for radar based level measuring and some considerations in that matter are going to be also discussed. (author)

  13. 33 CFR 151.2045 - What are the mandatory recordkeeping requirements for vessels equipped with ballast tanks that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species... following information (Note: Ballast tank is any tank or hold that carries ballast water regardless of design): (1) Vessel information. Include the— (i) Name; (ii) International Maritime Organization...

  14. Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Conversion Research at UNH: From Fundamental Studies of Hydrofoil Sections, to Moderate Reynolds Number Turbine Tests in a Tow Tank, to Open Water Deployments at Tidal Energy Test Sites (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnik, M.; Bachant, P.; Nedyalkov, I.; Rowell, M.; Dufresne, N.; Lyon, V.

    2013-12-01

    We report on research related to MHK turbines at the Center for Ocean Renewable Energy (CORE) at the University of New Hampshire (UNH). The research projects span varies scales, levels of complexity and environments - from fundamental studies of hydrofoil sections in a high speed water tunnel, to moderate Reynolds number turbine tests with inflow and wake studies in a large cross-section tow tank, to deployments of highly instrumented process models at tidal energy test sites in New England. A concerted effort over the past few years has brought significant new research infrastructure for marine hydrokinetic energy conversion online at UNH-CORE. It includes: a high-speed cavitation tunnel with independent control of velocity and pressure; a highly accurate tow mechanism, turbine test bed and wake traversing system for the 3.7m x 2.4m cross-section UNH tow tank; a 10.7m x 3.0m tidal energy test platform which can accommodate turbines up to 1.5m in diameter, for deployments at the UNH-CORE Tidal Energy Test Site in Great Bay Estuary, NH, a sheltered 'nursery site' suitable for intermediate scale tidal energy conversion device testing with peak currents typically above 2 m/s during each tidal cycle. Further, a large boundary layer wind tunnel, the new UNH Flow Physics Facility (W6.0m x H2.7m xL72m) is being used for detailed turbine wake studies, producing data and insight also applicable to MHK turbines in low Froude number deployments. Bi-directional hydrofoils, which perform equally well in either flow direction and could avoid the use of complex and maintenance-intensive yaw or blade pitch mechanisms, are being investigated theoretically, numerically and experimentally. For selected candidate shapes lift, drag, wake, and cavitation inception/desinence are measured. When combined with a cavitation inception model for MHK turbines, this information can be used to prescribe turbine design/operational parameters. Experiments were performed with a 1m diameter and 1m

  15. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  16. Tank closure reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  17. Development of an energy storage tank model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Robert Christopher

    A linearized, one-dimensional finite difference model employing an implicit finite difference method for energy storage tanks is developed, programmed with MATLAB, and demonstrated for different applications. A set of nodal energy equations is developed by considering the energy interactions on a small control volume. The general method of solving these equations is described as are other features of the simulation program. Two modeling applications are presented: the first using a hot water storage tank with a solar collector and an absorption chiller to cool a building in the summer, the second using a molten salt storage system with a solar collector and steam power plant to generate electricity. Recommendations for further study as well as all of the source code generated in the project are also provided.

  18. Comportamento alimentar e qualidade da água em tanques de criação de girinos de rã-touro Lithobates catesbeianus = Feeding behavior and water quality in tanks containing bullfrog tadpoles Lithobates catesbeianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento alimentar e a qualidade da água em tanques de criação de girinos de rã-touro Lithobates catesbeianus durante 56 dias, a partir do estágio 25 da Tabela de Gosner (1960, criados em tanques de alvenaria comcapacidade de 1000 L. Os girinos que receberam ração (R e alga + plâncton + ração (APR apresentaram o melhor peso e sobrevivência, diferindo significativamente (p The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of food treatments and water quality on the development of bullfrog tadpoles. The analysis, carried out in 1000 L tanks, was undertaken by weight and survival rates, during 56 days, as from stage 25 (Gosner, 1960. Treatments with ration (R and algae + plankton + ration (APR had the best results in weight and survival rates, which were significantly different (p < 0.05 from the other treatments, comprised of algae only or algae + plankton. Physical and chemical variables of water differed significantly (p < 0.05 during the experimental period and among treatments. There was a correlation between the concentration of species present in the food and in the tadpole digestive tract (rs = 0.39; p < 0.05. From the 14th dayof age, bullfrog tadpoles changed their feeding behavior, or rather, a search for food items other than plankton occurred. The utilization of combined natural and artificial (ration diets to feed bullfrog tadpoles was feasible and yielded a satisfactory development in theanimals.

  19. Simulation of Wind Speed in the Ventilation Tunnel for Surge Tanks in Transient Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jiandong Yang; Huang Wang; Wencheng Guo; Weijia Yang; Wei Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Hydroelectric power plants' open-type surge tanks may be built in mountains subject to the provision of atmospheric air. Hence, a ventilation tunnel is indispensable. The air flow in the ventilation tunnel is associated with the fluctuation of water-level in the surge tank. There is a great relationship between the wind speed and the safe use and project investment of ventilation tunnels. To obtain the wind speed in a ventilation tunnel for a surge tank during transient processes, this articl...

  20. Static Stress Analysis of Security Injection Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The static structural analysis of the security injection tank is made to make sure whether the tank can withstand concerned loads or not on all conditions conforming to concerned code prescripts and design requirements. The tanks

  1. Oil Storage Facilities - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  2. Thermal insulation performance of water tank of fire truck under the passive and active thermal insulation conditions%某型消防车储水罐主、被动保温条件下保温性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高颖毅

    2012-01-01

    为解决低温时水罐结冰问题,保证消防车在低环境气温条件下的全天候作战能力,对某消防车水罐在被动保温和主动保温等不同条件下的保温性能进行了仿真研究并给出了仿真结果,为消防车水罐的设计提供了理论依据.%In order to solve the water tank icing problem in the case of low temperature, and to ensure the all — weather combat capability of fire trucks under the condition of low temperature, simulation researches on thermal performance of the water tank of a fire truck under the passive and active thermal insulation conditions are carried out. And the simulation results provide the theoretical basis to the design of the water tank of fire truck.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF TANK 16H ANNULUS SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; Reboul, S.

    2012-04-16

    The closure of Tank 16H will require removal of material from the annulus of the tank. Samples from Tank 16H annulus were characterized and tested to provide information to evaluate various alternatives for removing the annulus waste. The analysis found all four annulus samples to be composed mainly of Si, Na, and Al and lesser amounts of other elements. The XRD data indicate quartz (SiO{sub 2}) and sodium aluminum nitrate silicate hydrate (Na{sub 8}(Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24})(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O) as the predominant crystalline mineral phases in the samples. The XRD data also indicate the presence of crystalline sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, gibbsite, hydrated sodium bicarbonate, and muscovite. Based on the weight of solids remaining at the end of the test, the water leaching test results indicate approximately 20-35% of the solids dissolved after three contacts with an approximately 3:1 volume of water at 45 C. The chemical analysis of the leachates and the XRD results of the remaining solids indicate sodium salts of nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, and possibly carbonate/bicarbonate make up the majority of the dissolved material. The majority of these salts were dissolved in the first water contact and simply diluted with each subsequent water contact. The water leaching removed large amounts of the uranium in two of the samples and {approx}1/3 of the {sup 99}Tc from all four samples. Most of the other radionuclides analyzed showed low solubility in the water leaching test. The preliminary data on the oxalic acid leaching test indicate the three acid contacts at 45 C dissolved from {approx}34-47% of the solids. The somewhat higher dissolution found in the oxalic acid leaching test versus the water leaching test might be offset by the tendency of the oxalic acid solutions to take on a gel-like consistency. The filtered solids left behind after three oxalic acid contacts were sticky and formed large clumps after drying. These two observations could indicate

  4. Automatic water quality monitoring system of live fish transport tank%活鱼运输箱水质自动监控系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪苑乾; 胡月来; 黄汉英; 赵思明; 王观; 熊善柏

    2013-01-01

    为保证鱼在高密度长途运输过程中的存活,需将水体的pH、DO、温度等参数控制在一个合适的范围内。为此研究了一套活鱼运输箱自动监控系统:使用检测仪器和传感器测定主要水质参数;通过过滤系统清除运输过程中鱼的排泄物以控制pH,通过增氧泵及复合增氧剂控制水的溶氧量,通过冷热水机组控制水的温度。最终确定了集装箱式冷水性鱼类活鱼运输的操作规程为:挑选、暂养、预冷、装箱、运输、复温。试验结果表明:经过挑选与暂养、预冷后,在鱼水比为1∶2的高密度活鱼运输箱中,可以将水体温度控制在7℃以下,温度变化速度<2℃/h,溶氧量8~13 mg/L,pH 6.5~8,运输时间超过72 h,鱼的存活率可达95%。%In order to ensure the survival of the fish , the pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature and other parameters should be controlled in a suitable range in the process of long-distance transportation of high density .This article describes an automatic monitoring system ,using pH meters dissolved oxygen analyzer and temperature sensor to detect related parameters respectively .During the transportation process, the fish excrement was cleared by a filter system , which helped to control the pH .The Dissolved oxygen in water was controlled by an oxygen pump and a composite oxygen-increasing agent.Also, the water temperature was controlled through the chiller water system .through tests, the operational rules of container transportation of live fish were determined as follow:appraisal, temporary culture, pre-cool, encasement, transport, re-warming.The results showed that after appraisal and temporary culture , the survival rate of fish can reach as high as 95%after 72 hour's transportation under the condition of a 1∶2 mass rate of water to fish, pH 6.5-8, the temperature controlled at 7 ℃ and the temperature change rate is less than 2 ℃/h, dissolved oxygen content

  5. Motivational indictors predicting the engagement, frequency and adequacy of rainwater tank maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankad, Aditi; Greenhill, Murni

    2014-01-01

    Rainwater tank maintenance is a key social behavior in our changing environment, as tanks are being adopted worldwide to augment household water supplies and reduce urban water stress. The maintenance of rainwater tanks in urban areas is an important pro-environmental behavior that prevents public health issues arising from unhygienic tank use. This study examined motivational differences in maintenance behavior between householders with retrofitted and mandated (compulsory) rainwater tanks on their property (N = 1988). Results showed that retrofitted tank owners were more self-determined in their motivation than mandated owners. Amotivation and integrated regulation were both dominant predictors of engagement in tank maintenance, frequency and adequacy of tank maintenance activities. Those involved in more maintenance activity were likely driven to do so because of feelings of adherence to personal goals and values (e.g., as "sustainable" citizens), whereas individuals who experienced a lack of control and alienation from the activity were likely to view maintenance as meaningless. Thus, people with higher integrated regulation engaged in more tank maintenance activities, whereas more amotivated individuals engaged in less maintenance. As cities begin relying more on citizen self-sufficiency with respect to water and energy resources, issues relating to infrastructure maintenance and operation become paramount. Results show that motivation is important in the impetus to engage in a pro-environmental behavior as well as the frequency and accuracy with which that behavior is undertaken. Policy implications are further discussed.

  6. CFD analysis of a turbulent jet behavior induced by a steam jet discharge through a single hole in a subcooled water tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyung Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 1045, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chul-Hwa, E-mail: chsong@kaeri.re.k [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 1045, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis for a turbulent jet flow induced by a steam jet discharged into a subcooled water pool was performed for 10 s of transients to investigate whether the currently available CFD codes can be suitably used as a tool to investigate the applicability of the existing semi-analytical correlations to a condensing jet-induced turbulent jet and to analyze the thermal-hydraulic behavior, such as global circulation and local hot spot, in a condensation pool for advanced light water reactors. As for the numerical experiment, a series of sensitivity calculations was conducted systematically to elucidate the major factors which can cause different analysis results by varying the mesh distributions, numerical models for a convection term and an eddy viscosity term. The effect of a difference in the velocity and the temperature distribution in a region between the sparger and the pool wall has not been observed in the afore-mentioned sensitivity calculations. The comparison of the CFD results with the test data shows that the CFD analysis does not accurately simulate the local phenomenon of a turbulent jet existing downstream of a steam jet. It was found that the value of the turbulent intensity at the inlet of the turbulent jet region is the most important factor because it can determine the boundary of a turbulent jet through a momentum diffusion process in a radial direction. The comparison of the CFD results with the test data shows that the CFD analysis can accurately simulate the local phenomenon of a turbulent jet existing downstream of a steam jet only when the CFD analysis reflects the physics of a turbulent jet.

  7. External corrosion of tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 at the West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) site, West Valley, New York, rest on layers of perlite brick contained within steel pans. The pans tend to collect water, which can contact the tanks directly and which also can be ''wicked'' to the external surfaces of the tank through the perlite brick. The presence of air in the tank vault is conducive to the formation of oxygen concentration cells, which can promote localized corrosion of the carbon steel tank wall. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted an experiment to estimate the extent to which the external surfaces of the tanks could have corroded in the 30 years since their construction. Specimens of carbon steel, similar to that used in the tank construction, were partially embedded in an upright position in particulate perlite in closed containers. The water line in the containers.was maintained at two levels: above the perlite level (high water level tests) and below the bottoms of the specimens (low water level tests). The water used in the tests was obtained from the pan of tank 8D-1. The containers were maintained in an aerated condition. Specimens were examined after 3-, 6-, 12-, 18-, 24-, and 30-month exposures

  8. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  9. Modelling of baffled stirred tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, H.; Lahtinen, M. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The three-dimensional flow field of a baffled stirred tank has been calculated using four different turbulence models. The tank is driven by a Rushton-type impeller. The boundary condition for the impeller region has been given as a source term or by calculating the impeller using the sliding mesh technique. Calculated values have been compared with measured data. (author)

  10. Solitons in a wave tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M.; Smith, H.; Scott, Alwyn C.

    1984-01-01

    A wave tank experiment (first described by the nineteenth-century engineer and naval architect John Scott Russell) relates a linear eigenvalue problem from elementary quantum mechanics to a striking feature of modern nonlinear wave theory: multiple generation of solitons. The tank experiment...

  11. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula...

  12. Analysis of the Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2013-01-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm- 243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  13. Analysis Of The Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  14. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 6F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.; Shine, G.

    2012-06-28

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  15. Competitive Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    in opportunity structures that are mediated by historically constituted institutions in knowledge regimes. The paper distinguishes between four different strategies, the authoritative, the collaborative, the agenda-setting and the competitive strategy that are distinguished by the relations think tanks have...... to established institutions and power in public policy. On the basis of the hypothesis that more competitive think tanks have emerged due to lower opportunity costs, the paper investigates how ‘competitive’ think tank strategies have been used in Germany, Denmark, the EU-institutions in Brussels...... and in the United Kingdom from 2000 to 2012. The findings contradict the hypothesis that the competitive think tank strategy is the dominant or even a common strategy across the cases under investigation. The competitive strategy is particularly rare among EU and German think tanks. As such the paper challenges...

  16. Hanford site waste tank characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the on-going work in the characterization of the Hanford-Site high-level waste tanks. The waste in these tanks was produced as part of the nuclear weapons materials processing mission that occupied the Hanford Site for the first 40 years of its existence. Detailed and defensible characterization of the tank wastes is required to guide retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal technology development, to address waste stability and reactivity concerns, and to satisfy the compliance criteria for the various regulatory agencies overseeing activities at the Hanford Site. The resulting Tank Characterization Reports fulfill these needs, as well as satisfy the tank waste characterization milestones in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order

  17. Supporting document for the Southeast Quadrant historical tank content estimate report for SY-tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Southeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground double-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East and West Areas. This report summarizes historical information such as waste history, temperature profiles, psychrometric data, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance are included. Components of the data management effort, such as Waste Status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layer Model, Supernatant Mixing Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates which generate these tank content estimates, are also given in this report

  18. Supporting document for the Southeast Quadrant historical tank content estimate report for SY-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Consort, S.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Southeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground double-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East and West Areas. This report summarizes historical information such as waste history, temperature profiles, psychrometric data, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance are included. Components of the data management effort, such as Waste Status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layer Model, Supernatant Mixing Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates which generate these tank content estimates, are also given in this report.

  19. Hanford tank residual waste - contaminant source terms and release models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual waste is expected to be left in 177 underground storage tanks after closure at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State (USA). In the long term, the residual wastes represent a potential source of contamination to the subsurface environment. Residual materials that cannot be completely removed during the tank closure process are being studied to identify and characterize the solid phases and estimate the release of contaminants from these solids to water that might enter the closed tanks in the future. As of the end of 2009, residual waste from five tanks has been evaluated. Residual wastes from adjacent tanks C-202 and C-203 have high U concentrations of 24 and 59 wt%, respectively, while residual wastes from nearby tanks C-103 and C-106 have low U concentrations of 0.4 and 0.03 wt%, respectively. Aluminum concentrations are high (8.2 to 29.1 wt%) in some tanks (C-103, C-106, and S-112) and relatively low (<1.5 wt%) in other tanks (C-202 and C-203). Gibbsite is a common mineral in tanks with high Al concentrations, while non-crystalline U-Na-C-O-P±H phases are common in the U-rich residual wastes from tanks C-202 and C-203. Iron oxides/hydroxides have been identified in all residual waste samples studied to date. Contaminant release from the residual wastes was studied by conducting batch leach tests using distilled deionized water, a Ca(OH)2-saturated solution, or a CaCO3-saturated water. Uranium release concentrations are highly dependent on waste and leachant compositions with dissolved U concentrations one or two orders of magnitude higher in the tests with high U residual wastes, and also higher when leached with the CaCO3-saturated solution than with the Ca(OH)2-saturated solution. Technetium leachability is not as strongly dependent on the concentration of Tc in the waste, and it appears to be slightly more leachable by the Ca(OH)2-saturated solution than by the CaCO3-saturated solution. In general, Tc is much less

  20. CORRELATION OF EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DATA FOR MANTLE TANKS USED IN LOW FLOW SDHW SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations of mantle tanks for SDHW systems have been carried out. Five differently designed mantle tanks have been tested in a laboratory test facility. A transient three-dimensional CFD-model of one of the tested mantle tanks is made in the CFD-program CFX 4.......1. The model is validated against the experimental tests, and good agreement between measured and calculated results is achieved. The results from the CFD-calculations are used to illustrate the thermal behaviour and the fluid dynamics in the mantle and in the hot water tank. With the CFD......-calculations, a detailed analysis of the heat transfer from the solar collector fluid to the wall of the hot water tank is performed. The analysis has resulted in a correlation for the heat transfer between the solar collector fluid and the wall of the hot water....

  1. Tank Waste Retrieval Lessons Learned at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    exception to the waste retrieval criteria for a specific tank. Tank waste retrieval has been conducted at the Hanford Site over the last few decades using a method referred to as Past Practice Hydraulic Sluicing. Past Practice Hydraulic Sluicing employs large volumes of DST supernatant and water to dislodge, dissolve, mobilize, and retrieve tank waste. Concern over the leak integrity of SSTs resulted in the need for tank waste retrieval methods capable of using smaller volumes of liquid in a more controlled manner. Retrieval of SST waste in accordance with HFFACO requirements was initiated at the Hanford Site in April 2003. New and innovative tank waste retrieval methods that minimize and control the use of liquids are being implemented for the first time. These tank waste retrieval methods replace Past Practice Hydraulic Sluicing and employ modified sluicing, vacuum retrieval, and in-tank vehicle techniques. Waste retrieval has been completed in seven Hanford Site SSTs (C-106, C-103, C-201, C-202, C-203, C-204, and S-112) in accordance with HFFACO requirements. Three additional tanks are currently in the process of being retrieved (C-108, C-109 and S-102) Preparation for retrieval of two additional SSTs (C-104 and C-110) is ongoing with retrieval operations forecasted to start in calendar year 2008. Tank C-106 was retrieved to a residual waste volume of 470 ft3 using oxalic acid dissolution and modified sluicing. An Appendix H exception request for Tank C-106 is undergoing review. Tank C-103 was retrieved to a residual volume of 351 ft3 using a modified sluicing technology. This approach was successful at reaching the TPA limits for this tank of less than 360 ft3and the limits of the technology. Tanks C-201, C-202, C-203, and C-204 are smaller (55,000 gallon) tanks and waste removal was completed in accordance with HFFACO requirements using a vacuum retrieval system. Residual waste volumes in each of these four tanks were less than 25 ft3. Tank S-112 retrieval was

  2. Development of underwater YAG laser repair welding robots for tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A remote-controlled repair welding robot which uses YAG laser welding technology in underwater environment was developed. This is an underwater robot technology combined with a laser welding technology. This report will describe the structure and performance of this robot, and the welding test results. The repair welding robot consists of two parts. The one is driving equipment, and the other is welding unit. It can swim in the tank, move around the tank wall, and stay on the welding area. After that it starts YAG laser repair welding. The target of this technology is inner surface repair of some tanks made of austenitic stainless steel, for example RW (Radioactive Waste) tanks. A degradation by General Corrosion and so on might be occurred at inner surface of these tanks in BWR type nuclear power plants. If the damaged area is wide, repair welding works are done. Some workers go into the tank and set up scaffolding after full drainage. In many cases it spends too much time for draining water and repair welding preparation. If the repair welding works can be done in underwater environment, the outage period will be reduced. This is a great advantage. (author)

  3. 汽车水箱左右盖复杂抽芯注塑模设计%Design of Complicated Core Pulling Injection Mold for Car Water Tank Left and Right Cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维合

    2013-01-01

    某名牌汽车水箱左右盖塑料件精度高、批量大、结构复杂,尤其是侧向凹凸结构多,设计了该塑料件的注塑模.注射模采用了热流道浇注系统,针阀式热射嘴,针阀由液压驱动.模具侧向抽芯机构非常复杂,分别采用了常规侧向抽芯、复合抽芯、延时抽芯和强制抽芯的抽芯结构.模具滑块数量多,抽芯方向多,抽芯动作复杂,是一副侧向抽芯机构注塑模具的经典实例.%The car water tank left and right covers of a famous brand car have the characteristics of high precision,big batch,complicated structure,especially the lateral concave and convex structure.The injection mold for the plastic pieces was designed.The injection mould adopts hot runner gating system,needle valve type hot nozzle and valve driving by hydraulic.Mold side core-pulling mechanism is very complicated,using conventional side core-pulling,compound core pulling,time-delay core pulling,forced core pulling,etc.Slide block number,loose core direction,core-pulling structure and core pulling are complex.The design can be said to be an injection mold classic examples of side core-pulling mechanism.

  4. Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970's and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D ampersand RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program

  5. Fate and transport of constituents leaked from Tank 241-A-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a January 28, 1965 sudden steam release in Tank 241-A-105, the carbon steel liner of the tank was noted to have bulged to a maximum height of about 8.5 feet (2.6 meters). Most of this bulging likely resulted from the January 28, 1965 incident. But available data indicate that some bulging during an earlier leak in 1963 when waste was being added to the tank may have contributed. By March 8, 1965, increases in radiation in the 14-05-03 leak detection lateral indicted that fluids had escaped the tank and that the liner was ruptured. Waste was subsequently transferred from Tank 241-A-105 to other tanks, and liquid levels in Tank 241-A-105 were maintained at about 18 inches to control temperature to prevent deterioration of the concrete. Spray cooling water was added weekly to the tank from February 1971 to December 1978 to maintain liquid levels and temperatures, and some of this fluid is assumed to have leaked from the tank. This study examined available data to determine, to the extent possible, the distribution of the leaked constituents in surrounding soils and whether they migrated to groundwater. In this assessment, available data from gross gamma logging of dry wells and leak detection laterals as well as data from analyses of groundwater samples were examined throughout the period of interest. Logs of wells and photographs taken during construction of the 241-A-105 Tank Farm were also examined

  6. Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-03-02

    This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970`s and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D&RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program.

  7. Experimental study and numerical simulation of the sludge concentration in a sedimentation tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Ming-jun; MA Lu-ming; ZHU Wei; WANG Hong-wu

    2007-01-01

    Sedimentation tanks and clarifiers play a significant role in an active sludge system, and the efficiency of the whole system is closely related with the design and operation of the sedimentation tanks. This paper focuses on the sludge concentration in each cross-section of the sedimentation tank. We measured the sludge concentration to explore its distribution inside the tank, carried in-situ tests to research the fluid pattern and real operational rules of the sedimentation tank. We also used the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, PHOENICS 3.5, to simulate the solid-liquid two-phase fluid inside the tank and describe the sludge concentration distribution. The numerical results indicate obviously a sludge-water interface and a compression interface inside the sedimentation tank, a stratified sedimentary region with uniform concentration and a compression region with high concentration at the bottom of the tank. Although the simulated concentrations deviated slightly from those of in-situ tests, they were still acceptable for identifying the sludge interfaces and fluid pattern inside a sedimentation tank, which are important parameters for optimizing the tank size and improving the settling efficiency.

  8. Tank-automotive robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Gerald R.

    1999-07-01

    To provide an overview of Tank-Automotive Robotics. The briefing will contain program overviews & inter-relationships and technology challenges of TARDEC managed unmanned and robotic ground vehicle programs. Specific emphasis will focus on technology developments/approaches to achieve semi- autonomous operation and inherent chassis mobility features. Programs to be discussed include: DemoIII Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV), Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR), Intelligent Mobility, Commanders Driver Testbed, Collision Avoidance, International Ground Robotics Competition (ICGRC). Specifically, the paper will discuss unique exterior/outdoor challenges facing the IGRC competing teams and the synergy created between the IGRC and ongoing DoD semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle and DoT Intelligent Transportation System programs. Sensor and chassis approaches to meet the IGRC challenges and obstacles will be shown and discussed. Shortfalls in performance to meet the IGRC challenges will be identified.

  9. Sensory quality farmed turbot under different rearing conditions: variable tank renewal rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Schram, E.

    2006-01-01

    Within the CRAFT project Turpro water quality was researched to be optimised in the turbot recirculation farming system. Within this task the tank renewal rate was varied and growth of turbot was monitored. Within this experiment the question was whether the tank renewal rate affected the eating qua

  10. 40 CFR 265.192 - Design and installation of new tank systems or components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tank system is or will be in contact with the soil or with water, a determination by a corrosion expert... systems or components. 265.192 Section 265.192 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.192 Design and installation of new...

  11. Thermal destratification in small standard solar tanks due to mixing during tapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to investigate the thermal destratification in small standard solar tanks due to mixing during tapping. Three different cold water inlet designs are tested. A model of the tested solar tank is verified. Based on the measurements and the calculations it is elucidated how...

  12. Tank farms hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ''Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001'' as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process

  13. Isopropyl alcohol tank installed at A-3 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    An isopropyl alcohol (IPA) tank is lifted into place at the A-3 Test Stand being built at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. Fourteen IPA, water and liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks are being installed to support the chemical steam generators to be used on the A-3 Test Stand. The IPA and LOX tanks will provide fuel for the generators. The water will allow the generators to produce steam that will be used to reduce pressure inside the stand's test cell diffuser, enabling operators to simulate altitudes up to 100,000 feet. In that way, operators can perform the tests needed on rocket engines being built to carry humans back to the moon and possibly beyond. The A-3 Test Stand is set for completion and activation in 2011.

  14. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: A NEW PROCESS FOR CHEMICALLY CLEANING SAVANNAH RIVER WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E; Neil Davis, N; Renee Spires, R

    2008-01-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 high level waste (HLW) tanks that must be emptied, cleaned, and closed as required by the Federal Facilities Agreement. The current method of chemical cleaning uses several hundred thousand gallons per tank of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to partially dissolve and suspend residual waste and corrosion products such that the waste can be pumped out of the tank. This adds a significant quantity of sodium oxalate to the tanks and, if multiple tanks are cleaned, renders the waste incompatible with the downstream processing. Tank space is also insufficient to store this stream given the large number of tanks to be cleaned. Therefore, a search for a new cleaning process was initiated utilizing the TRIZ literature search approach, and Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination--Ultraviolet (CORD-UV), a mature technology currently used for decontamination and cleaning of commercial nuclear reactor primary cooling water loops, was identified. CORD-UV utilizes oxalic acid for sludge dissolution, but then decomposes the oxalic acid to carbon dioxide and water by UV treatment outside the system being treated. This allows reprecipitation and subsequent deposition of the sludge into a selected container without adding significant volume to that container, and without adding any new chemicals that would impact downstream treatment processes. Bench top and demonstration loop measurements on SRS tank sludge stimulant demonstrated the feasibility of applying CORD-UV for enhanced chemical cleaning of SRS HLW tanks.

  15. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Actual Waste Testing with SRS Tank 5F Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, William D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, Michael S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Solubility testing with actual High Level Waste tank sludge has been conducted in order to evaluate several alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge sluicing efforts. Tests were conducted with archived Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive sludge solids that had been retrieved from Tank 5F in order to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. Solubility tests were performed by direct sludge contact with the oxalic/nitric acid reagent and with sludge that had been pretreated and acidified with dilute nitric acid. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid following current baseline tank chemical cleaning methods. One goal of testing with the optimized reagent was to compare the total amounts of oxalic acid and water required for sludge dissolution using the baseline and optimized cleaning methods. A second objective was to compare the two methods with regard to the dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for SRS tank closure Performance Assessments (PA). Additionally, solubility tests were conducted with Tank 5 sludge using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species.

  16. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks

  17. Tank characterization report for double shell tank 241-AP-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelman, W.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-07

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-AP-104. This report supports the requirements of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44-09.

  18. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakestraw, L.D.

    1994-11-15

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks.

  19. Tank characterization report for single-shell Tank B-201

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heasler, P.G.; Remund, K.M.; Tingey, J.M.; Baird, D.B.; Ryan, F.M.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to characterize the waste in single shell Tank B-201. Characterization includes the determination of the physical, chemical (e.g., concentrations of elements and organic species), and radiological properties of the waste. These determinations are made using analytical results from B-201 core samples as well as historical information about the tank. The main objective is to determine average waste properties: but in some cases, concentrations of analytes as a function of depth were also determined. This report also consolidates the available historical information regarding Tank B-201, arranges the analytical information from the recent core sampling in a useful format, and provides an interpretation of the data within the context of what is known about the tank.

  20. Tank characterization report for single shell tank 241-S-107

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.

    1996-09-19

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-S-107. This report supports the requirements of Tri- Party Agreement Milestone M-44-09.

  1. Ecodesign of Liquid Fuel Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicevska, Jana; Bazbauers, Gatis; Repele, Mara

    2011-01-01

    The subject of the study is a 10 litre liquid fuel tank made of metal and used for fuel storage and transportation. The study dealt with separate life cycle stages of this product, compared environmental impacts of similar fuel tanks made of metal and plastic, as well as analysed the product's end-of-life cycle stage, studying the waste treatment and disposal scenarios. The aim of this study was to find opportunities for improvement and to develop proposals for the ecodesign of 10 litre liquid fuel tank.

  2. 某立式可燃液体储罐区消防灭火及冷却用水系统的设计%The Design Specification of Extinguishing System and Cooling Water System for Vertical Flammable Liquid Storage Tank Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟

    2012-01-01

    According to relative code and owner requirements, the flammable liquid storage tank farm including fixed type fire fighting cooling water system and low expansion foam extinguishing system, foam pressure proportioning tank parameter of design is based on actual market equipment parameter. Contrast circle ring cooling water pipe layout proposal to reduce fire fighting water consumption, avoid use design parameter result in fire fighting water storage volume less than actual fire fighting water consumption.%根据相关规范和业主要求,某立式可燃液体罐区采用固定式消防冷却水系统和低倍数泡沫灭火系统相结合的灭火系统。本设计通过对市场上实际灭火设备参数的选取,确定了泡沫比例混合装置的参数:并通过对罐区环状消防冷却水管分区布管的比较,选择最优的布管方式,该布管方式不仅避免了因设计取值较小造成消防储水量的不足而且减少了消防用水量。

  3. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARKER, S.A.

    2006-07-27

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 5 is the annual update of the methodology and calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  4. 46 CFR 154.446 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.446 Section 154.446 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type B § 154.446 Tank design. An independent tank type B must meet the calculations under §...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 29.1013 Section 29.1013... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 29.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank...

  6. 7 CFR 58.218 - Surge tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surge tanks. 58.218 Section 58.218 Agriculture....218 Surge tanks. If surge tanks are used for hot milk, and temperatures of product including foam being held in the surge tank during processing, is not maintained at a minimum of 150 °F, then two...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 25.1013 Section 25.1013... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 25.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank...

  8. 27 CFR 24.167 - Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tanks. 24.167 Section 24... TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.167 Tanks. (a) General. All tanks on wine premises... the intended purpose. Each tank used for wine operations will be located, constructed, and equipped...

  9. 7 CFR 58.320 - Brine tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brine tanks. 58.320 Section 58.320 Agriculture....320 Brine tanks. Brine tanks used for the treating of parchment liners shall be constructed of... liners. The tank should also be provided with a satisfactory drainage outlet....

  10. 14 CFR 27.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 27.1013 Section 27.1013... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1013 Oil tanks. Each oil tank must be... space of not less than the greater of 10 percent of the tank capacity or 0.5 gallon, and where used...

  11. 原油储罐油水界面监测与分析系统的开发及应用%Development and Application of Monitoring and Analysis System of Oil-Water Interfaces in Oil Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任喜伟; 任工昌; 杨帆

    2012-01-01

    现阶段我国多数油田选油站原油储罐油水界面监测部分处于人工阶段,部分借助仪表实现信息化,但存在测量误差较大,兼容性差,用户界面交互复杂等问题,由此设计并开发一套全新的原油储罐油水界面监测与分析系统;该系统采用三层结构设计;硬件测量层借助双液位测量仪采集温度和矩阵点数据;数据通信层采用MODBUS_RTU协议通过串口通信传递数据信息;统计分析层进行数据存储并对数据进行分析统计,得出报表、图表和报警信息等;应用实践表明,该系统易于部署,运行稳定,可靠性强,操作简便,对提高油田管理水平和生产效率有很大的帮助.%In china, part of monitoring systems of oil - water interfaces are still in the artificial stage, the other part of informational systems with the help of instrument exsit complex problems such as measurement error, poor compatibility, complex operation. In order to solve those problems, the author develop and implement the new set of monitoring and analysis system of oil - water interfaces in oil tank which has three layers structure. Hardware measurement layer measure temperature and matrix data by double level gauge. Data communication layer transfers data information by MODBUS _ RTU protocol. Statistical analysis module can give the data analysis, data reports, data charts and alarm information, etc. System application shows that the system is easy to deploy, stable, reliable and easy to operate. It helps a lot to improve the management standard and production efficiency for oil field.

  12. Water Distribution Lines, Water distribution system details Including pumps, storage tanks, valves, and mains, Published in Not Provided, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Town of Franklin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of Not Provided. It is...

  13. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  14. Tank 48 Chemical Destruction - 13237

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simner, Steven P.; Aponte, Celia I.; Brass, Earl A. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Savannah River Remediation, Savannah River Site, Building 766-H, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Small tank copper-catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) is a potentially viable technology to facilitate the destruction of tetraphenylborate (TPB) organic solids contained within the Tank 48H waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A maturation strategy was created that identified a number of near-term development activities required to determine the viability of the CCPO process, and subsequent disposition of the CCPO effluent. Critical activities included laboratory scale validation of the process and identification of forward transfer paths for the CCPO effluent. The technical documentation and the successful application of the CCPO process on simulated Tank 48 waste confirm that the CCPO process is a viable process for the disposition of the Tank 48 contents. (authors)

  15. Potential dominance of oscillating crescent waves in finite width tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that the emergence of previously observed oscillating crescent water wave patterns, created by class II (three-dimensional) instabilities which are in principle not dominant, could in fact be explained as an artifact of a finite width tank, combined with a suppression...

  16. TANK 7 CHARACTERIZATION AND WASHING STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.

    2010-02-04

    A 3-L PUREX sludge sample from Tank 7 was characterized and then processed through a series of inhibited water washes to remove oxalate, sodium, and other soluble ions. Current plans use Tank 7 as one of the feed sources for Sludge Batch 7 (SB7). Tank 7 is high in oxalate due to the oxalic acid cleaning of the sludge heels from Tanks 5 and 6 and subsequent transfer to Tank 7. Ten decant and nine wash cycles were performed over a 47 day period at ambient temperature. Initially, seven decants and seven washes were completed based on preliminary estimates of the number of wash cycles required to remove the oxalate in the sludge. After reviewing the composition data, SRNL recommended the completion of 2 or 3 more decant/wash cycles to ensure all of the sodium oxalate had redissolved. In the first 7 washes, the slurry oxalate concentration was 12,300 mg/kg (69.6% oxalate removal compared to 96.1% removal of the other soluble ions). After all ten decants were complete, the slurry oxalate concentration was 3,080 mg/kg (89.2% oxalate removal compared to 99.0% of the other soluble ions). The rate of dissolution of oxalate increased significantly with subsequent washes until all of the sodium oxalate had been redissolved after seven decant/wash cycles. The measured oxalate concentrations agreed very well with LWO predictions for washing of the Tank 7 sample. Highlights of the analysis and washing of the Tank 7 sample include: (1) Sodium oxalate was detected in the as-received filtered solids. 95% of the oxalate was insoluble (undissolved) in the as-received slurry. (2) No sodium oxalate was detected in the post-wash filtered solids. (3) Sodium oxalate is the last soluble species that redissolves during washing with inhibited water. In order to significantly reduce the sodium oxalate concentration, the sludge must be highly washed, leaving the other soluble anions and cations (including sodium) very low in concentration. (4) The post-wash slurry had 1% of the soluble anions

  17. Corrosion Fatigue in District Heating Water Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1996-01-01

    fatigue of plain tensile specimens and crack growth rate determination for Compact Tensile Specimens under corrosion fatigue conditions. The three materials are equal with respect to stress corrosion sensibility and crack initiation. Crack growth rate is increased with a factor of 4-6 relative to an inert...

  18. Dynamic Analysis of Plate in Water Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Soo; Jeong, Kyeng Hoon; Koo, Gyeong Hoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A pool door (Plate) is installed at the chase of the pool gate by means of an overhead crane in the building of a research reactor. The principal function of the pool door, which is located between the reactor pool and service pool, is to separate the reactor pool from the service pool for the maintenance and/or the removal of the equipment either in the reactor pool or service pool. A stress analysis for each component of the pool door was conducted against the given loads including the seismic load. Because the stresses for the analysis results were lower than the design limits for the given material, the structural integrity for the given dimension of the pool door was confirmed.

  19. Installation package for a sunspot cascade solar water heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Solar water heating systems installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California are described. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank, and controls. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications are provided along with instruction on operation, maintenance, and installation of solar hot water systems.

  20. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2010-06-21

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2009 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2009 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per LWO-LWE-2008-00423, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2009, were completed. All Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2009 met the requirements of C-ESG-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 1, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.4. UT inspections were performed on Tank 29 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00559, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2009, Waste Tank 29. Post chemical cleaning UT measurements were made in Tank 6 and the results are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00560, Tank Inspection NDE Results Tank 6, Including Summary of Waste Removal Support Activities in Tanks 5 and 6. A total of 6669 photographs were made and 1276 visual and video inspections were performed during 2009. Twenty-Two new leaksites were identified in 2009. The locations of these leaksites are documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.4. Fifteen leaksites at Tank 5 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Five leaksites at Tank 6 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Two new leaksites were identified at Tank 19 during waste removal activities. Previously documented leaksites were reactivated at Tanks 5 and 12 during waste removal activities. Also, a very small amount of additional leakage from a previously identified leaksite at Tank 14 was observed.

  1. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford Tank Initiative: Applications to the AX tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report investigates five technical areas for stabilization of decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the Hanford Site AX Farm. The investigations are part of a preliminary evacuation of end-state options for closure of the AX Tanks. The five technical areas investigated are: (1) emplacement of cementations grouts and/or other materials; (2) injection of chemicals into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing); (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks; (4) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur; and (5) combined geochemical and hydrological modeling. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five areas. Detailed cost-benefit analyses of the technologies are not provided. This investigation was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, during FY 1997 by tank Focus Area (EM-50) funding

  2. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Landry

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related subtasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these subtasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these subtasks were derived from the original

  3. Experiment of surface thermal features of wake behind a going body underwater in a temperature stratification water tank%温度分层水槽中水下航行体尾流水面热特征实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴猛猛; 陈伯义; 张修峰; 杨立; 袁宝吉

    2011-01-01

    The surface thermal features caused by the wake behind a going body underwater in the temperature stratification ocean are the key topic to the development of infrared anti-submarine technology. The buoyant process of the thermal wake and its interaction with the surface were displayed and measured in a water tank with the vertical negative temperature gradient. The variation laws of the surface temperature caused by the wake behind a going body underwater, as well as the buoyancy image and surface infrared image of the thermal wake were obtained. Based on these research, the effects of sail depths, temperature gradients, surface wave and sun radiation on the surface thermal features were discussed. The present results may provide a certain theoretical basis and important reference value for the infrared detection of a going body underwater.%温度分层海洋中水下航行体尾流引起的水面热特征是发展红外反潜技术的关键课题.在具有垂直负温度梯度的水槽中,对水下航行体热尾流的浮升过程及其与自由表面的相互作用进行了显示和测量,得到了水下航行体尾流引起的自由表面温度变化规律以及热尾流的浮升图像和其自由表面的红外图像,并在此基础上讨论了航行深度、温度梯度、水面波浪和太阳辐射等对自由表面热特征的影响.研究结果可为水下航行体的红外探测提供一定的理论基础和重要参考价值.

  4. Evaluation of tank waste transfers at 241-AW tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of waste transfers are needed to process and feed waste to the private contractors in support of Phase 1 Privatization. Other waste transfers are needed to support the 242-A Evaporator, saltwell pumping, and other ongoing Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) operations. The purpose of this evaluation is to determine if existing or planned equipment and systems are capable of supporting the Privatization Mission of the Tank Farms and continuing operations through the end of Phase 1B Privatization Mission. Projects W-211 and W-314 have been established and will support the privatization effort. Equipment and system upgrades provided by these projects (W-211 and W-314) will also support other ongoing operations in the tank farms. It is recognized that these projects do not support the entire transfer schedule represented in the Tank Waste Remediation system Operation and Utilization Plan. Additionally, transfers surrounding the 241-AW farm must be considered. This evaluation is provided as information, which will help to define transfer paths required to complete the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission. This document is not focused on changing a particular project, but it is realized that new project work in the 241-AW Tank Farm is required

  5. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SAMPLING OF TANK 19 IN F TANK FARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.; Shine, G.

    2009-12-14

    Representative sampling is required for characterization of the residual material in Tank 19 prior to operational closure. Tank 19 is a Type IV underground waste storage tank located in the F-Tank Farm. It is a cylindrical-shaped, carbon steel tank with a diameter of 85 feet, a height of 34.25 feet, and a working capacity of 1.3 million gallons. Tank 19 was placed in service in 1961 and initially received a small amount of low heat waste from Tank 17. It then served as an evaporator concentrate (saltcake) receiver from February 1962 to September 1976. Tank 19 also received the spent zeolite ion exchange media from a cesium removal column that once operated in the Northeast riser of the tank to remove cesium from the evaporator overheads. Recent mechanical cleaning of the tank removed all mounds of material. Anticipating a low level of solids in the residual waste, Huff and Thaxton [2009] developed a plan to sample the waste during the final clean-up process while it would still be resident in sufficient quantities to support analytical determinations in four quadrants of the tank. Execution of the plan produced fewer solids than expected to support analytical determinations in all four quadrants. Huff and Thaxton [2009] then restructured the plan to characterize the residual separately in the North and the South regions: two 'hemispheres.' This document provides sampling recommendations to complete the characterization of the residual material on the tank bottom following the guidance in Huff and Thaxton [2009] to split the tank floor into a North and a South hemisphere. The number of samples is determined from a modification of the formula previously published in Edwards [2001] and the sample characterization data for previous sampling of Tank 19 described by Oji [2009]. The uncertainty is quantified by an upper 95% confidence limit (UCL95%) on each analyte's mean concentration in Tank 19. The procedure computes the uncertainty in analyte

  6. Hanford tank residual waste - Contaminant source terms and release models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Residual waste from five Hanford spent fuel process storage tanks was evaluated. → Gibbsite is a common mineral in tanks with high Al concentrations. → Non-crystalline U-Na-C-O-P ± H phases are common in the U-rich residual. → Iron oxides/hydroxides have been identified in all residual waste samples. → Uranium release is highly dependent on waste and leachant compositions. - Abstract: Residual waste is expected to be left in 177 underground storage tanks after closure at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State, USA. In the long term, the residual wastes may represent a potential source of contamination to the subsurface environment. Residual materials that cannot be completely removed during the tank closure process are being studied to identify and characterize the solid phases and estimate the release of contaminants from these solids to water that might enter the closed tanks in the future. As of the end of 2009, residual waste from five tanks has been evaluated. Residual wastes from adjacent tanks C-202 and C-203 have high U concentrations of 24 and 59 wt.%, respectively, while residual wastes from nearby tanks C-103 and C-106 have low U concentrations of 0.4 and 0.03 wt.%, respectively. Aluminum concentrations are high (8.2-29.1 wt.%) in some tanks (C-103, C-106, and S-112) and relatively low (2-saturated solution, or a CaCO3-saturated water. Uranium release concentrations are highly dependent on waste and leachant compositions with dissolved U concentrations one or two orders of magnitude higher in the tests with high U residual wastes, and also higher when leached with the CaCO3-saturated solution than with the Ca(OH)2-saturated solution. Technetium leachability is not as strongly dependent on the concentration of Tc in the waste, and it appears to be slightly more leachable by the Ca(OH)2-saturated solution than by the CaCO3-saturated solution. In general, Tc is much less leachable (<10 wt.% of the available

  7. Identification of single-shell tank in-tank hardware obstructions to retrieval at Hanford Site Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two retrieval technologies, one of which uses robot-deployed end effectors, will be demonstrated on the first single-shell tank (SST) waste to be retrieved at the Hanford Site. A significant impediment to the success of this technology in completing the Hanford retrieval mission is the presence of unique tank contents called in-tank hardware (ITH). In-tank hardware includes installed and discarded equipment and various other materials introduced into the tank. This paper identifies those items of ITH that will most influence retrieval operations in the arm-based demonstration project and in follow-on tank operations within the SST farms

  8. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  9. 241-AY-101 Tank Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.

    2013-08-26

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tank 241-AY-101. The construction history of tank 241-AY-101 has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In tank 241-AY-101, the second double-shell tank constructed, similar issues as those with tank 241-AY-102 construction reoccurred. The overall extent of similary and affect on tank 241-AY-101 integrity is described herein.

  10. 241-AW Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.; Reeploeg, Gretchen E.

    2013-11-19

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for the 241-AW tank farm. The construction history of the 241-AW tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AW tank farm, the fourth double-shell tank farm constructed, similar issues as those with tank 241-AY-102 construction occured. The overall extent of similary and affect on 241-AW tank farm integrity is described herein.

  11. 241-AP Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.; Reeploeg, Gretchen E.

    2014-04-04

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for the 241-AP tank farm. The construction history of the 241-AP tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AP tank farm, the sixth double-shell tank farm constructed, tank bottom flatness, refractory material quality, post-weld stress relieving, and primary tank bottom weld rejection were improved.

  12. Septic tank additive impacts on microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S; Hoover, M T; Clark, G H; Gumpertz, M; Wollum, A G; Cobb, C; Strock, J

    2008-01-01

    Environmental health specialists, other onsite wastewater professionals, scientists, and homeowners have questioned the effectiveness of septic tank additives. This paper describes an independent, third-party, field scale, research study of the effects of three liquid bacterial septic tank additives and a control (no additive) on septic tank microbial populations. Microbial populations were measured quarterly in a field study for 12 months in 48 full-size, functioning septic tanks. Bacterial populations in the 48 septic tanks were statistically analyzed with a mixed linear model. Additive effects were assessed for three septic tank maintenance levels (low, intermediate, and high). Dunnett's t-test for tank bacteria (alpha = .05) indicated that none of the treatments were significantly different, overall, from the control at the statistical level tested. In addition, the additives had no significant effects on septic tank bacterial populations at any of the septic tank maintenance levels. Additional controlled, field-based research iswarranted, however, to address additional additives and experimental conditions.

  13. Burst Pressure Failure of Titanium Tanks Damaged by Secondary Plumes from Hypervelocity Impacts on Aluminum Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahra, Henry; Ghosn, Louis; Christiansen, Eric; Davis, B. Alan; Keddy, Chris; Rodriquez, Karen; Miller, Joshua; Bohl, William

    2011-01-01

    Metallic pressure tanks used in space missions are inherently vulnerable to hypervelocity impacts from micrometeoroids and orbital debris; thereby knowledge of impact damage and its effect on the tank integrity is crucial to a spacecraft risk assessment. This paper describes tests that have been performed to assess the effects of hypervelocity impact (HVI) damage on Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) pressure vessels burst pressure and characteristics. The tests consisted of a pair of HVI impact tests on water-filled Ti-6Al-4V tanks (water being used as a surrogate to the actual propellant) and subsequent burst tests as well as a burst test on an undamaged control tank. The tanks were placed behind Aluminum (Al) shields and then each was impacted with a 7 km/s projectile. The resulting impact debris plumes partially penetrated the Ti-6Al-4V tank surfaces resulting in a distribution of craters. During the burst tests, the tank that failed at a lower burst pressure did appear to have the failure initiating at a crater site with observed spall cracks. A fracture mechanics analysis showed that the tanks failure at the impact location may have been due to a spall crack that formed upon impact of a fragmentation on the Titanium surface. This result was corroborated with a finite element analysis from calculated Von-Mises and hoop stresses.

  14. A miniature Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (miniMART) as a compact breaking wave analogue

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, M. Dale; Deane, Grant; Collins, Douglas; Cappa, Christopher; Bertram, Timothy; Dommer, Abigail; Schill, Steven; Forestieri, Sara; Survilo, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the processes governing the production of marine aerosols, repeatable, controlled methods for their generation are required. A new system, the miniature Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (miniMART) has been designed after the success of the original MART system, to approximate a small oceanic spilling breaker by producing an evolving bubble plume and surface foam patch. The smaller tank utilizes an intermittently plunging jet of water produced by a rotating water wheel, int...

  15. Organic tanks safety program FY96 waste aging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Linehan, J.C.; Clauss, S.A.; Sharma, A.K.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Uranium and plutonium production at the Hanford Site produced large quantities of radioactive by-products and contaminated process chemicals, which are stored in underground tanks awaiting treatment and disposal. Having been made strongly alkaline and then subjected to successive water evaporation campaigns to increase storage capacity, the wastes now exist in the physical forms of salt cakes, metal oxide sludges, and partially saturated aqueous brine solutions. The tanks that contain organic process chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salt wastes may be at risk for fuel- nitrate combustion accidents. The purpose of the Waste Aging Task is to elucidate how chemical and radiological processes will have aged or degraded the organic compounds stored in the tanks. Ultimately, the task seeks to develop quantitative measures of how aging changes the energetic properties of the wastes. This information will directly support efforts to evaluate the hazard as well as to develop potential control and mitigation strategies.

  16. Quench tank in-leakage diagnosis at St. Lucie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, J.E.; Au-Yang, M.K.; Beckner, D.A.; Vickery, A.N.

    1996-12-01

    In February 1995, leakage into the quench tank of the St. Lucie Nuclear Station Unit 1 was becoming an operational concern. This internal leak resulted in measurable increases in both the temperature and level of the quench tank water, and was so severe that, if the trend continued, plant shut down would be necessary. Preliminary diagnosis based on in-plant instrumentation indicated that any one of 11 valves might be leaking into the quench tank. This paper describes the joint effort by two teams of engineers--one from Florida Power & Light, the other from Framatome Technologies--to identify the sources of the leak, using the latest technology developed for valve diagnosis.

  17. Water tower

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The water tower, being built on the highest point of the site, 460.5 m above the sea level. The tank will hold 750 m3 of water, and the tower will be topped by a knob which can serve as a geological survey reference mark.

  18. SLUDGE RETRIEVAL FROM HANFORD K WEST BASIN SETTLER TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was deployed to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from ten submerged tanks in Hanford's K-West Basin. As part of K-West Basin cleanup, the accumulated sludge needed to be removed from the 0.5 meter diameter by 5 meter long settler tanks and transferred approximately 45 meters to an underwater container for sampling and waste treatment. The abrasive, dense, non-homogeneous sludge was the product of the washing process of corroded nuclear fuel. It consists of small (less than 600 micron) particles of uranium metal, uranium oxide, and various other constituents, potentially agglomerated or cohesive after 10 years of storage. The Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS) was developed to access, mobilize and pump out the sludge from each tank using a standardized process of retrieval head insertion, periodic high pressure water spray, retraction, and continuous pumping of the sludge. Blind operations were guided by monitoring flow rate, radiation levels in the sludge stream, and solids concentration. The technology developed and employed in the STRS can potentially be adapted to similar problematic waste tanks or pipes that must be remotely accessed to achieve mobilization and retrieval of the sludge within.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 16H ANNULUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M

    2008-05-22

    In support of the closure of Tank 16H, the remaining waste material in the tank annulus must be removed. Samples of the waste material from Tank 16H annulus were obtained and sent to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to determine the chemical and radiochemical composition prior to further waste removal. The three samples obtained from the Tank 16H annulus show some similarity as to the types of mineral phases present in the materials but differ in the relative amounts of each phase present. The samples from outside the dehumidification duct at two locations in the annulus show very different compositions and estimated solubility in water. This indicates the waste material in Tank 16H annulus may have a wide range of compositions at different locations. The table below provides a simplified description of the composition of each sample. The limited characterization techniques conducted and the complex mixture of materials in each sample makes assigning a definitive composition for each sample difficult. Given the variability in composition with just the three small samples characterized, a more detailed description of any single sample may be of limited value.

  20. Calcination/dissolution testing for Hanford Site tank wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, S.A.; Delegard, C.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); McLaughlin, D.F. [Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Danielson, M.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Thermal treatment by calcination offers several benefits for the treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes, including the destruction of organics and ferrocyanides and an hydroxide fusion that permits the bulk of the mostly soluble nonradioactive constituents to be easily separated from the insoluble transuranic residue. Critical design parameters were tested, including: (1) calciner equipment design, (2) hydroxide fusion chemistry, and (3) equipment corrosion. A 2 gal/minute pilot plant processed a simulated Tank 101-SY waste and produced a free flowing 700 C molten calcine with an average calciner retention time of 20 minutes and >95% organic, nitrate, and nitrite destruction. Laboratory experiments using actual radioactive tank waste and the simulated waste pilot experiments indicate that 98 wt% of the calcine produced is soluble in water, leaving an insoluble transuranic fraction. All of the Hanford Site tank wastes can benefit from calcination/dissolution processing, contingent upon blending various tank waste types to ensure a target of 70 wt% sodium hydroxide/nitrate/nitrite fluxing agent. Finally, corrosion testing indicates that a jacketed nickel liner cooled to below 400 C would corrode <2 mil/year (0.05 mm/year) from molten calcine attack.