WorldWideScience

Sample records for anechoic water tank

  1. Determination of efficiency of anechoic or decoupling hull coatings using water tank acoustic measurements

    OpenAIRE

    AUDOLY, Christian

    2012-01-01

    International audience; External anechoic and decoupling hull coatings are used on ships or submarines to reduce acoustic target strength and radiated noise, respectively. Measurement of test panels in a water tank gives only the reflection and transmission coefficients in free field, with respects to frequency. It is shown using simple models that anechoic and decoupling efficiencies can be derived, providing appropriate modulus and phase measurement of the coefficients. Additionnally, the i...

  2. Classification of heart valve sounds from experiments in an anechoic water tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelrod, M C; Clark, G A; Scott, D

    1999-06-01

    In vivo studies in both sheep and humans were plagued by a number of problems including movement artifacts, biological noise, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), chest-wall reverberation, and limited bandwidth recordings as discussed by [1]. To overcome these problems it was decided to record heart valve sounds under controlled conditions deep in an anechoic water tank, free from reverberation noise, including surface reflections. Experiments were conducted in a deep water tank at the Transdec facility in San Diego, which satisfies these requirements. The Transdec measurements are free of reverberations, but not totally free of acoustic and electrical noise. We used a high quality hydrophone together with a wide-band data acquisition system [2]. We recorded sounds from 100 repetitions of the opening-closing cycles on each of 50 different heart valves, including 21 SLS valves and 29 intact valves. The power spectrum of the opening and closing phases of each cycle were calculated and outlier spectra removed as described by Candy [2]. In this report, we discuss the results of our classification of the heart valve sound measurements. The goal of this classification task was to apply the fundamental classification algorithms developed for the clinical data in 1994 and 1996 to the measurements from the anechoic water tank. From the beginning of this project, LLNL's responsibility has been to process and classify the heart valve opening sounds. For this experiment, however, we processed both the opening sounds and closing sounds for comparison purposes. The results of this experiment show that the classifier did not perform well. We believe this is because of low signal-to-noise ratio and excessive variability in signal power from beat-to-beat for a given valve.

  3. Classification of heart valve sounds from experiments in an anechoic water tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelrod, M C; Clark, G A; Scott, D

    1999-06-01

    In vivo studies in both sheep and humans were plagued by a number of problems including movement artifacts, biological noise, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), chest-wall reverberation, and limited bandwidth recordings as discussed by [1]. To overcome these problems it was decided to record heart valve sounds under controlled conditions deep in an anechoic water tank, free from reverberation noise. The main goal of this experiment was to obtain measurements of ''pure'' heart valve sounds free of the scattering effects of the body. Experiments were conducted at the Transdec facility in San Diego [2]. We used a high quality hydrophone together with a wide-band data acquisition system [2]. We recorded sounds from 100 repetitions of the opening-closing cycles on each of 50 different heart valves, including 21 SLS valves and 29 intact valves. The power spectrum of the opening and closing phases of each cycle were calculated and outlier spectra removed as described by Candy [2]. In this report, we discuss the results of our classification of the heart valve sound measurements. The goal of this classification task was to apply the fundamental classification algorithms developed for the clinical data in 1994 and 1996 to the measurements from the anechoic water tank. From the beginning of this project, LLNL's responsibility has been to process and classify the heart valve sounds. For this experiment, however, we processed both the opening sounds and closing sounds for comparison purposes. The results of this experiment show that the classifier did not perform well because of low signal-to-noise ratio and excessive variability in signal power from beat-to-beat for a given valve.

  4. Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber comprises a power anechoic chamber and one transverse electromagnetic cell for characterizing radiofrequency (RF) responses of...

  5. Dwelling Water Tanks in Diyarbakir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ceylan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this connection, the object of this study has been to identify and compare the microbiological contamination and residue chlorine levels in the main network water that is taken from the Dicle Dam and distributed in Diyarbakir Province Centre and in the tanks of dwellings that use this water as well as the effects of the maintenance, hygiene, and physical conditions of these tanks on microbiological contamination. METHODS: Water samples were taken from both the tank input side network water and tank output side tank waters of 200 dwellings with water tanks in Diyarbakir city centre (tank entrance network side water for 200 and tank output side tank water for 200 within the framework of the research study. RESULTS: Coliform bacteria were detected in 35% of the tank entrance side network water samples and in 52.0% percent of the tank output side water samples. Faecal coliform bacteria were not detected in tank entrance side network water samples, but they existed in 2.5% of the tank output side water samples. Free residue chlorine level was found to be over 0.2 ppm in 67% of tank entrance side network water samples and in 35% of the tank output side water samples. Coliform bacteria were detected in 95.5% of the tank entrance side network water samples, of which free residue chlorine level were below 0.2 ppm. Total germ growth was detected in 52.0% of the tank entrance side network water samples and in 67.5% of the tank output side water samples. The most frequently isolated bacteria both in tank entrance side network and tank output side water samples were found to be Bacillus spp. Bacillus type bacteria were found in 48% of tank entrance side network water samples and 57.5% of the tank output side water samples. Filamentous fungi were prevalent in 8% of all the samples examined within the study and the most commonly isolated filamentous fungi were Aspergillus spp (5.5% and Penicillum spp (2.5%. Water tanks of dwellings contain more

  6. 49 CFR 230.115 - Feed water tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Feed water tanks. 230.115 Section 230.115... Tenders Steam Locomotive Tanks § 230.115 Feed water tanks. (a) General provisions. Tanks shall be... for tank wells or tank hose and shall be maintained in a manner that allows the unobstructed flow...

  7. Cold water inlet in solar tanks - valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to make a proposal for how to value a storage tank with a poor design of the cold water inlet. Based on measurements and calculations a number of curves, which are valid for this valuation, are worked out. Based on a simple test with a uniform heated storage tank the ratio...... between the energy tapped in one storage volume and the energy content in the tank before the tapping is measured. Afterwards the mixing factor, corresponding to the measured ratio, can be determined. It is proposed that the mixing factor is taken into consideration when the governmental subsidy for SDHW...

  8. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the natural buoyancy resulting in downward flow along the tank side walls due to heat loss of the tank and the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank......Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal stratification and natural convection in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank during standby periods are presented. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by heat loss are investigated...

  9. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    on the natural buoyancy resulting in downward flow along the tank side walls due to heat loss of the tank and the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank......Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal stratification and natural convection in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank during standby periods are presented. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by heat loss are investigated...

  10. Water Tanks, Tanks, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Tanks dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. It is described as 'Tanks'. Data by...

  11. A portable miniature anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorthioir, Jack; Gavin, Paul

    The portable miniature anechoic chamber (PMAC), a low-cost alternative to a full-size anechoic chamber, is presented. The PMAC is a miniature, enclosed, RF-tight microwave antenna range, which approximates the performance of an indoor range over the C through Ku (G through J)-band frequencies. The small footprint, four by six feet, allows for ease of movement by one person to a test site, indoors or outdoors. The PMAC can be used at I (intermediate)-level to support the operational readiness (OR) requirements of the U.S. Army, Navy or Air Force. In conjunction with the antenna test equipment (ATE), and under TPS control, it can be used for performance verification, fault detection and fault isolation. A typical application using the PMAC in this operating mode is described.

  12. Corrosion Fatigue in District Heating Water Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1996-01-01

    Three candidate materials for construction of buffer tanks for district heating water have been tested for corrosion fatigue properties in a district heating water environment. The investigation included Slow Strain Rate Testing of plain tensile specimens, crack initiation testing by corrosion...... fatigue of plain tensile specimens and crack growth rate determination for Compact Tensile Specimens under corrosion fatigue conditions. The three materials are equal with respect to stress corrosion sensibility and crack initiation. Crack growth rate is increased with a factor of 4-6 relative to an inert...

  13. Smart solar tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Knudsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of small SDHW systems based on smart solar tanks are presented. The domestic water in a smart solar tank can be heated both by solar collectors and by means of an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system – in this study electric heating elements – heats up...... performance of traditional SDHW systems. Estimates indicate that the performance/cost ratio can be improved by up to 25% by using a smart solar tank instead of a traditional tank when the backup energy system is electric heating elements. Further, smart solar tanks are suitable for unknown, variable, large...... or small hot-water consumption and the risk of oversized solar heating systems and oversized tank volumes is reduced by using smart solar tanks. Based on the investigations it is recommended to start development of smart solar tank units with an oil-fired boiler or a natural gas burner as auxiliary energy...

  14. Utilities:Water:Water Tanks at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:tanks)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents tanks at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. It consists of 2 polygons representing the Tunnel Spring Division Tank and the 1/2...

  15. Water Tank with Capillary Air/Liquid Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Smith, Frederick; Edeen, Gregg; Almlie, Jay C.

    2010-01-01

    A bladderless water tank (see figure) has been developed that contains capillary devices that allow it to be filled and emptied, as needed, in microgravity. When filled with water, the tank shields human occupants of a spacecraft against cosmic radiation. A membrane that is permeable by air but is hydrophobic (neither wettable nor permeable by liquid water) covers one inside surface of the tank. Grooves between the surface and the membrane allow air to flow through vent holes in the surface as the tank is filled or drained. A margin of wettable surface surrounds the edges of the membrane, and all the other inside tank surfaces are also wettable. A fill/drain port is located in one corner of the tank and is covered with a hydrophilic membrane. As filling begins, water runs from the hydrophilic membrane into the corner fillets of the tank walls. Continued filling in the absence of gravity will result in a single contiguous air bubble that will be vented through the hydrophobic membrane. The bubble will be reduced in size until it becomes spherical and smaller than the tank thickness. Draining the tank reverses the process. Air is introduced through the hydrophobic membrane, and liquid continuity is maintained with the fill/drain port through the corner fillets. Even after the tank is emptied, as long as the suction pressure on the hydrophilic membrane does not exceed its bubble point, no air will be drawn into the liquid line.

  16. Inspection and in situ impedance measurements for ballast water tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Buter, S.; Ferrari, G.; Prent, C.S.W.

    2012-01-01

    The application of coatings in ballast water tanks is critical for the safety of cargo ships. International Maritime Organization (IMO) has delivered a standard for the protection of water ballast tanks in which new built cargo vessels have to comply with {resolution MSC.215(82)}. In case the proced

  17. Household rainwater tanks: mediating changing relations with water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Farbotko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestic rainwater tanks have become commonplace in Australia's urban landscape, and have become the physical embodiment of the changing relations between householders, water, and water authorities. The aim of our research was to understand these changing relations by examining how domestic rainwater tanks are inscribed with meanings and assumptions and thus mediate a relationship between households and government. In particular, we considered how domestic rainwater tanks are implicated in various understandings of entitlements to water collected or used in private domains. We examined how tanks can render visible the contestation over rights and obligations of state and citizen as to what is considered private and public water collection, management, and use at the scale of the household. Our exploration of these issues was conducted through a case study of changing water relations in South East Queensland, Australia, where there has been recent widespread installation of domestic rainwater tanks.

  18. Microbial water quality in clean water tanks following inspection and cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Esbjørn, Anne; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Increased bacterial counts are often registered in drinking water leaving clean water tanks after the tanks have been emptied, inspected and cleaned by flushing. To investigate the reason for the increased bacterial concentrations and consequently limit it, samples from two clean water tanks before, during and after cleaning of the tanks were analysed. Bacteria were quantified, the dominating bacterial groups were identified and re-growth potential in the water was estimated. Bacterial counts...

  19. Where Did the Water Go?: Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

    2007-01-01

    Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be…

  20. Opportunistic pathogens relative to physicochemical factors in water storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, S N; Elshafie, A E; Victor, R; Mahmoud, I Y; Al-Hinai, J A

    2011-06-01

    Household water in Oman, as well as in other countries in the region, is stored in tanks placed on house roofs that can be subjected to physicochemical factors which can promote microbial growth, including pathogens and opportunistic pathogens which pose health risks. Water samples were collected from 30 houses in a heavily populated suburb of Muscat. The tanks used were either glass reinforced plastic (GRP), polyethylene or galvanised iron (GI). Heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms, faecal coliforms and iron sulphur bacteria varied significantly in the three tanks. Yeast and mould count showed significant variations. Isolation of Aeromonas spp., fluorogenic and pathogenic Pseudomonas, Pasteurella, Salmonella, Serratia and Tatumella, and Yersinia and Legionella in biofilms varied in the three tanks. The fungi isolates in the three tanks were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Aspergillus. Nephelometric turbidity unit, threshold odour number and free chlorine varied significantly in the three tanks. True colour unit values did not show a significant difference; however, GRP tanks had algae, autotrophic and pigmented microorganisms. In addition, GI tanks had sediments and corrosion. The results of this investigation are important to evaluate the status of the present household water tanks in countries with high annual temperatures, which may affect public health.

  1. Water Tanks, Water Tanks, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Tanks dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2007. It is described as 'Water...

  2. NRAO RF Anechoic Chamber & Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A shielded anechoic chamber measuring 15 by 15 by 37 feet is located in the Jansky Laboratory at Green Bank. This chamber has been outfitted as a far-field antenna...

  3. RADAR Anechoic Chamber/RCS Measurements Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The RF Anechoic Chamber is 56 feet long by 12 feet high by 13.5 feet wide, with an adjoining electronic computer control room. A double door entrance at one end of...

  4. Anechoic Radio Frequency Test Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This chamber is used for characterization test of such systems as communications gear, tanks, radar, missiles, and helicopters. The dimensions of the chamber are 114...

  5. Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shaft Support Water Storage Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Tekwani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the results of Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shaft Support Water Storage Tank carried out in accordance with IS: 1893- 1984 and IS: 1893-2002 (Part-2 draft code. The analysis is carried out for shaft supported water tank of 500,750 and 1000 Cu.m capacity, located in four seismic zones (Zone-II, Zone -III, Zone-IV, Zone-V and on three different soil types (Hard rock, Medium soil, Soft soil. Further, 1000 kl tank for conditions - tank full, tank empty are also considered in this study. The analysis was performed using MAT LAB. The parameters of comparison include base shears, base moments and time history analysis. The above models are analyzed for different time history data such as El Centro, Kobe, Ji-Ji, Erzincan. The comparison is made between the structural responses of one mass and two mass models of above capacity.

  6. Water Tanks, tank txt, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Tanks dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'tank txt'. The...

  7. Attenuating water hammer pressure by means of gas storage tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The basic equations for computing the volume of gas storage tank were derived from the principles of attenuating water hammer pressure. Verifications using experiments indicate that the proposed equation can provide a fare precision in the predictions. By using the model of solid-liquid two-phase flow, the gas storage tank, pressure-relief valves and slow-closure reverse-control valves were compared with practical engineering problems, and the functions of gas storage tank in attenuating water hammer pressure were further investigated.

  8. Development of a hot water tank simulation program with improved prediction of thermal stratification in the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon; Yue, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    A simulation program SpiralSol was developed in previous investigations to calculate thermal performance of a solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system with a hot water tank with a built-in heat exchanger spiral [1]. The simulation program is improved in the paper in term of prediction of thermal...... stratification in the tank. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the hot water tank during cooling caused by standby heat loss are investigated by validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. Detailed CFD investigations are carried out to determine the influence of thickness and material...... property of the tank wall on thermal stratification in the tank. It is elucidated how thermal stratification in the tank is influenced by the natural convection and how the heat loss from the tank sides will be distributed at different levels of the tank at different thermal conditions. The existing...

  9. DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

    2009-07-31

    Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

  10. Microbial water quality in clean water tanks following inspection and cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Esbjørn, Anne; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    Increased bacterial counts are often registered in drinking water leaving clean water tanks after the tanks have been emptied, inspected and cleaned by flushing. To investigate the reason for the increased bacterial concentrations and consequently limit it, samples from two clean water tanks before......, during and after cleaning of the tanks were analysed. Bacteria were quantified, the dominating bacterial groups were identified and re-growth potential in the water was estimated. Bacterial counts did not exceed drinking water guideline values but ATP concentrations in the water were high right after...... start-up of the tanks, which may indicate that a substantial part of the bacteria in the drinking water leaving the tanks originated from the sand filter. This was supported by 16S DNA analyses....

  11. Commissioning and cross-comparison of four scanning water tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Saenz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Water scanning systems are commonly used for data collection to characterize dosimetric properties of photon and electron beams, and the commissioning of such systems has been previously described. The aim in this study, however, was to investigate tank-specific dependencies as well as conduct a dosimetric comparison between four distinct water scanning systems.Methods: Four water scanning systems were studied including the PTW MP3-M Phantom Tank, the Standard Imaging DoseView 3D, the IBA Blue Phantom, and the Sun Nuclear 3D Scanner. Mechanical accuracy and reproducibility was investigated by driving the chamber holder to nominal positions relative to a zero point and using a leveled caliper with 30 cm range to measure the actual position. Dosimetric measurements were also performed not only to compare percent-depth-dose (PDD curves and profiles between tanks but also to assess dependencies such as directionality, scanning speed, and reproducibility for each tank individually. A PTW Semiflex 31010 ionization chamber with a sensitive volume of 0.125 cc was used at a Varian Clinac 2300 linear accelerator.Results: Mechanical precision was ensured to within 0.1 mm with the standard deviation (SD of reproducibility <0.1 mm for measurements made with calipers. Dependencies on scanning direction and speed are presented. 6 MV PDDs between tanks agreed to within 0.6% relative to an averaged PDD beyond dmax and within 2.5% in the build-up region. Specifically, the maximum difference was 1.0% between MP3-M and Blue Phantom at 6.1 cm depth. Lateral profiles agreed between tanks within 0.5% in the central 80% of the field. 6 MeV PDD maximum difference was 1.3% occurring at the steepest portion, where the R50 was nevertheless within 0.6 mm across tanks. Setup uncertainties estimated at ≤1 mm are presumed to have contributed some of the difference between water tank data.Conclusion: Modern water scanning systems have achieved high accuracy across

  12. Water tank installed at A-3 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A water tank is lifted into place at the A-3 Test Stand being built at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. Fourteen water, liquid oxygen (LOX) and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) tanks are being installed to support the chemical steam generators to be used on the A-3 Test Stand. The IPA and LOX tanks will provide fuel for the generators. The water will allow the generators to produce steam that will be used to reduce pressure inside the stand's test cell diffuser, enabling operators to simulate altitudes up to 100,000 feet. In that way, operators can perform the tests needed on rocket engines being built to carry humans back to the moon and possibly beyond. The A-3 Test Stand is set for completion and activation in 2011.

  13. The biological treatment of petroleum tank draw waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Jose L. [Envirosystems Supply, Inc., Hollywood, FL (United States); Stephens, Greg [Plantation Pipeline, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This work reviews and summarizes the performance of a biological process (followed by the state-of-the-art) for the removal of organic compounds in petroleum tank draw waters. Trickling filter and the extended aeration modification of activated sludge were selected as the biological processes tested in pilot units. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Temperature stratification in a hot water tank with circulation pipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the project is to investigate the change in temperature stratification due to the operation of a circulation pipe. Further, putting forward rules for design of pipe inlet in order not to disturb the temperature stratification in the hot water tank. A validated computer model based...

  15. Realistic approach to corrosion protection of ballast water tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, G.M.; Buter, S.J.; Zhang, X.; Prent, C.S.W.

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion protection of ballast water tanks is very precarious because of the aggressiveness of the environment and the difficult accessibility of the areas. Numerous accidents have led to regulation by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Practical circumstances in yards are often not ide

  16. Modelization of a water tank including a PCM module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, Manuel [Dept. de Medi Ambient i Ciencies del Sol, Universitat de Lleida, Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida (Spain); Cabeza, Luisa F.; Sole, Cristian; Roca, Joan; Nogues, Miquel [Dept. d' Informatica i Eng. Industrial, Universitat de Lleida, Jaume II 69, 25001 Lleida (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    The reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions is a key component for today's governments. Therefore, implementation of more and more systems with renewable energies is necessary. Solar systems for single family houses or residential buildings need a big water tank that many times is not easy to locate. This paper studies the modelization of a new technology where PCM modules are implemented in domestic hot water tanks to reduce their size without reducing the energy stored. A new TRNSYS component, based in the already existing TYPE 60, was developed, called TYPE 60PCM. After tuning the new component with experimental results, two more experiences were developed to validate the simulation of a water tank with two cylindrical PCM modules using type 60PCM, the cooldown and reheating experiments. Concordance between experimental and simulated data was very good. Since the new TRNSYS component was developed to simulate full solar systems, comparison of experimental results from a pilot plant solar system with simulations were performed, and they confirmed that the type 60PCM is a powerful tool to evaluate the performance of PCM modules in water tanks. (author)

  17. Tests of anechoic chamber for aeroacoustics investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchikovskiy, V. V.; Bersenev, Yu. V.; Makashov, S. Yu.; Belyaev, I. V.; Korin, I. A.; Sorokin, E. V.; Khramtsov, I. V.; Kustov, O. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents the results of qualification tests in the new anechoic chamber of Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) built in 2014-2015 and evaluation of the chamber quality in aeroacoustic experiments. It describes design features of the chamber and its sound-absorption lining. The qualification tests were carried out with tonal and broadband noise sources in the frequency range 100 Hz - 20 kHz for two different cases of the source arrangement. In every case, measurements were performed in three directions by traverse microphones. Qualification tests have determined that in the chamber there is a free acoustic field within radius of 2 m for tonal noise and 3 m for broadband noise. There was also evaluated acoustic quality of the chamber by measurements of the jet noise and vortex ring noise. The results of the experiments demonstrate that PNRPU anechoic chamber allows the aeroacoustic measurements to be performed to obtain quantitative results.

  18. Buoyancy driven flow in a hot water tank due to standby heat loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    show that the CFD model predicts satisfactorily water temperatures at different levels of the tank during cooling by standby heat loss. It is elucidated how the downward buoyancy driven flow along the tank wall is established by the heat loss from the tank sides and how the natural convection flow......Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank due to standby heat loss of the tank are presented. The effect of standby heat loss on temperature distribution in the tank is investigated experimentally on a slim 150l tank...... parts of the tank is measured by experiments and used as input to the CFD model. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank are measured and compared to CFD calculated temperatures. The investigations focus on validation of the CFD model and on understanding of the CFD calculations.The results...

  19. Tank Access for Ballast Water Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation. ~~r R~ obert C. chards "Director of Technical Development United States Coast Guard Research...Water Sampling Protocols (Technical Report No. 18). Hobart, Tasmania: Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests. U.S. Department of

  20. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The measured heat loss coefficient for the different parts of the tank is used as input to the CFD model. Parametric studies are carried out using the validated models to investigate the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow...... and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Tank design parameters such as tank volume, height to diameter ratio and insulation and different initial conditions of the tank are investigated.It is elucidated how thermal stratification in the tank is influenced by the natural convection and how...... the heat loss from the tank sides will be distributed at different levels of the tank at different thermal conditions. The results show that 20–55% of the side heat loss drops to layers below in the part of the tank without the presence of thermal stratification. A heat loss removal factor is introduced...

  1. Effect of hot-water consumption on temperature distribution in a horizontal solar water storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helwa, N.H.; El-Ghetany, H.H. [National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Solar Energy; Mobarak, A.M.; El-Sallak, M.S. [Cairo Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    This experimental investigation assesses the behaviour of a solar water heater provided with a liquid heat exchanger in a horizontal storage tank. The factors that affect the stratification inside the storage tank are considered. The performance of the system is studied in the light of the daily consumption of hot water of an Egyptian family. The results obtained show that in the places where it is necessary to use a horizontal tank it must be supplied with an auxiliary electric heater to meet the required load at the required temperature, especially in winter. (author)

  2. Rogue waves in a water tank: Experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Recently many rogue waves have been reported as the main cause of ship incidents on the sea. One of the main characteristics of rogue waves is its elusiveness: they present unexpectedly and disappear in the same wave. Some authors (Zakharov and al.2010) are attempting to find the probability of their appearances apart from studyingthe mechanism of the formation. As an effort on this topic we tried the generation of rogue waves in a water wave tank using a symmetric spectrum(Akhmediev et al. 2011) as input on the wave maker. The produced waves were clearly rogue waves with a rate (maximum wave height/ Significant wave height) of 2.33 and a kurtosis of 4.77 (Janssen 2003, Onorato 2006). These results were already presented (Lechuga 2012). Similar waves (in pattern aspect, but without being extreme waves) were described as crossing waves in a water tank(Shemer and Lichter1988). To go on further the next step has been to apply a theoretical model to the envelope of these waves. After some considerations the best model has been an analogue of the Ginzburg-Landau equation. This apparently amazing result is easily explained: We know that the Ginzburg-Landau model is related to some regular structures on the surface of a liquid and also in plasmas, electric and magnetic fields and other media. Another important characteristic of the model is that their solutions are invariants with respectto the translation group. The main aim of this presentation is to extract conclusions of the model and the comparison with the measured waves in the water tank.The nonlinear structure of waves and their regularity make suitable the use of the Ginzburg-Landau model to the envelope of generated waves in the tank,so giving us a powerful tool to cope with the results of our experiment.

  3. Computational Analysis of Reagent Mixing in Ballast Water Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    CH*tributk>n after 50 minutes Double Bottom Tanks Hopper Side Tasks I pper Winf! Tanks Compartment Normalized Tracer Volume Distribution attar 180...minutes Double Bottom Tanks Hopper Side Tanks I pper Wing Tanks Compartment Normalized Tracer Volume Distribution after 120 minutes Double Bottom

  4. Experimentation with a water tank including a PCM module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabeza, Luisa F.; Sole, Cristian; Roca, Joan; Nogues, Miquel [Department d' Informatica i Eng. Industrial, Universitat de Lleida, Jaume II 69, 25001 Lleida (Spain); Ibanez, Manuel [Department de Medi Ambient i Ciencies del Sol, Universitat de Lleida (Spain)

    2006-05-23

    Storage of heat is seen as a major issue for the development of solar energy for house heating and cooling under all climates. Most of the storage systems available on the market use water as the storage medium. The idea studied here was to add a phase change material (PCM) module at the top of a hot-water storage tank with stratification. An experimental solar pilot plant was constructed to test the PCM behaviour in real conditions. The PCM module geometry adopted was to use several cylinders. A granular PCM-graphite compound was chosen as the PCM for the experiments presented here. (author)

  5. Anechoic chamber in industrial plants. [construction materials and structural design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, E.; Juncu, O.; Lorian, R.; Marfievici, D.; Mararu, I.

    1974-01-01

    A light anechoic chamber for routine acoustical measurements in the machine building industry is reported. The outer housing of the chamber consists of modules cast in glass fiber reinforced polyester resin; the inner housing consists of pyramidal modules cut out of sound absorbing slates. The parameters of this anechoic chamber facilitate acoustical measurements according to ISO and CAEM recommendations.

  6. A Water Tank Cerenkov Detector for Very High Energy Astroparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Bauleo, P; Niello, J O F; Ferrero, A M J; Filevich, A; Guérard, C K; Hasenbalg, F; Mostafa, M A; Ravignani, D; Martino, J

    1998-01-01

    Extensive airshower detection is an important issue in current astrophysics endeavours. Surface arrays detectors are a common practice since they are easy to handle and have a 100% duty cycle. In this work we present an experimental study of the parameters relevant to the design of a water Cerenkov detector for high energy airshowers. This detector is conceived as part of the surface array of the Pierre Auger Project, which is expected to be sensitive to ultra high energy cosmic rays. In this paper we focus our attention in the geometry of the tank and its inner liner material, discussing pulse shapes and charge collections.

  7. Better RCS data with anechoic absober characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Steve

    1987-05-01

    An adequate understanding of the performance of the absorber material is critical in achieving optimum performance levels of compact ranges or conventional anechoic chambers. The conventional testing technique, the NLR arch method, used for the free-space testing of absorbers is first reviewed, and its flaws are examined. Consideration is then given to new measurement techniques that eliminate the problems of the NLR arch method. These are: (1) Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) imaging of a large test sample wall (122x122 wavelengths at 15 GHz) of material (16 pieces of absorber material on the wall); (2) measurements with a wideband coherent radar capable of generating range-resolved diagnostic data; and (3) conventional time-gathered RCS measurements made as a function of aspect angle of the sample wall target. Results obtained for different materials are discussed.

  8. The Kevlar-walled anechoic wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenport, William J.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Borgoltz, Aurelien; Ravetta, Patricio A.; Barone, Matthew F.; Brown, Kenneth A.; Morton, Michael A.

    2013-08-01

    The aerodynamic and acoustic performance of an anechoic wind tunnel test section with walls made from thin Kevlar cloth have been measured and analyzed. The Kevlar test section offers some advantages over a conventional free-jet arrangement. The cloth contains the bulk of the flow but permits the transmission of sound with little loss. The containment results in smaller far-field aerodynamic corrections meaning that larger models can be tested at higher Reynolds numbers. The containment also eliminates the need for a jet catcher and allows for a much longer test section. Model-generated noise is thus more easily separated from facility background using beamforming. Measurements and analysis of acoustic and aerodynamic corrections for a Kevlar-walled test section are presented and discussed, along with benchmark trailing edge noise measurements.

  9. Regrowth in ship's ballast water tanks: Think again!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Carolina; Pollet, Bruno G

    2016-08-15

    With the imminent ratification of the International Maritime Organisation's Ballast Water Management Convention, ship owners and operators will have to choose among a myriad of different Ballast Water Treatment Systems (BWTS) and technologies to comply with established discharge standards. However, it has come to our attention that decision-makers seem to be unaware of the problem of regrowth occurring in ballast water tanks after treatment. Furthermore, the information available on the subject in the literature is surprisingly and unfortunately very limited. Herein we summarise previous research findings that suggest that regrowth of bacteria and phytoplankton could occur 18h to 7days and 4 to 20days after treatment, respectively. By highlighting the problem of regrowth, we would like to encourage scientists and engineers to further investigate this issue and to urge ship owners and ship operators to inform themselves on the risks of regrowth associated with the implementation of different BWTS.

  10. Rainwater Harvesting in South India: Understanding Water Storage and Release Dynamics at Tank and Catchment Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, N. B.; Van Meter, K. J.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Steiff, M.

    2015-12-01

    Rainwater harvesting, the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional rainwater harvesting systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. With elevated declines in groundwater resources, there is increased effort at the state and national levels to revive older systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient water-provisioning systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these rainwater harvesting "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water level variations to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration, and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28.2 km2. Our results indicate a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflow events (as opposed to outflow) increasing down the cascade of tanks. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with catchment-scale runoff:rainfall ratios decreasing from 0.29 without tanks to 0.04 - 0.09 with tanks. Recharge:rainfall ratios increase in the presence of tanks, from ~0.17 in catchments without tanks to ~ 0.26 in catchments with tanks. Finally, our results demonstrate how more efficient management of sluice outflows can lead to the tanks meeting a higher fraction of crop water requirements.

  11. Farmers’ Willingness to Pay for Irrigation Water: A Case of Tank Irrigation Systems in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Chandrasekaran

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic value of tank irrigation water was determined through Contingency Valuation Method by analyzing farmers’ willingness to pay for irrigation water under improved water supply conditions during wet and dry seasons of paddy cultivation. Quadratic production function was also used to determine the value of irrigation water. The comparison of the economic value of water estimated using different methods strongly suggests that the present water use pattern will not lead to sustainable use of the resource in the tank command areas. Policy options for sustainable use of irrigation water and management of tanks in India were suggested.

  12. Water Tanks, Allegany County Utilities Water Tanks/Towers, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Allegany County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Tanks dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described as 'Allegany...

  13. RF Anechoic Chambers, Tri-Service Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In collaboration with the Navy, there are 12 RF Anechoic and static free exposure chambers located at TSRL. These chambers cover the majority of the RF spectrum and...

  14. Experimental Validation of a Domestic Stratified Hot Water Tank Model in Modelica for Annual Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2015-01-01

    The use of stratified hot water tanks in solar energy systems - including ORC systems - as well as heat pump systems is paramount for a better performance of these systems. However, the availability of effective and reliable models to predict the annual performance of stratified hot water tanks c...

  15. WATER-LEVEL MONITOR FOR BOREWELL AND WATER TANK BASED ON GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Ramani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Now a days, home automation & remote control and monitoring systems have seen a rapid growth in terms of technology. Apparently there is no early warning system to monitor the tank water level and bore well water level when it has reached the critical level. In this paper we have provided water level monitoring in the tank as well as in the bore well. If the water level in a bore well drops below the threshold level for pumping its pump motor may get air locked or more burn out due to dry running. It is awkward for farmers to walk all the way to their fields at night just to switch the pump motor off. Besides, he may never get to identify the problem. This problem can be solved by using this GSM based system that will automatically make a call to the user mobile phone, when the water Level in the bore well drops threshold below or rises to the threshold level for pumping. The user can also remotely switch on or off the pump motor by sending a SMS from his mobile phone. The system is simple, reliable, portable and affordable. We proposed the work in which, Whenever water level in the tankdrops below the required level the system try to fill the tank by switching on the bore well motor to pump the water into the tank It is must to have enough water in the bore well to avoid the formation of air gap or empty running of bore well motor. High precision water level sensor is used to identify the reference water level to activate and deactivate the motor and system properly by interfacing the sensor devices into the well definedembedded system.

  16. Impact on Water Heater Performance of Heating Methods that Promote Tank Temperature Stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL; BushPE, John D [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

    2016-01-01

    During heating of a water heater tank, the vertical temperature stratification of the water can be increased or decreased, depending on the method of heating. Methods that increase stratification during heating include (1) removing cold water from the tank bottom, heating it, and re-introducing it to the tank top at relatively low flow rate, (2) using a heat exchanger wrapped around the tank, through which heating fluid (with finite specific heat) flows from top to bottom, and (3) using an immersed heat element that is relatively high in the tank. Using such methods allows for improved heat pump water heater (HPWH) cycle efficiencies when the heat pump can take advantage of the lower temperatures that exist lower in the tank, and accommodate the resulting glide. Transcritical cycles are especially well-suited to capitalize on this opportunity, and other HPWH configurations (that have been proposed elsewhere) may benefit as well. This work provides several stratification categories of heat pump water heater tank configurations relevant to their stratification potential. To illustrate key differences among categories, it also compiles available experimental data for (a) single pass pumped flow, (b) multi-pass pumped flow, and (c) top-down wrapped tank with transcritical refrigerant.

  17. Operation Performance of Central Solar Heating System with Seasonal Storage Water Tank in Harbin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ling; JIANG Yi-qiang; YAO Yang; ZHANG Shi-cong

    2009-01-01

    This paper presented a preliminary research on the central solar heating system with seasonal stor-age(CSHSSS)used in cold climate in China.A mathematical model of the solar energy seasonal storage water tank used in the central solar heating system was firstly developed based on energy conservation.This was fol-lowed by the simulation of the CSHSSS used in a two-floor villa in Harbin,and analysis of the impacts on storage water temperature of tank volume,solar collector area,tank burial depth,insulation thickness around the tank,etc.The results show there is a relatively economical tank volume to optimize the system efficiency,which de-creases with increasing tank volume at the constant collector area,and increases with increasing collector area at the constant tank volume.Furthermore,the insulation thickness has obvious effect on avoiding heat loss,while the tank burial depth doesn't.In addition-the relationship between the solar collector efficiency and storage wa-ter temperature is also obtained,it decreases quickly with increasing storing water temperature,and then in-creases slowly after starting space heating system.These may be helpful for relevant design and optimization in cold climates in China and all over the world.

  18. MIXING IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE TANKS: ITS EFFECT ON WATER QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly all distribution systems in the US include storage tanks and reservoirs. They are the most visible components of a wate distribution system but are generally the least understood in terms of their impact on water quality. Long residence times in storage tanks can have nega...

  19. Dimensionless numbers used to characterize stratification in water tanks for discharging at low flow rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castell, A.; Medrano, M.; Sole, C.; Cabeza, L.F. [GREA Innovacio concurrent, Universitat de Lleida, Pere de Cabrera s/n, 25001 Lleida (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The efficiency of thermal energy storage and solar collector systems is improved if the water tank is stratified. There are many parameters to characterize stratification but no work compares their suitability. This paper identifies the most used dimensionless numbers to characterize stratification in water tanks and studies their suitability. Experiments with different flow rates were done and the dimensionless numbers were determined. Richardson is the best number to define stratification in a water tank, while Mix number presents some problems and a bad behaviour. The other numbers do not clearly characterize stratification but can be useful combined with Richardson. (author)

  20. EBR-II Primary Tank Wash-Water Alternatives Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, R. L.; Heintzelman, J. B.; Merservey, R. H.; Squires, L. N.

    2008-05-01

    The EBR-II reactor at Idaho National Laboratory was a liquid sodium metal cooled reactor that operated for 30 years. It was shut down in 1994; the fuel was removed by 1996; and the bulk of sodium metal coolant was removed from the reactor by 2001. Approximately 1100 kg of residual sodium remained in the primary system after draining the bulk sodium. To stabilize the remaining sodium, both the primary and secondary systems were treated with a purge of moist carbon dioxide. Most of the residual sodium reacted with the carbon dioxide and water vapor to form a passivation layer of primarily sodium bicarbonate. The passivation treatment was stopped in 2005 and the primary system is maintained under a blanket of dry carbon dioxide. Approximately 670 kg of sodium metal remains in the primary system in locations that were inaccessible to passivation treatment or in pools of sodium that were too deep for complete penetration of the passivation treatment. The EBR-II reactor was permitted by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 2002 under a RCRA permit that requires removal of all remaining sodium in the primary and secondary systems by 2022. The proposed baseline closure method would remove the large components from the primary tank, fill the primary system with water, react the remaining sodium with the water and dissolve the reaction products in the wash water. This method would generate a minimum of 100,000 gallons of caustic, liquid, low level radioactive, hazardous waste water that must be disposed of in a permitted facility. On February 19-20, 2008, a workshop was held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, to look at alternatives that could meet the RCRA permit clean closure requirements and minimize the quantity of hazardous waste generated by the cleanup process. The workshop convened a panel of national and international sodium cleanup specialists, subject matter experts from the INL, and the EBR-II Wash Water Project team that organized the workshop. The

  1. Comparison of biofilm formation and water quality when water from different sources was stored in large commercial water storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Venessa; Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

    2013-03-01

    Rain-, ground- and municipal potable water were stored in low density polyethylene storage tanks for a period of 90 days to determine the effects of long-term storage on the deterioration in the microbial quality of the water. Total viable bacteria present in the stored water and the resultant biofilms were enumerated using heterotrophic plate counts. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Colilert-18(®) tests were performed to determine if the faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli was present in the water and in the biofilm samples collected throughout the study. The municipal potable water at the start of the study was the only water source that conformed to the South African Water Quality Guidelines for Domestic Use. After 15 days of storage, this water source had deteriorated microbiologically to levels considered unfit for human consumption. E. coli was detected in the ground- and potable water and ground- and potable biofilms periodically, whereas it was detected in the rainwater and associated biofilms at every sampling point. Imperfections in the UV resistant inner lining of the tanks were shown to be ecological niches for microbial colonisation and biofilm development. The results from the current study confirmed that long-term storage can influence water quality and increase the number of microbial cells associated with biofilms on the interior surfaces of water storage tanks.

  2. Rician Channel Modeling for Multiprobe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Hentilä, Lassi;

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses over the air (OTA) testing for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) capable terminals, with emphasis on modeling Rician channel models in the multi-probe anechoic chamber setups. A technique to model Rician channels is proposed. The line-of-sight (LOS) component, with an arb......This paper discusses over the air (OTA) testing for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) capable terminals, with emphasis on modeling Rician channel models in the multi-probe anechoic chamber setups. A technique to model Rician channels is proposed. The line-of-sight (LOS) component...

  3. Analysis of nonlinear shallow water waves in a tank by concentrated mass model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Satoshi; Kondou, Takahiro; Matsuzaki, Kenichiro; Yamamura, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    The sloshing of liquid in a tank is an important engineering problem. For example, liquid storage tanks in industrial facilities can be damaged by earthquakes, and conversely liquid tanks, called tuned liquid damper, are often used as passive mechanical dampers. The water depth is less often than the horizontal length of the tank. In this case, shallow water wave theory can be applied, and the results indicate that the surface waveform in a shallow excited tank exhibits complex behavior caused by nonlinearity and dispersion of the liquid. This study aims to establish a practical analytical model for this phenomenon. A model is proposed that consists of masses, connecting nonlinear springs, connecting dampers, base support dampers, and base support springs. The characteristics of the connecting nonlinear springs are derived from the static and dynamic pressures. The advantages of the proposed model are that nonlinear dispersion is considered and that the problem of non-uniform water depth can be addressed. To confirm the validity of the model, numerical results obtained from the model are compared with theoretical values of the natural frequencies of rectangular and triangular tanks. Numerical results are also compared with experimental results for a rectangular tank. All computational results agree well with the theoretical and experimental results. Therefore, it is concluded that the proposed model is valid for the numerical analysis of nonlinear shallow water wave problems.

  4. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

    2008-08-13

    Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union's Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

  5. [Diurnal variations in purifying-tanks when use Pontederia cordata treating the Malodorous River water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-jun; Lu, Xiao-ming; Lu, Shao-yong; Jin, Xiang-can; Huang, Min-sheng; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Feng

    2009-12-01

    Aquatic plants (Ponsederie cordaza) were waked in two purifying-tanks to investigate the effects of illumination intensity and aeration on diurnal variations of Chla, SP, POD of Ponsederia cordaza and pH, DO, COD, NH4+ -N, TP of water from purifying-tanks when treating the malodorous river water at seven different times, another blank purifying-tank was set as a control. Comparative studies and correlation analysis of these different indicators were carried out to improve the plants working efficiency and provide scientific basis for optimal operation of plant purifying-tanks. Results showed that all indicators affected by changes of light, TP shows best correlation coefficient Cr = 0.93, p tank;aeration is necessary as diurnal average of DO shows an increase of 0.13 mg/L by treatment of plant meanwhile 1.8 mg/L by plant with aeration,purifying-tanks with aeration got 7.1%, 6.3% higher removing rates of COD, NH4+ -N and 38% less TP removing rate than non-aeration plant purifying-tanks (p tanks.

  6. STS-55 crewmembers repair waste water tank under OV-102's middeck subfloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Pilot Terence T. Henricks uses a spotlight and pen to point out a possible problem area on a waste water tank in the bilge area below Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, middeck. Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross records the activity with a video camcorder. The crewmembers are participating in an inflight maintenance (IFM) exercise to counter problems experienced with the waste water tank.

  7. The modified swirl sedimentation tanks for water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochowiak, Marek; Matuszak, Magdalena; Włodarczak, Sylwia; Ancukiewicz, Małgorzata; Krupińska, Andżelika

    2017-03-15

    This paper discusses design, evaluation, and application for the use of swirl/vortex technologies as liquid purification system. A study was performed using modified swirl sedimentation tanks. The vortex separators (OW, OWK, OWR and OWKR) have been studied under laboratory conditions at liquid flow rate from 2.8⋅10(-5) to 5.1⋅10(-4) [m(3)/s]. The pressure drop and the efficiency of purification of liquid stream were analyzed. The suspended particles of different diameters were successfully removed from liquid with the application of swirl chambers of proposed constructions. It was found that damming of liquid in the tank increases alongside liquid stream at the inlet and depends on the tank construction. The efficiency of the sedimentation tanks increases alongside the diameters of solid particles and decrease in the liquid flow rate. The best construction proved to be the OWR sedimentation tank due to smallest liquid damming, even at high flow rates, and the highest efficiency of the purification liquid stream for solid particles of the smallest diameter. The proposed solution is an alternative to the classical constructions of sedimentation tanks.

  8. Recreational Vehicle Water Tanks as a Possible Source for Legionella Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Litwin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated recreational vehicle (RV water reservoirs in response to a case of pneumonia in which Legionella pneumophila was cultured both from the patient and a RV reservoir in which he travelled. Water samples processed and cultured at the CDC according to standard protocol were positive for Legionella spp. in 4/17 (24% faucets, 1/11 (9% water tanks from 4/20 (20% RVs from three different campsites. Legionella spp. that were isolated included L. pneumophila (serogroups 1 and 6, L. anisa, L. feeleii, and L. quateriensis. Environmental controls from the potable water of the three campsites were culture-negative. A survey of maintenance practices by the RV users at the campsites revealed that chlorine disinfection of the water tanks was rarely performed. To prevent the possibility of Legionella infections, RV owners should implement regular chlorine disinfection of their water tanks and follow the recommended maintenance guidelines according to their owner's manuals.

  9. Recreational vehicle water tanks as a possible source for legionella infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Christine M; Asebiomo, Bankole; Wilson, Katherine; Hafez, Michael; Stevens, Valerie; Fliermans, Carl B; Fields, Barry S; Fisher, John F

    2013-01-01

    We investigated recreational vehicle (RV) water reservoirs in response to a case of pneumonia in which Legionella pneumophila was cultured both from the patient and a RV reservoir in which he travelled. Water samples processed and cultured at the CDC according to standard protocol were positive for Legionella spp. in 4/17 (24%) faucets, 1/11 (9%) water tanks from 4/20 (20%) RVs from three different campsites. Legionella spp. that were isolated included L. pneumophila (serogroups 1 and 6), L. anisa, L. feeleii, and L. quateriensis. Environmental controls from the potable water of the three campsites were culture-negative. A survey of maintenance practices by the RV users at the campsites revealed that chlorine disinfection of the water tanks was rarely performed. To prevent the possibility of Legionella infections, RV owners should implement regular chlorine disinfection of their water tanks and follow the recommended maintenance guidelines according to their owner's manuals.

  10. Acoustic analysis of a semi-anechoic chamber with intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nassiri

    2014-05-01

    .Conclusion: According to the results, it can be concluded that the suggested intersection layout of rectangular fibrous absorbents can be used as a reliable method in order to reduce the reverberation time and to gain lower cut-off frequency for construct a semi anechoic chamber with the high efficiency.

  11. Building Rain Water Tanks and Building Skills: A Case Study of a Women's Organization in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Deborah; Nakato, Margaret; Nabalango, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Water collection in rural areas of Uganda is left primarily to women and children. Katosi Women Development Trust, an NGO based in rural Uganda has focused on addressing the gender-linked issue of increased water sources near the home through the construction of rain water collection tanks. In an effort to improve the income of members as well as…

  12. Application of Tank Model for Predicting Water Balance and Flow Discharge Components of Cisadane Upper Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Mulyana Arifjaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of hydrological tank model was well described into four compartments (tanks. The first tank (tank A comprised of one vertical (qA0 and two lateral (qA1 and qA2 water flow components and tank B comprised of one vertical (qB0 and one lateral (qB1 water flow components. Tank C comprised of one vertical (qC0 and one lateral (qC1 water flow components, whereas tank D comprised of one lateral water flow component (qD1.  These vertical water flows would also contribute to the depletion of water flow in the related tanks but would replenish tanks in the deeper layers. It was assumed that at all lateral water flow components would finally accumulate in one stream, summing-up of the lateral water flow, much or less, should be equal to the water discharge (Qo at specified time concerns. Tank A received precipitation (R and evapo-transpiration (ET which was its gradientof (R-ET over time would become the driving force for the changes of water stored in the soil profiles and thosewater flows leaving the soil layer.  Thus tank model could describe th vertical and horizontal water flow withinthe watershed. The research site was Cisadane Upper Catchment, located at Pasir Buncir Village of CaringinSub-District within the Regency of Bogor in West Java Province.  The elevations ranged 512 –2,235 m above sealevel, with a total drainage area of 1,811.5 ha and total length of main stream of 14,340.7 m.  The land cover wasdominated by  forest  with a total of 1,044.6 ha (57.67%,  upland agriculture with a total of 477.96 ha (26.38%,mixed garden with a total of 92.85 ha(5.13% and semitechnical irigated rice field with a total of 196.09 ha (10,8%.  The soil was classified as hydraquent (96.6% and distropept (3.4%.  Based on the calibration of tank model application in the study area, the resulting coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.72 with model efficiency (NSEof= 0.75, thus tank model could well illustrate the water flow distribution of

  13. On the Behavior of Different PCMs in a Hot Water Storage Tank against Thermal Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Porteiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Advantages, such as thermal storage improvement, are found when using PCMs (Phase Change Materials in storage tanks. The inclusion of three different types of materials in a 60 l test tank is studied. Two test methodologies were developed, and four tests were performed following each methodology. A thermal analysis is performed to check the thermal properties of each PCM. The distributions of the water temperatures inside the test tanks are evaluated by installing four Pt-100 sensors at different heights. A temperature recovery is observed after exposing the test tank to an energy demand. An energetic analysis that takes into account the energy due to the water temperature, the energy due to the PCM and the thermal loss to the ambient environment is also presented. The percentage of each PCM that remains in the liquid state after the energy demand is obtained.

  14. Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases.

  15. Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

    1991-12-31

    On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases.

  16. Drinking water quality assessment of rain water harvested in ferrocement tanks in Alappuzha District, Kerala (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Jainy; Jaya, D S

    2008-04-01

    The study was conducted to assess the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of stored rain water in the ferrocement tanks of Alappuzha District, Kerala (India). Representative water samples were collected on random basis from ten stations (S1 to S10) with rain water harvesting facility during the periods January 2006 and April 2006. The present study revealed that the physico-chemical characteristics of stored rain water analysed during the winter and summer seasons were within the permissible drinking water standard limits prescribed by W.H.O. Microbiological analysis showed that most of the stored rainwater samples had microbial contamination in both winter and summer seasons and the bacterial count was above the permissible standards for drinking water. Faecal coliforms were also detected in the stored rain water samples collected from eight stations during the summer season. The present study revealed that the quality of stored rain water is suitable for drinking purpose in terms of physical and chemical characteristics. However, disinfection is necessary to make the water microbially safe for drinking purposes.

  17. Pore-Water Extraction Scale-Up Study for the SX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Last, George V.; Lanigan, David C.

    2013-01-15

    The phenomena related to pore-water extraction from unsaturated sediments have been previously examined with limited laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. However, key scale-up issues have not yet been addressed. Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling were conducted to specifically examine pore-water extraction for sediment conditions relevant to the vadose zone beneath the SX Tank Farm at Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Available SX Tank Farm data were evaluated to generate a conceptual model of the subsurface for a targeted pore-water extraction application in areas with elevated moisture and Tc-99 concentration. The hydraulic properties of the types of porous media representative of the SX Tank Farm target application were determined using sediment mixtures prepared in the laboratory based on available borehole sediment particle size data. Numerical modeling was used as an evaluation tool for scale-up of pore-water extraction for targeted field applications.

  18. Water Tanks, Water Towers - includes City water towers, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Tanks dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Water...

  19. 78 FR 70076 - Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... COMMISSION Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and... Guidance (LR-ISG), LR-ISG-2012-02, ``Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric... aging management programs (AMPs), aging management review (AMR) items, and definitions in NUREG-...

  20. Cherenkov radiation dosimetry in water tanks - video rate imaging, tomography and IMRT & VMAT plan verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogue, Brian W.; Glaser, Adam K.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Gladstone, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of three types of imaging of radiation beams in water tanks for comparison to dose maps. The first was simple depth and lateral profile verification, showing excellent agreement between Cherenkov and planned dose, as predicted by the treatment planning system for a square 5cm beam. The second approach was 3D tomography of such beams, using a rotating water tank with camera attached, and using filtered backprojection for the recovery of the 3D volume. The final presentation was real time 2D imaging of IMRT or VMAT treatments in a water tank. In all cases the match to the treatment planning system was within what would be considered acceptable for clinical medical physics acceptance.

  1. Assessment of microbiological quality of drinking water from household tanks in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, B; Pereg, D; Watkinson, E; Maguire, J S; Bissonnette, L; Gingras, S; Rouja, P; Bergeron, M G; Dewailly, E

    2008-06-01

    Bermuda residents collect rainwater from rooftops to fulfil their freshwater needs. The objective of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of drinking water in household tanks throughout Bermuda. The tanks surveyed were selected randomly from the electoral register. Governmental officers visited the selected household (n = 102) to collect water samples and administer a short questionnaire about the tank characteristics, the residents' habits in terms of water use, and general information on the water collecting system and its maintenance. At the same time, water samples were collected for analysis and total coliforms and Escherichia coli were determined by 2 methods (membrane filtration and culture on chromogenic media, Colilert kit). Results from the 2 methods were highly correlated and showed that approximately 90% of the samples analysed were contaminated with total coliforms in concentrations exceeding 10 CFU/100 mL, and approximately 66% of samples showed contamination with E. coli. Tank cleaning in the year prior to sampling seems to protect against water contamination. If rainwater collection from roofs is the most efficient mean for providing freshwater to Bermudians, it must not be considered a source of high quality drinking water because of the high levels of microbial contamination.

  2. On the acoustic wedge design and simulation of anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changyong; Zhang, Shangyu; Huang, Lixi

    2016-10-01

    This study proposes an alternative to the classic wedge design for anechoic chambers, which is the uniform-then-gradient, flat-wall (UGFW) structure. The working mechanisms of the proposed structure and the traditional wedge are analyzed. It is found that their absorption patterns are different. The parameters of both structures are optimized for achieving minimum absorber depth, under the condition of absorbing 99% of normal incident sound energy. It is found that, the UGFW structure achieves a smaller total depth for the cut-off frequencies ranging from 100 Hz to 250 Hz. This paper also proposes a modification for the complex source image (CSI) model for the empirical simulation of anechoic chambers, originally proposed by Bonfiglio et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134 (1), 285-291 (2013)]. The modified CSI model considers the non-locally reactive effect of absorbers at oblique incidence, and the improvement is verified by a full, finite-element simulation of a small chamber. With the modified CSI model, the performance of both decorations with the optimized parameters in a large chamber is simulated. The simulation results are analyzed and checked against the tolerance of 1.5 dB deviation from the inverse square law, stipulated in the ISO standard 3745(2003). In terms of the total decoration depth and anechoic chamber performance, the UGFW structure is better than the classic wedge design.

  3. Bidet toilet seats with warm-water tanks: residual chlorine, microbial community, and structural analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyo, Toru; Asakura, Keiko; Nakano, Makiko; Yamada, Mutsuko; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2016-02-01

    Despite the reported health-related advantages of the use of warm water in bidets, there are health-related disadvantages associated with the use of these toilet seats, and the bacterial research is sparse. We conducted a survey on the hygienic conditions of 127 warm-water bidet toilet seats in restrooms on a university campus. The spray water from the toilet seats had less residual chlorine than their tap water sources. However, the total viable microbial count was below the water-quality standard for tap water. In addition, the heat of the toilet seats' warm-water tanks caused heterotrophic bacteria in the source tap water to proliferate inside the nozzle pipes and the warm-water tanks. Escherichia coli was detected on the spray nozzles of about 5% of the toilet seats, indicating that the self-cleaning mechanism of the spray nozzles was largely functioning properly. However, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected on about 2% of the toilet seats. P. aeruginosa was found to remain for long durations in biofilms that formed inside warm-water tanks. Infection-prevention measures aimed at P. aeruginosa should receive full consideration when managing warm-water bidet toilet seats in hospitals in order to prevent opportunistic infections in intensive care units, hematology wards, and other hospital locations.

  4. Analysis of first flush to improve the water quality in rainwater tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, B; Kandasamy, J; Vigneswaran, S; Shon, H K

    2010-01-01

    Although most Australians receive their domestic supply from reticulated mains or town water, there are vast areas with very low population densities and few reticulated supplies. In many of these areas rainwater collected in tanks is the primary source of drinking water. Heavy metals have recently become a concern as their concentration in rain water tanks was found to exceed recommended levels suitable for human consumption. Rainwater storage tanks also accumulate contaminants and sediments that settle to the bottom. Although not widely acknowledged, small amounts of contaminants such as lead found in rain water (used as drinking water) may have a cumulative and poisonous effect on human health over a life time. This is true for certain factors that underlie many of the chronic illnesses that are becoming increasingly common in contemporary society. The paper reports on a study which is part of a project that aims to develop a cost effective in-line filtration system to improve water quality in rainwater tanks. To enable this, the characteristics of rainwater need to be known. One component of this characterization is to observe the effects of the first flush on a rainwater tank. Samples of the roof runoff collected from an urban residential roof located in the Sydney Metropolitan Area in the initial first few millimetres of rain were analysed. The results show that bypassing the first 2 mm of rainfall gives water with most water quality parameters compliant with the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG) standards. The parameters that did not comply were lead and turbidity, which required bypassing approximately the first 5 mm of rainfall to meet ADWG standards. Molecular weight distribution (MWD) analysis showed that the concentration of rainwater organic matter (RWOM) decreased with increasing amount of roof runoff.

  5. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

  6. Water quality and zooplankton in tanks with larvae of Brycon Orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1949).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Alvarez, E J da S; Braga, F M de S

    2008-02-01

    Due to the importance of water variables conditions and available food in the development and survival of fish larvae, the current research evaluates the effects of two different food treatments (ration + zooplankton and only zooplankton) and water quality in tanks with Brycon orbignyanus larvae. Total water transparency (45 cm) has been mainly associated with short residence time, continuous water flow and shallowness. Dissolved oxygen ranged between 1.32 and 7.00 mg.L(-1) in tanks with ration + zooplankton and between 1.82 and 7.60 mg.L(-1) in tanks with only zooplankton treatments. Nutrients were directly affected by the addition of ration in water, with the exception of nitrite. Ten Rotifera species were found represented by high densities, ranging between 8.7 x 10(5) and 1.3 x 10(6) org.m(-3), throughout the experimental period (January to March/1996). Cladocera had the lowest density in the four tanks under analysis and ranged between 4.7 x 10(4) and 2.1 x 10(5) org.m(-3) for the six species. Diaphanosoma birgei has been classified as the most frequent species. Since ration + zooplankton produced better larvae yield, this treatment is recommended for Brycon orbignyanus larvae.

  7. Assessment of irradiation effects on beryllium reflector and heavy water tank of JRR-3M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Yoji; Kakehuda, Kazuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    The JRR-3M, a swimming pool type research reactor with beryllium and heavy water reflectors, has been operated since 1990. Since the beryllium reflectors are close to fuel and receive high fast neutron fluence in a relatively short time, they may be subject to change their dimensions by swelling due mostly to entrapped helium gaseous. This may bend the reflectors to the outside and narrow gaps between the reflectors and the fuel elements. The gaps have been measured with an ultrasonic thickness gage in an annual inspection. The results in 1996 show that the maximum of expansion in the diametral directions was 0.6 mm against 1.6 mm of a managed value for replacement of the reflector. A heavy water tank of the JRR-3M is made of aluminum alloy A5052. Surveillance tests of the alloy have been conducted to evaluate irradiation effects of the heavy water tank. Five sets of specimens of the alloy have been irradiated in the beryllium reflectors where fast neutron flux is higher than that in the heavy water tank. In 1994, one set of specimens had been unloaded and carried out the post-irradiation tests. The results show that the heavy water tank preserved satisfactory mechanical properties. (author)

  8. Theoretical comparison between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon; Bales, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have shown that solar combisystems based on bikini tanks for low energy houses perform better than solar domestic hot water systems based on mantle tanks. Tank-in-tank solar combisystems are also attractive from a thermal performance point of view. In this paper......, theoretical comparisons between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems are presented....

  9. Evaluation of current industry practices for maintaining tomato dump tank water quality during packinghouse operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States, chlorine is the mainstay disinfectant for produce wash water. In packinghouses, large amounts of accumulating organic matter in dump tanks can cause a dramatic decline in chlorine levels, leaving wash solutions vulnerable to becoming a reservoir for both plant and human pathog...

  10. Processes to improve energy efficiency during pumping and aeration of recirculating water in circular tank systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional gas transfer technologies for aquaculture systems occupy a large amount of space, require considerable capital investment, and can contribute to high electricity demand. In addition, diffused aeration in a circular tank can interfere with the hydrodynamics of water rotation and the spee...

  11. The socio-ecohydrology of rainwater harvesting in India: understanding water storage and release dynamics at tank and catchment scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Van Meter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rainwater harvesting (RWH, the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional RWH systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. This dependence has contributed to an accelerated decline in groundwater resources, which has in turn led to increased efforts at the state and national levels to revive older RWH systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these RWH "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water-level variation to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration (ET, and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28 km2. At the tank scale, our results indicate that groundwater recharge and irrigation outflows comprise the largest fractions of the tank water budget, with ET accounting for only 13–22 % of the outflows. At the scale of the cascade, we observe a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflows increasing down the cascade of tanks. The significant magnitude of return flows along the tank cascade leads to the most downgradient tank in the cascade having an outflow-to capacity ratio greater than 2. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with runoff decreasing by

  12. The socio-ecohydrology of rainwater harvesting in India: understanding water storage and release dynamics at tank and catchment scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.; McLaughlin, D. L.; Steiff, M.

    2015-11-01

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH), the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional RWH systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. This dependence has contributed to an accelerated decline in groundwater resources, which has in turn led to increased efforts at the state and national levels to revive older RWH systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these RWH "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water-level variation to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration (ET), and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28 km2. At the tank scale, our results indicate that groundwater recharge and irrigation outflows comprise the largest fractions of the tank water budget, with ET accounting for only 13-22 % of the outflows. At the scale of the cascade, we observe a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflows increasing down the cascade of tanks. The significant magnitude of return flows along the tank cascade leads to the most downgradient tank in the cascade having an outflow-to capacity ratio greater than 2. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with runoff decreasing by nearly 75 %, and

  13. Method for material characterization in a non-anechoic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pometcu, L.; Sharaiha, A.; Benzerga, R.; Tamas, R. D.; Pouliguen, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a characterization method for extracting the reflection coefficient of materials and the real part of their permittivity. The characterization is performed in a real environment, as opposed to the classical measurement methods that require an anechoic chamber. In order to reduce the effects of the multipath propagation, a free space bistatic measurement was performed at different distances material-antennas in far field. By using a Teflon sample and a commercial absorbing material sample, measurements have been performed in order to validate the characterization technique.

  14. Comparison of Channel Emulation Techniques in Multiprobe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llorente, Ines Carton; Fan, Wei; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum;

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares two different techniques for channel emulation in multiprobe anechoic chamber based setups, which is a candidate solution for the standardization of MIMO OTA performance testing of mobile devices. The comparison is performed via simulations of the field distribution, temporal...... correlation, and spatial correlation emulated by these methods for different number of probes. Results show that the emulation accuracy of the field distribution and temporal correlation are degraded when the emulation technique uses a single sinusoid per probe antenna, while the emulation accuracy...

  15. Implications of the modelling of stratified hot water storage tanks in the simulation of CHP plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Celador, A., E-mail: alvaro.campos@ehu.es [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Odriozola, M.; Sala, J.M. [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Three different modelling approaches for simulation of hot water tanks are presented. {yields} The three models are simulated within a residential cogeneration plant. {yields} Small differences in the results are found by an energy and exergy analysis. {yields} Big differences between the results are found by an advanced exergy analysis. {yields} Results on the feasibility study are explained by the advanced exergy analysis. - Abstract: This paper considers the effect that different hot water storage tank modelling approaches have on the global simulation of residential CHP plants as well as their impact on their economic feasibility. While a simplified assessment of the heat storage is usually considered in the feasibility studies of CHP plants in buildings, this paper deals with three different levels of modelling of the hot water tank: actual stratified model, ideal stratified model and fully mixed model. These three approaches are presented and comparatively evaluated under the same case of study, a cogeneration plant with thermal storage meeting the loads of an urbanisation located in the Bilbao metropolitan area (Spain). The case of study is simulated by TRNSYS for each one of the three modelling cases and the so obtained annual results are analysed from both a First and Second-Law-based viewpoint. While the global energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant for the three modelling cases agree quite well, important differences are found between the economic results of the feasibility study. These results can be predicted by means of an advanced exergy analysis of the storage tank considering the endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction terms caused by the hot water storage tank.

  16. Impact of Untreated Sedimentation Tank Sludge Water Recycle on Water Quality During Treatment of Low Turbidity Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronggang Xu; Yongpeng Xu; Fuyi Cui; Li He; Dong Wang; Qingfeng Su

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this research is to examine the impact of untreated sedimentation tank sludge water ( USTSW) recycle on water quality during treatment of low turbidity water in coagulation—sedimentation processes. 950 mL of raw water and different concentrations of 50 mL USTSW are injected into six 1 000 mL beakers without coagulant.The results indicate that USTSW characterized as accumulated suspended solids and organic matter has active ingredients, which possess the equivalent function of coagulant. The optimal blended water turbidity is in the range of 10-20 NTU, within which USTSW recycle achieves the highest save coagulant rate. The mechanism of strengthening coagulation effect when USTSW recycle mainly depends on the chemical effect and physical effect. What is more, through scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) , it is found that the floc structures with USTSW recycle are more compact than those without USTSW recycle. Besides, the water quality parameters of color, NH3⁃N, CODMn , UV254 , total aluminum, total manganese when USTSW recycle is better than the raw water without recycle, indicating that USTSW recycle can improve water quality with strengthening coagulation effect.

  17. Hydraulic linkage of a storm water tank to a karst spring (Gallusquelle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Morgan; Schiperski, Ferry; Zirlewagen, Johannes; Scheytt, Traugott

    2017-03-01

    A significant proportion of the global water supply is ensured by karst aquifers. However, these are often highly vulnerable to contamination. A storm water tank located in the rural karst catchment area of the Gallusquelle spring (Swabian Alb, southwest Germany) about 9.1 km away was identified as a potential source of contamination. A tracer experiment was carried out in order to evaluate this hydraulic connection. For this, 2.5 kg of the fluorescence dye sulforhodamine G was injected directly at the spillway location. The proposed hydraulic connectivity of the storm water tank to the Gallusquelle spring has been confirmed with this experiment. The maximum tracer velocity of 149 m h-1 highlights rapid groundwater flow through karst conduits. The low tracer mass recovery rate of 14.1% is an indication of a retention capacity along the flow path. This was confirmed by a release of withheld tracer triggered by a heavy storm event 16 days after the injection.

  18. Effects of the light--dark cycle on a water tank social interaction test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejdi, A; Guastavino, J M; Lalonde, R

    1996-01-01

    Mice were exposed to a water tank interaction test in which food could be obtained either by wading in the water or by attacking littermates. A tank with progressively rising water levels caused mice in groups of four to differentiate into those willing to wade (carrier mice) from those unwilling to wade (noncarrier mice). Noncarrier mice could only obtain food by stealing it from carrier mice or from other noncarrier mice. It was found that mice during the dark period of the light--dark cycle were more willing to wade in the search for food rather than attempt to steal food from other mice. Because mice are generally more active during the dark period, this result suggests that higher activity levels increase the willingness to share the work load, a form of altruism, rather than promote parasitic behavior and aggression.

  19. Pitting corrosion in austenitic stainless steel water tanks of hotel trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The water storage tanks of hotel trains suffered pitting corrosion. To identify the cause, the tanks were subjected to a detailed metallographic study and the chemical composition of the austenitic stainless steels used in their construction was determined. Both the tank water and the corrosion products were further examined by physicochemical and microbiological testing. Corrosion was shown to be related to an incompatibility between the chloride content of the water and the base and filler metals of the tanks. These findings formed the basis of recommendations aimed at the prevention and control of corrosion in such tanks.

    Se han detectado problemas de corrosión por picaduras en los depósitos de agua de trenes hotel. Para identificar las causas se llevó a cabo un detallado estudio metalográfico así como de la composición química de los aceros inoxidables austeníticos utilizados en su construcción. También se realizaron estudios fisicoquímicos y microbiológicos de los productos de corrosión. Se ha encontrado que los problemas de corrosión están relacionados con la incompatibilidad entre el contenido en cloruros del agua y los metales base y de aporte de la soldadura de los tanques. En base a estos hallazgos se proponen una serie de recomendaciones encaminadas a la prevención y control de la corrosión de dichos depósitos.

  20. Uniform and non-uniform inlet temperature of a vertical hot water jet injected into a rectangular tank

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2010-12-01

    In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet with uniform inlet temperature (UIT) injected into a cold water tank, and the other is a cold water jet with non-uniform inlet temperature (NUIT) injected into a hot water tank. Three different temperature differences and three different flow rates are studied for the hot water jet with UIT which is injected into a cold water tank. Also, three different initial temperatures with constant flow rate as well as three different flow rates with constant initial temperature are considered for the cold jet with NUIT which is injected into a hot water tank. Turbulence intensity at the inlet as well as Reynolds number for the NUIT cases are therefore functions of inlet temperature and time. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations are carried out for the same measured flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k-ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. The simulated results are compared to the measured results, and they show a good agreement at low temperatures. © 2010 IEEE.

  1. Uranium in Hot Water Tanks: A Source of Tenorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    geologic timescale evaluations (McCall et al., 2001), and for actinide characterization ( Havrilla , 1997). Drinking Water Regulations The EPA has...L.J., Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials (Reinhold Publishing Corp. 1957). (As quoted from IAEA Tech. Report Series No. 15, 1963.) Havrilla

  2. Instrumented Water Tanks can Improve Air Shower Detector Sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, R; Berley, D; Chen, M L; Coyne, D G; Delay, R S; Dingus, B L; Dorfan, D E; Ellsworth, R W; Evans, D; Falcone, A D; Fleysher, L; Fleysher, R; Gisler, G; Goodman, J A; Haines, T J; Hoffman, C M; Hugenberger, S; Kelley, L A; Leonor, I; Macri, J R; McConnell, M; McCullough, J F; McEnery, J E; Miller, R S; Mincer, A I; Morales, M F; Némethy, P; Ryan, J M; Schneider, M; Shen, B; Shoup, A L; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sullivan, G W; Thompson, T N; Tümer, T O; Wang, K; Wascko, M O; Westerhoff, S; Williams, D A; Yang, T; Yodh, G B

    1999-01-01

    Previous works have shown that water Cherenkov detectors have superior sensitivity to those of scintillation counters as applied to detecting extensive air showers (EAS). This is in large part due to their much higher sensitivity to EAS photons which are more than five times more numerous than EAS electrons. Large area water Cherenkov detectors can be constructed relatively cheaply and operated reliably. A sparse detector array has been designed which uses these types of detectors to substantially increase the area over which the Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory collects EAS information. Improvements to the Milagro detector's performance characteristics and sensitivity derived from this array and preliminary results from a prototype array currently installed near the Milagro detector will be presented.

  3. Cathodic Protection of Hot Water Tanks at Fort Sill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    clothing suitable for the weather and your work. Torn, loose clothing, cuffs, sleeves, etc., are hazardous and could cause accidents. Jewelry (rings...sharp edges. 8. Friction Buckle: Inspect the buckle for distortion. The outer bars and center bars must be straight. Pay special attention...include high silicon cast iron, graphite, mixed metal oxide, platinum and niobium coated wire and others. 3.1.5 A typical ICCP system for a hot water

  4. STS-55 crewmembers repair waste water tank on OV-102's middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Three STS-55 crewmembers participate in an inflight maintenance (IFM) exercise to counter problems experienced with a waste water tank below Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, middeck. Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Bernard A. Harris, Jr, inside the airlock, holds middeck floor access panel MD54G and looks below at Pilot Terence T. Henricks who is in the bilge area. Commander Steven R. Nagel is lying on middeck floor at the left.

  5. Water Tanks, Published in 2000, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, City of Fort Wayne.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Tanks dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2000. Data by this publisher are...

  6. Testing of Alternative Abrasives for Water-Jet Cutting at C Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogstad, Eirik J.

    2013-08-01

    Legacy waste from defense-related activities at the Hanford Site has predominantly been stored in underground tanks, some of which have leaked; others may be at risk to do so. The U.S. Department of Energy’s goal is to empty the tanks and transform their contents into more stable waste forms. To do so requires breaking up, and creating a slurry from, solid wastes in the bottoms of the tanks. A technology developed for this purpose is the Mobile Arm Retrieval System. This system is being used at some of the older single shell tanks at C tank farm. As originally planned, access ports for the Mobile Arm Retrieval System were to be cut using a high- pressure water-jet cutter. However, water alone was found to be insufficient to allow effective cutting of the steel-reinforced tank lids, especially when cutting the steel reinforcing bar (“rebar”). The abrasive added in cutting the hole in Tank C-107 was garnet, a complex natural aluminosilicate. The hardness of garnet (Mohs hardness ranging from H 6.5 to 7.5) exceeds that of solids currently in the tanks, and was regarded to be a threat to Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant systems. Olivine, an iron-magnesium silicate that is nearly as hard as garnet (H 6.5 to 7), has been proposed as an alternative to garnet. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory proposed to test pyrite (FeS2), whose hardness is slightly less (H 6 to 6.5) for 1) cutting effectiveness, and 2) propensity to dissolve (or disintegrate by chemical reaction) in chemical conditions similar to those of tank waste solutions. Cutting experiments were conducted using an air abrader system and a National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (SRM 1767 Low Alloy Steel), which was used as a surrogate for rebar. The cutting efficacy of pyrite was compared with that of garnet and olivine in identical size fractions. Garnet was found to be most effective in removing steel from the target; olivine and pyrite were less

  7. Subwavelength-Sized Narrow-Band Anechoic Waveguide Terminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán, Arturo; Ćrenlund, Emil; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-11-01

    We propose and demonstrate the use of a pair of detuned acoustic resonators to efficiently absorb narrow-band sound waves in a terminated waveguide. The suggested configuration is relatively simple and advantageous for usage at low frequencies, since the dimensions of the resonators are very small compared to the wavelength. We present a theoretical description based on lumped parameters to calculate the absorption coefficient, which agrees very well with experimental data. The experimental results verify that the anechoic (reflection approximately -38 dB ) narrow-band (Δ f /f ˜0.1 ) termination with deeply subwavelength (sound absorption in a room, we demonstrate by use of numerical simulations that a given axial resonant excitation in a room can be practically eliminated. Thus, a reduction of approximately 24 dB in the average acoustic energy is achieved in the room when using only four Helmholtz resonators. We also discuss various scenarios of noise control in rooms.

  8. Fecal indicators and zoonotic pathogens in household drinking water taps fed from rainwater tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Hodgers, L; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the microbiological quality of household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks was assessed by monitoring the numbers of Escherichia coli bacteria and enterococci from 24 households in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was also used for the quantitative detection of zoonotic pathogens in water samples from rainwater tanks and connected household taps. The numbers of zoonotic pathogens were also estimated in fecal samples from possums and various species of birds by using qPCR, as possums and birds are considered to be the potential sources of fecal contamination in roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW). Among the 24 households, 63% of rainwater tank and 58% of connected household tap water (CHTW) samples contained E. coli and exceeded Australian drinking water guidelines of tanks and 83% of CHTW samples also contained enterococci. In all, 21%, 4%, and 13% of rainwater tank samples contained Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Giardia lamblia, respectively. Similarly, 21% of rainwater tank and 13% of CHTW samples contained Campylobacter spp. and G. lamblia, respectively. The number of E. coli (P = 0.78), Enterococcus (P = 0.64), Campylobacter (P = 0.44), and G. lamblia (P = 0.50) cells in rainwater tanks did not differ significantly from the numbers observed in the CHTW samples. Among the 40 possum fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 60%, 13%, and 30% of samples, respectively. Among the 38 bird fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., C. parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 24%, 11%, 5%, and 13% of the samples, respectively. Household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks tested in the study appeared to be highly variable. Regular cleaning of roofs and gutters, along with pruning of overhanging tree branches, might also prove effective in reducing animal fecal contamination of rainwater tanks.

  9. Heavy metal concentrations and toxicity in water and sediment from stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Kristin; Viklander, Maria; Scholes, Lian; Revitt, Mike

    2010-06-15

    Sedimentation is a widely used technique in structural best management practices to remove pollutants from stormwater. However, concerns have been expressed about the environmental impacts that may be exerted by the trapped pollutants. This study has concentrated on stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks and reports on the accumulated metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and the associated toxicity to the bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The metal concentrations are compared with guidelines and the toxicity results are assessed in relation to samples for which metal concentrations either exceed or conform to these values. The water phase metal concentrations were highest in the ponds whereas the sedimentation tanks exhibited a distinct decrease towards the outlet. However, none of the water samples demonstrated toxicity even though the concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn exceeded the threshold values for the compared guidelines. The facilities with higher traffic intensities had elevated sediment concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn which increased towards the outlet for the sedimentation tanks in agreement with the highest percentage of fine particles. The sediments in both treatment facilities exhibited the expected toxic responses in line with their affinity for heavy metals but the role of organic carbon content is highlighted.

  10. Evaluation of Disinfectants Used in Pre-Chilling water Tanks of Poultry Processing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BHL Guastalli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In poultry processing plants, disinfectants are often added to pre-chilling water tanks to reduce microbial contamination. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of five disinfectants (acidified sodium chlorite, alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride, chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid, and sodium hypochlorite on the populations of food quality indicator microorganisms and on Salmonella Enteritidis (SE in the presence and absence of organic matter. The results showed that chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite did not reduce microbial carcass counts. On the other hand, acidified sodium chlorite, alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride and peracetic acid reduced total and fecal coliform counts. Peracetic acid reduced the number of psychrotrophic microorganisms. All products were effective in reducing SE counts only in the absence of organic matter. Acidified sodium chlorite, alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride and peracetic acid could be candidates for the replacement of sodium hypochlorite (commonly used in Brazil in pre-chilling tanks.

  11. Sporadic Legionnaires' disease: the role of domestic electric hot-water tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, S F; Locas, M C; Duchesne, A; Restieri, C; Ismaïl, J; Lefebvre, B; Labbé, A C; Dion, R; Plante, M; Laverdière, M

    2012-01-01

    Sporadic community-acquired legionellosis (SCAL) can be acquired through contaminated aerosols from residential potable water. Electricity-dependent hot-water tanks are widely used in the province of Quebec (Canada) and have been shown to be frequently contaminated with Legionella spp. We prospectively investigated the homes of culture-proven SCAL patients from Quebec in order to establish the proportion of patients whose domestic potable hot-water system was contaminated with the same Legionella isolate that caused their pneumonia. Water samples were collected in each patient's home. Environmental and clinical isolates were compared using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Thirty-six patients were enrolled into the study. Legionella was recovered in 12/36 (33%) homes. The residential and clinical isolates were found to be microbiologically related in 5/36 (14%) patients. Contaminated electricity-heated domestic hot-water systems contribute to the acquisition of SCAL. The proportion is similar to previous reports, but may be underestimated.

  12. Optimal operation of water supply systems with tanks based on genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ting-chao; ZHANG Tu-qiao; LI Xun

    2005-01-01

    In view of the poor water supply system's network properties, the system's complicated network hydraulic equations were replaced by macroscopic nodal pressure model and the model of relationship between supply flow and water source head. By using pump-station pressure head and initial tank water levels as decision variables, the model of optimal allocation of water supply between pump-sources was developed. Genetic algorithm was introduced to deal with the model of optimal allocation of water supply. Methods for handling each constraint condition were put forward, and overcome the shortcoming such as premature convergence of genetic algorithm;a solving method was brought forward in which genetic algorithm was combined with simulated annealing technology and self-adaptive crossover and mutation probabilities were adopted. An application example showed the feasibility of this algorithm.

  13. Application of RANS Simulations for Contact Time Predictions in Turbulent Reactor Tanks for Water Purification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickles, Cassandra; Goodman, Matthew; Saez, Jose; Issakhanian, Emin

    2016-11-01

    California's current drought has renewed public interest in recycled water from Water Reclamation Plants (WRPs). It is critical that the recycled water meets public health standards. This project consists of simulating the transport of an instantaneous conservative tracer through the WRP chlorine contact tanks. Local recycled water regulations stipulate a minimum 90-minute modal contact time during disinfection at peak dry weather design flow. In-situ testing is extremely difficult given flowrate dependence on real world sewage line supply and recycled water demand. Given as-built drawings and operation parameters, the chlorine contact tanks are modeled to simulate extreme situations, which may not meet regulatory standards. The turbulent flow solutions are used as the basis to model the transport of a turbulently diffusing conservative tracer added instantaneously to the inlet of the reactors. This tracer simulates the transport through advection and dispersion of chlorine in the WRPs. Previous work validated the models against experimental data. The current work shows the predictive value of the simulations.

  14. Field Test Design Simulations of Pore-Water Extraction for the SX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A proof of principle test of pore water extraction is being performed by Washington River Protection Solutions for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection. This test is being conducted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989) Milestone M 045-20, and is described in RPP-PLAN-53808, 200 West Area Tank Farms Interim Measures Investigation Work Plan. To support design of this test, numerical simulations were conducted to help define equipment and operational parameters. The modeling effort builds from information collected in laboratory studies and from field characterization information collected at the test site near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. Numerical simulations were used to evaluate pore-water extraction performance as a function of the test site properties and for the type of extraction well configuration that can be constructed using the direct-push installation technique. Output of simulations included rates of water and soil-gas production as a function of operational conditions for use in supporting field equipment design. The simulations also investigated the impact of subsurface heterogeneities in sediment properties and moisture distribution on pore-water extraction performance. Phenomena near the extraction well were also investigated because of their importance for pore-water extraction performance.

  15. Modelling of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell CHP System Coupled with a Hot Water Storage Tank for a Single Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Liso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. The use of a storage tank with thermal stratification allows one to increase the annual operating hours of CHP: heat can be produced when the request is low (for instance during the night, taking advantage of thermal stratification to increases the heat recovery performance. A model of the SOFC system is presented to estimate the energy required to meet the average electric energy demand of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas produced by gasification and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation are used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small household using two different fuels. In particular it was shown that in the case of syngas, due to larger system heat output, a larger tank volume was required in order to accumulate unused heat over the night. The detailed description of the tank model will be useful to energy system modelers when sizing hot water tanks. Problem formulation is reported also using a Matlab script.

  16. Construction of an anechoic chamber for aeroacoustic experiments and examination of its acoustic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopiev, V. F.; Palchikovskiy, V. V.; Belyaev, I. V.; Bersenev, Yu. V.; Makashov, S. Yu.; Khramtsov, I. V.; Korin, I. A.; Sorokin, E. V.; Kustov, O. Yu.

    2017-01-01

    The acoustic parameters of a new anechoic chamber constructed at Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) are presented. This chamber is designed to be used, among other things, for measuring noise from aerodynamic sources. Sound-absorbing wedges lining the walls of the chamber were studied in an interferometer with normal wave incidence. The results are compared to the characteristics of sound-absorbing wedges of existing anechoic facilities. Metrological examination of the acoustic parameters of the PNRPU anechoic chamber demonstrates that free field conditions are established in it, which will make it possible to conduct quantitative acoustic experiments.

  17. Leaf hydraulic conductance for a tank bromeliad: axial and radial pathways for moving and conserving water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Gretchen B; Lynch, Frank H; Maharaj, Franklin D R; Phillips, Carly A; Woodside, Walter T

    2013-01-01

    Epiphytic plants in the Bromeliaceae known as tank bromeliads essentially lack stems and absorptive roots and instead take up water from reservoirs formed by their overlapping leaf bases. For such plants, leaf hydraulic conductance is plant hydraulic conductance. Their simple strap-shaped leaves and parallel venation make them suitable for modeling leaf hydraulic conductance based on vasculature and other anatomical and morphological traits. Plants of the tank bromeliad Guzmania lingulata were investigated in a lowland tropical forest in Costa Rica and a shaded glasshouse in Los Angeles, CA, USA. Stomatal conductance to water vapor and leaf anatomical variables related to hydraulic conductance were measured for both groups. Tracheid diameters and numbers of vascular bundles (veins) were used with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation to calculate axial hydraulic conductance. Measurements of leaf hydraulic conductance using the evaporative flux method were also made for glasshouse plants. Values for axial conductance and leaf hydraulic conductance were used in a model based on leaky cable theory to estimate the conductance of the radial pathway from the vein to the leaf surface and to assess the relative contributions of both axial and radial pathways. In keeping with low stomatal conductance, low stomatal density, low vein density, and narrow tracheid diameters, leaf hydraulic conductance for G. lingulata was quite low in comparison with most other angiosperms. Using the predicted axial conductance in the leaky cable model, the radial resistance across the leaf mesophyll was predicted to predominate; lower, more realistic values of axial conductance resulted in predicted radial resistances that were closer to axial resistance in their impact on total leaf resistance. Tracer dyes suggested that water uptake through the tank region of the leaf was not limiting. Both dye movement and the leaky cable model indicated that the leaf blade of G. lingulata was structurally and

  18. Relevance of hydrological variables in water-saving efficiency of domestic rainwater tanks: Multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Leonardo Rosa; Maia, Adelena Gonçalves; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio

    2017-02-01

    This research investigated the relevance of four hydrological variables in the performance of a domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) system. The hydrological variables investigated are average annual rainfall (P), precipitation concentration degree (PCD), antecedent dry weather period (ADWP), and ratio of dry days to rainy days (nD/nR). Principal component analyses are used to group the water-saving efficiency into a select set of variables, and the relevance of the hydrological variables in a water-saving efficiency system was studied using canonical correlation analysis. The P associated with PCD, ADWP, or nD/nR attained a better correlation with water-saving efficiency than single P. We conclude that empirical models that represent a large combinations of roof-surface areas, rainwater-tank sizes, water demands, and rainfall regimes should also consider a variable for precipitation temporal variability, and treat it as an independent variable.

  19. Scaling Characteristics of Developing Sea Breezes Simulated in a Water Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Renmin; Sun, Jianning; Luo, Tao; Wu, Xuping

    2013-09-01

    Sea-breeze circulations in a stably stratified environment have been simulated in a water tank. The floor of the tank was divided into two halves representing land and sea; the land side was heated from the bottom of the tank, and the sea side was insulated by an underlying sponge slab. The temperature profiles over both land and sea sides, the land-sea temperature difference, and the horizontal temperature distributions were measured. Particle tracking velocimetry was applied to obtain the two-dimensional velocity field orthogonal to the coastline. It was shown that the overall flow consists of a closed circulation caused by the horizontal temperature difference between land and sea, and a strong updraft occurring at the sea-breeze front. The dimensionless governing parameters are calculated from the measurements and used to characterize the developing sea breezes. The analysis confirms the scaling laws for sea-breeze velocity and depth. The results indicate that the scaling characteristics of the sea-breeze translation speed during the developing period are different to those during the following maintaining period. A criterion for the onset of the sea breeze is proposed based on these results.

  20. Water Tanks, Included in water system layer above, Published in Not Provided, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Town of Franklin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Tanks dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of Not Provided. It is described as...

  1. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks.

  2. Use of In-Situ Dynamic Measurements to Calibrate Analytical Models of RC-Elevated Water Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Before establishing the priority settings for the reduction of seismic risk of water supply infrastructures, it is necessary to understand the dynamic behavior of elevated water tanks, which are components of those infrastructures. Among other information, the main frequencies of vibration of these structures must be estimated and the analytical models used in their analysis and design should reproduce the frequency values obtained by in-situ dynamic tests. This work focuses exclusively on reinforced concrete (RC elevated water tanks (200–750 m^3 of water at heights of 30–40 m, which are very common structures in the water supply systems in Portugal since the mid XXth century. This type of structures can also be seen in many regions around the world. First, a nationwide survey was conducted to determine the most common typologies in the country in terms of structural layout. Second, an in-situ campaign using ambient vibration as input was performed for a group of selected structures to determine the main frequencies of vibration and to identify modal shapes and damping values. Third, a finite element model of several different typologies was developed using the water simply as a concentrated mass at the top; the elastic properties of the model of the structure including the foundation were calibrated, so that the frequencies of various mode shapes obtained by the analytical model would match the frequencies of the real structure. Finally, an expression was derived to estimate the fundamental frequency of a group of elevated water tank typologies based on the total mass at the top of the supporting structure, which include the water, the global lateral stiffness, and the height of the tank. This study, providing important information on the frequencies of vibration of RC-elevated water tanks, contributes in a definite way to the analysis and design of such water tanks.

  3. Kazachstania rupicola sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from water tanks of a bromeliad in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Silvana Vilas Boas; Gomes, Fátima C O; Marques, Andréa R; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2013-03-01

    Two isolates of a novel yeast species were obtained from water tanks (phytotelmata) of the bromeliad Vriesea minarum collected in a tableland ('campo rupestre') ecosystem in Brazil. The sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rRNA gene showed that this species is related to Kazachstania exigua and others, from which it differs by 8-10 nucleotide substitutions. The novel species Kazachstania rupicola sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain is UFMG-BRO-80(T) ( = CBS 12684(T)  = CBMAI 1466(T)).

  4. Development of Fuzzy Controller for Water Level in Stream Boiler Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai Panich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The process control of steam boiler is very popular used in the industrial. The temperature of the water is transferred directly by electrical heater. The pressure will increase based on the changing of the temperature. The purpose of the control is to change the opening set point for the valve when the temperature and pressure in the tank are changed. For this problem, we develop fuzzy algorithm to adjust the optimal percentage of valve open. Approach: In this study, the fuzzy control application was programmed in fuzzy control language in form of the function block using structure control language. The input information consisted of real variables in the form of measurable process variables, as well as set points. And the output variables were real variables in the form of correcting variables. Results: The fuzzy control was developed, which consists of two input variables, the degree of temperature and pressure in boiler tank measured by sensor. For fuzzy system of water level control, the algorithm is basically implemented in form of the MATLAB code. In the experiment, we assumed that the water level would not effect to the temperature and pressure. Conclusion: The research for the development of the fuzzy logic and the model was tested with the step inputs and the changing of the inputs. The whole simulation process was built to test the behavior of the system when the inputs change.

  5. Growth response and survival of Heterobranchus longifilis cultured at different water levels in outdoor concrete tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A. Nlewadim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen-day-old hatchery-raised fry obtained from hormonally-induced spawns of mature African catfish H. longifilis brood stock were introduced to three different water levels (0.35, 0.50 and 0.65m in four replicates in 12 units of 2x2x1m3 outdoor concrete tanks. The fry were similarly stocked initially at 50 fry m-2 and later thinned down to 5 fish m-2 and cultured for 6 months. Fish were fed twice daily with commercial pellet feeds (Coppens™ while adjusting the feeding rate from 10 to 4% body weight and pellet size from 0.2 to 4.5 mm. The effects of pond water levels were evaluated in growth responses and survival. Water quality variables were similar (p > 0.05 in all compartments. Temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were at the optimum level for fish. The results reveal significant (P H. longifilis from fry to sub-adult and from the grow-out/fattening of sub-adult to adult, respectively, in outdoor concrete tanks.

  6. Study of the Thermal Behaviour of Water for Residential Use in Tanks of Concrete and Polyethylene in Humid Subtropical Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego-Ayala Ulises

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comparative study of the thermal behavior of residential water tanks of polyethylene and concrete exposed to the sun over a year in the state of Yucatan. The energy for radiation and their corresponding temperatures in each system were measured. Daily patterns of elevation and reduction of temperature were identified and the amount of energy acquired during the day as well as the heat dissipated overnight were determined, aiming to determine the possibility of using residential water tanks as a source of hot water in residential homes in the Yucatan region. Based on this study it has been found that the periods of the day with hot water temperature for showering with comfort is limited and that, interestingly, both systems show similar temperatures at the bottom of the tanks throughout the year.

  7. 33 CFR 157.15 - Slop tanks in tank vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Slop tanks in tank vessels. 157... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.15 Slop tanks in tank vessels. (a) Number....

  8. A home away from home: a meiobenthic assemblage in a ship's ballast water tank sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rokicka-Praxmajer

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide research on ship-aided dispersal of marineorganisms and invasions of non-indigenous species focuses primarilyon the plankters, which show the greatest potential for invadingnew areas and establishing viable populations in them, eitherin the water column (holoplankton or on the bottom (meroplanktoniclarvae of benthic species settling on the sea floor. As meiobenthicanimals usually lack a pelagic larval stage in their life cycle,no biological invasion study has, to our knowledge, ever specificallytargeted marine transport as a means of meiofaunal dispersal. Here we present a set of data showing that the sedimentdeposited in a ship's ballast water tank does support a viablemeiobenthic assemblage. We examined 0.015-dm3 aliquotsof a 1 dm3 sample from a c. 1.5-cm thick layerof sediment residue in the ballast tank of MS Donnington, broughtto the "Gryfia" Repair Shipyard in Szczecin (Poland. The sampleswere found to contain representatives of calcareous Foraminifera,hydrozoans, nematodes, turbellarians, harpacticoid copepods andtheir nauplii, and cladocerans, as well as meiobenthic-sizedbivalves and gastropods. Nematodes proved to be the most constantand most numerous component of the assemblage. The sediment portionsexamined revealed the presence of 1-11 individuals representing11 marine nematode genera. The viability of the meiobenthic assemblagewas evidenced by the presence of ovigerous females of both nematodesand harpacticoids. Survival of the meiobenthos in shipborne ballast tank sedimentresidues may provide at least a partial explanation for the cosmopolitandistribution of meiobenthic taxa and may underlie the successfulcolonisation of new habitats by invasive meiofaunal species.

  9. Performance of a lab-scale bio-electrochemical assisted septic tank for the anaerobic treatment of black water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamalloa, Carlos; Arends, Jan B A; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

    2013-06-25

    Septic tanks are used for the removal of organic particulates in wastewaters by physical accumulation instead of through the biological production of biogas. Improved biogas production in septic tanks is crucial to increase the potential of this system for both energy generation and organic matter removal. In this study, the effect on the biogas production and biogas quality of coupling a 20 L lab-scale septic tank with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) was investigated and compared with a standard septic tank. Both reactors were operated at a volumetric organic loading rate of 0.5gCOD/Ld and a hydraulic retention time between 20 and 40 days using black water as an input under mesophilic conditions for a period of 3 months. The MEC-septic tank was operated at an applied voltage of 2.0±0.1V and the current experienced ranged from 40 mA (0.9A/m(2) projected electrode area) to 180 mA (5A/m(2) projected electrode area). The COD removal was of the order of 85% and the concentration of residual COD was not different between both reactors. Yet, the total phosphorous in the output was on average 39% lower in the MEC-septic tank. Moreover, the biogas production rate in the MEC-septic tank was a factor of 5 higher than in the control reactor and the H2S concentration in the biogas was a factor of 2.5 lower. The extra electricity supplied to the MEC-septic tank was recovered as extra biogas produced. Overall, it appears that the combination of MEC and a septic tank offers perspectives in terms of lower discharge of phosphorus and H2S, nutrient recuperation and a more reliable supply of biogas.

  10. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  11. Behavioral differentiation of mice exposed to a water tank social interaction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejdi, A; Guastavino, J M; Lalonde, R; Desor, D; Krafft, B

    1996-02-01

    Male or female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to a water tank in which food could be obtained only by wading in the water towards a feeder. Behavioral differentiation occurred in that three distinct categories could be distinguished: major carriers (transporting over 80% of the food pellets), sporadic carriers (transporting less than 20% of the food pellets) and non-carriers. In the elevated + -maze, major carriers were more willing to explore open spaces than non-carriers. Sporadic carriers showed some evidence of the same tendency of decreased anxiety, but in a minor way. The willingness of mice to become carriers is associated with their willingness to explore novel areas. This test may be useful for the assessment of anxiolytic compounds in a social situation.

  12. Project W-519 CDR supplement: Raw water and electrical services for privatization contractor, AP tank farm operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-07-31

    This supplement to the Project W-519 Conceptual Design will identify a means to provide RW and Electrical services to serve the needs of the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) at AP Tank Farm as directed by DOE-RL. The RW will serve the fire suppression and untreated process water requirements for the PC. The purpose of this CDR supplement is to identify Raw Water (RW) and Electrical service line routes to the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) feed delivery tanks, AP-106 and/or AP-108, and establish associated cost impacts to the Project W-519 baseline.

  13. Stratification of living organisms in ballast tanks: how do organism concentrations vary as ballast water is discharged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Matthew R; Robbins-Wamsley, Stephanie H; Riley, Scott C; Moser, Cameron S; Smith, George E; Tamburri, Mario N; Drake, Lisa A

    2013-05-07

    Vertical migrations of living organisms and settling of particle-attached organisms lead to uneven distributions of biota at different depths in the water column. In ballast tanks, heterogeneity could lead to different population estimates depending on the portion of the discharge sampled. For example, concentrations of organisms exceeding a discharge standard may not be detected if sampling occurs during periods of the discharge when concentrations are low. To determine the degree of stratification, water from ballast tanks was sampled at two experimental facilities as the tanks were drained after water was held for 1 or 5 days. Living organisms ≥50 μm were counted in discrete segments of the drain (e.g., the first 20 min of the drain operation, the second 20 min interval, etc.), thus representing different strata in the tank. In 1 and 5 day trials at both facilities, concentrations of organisms varied among drain segments, and the patterns of stratification varied among replicate trials. From numerical simulations, the optimal sampling strategy for stratified tanks is to collect multiple time-integrated samples spaced relatively evenly throughout the discharge event.

  14. The effect of influent temperature variations in a sedimentation tank for potable water treatment--a computational fluid dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goula, Athanasia M; Kostoglou, Margaritis; Karapantsios, Thodoris D; Zouboulis, Anastasios I

    2008-07-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is used to assess the effect of influent temperature variation on solids settling in a sedimentation tank for potable water treatment. The model is based on the CFD code Fluent and exploits several specific aspects of the potable water application to derive a computational tool much more efficient than the corresponding tools employed to simulate primary and secondary wastewater settling tanks. The linearity of the particle conservation equations allows separate calculations for each particle size class, leading to the uncoupling of the CFD problem from a particular inlet particle size distribution. The usually unknown and difficult to be measured particle density is determined by matching the theoretical to the easily measured experimental total settling efficiency. The present model is adjusted against data from a real sedimentation tank and then it is used to assess the significance of influent temperature variation. It is found that a temperature difference of only 1 degrees C between influent and tank content is enough to induce a density current. When the influent temperature rises, the tank exhibits a rising buoyant plume that changes the direction of the main circular current. This process keeps the particles in suspension and leads to a higher effluent suspended solids concentration, thus, worse settling. As the warmer water keeps coming in, the temperature differential decreases, the current starts going back to its original position, and, thus, the suspended solids concentration decreases.

  15. A novel method to design water spray cooling system to protect floating roof atmospheric storage tanks against fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon bulk storage tank fires are not very common, but their protection is essential due to severe consequences of such fires. Water spray cooling system is one of the most effective ways to reduce damages to a tank from a fire. Many codes and standards set requirements and recommendations to maximize the efficiency of water spray cooling systems, but these are widely different and still various interpretations and methods are employed to design such systems. This article provides a brief introduction to some possible design methods of cooling systems for protection of storage tanks against external non-contacting fires and introduces a new method namely “Linear Density Method” and compares the results from this method to the “Average Method” which is currently in common practice. The average Method determines the flow rate for each spray nozzle by dividing the total water demand by the number of spray nozzles while the Linear Density Method determines the nozzle flow rate based on the actual flow over the surface to be protected. The configuration of the system includes a one million barrel crude oil floating roof tank to be protected and which is placed one half tank diameter from a similar adjacent tank with a full surface fire. Thermal radiation and hydraulics are modeled using DNV PHAST Version 6.53 and Sunrise PIPENET Version 1.5.0.2722 software respectively. Spray nozzles used in design are manufactured by Angus Fire and PNR Nozzles companies. Schedule 40 carbon steel pipe is used for piping. The results show that the cooling system using the Linear Density Method consumes 3.55% more water than the design using the average method assuming a uniform application rate of 4.1 liters per minute. Despite higher water consumption the design based on Linear Density Method alleviates the problems associated with the Average Method and provides better protection.

  16. 33 CFR 155.350 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less than 400 gross tons. 155.350 Section 155... mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less than 400 gross tons. (a) No person may operate an oceangoing ship of less than 400 gross tons, unless it either:...

  17. Health improvement of domestic hot tap water supply Gusev, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. Make-up water tank project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    This report describes the project `Health Improvement of Domestic Hot Tap Water Supply, Gusev, Kaliningrad, Russia`, which was carried out in the autumn of 1996 and financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, the Danish Energy Agency and Gusev Municipality. The project proposal and application outlined the following objectives: Erection of system so that hot tap water, which is tapped directly from the district heating system, obtains an acceptable quality in health terms; Complete training and education, so that the plant can be operated and maintained by the power station`s staff and rehabilitation projects within supply of domestic water and district heating can be promoted to the greatest possible extent; Systems for heat treatment of make-up water were implemented in less than three months; The project was carried out in close Danish-Russian co-operation from the beginning of engineering to the commissioning and resulted in transfer and demonstration of know-how and technology; Information was recorded on the existing domestic water and heat supply systems as well as on the treatment of sewage, and recommendations for rehabilitation projects were made. Previously, when the temperature in the district heating system was relatively high, a heat treatment apparently took place in the district heating system. However, due to the current poor economic situation there are no means with which to buy the fuel quantities necessary to maintain the previously normal district heating temperature. In the new concept the cold make-up water is heated to >80 deg. C as required by the health authorities before it is led to the district heating return system and subsequently heated to the actual supply temperature of 50-60 deg. C. The energy consumption in the two concepts is approximately the same. A 1,000 m{sup 3} tank with heating coils was erected between the make-up water system and the district heating system. The tank should equalise the daily capacity

  18. Kockovaella libkindii sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from water tanks of bromeliad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fatima C O; Safar, Silvana V B; Santos, Ana Raquel O; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2016-12-01

    During a study of yeast community associated with water tanks (phytotelmata) of the bromeliad Vriesea minarum, two strains of a novel stalk-forming yeast species were found. The sequences of the region spanning the ITS and D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rRNA gene showed that this species belongs to the genus Kockovaella. The novel species differs by 14 or more nucleotide substitutions in the D1/D2 domains and by 26 or more substitutions in the ITS-5.8S region from all other Kockovaella species. We describe this species as Kockovaella libkindii sp. nov. The type strain of Kockovaella libkindii sp. nov. is UFMG-CM-Y6053T (=UFMG-BRO-488T=CBS 12685T). The MycoBank number is MB 817710.

  19. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a heavy-water reactor moderator tank using the CUPID Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Su Ryong; Jeong, Jae Jun [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Tae; Yoon, Han Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this study, a preliminary analysis is performed for the CANDU moderator tank. The calculation results using the basic case input showed a unrealistic, thermal stratification in the upper region, which was caused by the lack of the momentum of the cooling water from the inlet nozzle. To increase the flow momentum from the inlet nozzle, the cross-section area of each inlet nozzle was reduced by half and, then, the calculation showed very realistic results. It is clear that the modeling of the inlet nozzle affects the calculation result significantly. Further studies are needed for a realistic and efficient simulation of the flow in the Calandria tank. When the core cooling system fails to remove the decay heat from the fuel channels during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA), the pressure tube (PT) could strain to contact its surrounding Calandria tube (CT), which leads to sustained CTs dry out, finally resulting in damages to nuclear fuel. This situation can occur when the degree of the subcooling of the moderator inside the Calandria vessel is insufficient. In this regard, to estimate the local subcooling of the moderator inside the Calandria vessel is very important. However, the local temperature is measured at the inlet and outlet of the vessel only. Therefore, we need to accurately predict the local temperature inside the Calandria vessel.In this study, the thermal-hydraulic analysis of the real-scale heavy-water reactor moderator is carried out using the CUPID code. The applicability of the CUPID code to the analysis of the flow in the Calandria vessel has been assessed in the previous studies.

  20. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William T.; Castro-Wallace, Sarah L.; Kuo, C. K. Mike; Loh, Leslie J.; Hudson, Edgar; Gazda, Daniel B.; Lewis, John F.

    2016-01-01

    additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  1. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads, were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter were filled as a layer of 10 cm in the water treatment tank of control-2. While in the treatment tank, Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis was planted at 334 plants/m2 in baked clay beads layer. During 35 days of experiment, the average fish wet-weight in control-1, control-2 and treatment systems increased from 16.31±1.49, 15.18±1.28 and 11.31±1.49 g to 29.43±7.06, 28.65±3.12 and 27.20±6.56 g, respectively. It was found that the growth rate of 0.45±0.15 g-wet weight/day in a treatment tank was higher than in those 2 controls, which were rather similar at 0.37±0.16 and 0.38±0.05 g-wet weight/day, respectively. The fish survival rate of all experimental units was 100%. The average Chinese cabbage wet-weight in treatment system increased from 0.15±0.02 g to 1.00±0.38 g. For water quality, all parameters were within the acceptable range for aquaculture. The assimilation inorganic nitrogen in a treatment tank showed a slower rate and lower nitrite accumulation relative to those in control tanks. The nitrogen and phosphorus balance analysis illustrated that most of the nitrogen and phosphorus input in all systems was from feed (82-87% and 21-87% while at the final day of experiments, nitrogen and phosphorus in tilapia culture revealed at 15-19% and 4-13%. The accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in the water, up to 56% and 70%, was found in control-1 while water in the tank with baked clay beads had substantial lower nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. The

  2. STUDY ON APPLICATION OF AERATION BIOLOGICAL FLUID TANK TECHNOLGY IN NH4+—N WASTE WATER TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENYi; LUJian-guo

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces an application of "Aeration biological fluid tank"technology (ABFT) for the treatment of waste water containing NH4+-N and high concentrated chemicals.Highlights were focused on the effects of dissolved oxygen,pH,temperature and retention time on waste water bilogical treatment in order to find out a new approach in treatment of waste time on containing high concentrated NH4+-N.

  3. MIMO OTA Testing in Small Multi-Probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llorente, Ines Carton; Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    OTA testing of MIMO capable terminals is often performed in large anechoic chambers, where planar waves impinging the test area are assumed. Furthermore, reflections from the chamber, and probe coupling are often considered negligible due to the large dimensions of the chamber. This paper...... investigates the feasibility of reducing the physical dimension of 2D multi-probe anechoic chamber setups for MIMO OTA testing, with the purpose of reducing the cost and space of the setup. In the paper, a channel emulation algorithm and chamber compensation technique are proposed for MIMO OTA testing in small...

  4. Investigation and optimisation of heat storage tanks for low-flow SDHW systems[Solar Domestic Hot Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Soeren

    2004-07-01

    This thesis, 'Investigation and optimisation of heat storage tanks for low-flow SDHW systems', describes a study of the heat transfer and flow structure in vertical mantle heat exchangers for low-flow Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems. The heat storage is a key component in SDHW systems and the vertical mantle heat exchanger is one of the most promising heat storage designs for low-flow SDHW systems. The study was carried out using a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Thermal experiments of mantle heat exchangers with different mantle inlet designs showed that the mantle inlet port with advantage can be located a distance from the top of the mantle. Consequently, the mantle heat exchangers marketed today can be improved by changing the mantle inlet position. The heat transfer and flow structure in mantle heat exchangers are rather complex and the thermal experiments were followed by investigations by means of advanced experimental and numerical techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Using a transparent glass mantle tank, experimental flow visualisation was carried out with a PIV system. The flow structures inside the mantle and inside the tank were visualised and then compared with the flow structures predicted by CFD-models. The investigations showed that the CFD-models were able to model the flow in the mantle and in the tank correctly. The CFD-models were also validated by means of thermal experiments with a steel mantle tank. With the verified CFD-models, a parameter analysis was carried out for differently designed mantle heat exchangers for different typical conditions to reveal how the mantle tank parameters influence the flow structure and heat transfer in mantle heat exchangers. The heat transfer in the mantle near the mantle inlet port showed to be in the mixed convection regime, and as the distance from the inlet increased, natural convection started to dominate. The

  5. Technical Schemes and Characteristics of Water-cooling Milk Tanks%水冷式奶罐的技术方案及其特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田雅颂; 陈东; 谢继红; 李国盛

    2015-01-01

    Direct cooling milk tanks need high power and energy consumption, so four technical schemes of water-cooling milk tanks are put forward: water-cooling milk tank using groundwater, water-cooling milk tank using outdoor air, water-cooling milk tank with ice storage and water-cooling milk tank producing hot water. Working principle and characteristics of four technical schemes are introduced and compared based on 10 tons of milk tanks. It shows that compared with direct cooling milk tanks, equipment cost and electricity consumption of water-cooling milk tanks using groundwater is about half of that, water-cooling milk tanks using outdoor air can decrease electricity consumption cost more than 30%, electricity consumption cost of water-cooling milk tanks with ice storage can decrease more than 50%, water-cooling milk tanks preparing hot water can get 1~3 tons hot water of 40~80℃ to meet needs of cleaning milking equipment and milk tanks.%针对直冷式奶罐功率配置较高、能耗较大等不足,给出了4种水冷式奶罐技术方案:采用地下水冷源的水冷式奶罐、采用室外空气冷源的水冷式奶罐、采用冰蓄冷的水冷式奶罐和同时制取热水的水冷式奶罐。对4种技术方案的工作流程和特点进行了介绍,并以10吨奶罐为例,对4种水冷式奶罐和直冷式奶罐进行了计算比较。结果表明:与直冷式奶罐相比,采用地下水冷源的水冷式奶罐设备费用和电耗费用均降低约50%;采用室外空气冷源的水冷式奶罐电耗费用可降低30%以上;采用冰蓄冷的水冷式奶罐耗电费用降低约50%;同时制取热水的水冷式奶罐可免费获得1~3吨40~80℃的热水,可满足挤奶装置和奶罐的清洗需要。

  6. Various phenomena on a water vortex in a cylindrical tank over a rotating bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iga, Keita; Yokota, Sho; Watanabe, Shunichi; Ikeda, Takashi; Niino, Hiroshi; Misawa, Nobuhiko

    2014-06-01

    Flows in a cylindrical tank over a rotating bottom are investigated by laboratory experiments. Despite the axisymmetry of the experimental setup, various anisotropic phenomena are observed. The slow rotation of the bottom disk induces a circular flow according to the axisymmetric environment, but polygonal vortices form under faster rotation. Between these two vortex flow states, the flow undergoes a transition with clear hysteresis during which the elliptical shape assumed under faster rotation is retained when the rotation is subsequently slowed to rates that previously supported axisymmetric flow. Sloshing is also observed; here, a calm circular flow state alternates with an oscillation of the water surface along the sidewall of the container. A phase diagram showing the phenomena observed under different combinations of the initial water depth at rest and the rotation rate of the bottom disk is developed following thorough experimental testing over a wide range of parameter values. The features of the dependences of the range for each phenomenon to occur on these parameters are also elucidated.

  7. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W. T.; Wallace, S. L.; Gazda, D. B.; Lewis, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. One major aspect of that is ensuring that microbial growth is minimized. Historically, this challenge has been addressed through the use of biocides. When using biocides, the choice of materials for the storage containers is important, because surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system (ionic silver) will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting of the system. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  8. Filamentous fungi in drinking water tanks of a water supply system in Recife-PE, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, P. B. R.; Santana, J. B. de; Oliveira, H. M. B.; Siqueira, Virgínia M.; Santos, C.; Lima, Nelson; Gusmão, N. B.

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water reservoirs are widely used in various building constructions in Brazil for as a source of potable water for users. However, they are susceptible to the growth of microorganisms such as fungi. From these, several negative factors may ensue, namely, unpleasant odors and flavours, pigments, biofilm formation and mycotoxins. This is caused fungal resistance to treatment and disinfection. Brazilian law and those of other countries offer no encouragement for the resear...

  9. Emulating Ray-Tracing Channels in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups for Virtual Drive Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Llorente, Ines Carton; Kyösti, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses virtual drive testing (VDT) for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) capable terminals in multi-probe anechoic chamber (MPAC) setups. We propose to perform VDT, via reproducing ray tracing (RT) simulated channels with the field synthesis technique. Simulation results demonst...

  10. Application of Multi-Layered Polyurethane Foams for Flat-Walled Anechoic Linings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, J. F.; Buchholz, Jörg; Fricke, Fergus R.

    2006-01-01

    of the application of multi-layered polyurethane foams as the flat-walled anechoic lining. The investigation includes aspects such as the efficacy of a single layer of material, the minimum number of layers of linings to achieve the minimum overall thickness for low (100Hz), mid (250Hz) and high (500Hz) cut...

  11. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.208 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank...

  12. Development of a CFD Model for Secondary Final Settling Tanks in Water Pollution Control Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Minwei; Xanthos, Savvas; Ramalingam, Krish; Fillos, John

    2007-11-01

    To assess performance and evaluate alternatives to improve efficiency of the New York City the Wards Island Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) FSTs at peak loads, a 3D CFD model has been developed. Fluent was utilized as the base platform, where sub-models of the Suspended Solids (SS), settling characteristics, density currents and SS flocculation were incorporated. This was supplemented by field and bench scale experiments to quantify the coefficients integral to the sub-models. Model calibration and validation have been carried out by using the extensive set of data collected. The model can be used to evaluate different modes of operation, alternate hydraulic and solids loading rates, as well as addition of auxiliary components such as baffles to improve process performance. The model is being used to compare potential benefits for different alternatives of design and operation of the existing FSTs. After comparing series of inlet baffles, a baffle with 4 horizontal and 7 vertical slots has been recommended for installation in the FSTs. Additional baffle type, configurations and locations within the tank are also being evaluated to improve the performance of the FSTs especially during periods of poor settling and peak flow conditions.

  13. Study on computation of optimal depth increase of embossed panels of stainless water tank for energy storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hung Kang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compute the optimal depth increase of the embossed panels of a stainless water tank used for an energy storage system. The pressing used to emboss the panels of the stainless water tank decreases their thickness. By assuming that the panels had the same volume before ( V o and after the change ( V c , we found an equation that computed how much the thickness of the panels decreased. According to the obtained thickness equation, the thickness of arch-embossed panels decreased by 50% relative to flat panels, and that of pyramid-embossed panels decreased by up to 30%. We also performed finite element method analyses of four flat panels, four arch-embossed panels, and four pyramid-embossed panels by applying the thickness equation for different depth increase. As a result, the optimal depth increase of the arch-embossed panels was 70–90 mm, and that of the pyramid-embossed panels was 150–200 mm. We concluded that these computed optimal depth increase could be useful in the economic design of a stainless water tank for an energy storage system.

  14. Water Tanks, MFRDC has WT for some of the counties and cities., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Middle Flint RDC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Tanks dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2008. It is described as 'MFRDC...

  15. EPA Awards Oklahoma over $1.2 million to Reduce Water Contamination Risk in Underground Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALLAS - (June 30, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently awarded the Oklahoma Corporation Conservation Commission $459,000 to respond to petroleum leaks from underground storage tanks (UST). The agency will also receive $

  16. Water Tank Experiments on Stratified Flow over Double Mountain-Shaped Obstacles at High-Reynolds Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Stiperski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present an overview of the HyIV-CNRS-SecORo (Hydralab IV-CNRS-Secondary Orography and Rotors Experiments laboratory experiments carried out in the CNRM (Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques large stratified water flume. The experiments were designed to systematically study the influence of double obstacles on stably stratified flow. The experimental set-up consists of a two-layer flow in the water tank, with a lower neutral and an upper stable layer separated by a sharp density discontinuity. This type of layering over terrain is known to be conducive to a variety of possible responses in the atmosphere, from hydraulic jumps to lee waves and highly turbulent rotors. In each experiment, obstacles were towed through the tank at a constant speed. The towing speed and the size of the tank allowed high Reynolds-number flow similar to the atmosphere. Here, we present the experimental design, together with an overview of laboratory experiments conducted and their results. We develop a regime diagram for flow over single and double obstacles and examine the parameter space where the secondary obstacle has the largest influence on the flow. Trapped lee waves, rotors, hydraulic jumps, lee-wave interference and flushing of the valley atmosphere are successfully reproduced in the stratified water tank. Obstacle height and ridge separation distance are shown to control lee-wave interference. Results, however, differ partially from previous findings on the flow over double ridges reported in the literature due to the presence of nonlinearities and possible differences in the boundary layer structure. The secondary obstacle also influences the transition between different flow regimes and makes trapped lee waves possible for higher Froude numbers than expected for an isolated obstacle.

  17. Tanks and Tank Troops

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    operational in the Bundeswehr. These include the well-known U.S. M113 APC, the HS-30 APC, developed by the Swiss company Hispano- Suiza , as well as the...powered by the Leyland L-60 engine, and the French AMX-30, powered by the Hispano- Suiza HS-110 engine. The new Japanese STB-6 tank (ඒ") is...of all foreign series-produced tank engines. A complete tank engine replacement can be performed in four hours. The Hispano- Suiza HS-110 engine

  18. An Eco-tank system containing microbes and different aquatic plant species for the bioremediation of N,N-dimethylformamide polluted river waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jibo; Chu, Shuyi; Tian, Guangming; Thring, Ronald W; Cui, Lingzhou

    2016-12-15

    An Eco-tank system of 10m was designed to simulate the natural river. It consisted of five tanks sequentially connected containing microbes, biofilm carriers and four species of floating aquatic plants. The purification performance of the system for N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) polluted river water was evaluated by operating in continuous mode. DMF was completely removed in Tanks 1 and 2 at influent DMF concentrations between 75.42 and 161.05mg L(-1). The NH4(+)-N concentration increased in Tank 1, followed by a gradual decrease in Tanks 2-5. Removal of NH4(+)-N was enhanced by aeration. The average effluent NH4(+)-N concentration of Tank 5 decreased to a minimum of 0.89mg L(-1), corresponding to a decrease of 84.8% when compared with that before aeration. TN concentration did not decrease significantly as expected after inoculation with denitrifying bacteria. The average effluent TN concentration of the system was determined to be 4.58mg L(-1), still unable to satisfy the Class V standard for surface water environmental quality. The results of this study demonstrated that the Eco-tank system is an efficient process in removing DMF, TOC, and NH4(+)-N from DMF polluted river water. However, if possible, alternative technologies should be adopted for controlling the effluent TN concentration.

  19. A Review of Common Problems in Design and Installation of Water Spray Cooling and Low Expansion Foam System to Protect Storage Tanks Containing Hydrocarbons Against Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tank fires are rare but carry significant potential risk to life and property. For this reason fire protection of tanks is critical. Fixed Low expansion foam and water spray cooling systems are one of the most effective and economical ways to reduce damages to a tank from fire. Such systems are currently installed in many companies but are not effective enough and require involvement of firefighters which in turn threaten their lives. This paper studies in a systematic way the problems of foam and cooling systems currently installed in a few domestic companies which operate storage tanks with focus on floating and fixed roof atmospheric tanks containing hydrocarbons and offers possible solutions for more efficient installation, design and operation of such systems.

  20. An old water tank from the time of the ISR is being converted into a temporary store for ATLAS muon chambers.

    CERN Multimedia

    maximilien brice

    2005-01-01

    This large underground water tank dates from the construction of the ISR when CERN had its own independent water supply. No longer needed for water storage, this interesting example of 1960s industrial architecture represents 6000 m3 of useful storage space that can now be accessed via a 4 m x 5 m door made in the wall.

  1. Emulating Spherical Wave Channel Models in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Carreño, Xavier; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum;

    2015-01-01

    to emulate spherical wave channel models in multi-probe anechoic chamber setups. In this paper, a technique based on the field synthesis principle is proposed to approximate spherical waves emitted from arbitrarily located point sources with arbitrary polarizations. Simulation results show that static...... spherical waves can be reproduced with a limited number of probes, and the field synthesis accuracy of spherical wave depends on the location of the source point....

  2. Transitory flow in a complex hydroelectric scheme with multiple intakes and water tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucur, D M; Ghergu, C M; Tanase, N O; Isbasoiu, E C, E-mail: dmbucur@yahoo.co [Department of Hydraulics and Hydraulic Machinery, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    This paper analyzes the free surface level variation in the surge tank and in the secondary shafts of a complex hydro electrical scheme with two headraces and four secondary intakes. An analysis of the transient operating regimes of the hydropower plant must take in account the complex flow in the surge tank and in all the secondary catchments. Important operation restrictions and different transport capacities of the headraces must be considered. The study is completed with the mathematical model of the phenomenon and with the numerical simulation of the regimes. It is pointed out which are the operating regimes and the maneuvers that can cause malfunctions or undesirable incidents.

  3. Transitory flow in a complex hydroelectric scheme with multiple intakes and water tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, D. M.; Ghergu, C. M.; Tănase, N. O.; Isbăşoiu, E. C.

    2010-08-01

    This paper analyzes the free surface level variation in the surge tank and in the secondary shafts of a complex hydro electrical scheme with two headraces and four secondary intakes. An analysis of the transient operating regimes of the hydropower plant must take in account the complex flow in the surge tank and in all the secondary catchments. Important operation restrictions and different transport capacities of the headraces must be considered. The study is completed with the mathematical model of the phenomenon and with the numerical simulation of the regimes. It is pointed out which are the operating regimes and the maneuvers that can cause malfunctions or undesirable incidents.

  4. 浅谈负压罐引水装置的设计和应用%Design and application of the negative pressure tank water diversion device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群涛

    2015-01-01

    The negative pressure tank is a kind of water equipment, through the analysis of the working principle of the vacuum tank, put forward the design key points of negative pressure tank, to solve practical problems in engineering.%负压罐是一种水泵引水设备,通过对负压罐工作原理的分析,提出负压罐的设计要点,解决工程实际中出现的问题。

  5. Development of smart solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar tanks. A smart solar tank is a tank in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated...... by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand the volume is large, in periods with a small hot-water demand the volume is small. Based on measurements and calculations the advantage of smart SDHW systems is visualised....

  6. Location determination of overflow port for flare water sealed tank%火炬水封罐溢流口位置的设置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾一斐; 于安峰

    2013-01-01

    Water sealed tank is one of the key equipments for backfire protection of the flare system. Its overflow mode will produce the problems in condensed oil discharge, while skimming and water charge operations of the water sealed tanks also will affect the flare system. Typical water sealed tank structure and overflow mode are summarized and analyzed. The results show that the water sealed tank equipped with baffles can significantly reduce water volume used and the overflow port designed at the tank wall can effectively skim oil and avoid potential safety hazards during skimming. Through a case, structure and operating parameters of typical water sealed tank with tank wall openings are proposed and suggestion to design the location for overflow port of flare water sealed tank is provided. It is considered that opening at different heights of the water sealed tank should be be a priority in the design. If communicating pipe overflow mode is used, the detailed operating procedures for skimming and water changing should be formulated and strictly followed them.%水封罐是火炬系统防回火的重要设备之一,其溢流方式直接影响凝缩油的排放,而水封罐撇油、换水操作亦会对火炬系统产生影响.对典型的水封罐结构及溢流方式进行总结分析,结果表明:采用带挡板的水封罐可以明显减少换水量,而将溢流口设置在罐壁上可以有效撇油,并且能够避免撇油过程中的安全隐患.通过具体实例,给出典型罐壁开孔的水封罐结构及运行参数,并提出对于火炬水封罐溢流口位置设置的建议:设计中,优选在水封罐壁不同高度开口的方法,若采用连通管溢流方式,则需制定详细的撇油、换水作业操作规程,并严格执行.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Enhanced Oil-Water Separation in a Three-Stage Double-Stirring Extraction Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L Chao; Zhang Zimu; Zhao Qiuyue; Wang Shuchan; Zhang Tingan; Liu Yan

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulation of enhanced lfuid lfow characteristics in a three-stage double-stirring extraction tank was conducted with the coupling of an Eulerian multiphase lfow model and a Morsi-Alexander interphase drag force model. Results show that the addition of a stirring device into the settler can efifciently reduce the volume fraction of out-of-phase impurity in the outlet, and accelerate the settling separation of oil-water mixture. Such addition can also effectively break down the oil-water-wrapped liquid droplets coming from the mixer, inhibit relfux from the outlet, and improve the oil-water separation. The addition of a stirring device induces ignorable power consumption compared with that by the mixer, and can thus facilitate the commercialized promotion of this novel equipment.

  8. Do Fish Enhance Tank Mixing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Laursen, Jesper; Craig, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    The design of fish rearing tanks represents a critical stage in the development of optimal aquaculture systems, especially in the context of recirculating systems. Poor hydrodynamics can compromise water quality, waste management and the physiology and behaviour of fish, and thence, production...... potential and operational profitability. The hydrodynamic performance of tanks, therefore, represents an important parameter during the tank design process. Because there are significant complexities in combining the rigid principles of hydrodynamics with the stochastic behaviour of fish, however, most data...... upon tank hydrokinetics has been derived using tanks void of fish. Clearly, the presence of randomly moving objects, such as fish, in a water column will influence not only tank volumes by displacing water, but due to their activity, water dynamics and associated in-tank processes. In order...

  9. 33 CFR 157.218 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.218 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations. The dedicated clean ballast tanks or equipment on a tank vessel that has...

  10. 33 CFR 157.206 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.206 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank...

  11. Performance Analysis and Application of Three Different Computational Methods for Solar Heating System with Seasonal Water Tank Heat Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze and compare three different computational methods for a solar heating system with seasonal water tank heat storage (SHS-SWTHS. These methods are accurate numerical method, temperature stratification method, and uniform temperature method. The accurate numerical method can accurately predict the performance of the system, but it takes about 4 to 5 weeks, which is too long and hard for the performance analysis of this system. The temperature stratification method obtains relatively accurate computation results and takes a relatively short computation time, which is about 2 to 3 hours. Therefore, this method is most suitable for the performance analysis of this system. The deviation of the computational results of the uniform temperature method is great, and the time consumed is similar to that of the temperature stratification method. Therefore, this method is not recommended herein. Based on the above analyses, the temperature stratification method is applied to analyze the influence of the embedded depth of water tank, the thickness of thermal insulation material, and the collection area on the performance of this system. The results will provide a design basis for the related demonstration projects.

  12. Ocean Technology Development Tank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The new SWFSC laboratory in La Jolla incorporates a large sea- and fresh-water Ocean Technology Development Tank. This world-class facility expands NOAA's ability to...

  13. Microchannel anechoic corner for size-selective separation and medium exchange via traveling surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destgeer, Ghulam; Ha, Byung Hang; Park, Jinsoo; Jung, Jin Ho; Alazzam, Anas; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2015-05-05

    We demonstrate a miniaturized acoustofluidic device composed of a pair of slanted interdigitated transducers (SIDTs) and a polydimethylsiloxane microchannel for achieving size-selective separation and exchange of medium around polystyrene particles in a continuous, label-free, and contactless fashion. The SIDTs, deposited parallel to each other, produce tunable traveling surface acoustic waves (TSAWs) at desired locations, which, in turn, yield an anechoic corner inside the microchannel that is used to selectively deflect particles of choice from their streamlines. The TSAWs with frequency fR originating from the right SIDT and propagating left toward the microchannel normal to the fluid flow direction, laterally deflect larger particles with diameter d1 from the hydrodynamically focused sample fluid that carries other particles as well with diameters d2 and d3, such that d1 > d2 > d3. The deflected particles (d1) are pushed into the top-left corner of the microchannel. Downstream, the TSAWs with frequency fL, such that fL > fR, disseminating from the left SIDT, deflect the medium-sized particles (d2) rightward, leaving behind the larger particles (d1) unaffected in the top-left anechoic corner and the smaller particles (d3) in the middle of the microchannel, thereby achieving particle separation. A particle not present in the anechoic corner could be deflected rightward to realize twice the medium exchange. In this work, the three-way separation of polystyrene particles with diameters of 3, 4.2, and 5 μm and 3, 5, and 7 μm is achieved using two separate devices. Moreover, these devices are used to demonstrate multimedium exchange around polystyrene particles ∼5 μm and 7 μm in diameter.

  14. Comparison between models for the simulation of hot water storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveski, R.D.C. [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencas Exatas e Tecnologicas, Engenharia Mecanica; Krenzinger, A. [Universiade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Vielmo, H.A. [Universiade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica

    2003-08-01

    Numerical and experimental analyses of velocity and temperature fields inside a tank submitted to internal natural and mixed convection are presented in this paper. The numerical analyses were performed with two approaches: one using a two-dimensional model in cylindrical coordinates through the finite volume method and another using a one-dimensional model. A turbulence model for low Reynolds numbers was added to the two--dimensional model in mixed convection regime. The two-dimensional model was experimentally validated and then adopted as reference. Its results were compared to those obtained with one-dimensional models (combined with certain computational artifices described in this work) with a good agreement. (author)

  15. Concentration-driven models revisited: towards a unified framework to model settling tanks in water resource recovery facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfs, Elena; Martí, M Carmen; Locatelli, Florent; Balemans, Sophie; Bürger, Raimund; Diehl, Stefan; Laurent, Julien; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; François, Pierre; Nopens, Ingmar

    2017-02-01

    A new perspective on the modelling of settling behaviour in water resource recovery facilities is introduced. The ultimate goal is to describe in a unified way the processes taking place both in primary settling tanks (PSTs) and secondary settling tanks (SSTs) for a more detailed operation and control. First, experimental evidence is provided, pointing out distributed particle properties (such as size, shape, density, porosity, and flocculation state) as an important common source of distributed settling behaviour in different settling unit processes and throughout different settling regimes (discrete, hindered and compression settling). Subsequently, a unified model framework that considers several particle classes is proposed in order to describe distributions in settling behaviour as well as the effect of variations in particle properties on the settling process. The result is a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) that are valid from dilute concentrations, where they correspond to discrete settling, to concentrated suspensions, where they correspond to compression settling. Consequently, these PDEs model both PSTs and SSTs.

  16. Rainwater tank drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2008-11-01

    Drowning remains a significant cause of accidental death in young children. The site of drowning varies among communities and is influenced by cultural and geographic factors, including the availability of particular water sources. The drowning deaths of a twin two-year-old brother and sister in a rainwater tank are reported to demonstrate specific issues that may arise. Ladders, vegetation and trellises may provide access to tanks and should be removed. Secure child-proof access points should also be installed, particularly on in-ground tanks (given the ready accessibility of the latter). As there has been a recent trend in Australia to install more domestic rainwater tanks, the number of childhood rainwater tank drownings and near-drownings will need to be monitored by forensic pathologists and child death review committees to ensure that this has not led to the introduction of a new hazard into the home environment.

  17. 液化烃储罐水喷雾冷却系统设计%Designing of Water-Spray Cooling System for Liquefied Hydrocarbon Storage Tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彦永

    2000-01-01

    通过对液化烃储罐火灾特点及水喷雾冷却系统灭火机理的分析,对液化烃储罐水喷雾消防冷却系统的设计方法加以探讨。提出了"罐上喷头工作压力为定值"的假设,从而简化了设计计算。%Discussions are made on the methods for designing water-spray cooling system for liquefied hydrocarbonstorage tanks through analyzing the characteristics of the fire hazards with liquefied hydrocarbon storage tanks and the fireextinguishing mechanism of water-spray cooling system, with the hypothesis of "The working pressure of the spray nozzleson the tanks is a set value." advanced,so that design calculations are simplified.

  18. Perched-Water Evaluation for the Deep Vadose Zone Beneath the B, BX, and BY Tank Farms Area of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Carroll, KC; Chronister, Glen B.

    2013-06-28

    Perched-water conditions have been observed in the vadose zone above a fine-grained zone that is located a few meters above the water table within the B, BX, and BY Tank Farms area. The perched water contains elevated concentrations of uranium and technetium-99. This perched-water zone is important to consider in evaluating the future flux of contaminated water into the groundwater. The study described in this report was conducted to examine the perched-water conditions and quantitatively evaluate 1) factors that control perching behavior, 2) contaminant flux toward groundwater, and 3) associated groundwater impact.

  19. Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    of heat used for thermal loads of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation is used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small...... household using two different fuels. In particular it was shown that in the case of syngas, due to larger system heat output, a larger tank volume was required in order to accumulate unused heat over the night. The detailed description of the tank model will be useful to energy system modelers when sizing......In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance as it allows existence of a temperature gradient with the benefit...

  20. Dismantlement and removal of Old Hydrofracture Facility bulk storage bins and water tank, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF), located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was constructed in 1963 to allow experimentation and operations with an integrated solid storage, mixing, and grout injection facility. During its operation, OHF blended liquid low-level waste with grout and used a hydrofracture process to pump the waste into a deep low-permeable shale formation. Since the OHF Facility was taken out of service in 1980, the four bulk storage bins located adjacent to Building 7852 had deteriorated to the point that they were a serious safety hazard. The ORNL Surveillance and Maintenance Program requested and received permission from the US Department of Energy to dismantle the bins as a maintenance action and send the free-released metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. A 25,000-gal stainless steel water tank located at the OHF site was included in the scope. A fixed-price subcontract was signed with Allied Technology Group, Inc., to remove the four bulk storage bins and water tank to a staging area where certified Health Physics personnel could survey, segregate, package, and send the radiologically clean scrap metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. All radiologically contaminated metal and metal that could not be surveyed was packaged and staged for later disposal. Permissible personnel exposure limits were not exceeded, no injuries were incurred, and no health and safety violations occurred throughout the duration of the project. Upon completion of the dismantlement, the project had generated 53,660 lb of clean scrap metal (see Appendix D). This resulted in $3,410 of revenue generated and a cost avoidance of an estimated $100,000 in waste disposal fees.

  1. In-tank recirculating arsenic treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Patrick V.; Dwyer, Brian P.; Krumhansl, James L.; Chwirka, Joseph D.

    2009-04-07

    A low-cost, water treatment system and method for reducing arsenic contamination in small community water storage tanks. Arsenic is removed by using a submersible pump, sitting at the bottom of the tank, which continuously recirculates (at a low flow rate) arsenic-contaminated water through an attached and enclosed filter bed containing arsenic-sorbing media. The pump and treatment column can be either placed inside the tank (In-Tank) by manually-lowering through an access hole, or attached to the outside of the tank (Out-of-Tank), for easy replacement of the sorption media.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A SMART SOLAR TANK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of small SDHW systems based on so-called smart solar tanks are presented. A smart solar tank is a hot water tank in which the domestic water can both be heated by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply....... The investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of small SDHW systems can be increased by up to about 30 % if a smart solar tank is used instead of a traditional solar combi tank. The thermal increase is strongly influenced by the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. Recommendations...... for future development of smart solar tanks are given....

  3. Technology Review of Nondestructive Methods for Examination of Water Intrusion Areas on Hanford’s Double-Shell Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Michael L.; Pardini, Allan F.

    2008-05-09

    necessary to de-rate critical components. There are currently no tools that automatically convert the NDE data to formats compatible with structural analysis programs. While radiographic techniques still provide significant advantages in spatial resolution, non-ionizing techniques are still preferred. Radar imagining in the 1–5 GHz has become the most useful. Unfortunately the algorithms and underlying assumptions used in these reconstructions are proprietary, and it is not possible to assess the quality and limitations of the analytical methods used to generate the derived structural data. The hypothesis that water intrusion may contribute to potential rebar corrosion of the tank domes provided the primary guidance in reviewing and evaluating available NDE technologies. Of primary concern is the need to employ technologies that provide the best opportunity for visualizing the rebar and providing quantitative data that can be integrated into structural analysis efforts to better understand and quantify the structural capacity of the domes. The conclusion is that an imaging system capable of locating and quantifying the distribution and conditions of the cement, aggregate, and rebar will provide the most valuable baseline upon which to build a case for the integrity of the structure. If successful, such a system would fulfill the need to incorporate valuable data into current structural load capacity analysis.

  4. 33 CFR 157.220 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.220 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards. (a) Cargo tanks that are designated as dedicated clean ballast...

  5. 33 CFR 183.512 - Fuel tanks: Prohibited materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tanks: Prohibited materials... tanks: Prohibited materials. (a) A fuel tank must not be constructed from terneplate. (b) Unless it has an inorganic sacrificial galvanic coating on the inside and outside of the tank, a fuel tank must...

  6. ECOLO-HOUSE in the heavy snow-fall region. Ground-water and wasted-wood become resources by utilizing storage-tank; Yukiguni ECOLO-HOUSE. Chikunetsuso wo riyoshita chikasui oyobi mokushitsu gomi no shigenka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemiya, H.; Fukumuro, S. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    This paper reports living comfort in summer by operating a groundwater utilization system using a hot water storage tank and a floor air conditioning system. The groundwater utilization system is a system for room cooling by using groundwater and for supplying water for living use. The system operates as follows: groundwater is passed through a coil-type heat exchanger having pipes each 100 m long laid in parallel for a total length of 200 m, the heat exchanger being installed in a hot water storage tank; the water is used to cool water in the storage tank in summer; and the water is warmed up in the storage tank in winter, further heated by an oil boiler to be used as hot water for cooking and bathing. In the floor air conditioning system, cold water in the water storage tank (warm water in winter) is pumped up by a circulation pump, and passed through the floor air conditioning circuit having a pipe with a total length of 400 m at a flow rate of 14 liters per minute. The system is of a closed circuit in which the water is re-heated by a wood burning boiler in winter and returned to the hot water storage tank. The amount of supplied cold heat from groundwater to the hot water tank obtained on a daily average is 90W. About 20% of the monthly cumulative cold heat amount dissipated from the floor circuit is the monthly cumulative cold heat amount supplied from the groundwater circuit to the hot water storage tank. 1 ref., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  7. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, W. Y.; Wu, M. H.; Wu, K. L.; Lin, M. H.; Teng, H. H.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R., E-mail: krchu@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Y. F.; Ko, C. C.; Yang, E. C. [Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jiang, J. A. [Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-15

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  8. A Wide Band Strong Acoustic Absorption in a Locally Network Anechoic Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Heng; ZHANG Mi-Lin; WANG Yu-Ren; HU Yan-Ping; LAN Ding; WEI Bing-Chen

    2009-01-01

    Composite materials with interpenetrating network structures usually exhibit unexpected merit due to the cooperative interaction.Locally resonant phononic crystals (LRPC) exhibit excellent sound attenuation performance based on a periodical arrangement of sound wave scatters.Inspired by the interpenetrating network structure and the LRPC concept, we develop a locally network anechoic coating (LNAC) that can achieve a wide band of underwater strong acoustic absorption.The experimental results show that the LNAC possesses an excellent underwater acoustic absorbing capacity in a wide frequency range.Moreover, in order to investigate the impact of the interpenetrating network structure, we fabricate a faultage structure sample and the network is disconnected by hard polyurethane (PU).The experimental comparison between the LNAC and the faultage structure sample shows that the interpenetrating network structure of the LNAC plays an important role in achieving a wide band strong acoustic absorption.

  9. Research into Noise Generated by Domestic Appliances in the Anechoic Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnė Žukauskienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Loud noise has a negative impact on the entire body, especially on listening. We can hear daily noise everywhere – in the street, at work or at home. The Department of Environmental Protection of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University has adjusted an anechoic chamber adapted for suppressing sound. Under the above introduced conditions, 15 appliances (5 vacuum cleaners, 5 hair dryers and 5 shaving machines have been tested. Equivalent sound pressure level of the vacuum cleaner has varied from 66 dBA to 83 dBA, that of the hair dryer has made from 64 dBA to 70 dBA and for the shaving machine – from 39 to 56 dBA.Article in Lithuanian

  10. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, W. Y.; Wu, M. H.; Wu, K. L.; Lin, M. H.; Teng, H. H.; Tsai, Y. F.; Ko, C. C.; Yang, E. C.; Jiang, J. A.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R.

    2014-08-01

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  11. Think Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    A new inspection robot from Solex Robotics Systems was designed to eliminate hazardous inspections of petroleum and chemical storage tanks. The submersible robot, named Maverick, is used to inspect the bottoms of tanks, keeping the tanks operational during inspection. Maverick is able to provide services that will make manual tank inspections obsolete. While the inspection is conducted, Maverick's remote human operators remain safe outside of the tank. The risk to human health and life is now virtually eliminated. The risk to the environment is also minimal because there is a reduced chance of spillage from emptying and cleaning the tanks, where previously, tons of pollutants were released through the process of draining and refilling.

  12. The New Anechoic Shielded Chambers Designed for Space and Commercial Applications at LIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Benjamim; Galvao, M. C.; Pereira, Clovis Solano

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the capabilities of the new anechoic shielded rooms designed for space and commercial applications as part of the Integration and Testing Laboratory (LIT, Laboratorio de Integracao e Testes) in Brazil. A new anechoic shielded room named CBA2 has been in full operation since March 2007 and a remodeled chamber CBA1 is planned to be ready by the end of 2008, replacing an old facility which was in operation for the last 18 years. The Brazilian Space Program started with very small and simple satellites and the old CBA1 chamber was conceived in 1987 to accomplish the EMI/EMC tests not requiring significant volumes. Since the very beginning this facility was also used by the private sector for other applications mainly due to the absorption of digital electronics in all kind of products. The intense use of this facility during the last years, operating three shifts a day, caused a normal degradation and imposed several limitations. Therefore, a new totally remodeled chamber was designed considering the state of the art in terms of absorbers and associated instrumentation. On the other hand the facility CBA2 was conceived, designed and implemented to test large satellites taking into account the advance of the technology in terms of RF frequencies, power level, testing methodologies and several other factors. A very interesting and unique aspect of this project was the partnership between the private sector and governmental institution. As a result, the total investment was shared between several companies and consequently a time-sharing use of the facility as well.

  13. Investigation of underwater sound scattering on a cylindrical shell coated with anechoic coatings by the finite element metho d based on an equivalent parameter inversion%基于等效参数反演的敷设声学覆盖层的水下圆柱壳体声散射研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金国梁; 尹剑飞; 温激鸿; 温熙森

    2016-01-01

    Anechoic coating attached to the surface of an underwater object is used for absorbing sound wave thereby reducing the reflection. The anechoic coating is often made of viscoelastic materials embedded with designed acoustic substruc-tures, such as air cavities. The prediction of sound scattering on underwater object coated with such materials can be challenging due to the complex geometry of the anechoic coating, and it has been a research subject of interest in underwater acoustics. In this paper, we study the sound scattering on an infinite cylindrical shell coated with anechoic coating. Two types of coatings are considered: one is a layer of homogeneous isotropic material, and the other is a layer of homogeneous isotropic material with periodically embedded cylindrical air cavities. We use an equivalent method, in which the anechoic coating with air-filled cavities is regarded as a homogeneous isotropic material with equivalent material properties. The key point of the equivalent method is to ignore the internal structure of the anechoic coating, and the anechoic coating is considered as a homogeneous isotropic layer with the same complex reflection coefficient. These equivalent material properties are acquired based on the data of complex reflection coefficient obtained from either the physical experiment using water-filled impedance tube or the numerical experiment using the finite element method with COMSOL Multiphysics software. Then a genetic algorithm is used to inversely calculate the equivalent Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and damping loss factor of the coating which has the same reflection coefficient as the original coating. The results of the equivalent material properties show that 1) the three properties are all frequency dependent;2) in general, equivalent Young’s modulus increases with the increase of frequency, meanwhile the equivalent damping loss factor tends to decrease; 3) there is a wide variation in the results of equivalent

  14. Numerical modelling of disintegration of basin-scale internal waves in a tank filled with stratified water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Stashchuk

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of numerical experiments performed with the use of a fully non-linear non-hydrostatic numerical model to study the baroclinic response of a long narrow tank filled with stratified water to an initially tilted interface. Upon release, the system starts to oscillate with an eigen frequency corresponding to basin-scale baroclinic gravitational seiches. Field observations suggest that the disintegration of basin-scale internal waves into packets of solitary waves, shear instabilities, billows and spots of mixed water are important mechanisms for the transfer of energy within stratified lakes. Laboratory experiments performed by D. A. Horn, J. Imberger and G. N. Ivey (JFM, 2001 reproduced several regimes, which include damped linear waves and solitary waves. The generation of billows and shear instabilities induced by the basin-scale wave was, however, not sufficiently studied. The developed numerical model computes a variety of flows, which were not observed with the experimental set-up. In particular, the model results showed that under conditions of low dissipation, the regimes of billows and supercritical flows may transform into a solitary wave regime. The obtained results can help in the interpretation of numerous observations of mixing processes in real lakes.

  15. Beeswax-Colophony Blend: A Novel Green Organic Coating for Protection of Steel Drinking Water Storage Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Abdikheibari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Beeswax-colophony blend is mainly used as a sealant mixture for preservation applications. The beeswax itself, however, has had a long way in history taking part in conservation processes including mummification. In this research, this blend was used as a protective coating for drinking water distribution tanks. Initially, a layer with 400 μm thickness was applied on a sand blasted mild steel plate. The long-term electrochemical behavior of the coating was investigated by open circuit potential (OCP and electrochemical microbiological characteristics of the coating, microbial and chemical examinations were performed on drinking water samples that had been in contact with the coating. Furthermore, its behavior in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR in a wastewater treatment plant was investigated using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM technique. Regarding the consistency of experimental results, it was concluded that this proposed recyclable blend could be considered as a novel green organic coating and also a good corrosion barrier even in aggressive environments.

  16. Feasibility test program of application of coalescing phase oil/water separators to self compensating fuel tanks in surface ships. Final report, Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, J.B.; Batutis, E.

    1974-05-01

    The report covers the evaluation of the General Electric Coalescing Plate Oil/Water Separator concept as applied to ballast water discharged from a ship equipped with self compensating fuel tanks during fueling operations. It was used to remove the entrained fuel oil from de-ballasted water being discharged during routine fueling operations. This separator was chosen because it has a cross sectional area and volume very nearly equivalent to a DE-1040 forward fuel tank. By attaching the separator directly to the ship's discharge port and refuelling at several flow rates it was possible to evaluate the performance of the coalescing plate banks in a de-ballasting operation.

  17. Pandemic serotypes of Vibrio cholerae isolated from ships' ballast tanks and coastal waters: assessment of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes (tcpA and ctxA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Fred C; Goodrich, Amanda L; Thomson, Frank K; Hynes, Wayne

    2013-05-01

    There is concern that ships' ballasting operations may disseminate Vibrio cholerae to ports throughout the world. Given evidence that the bacterium is indeed transported by ships, we isolated pandemic serotypes O1 and O139 from ballast tanks and characterized them with respect to antibiotic resistance and virulence genes ctxA and tcpA. We carried out concurrent studies with V. cholerae isolated from coastal waters. Of 284 isolates, 30 were serotype O1 and 59 were serotype O139. These serotypes were overrepresented in ballast tanks relative to the coastal waters sampled. All locations, whether coastal waters or ballast tanks, yielded samples from which serotype O1, O139, or both were isolated. There were three groups among the 62 isolates for which antibiotic characterization was conclusive: those exhibiting β-lactamase activity and resistance to at least one of the 12 antibiotics tested; those negative for β-lactamase but having antibiotic resistance; those negative for β-lactamase and registering no antibiotic resistance. When present, antibiotic resistance in nearly all cases was to ampicillin; resistance to multiple antibiotics was uncommon. PCR assays revealed that none of the isolates contained the ctxA gene and only two isolates, one O139 and one O1, contained the tcpA gene; both isolates originated from ballast water. These results support the bacteriological regulations proposed by the International Maritime Association for discharged ballast water.

  18. In-Depth Investigation of Statistical and Physicochemical Properties on the Field Study of the Intermittent Filling of Large Water Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do-Hwan Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-demand customers, generally high-density dwellings and buildings, have dedicated ground or elevated water tanks to consistently supply drinking water to residents. Online field measurement for Nonsan-2 district meter area demonstrated that intermittent replenishment from large-demand customers could disrupt the normal operation of a water distribution system by taking large quantities of water in short times when filling the tanks from distribution mains. Based on the previous results of field measurement for hydraulic and water quality parameters, statistical analysis is performed for measured data in terms of autocorrelation, power spectral density, and cross-correlation. The statistical results show that the intermittent filling interval of 6.7 h and diurnal demand pattern of 23.3 h are detected through autocorrelation analyses, the similarities of the flow-pressure and the turbidity-particle count data are confirmed as a function of frequency through power spectral density analyses, and a strong cross-correlation is observed in the flow-pressure and turbidity-particle count analyses. In addition, physicochemical results show that the intermittent refill of storage tank from large-demand customers induces abnormal flow and pressure fluctuations and results in transient-induced turbid flow mainly composed of fine particles ranging within 2–4 μm and constituting Fe, Si, and Al.

  19. The utilization of excess wind-electric power from stock water pumping systems to heat a sector of the stock tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nydahl, J.E.; Carlson, B.O. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    On the high plains, a wind-electric stock water pumping system produces a significant amount of excess power over the winter months due to intense winds and the decreased water consumption by cattle. The University of Wyoming is developing a multi-tasking system to utilize this excess energy to resistively heat a small sector of the stock tank at its demonstration/experimental site. This paper outlines the detailed heat transfer analysis that predicted drinking water temperature and icing conditions. It also outlines the optimization criteria and the power produced by the Bergey 1500 wind electric system. Results show that heating a smaller insulated tank inserted into the larger tank would raise the drinking water temperature by a maximum of 6.7 {degrees}C and eliminate icing conditions. The returns associated with the additional cattle weight gain, as a result of the consumption of warmer water, showed that system modification costs would be recovered the first year. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. A Calculation Method for the Sloshing Impact Pressure Imposed on the Roof of a Passive Water Storage Tank of AP1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daogang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a large water storage tank installed at the top of containment of AP1000, which can supply the passive cooling. In the extreme condition, sloshing of the free surface in the tank may impact on the roof under long-period earthquake. For the safety assessment of structure, it is necessary to calculate the impact pressure caused by water sloshing. Since the behavior of sloshing impacted on the roof is involved into a strong nonlinear phenomenon, it is a little difficult to calculate such pressure by theoretical or numerical method currently. But it is applicable to calculate the height of sloshing in a tank without roof. In the present paper, a simplified method was proposed to calculate the impact pressure using the sloshing wave height, in which we first marked the position of the height of roof, then produced sloshing in the tank without roof and recorded the maximum wave height, and finally regarded approximately the difference between maximum wave height and roof height as the impact pressure head. We also designed an experiment to verify this method. The experimental result showed that this method overpredicted the impact pressure with a certain error of no more than 35%. By the experiment, we conclude that this method is conservative and applicable for the engineering design.

  1. Modelling of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for a single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. The use of a storage tank with thermal stratification allows one to increase the annual operating hours of CHP: heat can be produced when the request...... produced by gasification and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation are used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small household using two different fuels. In particular it was shown...... is low (for instance during the night), taking advantage of thermal stratification to increases the heat recovery performance. A model of the SOFC system is presented to estimate the energy required to meet the average electric energy demand of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas...

  2. Application of 5454 Aluminum water-tank in ammonia-cleaned tower%5454铝合金水箱在洗氨塔内的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛福连

    2013-01-01

    The paper briefly introduces 5454 aluminum water-tank replace carbon steel one in ammonia-cleaned tower, which enhances heat transfer, improves working status in the tower, increases processing capacity, saves cooling water consumption, extends the life of water-tank greatly, reduces washing and changing times of water-tank, decreases overhaul work vastly, at the same time, considerable economic benefits is achieved.%简要介绍在洗氨塔内采用5454铝合金水箱替代碳钢水箱,增强了冷却水箱的传热效果,改善塔内作业状况,提高了处理气量,节约冷却水用量,大大延长了水箱的使用寿命,减少冷却水箱清洗、更换次数,极大地降低了检修负荷,同时取得了可观的经济效益。

  3. Entropy Assessment on Direct Contact Condensation of Subsonic Steam Jets in a Water Tank through Numerical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article analyzes the dissipation characteristics of the direct contact condensation (DCC phenomenon that occurs when steam is injected into a water tank at a subsonic speed using a new modeling approach for the entropy generation over the calculation domain. The developed entropy assessment model is based on the local equilibrium hypothesis of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The fluid flow and heat transfer processes are investigated numerically. To describe the condensation and evaporation process at the vapor-liquid interface, a phase change model originated from the kinetic theory of gas is implemented with the mixture model for multiphase flow in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD code ANSYS-FLUENT. The CFD predictions agree well with the published works, which indicates the phase change model combined with the mixture model is a promising way to simulate the DCC phenomenon. In addition, three clear stages as initial stage, developing stage and oscillatory stage are discriminated from both the thermal-hydraulic results and the entropy generation information. During different stages, different proportion of the entropy generation rate owing to heat transfer, viscous direct dissipation, turbulent dissipation and inner phase change in total entropy generation rate is estimated, which is favorable to deeper understanding the irreversibility of DCC phenomenon, designing and optimizing the equipment involved in the process.

  4. Reuse of drinking water treatment residuals in a continuous stirred tank reactor for phosphate removal from urban wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Leilei; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng; Zhao, Jinbo

    2014-01-01

    This work proposed a new approach of reusing drinking water treatment residuals (WTR) in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) to remove phosphate (P) from urban wastewater. The results revealed that the P removal efficiency of the WTR was more than 94% for urban wastewater, in the condition of initial P concentration (P0) of 10 mg L⁻¹, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 h and WTR dosage (M0) of 10 g L⁻¹. The P mass transfer from the bulk to the solid-liquid interface in the CSTR system increased at lower P0, higher M0 and longer HRT. The P adsorption capacity of WTR from urban wastewater was comparable to that of the 201 × 4 resin and unaffected by ions competition. Moreover, WTR had a limited effect on the metals' (Fe, Al, Zn, Cu, Mn and Ni) concentrations of the urban wastewater. Based on the principle of waste recycling, the reuse of WTR in CSTR is a promising alternative technology for P removal from urban wastewater.

  5. 33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean ballast tanks under § 157.09, § 157.10, § 157.10a(a)(1), § 157...; (b) More ballast water than can be carried in segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean ballast... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast added to cargo tanks....

  6. Sound-light Warning Device on Low-water Display of Self-control High-level Water Tank%自制高位水箱低位显示水位声光报警装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟育东

    2013-01-01

      水位报警装置,实现了对高位水箱水位的实时监测低位显示功能,其功能的实现主要由水箱、连通管、浮筒、控制器等组成。与现有技术相比,方便了由于水箱设置较高,在相对低位水箱水位的观察与监测,从而根据水箱水温变化,及时控制出水温度。同时降低了员工的劳动强度,提高了工作效率。%The water level warning device complete real-time supervision display on water level of head water tank. Its functions enforcement depends on water tank, communicating pipe, float and controller. The main operating principles of water level monitoring device are as follows:1. connect the communicating pipe and set magnetic float on side wall of the water tank; 2.set the magnetic switch on the ectotheca of communicating pipe that may make magnetic float change with the water table, thus the magnetic switch is under control and the corresponding water level condition can be displayed. Compared with the available technology, it is convenient to observe and monitor the water level;accordingly, the temperature of exceeding water can change by water temperature in the tank;meanwhile, it lowers labour intensity and improves work efficiency.

  7. Captive sea turtle rearing inventory, feeding, and water chemistry in sea turtle rearing tanks at NOAA Galveston 1995-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains daily records of sea turtle inventories by species feeding rates type of food fed sick sea turtles sea turtles that have died log of tanks...

  8. Development of concept for concurrent biocide generation and water system purification. [with application to Skylab water tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An attempt was made to construct an electrochemical system, using iodine, for water purification in Skylab. Data cover measurements of iodine production rates, effect of electrode size and geometry on iodine production rates, and feasibility of using stainless steels as reference electrodes.

  9. 33 CFR 157.225 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.225 Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General. The master of a tank vessel...

  10. 33 CFR 157.226 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Procedures to be followed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.226 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations...

  11. 33 CFR 183.510 - Fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tanks. 183.510 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.510 Fuel tanks. (a) Each fuel tank in a boat must have been tested by its manufacturer under § 183.580 and not leak...

  12. Study on evaluation model of earthquake damage to clean water tank%清水池震害评估模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高霖; 郭恩栋; 刘智; 洪广磊

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic damage of clean water tanks, based on the detailed earthquake damage data of clean water tanks from Haicheng earthquake and Tangshan earthquake, the phenomena and characteristics of clean water tanks subjected to earthquake damage are analyzed and the main influence factors are found. The least square method is used in the regression analysis of the earthquake damage data to obtained the regression coefficients of influence factors of earthquake damage under different conditions and to establish an empirical model to evaluate the earthquake damage of clean water tanks. The correlation coefficient of the model is 0. 661 and the standard deiation is 0.447. The model has an accuracy of 91. 2% by the regression discriminant analysis. According to the earthquake experience, the adjustment coefficients for new influence factors that are not considered in the model are given. Evaluation results are consistent with the actual damage to the clean water tanks in Wenchuan earthquake and Yushu earthquake, and etc. Thus, the model is preliminarily proved to be reliable.%为了评估清水池的地震破坏状态,基于海城地震、唐山地震中较详细的水池震害资料,分析了水池的主要震害现象、特征,并找出了影响水池震害的主要因素.采用最小二乘法对震害数据进行回归分析,得到了各震害影响因素不同情况下的回归系数取值,从而建立了清水池震害经验统计回归模型.经计算该模型的相关系数为0.661,标准差为0.447.经回判分析,模型回判成功率为91.2%.对于模型中未考虑到的震害影响因素,根据实际震害经验,给出新增影响因素的建议系数.对汶川、玉树等地震中遭到破坏的清水池进行评估,结果与实际震害基本相符,初步验证了该评估模型的可靠性.

  13. Nitrogen tank

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Wanted The technical file about the pressure vessel RP-270 It concerns the Nitrogen tank, 60m3, 22 bars, built in 1979, and installed at Point-2 for the former L3 experiment. If you are in possession of this file, or have any files about an equivalent tank (probably between registered No. RP-260 and -272), please contact Marc Tavlet, the ALICE Glimos.

  14. A Study on the High Intelligent Device for Measuring Water in the Oil Tank%油罐水高智能测量装置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文浩; 刘德俊; 梅宏林

    2014-01-01

    The water in crude oil must be removed in the mining and processing ,in order to reduce waste in the transportation and storage ,and to ensure the safety of transportation and processing .Therefore , the tank bottom‐line monitoring of water is important for crude oil production and management . With intelligent oil density meter , float type level gauge , parameters measured by pressure sensors online ,as well as the relationship between these three parameters ,the intelligent device for measuring water in the oil tank realized the online real‐time automatic monitoring of the height of water in the oil‐water mixture condition through PLC pro‐gramming calculation .It provides the technical support to timely discharge the water at the bottom of the tank in the process of oil dehydration and storage .%原油在开采和加工过程中必须除去原油中的水分,以减少在输送和储存过程中的浪费,确保输送、加工过程中的安全。因此,油罐底部水在线监测对原油生产和管理具有重要意义。油罐水高智能测量装置通过石油密度计、浮球式液位仪、压力传感器的在线测得参数,利用这3个参数关系,通过PLC编程计算实现对油罐中油水混合状态下底部水高的在线实时自动监测。这对于在石油脱水和存储过程中及时排放罐底水提供技术支持。

  15. Supervised Self-Organizing Classification of Superresolution ISAR Images: An Anechoic Chamber Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoi, Emanuel; Quinquis, André; Totir, Felix

    2006-12-01

    The problem of the automatic classification of superresolution ISAR images is addressed in the paper. We describe an anechoic chamber experiment involving ten-scale-reduced aircraft models. The radar images of these targets are reconstructed using MUSIC-2D (multiple signal classification) method coupled with two additional processing steps: phase unwrapping and symmetry enhancement. A feature vector is then proposed including Fourier descriptors and moment invariants, which are calculated from the target shape and the scattering center distribution extracted from each reconstructed image. The classification is finally performed by a new self-organizing neural network called SART (supervised ART), which is compared to two standard classifiers, MLP (multilayer perceptron) and fuzzy KNN ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] nearest neighbors). While the classification accuracy is similar, SART is shown to outperform the two other classifiers in terms of training speed and classification speed, especially for large databases. It is also easier to use since it does not require any input parameter related to its structure.

  16. Supervised Self-Organizing Classification of Superresolution ISAR Images: An Anechoic Chamber Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoi Emanuel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the automatic classification of superresolution ISAR images is addressed in the paper. We describe an anechoic chamber experiment involving ten-scale-reduced aircraft models. The radar images of these targets are reconstructed using MUSIC-2D (multiple signal classification method coupled with two additional processing steps: phase unwrapping and symmetry enhancement. A feature vector is then proposed including Fourier descriptors and moment invariants, which are calculated from the target shape and the scattering center distribution extracted from each reconstructed image. The classification is finally performed by a new self-organizing neural network called SART (supervised ART, which is compared to two standard classifiers, MLP (multilayer perceptron and fuzzy KNN ( nearest neighbors. While the classification accuracy is similar, SART is shown to outperform the two other classifiers in terms of training speed and classification speed, especially for large databases. It is also easier to use since it does not require any input parameter related to its structure.

  17. Directional loudness in an anechoic sound field, head-related transfer functions, and binaural summation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivonen, Ville Pekka; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The effect of sound incidence angle on loudness was investigated using real sound sources positioned in an anechoic chamber. Eight normal-hearing listeners produced loudness matches between a frontal reference location and seven sources placed at other directions, both in the horizontal and media...... on the at-ear signals favored a sound-power summation model, according to which the maximum binaural gain is only 3dB, over competing models based on larger gains, or on the summation of monaural loudness indices....... planes. Matches were obtained via a two-interval, adaptive forced-choice (2AFC) procedure for three center frequencies (0.4, 1 and 5 kHz) and two overall levels (45 and 65 dB SPL). The results showed that loudness is not constant over sound incidence angles, with directional sensitivity varying over...... a range of up to 10 dB, exhibiting considerable frequency dependence, but only minor effects of overall level. The pattern of results varied substantially between subjects, but was largely accounted for by variations in individual head-related transfer functions. Modeling of binaural loudness based...

  18. Is the frequent sonographic anechoic area distally in metacarpophalangeal joints a sign of arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, David Folkert; Luime, Jolanda Jacoba; Hazes, Johanna Maria Wilhelmina; Kleinrensink, Gerrit-Jan; Jacobs, Johannes Wilhelmus Gerardus

    2014-10-01

    In clinical practice, ultrasonography (US) often reveals, in the dorsal scan, a small anechoic area distally in both inflamed and clinically non-inflamed metacarpophalangeal joints. This "distal anechogenicity in the metacarpophalangeal joint" (DAEM) might thus be scored false positively as arthritis. We aimed to investigate whether the DAEM is a sign of arthritis. We evaluated the prevalence of DAEMs in 24 non-arthritic subjects. We then compared the dimensions of the DAEM in 10 non-arthritic subjects with a DAEM and 7 consecutive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) outpatients, using 2-D and 3-D ultrasound. Furthermore, we dissected two fresh-frozen postmortem hand specimens after US. A DAEM was observed in the metacarpophalangeal 2 (MCP2) joints of 54% of the 24 non-selected non-arthritic individuals; in none of those did the joint exhibit a power Doppler signal. A DAEM was observed in 86% of the 7 RA patients. Dimensions of DAEMs did not statistically significantly differ between these groups. At 3-D imaging and dissection, the DAEM was found to be an extension of the metacarpophalangeal joint capsule. In conclusion, DAEMs occur frequently and are not a sign of arthritis, but are distal joint recesses. This should be taken into account when using current sensitive ultrasonographic scoring systems grading arthritis.

  19. 多功能电波暗室应用技术%Applied Technologies of Multifunctional Anechoic Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晓波; 肖玲

    2011-01-01

    该文介绍了电磁兼容测试需要的多功能电波暗室,成为多功能电波暗室应具备的基本功能,对满足标准要求的多功能电波暗室所需具备的性能指标进行描述及相应的测试要求,如基本的NSA,Svswr,FU。对在多功能电波暗室中进行不同项目测试时所对应的场地布置进行了分析,最后对多功能电波暗室的优劣进行了总结。%This article introduces what is the multifunctional anechoic chamber when we do EMC testing and test item it should support.It specifies the capability of NSA,Svswr,and FU of multifunctional anechoic chamber.It also does some analysis for test site of different test item.In the end,it summarizes the advantage and disadvantage of multifunctional anechoic.

  20. The Impact of Traditional Septic Tank Soakaway Systems and the Effects of Remediation on Water Quality in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilroy, Kate; Keggan, Mary; Barrett, Maria; Dubber, Donata; Gill, Laurence W.; O'Flaherty, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    In Ireland the domestic wastewater of over 1/3 of the population is treated by on-site systems. These systems are based on a traditional design for disposal of domestic wastewater and rely on the surrounding subsoil for further treatment. Inefficient treatment is often associated with these systems and can cause pollution of local aquifers and waterways. The effluent nutrient load can contribute to eutrophication, depletion of dissolved oxygen and excessive algae growth in surface water bodies. Human enteric pathogens associated with faecal pollution of water sources may promote the outbreak of disease through contamination of drinking water supplies. The subsoil attenuation plays an important role in the protection of groundwater from effluent pollution. Therefore, as over 25% of the countries domestic water supplies are provided by groundwater, the protection of groundwater resources is crucial. This project involves both the assessment of traditional septic tank soakaway systems and the effects of remediation in low permeability subsoil settings on water quality in Ireland. The study aims to confirm by microbial source tracking (MST), the source (human and/or animal) of faecal microorganisms detected in groundwater, surface water and effluent samples, and to monitor the transport of pathogens specific to on-site wastewater outflows. In combination with MST, the evaluation of nitrification and denitrification in surrounding soil and effluent samples aims to assess nitrogen removal at specific intervals; pre-remediation and post-remediation. Two experimental sites have been routinely sampled for effluent, soil and groundwater samples as well as soil moisture samples using suction lysimeters located at various depths. A robust and reproducible DNA extraction method was developed, applicable to both sites. MST markers based on host-specific Bacteriodales bacteria for universal, human and cow-derived faecal matter are being employed to determine quantitative target

  1. Technical optimization of grille flocculation tanks in water plants%水厂格栅反应池絮凝工艺的优化措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔政平

    2012-01-01

    The unreasonable grille parameters and layout of grille flocculation tanks in LAB water plant lead to the poor flocculation effectiveness and high unit consumption of flocculant. Through hydraulic calculation and analysis on the grille flocculation tanks, the project of process modification and parameter adjustment is put forward, so as to improve the hydraulic conditions of grille flocculation tank and reduce the unit consumption of flocculant,providing better reference for out-dated water plants.%金陵石化烷基苯水厂格栅反应池存在设计参数及格栅布局不合理的现象,造成混凝效果差,混凝剂单位消耗过高,通过对格栅反应池的水力计算分析,提出了工艺改造和参数调整的方案,使格栅反应池的水力条件得到改善,混凝剂单位消耗量大幅下降,为老水厂的格栅反应池改造提供了较好的借鉴.

  2. Water-Tank Experiment on the Thermal Circulation Induced by the Bottom Heating in an Asymmetric Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉志; 梁彬; 朱凤荣; 张伯寅; 桑建国

    2004-01-01

    Water tank experiments were carried out to investigate the thermal convection due to the bottom heating in an asymmetrical valley under neutral and stably stratified approach flows with the Particle Image Velometry (PIV) visualization technique. In the neutral stratification approach flow, the ascending draft induced by bottom heating is mainly located in the center of the valley in calm ambient wind. However,with ambient wind flow, the thermal convection is shifted leeward, and the descending draft is located on the leeward side of the valley, while the ascending draft is located on the windward side. The descending draft is minorly turbulent and organized, while the ascending draft is highly turbulent. With the increase of the towing speed, the descending and ascending drafts induced by the mechanical elevation begin to play a more dominant role in the valley flow, while the role of the thermal convection in the valley airflow becomes limited. In the stable stratification approach flow, the thermal convection is limited by the stable stratification and no distinct circulation is formed in calm ambient wind. With ambient wind, agravity wave appears in the upper layer in the valley. With the increase of the ambient wind speed, a gravity wave plays an important role in the valley flow, and the location and intensity of the thermal convection are also modulated by the gravity internal waves. The thermal convection has difficulty penetrating the upper stable layer. Its exchange is limited between the air in the upper layer and that in the lower layer in the valley, and it is adverse to the diffusion of pollutants in the valley.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Spray Cleaning Railway Tank Cars with High Pressure Water%铁路罐车高压水射流清洗数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾敏

    2011-01-01

    The FLUENT of CFD software was applied to simulate the spray cleaning of railway tank cars with high pressure water, and the velocity and pressure field were calculated to get jet characteristics, and to improve nozzle structure design and cleaning efficiency of tank cars.%利用计算流体动力学(CFD)软件FLUENT对铁路罐车高压水射流清洗进行数值模拟,计算了速度场、压力场,为了解射流特性、改善喷嘴结构设计和提高罐车清洗效果起指导作用.

  4. 热水槽爆炸事故的原因分析及安全对策%Cause Analysis and Safety Countermeasures of Hot Water Tank Explosion Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱开贞; 段胜利

    2012-01-01

    通过热水槽爆炸事故的原因分析,该热水槽原为氯气缓冲罐,因氯气缓冲罐内进水,腐蚀穿孔,作报废处理,在车间改造时作为常压热水槽使用,实际在使用时已达到压力容器的要求,由于缺少有效的设备监管,造成热水槽超压物理爆炸,最后提出安全对策措施,加强特种设备的安全管理。%Through the cause analysis of hot water tank explosion accident, the water tank was chlorine buffer tank, due to chlorine buffer tank water, corrosion, for scrap processing, and used as pressure hot water tank in the workshop transformation, practical use reached the requirements of pressure vessels. As the lack of effective equipment supervision resulting in a hot water tank overpressure physical explosion, safety measures were finally put forward to strengthen the safety management of special equipment.

  5. Design and Thermal Performance Study on Water/PCM Compound Heat Storage Water Tank%复合蓄热式水箱的设计及蓄放热研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华维三; 章学来; 丁锦宏; 刘锋

    2016-01-01

    A water/PCM (phase-change material) composite storage water tank containing auxiliary electric heater and uniform flow orifice is designed, which uses phase change balls packed with barium hydroxide as the heat storage unit. The author carries out a theoretical analysis of the feasibility that phase change heat storage is applied to composite storage water tank and an experiment research on the phase change heat storage and the water tank’s direct and constant-temperature heat storing and releasing char-acteristics under a constant flow. The results show there are obvious temperature differences on the upper and lower layer of the water tank in the charging process; the uniform flow orifice realizes uniform mixing of cold and hot water at the bottom and maximizes the hot water yield; a composite storage water tank containing 60 phase change balls can produce 10 L hot water(60 ℃ or higher) than other water tanks when the hot water discharge is 3.3 L/min;and a composite storage water tank containing 120 phase change balls can produce 27 L hot water (40℃) than other water tanks when the hot water discharge is 1.6L/min.%设计了一种具有辅助电加热和均流孔板的水/相变材料复合蓄热式水箱,该水箱以封装有复合八水氢氧化钡的相变蓄热球作为储热单元。理论分析了相变蓄热球应用于复合蓄热式水箱中的可行性,实验研究了水箱中有无相变蓄热球、恒定流量下的直接和恒温蓄放热特性,结果表明:均流孔板的应用,可使冷热水在水箱底部均匀混合,使高温热水出水量达到最大;在热水出水流量为3.3 L/min时,添加60个相变蓄热球的复合蓄热式水箱比纯水箱可多制得10 L 60℃以上的热水;在热水出水流量为1.6 L/min时,添加120个相变蓄热球的复合蓄热式水箱比纯水箱可多制得40 L 40℃的恒温热水。

  6. Hot water tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumont, Olivier; Carmo, Carolina; Dickes, Rémi

    2016-01-01

    There is a rising interest for optimal use of thermal energy storages (TES) in buildings for load shifting in demand response programs and to improve energy efficiency. In this context, a state of the art of the different methods for simulating sensible TES is performed. Mathematical equations wh...

  7. Hanford waste tank cone penetrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seda, R.Y.

    1995-12-01

    A new tool is being developed to characterize tank waste at the Hanford Reservation. This tool, known as the cone penetrometer, is capable of obtaining chemical and physical properties in situ. For the past 50 years, this tool has been used extensively in soil applications and now has been modified for usage in Hanford Underground Storage tanks. These modifications include development of new ``waste`` data models as well as hardware design changes to accommodate the hazardous and radioactive environment of the tanks. The modified cone penetrometer is scheduled to be deployed at Hanford by Fall 1996. At Hanford, the cone penetrometer will be used as an instrumented pipe which measures chemical and physical properties as it pushes through tank waste. Physical data, such as tank waste stratification and mechanical properties, is obtained through three sensors measuring tip pressure, sleeve friction and pore pressure. Chemical data, such as chemical speciation, is measured using a Raman spectroscopy sensor. The sensor package contains other instrumentation as well, including a tip and side temperature sensor, tank bottom detection and an inclinometer. Once the cone penetrometer has reached the bottom of the tank, a moisture probe will be inserted into the pipe. This probe is used to measure waste moisture content, water level, waste surface moisture and tank temperature. This paper discusses the development of this new measurement system. Data from the cone penetrometer will aid in the selection of sampling tools, waste tank retrieval process, and addressing various tank safety issues. This paper will explore various waste models as well as the challenges associated with tank environment.

  8. A Water Tank Prototype for the Cerenkov Calorimeter%水基切伦科夫量能器模型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明君; 王贻芳; 何景棠; 孟祥承; 俞梅凌; 杨长根; 曹俊

    2005-01-01

    The water tank prototype with a dimension of 1m × 1m × 13m was constructed as a building block of the Cerenkov calorimeter for very long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. The effective attenuation length of the water tank was measured to be (5.74±0.29)m, and the light collection probability as a function of the incident angle of the particle is studied. Results are compared with a Monte Carlo simulation based on GEANT4 package which incorporates detailed optical processes. A good agreement is achieved and the water tank is feasible for the construction of the Cerenkov calorimeter.%为了研究极长基线中微子振荡,构造了一个大小为1m×1m×13m水基切伦科夫量能器模型.测量得到的水箱的有效衰减长度为(5.74±0.29)m,并且研究了光的收集能力随入射粒子角度变化的关系.同时发展了基于GEANT4软件包,包含有详细的光学过程的模拟程序,所得到的模拟结果与实验测量有很好的一致性.说明水箱可以作为水基切伦科夫量能器的可行性的方案.

  9. Effects of laser irradiation on aluminum alloy tank containing water%1053nm脉冲激光对铝合金/水结构辐照效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦路光; 赵国民; 袁立国

    2011-01-01

    Experimental measurement and numerical simulation are employed to study the effects of laser irradiation on aluminum alloy tank containing water. Firstly, by analyzing the surface pictures and measuring the temperature histories, the effects of water on the ablation of aluminum alloy plate irradiated by I 053 nm pulsed laser are investigated. The results show that heat conduction and convection play a very important role in the ablation of the aluminum alloy plate. When the tank is empty, the aluminum alloy plate is melt through after eight laser pulses irradiation. And when the tank is filled with water, the aluminum alloy plate has not been melt through after ten laser pulses irradiation. Then, a numerical model is presented to calculate the temperature distribution of the aluminum alloy tank, and the dimension of the region that has melted is obtained. The difference between the numerical result and the experimental result is not apparent when the tank is empty, but when the tank is filled with water the difference is a little large. The reason is that the natural convection and boiling of water are not considered in the numerical model.%使用1053 nm脉冲激光分别辐照铝合金单板和铝合金/水结构,通过表面形貌观察、温度场分析、熔穿时间测量等手段,分析了水的存在对铝合金壳体烧蚀的影响.运用有限元软件ANSYS,建立了脉冲激光辐照下单板及结构温度变化的数值模型,计算了铝合金表面熔凝区域的尺寸,并与实验结果进行了对比.结果表明:在相同的实验条件下,辐照8个激光脉冲时,铝合金单板即被熔穿,而辐照10个脉冲后铝合金/水结构仍未发生熔穿,且结构中铝合金表面的熔凝区域要小于单板情形中的熔凝区域,这表明水的存在对延缓铝合金板的烧蚀有较大的作用.对于单板情形,计算结果与实验结果符合较好,而对于铝合金/水结构情形,数值模拟放大了铝合金壳体的温升,这主

  10. Analysis of nodalization effects on the prediction error of generalized finite element method used for dynamic modeling of hot water storage tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołowicz Marcin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents dynamic model of hot water storage tank. The literature review has been made. Analysis of effects of nodalization on the prediction error of generalized finite element method (GFEM is provided. The model takes into account eleven various parameters, such as: flue gases volumetric flow rate to the spiral, inlet water temperature, outlet water flow rate, etc. Boiler is also described by sizing parameters, nozzle parameters and heat loss including ambient temperature. The model has been validated on existing data. Adequate laboratory experiments were provided. The comparison between 1-, 5-, 10- and 50-zone boiler is presented. Comparison between experiment and simulations for different zone numbers of the boiler model is presented on the plots. The reason of differences between experiment and simulation is explained.

  11. Water Towers, Water Towers - includes City water tanks, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Water...

  12. Investigation on High Performance of 10m Semi Anechoic Chamber by using Open-Top Hollow Pyramidal Hybrid EM Wave Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Hiroshi; Saito, Toshifumi; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Nishikata, Atsuhiro; Hashimoto, Osamu

    The emission radiated from electric and electronic equipments is evaluated through OATS. Recently, it is not fully prepared the environment for OATS because of a variety of communication radiation sources (e.g., digital television broadcast and cellular phone station). Therefore, the EM anechoic chambers are becoming more and more important as EMI test site. On the other hand, the EM anechoic chambers are needed high performance in order to cut down EMI countermeasure cost and calculate the antenna factor. The objective of this paper is mainly to present the EM wave absorber design in order to obtain within ±2dB against the theoretical site attenuation values in the 10m semi anechoic chamber at 30MHz to 300MHz. We get the necessary reflectivity of EM wave absorber by the basic site attenuation equation. We design the open-top hollow pyramidal new hybrid EM wave absorber consisted of 180cm long dielectric loss foam and ferrite tiles. Then, we design the 10m semi anechoic chamber by using the ray-tracing simulation and construct it in the size of L24m×W15.2m×H11.2m. More over, we measure the site attenuation of the constructed 10m semi anechoic chamber by using the broadband calculable dipole antennas. As the result, we confirm the validity of the designed open-top hollow pyramidal new hybrid EM wave absorber.

  13. Coagulation and oxidation for controlling ultrafiltration membrane fouling in drinking water treatment: Application of ozone at low dose in submerged membrane tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenzheng; Graham, Nigel J D; Fowler, Geoffrey D

    2016-05-15

    Coagulation prior to ultrafiltration (UF) is widely applied for treating contaminated surface water sources for potable supply. While beneficial, coagulation alone is unable to control membrane fouling effectively in many cases, and there is continuing interest in the use of additional, complementary methods such as oxidation in the pre-treatment of raw water prior to UF. In this study, the application of ozone at low dose in the membrane tank immediately following coagulation has been evaluated at laboratory-scale employing model raw water. In parallel tests with and without the application of ozone, the impact of applied ozone doses of 0.5 mg L(-1) and 1.5 mg L(-1) (approximately 0.18 mg L(-1) and 0.54 mg L(-1) consumed ozone, respectively) on the increase of trans-membrane pressure (TMP) was evaluated and correlated with the quantity and nature of membrane deposits, both as a cake layer and within membrane pores. The results showed that a dose of 0.5 mgO3 L(-1) gave a membrane fouling rate that was substantially lower than without ozone addition, while a dose of 1.5 mgO3 L(-1) was able to prevent fouling effects significantly (no increase in TMP). Ozone was found to decrease the concentration of bacteria (especially the concentration of bacteria per suspended solid) in the membrane tank, and to alter the nature of dissolved organic matter by increasing the proportion of hydrophilic substances. Ozone decreased the concentration of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), such as polysaccharides and proteins, in the membrane cake layer; the reduced EPS and bacterial concentrations resulted in a much thinner cake layer, although the suspended solids concentration was much higher in the ozone added membrane tank. Ozone also decreased the accumulation and hydrophobicity of organic matter within the membrane pores, leading to minimal irreversible fouling. Therefore, the application of low-dose ozone within the UF membrane tank is a potentially important

  14. [Death in a relaxation tank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Wolf; Simon, Karl-Heinz; Bohnert, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Complete relaxation can be achieved by floating in a darkened, sound-proof relaxation tank filled with salinated water kept at body temperature. Under these conditions, meditation exercises up to self-hypnosis may lead to deep relaxation with physical and mental revitalization. A user manipulated his tank, presumably to completely cut off all optical and acoustic stimuli and accidentally also covered the ventilation hole. The man was found dead in his relaxation tank. The findings suggested lack of oxygen as the cause of death.

  15. Simple characterisation of solar DHW tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the project is to compare different methods used for testing small solar domestic hot water tanks. A small hot water tank is tested at three different European laboratories by means of the test methods normally used at the laboratories. The tank is marketed in Denmark.The test carried...... out at the Department for Buildings and Energy compromises determination of the heat loss coefficient for the tank and the heat transfer coefficient for the auxiliary helix. A dynamic test is performed and a simulation model of the tank is made and validated against measured energy quantities...... and temperatures. The annual thermal performance for a solar domestic hot water system based on the tested tank is calculated. Further, proposal for a future test on mixing during draw-off as well as proposal for a maximum acceptable mixing during draw-off is given....

  16. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  17. Heat transfer correlations in mantle tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Knudsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Small solar domestic hot water systems are best designed as low flow systems based on vertical mantle tanks. Theoretical investigations of the heat transfer in differently designed vertical mantle tanks during different operation conditions have been carried out. The investigations are based...... of the inner hot water tank and the domestic water in all levels of the tank. The heat transfer analysis showed that the heat transfer near the mantle inlet port between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the walls surrounding the mantle is in the mixed convection regime, and as the distance from...... the inlet increases, natural convection starts to dominate. The heat transfer between the wall of the inner hot water tank and the domestic water is governed by natural convection. The results of the CFD-calculations are used to determine improved heat transfer correlations based on dimensionless analysis...

  18. Simulation of flight-type engine fan noise in the NASA-Lewis 9 x 15 anechoic wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmann, M. F.; Dietrich, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    A major problem in the measurement of aircraft engine fan noise is the difficulty of simulating, in a ground-based facility, the noise that occurs during flight. Flight-type noise as contrasted to the usual ground-static test noise exhibits substantial reductions in both (1) the time unsteadiness of tone noise and (2) the mean level of tones calculated to be nonpropagating or cut-off. A model fan designed with cut-off of the fundamental tone was acoustically tested in the anechoic wind tunnel under both static and tunnel flow conditions. The properties that characterize flight-type noise were progressively simulated with increasing tunnel flow. The distinctly lobed directivity pattern of propagating rotor/stator interaction modes was also observed. The results imply that the excess noise attributed to the ingestion of the flow disturbances that prevail near most static test facilities was substantially reduced with tunnel flow. The anechoic wind tunnel appears to be a useful facility for applied research on aircraft engine fan noise under conditions of simulated flight.

  19. Thermal Stratification in Vertical Mantle Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Furbo, Simon

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that it is important to have a high degree of thermal stratification in the hot water storage tank to achieve a high thermal performance of SDHW systems. This study is concentrated on thermal stratification in vertical mantle tanks. Experiments based on typical operation conditions...... are carried out to investigate how the thermal stratification is affected by different placements of the mantle inlet. The heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the domestic water in the inner tank is analysed by CFD-simulations. Furthermore, the flow pattern in the vertical mantle...... tank is investigated....

  20. 33 CFR 157.224 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.224 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. Each Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual...

  1. 33 CFR 157.212 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.212 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved. If the Dedicated Clean...

  2. ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 6F CHEMICAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2010-02-02

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. In mechanical sludge removal, personnel add liquid (e.g., inhibited water or supernate salt solution) to the tank to form a slurry. They mix the liquid and sludge with pumps, and transfer the slurry to another tank for further processing. Mechanical sludge removal effectively removes the bulk of the sludge from a tank, but is not able to remove all of the sludge. In Tank 6F, SRR estimated a sludge heel of 5,984 gallons remained after mechanical sludge removal. To remove this sludge heel, SRR performed chemical cleaning. The chemical cleaning included two oxalic acid strikes, a spray wash, and a water wash. SRR conducted the first oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 110,830 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F and mixed the contents of Tank 6F with two submersible mixer pumps (SMPs) for approximately four days. Following the mixing, they transferred 115,903 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. The SMPs were operating when the transfer started and were shut down approximately five hours after the transfer started. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 2,400 gallons of solids remained in the tank. SRR conducted the second oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 28,881 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F. Following the acid addition, they visually inspected the tank and transferred 32,247 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 3,248 gallons of solids remained in the tank. Following the oxalic acid strikes, SRR performed Spray Washing with oxalic acid to remove waste collected on internal structures, cooling coils, tank top internals, and tank

  3. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...

  4. Heat release performance of heat storage water tank with phase-change material in solar drying system%太阳能干燥相变储热水箱的放热性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海涛; 高建民; 陈瑶

    2015-01-01

    为降低传统干燥能耗,强化太阳能干燥用储热水箱的储放热能力,在普通储热水箱中添加了硬脂酸/膨胀石墨相变储热材料,研究了放热温差、储热单元体积对装置放热性能的影响。研究结果表明:相变储热水箱放热时间、放热量随着放热温差和储热水箱中储热单元体积的增加均有所提升,储热单元的添加对储热水箱的放热效果影响更为显著。放热效率则随着放热温差的增大而降低,随着储热水箱中储热单元体积的增加而显著提升;储热水箱中储热单元体积为35%时,相变储热水箱的放热时间比普通储热水箱最多提升了1.26倍,放热温度最大可提高8.7℃,热效率最多可提高22.56%。%Drying is an essential process for a large number of industrial and agricultural products. In order to reduce energy consumption of traditional drying, improve its utilization efficiency and strengthen the capacity of heat storage water tank for solar drying, the stearic acid/expanded graphite composite phase-change material (PCM) with melting point of 52.74℃ and latent heat of 169.90 J/g was added into the conventional heat storage water tank in this paper. The schematic structure of the solar drying system mainly consisted of solar collector, drying oven, heat storage water tank and phase-change thermal energy storage units. The effect of heat release temperature difference and heat storage unit volume on the heat release performance of the device was studied under the same heat release conditions. The total volume of the PCM containers in the heat storage water tank was 15%, 25% and 35%, respectively. The heat storage water tank was heated to 60, 65 and 75℃ by using solar collector in heat storage process. Then the heat storage water tank was used to provide heat for the drying oven, and the heat release process was finished when the temperature of drying oven was 40℃ . The results showed that the

  5. Impact of Dust from Ore Processing Facilities on Rain Water Collection Tanks in a Tropical Environment—The Obvious Source “Ain’t Necessarily So”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Gulson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been expressed that dust from the minerals processing facilities at Karumba Queensland Australia have resulted in elevated lead (Pb concentrations in rain water tanks. The ores derived from the Century mine some 304 km from the port. High precision Pb isotopic measurements on environmental samples have been undertaken to evaluate the source of Pb in rainwaters and acid digests from roof wipes and gutter wipes. There does not appear to be any relationship between sample location and the processing facility but samples from the area subject to the prevailing winds show the highest contribution of Century Pb. All gutter wipes (82 to 1270 µg Pb/wipe have contributions of Century ore ranging from 87% to 96%. The contribution of Century ore to five roof wipes (22 to 88 µg Pb/wipe ranges from 89% to 97% and in the other two samples there is a mix of Century and Broken Hill Pb. Three of the seven rainwater have contributions of Century ore Pb ranging from 33% to 75%. Two of the other four rainwater samples have the highest water Pb concentrations of 88 and 100 µg/L and their isotopic data show Broken Hill Pb contributions ranging from 77% to 80%. The source of the Broken Hill Pb is probably from the galvanized roofing material and/or brass fittings in the rainwater tanks. The discrimination between various sources is only detectable using high precision 204Pb-based isotopic ratios and not the now common inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS data presentations of the higher abundance isotopes 208Pb, 207Pb and 206Pb. Isotopic results for the waters demonstrate that apportioning blame where there is an obvious point source may not always be the correct conclusion. Nevertheless the isotopic data for the gutter wipes indicates that there was widespread contamination from the processing facilities throughout the town.

  6. Impact of Dust from Ore Processing Facilities on Rain Water Collection Tanks in a Tropical Environment--The Obvious Source "Ain't Necessarily So".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian; Korsch, Michael; Bradshaw, Anthony

    2016-02-22

    Concerns have been expressed that dust from the minerals processing facilities at Karumba Queensland Australia have resulted in elevated lead (Pb) concentrations in rain water tanks. The ores derived from the Century mine some 304 km from the port. High precision Pb isotopic measurements on environmental samples have been undertaken to evaluate the source of Pb in rainwaters and acid digests from roof wipes and gutter wipes. There does not appear to be any relationship between sample location and the processing facility but samples from the area subject to the prevailing winds show the highest contribution of Century Pb. All gutter wipes (82 to 1270 µg Pb/wipe) have contributions of Century ore ranging from 87% to 96%. The contribution of Century ore to five roof wipes (22 to 88 µg Pb/wipe) ranges from 89% to 97% and in the other two samples there is a mix of Century and Broken Hill Pb. Three of the seven rainwater have contributions of Century ore Pb ranging from 33% to 75%. Two of the other four rainwater samples have the highest water Pb concentrations of 88 and 100 µg/L and their isotopic data show Broken Hill Pb contributions ranging from 77% to 80%. The source of the Broken Hill Pb is probably from the galvanized roofing material and/or brass fittings in the rainwater tanks. The discrimination between various sources is only detectable using high precision (204)Pb-based isotopic ratios and not the now common inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS ) data presentations of the higher abundance isotopes (208)Pb, (207)Pb and (206)Pb. Isotopic results for the waters demonstrate that apportioning blame where there is an obvious point source may not always be the correct conclusion. Nevertheless the isotopic data for the gutter wipes indicates that there was widespread contamination from the processing facilities throughout the town.

  7. STUDY ON APPLICATION OF AERATION BIOLOGICAL FLUID TANK TECHNOLGY IN NH+4-N WASTE WATER TREATMENT%曝气生物流化池(ABFT)技术在含氨氮污水治理的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈怡; 卢建国

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces an application of "Aeration biological fluid tank" technology (ABFT) for the treatment of waste water containing NH+4-N and high concentrated organic chemicals. Highlights were focused on the effects of dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature and retention time on waste water biological treatment in order to find out a new approach in treatment of waste water containing high concentrated NH+4-N.

  8. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-02-24

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  9. Effect of Position of Upper Connecting Pipe on the Tank on Thermal Performance of Domestic Solar Water Heaters with a Vertical Storage Tank and Flat-plate Collectors%上循环管位置对平板型家用太阳能热水器性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海威; 高文峰; 林文贤; 刘滔; 李泽东

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,the domestic solar water heater with a vertical storage tank and a flat-plat collector,which is commercially available and popular in the market,was experimentally in-vestigated.Firstly, natural circulation experiment platform of flat plate domestic solar water heater was set up.The effect of two different positions of upper connecting pipe on temperature variation in the water tank during the heating stage in the daytime and thermal performances was measured.Through the analysis of test data,The difference of temperature stratification in the water tank with upper connecting pipe at high position and at low position were studied re-spectively.Also the instantaneous efficiency in 10 minutes was defined and compared.The results showed that there was better temperature stratification in the water tank when it’s upper con-necting pipe at high position during heating stage.In addition,the instantaneous efficiency of so-lar water heater,which water tank with upper connecting pipe at high location under the natural circulation condition was superior to the water tank with upper circulation pipe at low position.%对一种常见的平板型立式储热水箱家用太阳能热水器进行试验分析。搭建了自然循环平板型家用太阳能热水器的实验平台。测量了两种不同位置的上循环管对白天加热阶段储热水箱温度变化及对热性能的影响,通过测试数据分析对比了高、低位上循环管循环时,水箱内温度变化、分层状况,定义了十分钟内的平均效率,并进行了比较。结果表明:储热水箱升温阶段采用高位上循环管的水箱内部出现较好的水温分层;高位上循环管热水器的自然循环瞬时效率比低位上循环管热水器的瞬时效率高。

  10. Environmental process for elimination of phenolic water present in refinery gasoline tanks; Processo ambiental para eliminacao de agua fenolica presente em tanques de gasolina de refinarias de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa Junior, Bentaci; Pedroso, Osmar V.; Furlan, Luis T. [PETROBRAS, SP (Brazil). Refinaria de Paulinia

    2004-07-01

    Gasoline production in petroleum refineries usually implies carrying high phenol contents in water after treatment systems. Phenols are powerful bactericides and, therefore, harmful to microorganisms present in wastewater treatment plants and in rivers. Due to this reason, usually controlled phenolic water drainage is performed, enabling gasoline quality improvement, without jeopardizing the biological treatment. Increase of phenolic contents in the effluent, due to operational disarray during the drainage of gasoline tanks may cause inhibition or even mortality of the existing microorganisms in the wastewater treatment plants. Aiming at changing the traditional treatment logic of environmental demands at the 'end of pipe', sending the phenolic water to the sour water treatment systems was proposed and implemented, which in turn, is reutilized by the latter in the crude desalination of the Distillation Units, where the phenols are reincorporated to the crude oil, preventing negative consequences to the wastewater treatment plant. The implemented process has demonstrated that premises were correct, enabling to implement process flows quite higher than drainage flows, what has meant productivity gains and environmental improvement. (author)

  11. Tank 241-BX-106: Tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-03-06

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BX-106. (Waste from this tank shall be transferred to a double-shell tank.)

  12. Separation of radiated sound field components from waves scattered by a source under non-anechoic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    A method of estimating the sound field radiated by a source under non-anechoic conditions has been examined. The method uses near field acoustic holography based on a combination of pressure and particle velocity measurements in a plane near the source for separating outgoing and ingoing wave...... components. The outgoing part of the sound field is composed of both radiated and scattered waves. The method compensates for the scattered components of the outgoing field on the basis of the boundary condition of the problem, exploiting the fact that the sound field is reconstructed very close...... to the source. Thus the radiated free-field component is estimated simultaneously with solving the inverse problem of reconstructing the sound field near the source. The method is particularly suited to cases in which the overall contribution of reflected sound in the measurement plane is significant....

  13. Effectiveness of an inlet flow turbulence control device to simulate flight noise fan in an anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R. P.; Wazyniak, J. A.; Shaw, L. M.; Mackinnon, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    A hemispherical inlet flow control device was tested on a 50.8 cm. (20-inch) diameter fan stage in the NASA-Lewis anechoic chamber. The control device used honeycomb and wire mesh to reduce turbulence intensities entering the fan. Far field acoustic power level results show about a 5 db reduction in blade passing tone and about 10 dB reduction in multiple pure tone sound power at 90% design fan speed with the inlet device in place. Hot film cross probes were inserted in the inlet to obtain data for two components of the turbulence at 65 and 90% design fan speed. Without the flow control device, the axial intensities were below 1.0%, while the circumferential intensities were almost twice this value. The inflow control device significantly reduced the circumferential turbulence intensities and also reduced the axial length scale.

  14. Effectiveness of an inlet flow turbulence control device to simulate flight fan noise in an anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R. P.; Wazyniak, J. A.; Shaw, L. M.; Mackinnon, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    A hemispherical inlet flow control device was tested on a 50.8 cm. (20-inch) diameter fan stage in the NASA-Lewis Anechoic Chamber. The control device used honeycomb and wire mesh to reduce turbulence intensities entering the fan. Far field acoustic power level results showed about a 5 dB reduction in blade passing tone and about 10 dB reduction in multiple pure tone sound power at 90% design fan speed with the inlet device in place. Hot film cross probes were inserted in the inlet to obtain data for two components of the turbulence at 65 and 90% design fan speed. Without the flow control device the axial intensities were below 1.0%, while the circumferential intensities were almost twice this value. The inflow control device significantly reduced the circumferential turbulence intensities and also reduced the axial length scale.

  15. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked...

  16. Effect of addition of Navicula sp. on plankton composition and postlarvae growth of Litopenaeus vannamei reared in culture tanks with zero water exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yllana Ferreira-Marinho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of Navicula sp. on plankton composition and postlarvae growth of Litopenaeus vannamei reared in culture tanks with zero water exchange systems. Four treatments were considered: zero water exchange (ZWE; ZWE with the addition of feed (ZWE-F; ZWE with the addition of Navicula sp. (ZWE-N and ZWE with the addition of feed and Navicula sp. (ZWE-FN, all in triplicate. Shrimp of 17.7 ± 0.02 mg were stocked at a density of 2500 shrimp m-3 and microalgae added on the 1st, 5th and 15th day at a density of 5x10(4 cell mL-1. The shrimp were fed a commercial feed composed by 42% crude protein four times a day except in the ZWE treatment. For data analysis we used Cochran, Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, Tukey and Student-t tests (P < 0.05. The most frequent genera were: Anabaena, Arcella, Asplanchma, Bosmina, Brachionus, Cylindrotheca, Daphnia, Fragilaria, Hemiaulus, Keratella, Orthoseira, Oscillatoria, Phymatodocis, Rhabdonema, Skeletonema, Sckizothrix and Ulothrix. Significant differences between treatments were observed for TAN, NO2-N, alkalinity, final weight, weight gain, final biomass, biomass gain, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate and survival. The ZWE-FN treatment showed better production parameters, indicating the benefits of the addition of Navicula sp. as a natural food source for L. vannamei postlarvae in zero water exchange systems.

  17. RETRIEVAL & TREATMENT OF HANFORD TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EACKER, J.A.; SPEARS, J.A.; STURGES, M.H.; MAUSS, B.M.

    2006-01-20

    The Hanford Tank Farms contain 53 million gal of radioactive waste accumulated during over 50 years of operations. The waste is stored in 177 single-shell and double-shell tanks in the Hanford 200 Areas. The single-shell tanks were put into operation from the early 1940s through the 1960s with wastes received from several generations of processing facilities for the recovery of plutonium and uranium, and from laboratories and other ancillary facilities. The overall hanford Tank Farm system represents one of the largest nuclear legacies in the world driving towards completion of retrieval and treatment in 2028 and the associated closure activity completion by 2035. Remote operations, significant radiation/contamination levels, limited access, and old facilities are just some of the challenges faced by retrieval and treatment systems. These systems also need to be able to successfully remove 99% or more of the waste, and support waste treatment, and tank closure. The Tank Farm retrieval program has ramped up dramatically in the past three years with design, fabrication, installation, testing, and operations ongoing on over 20 of the 149 single-shell tanks. A variety of technologies are currently being pursued to retrieve different waste types, applications, and to help establish a baseline for recovery/operational efficiencies. The paper/presentation describes the current status of retrieval system design, fabrication, installation, testing, readiness, and operations, including: (1) Saltcake removal progress in Tanks S-102, S-109, and S-112 using saltcake dissolution, modified sluicing, and high pressure water lancing techniques; (2) Sludge vacuum retrieval experience from Tanks C-201, C-202, C-203, and C-204; (3) Modified sluicing experience in Tank C-103; (4) Progress on design and installation of the mobile retrieval system for sludge in potentially leaking single-shell tanks, particularly Tank C-101; and (5) Ongoing installation of various systems in the next

  18. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-10-14

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft{sup 3} of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  19. An analysis of the relationship between bulk tank milk quality and wash water quality on dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, N R; Kelton, D F; Hand, K J; MacNaughton, G; Berke, O; Leslie, K E

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify regions at high risk for bacterial water or milk contamination, as well as risk factors associated with high bacteria counts in raw milk in Ontario, Canada. Between 2003 and 2004, the Dairy Farmers of Ontario (DFO) tested water samples from 5,421 farms in Ontario for the presence of Escherichia coli and coliforms. The water samples were collected as "point-of-use" samples, meaning that each sample was taken from a tap or water hose in the milk house as soon as the water was turned on. Routine, monthly raw milk bacterial counts were determined by DFO using BactoScan (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark). BactoScan data were retrieved from DFO for all of the farms with water test results. The prevalence of samples with E. coli and coliforms in water and elevated bacteria counts in raw milk was 13.6, 53.8, and 2.8%, respectively. The spatial analysis, using a scan statistic, revealed 1 coliform and 3 E. coli clusters of contaminated water, but no clusters of elevated milk bacteria counts in raw milk in southern Ontario. The coliform water contamination cluster was the largest, with a radius of approximately 200 km. Regression analysis indicated that risk factors associated with the occurrence of high levels of bacteria in raw milk were elevated average monthly somatic cell count, increased total milk production, cooler seasons of the year, and the presence of E. coli in wash water.

  20. On the design and operation of primary settling tanks in state of the art wastewater treatment and water resources recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patziger, Miklos; Günthert, Frank Wolfgang; Jardin, Norbert; Kainz, Harald; Londong, Jörg

    2016-11-01

    In state of the art wastewater treatment, primary settling tanks (PSTs) are considered as an integral part of the biological wastewater and sludge treatment process, as well as of the biogas and electric energy production. Consequently they strongly influence the efficiency of the entire wastewater treatment plant. However, in the last decades the inner physical processes of PSTs, largely determining their efficiency, have been poorly addressed. In common practice PSTs are still solely designed and operated based on the surface overflow rate and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) as a black box. The paper shows the results of a comprehensive investigation programme, including 16 PSTs. Their removal efficiency and inner physical processes (like the settling process of primary sludge), internal flow structures within PSTs and their impact on performance were investigated. The results show that: (1) the removal rates of PSTs are generally often underestimated in current design guidelines, (2) the removal rate of different PSTs shows a strongly fluctuating pattern even in the same range of the HRT, and (3) inlet design of PSTs becomes highly relevant in the removal efficiency at rather high surface overflow rates, above 5 m/h, which is the upper design limit of PSTs for dry weather load.

  1. 33 CFR 183.552 - Plastic encased fuel tanks: Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plastic encased fuel tanks... § 183.552 Plastic encased fuel tanks: Installation. (a) Each fuel tank encased in cellular plastic foam or in fiber reinforced plastic must have the connections, fittings, and labels accessible...

  2. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...(a)(2) or § 157.10c(b)(2) without sufficient segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean ballast... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK...

  3. 33 CFR 157.216 - Required documents: Foreign tank vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.216 Required documents... the United States unless the vessel has on board— (1) The Dedicated Clean Ballast Tank Operations... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required documents: Foreign...

  4. 33 CFR 183.514 - Fuel tanks: Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tanks: Labels. 183.514...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.514 Fuel tanks: Labels. (a) Each fuel tank must have a label that meets the requirements of paragraphs (b) through (d)...

  5. 33 CFR 183.550 - Fuel tanks: Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tanks: Installation. 183.550...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.550 Fuel tanks: Installation. (a) Each fuel tank must not be integral with any boat structure or mounted on an engine. (b)...

  6. HANFORD TANK CLEANUP UPDATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERRIOCHOA MV

    2011-04-07

    Access to Hanford's single-shell radioactive waste storage tank C-107 was significantly improved when workers completed the cut of a 55-inch diameter hole in the top of the tank. The core and its associated cutting equipment were removed from the tank and encased in a plastic sleeve to prevent any potential spread of contamination. The larger tank opening allows use of a new more efficient robotic arm to complete tank retrieval.

  7. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks.

  8. 控制输水管道瞬态液柱分离的空气阀调压室%Air-valve surge tank for controlling liquid column separation in water supply projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨开林

    2011-01-01

    A new type air-valve surge tank for controlling liquid column separation occured to water supply projects is developed.It consists of a vertical short pipe and air valves installed on the top.The tanks are installed on the main to form a series of local convexities.They are full of water during normal operations.As soon as the water pressure drops to under the atmospheric pressure,air will be sucked into the tank through the air valve to form an air chamber.The air in the tank will be released slowly while the water pressure is greater than the atmospheric pressure.The application indicates that the tank not only can control the negative pressure during hydraulic transients,but also the positive pressure.%提出了用于控制输水管道瞬态液柱分离的新型空气阀调压室,即在输水线路上设置一个短管,短管顶部密封,然后在它顶部设置空气阀。在正常输水时,空气阀关闭,调压室(短管)充满水体,没有气体。当调压室顶部水压下降到大气压以下时,空气阀进气,在调压室中形成气囊,防止输水管道发生液体汽化现象,或者出现超过管道承受能力的高度真空压力。当调压室底部水压超过大气压时,调压室中气体压缩,气体由空气阀缓慢排出,避免发生较大冲击水压。

  9. 水厂沉淀池自动排泥系统的优化研究%The Optimization Research of the Automatic Sludge Discharge System for Sedimentation Tank of the Water Treatment Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐新林

    2015-01-01

    The automatic control system for sedimentation tank is an important link in production of water treatment plant, which is related to water quality and energy saving and consumption reducing. At present, the domestic most of the sedimentation tanks of water treatment plants are controlled by starting the sludge discharge instructions of the work period for the sedimentation tank. According to the specific situation of the raw water quality and energy saving and consumption reducing requirements of Bijie water treatment plant,we optimized the automatic control system for the sedimentation tank and also analyzed the efficiency of the energy saving and consumption reducing after the system is optimized. It proved that the optimized system guranteed the water quality meets the national drinking water health standards. The optimized system also played a good role in energy saving and consumption reducing.%沉淀池自动控制系统是水厂生产管理的重要环节,关系到出厂水水质和节能降耗。目前,国内大部分水厂的沉淀池控制主要通过沉淀池工作的时间周期来启动排泥指令。根据毕节水厂原水水质的具体情况和节能降耗要求,对沉淀池自动控制系统进行优化,并对优化后系统的节能够降耗效果进行分析,实践证明该系统优化后水厂出厂水质达到国家饮用水卫生标准,对节能降耗起到了很好作用。

  10. Seismic Vibration Control of Elevated Water Tank by TLD and Validation of Full-Scale TLD Model through Real-Time-Hybrid-Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A.; Staino, A.; (D Ghosh, A.; Basu, B.; Chatterjee, S.

    2016-09-01

    Elevated water tanks (EWTs), being top-heavy structures, are highly vulnerable to earthquake forces, and several have experienced damage/failure in past seismic events. However, as these are critical facilities whose continued performance in the post-earthquake scenario is of vital concern, it is significant to investigate their seismic vibration control using reliable and cost-effective passive dampers such as the Tuned Liquid Damper (TLD). Here, this aspect is studied for flexible EWT structures, such as those with annular shaft supports. The criterion of tuning the sloshing frequency of the TLD to the structural frequency necessitates dimensions of the TLD larger than those hitherto examined in literature. Hence the nonlinear model of the TLD based on established shallow water wave theory is verified for large container size by employing Real-Time-Hybrid-Testing (RTHT). Simulation studies are further carried out on a realistic example of a flexible EWT structure with TLDs. Results indicate that the TLD can be applied very effectively for the seismic vibration mitigation of EWTs.

  11. Photocatalytic inactivation of Flavobacterium and E. coli in water by a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) fed with suspended/immobilised TiO2 medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Yaniv, Vered; Narkis, Nava; Armon, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A photocatalytic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was built at laboratory scale to inactivate two environmental bacteria strains (Flavobacterium and E. coli) in tap water. Several parameters were found to impact reactor efficiency. Bacterial initial concentration is an important factor in inactivation rate. After 30 minutes of irradiation at 10(8)-10(9) CFU mL(-1) starting concentration, a >5 log reduction was achieved while at 10(4)-10(6) CFU mL(-1) only a 2 log reduction was observed. Water hardness and pH have an important influence on the photocatalytic inactivation process. Soft water, with low Ca(+2) and Mg(+2) at low pH approximately 5.3 resulted in increased inactivation of Flavobacterium reaching >6 orders of magnitude reduction. E. coli and Flavobacterium at pH 5 were inactivated by 3 logs more as compared to pH 7 under similar conditions. pH below TiO2 isoelectric point (approximately 5.6) supports better contact between bacteria and anatase particles resulting in superior inactivation. TiO2 powder suspension was compared with immobilised powder in sol-gel coated glass beads in order to exclude the need for particles separation from the treated water. TiO2 suspension was more effective by 3 orders of magnitude when compared to coated glass beads. An interesting observation was found between the two bacterial strains based on their hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity balance. The more hydrophobic Flavobacterium compared to E. coli was inactivated photocatalytically by >3 logs more then E. coli in the first 30 minutes of irradiation interval. The results indicate the importance of the parameters involved in the contact between TiO2 particles and microorganisms that govern the successful inactivation rate in CSTR.

  12. Tank characterization report: Tank 241-C-109

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borshiem, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Single-shell tank 241-C-109 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in September 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-109 were conducted to support the resolution of the ferrocyanide unreviewed safety question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and consent Order (Tri- Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. This report describes this analysis.

  13. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF WATER FLOW FIELD IN QUENCH TANK OF TINPLATE TECHNOLOGY%镀锡生产工艺中淬水槽的水流场数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国和; 龚辉; 李建中; 邓比涛; 邵雄风; 王志成

    2012-01-01

    As quenching process of reflow technology affected clearly the product quality of tinplate, a water flow field of quench tank was simulated successfully by steps of meshing generation, numerical model establishment and post-processing through using the Gambit pre-processing software, fluent software and Tecplot post-processing software of computational fluid dynamics CFD software package. The Y direction and Z direction vector distribution of the water speed flow field of quench tank were analyzed. The effect of water pressure variation in quench tank on the water flow field was determined. The optimized water pressure of 0. 38 MPa in quench tank was found for the quality of tin plate products.%针对软熔工艺中淬水过程对镀锡板的产品质量有着明显的影响,采用计算流体力学CFD软件包中Gambit前处理软件、fluent求解软件和Tecplot后处理软件,对淬水槽进行了网格划分、建立数值模型求解及其后处理,成功地模拟淬水槽水流场.分析了淬水槽水流场Y方向和Z方向的速度矢量分布,确定了淬水槽喷水压力变化对水流场的影响规律.优化出有利于镀锡板产品质量的淬水槽喷水压力为0.38 MPa.

  14. 铝、铜水箱热平衡试验研究%On the Experiment of Heat Balance of Aluminum and Copper Water Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江; 曾宪杰; 曾宪任

    2015-01-01

    液压挖掘机工作环境十分恶劣,尤其对于液压挖掘机,由于其冷却风道空间有限,很容易造成发动机冷却水温过高的现象,从而导致挖掘机工作效率以及使用寿命的降低。目前挖掘机厂家对于发动机冷却系统的设计主要通过经验和反复试验来完成,这一方面延长了设计的周期,同时也增加了试验的强度。本文针对液压挖掘机发动机冷却系统设计过程中存在的共性问题,介绍目前常用的散热器型式,揭示间壁式散热器的传热机理。其次,建立管带式散热器散热特性数学模型,分析散热器传热系数、冷却水温度、散热量、风阻、水阻以及功耗等性能参数与散热器尺寸及流体流速之间的关系。对铝水箱和铜水箱的热平衡进行试验测试,结果表明,铜水箱散热性能较好。%Hydraulic excavator working environment is very bad, especially for hydraulic excavator, due to its limited space of cooling air duct, it is easy to cause the phenomenon of high temperature of engine cooling water, resulting in the reduction of work efficiency and service life of the excavator. Currently, the excavator manufacturers design the engine cooling system mainly through experience and trial and error, which extends the cycle of design, and also increases the strength of the test. Based on the common problems existing in the design process of hydraulic excavator engine cooling system, this paper introduces the type of radiator, reveals the recuperative heat transfer mechanism of the radiator. Secondly, belt type radiator thermal characteristics mathematical model is established, and analyzes the relationship among the performance parameters of the radiator heat transfer coefficient, cooling water temperature, heat release, wind resistance, water resistance and power consumption, the size of radiator and the velocity of flow. The heat balance of aluminum and copper water tank is tested

  15. 33 CFR 157.210 - Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.210 Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. If the manuals submitted under § 157.206... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved Dedicated Clean...

  16. 33 CFR 157.214 - Required documents: U.S. tank vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.214 Required documents: U... ballast tank system plans; (b) The Coast Guard approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required documents: U.S....

  17. Investigations of fabric stratifiers for solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    The thermal performance of solar heating systems is strongly influenced by the thermal stratification in the heat storage. The higher the degree of thermal stratification is, the higher the thermal performance of the solar heating systems. Thermal stratification in water storages can be achieved...... in different ways. For instance, water heated by the solar collectors or water returning from the heating system can enter the water storage through stratification inlet devices in such a way that the water enters the tank in a level, where the tank temperature is the same as the temperature of the entering...

  18. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external tank soil contamination for the Hanford tank closure program: application to the AX tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    1998-10-12

    Mixed high-level waste is currently stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The plan is to retrieve the waste, process the water, and dispose of the waste in a manner that will provide less long-term health risk. The AX Tank Farm has been identified for purposes of demonstration. Not all the waste can be retrieved from the tanks and some waste has leaked from these tanks into the underlying soil. Retrieval of this waste could result in additional leakage. During FY1998, the Sandia National Laboratory was under contract to evaluate concepts for immobilizing the residual waste remaining in tanks and mitigating the migration of contaminants that exist in the soil column. Specifically, the scope of this evaluation included: development of a layered tank fill design for reducing water infiltration; development of in-tank getter technology; mitigation of soil contamination through grouting; sequestering of specific radionuclides in soil; and geochemical and hydrologic modeling of waste-water-soil interactions. A copy of the final report prepared by Sandia National Laboratory is attached.

  19. Defluoridation of drinking water by electrocoagulation/electroflotation in a stirred tank reactor with a comparative performance to an external-loop airlift reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essadki, A.H., E-mail: essadki@hotmail.com [Ecole Superieure de Technologie de Casablanca, BP 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Gourich, B. [Ecole Superieure de Technologie de Casablanca, BP 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Vial, Ch. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique et Biochimique, LGCB-UBP/ENSCCF, 24 avenue des Landais, BP 206, 63174 Aubiere Cedex (France); Delmas, H. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, ENSIACET-INPT, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, 31106 Toulouse (France); Bennajah, M. [Ecole Superieure de Technologie de Casablanca, BP 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, ENSIACET-INPT, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, 31106 Toulouse (France)

    2009-09-15

    Defluoridation using batch electrocoagulation/electroflotation (EC/EF) was carried out in two reactors for comparison purpose: a stirred tank reactor (STR) close to a conventional EC cell and an external-loop airlift reactor (ELAR) that was recently described as an innovative reactor for EC. The respective influences of current density, initial concentration and initial pH on the efficiency of defluoridation were investigated. The same trends were observed in both reactors, but the efficiency was higher in the STR at the beginning of the electrolysis, whereas similar values were usually achieved after 15 min operation. The influence of the initial pH was explained using the analyses of sludge composition and residual soluble aluminum species in the effluents, and it was related to the prevailing mechanisms of defluoridation. Fluoride removal and sludge reduction were both favored by an initial pH around 4, but this value required an additional pre-treatment for pH adjustment. Finally, electric energy consumption was similar in both reactors when current density was lower than 12 mA/cm{sup 2}, but mixing and complete flotation of the pollutants were achieved without additional mechanical power in the ELAR, using only the overall liquid recirculation induced by H{sub 2} microbubbles generated by water electrolysis, which makes subsequent treatments easier to carry out.

  20. Hagleromyces gen. nov., a yeast genus in the Saccharomycetaceae, and description of Hagleromyces aurorensis sp. nov., isolated from water tanks of bromeliads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Francisca M P; Morais, Paula B; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-08-01

    Three strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from water tanks (phytotelmata) of a bromeliad species collected in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Analysis of sequences for the region spanning the SSU rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer, the 5.8S rRNA gene and the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene and RNA polymerase II gene showed that these novel yeasts belong to a species that is distinct from all recognized ascomycetous yeast species. Based on the results of gene sequence analyses, a novel species representing a new genus in the Saccharomycetaceae is proposed. The novel species is assigned to the genus Hagleromyces gen. nov. The three isolates of the novel yeast species failed to form sexual spores alone or in mixtures. The name Hagleromyces aurorensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain of H. aurorensis sp. nov. is UFMG-CM-Y311(T) ( = CBS 13264(T)).

  1. From the waters of the empire to the tanks of Paris: the creation and early years of the Aquarium Tropical, Palais de la Porte Dorée.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Sofie; Mistry, Heena

    2014-01-01

    From May to November 1931, the Exposition coloniale internationale was held in Paris. Publicized as a trip around the world in a single day, it was designed to stimulate investments and general enthusiasm for the colonies. Along with exotic temporary pavilions representing the various colonies, model villages inhabited by colonial natives, and pavilions representing commercial product brands and other colonial powers, the exposition included a zoo and an aquarium featuring animals from the colonies. Installing a large aquarium had been a costly and difficult process, and construction was plagued by many delays and problems. But when the aquarium finally opened a few months into the exposition, it quickly became a favorite of the public. With the double mission to provide a living synthesis of the products of the warm waters of the French empire and give visitors a sense of the diversity, beauty, and economic resources of their colonial possessions, the aquarium functioned as a panorama that presented a striking visual metaphor for the empire. This article follows the aquarium during the exposition and in the years that followed. We explore its place in the history of aquaria in general and pay particular attention to its role in the exposition and within the French colonial context of the 1930s and onward. Here, both the scientists in charge of the site and the aquatic animals living in its tanks and terrariums provide a window into the relationship of marine biology, public education, consumerism, and colonialism at mid-twentieth century.

  2. Defluoridation of drinking water by electrocoagulation/electroflotation in a stirred tank reactor with a comparative performance to an external-loop airlift reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essadki, A H; Gourich, B; Vial, Ch; Delmas, H; Bennajah, M

    2009-09-15

    Defluoridation using batch electrocoagulation/electroflotation (EC/EF) was carried out in two reactors for comparison purpose: a stirred tank reactor (STR) close to a conventional EC cell and an external-loop airlift reactor (ELAR) that was recently described as an innovative reactor for EC. The respective influences of current density, initial concentration and initial pH on the efficiency of defluoridation were investigated. The same trends were observed in both reactors, but the efficiency was higher in the STR at the beginning of the electrolysis, whereas similar values were usually achieved after 15min operation. The influence of the initial pH was explained using the analyses of sludge composition and residual soluble aluminum species in the effluents, and it was related to the prevailing mechanisms of defluoridation. Fluoride removal and sludge reduction were both favored by an initial pH around 4, but this value required an additional pre-treatment for pH adjustment. Finally, electric energy consumption was similar in both reactors when current density was lower than 12mA/cm(2), but mixing and complete flotation of the pollutants were achieved without additional mechanical power in the ELAR, using only the overall liquid recirculation induced by H(2) microbubbles generated by water electrolysis, which makes subsequent treatments easier to carry out.

  3. Think tanks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsten, Mark; Nørgaard Kristensen, Nete

    2016-01-01

    Though think tanks have a long history internationally, they have especially in recent years come to play an increasingly important role in both policy-formulation and public debate. In this article, we analyse the growing presence of think tanks in a Danish context during the 2000s and the first...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...... outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re...

  4. Piping coarse-grained sediment to a deep water fan through a shelf-edge delta bypass channel: Tank experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yuri; Kim, Wonsuck; Cheong, Daekyo; Muto, Tetsuji; Pyles, David R.

    2013-12-01

    is now generally accepted that deltas that prograde to the shelf edge are able to transport coarse sediment to deep water either with or without sea level changes. However, it is still unclear how feeder rivers behave differently in the shelf-edge delta case to rivers found in a delta that progrades over the shelf. A series of nine shelf-edge delta experiments are presented to investigate the lateral mobility of the feeder channel at the shelf edge and the associated deep water depositional system under a range of sediment supply rates and shelf-front depths. In the experiments, constant sediment supply from an upstream point source under static sea level led the fluviodeltaic system to prograde over the shallow shelf surface and advance beyond the shelf edge into deep water. The feeder river of the fluviodeltaic system became a bypass system once the toe of the delta front reached the shelf edge. After the delta front was perched at the shelf edge, a submarine fan developed in deep water although remaining disconnected from the delta. In this bypass stage, no regional avulsion or lateral migration of the feeder river occurred and all sediment from the upstream source bypassed the river, delta front, and shelf-front slope. The duration of the bypass stage is proportional to shelf-front depth and inversely proportional to sediment discharge. The combined duration of the shelf-transit phase of the fluviodeltaic system and the bypass phase is the characteristic time scale for the continental margin to "anneal" transgression-inducing perturbation due to high-frequency and/or high-amplitude relative sea level rise. The sequential evolution in the experiment compares favorably to the Eocene Sobrarbe Formation, a shelf-edge delta in Spain, although natural variations are noted. This comparison justifies the application of concepts proposed herein to natural systems and provides insight into interpreting processes from ancient shelf-edge delta systems.

  5. 调压井水面面积对水轮机稳定运行的影响%Influence of Water Area of Surge Tank on Stable Operation of Hydraulic Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄顺礼

    2000-01-01

    利用汤姆计算调压井水位波动的方程,得到在这个波动过程中水轮机流量的振荡曲线,从而证明调压井水面面积的取值大小影响水轮机的稳定运行,当流量振荡严重时,水轮机就会发生振动。%Presents the oscillating curves for hydraulic turbine flow rate during fluctuation of surge tank water level obtained using Thoma equation, which proves that the effect of water area of surge tank on stable operation of hydraulic turbine is so that hydraulic turbine may vibrate when flow rate flucturates significantly.

  6. THE SOURCE OF ACID CONTAINED IN THE WATER OF STORAGE TANK BOTTOM%储罐罐底水含酸及对喷气燃料性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵升红; 黄毅; 孙建章; 顾敏莉

    2001-01-01

    The source of aci d contained in the water of storage tank bottom and its harmful effect on jet fuel were studied. The low pH value of the tank bottom water was caused by the gro wing and breeding of thiobacillus thiooxidans that producing sulfuric acid. Hydr ogen sulfide was formed from the reaction of the sulfuric acid and sulfide, and resulted in silver strip corrosion unqualified of the jet fuel.%对喷气燃料储罐罐底含酸的原因及危害进行了研究, 指出氧化硫硫杆菌生长繁殖产生的硫 酸导致罐底水 pH 降低, 硫酸与罐底水中的硫化物反应生成硫化氢导致喷气燃料银片腐蚀不合格。

  7. WWTP Process Tank Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jesper

    hydrofoil shaped propellers. These two sub-processes deliver the main part of the supplied energy to the activated sludge tank, and for this reason they are important for the mixing conditions in the tank. For other important processes occurring in the activated sludge tank, existing models and measurements...

  8. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B.

  9. Tank 241-AZ-101 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-06

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, A revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ``A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information``. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) sampling activities. Tank AZ-101 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The contents of Tank AZ-101, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,630 kL (960 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-101 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 132 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,500 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.87 meters.

  10. Tank 241-AZ-102 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-06

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ``A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process ... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information``. This document satisfies that requirement for tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) sampling activities. Tank AZ-102 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The current contents of Tank AZ-102, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,600 kL (950 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-102 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 360 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,240 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.9 meters.

  11. Smart solar tanks - Heat storage of the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of a smart solar tank concept for small SDHW-systems have been carried out. In the tank the operation of the auxiliary energy supply system is controlled by the hot water demand and by the consumption pattern. Water at the top of the tank is only heated by the auxiliary...... energy supply system to a required temperature in periods with hot water demand. The tank is heated by the auxiliary energy supply system from the top so that the volume of water heated to the required temperature can be controlled in a flexible way. In periods with a large hot water demand the volume...... can be large and in periods with a small hot water demand the volume can be small. For instance, the energy supply system can be controlled on measurements of the energy content of the tank during all hours of the week and based on a required hot water consumption and consumption pattern which can...

  12. Development of a sublation system in atmospheric tank using sunflower oil surfactant to reduce oily water concentration; Desenvolvimento de um sistema de sublacao em tanque atmosferico utilizando tensoativo de oleo de girassol para reducao da concentracao de aguas oleosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Rodrigo F. de; Dantas, Iuri A.C.; Quintaes, Filipe de O.; Salazar, Andres O.; Barros Neto, Eduardo L. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In order to reduce the rate of oil in water, was developed a system capable to be inserted in a tank and make air bubbles move to top of the tank, where is a layer of oil, similar that occurs in flotation, but in this case is called sublation. This system is composed by drilled PVC pipes and connected in way of four identical squares, joined by a high pressure hose. A compressor located in a region near to the tank supplies air to the system through the hose, that is connected in the central point of the system. The preliminary results had shown that the concentration after the sublation, without the surfactants use, decrease of 70 ppm to 35 ppm. After the sublation using surfactants this concentration decrease of 70ppm to 24,8 ppm. The efficiency of the sublation process using surfactants made of vegetal oil - OGS - was proved by the experimental results. This process, beyond allowing a bigger reutilization of the water in the tests of the laboratory, makes possible the reduction of the rate of oil in water to permitted levels by CONAMA. (author)

  13. Reconnaissance investigations of potential ground-water and sediment contamination at three former underground storage tank locations, Fort Jackson, South Carolina, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J.F.; Nagle, Douglas D.; Rhodes, Liesl C.

    1994-01-01

    Investigations to provide initial qualitative delineation of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at three former underground storage tank locations at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, were made during March 1994. Ground-water and sediment samples were collected using direct-push technology and analyzed on-site with a gas chromatograph, which provided real-time, semi-quantitative data. In addition, ground-water and sediment samples were collected at selected sites for laboratory analyses to provide a confirmation of the on-site data. These analyses provided qualitative data on the lateral distri- bution of petroleum hydrocarbons. Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected by on-site analysis in ground-water samples from nine locations at Site 1062, suggesting the presence of a contaminant plume. Concentrations ranged from less than the minimum detection limit to 4,511 mg/L (micrograms per liter) for benzene, 15,594 mg/L for toluene, 16,501 mg/L for ethylbenzene, and 19,391 mg/L for total xylenes. Concentrations of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Gasoline Range Organics ranged from 323 mg/L to 3,364 mg/L; Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Diesel Range Organics were not detected. Three samples from this site were analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylenes at a laboratory and results showed concentrations ranging from less than the minimum detection limit to 1,070 mg/L for benzene, 7,930 mg/L for toluene, 6,890 mg/L for ethylbenzene, and 1,524 mg/L for total xylenes. Petroleum hydro- carbons were detected by on-site analysis in only one sample at Site 2438. A concentration of 131,000 micrograms per kilogram Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Diesel Range Organics was detected in sample number GP-2-4-13.5. Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected by on-site analysis in only one ground-water sample from Site 2444. A concentration of 3,145 mg/L Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Gasoline Range Organics was detected at sampling location GP-3-2.

  14. Point-spread function associated with underwater imaging through a wavy air-water interface: theory and laboratory tank experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W C; Majumdar, A K

    1992-12-20

    The point-spread function needed for imaging underwater objects is theoretically derived and compared with experimental results. The theoretical development is based on the emergent-ray model, in which the Gram-Charlier series for the non-Gaussian probability-density function for emergent angles through a wavy water surface was assumed. To arrive at the point-spread model, we used a finite-element methodology with emergent-ray angular probability distributions as fundamental building functions. The model is in good agreement with the experiment for downwind conditions. A slight deviation between theory and experiment was observed for the crosswind case; this deviation may be caused by the possible interaction of standing waves with the original air-ruffled capillary waves that were not taken into account in the model.

  15. Out-of-tank evaporator demonstration: Tanks focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Approximately 100 million gal of liquid waste is stored in underground storage tanks (UST)s at the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), and Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This waste is radioactive with a high salt content. The US Department of Energy (DOE) wants to minimize the volume of radioactive liquid waste in USTs by removing the excess water. This procedure conserves tank space; lowers the cost of storage; and reduces the volume of wastes subsequently requiring separation, immobilization, and disposal. The Out-of-Tank Evaporator Demonstration (OTED) was initiated to test a modular, skid-mounted evaporator. A mobile evaporator system manufactured by Delta Thermal Inc. was selected. The evaporator design was routinely used in commercial applications such as concentrating metal-plating wastes for recycle and concentrating ethylene glycol solutions. In FY 1995, the skid-mounted evaporator system was procured and installed in an existing ORNL facility (Building 7877) with temporary shielding and remote controls. The evaporator system was operational in January 1996. The system operated 24 h/day and processed 22,000 gal of Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernatant. The distillate contained essentially no salts or radionuclides. Upon completion of the demonstration, the evaporator underwent decontamination testing to illustrate the feasibility of hands-on maintenance and potential transport to another DOE facility. This report describes the process and the evaporator, its performance at ORNL, future plans, applications of this technology, cost estimates, regulatory and policy considerations, and lessons learned.

  16. The diversity and extracellular enzymatic activities of yeasts isolated from water tanks of Vriesea minarum, an endangered bromeliad species in Brazil, and the description of Occultifur brasiliensis f.a., sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fátima C O; Safar, Silvana V B; Marques, Andrea R; Medeiros, Adriana O; Santos, Ana Raquel O; Carvalho, Cláudia; Lachance, Marc-André; Sampaio, José Paulo; Rosa, Carlos A

    2015-02-01

    The diversity of yeast species collected from the bromeliad tanks of Vriesea minarum, an endangered bromeliad species, and their ability to produce extracellular enzymes were studied. Water samples were collected from 30 tanks of bromeliads living in a rupestrian field site located at Serrada Piedade, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, during both the dry and rainy seasons. Thirty-six species were isolated, representing 22 basidiomycetous and 14 ascomycetous species. Occultifur sp., Cryptococcus podzolicus and Cryptococcus sp. 1 were the prevalent basidiomycetous species. The yeast-like fungus from the order Myriangiales, Candida silvae and Aureobasidium pullulans were the most frequent ascomycetous species. The diversity of the yeast communities obtained between seasons was not significantly different, but the yeast composition per bromeliad was different between seasons. These results suggest that there is significant spatial heterogeneity in the composition of populations of the yeast communities within bromeliad tanks, independent of the season. Among the 352 yeast isolates tested, 282 showed at least one enzymatic activity. Protease activity was the most widely expressed extracellular enzymatic activity, followed by xylanase, amylase, pectinase and cellulase activities. These enzymes may increase the carbon and nitrogen availability for the microbial food web in the bromeliad tank of V. minarum. Sequence analyses revealed the existence of 10 new species, indicating that bromeliad tanks are important sources of new yeasts. The novel species Occultifur brasiliensis, f.a., sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate the most frequently isolated yeast associated with V. minarum. The type strain of O. brasiliensis, f.a., sp. nov. is UFMG-CM-Y375(T) (= CBS 12687(T)). The Mycobank number is MB 809816.

  17. Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    The emergence of more think tanks in recent decades has spawned some interest in how they function and impact policy-making in the European Union and its member states. So far however few empirical studies of think tanks have been carried out and think tanks have mainly been studied...... in their national contexts. Questions regarding patterns and differences in think tank organisations and functions across countries have largely been left unanswered. This paper advances a definition and research design that uses different expert roles to categorise think tanks. A sample of 34 think tanks from...... Brussels, Denmark and Germany are categorised according to different expert roles in a pilot analysis. As the analysis is sensitive to the interpretation and weight given to different indicators, besides from picturing the think tank landscape, the analysis is intended to trigger a discussion of how...

  18. Transabdominal ultrasonography of the small bowel after oral administration of a non-absorbable anechoic solution: Comparison with barium enteroclysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cittadini, Giuseppe; Giasotto, Veronica; Garlaschi, Giacomo; De Cicco, Enzo; Gallo, Alessandra; Cittadini, Giorgio

    2001-03-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to determine if oral administration of a non-absorbable anechoic solution conveys any benefit during abdominal ultrasound (US), with special reference to its accuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-three adult out-patients scheduled for small bowel barium enema (SBE) were included. The day before SBE all patients underwent abdominal US before and after oral administration of an isotonic non-absorbable electrolyte solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG-ELS). Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated using SBE as a gold standard. RESULTS: After ingestion of PEG-ELS satisfactory distension of the intestinal lumen was obtained (11-25 mm) with sequential visualization of jejunoileal loops in 30.9 {+-} 17.3 min. In 15 out of 53 cases both US and SBE showed bowel changes characteristic of Crohn's disease. In three out of 53 cases both US and SBE showed neoplasms. In one out of 53 cases US was negative, SBE positive for local nodularity and ulcerations typical of Crohn's disease. In one out of 53 cases US was negative, SBE positive for macronodularity consistent with coeliac disease. In five out of 53 cases US was negative, while SBE was positive for mininodularity expressive of lymphoid hyperplasia. In 28 out of 53 cases both examinations were negative. CONCLUSION: PEG-ELS administration allows a thorough US investigation of the small bowel, with fair sensitivity (72%) and excellent specificity (100%). False negative findings are mainly due to lymphoid hyperplasia, a feature of uncertain significance in adults. Cittadini G. et al.(2001)

  19. Solar Thermal Power Generation 2000: solar-assisted district heating, tight sealing of pit water storage tanks made out of pre-stressed concrete; Solarthermie 2000, TP3: Solarunterstuetzte Nahwaermeversorgung: Dichte Heisswasser - Waermespeicher aus Hochleistungsbeton. Erdbeckenspeicher aus Hochleistungsbeton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reineck, K.H.; Lichtenfels, A.; Schlaich, J. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Konstruktion und Entwurf 2

    1998-12-31

    In 1996 the two large heat storage tanks in Hamburg-Bramfeld (4,750 cubic metres) and Friedrichshafen-Wiggenhausen (12,000 cubic metres) were built out of concrete with an inner stainless steel lining. This was a big step towards economic efficiency. The research project ``Tight sealing of pit water storage tanks made out of pre-stressed concrete`` was launched by the BMBF in order to show that the concrete construction will not only bear loads but also ensure sealing. Building costs for underground hot water storage tanks could then be reduced by at least 25%. The first results of this research project are presented. The paper also contains recommendations for the further development of heat storage tanks built with pre-stressed concrete. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Jahre 1996 wurden die beiden grossen Waermespeicher in Hamburg-Bramfeld mit einem Volumen von 4.750 m{sup 3} und in Friedrichshafen-Wiggenhausen mit 12.000 m{sup 3} aus Beton mit innenliegender Edelstahlauskleidung fertiggestellt. Mit dem Bau dieser beiden Grossspeicher konnte ein richtungsweisender Schritt hin zur Wirtschaftlichkeit gemacht werden, wie man es in Studien vor 15 Jahren nicht fuer moeglich hielt. Mit dem BMBF - Forschungsvorhaben `Dichte Heisswasser - Waermespeicher aus Hochleistungsbeton` soll gezeigt werden, dass das Betontragwerk nicht nur Lasten abtragen sondern auch die Funktion der Abdichtung uebernehmen kann. Damit sollen die Baukosten fuer unterirdische Heisswasser-Waermespeicher um mindestens 25% gesenkt werden. Es werden die ersten Ergebnisse dieses Forschungsvorhabens mitgeteilt und Empfehlungen fuer die weitere Entwicklung von Waermespeichern aus Hochleistungsbeton gegeben. (orig.)

  20. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank...

  1. Fuel Tank Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    structures b) - Equal thermic inertia c) - Equal fluid volume d) - Equal pressure variation on both wings at the change of the room temperature - This...individual fuel sections. Each fuel section is further ccmpartmentated by metall tank shear walls and tank floors into three individual fuel cells to...plate Dy a stretch forming process, and the metallic tank floors . The air intake segments extend from one bulkhead to the other, thus reducing assembly

  2. Numerical modeling method on the movement of water flow and suspended solids in two-dimensional sedimentation tanks in the wastewater treatment plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Taking the distributing calculation of velocity and concentration as an example, the paper established a series of governing equations by the vorticity-stream function method, and dispersed the equations by the finite differencing method. After figuring out the distribution field of velocity, the paper also calculated the concentration distribution in sedimentation tank by using the two-dimensional concentration transport equation. The validity and feasibility of the numerical method was verified through comparing with experimental data. Furthermore, the paper carried out a tentative exploration into the application of numerical simulation of sedimentation tanks.

  3. 空气能热泵热水机不锈钢内胆焊接工艺优化研究%Optimization of Stainless Steel Tank Welding Procedure in Air-source Heat Pump Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树清; 余文鹏

    2015-01-01

    The stainless steel tank in air-source heat pump water heater was an container which bear pressure and heat. It is the key component of the air-source heat pump water heater and suffered sever environment at working condition. Welding joint corrosion is the Achilles' heel of stainless tank service life at existing welding procedure. This condition restricted air-source heat pump water heater putting into use and popularize widely. Optimization of stainless steel tank welding procedure in air-source heat pump water heater has been applied several aspect and enhance the service life obviously.%空气能热泵热水器保温水箱的不锈钢内胆是一个承压承热的容器,是热水机产品的关键构件,其工作环境较为恶劣。在现有的焊接工艺条件下,不锈钢内胆的各个焊缝处的腐蚀失效是整个水箱寿命的短板,严重影响了空气能热泵热水机这种新型的节能减排产品的使用和发展。因此对空气能热泵热水机的焊接工艺作了几个方面的优化调整,使得不锈钢内胆的使用寿命得到了较大幅度的提高,取得了良好的效果。

  4. Fuel reprocessing tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonda, Sumitora

    1998-10-09

    A tank of the present invention for spent fuels comprises a stainless steel tank main body for storing a highly corrosive dissolving solution, a steam jet pump disposed to the inside of the tank main body for transferring the dissolving solution to the outside of the tank main body and pipelines connecting them. With such a constitution, abnormal abrasion and drag of mechanical parts are less caused. In addition, a cleaning nozzle and a cleaning liquid pipeline which eliminates clogging of a sucking port of the steam jet pump if clogging is caused by sludges are disposed thereby enabling to avoid possibility of clogging. (T.M.)

  5. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-07-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System`s tank waste retrieval Program.

  6. Tank bromeliad - a natural model ecosystem for methane cycling research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Guntars; Brandt, Franziska; Conrad, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Tank bromeliads are common epiphytes throughout neotropical forest ecosystems. They are relatively small discrete habitats for terrestrial and aquatic macro- and microorganisms and naturally replicated. Their tanks effectively collect leaf litter and water and harbor a diverse microbial community. Up to several thousands of these tank bromeliads per hectare of tropical forest create a unique wetland ecosystem responsible for significant methane emissions. In a field study in tropical montane forests of southern Ecuador we sampled tank bromeliads of different species, size and canopy height and found that tank water availability controlled community composition of methanogenic archaea, determined by molecular analysis of the archaeal 16S rRNA genes. We set up a greenhouse experiment to investigate drying and re-wetting effects on microbial community composition and methanogenesis. Additionally, we conducted 13-CH-4 and 13-CO-2 labeling studies to investigate potential interaction of plant and microbial metabolism during methane cycling in tank bromeliads. Drying resulted in rapid change of the microbial community composition. The relative abundance of acetoclastic methanogens increased and that of hydrogenotrophic methanogens decreased with decreasing tank water availability confirming our field observations. Labeling studies showed that carbon was released from the plant into the tank supporting methanogenesis and that tank-produced methane was ventilated through the bromeliad leaf structure into the atmosphere which is analogous to the rhizosphere environment of wetland ecosystems. The bromeliad ecosystem may therefore provide a natural model to study how environmental changes and plant-microbe interactions drive methane cycling in aquatic-terrestrial ecosystems.

  7. Three-dimensional numerical simulation for combining clear water tank and ozone contactor%臭氧接触池与清水池合建的三维数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 施周; 周石庆; 陆先镭

    2012-01-01

    利用计算流体力学软件Fluent,结合标准κ-ε模型和组分输运模型,建立了臭氧接触池和清水池的三维紊流模型;通过计算流体的停留时间分布曲线(RTD),对臭氧接触池的水力效率进行了模拟研究。在此基础上,提出了在清水池前段第一廊道设置臭氧接触池的合建方案。结果表明:单一的臭氧接触池水力效率较低,T10/HRT值仅为0.42;而臭氧接触池与清水池经过合建后,T10/HRT值达到0.65,其臭氧消毒水力效率提高了55%。%The computational fluid dynamics software Fluent was adopted to build the three dimensional model of ozone contactor and clear water tank,and a standard κ-ε model and a species transport model were employed.An optimized simulation of the hydraulic efficiency for ozone contactor and clear water tank was conducted through simulating and calculating the retention time distribution(RTD) curve.And on the above basis,the modified design of setting an ozone contactor in the first corridor of clear water tank was proposed.The results of our experiments indicated that the single ozone contactor had a low hydraulic efficiency with the T10/HRT=0.42.However,after the optimization of design by combining the clear water tank and the ozone contactor,the hydraulic efficiency increased by 55%,and the value of T10/HRT reached up to 0.65.

  8. Tank characterization reference guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Simpson, B.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research.

  9. Discussion on Low Frequency Response Loss of Loudspeaker Box in Anechoic Chamber%谈谈音箱在消声室测量中低频响应的缺失

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐柏龄

    2015-01-01

    When the frequency response of the loudspeaker box is measured in the anechoic chamber, the low frequency response is often lost, which often happens when the position of the speaker box is not in the free field of the anechoic chamber. This paper also points out several key points which should be paid attention to when the frequency response of the loudspeaker box is measured in the anechoic chamber.%在消声室中测量音箱的频响曲线时,往往会造成低频响应的丢失,这通常是由于被测音箱的位置不在消声室的自由声场而引起的。本文指出了在消声室中测量音箱的频响时必须注意的几个问题。

  10. TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-05-31

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion (<1200 mg/l). (4) Experimental tests with sludge batch 6 simulant and field turbidity data from a recent Tank 21 mixing evolution suggest the solid

  11. New technologies for integrated treatment of vent gas from sour water tank farm in refinery%炼厂酸性水罐区气体减排和治理新技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方向晨; 刘忠生; 郭兵兵; 王海波

    2012-01-01

    Sour water tank farm is the largest waste water tank farm in refinery. The vent gas of which consists of H2S, ammonia, organic sulfides, oil vapor, steam and air. Direct emission of odor gas will pollute the air and waste oil vapor. The emission can be reduced more than 50% by degassing waste water, connecting vent gas pipelines together, reducing gas volume in the tank, arranging the drain time at night, etc. The fire by auto-ignition of FeS can be prevented by introducing inert gases to the tank. The vent gas of the tank farm is treated by "low-temperature diesel oil absorption-alkali absorption" ; The diesel oil comes from FCC fractionator and the rich absorption oil flows to hydrotreating unit. When the hydrogen sulfide is absorbed by sodium hydroxide or ammonia, the spent absorption liquid is treated in sour water tank. When hydrogen sulfide is absorbed by alcohol amine, the rich absorption liquid enters regeneration system. The removal rate of hydrogen sulfide and organic sulfides of the process is close to 100% and the recovery rate of NH3 is 60% -90% , the recovery rate of oil vapor is higher than 95% , and the oil vapor concentration in the purified gas is less than 25 g/cm3, and the emission concentrations (kg/h) of H2S, NH3, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide are all below (GB 14544-93) "Emission Standards for Odor Pollutants".%酸性水罐区是炼油厂最大的污水罐区,排放气中含有高浓度H2S,NH3,有机硫化物、油气、水蒸气和空气,直接排放导致空气恶臭污染严重且浪费油气资源.采用来水脱气罐、罐顶气连通管网、减少罐内气相空间体积、将排水高峰安排在夜间等措施,可减排气体50%以上.采用罐内气相空间惰性气保护,可防止硫化亚铁自燃引发火灾事故.罐区排放气采用“低温粗柴油吸收-碱液吸收”工艺,粗柴油来自催化裂化分馏塔或常压塔,富吸收油进加氢装置处理;采用

  12. Tank 241-TY-104 Tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-15

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-C Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-TY-104.

  13. Tank 241-C-203: Tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-03-06

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-C-203.

  14. Tank 241-C-204 Tank Characterization Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-03-06

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-C-204.

  15. Tank 241-SX-115 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1995-04-24

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Project, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-SX-115.

  16. Tank waste remediation system: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alumkal, W.T.; Babad, H.; Dunford, G.L.; Honeyman, J.O.; Wodrich, D.D.

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, contains the largest amount and the most diverse collection of highly radioactive waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at the Hanford Site in large, underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 217,000 M{sup 3} (57 Mgal) of caustic liquids, slurries, saltcakes, and sludges have accumulated in 177 tanks. In addition, significant amounts of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were removed from the tank waste, converted to salts, doubly encapsulated in metal containers, and stored in water basins. The Tank Waste Remediation System Program was established by the US Department of Energy in 1991 to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal of the high-level waste fraction in a geologic repository. Since 1991, significant progress has been made in resolving waste tank safety issues, upgrading Tank Farm facilities and operations, and developing a new strategy for retrieving, treating, and immobilizing the waste for disposal.

  17. DETERMINACIÓN DEL TIEMPO DE MEZCLA EN UN TANQUE DE ALMACENAMIENTO PARA AGUA POTABLE MEDIANTE DINÁMICA DE FLUIDOS COMPUTACIONAL -CFD- Determining the Blend Time in a Drinking Water Storage Tank through Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Laín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Para estimar el comportamiento hidráulico de un tanque de almacenamiento de agua potable se usó un programa para la simulación de dinámica computacional de fluidos, evaluando numéricamente los perfiles de velocidad y el tiempo de mezcla. Los perfiles de velocidad mostraron un valor máximo a la salida de 0,76 m.s-1 y velocidades de 0,2 m.s-1 cerca de las paredes, propiciando zonas de recirculación cerca del chorro de entrada. La inyección del trazador y el coeficiente de variación para 17 puntos de monitoreo en el tanque resultaron en un tiempo de mezcla de 19,06 horas y se verificó que cerca de las paredes la mezcla es menos eficiente que en la trayectoria del chorro de entrada. El volumen necesario que debe entrar al tanque para que haya buena mezcla resultó inversamente proporcional a la masa de agua almacenada.In order to estimate the hydraulic behavior of a drinking water storage tank, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD simulation program was used to numerically evaluate blend speed and time profiles. Speed profiles showed a maximum value when leaving at 0.76 m.s-1 and 0.2 m.s-1 speeds near walls, creating recirculation areas near the inlet stream. Injection of tracer and the variation coefficient for 17 monitoring points in the tank resulted in a blend time of 19.06 hours and it was found that the blend near walls is less efficient than in the inlet stream trajectory. Necessary volume to enter the tank in order to achieve a good blend was inversely proportional to the water mass stored.

  18. Defluoridation of drinking water by electrocoagulation/electroflotation in a stirred tank reactor with a comparative performance to an external-loop airlift reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Essadki, Abdel Hafid; Gourich, Bouchaib; Vial, Christophe; Delmas, Henri; Bennajah, Mounir

    2009-01-01

    Defluoridation using batch electrocoagulation/electroflotation (EC/EF) was carried out in two reactors for comparison purpose: a stirred tank reactor (STR) close to a conventional EC cell and an external-loop airlift reactor (ELAR) that was recently described as an innovative reactor for EC. The respective influences of current density, initial concentration and initial pH on the efficiency of defluoridation were investigated. The same trends were observed in both reactors, but the efficiency...

  19. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Mike [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Herbert, James E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scheele, Patrick W. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m3 to 4921 m3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and

  20. 解读TANKED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    品牌为重、创造为先,Tanked racing用不走“寻常路”给国内众多同行们生动地上了一课。通过持续近四年的高速成长,Tanked racingE成为中国头盔业翘楚,然而Tanked racing并不局限于此,因为未来的舞台还很大。

  1. Tank 241-Z-361 process and characterization history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.A.

    1998-08-06

    An Unreviewed Safety Question (Wagoner, 1997) was declared based on lack of adequate authorization basis for Tank 241-Z-361 in the 200W Area at Hanford. This document is a summary of the history of Tank 241-Z-361 through December 1997. Documents reviewed include engineering files, laboratory notebooks from characterization efforts, waste facility process procedures, supporting documents and interviews of people`s recollections of over twenty years ago. Records of transfers into the tank, past characterization efforts, and speculation were used to estimate the current condition of Tank 241-Z-361 and its contents. Information about the overall waste system as related to the settling tank was included to help in understanding the numbering system and process relationships. The Plutonium Finishing Plant was built in 1948 and began processing plutonium in mid-1949. The Incinerator (232-Z) operated from December 1961 until May 1973. The Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF, 236-Z) began operation in May 1964. The Waste Treatment Facility (242-Z) operated from August 1964 until August 1976. Waste from some processes went through transfer lines to 241-Z sump tanks. High salt and organic waste under normal operation were sent to Z-9 or Z-18 cribs. Water from the retention basin may have also passed through this tank. The transfer lines to 241-Z were numbered D-4 to D-6. The 241-Z sump tanks were numbered D-4 through D-8. The D-4, 5, and 8 drains went to the D-6 sump tank. When D-6 tank was full it was transferred to D-7 tank. Prior to transfer to cribs, the D-7 tank contents was sampled. If the plutonium content was analyzed to be more than 10 g per batch, the material was (generally) reprocessed. Below the discard limit, caustic was added and the material was sent to the cribs via the 241-Z-361 settling tank where solids settled out and the liquid overflowed by gravity to the cribs. Waste liquids that passed through the 241-Z-361 settling tank flowed from PFP to ground in

  2. Tank waste characterization basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.M.

    1996-08-09

    This document describes the issues requiring characterization information, the process of determining high priority tanks to obtain information, and the outcome of the prioritization process. In addition, this document provides the reasoning for establishing and revising priorities and plans.

  3. Sonar Tank Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Sonar Tank Facility permits low cost initial 'wet' testing and check out prior to full scale deployment at sea. It can manage controlled conditions calibration...

  4. TANK 5 SAMPLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrettos, N; William Cheng, W; Thomas Nance, T

    2007-11-26

    Tank 5 at the Savannah River Site has been used to store high level waste and is currently undergoing waste removal processes in preparation for tank closure. Samples were taken from two locations to determine the contents in support of Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) development for chemical cleaning. These samples were obtained through the use of the Drop Core Sampler and the Snowbank Sampler developed by the Engineered Equipment & Systems (EES) group of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL).

  5. TANK CAR CONSTRUCTION REFINMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Soberzhansjkyj

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase of volume and load-carrying capacity of tank cars is an urgent task for improving the efficiency of transportation of liquid bulk cargoes. Variants of the constructive and technical approaches, which allow increasing the specified indices, are considered. After the analysis the most rational constructive scheme meeting the modern requirements for tank cars and allowing to raise their productivity is chosen.

  6. Selective crystallization of tank supernatant liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herting, D.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this task is to demonstrate the feasibility of selectively removing sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}) from Hanford Site tank waste by a large-scale fractional crystallization process. Two thirds of all the nuclear waste stored in Hanford`s underground storage tanks is sodium nitrate (mass basis, excluding water). Fractional crystallization can remove essentially nonradioactive NaNO{sub 3} and other sodium salts from the waste, thereby reducing the volume of low-level waste glass by as much as 90%.

  7. Dynamics of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in septic tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Andrew J; Amador, Manuel; Diaz, Annette; Smith, Josh; Barrera, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were found in large numbers emerging from septic tanks in southern Puerto Rico during the dry season. Previous studies suggested that Ae. aegypti uses subterranean aquatic habitats only during dry periods when surface containers do not have water. This research investigated whether septic tanks are alternative aquatic habitats that this mosquito uses during unfavorable times of the year, or whether Ae. aegypti uses this aquatic habitat throughout the year. To assess temporal change, exit traps were used to collect mosquitoes emerging from septic tanks in Playa/Playita, southern Puerto Rico, from November 2006 to October 2007. We also investigated the hypotheses that (1) the production of Ae. aegypti in septic tanks was larger than in surface containers and (2) adult mosquitoes emerging from septic tanks were larger than those emerging from surface containers. This study demonstrated that unsealed septic tanks produced large numbers of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus throughout the year, without any significant relationship with rainfall. The number of adult Ae. aegypti emerging per day from septic tanks in each community was 3 to 9 times larger than those produced in surface containers. It was also demonstrated that Ae. aegypti emerging from septic tanks were significantly larger than those emerging from surface container habitats. It is recommended that dengue prevention programs include regular inspection and maintenance of septic tanks in communities lacking sewerage.

  8. Correspondence - Characterization of the effective performance of a high-frequency annular-array-based imaging system using anechoic-pipe phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filoux, Erwan; Mamou, Jonathan; Moran, Carmel M; Pye, Stephen D; Ketterling, Jeffrey A

    2012-12-01

    A resolution integral (RI) method based on anechoic- pipe, tissue-mimicking phantoms was used to compare the detection capabilities of high-frequency imaging systems based on a single-element transducer, a state-of-the-art 256-element linear array, or a 5-element annular array. All transducers had a central frequency of 40 MHz with similar conventionally measured axial and lateral resolutions (about 50 and 85 μm, respectively). Using the RI metric, the annular array achieved the highest performance (RI = 60), followed by the linear array (RI = 47), and the single-element transducer (RI = 24). Results showed that the RI metric could be used to efficiently quantify the effective transducer performance and compare the image quality of different systems.

  9. 西门子高密度沉淀池在煤化工回用水的应用研究%Applied Research on Recycle Water of Coal Chemical Industry in SIEMENS High-density Sedimentation Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李孝洪

    2012-01-01

      某煤制烯烃项目回用水装置采用德国西门子公司高密度沉淀池专利技术,该装置自2010年5月底运行至今,曾多次出现影响高密度沉淀池正常运行的严重问题,具体表现为沉淀区产生高浓度黏泥无法正常排出和絮凝区产生积泥破坏絮凝区水动力平衡,最终导致高密度沉淀池出水不合格。为了解决这些难题,经过不断摸索,通过控制絮凝区和沉淀区较低的5min沉降比与定时排泥相结合和改变絮凝区搅拌器的转动方向的运行方式,系统运行近3个月后未出现上述问题,表明采取的措施有一定效果。%  The high-density sedimentation tank patent technology, belonging to German Siemens Company, is adopted by water reuse device of a coal-to-olefin project. Since the end of May 2010, the device has appeared serious problems that effect normal operation of high-density sedimentation tank. Settling zone produced high concentration sludge that can not be discharged properly and flocculation zone produced mud that damage its water dynamic balance, eventually it leads to high density tank water unqualified. In order to solve these problems, we adopt a new mode of operation through continuous exploration:1. Control settlement ratio (5 minutes)of flocculation area and sedimentation zone combining with timing dredge;2. Change the rotation direction of agitator in flocculation zone. The system has not appeared afore-mentioned problems after running for nearly three months, showing that the measures adopted have certain effect.

  10. Oxygen transfer in circular surface aeration tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Achanta Ramakrishna; Patel, Ajey Kumar; Kumar, Bimlesh

    2009-06-01

    Surface aeration systems employed in activated sludge plants are the most energy-intensive units of the plants and typically account for a higher percentage of the treatment facility's total energy use. The geometry of the aeration tank imparts a major effect on the system efficiency. It is said that at optimal geometric conditions, systems exhibits the maximum efficiency. Thus the quantification of the optimal geometric conditions in surface aeration tanks is needed. Optimal geometric conditions are also needed to scale up the laboratory result to the field installation. In the present work, experimental studies have been carried out on baffled and unbaffled circular surface aeration tanks to ascertain the optimal geometric conditions. It is found that no optimal geometric conditions exist for the liquid/water depth in circular surface aeration tanks; however, for design purposes, a standard value has been assumed. Based on the optimal geometric conditions, a scale-up equation has been developed for the baffled circular surface aeration tanks.

  11. F-AREA PUMP TANK 1 MIXING ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamburello, D; Richard Dimenna, R; Si Lee, S

    2008-11-05

    The F-area pump tanks are used to transfer supernate, sludge, and other materials. In any transfer, the solution must stay well mixed without allowing particulate matter to settle out of the liquid and, thus, accumulate in the bottom of the pump tank. Recently, the pulse jet mixing in F-area Pump Tank 1 (FPT1) has been decommissioned. An analysis of the liquid transfer through FPT1 has been performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to assess whether or not the velocities throughout the tank will remain high enough to keep all particulate suspended using only transfer and recirculation pumps. The following paragraph is an abbreviated synopsis of the transfer procedure for FPT1 [1, 2]. Prior to a transfer, FPT1 begins to be filled with inhibited water through the inlet transfer line (TI). When the tank liquid level reaches 52.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom, the recirculation pump (RI and RO) is activated. At a tank liquid level of 72.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom, the outlet transfer line (TO) is activated to reduce the liquid level in FPT1 and transfer inhibited water to H-area Pump Tank 7 (HPT7). The liquid level is reduced down to 39.5 inches, with an allowable range from 37.5 to 41.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom. HPT7 goes through a similar procedure as FPT1 until both have tank liquid levels of approximately 39.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom. The transfer of inhibited water continues until a steady-state has been reached in both pump tanks. At this point, the supernate/sludge transfer begins with a minimum flow rate of 70 gpm and an average flow rate of 150 gpm. After the transfer is complete, the pump tanks (both FPT1 and HPT7) are pumped down to between 20.5 and 22.5 inches (above absolute bottom) and then flushed with 25,000 gallons of inhibited water to remove any possible sludge heal. After the flushing, the pump tanks are emptied. Note that the tank liquid level is measured using diptubes. Figure 2

  12. Thermal Stratification in Small Solar Domestic Storage Tanks caused by Draw-offs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    As shown in many research studies in the past, the thermal stratification of the tank caused by draw-offs has a high impact on the performance of a Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) system. Nevertheless, in most tank models for system simulations the influence of the draw-off pattern on the mixing...... behaviour is not taken into account sufficiently. Two typical Danish domestic water storage tanks, each with a volume of about 150 l, were investigated. In both tanks the inlet pipes are placed at the bottom and hot water is drawn from the upper part of tank. Above the inlet pipes, differently shaped plates...... are placed in order to reduce the mixing of the incoming cold water with the warmer storage water. To measure the thermal stratification thermocouples were placed in a vertical glass tube inside the tank. Measurements were carried out with different draw-off volumes, flow rates, and initial temperatures...

  13. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrick, A.P.; Blackburn, L.D.; Brehm, W.F.; Carlos, W.C.; Hauptmann, J.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Danielson, M.J.; Westerman, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Divine, J.R. [ChemMet Ltd., West Richland, WA (United States); Foster, G.M. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy`s high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provides an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements: assessed. each requirement: and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of ASME SA 515, Grade 70, carbon steel.

  14. Qualidade química da água residual da criação de peixes para cultivo de alface em hidroponia Chemical quality of residual water from fish breeding tanks for cultivation of hydroponic lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco E. P. Cortez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a associação do cultivo de alface em hidroponia com utilização dos resíduos do sistema de criação intensiva de peixe, desenvolveu-se um trabalho no Centro de Aqüicultura, na FCAV-UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal, SP. A integração foi projetada para que a água circulasse de maneira fechada entre os sistemas, passando pelos tanques de criação de peixes, por um decantador, para remo��ão dos resíduos por um reservatório para conversão biológica da amônia em nitrato e pelo sistema hidropônico, retornando aos tanques de criação dos peixes. Foram avaliadas três cultivares de alface, que constituíram os tratamentos com quatro repetições. Os resultados da análise química da água residual da criação indicaram a presença da maioria dos nutrientes minerais necessários ao desenvolvimento vegetal, em concentração próxima aos valores encontrados em soluções nutritivas utilizadas para o cultivo da alface em hidroponia, exceto potássio e magnésio. A baixa concentração de magnésio na água não impediu o desenvolvimento da alface; entretanto, as plantas indicaram sintomas visuais de deficiência deste nutriente. Não houve diferenças entre as cultivares quanto à produtividade e ao peso fresco de plantas.Aiming to evaluate the association of hydroponic lettuce cultivation with residues from a fish intensive breeding system, a project was carried out in the Aquaculture Center in the FCAV-UNESP at Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. A closed system was designed in order to allow the water to circulate through the fish tanks, a clarifier tank for removal of residues, a reservoir for biological conversion of ammonia into nitrate, and the hydroponic system. After this process, water returned back to the fish tanks. Three varieties of lettuce, constituting the treatments with four repetitions were evaluated. The results of the chemical analysis of the residual water from the fish tanks indicated the presence of

  15. Sample preparation for semivolatile organics analysis of Hanford single-shell tank waste with high nitrate/nitrite and water content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stromatt, R.W.; Hoppe, E.W.; Steele, M.J.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes research work carried out to solve sample preparation problems associated with applying gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS) to the analysis of single shell tank (SST) samples from Hanford for semivolatile organic compounds. Poor performance was found when applying the procedures based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Contract Laboratory Program, Statement of Work (CLP SOW). Analysis work was carried out on simulated drainable liquid modeled after the SST core samples which had evidenced analysis problems. Some work was also conducted on true SST samples. It was found that the pH range was too broad in the original procedure. It was also found that by decreasing the amount of methanol used in the extraction process, problems associated with the formation of an azeotrope phase could be avoided. The authors suggest a new procedure, whose eventual application to a wide array of SST samples will lend itself to better quality control limits.

  16. Inerting ballast tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, Gabriel L.; Bronneberg, Jos [SBM Offshore, AA Schiedam (Netherlands); Barros, Maria A.S.D. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This report expands upon the work conducted by SBM Offshore to develop a tank preservation treatment, which is intended to achieve a service life of 30 years. This work focuses on the corrosion problems, in the ballast tanks, based on new built hulls, both for the Gas Exploration Market, the FLNG - Floating Liquefied Natural Gas, and for the Oil Exploration market - FPSO's - Floating Production Storage and offloading Units. Herein, the corrosion rate input comes from the various references related to the process of nitrogen injection, which is expected to extend the vessel's time life. The essential elements of this solution comprise the deoxygenation process, corrosion models, coating effects, tests from laboratory, shipboard tests, corrosion institutes and regulations applicable to the operation. The best corrosion protection system for ballast tanks area combines a coating system and an inert gas system. The condition of the tanks will be dependent upon the level of protection applied to the steel structure, including, but not limited to coating, cathodic protection, etc. There is a need for products which extend the life time. It is not sufficient, only have good theoretical base for the corrosion and an excellent treatment system. In addition, the design of the ships structure must also eliminate the presence of local stress concentrations which can result in fatigue cracking and rupture of the protective coating barrier starting the corrosion. As a direct result of this, more problems in corrosion can be mitigated, vessels can have a better corrosion performance with less maintenance and repairs to coating systems in ballast tanks. Furthermore ships will be positively impacted operationally due to less frequent dry docking. There is a huge potential in the application of inert gas to combat the corrosion rate inside the ballast tanks, one of the most corrosive environments on earth. This application can have a direct impact on vessel structure

  17. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  18. Septic tanks as larval habitats for the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Playa-Playita, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, R; Barrera, R; Lewis, M; Kluchinsky, T; Claborn, D

    2010-06-01

    Adult Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) were previously recovered from emergence traps on septic tanks in southeastern Puerto Rico. In this study we quantified immature mosquito abundance and its relationship with structural variables of the septic tanks and chemical properties of the water containing raw sewage. A miniaturized floating funnel trap was used to sample 89 septic tanks for larvae in the Puerto Rican community of Playa-Playita. Aedes aegypti larvae were recovered from 18% of the sampled tanks (10.3 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and uncovered access ports. Larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and larger tank surface areas, and inversely associated with the total dissolved solids (TDS). Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) larvae were also recovered from 74% of the septic tanks (129.6 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was negatively associated with TDS in the water and larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls. A screened, plastic emergence trap was used to sample 93 septic tanks within the community for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults. Aedes aegypti adults were recovered from 49% of the sampled tanks (8.7 adults per septic tank per day) and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults were recovered from 97% of the sampled tanks (155.5 adults per septic tank per day). Aedes aegypti adult presence was positively associated with cracking, uncapped openings and septic water pH. The Ae. aegypti adult counts were positively associated with cracking and inversely associated with TDS and conductivity. This study marks the first published record of the recovery of Ae. aegypti larvae from holding tanks containing raw sewage in the Caribbean region. Our study indicates that Ae. aegypti larvae are present in sewage water and that septic tanks have at least the potential to maintain

  19. Solar Storage Tank Insulation Influence on the Solar Systems Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negoitescu Arina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the storage tank of a solar system for domestic hot water production was analyzed the insulation thickness and material influence. To this end, it was considered a private house, occupied by 3 persons, located in zone I of thermal radiation, for which has been simulated the domestic hot water production process. The tank outlet hot water temperature was considered of 45°C. For simulation purposes, as insulation materials for the storage tank were taking into account glass wool and polyurethane with various thicknesses. Finally, was carried out the comparative analysis of two types of tanks, in terms of the insulation thickness influence on the solar fraction, annual solar contribution and solar annual productivity. It resulted that polyurethane is the most advantageous from all points of view.

  20. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS & RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; JOHNSON KI; DEIBLER JE; PILLI SP; RINKER MW; KARRI NK

    2007-02-14

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive I-bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads, based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the I-bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive I-bolt failure leading to global

  1. LOX Tank Helium Removal for Propellant Scavenging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chato, David J.

    2009-01-01

    System studies have shown a significant advantage to reusing the hydrogen and oxygen left in these tanks after landing on the Moon in fuel cells to generate power and water for surface systems. However in the current lander concepts, the helium used to pressurize the oxygen tank can substantially degrade fuel cell power and water output by covering the reacting surface with inert gas. This presentation documents an experimental investigation of methods to remove the helium pressurant while minimizing the amount of the oxygen lost. This investigation demonstrated that significant quantities of Helium (greater than 90% mole fraction) remain in the tank after draining. Although a single vent cycle reduced the helium quantity, large amounts of helium remained. Cyclic venting appeared to be more effective. Three vent cycles were sufficient to reduce the helium to small (less than 0.2%) quantities. Two vent cycles may be sufficient since once the tank has been brought up to pressure after the second vent cycle the helium concentration has been reduced to the less than 0.2% level. The re-pressurization process seemed to contribute to diluting helium. This is as expected since in order to raise the pressure liquid oxygen must be evaporated. Estimated liquid oxygen loss is on the order of 82 pounds (assuming the third vent cycle is not required).

  2. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF BLENDING RESIDUAL SOLIDS FROM TANKS 18/19 MOUNDS WITH TANK 7 OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibling, R; Erich Hansen, E; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2007-03-29

    High level waste tanks 18F and 19F have residual mounds of waste which may require removal before the tanks can be closed. Conventional slurry pump technology, previously used for waste removal and tank cleaning, has been incapable of removing theses mounds from tanks 18F and 19F. A mechanical cleaning method has been identified that is potentially capable of removing and transferring the mound material to tank 7F for incorporation in a sludge batch for eventual disposal in high level waste glass by the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been requested to evaluate whether the material transferred from tanks 18F/19F by the mechanical cleaning technology can later be suspended in Tank 7F by conventional slurry pumps after mixing with high level waste sludge. The proposed mechanical cleaning process for removing the waste mounds from tanks 18 and 19 may utilize a high pressure water jet-eductor that creates a vacuum to mobilize solids. The high pressure jet is also used to transport the suspended solids. The jet-eductor system will be mounted on a mechanical crawler for movement around the bottom of tanks 18 and 19. Based on physical chemical property testing of the jet-eductor system processed IE-95 zeolite and size-reduced IE-95 zeolite, the following conclusions were made: (1) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite has a mean and median particle size (volume basis) of 115.4 and 43.3 microns in water. Preferential settling of these large particles is likely. (2) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite rapidly generates settled solid yield stresses in excess of 11,000 Pascals in caustic supernates and will not be easily retrieved from Tank 7 with the existing slurry pump technology. (3) Settled size-reduced IE-95 zeolite (less than 38 microns) in caustic supernate does not generate yield stresses in excess of 600 Pascals in less than 30 days. (4) Preferential settling of size-reduced zeolite is a function of the amount of

  3. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    closure operations. Subsequent down selection was based on compressive strength and saturated hydraulic conductivity results. Fresh slurry property results were used as the first level of screening. A high range water reducing admixture and a viscosity modifying admixture were used to adjust slurry properties to achieve flowable grouts. Adiabatic calorimeter results were used as the second level screening. The third level of screening was used to design mixes that were consistent with the fill material parameters used in the F-Tank Farm Performance Assessment which was developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closures.

  4. Solar combi system based on a mantle tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    A solar combisystem based on a mantle tank is investigated numerically and experimentally. Three different houses with four different radiator systems are considered for the simulations. The needed temperature for the auxiliary heater is determined for different houses and radiator systems....... The thermal performance of the solar combisystem is compared to the thermal performance of a solar domestic hot water system based on a mantle tank. In the experimental study, tank temperatures and the heat transfer coefficient for the top mantle for a discharge test is determined. The investigations showed...

  5. Particle behaviour consideration to maximize the settling capacity of rainwater storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, M Y; Mun, J S

    2007-01-01

    Design of a rainwater storage tank is mostly based on the mass balance of rainwater with respect to the tank, considering aspects such as rainfall runoff, water usage and overflow. So far, however, little information is available on the quality aspects of the stored rainwater, such as the behavior of particles, the effect of retention time of the water in the tank and possible influences of system configuration on water quality in the storage tank. In this study, we showed that the performance of rainwater storage tanks could be maximized by recognizing the importance of water quality improvement by sedimentation and the importance of the system configuration within the tank, as well as the efficient collection of runoff. The efficiency of removal of the particles was increased by there being a considerable distance between the inlet and the outlet in the rainwater storage tank. Furthermore, it is recommended that the effective water depth in a rainwater tank be designed to be more than 3 m and that the rainwater be drawn from as close to the water surface as possible by using a floating suction device. An operation method that increases the retention time by stopping rainwater supply when the turbidity of rainwater runoff is high will ensure low turbidity in the rainwater collected from the tank.

  6. Low cost inlet filters for rainwater tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Martinson, Brett; Thomas, T.

    2005-01-01

    Inlet filters are a common method for enhancing water quality in rainwater harvesting systems. They range from cheap cloth or gravel filters to complex and expensive multi-stage systems. Field experience has shown, however that filters often suffer from a lack of maintenance so self-cleaning is an advantage. Filters can clean themselves by dividing the water stream into two components; the first and largest is the clean water passed to the tank, the second much smaller component can be used t...

  7. 27 CFR 25.145 - Tanks, vehicles, and vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Marks, Brands, and Labels § 25.145 Tanks, vehicles, and... mark each tank, tank car, tank truck, tank ship, barge, or deep tank of a vessel in accordance...

  8. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 157 - Damage Assumptions, Hypothetical Outflows, and Cargo Tank Size and Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Outflows, and Cargo Tank Size and Arrangements A Appendix A to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Pt. 157, App. A Appendix A to Part 157... from tank vessels, three dimensions of the extent of damage of a parallelepiped on the side and...

  9. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 157 - Example of a Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations D Appendix D to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations 1. Source. The example procedure for dedicated clean... Protocol. 2. Example Procedure. Dedicated clean ballast tanks operational procedure: (a) Before arrival...

  10. 33 CFR 157.43 - Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more. (a) Clean... ballast tanks may discharge clean ballast from those tanks below the waterline at sea. (4) An existing... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharges of clean...

  11. Theoretical study of solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - Low flow bikini solar combisystems and high flow tank-in-tank solar combisystems have been studied theoretically. The aim of the paper is to study which of these two solar combisystem designs is suitable for different houses. The thermal performance of solar combisystems based on the two...... different heat storage types is compared. Design/methodology/approach - The thermal performance of Low flow bikini solar combisystems and high flow tank-in-tank solar combisystems is calculated with the simulation program TRNSYS. Two different TRNSYS models based on measurements were developed and used....... Findings - Based on the calculations it is concluded that low flow solar combisystems based on bikini tanks are promising for low energy buildings, while solar combisystems based on tank-in-tank stores are attractive for the houses with medium heating demand and old houses with high heating demand...

  12. 锅炉储水罐液位控制系统的创新设计%Innovative Design of Liquid Level Control System of Boiler Water Storage Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡江平

    2014-01-01

    In view of the imperfect of the existing boiler whose control device of liquid level of water storage tank can't accu-rately control water level, this paper designed a kind of safe ,reliable and accurate ultrasonic liquid level control system. Through the ultrasonic non-contact measurement, the chemical and physical properties of liquid of the system turned out to be adaptively strong. Simple structure, easy installation, high measurement precision, wide applicability integrate the system.%针对现有锅炉储水罐液位控制装置,不能精确控制水位的缺陷,设计了一种安全可靠、精确度高的超声波液位控制系统。该系统通过超声波非接触测量,液体的物理、化学性质的适应性极强。该系统结构简单、安装方便、测量精度高、适用性广。

  13. Identification of source velocities on 3D structures in non-anechoic environments: Theoretical background and experimental validation of the inverse patch transfer functions method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucejo, M.; Totaro, N.; Guyader, J.-L.

    2010-08-01

    In noise control, identification of the source velocity field remains a major problem open to investigation. Consequently, methods such as nearfield acoustical holography (NAH), principal source projection, the inverse frequency response function and hybrid NAH have been developed. However, these methods require free field conditions that are often difficult to achieve in practice. This article presents an alternative method known as inverse patch transfer functions, designed to identify source velocities and developed in the framework of the European SILENCE project. This method is based on the definition of a virtual cavity, the double measurement of the pressure and particle velocity fields on the aperture surfaces of this volume, divided into elementary areas called patches and the inversion of impedances matrices, numerically computed from a modal basis obtained by FEM. Theoretically, the method is applicable to sources with complex 3D geometries and measurements can be carried out in a non-anechoic environment even in the presence of other stationary sources outside the virtual cavity. In the present paper, the theoretical background of the iPTF method is described and the results (numerical and experimental) for a source with simple geometry (two baffled pistons driven in antiphase) are presented and discussed.

  14. Regional scale analysis for the design of storage tanks for domestic rainwater harvesting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisano, A; Modica, C

    2012-01-01

    A regional scale analysis for the design of storage tanks for domestic rain water harvesting systems is presented. The analysis is based on the daily water balance simulation of the storage tank by the yield-after-spillage algorithm as tank release rule. Water balances are applied to 17 rainfall gauging stations in Sicily (Italy). Compared with literature existing methods, a novel dimensionless parameter is proposed to better describe the intra-annual character of the rainfall patterns. As a result, easy-to-use regional regressive models to evaluate the water saving performance and the overflow discharges from the tank are provided along with a stepwise procedure for practical application. The regional models demonstrate good fits between model predictions and simulated values of both water savings and overflows from the tank.

  15. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable.

  16. HYDRAULICS AND MIXING EVALUATIONS FOR NT-21/41 TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Barnes, O.

    2014-11-17

    The hydraulic results demonstrate that pump head pressure of 20 psi recirculates about 5.6 liters/min flowrate through the existing 0.131-inch orifice when a valve connected to NT-41 is closed. In case of the valve open to NT-41, the solution flowrates to HB-Line tanks, NT-21 and NT-41, are found to be about 0.5 lpm and 5.2 lpm, respectively. The modeling calculations for the mixing operations of miscible fluids contained in the HB-Line tank NT-21 were performed by taking a three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach. The CFD modeling results were benchmarked against the literature results and the previous SRNL test results to validate the model. Final performance calculations were performed for the nominal case by using the validated model to quantify the mixing time for the HB-Line tank. The results demonstrate that when a pump recirculates a solution volume of 5.7 liters every minute out of the 72-liter tank contents containing two acid solutions of 2.7 M and 0 M concentrations (i.e., water), a minimum mixing time of 1.5 hours is adequate for the tank contents to get the tank contents adequately mixed. In addition, the sensitivity results for the tank contents of 8 M existing solution and 1.5 M incoming species show that the mixing time takes about 2 hours to get the solutions mixed.

  17. Tank waste remediation system integrated technology plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, B.; Ignatov, A.; Johnson, S.; Mann, M.; Morasch, L.; Ortiz, S.; Novak, P. [eds.] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-28

    The Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors. Starting in 1943, Hanford supported fabrication of reactor fuel elements, operation of production reactors, processing of irradiated fuel to separate and extract plutonium and uranium, and preparation of plutonium metal. Processes used to recover plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel and to recover radionuclides from tank waste, plus miscellaneous sources resulted in the legacy of approximately 227,000 m{sup 3} (60 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste, currently in storage. This waste is currently stored in 177 large underground storage tanks, 28 of which have two steel walls and are called double-shell tanks (DSTs) an 149 of which are called single-shell tanks (SSTs). Much of the high-heat-emitting nuclides (strontium-90 and cesium-137) has been extracted from the tank waste, converted to solid, and placed in capsules, most of which are stored onsite in water-filled basins. DOE established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program in 1991. The TWRS program mission is to store, treat, immobilize and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. Technology will need to be developed or improved to meet the TWRS program mission. The Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) is the high-level consensus plan that documents all TWRS technology activities for the life of the program.

  18. Tank Characterization Report for Double Shell Tank (DST) 241-AN-107

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-03-23

    This report interprets information about the tank answering a series of six questions covering areas such as information drivers, tank history, tank comparisons, disposal implications, data quality and quantity, and unique aspects of the tank.

  19. 46 CFR 154.420 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.420 Section 154.420 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.420 Tank design. (a) The structure of an integral tank must meet the deep tank scantling...

  20. 46 CFR 154.439 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.439 Section 154.439 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type A § 154.439 Tank design. An independent tank type A must meet the deep tank standard of...

  1. 27 CFR 25.35 - Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tanks. 25.35 Section 25.35... TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Construction and Equipment Equipment § 25.35 Tanks. Each stationary tank, vat, cask... contents of tanks or containers in lieu of providing each tank or container with a measuring device....

  2. 49 CFR 230.116 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oil tanks. 230.116 Section 230.116 Transportation... Locomotive Tanks § 230.116 Oil tanks. The oil tanks on oil burning steam locomotives shall be maintained free... adjacent to the fuel supply tank or in another safe location; (b) Closes automatically when tripped...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 23.1013 Section 23.1013... tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank must be installed to— (1) Meet the requirements of § 23.967 (a...) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion space must be provided so that— (1) Each oil tank used with...

  4. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  5. Amplicon-based taxonomic characterization of bacteria in urban and peri-urban roof-harvested rainwater stored in tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Staley, C; Hamilton, K A; Beale, D J; Sadowsky, M J; Toze, S; Haas, C N

    2017-01-15

    Overall, 26% of Australian households use rainwater tanks as a source of potable and nonpotable water. Limited information is available on the total bacterial communities in tank water. Therefore, identification of dominant bacterial communities, diversity, and their distribution is important in understanding the microbial quality of tank water. In this study, the abundance and diversity of bacterial communities in 88 tank water samples collected from the urban areas of Brisbane (n=44) and the peri-urban center of Currumbin (n=44) in Southeast Queensland, Australia were determined using amplicon-based Illumina next-generation sequencing. In addition, the SourceTracker program was used to identify the sources of fecal contamination in tank water samples. Sequence reads were also analyzed to detect potential bacterial pathogenic genera in the tank water samples collected. Differences in sample coverage, alpha diversity, and richness did not differ significantly between the Brisbane and Currumbin tank water samples. Comamonadaceae and Planctomycetaceae were the most abundant families in all tank water samples. Curvibacter was the most abundant genus in all tank water samples. SourceTracker revealed that around 34% (Brisbane) and 43% (Currumbin) of tank water samples had a signature for bird fecal contamination. The potential opportunistic pathogenic genera including Burkholderia, Chromobacterium, Clostridium, Legionella, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, and Pseudomonas were most prevalent in tank water samples. Next-generation sequencing can be used as an initial screening tool to identify a wide array of potential pathogenic genera in tank water samples followed by quantifying specific pathogen(s) of interest using more sensitive molecular assays such as quantitative PCR (qPCR).

  6. Development of Mechanical Water Level Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Akonyi Nasiru Sule; Chinedu Cletus Obinwa; Christian Ebele Okekeze; Eyo Ifreke

    2012-01-01

    The automatic water level controller is a device designed to regulate automatically the pumping of water to an overhead tank without allowing the water in the tank to be exhausted. The design of this mechanical device was achieved using the Archimedes principle of floatation; having a float which determines the water level in the tank depending on the choice of the minimum (lower) and maximum (upper) level inscribed in the tank. The fundamental attribute of this device is the ease in design, ...

  7. Analysis Of The Tank 5F Final Characterization Samples-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARATERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-01-20

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  10. Effect of three innovative culture systems on water quality and whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV) viral load in WSSV-fed Penaeus monodon cultured in indoor tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alapide-Tendencia, E.V.; Bosma, R.H.; Rose Sorio, L.

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus is the most important among the shrimp diseases. It has been devastating the shrimp industry for more than 3 decades. Previous studies reported that greater percentage of yellow colonies on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar (yellow vibrios) in the rearing water, ab

  11. GIS Analysis to Assess where Shallow Ground Water Supplies in the United States are Vulnerable to Contamination by Releases of Motor Fuel from Underground Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data reported on the long form of the 1990 United State Census were used to identify the number of households in each census block group that obtained water from a private source. A data file was purchased form ESRI Business Solutions (ESRI, 2009) that contained the latitude and ...

  12. Successfully Mapping the U-Tank to an Electric Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seok-In

    2010-01-01

    Water-flow analogies are helpful in understanding electricity. For example, in the Lodge model, the constant DC voltage source (a battery) is represented by a U-tank with two water columns of the same cross-sectional area connected by a horizontal duct in which a pump is installed. The pump maintains the difference of the levels of the two water…

  13. 49 CFR 173.318 - Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... temperature (one pound of water=27.737 cubic inches at 60 °F., or one gallon of water = 231 cubic inches at 60... density following partial unloading. Multiple OWTT markings for different pressure levels are permitted... the design service temperature of the packaging. (2) A cargo tank may not be loaded with any...

  14. [High Pressure Gas Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Rolando

    2002-01-01

    Four high-pressure gas tanks, the basis of this study, were especially made by a private contractor and tested before being delivered to NASA Kennedy Space Center. In order to insure 100% reliability of each individual tank the staff at KSC decided to again submit the four tanks under more rigorous tests. These tests were conducted during a period from April 10 through May 8 at KSC. This application further validates the predictive safety model for accident prevention and system failure in the testing of four high-pressure gas tanks at Kennedy Space Center, called Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology (CHTFPM). It is apparent from the variety of barriers available for a hazard control that some barriers will be more successful than others in providing protection. In order to complete the Barrier Analysis of the system, a Task Analysis and a Biomechanical Study were performed to establish the relationship between the degree of biomechanical non-conformities and the anomalies found within the system on particular joints of the body. This relationship was possible to obtain by conducting a Regression Analysis to the previously generated data. From the information derived the body segment with the lowest percentage of non-conformities was the neck flexion with 46.7%. Intense analysis of the system was conducted including Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), and Barrier Analysis. These analyses resulted in the identification of occurrences of conditions, which may be becoming hazardous in the given system. These conditions, known as dendritics, may become hazards and could result in an accident, system malfunction, or unacceptable risk conditions. A total of 56 possible dendritics were identified. Work sampling was performed to observe the occurrence each dendritic. The out of control points generated from a Weighted c control chart along with a Pareto analysis indicate that the dendritics "Personnel not

  15. Tank closure reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  16. Discussion on Common Problems about the Emergency Tank Design of the Cleaning Waste Water Drainage System in Chemical Enterprises%化工企业清净下水事故池设计的常见问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯尊义

    2012-01-01

    According to the analysis of common problems about the emergency tank design of the cleaning waste water drainage system in chemical enterprises,such as confused concepts,the unfit designed site,the undefined computing methods of volume and form,these problems above have been defined,some opinions and solutions have been put forward.%针对在工程实践中遇到的关于化工企业清下水事故池设计中的常见问题如概念混淆、设置地点不当、容积计算方法模糊、设置方式不确定等进行了分析,明确了事故池的概念和特点以及设置地点的合理选取,提出了容积计算和设置方式和形式的意见和建议。

  17. Development of an energy storage tank model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Robert Christopher

    A linearized, one-dimensional finite difference model employing an implicit finite difference method for energy storage tanks is developed, programmed with MATLAB, and demonstrated for different applications. A set of nodal energy equations is developed by considering the energy interactions on a small control volume. The general method of solving these equations is described as are other features of the simulation program. Two modeling applications are presented: the first using a hot water storage tank with a solar collector and an absorption chiller to cool a building in the summer, the second using a molten salt storage system with a solar collector and steam power plant to generate electricity. Recommendations for further study as well as all of the source code generated in the project are also provided.

  18. 33 CFR 151.2045 - What are the mandatory recordkeeping requirements for vessels equipped with ballast tanks that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species... following information (Note: Ballast tank is any tank or hold that carries ballast water regardless of design): (1) Vessel information. Include the— (i) Name; (ii) International Maritime Organization...

  19. SINDA/FLUINT Stratified Tank Modeling for Cryrogenic Propellant Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowski, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A general purpose SINDA/FLUINT (S/F) stratified tank model was created to simulate self-pressurization and axial jet TVS; Stratified layers in the vapor and liquid are modeled using S/F lumps.; The stratified tank model was constructed to permit incorporating the following additional features:, Multiple or singular lumps in the liquid and vapor regions of the tank, Real gases (also mixtures) and compressible liquids, Venting, pressurizing, and draining, Condensation and evaporation/boiling, Wall heat transfer, Elliptical, cylindrical, and spherical tank geometries; Extensive user logic is used to allow detailed tailoring - Don't have to rebuilt everything from scratch!!; Most code input for a specific case is done through the Registers Data Block:, Lump volumes are determined through user input:; Geometric tank dimensions (height, width, etc); Liquid level could be input as either a volume percentage of fill level or actual liquid level height

  20. Oil Storage Facilities - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  1. Static Stress Analysis of Security Injection Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The static structural analysis of the security injection tank is made to make sure whether the tank can withstand concerned loads or not on all conditions conforming to concerned code prescripts and design requirements. The tanks

  2. Calculation of fire-fighting air pressure water tank, pressure maintenance pump and determination of vertical compartment in hydrant system%消防气压罐、稳压泵计算及消火栓系统竖向分区确定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马林海; 郭尚鸣

    2015-01-01

    After the implementation of GB 50974—2014 Technical Code for Fire Protection Water Supply and Hydrant Systems, air pressure tank is adopted in temporary high pressure fire protection water supply system to prevent pressure maintenance pumps from frequent starts and stops. It is different from the stabilized air pres-sure water tank set to meet the requirement that the height setting of head water tank of fire protection water sup-ply system of temporary high pressure shall conform the static pressure requirement of fire-extinguishing installa-tion at the worst place set before the implementation of GB 50974—2014 in aspects of design philosophy and us-ing function. Although both are gas pressure water tanks specialized for fire protection and both have the function of pressure maintenance, they can neither be confused with each other, nor be applied indiscriminately in design. The design philosophy and computing method of air pressure water tank as well as the confirmation of vertical compartment of hydrant systems were introduced in detail.%GB 50974—2014《消防给水及消火栓系统技术规范》实施后设置稳压泵的临时高压消防给水系统为防止稳压泵频繁启停而采用的气压水罐,与GB 50974—2014实施前临时高压消防给水系统的高位水箱设置高度不能满足最不利处水灭火设施静压要求而设置的稳压气压水罐,虽同为消防用气压水罐,同有稳压作用,但其设计理念,使用功能有很大不同,不能混为一谈,在设计上更不能套用。详细介绍了气压水罐的设计理念和计算方法,以及由此确定消火栓系统的竖向分区。

  3. Motivational indictors predicting the engagement, frequency and adequacy of rainwater tank maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankad, Aditi; Greenhill, Murni

    2014-01-01

    Rainwater tank maintenance is a key social behavior in our changing environment, as tanks are being adopted worldwide to augment household water supplies and reduce urban water stress. The maintenance of rainwater tanks in urban areas is an important pro-environmental behavior that prevents public health issues arising from unhygienic tank use. This study examined motivational differences in maintenance behavior between householders with retrofitted and mandated (compulsory) rainwater tanks on their property (N = 1988). Results showed that retrofitted tank owners were more self-determined in their motivation than mandated owners. Amotivation and integrated regulation were both dominant predictors of engagement in tank maintenance, frequency and adequacy of tank maintenance activities. Those involved in more maintenance activity were likely driven to do so because of feelings of adherence to personal goals and values (e.g., as "sustainable" citizens), whereas individuals who experienced a lack of control and alienation from the activity were likely to view maintenance as meaningless. Thus, people with higher integrated regulation engaged in more tank maintenance activities, whereas more amotivated individuals engaged in less maintenance. As cities begin relying more on citizen self-sufficiency with respect to water and energy resources, issues relating to infrastructure maintenance and operation become paramount. Results show that motivation is important in the impetus to engage in a pro-environmental behavior as well as the frequency and accuracy with which that behavior is undertaken. Policy implications are further discussed.

  4. Modelling of baffled stirred tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, H.; Lahtinen, M. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The three-dimensional flow field of a baffled stirred tank has been calculated using four different turbulence models. The tank is driven by a Rushton-type impeller. The boundary condition for the impeller region has been given as a source term or by calculating the impeller using the sliding mesh technique. Calculated values have been compared with measured data. (author)

  5. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula o...

  6. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  7. Solitons in a wave tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M.; Smith, H.; Scott, Alwyn C.

    1984-01-01

    A wave tank experiment (first described by the nineteenth-century engineer and naval architect John Scott Russell) relates a linear eigenvalue problem from elementary quantum mechanics to a striking feature of modern nonlinear wave theory: multiple generation of solitons. The tank experiment...

  8. Analysis Of The Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  9. Analysis of the Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2013-01-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm- 243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 6F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.; Shine, G.

    2012-06-28

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  11. Competitive Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    This paper offers a model for understanding the strategies that think tanks use to influence policy-making. The model combines the concepts of policy environments (McGann and Weaver, 2000) and knowledge regimes (Campbell and Pedersen, 2011) and argues that think tank strategies reflect changes...... in opportunity structures that are mediated by historically constituted institutions in knowledge regimes. The paper distinguishes between four different strategies, the authoritative, the collaborative, the agenda-setting and the competitive strategy that are distinguished by the relations think tanks have...... to established institutions and power in public policy. On the basis of the hypothesis that more competitive think tanks have emerged due to lower opportunity costs, the paper investigates how ‘competitive’ think tank strategies have been used in Germany, Denmark, the EU-institutions in Brussels...

  12. In-tank photo analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorvick, C.A.; Baird, D.B.; Heasler, P.G. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This report documents an analysis performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) of photographs showing the interior of a single shell tank (SST) at the Hanford site. This report shows that in-tank photos can be used to create a plan-view map of the waste surface inside a tank, and that measuring the elevation of the waste surface from the photos is possible, but not accurate enough to be useful at this time. In-tank photos were acquired for Tanks BX111 and T111. The BX111 photos were used to create the waste surface map and to measure the waste surface elevation. T111 photos were used to measure the waste surface elevation. Uncertainty analyses of the mapping and surface elevation are included to show the accuracy of the calculations for both methods.

  13. Surplus yeast tank failing catastrophically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2016-01-01

    GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air. T....... The accident described in this article serves to illustrate that care should be taken if a tank originally designed for atmospheric pressure is modified to operate at slight overpressure.......GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air...

  14. Supporting document for the Southeast Quadrant historical tank content estimate report for SY-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Consort, S.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Southeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground double-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East and West Areas. This report summarizes historical information such as waste history, temperature profiles, psychrometric data, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance are included. Components of the data management effort, such as Waste Status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layer Model, Supernatant Mixing Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates which generate these tank content estimates, are also given in this report.

  15. CORRELATION OF EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DATA FOR MANTLE TANKS USED IN LOW FLOW SDHW SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations of mantle tanks for SDHW systems have been carried out. Five differently designed mantle tanks have been tested in a laboratory test facility. A transient three-dimensional CFD-model of one of the tested mantle tanks is made in the CFD-program CFX 4.......1. The model is validated against the experimental tests, and good agreement between measured and calculated results is achieved. The results from the CFD-calculations are used to illustrate the thermal behaviour and the fluid dynamics in the mantle and in the hot water tank. With the CFD......-calculations, a detailed analysis of the heat transfer from the solar collector fluid to the wall of the hot water tank is performed. The analysis has resulted in a correlation for the heat transfer between the solar collector fluid and the wall of the hot water....

  16. Multi-function waste tank facility path forward engineering analysis technical task 3.3, single-shell tank liquid contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.G.; Mattichak, R.W.

    1995-04-28

    Results are reported on actions taken to determine the quantity of liquid wastes in the single shell tanks that still need stabilization, and to determine the amount of flush water needed to support the stabilization effort.

  17. Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-03-02

    This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970`s and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D&RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program.

  18. Experimental study and numerical simulation of the sludge concentration in a sedimentation tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Ming-jun; MA Lu-ming; ZHU Wei; WANG Hong-wu

    2007-01-01

    Sedimentation tanks and clarifiers play a significant role in an active sludge system, and the efficiency of the whole system is closely related with the design and operation of the sedimentation tanks. This paper focuses on the sludge concentration in each cross-section of the sedimentation tank. We measured the sludge concentration to explore its distribution inside the tank, carried in-situ tests to research the fluid pattern and real operational rules of the sedimentation tank. We also used the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, PHOENICS 3.5, to simulate the solid-liquid two-phase fluid inside the tank and describe the sludge concentration distribution. The numerical results indicate obviously a sludge-water interface and a compression interface inside the sedimentation tank, a stratified sedimentary region with uniform concentration and a compression region with high concentration at the bottom of the tank. Although the simulated concentrations deviated slightly from those of in-situ tests, they were still acceptable for identifying the sludge interfaces and fluid pattern inside a sedimentation tank, which are important parameters for optimizing the tank size and improving the settling efficiency.

  19. THERMAL STRATIFICATION IN SOLAR DOMESTIC STORAGE TANKS CAUSED BY DRAW-OFFS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Furbo, Simon

    2003-01-01

    As shown in many research studies in the past, the thermal stratification of the tank caused by draw-offs has a high impact on the performance of a Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) system. Nevertheless, in most tank models for system simulations the influence of the draw-off pattern on the mixing...... with a component oriented simulation tool for solar thermal systems....

  20. 40 CFR 265.192 - Design and installation of new tank systems or components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tank system is or will be in contact with the soil or with water, a determination by a corrosion expert... systems or components. 265.192 Section 265.192 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.192 Design and installation of new...

  1. Fabric inlet stratifiers for solar tanks with different volume flow rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2006-01-01

    in the centre of a glass tank (400 x 400 x 900 mm). The forced volume flow rate is in the range of 6 – 10 l/min, and water enters the stratification pipe from the bottom of the tank. The thermal behaviour of the stratification pipes is investigated for different realistic operation conditions...

  2. Thermal destratification in small standard solar tanks due to mixing during tapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to investigate the thermal destratification in small standard solar tanks due to mixing during tapping. Three different cold water inlet designs are tested. A model of the tested solar tank is verified. Based on the measurements and the calculations it is elucidated how...

  3. 49 CFR 180.519 - Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other... of Tank Cars § 180.519 Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car... devices must be retested periodically as specified in Retest Table 1 of paragraph (b)(5) of this...

  4. CORRELATION OF EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL HEAT TRANSFER IN MANTLE TANKS USED IN LOW FLOW SDHW SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations of vertical mantle tanks for solar domestic hot water systems have been carried out. Differently designed mantle tanks have been evaluated in a laboratory test facility and a transient three-dimensional CFD-model of one of the mantle tanks is developed...... in the CFD-program CFX 4.1. The model is validated against the experimental tests and good agreement between measured and calculated results are achieved. The results from the CFD-calculations are used to illustrate the thermal behaviour and the fluid dynamics in the mantle and in the inner tank. The CFD......-calculations are used to carry out a detailed analysis of the heat transfer from the solar collector fluid to the wall of the inner tank. The analysis has resulted in a local Nusselt-Rayleigh correlation for the heat transfer between the solar collector fluid and the wall of the inner tank....

  5. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: A NEW PROCESS FOR CHEMICALLY CLEANING SAVANNAH RIVER WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E; Neil Davis, N; Renee Spires, R

    2008-01-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 high level waste (HLW) tanks that must be emptied, cleaned, and closed as required by the Federal Facilities Agreement. The current method of chemical cleaning uses several hundred thousand gallons per tank of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to partially dissolve and suspend residual waste and corrosion products such that the waste can be pumped out of the tank. This adds a significant quantity of sodium oxalate to the tanks and, if multiple tanks are cleaned, renders the waste incompatible with the downstream processing. Tank space is also insufficient to store this stream given the large number of tanks to be cleaned. Therefore, a search for a new cleaning process was initiated utilizing the TRIZ literature search approach, and Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination--Ultraviolet (CORD-UV), a mature technology currently used for decontamination and cleaning of commercial nuclear reactor primary cooling water loops, was identified. CORD-UV utilizes oxalic acid for sludge dissolution, but then decomposes the oxalic acid to carbon dioxide and water by UV treatment outside the system being treated. This allows reprecipitation and subsequent deposition of the sludge into a selected container without adding significant volume to that container, and without adding any new chemicals that would impact downstream treatment processes. Bench top and demonstration loop measurements on SRS tank sludge stimulant demonstrated the feasibility of applying CORD-UV for enhanced chemical cleaning of SRS HLW tanks.

  6. Isopropyl alcohol tank installed at A-3 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    An isopropyl alcohol (IPA) tank is lifted into place at the A-3 Test Stand being built at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. Fourteen IPA, water and liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks are being installed to support the chemical steam generators to be used on the A-3 Test Stand. The IPA and LOX tanks will provide fuel for the generators. The water will allow the generators to produce steam that will be used to reduce pressure inside the stand's test cell diffuser, enabling operators to simulate altitudes up to 100,000 feet. In that way, operators can perform the tests needed on rocket engines being built to carry humans back to the moon and possibly beyond. The A-3 Test Stand is set for completion and activation in 2011.

  7. Liquid oxygen tank installed at A-3 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A liquid oxygen (LOX) tank is lifted into place at the A-3 Test Stand being built at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. Fourteen LOX, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and water tanks are being installed to support the chemical steam generators to be used on the A-3 Test Stand. The IPA and LOX tanks will provide fuel for the generators. The water will allow the generators to produce steam that will be used to reduce pressure inside the stand's test cell diffuser, enabling operators to simulate altitudes up to 100,000 feet. In that way, operators can perform the tests needed on rocket engines being built to carry humans back to the moon and possibly beyond. The A-3 Test Stand is set for completion and activation in 2011.

  8. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Actual Waste Testing with SRS Tank 5F Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, William D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, Michael S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Solubility testing with actual High Level Waste tank sludge has been conducted in order to evaluate several alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge sluicing efforts. Tests were conducted with archived Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive sludge solids that had been retrieved from Tank 5F in order to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. Solubility tests were performed by direct sludge contact with the oxalic/nitric acid reagent and with sludge that had been pretreated and acidified with dilute nitric acid. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid following current baseline tank chemical cleaning methods. One goal of testing with the optimized reagent was to compare the total amounts of oxalic acid and water required for sludge dissolution using the baseline and optimized cleaning methods. A second objective was to compare the two methods with regard to the dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for SRS tank closure Performance Assessments (PA). Additionally, solubility tests were conducted with Tank 5 sludge using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species.

  9. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakestraw, L.D.

    1994-11-15

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks.

  10. Tank characterization report for single shell tank 241-S-107

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.

    1996-09-19

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-S-107. This report supports the requirements of Tri- Party Agreement Milestone M-44-09.

  11. Tank characterization report for double shell tank 241-AP-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelman, W.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-07

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-AP-104. This report supports the requirements of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44-09.

  12. Tank characterization report for single-shell Tank B-201

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heasler, P.G.; Remund, K.M.; Tingey, J.M.; Baird, D.B.; Ryan, F.M.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to characterize the waste in single shell Tank B-201. Characterization includes the determination of the physical, chemical (e.g., concentrations of elements and organic species), and radiological properties of the waste. These determinations are made using analytical results from B-201 core samples as well as historical information about the tank. The main objective is to determine average waste properties: but in some cases, concentrations of analytes as a function of depth were also determined. This report also consolidates the available historical information regarding Tank B-201, arranges the analytical information from the recent core sampling in a useful format, and provides an interpretation of the data within the context of what is known about the tank.

  13. Ecodesign of Liquid Fuel Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicevska, Jana; Bazbauers, Gatis; Repele, Mara

    2011-01-01

    The subject of the study is a 10 litre liquid fuel tank made of metal and used for fuel storage and transportation. The study dealt with separate life cycle stages of this product, compared environmental impacts of similar fuel tanks made of metal and plastic, as well as analysed the product's end-of-life cycle stage, studying the waste treatment and disposal scenarios. The aim of this study was to find opportunities for improvement and to develop proposals for the ecodesign of 10 litre liquid fuel tank.

  14. 基于BP神经网络PID算法的水箱液位控制系统设计%Design of liquid level control system of water tank based on BP network PID algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈怀忠

    2012-01-01

    针对水箱液位这样一个多干扰、大惯性、高度非线性系统控制性能优化较困难,传统的控制策略在控制精度、灵敏度以及系统稳定性均存在缺陷,充分利用神经网络具有非线性函数逼近能力,构造神经网络PID自整定控制器,在解决高度非线性和严重不确定系统方面具有较好控制能力.解决了传统PID控制算法难以保证系统在任何工况条件下始终具有最佳控制性能的难题.仿真结果表明,该控制能使系统达到较好的控制效果.%For the problem of controlling the liquid level of water tank with multi- interference, large inertia and highly nonlinear, the traditional control strategy has disadvantages in control precision, sensitivity and system stability. BP neural network control makes full use of neural network approximation capability to construct neural network self-tuning PID controller, having better control in resolving the highly nonlinear seriously uncertain systems. It overcomes the shortcoming of traditional PID controller which can not assure optimal control performance for system in any working condition. Simulated result indicates this control is able to make system reach satisfied control effect.

  15. 3-D Numerical Simulation and Optimization of High-density Sedimentation Tank in Water Treatment Plant%给水厂高密度沉淀池沉淀效果三维数值模拟与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷晓玲; 陈昆萍; 陶礴

    2012-01-01

    应用FLUENT流体力学软件对重庆某大型在建给水厂高密度沉淀池沉淀区的流速场和浓度场进行了三维数值模拟,分析了不同运行参数与结构参数对沉淀区水流流场与沉淀效果的影响.模拟结果表明,增加进水口流速在一定程度上缓解了异重流现象,但不能提高沉淀效果;选取进水口流速为0.016 m/s,将沉淀池的导流墙左侧改为弧形,在斜板沉淀区前端加上1 m的挡板,可使异重流现象减弱,且沉淀效果得到明显的改善.%The 3-D numerical simulation of velocity field and concentration field of sedimentation zone in high-density sedimentation tank of a large-scale water treatment plant under construction in Chongqing City was performed using FLUENT software. The influence of different operation parameters and structure parameters on the flow state and sedimentation effect was analyzed. The results show that increasing the inlet velocity can relieve the density current to a certain extent, but can not improve the sedimentation effect. When the inlet velocity is 0.016 m/s, changing the left side of guide wall into arc shape and adding one meter baffle in the front of the inclined plate settling zone can ease the density current, and the sedimentation effect can be significantly improved.

  16. 46 CFR 154.446 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.446 Section 154.446 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type B § 154.446 Tank design. An independent tank type B must meet the calculations under §...

  17. 40 CFR 265.1085 - Standards: Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Tanks. 265.1085 Section 265... FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers § 265.1085 Standards: Tanks. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air pollutant emissions from tanks...

  18. 40 CFR 63.685 - Standards: Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Tanks. 63.685 Section 63... Standards: Tanks. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air emissions from tanks for.... (b) The owner or operator shall control air emissions from each tank subject to this section...

  19. 27 CFR 24.167 - Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tanks. 24.167 Section 24... TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.167 Tanks. (a) General. All tanks on wine premises... the intended purpose. Each tank used for wine operations will be located, constructed, and equipped...

  20. 7 CFR 58.218 - Surge tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surge tanks. 58.218 Section 58.218 Agriculture....218 Surge tanks. If surge tanks are used for hot milk, and temperatures of product including foam being held in the surge tank during processing, is not maintained at a minimum of 150 °F, then two...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 25.1013 Section 25.1013... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 25.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 27.1013 Section 27.1013... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1013 Oil tanks. Each oil tank must be... space of not less than the greater of 10 percent of the tank capacity or 0.5 gallon, and where used...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 29.1013 Section 29.1013... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 29.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank...

  4. 40 CFR 264.1084 - Standards: Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Tanks. 264.1084 Section 264... Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers § 264.1084 Standards: Tanks. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air pollutant emissions from tanks for which §...

  5. 7 CFR 58.320 - Brine tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brine tanks. 58.320 Section 58.320 Agriculture....320 Brine tanks. Brine tanks used for the treating of parchment liners shall be constructed of... liners. The tank should also be provided with a satisfactory drainage outlet....

  6. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARKER, S.A.

    2006-07-27

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 5 is the annual update of the methodology and calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  7. Thermal Performance of a Large Low Flow Solar Heating System with a Highly Thermally Stratified Tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2005-01-01

    are facing west. The collector tilt is 15° from horizontal for all collectors. Both the east-facing and the west-facing collectors have their own solar collector loop, circulation pump, external heat exchanger and control system. The external heat exchangers are used to transfer the heat from the solar...... collector fluid to the domestic water. The domestic water is pumped from the bottom of the hot-water tank to the heat exchanger and back to the hot-water tank through stratification inlet pipes. The return flow from the DHW circulation pipe also enters the tank through stratification inlet pipes. The tank...... performance and for the excellent utilization of the solar radiation is the high hot-water consumption and the good system design making use of external heat exchangers and stratification inlet pipes....

  8. Radio Frequency Anechoic Chamber Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the design, manufacture, and test of antenna systems. The facility is also used as an electromagnetic compatibility/radio frequency interference...

  9. Low-Power Anechoic Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Develops and evaluates the effectiveness of electronic attack (EA) techniques against antiship cruise missiles. All terminal countermeasures programmed in...

  10. 某立式可燃液体储罐区消防灭火及冷却用水系统的设计%The Design Specification of Extinguishing System and Cooling Water System for Vertical Flammable Liquid Storage Tank Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟

    2012-01-01

    According to relative code and owner requirements, the flammable liquid storage tank farm including fixed type fire fighting cooling water system and low expansion foam extinguishing system, foam pressure proportioning tank parameter of design is based on actual market equipment parameter. Contrast circle ring cooling water pipe layout proposal to reduce fire fighting water consumption, avoid use design parameter result in fire fighting water storage volume less than actual fire fighting water consumption.%根据相关规范和业主要求,某立式可燃液体罐区采用固定式消防冷却水系统和低倍数泡沫灭火系统相结合的灭火系统。本设计通过对市场上实际灭火设备参数的选取,确定了泡沫比例混合装置的参数:并通过对罐区环状消防冷却水管分区布管的比较,选择最优的布管方式,该布管方式不仅避免了因设计取值较小造成消防储水量的不足而且减少了消防用水量。

  11. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  12. Integral Radiator and Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Miller, John R.; Jakupca, Ian; Sargi,Scott

    2007-01-01

    A simplified, lightweight system for dissipating heat of a regenerative fuel- cell system would include a heat pipe with its evaporator end placed at the heat source and its condenser end integrated into the wall of the regenerative fuel cell system gas-storage tanks. The tank walls act as heat-radiating surfaces for cooling the regenerative fuel cell system. The system was conceived for use in outer space, where radiation is the only physical mechanism available for transferring heat to the environment. The system could also be adapted for use on propellant tanks or other large-surface-area structures to convert them to space heat-radiating structures. Typically for a regenerative fuel cell system, the radiator is separate from the gas-storage tanks. By using each tank s surface as a heat-radiating surface, the need for a separate, potentially massive radiator structure is eliminated. In addition to the mass savings, overall volume is reduced because a more compact packaging scheme is possible. The underlying tank wall structure provides ample support for heat pipes that help to distribute the heat over the entire tank surface. The heat pipes are attached to the outer surface of each gas-storage tank by use of a high-thermal conductance, carbon-fiber composite-material wrap. Through proper choice of the composite layup, it is possible to exploit the high longitudinal conductivity of the carbon fibers (greater than the thermal conductivity of copper) to minimize the unevenness of the temperature distribution over the tank surface, thereby helping to maximize the overall heat-transfer efficiency. In a prototype of the system, the heat pipe and the composite wrap contribute an average mass of 340 g/sq m of radiator area. Lightweight space radiator panels have a mass of about 3,000 g/sq m of radiator area, so this technique saves almost 90 percent of the mass of separate radiator panels. In tests, the modified surface of the tank was found to have an emissivity of 0

  13. Research of Salmonella spp. and indicators microorganisms in poultry carcasses and chilling tanks water in poultry slaughterhouse/ Pesquisa de Salmonella spp. e microrganismos indicadores em carcaças de frango e água de tanques de pré-resfriamento em abatedouro de aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Eckehardt Muller

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to research the Salmonella spp. and indicators microorganisms (total coliforms-CT, thermotolerant coliforms-CTT, mesophlic aerobes-AM and psychotrophic microorganisms in poultry carcasses and chilling tanks water in a poultry slaughterhouse in north of Paraná state. Had been analyzed 120 poultry carcasses (60 before the entrance in the chilling tank and 60 after the exit of the chilling tank and 120 water samples (60 from pre-chiller tank and 60 from chiller tank, totalizing 20 collections. For the analyses was used the brazilian legislation and PetrifilmTMAC. Salmonella spp. was isolated in one poultry carcass before the entrance in the chilling tank and other after the exit of the chilling tank, both identified as Salmonella O8,20;z4,z23. In the water samples was recognized six serovars in pre-chiller tank, five as Salmonella O8,20;z4,z23 and one S. Tennessee. The means of TC on carcasses before the entrance and after the exit of the tanks and in the water samples from pre-chiller tank and in chiller were 3,74 MPN/g / 3,10 MPN/g and 4,00 MPN/100mL / 2,81 MPN/100mL respectively; the mean of TCC was 3,65 MPN/g / 3,00 MPN/g and 3,81 MPN/100mL / 2,73 MPN/100mL; the mean of MA was 6,40 CFU/g / 5,60 CFU/g and 4,40 CFU/mL e 4,13 CFU/mL; the mean of MP was 4,21 CFU/g /3,66 CFU/g and . It was not observed any significant difference (p>0,05 in contamination index neither in poultry carcasses nor in tank water samples. It is possible to conclude that chilling tanks were not able to remove the microorganisms from the carcasses and could contribute to cross-contamination due to elevate water contamination.O objetivo desse trabalho foi pesquisar Salmonella spp. e microrganismos indicadores (coliformes totais-CT, coliformes termotolerantes-CTT, aeróbios mesófilos-AM e microrganismos psicrotróficos - MP em carcaças de frango e água dos tanques de pré-resfriamento em um frigorífico do norte do Paraná. Foram analisadas 120

  14. TANK 7 CHARACTERIZATION AND WASHING STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.

    2010-02-04

    A 3-L PUREX sludge sample from Tank 7 was characterized and then processed through a series of inhibited water washes to remove oxalate, sodium, and other soluble ions. Current plans use Tank 7 as one of the feed sources for Sludge Batch 7 (SB7). Tank 7 is high in oxalate due to the oxalic acid cleaning of the sludge heels from Tanks 5 and 6 and subsequent transfer to Tank 7. Ten decant and nine wash cycles were performed over a 47 day period at ambient temperature. Initially, seven decants and seven washes were completed based on preliminary estimates of the number of wash cycles required to remove the oxalate in the sludge. After reviewing the composition data, SRNL recommended the completion of 2 or 3 more decant/wash cycles to ensure all of the sodium oxalate had redissolved. In the first 7 washes, the slurry oxalate concentration was 12,300 mg/kg (69.6% oxalate removal compared to 96.1% removal of the other soluble ions). After all ten decants were complete, the slurry oxalate concentration was 3,080 mg/kg (89.2% oxalate removal compared to 99.0% of the other soluble ions). The rate of dissolution of oxalate increased significantly with subsequent washes until all of the sodium oxalate had been redissolved after seven decant/wash cycles. The measured oxalate concentrations agreed very well with LWO predictions for washing of the Tank 7 sample. Highlights of the analysis and washing of the Tank 7 sample include: (1) Sodium oxalate was detected in the as-received filtered solids. 95% of the oxalate was insoluble (undissolved) in the as-received slurry. (2) No sodium oxalate was detected in the post-wash filtered solids. (3) Sodium oxalate is the last soluble species that redissolves during washing with inhibited water. In order to significantly reduce the sodium oxalate concentration, the sludge must be highly washed, leaving the other soluble anions and cations (including sodium) very low in concentration. (4) The post-wash slurry had 1% of the soluble anions

  15. Investigation of the Solvis stratification inlet pipe for solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Jordan, Ulrike; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1960’ties the influence of the thermal stratification in hot water tanks on the thermal performance of solar heating systems has been studied intensively. It was found, that the thermal performance of a solar heating system is increasing for increasing thermal stratification in the hot ...

  16. Potential dominance of oscillating crescent waves in finite width tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that the emergence of previously observed oscillating crescent water wave patterns, created by class II (three-dimensional) instabilities which are in principle not dominant, could in fact be explained as an artifact of a finite width tank, combined with a suppression...

  17. Tank 241-C-109 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank C-109. The drivers and objectives of the waste tank headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports.

  18. A Prototype of Industrial Waste Water Treatment Using Electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Boriboonsuksri Phonnipha; Jun-krob Natth

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a construct of electrocoagulation waste water treatment system. The system consists of reactor tank, skimmer, cyclone tank and sediment tank. Waste water is feed into reactor tank. The electrochemical reaction is made emulsification to waste water. The contaminants are removed from waste water and can be divided to two kinds: light weight suspensions be floating up and another be sediment. The flocculants are skim out and the sediments are pumped out to sludge container. A...

  19. Water Distribution Lines, Water distribution system details Including pumps, storage tanks, valves, and mains, Published in Not Provided, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Town of Franklin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of Not Provided. It is...

  20. Absorption characteristics of anechoic coating on cavity structure and its optimization design%混合型空腔结构覆盖层吸声性能研究及其优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商超; 张嘉钟; 曹伟; 于开平

    2011-01-01

    基于有限元法研究了以空气为背衬的混合型空腔结构覆盖层的吸声特性.建立了具有混合型空腔结构的覆盖层有限元模型,对其进行吸声特性数值仿真分析.结果表明,该空腔结构的吸声特性明显优于相同穿孔率的单腔结构.通过优化设计,进一步提升了混合型空腔结构覆盖层在全频段的吸声性能,并得到了若干覆盖层结构参数影响其吸声性能的规律.%The absorption characteristics of the mixed-cavity structure anechoic coating with air backing were studied by using finite element method. The calculation results indicate that the absorption characteristics of this kind of cavity structure are superior to those of single-cavity structure under the same perforated percentage. Then, the absorption properties of anechoic coating on mixed-cavity structure at full-frequency range were further improved by optimization design. The influence of coating structure parameters on absorption characteristics was studied.

  1. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2010-06-21

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2009 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2009 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per LWO-LWE-2008-00423, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2009, were completed. All Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2009 met the requirements of C-ESG-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 1, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.4. UT inspections were performed on Tank 29 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00559, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2009, Waste Tank 29. Post chemical cleaning UT measurements were made in Tank 6 and the results are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00560, Tank Inspection NDE Results Tank 6, Including Summary of Waste Removal Support Activities in Tanks 5 and 6. A total of 6669 photographs were made and 1276 visual and video inspections were performed during 2009. Twenty-Two new leaksites were identified in 2009. The locations of these leaksites are documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.4. Fifteen leaksites at Tank 5 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Five leaksites at Tank 6 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Two new leaksites were identified at Tank 19 during waste removal activities. Previously documented leaksites were reactivated at Tanks 5 and 12 during waste removal activities. Also, a very small amount of additional leakage from a previously identified leaksite at Tank 14 was observed.

  2. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Landry

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related subtasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these subtasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these subtasks were derived from the original

  3. 241-AY-101 Tank Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.

    2013-08-26

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tank 241-AY-101. The construction history of tank 241-AY-101 has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In tank 241-AY-101, the second double-shell tank constructed, similar issues as those with tank 241-AY-102 construction reoccurred. The overall extent of similary and affect on tank 241-AY-101 integrity is described herein.

  4. 241-AP Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.; Reeploeg, Gretchen E.

    2014-04-04

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for the 241-AP tank farm. The construction history of the 241-AP tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AP tank farm, the sixth double-shell tank farm constructed, tank bottom flatness, refractory material quality, post-weld stress relieving, and primary tank bottom weld rejection were improved.

  5. 241-AW Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.; Reeploeg, Gretchen E.

    2013-11-19

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for the 241-AW tank farm. The construction history of the 241-AW tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AW tank farm, the fourth double-shell tank farm constructed, similar issues as those with tank 241-AY-102 construction occured. The overall extent of similary and affect on 241-AW tank farm integrity is described herein.

  6. Septic tank additive impacts on microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S; Hoover, M T; Clark, G H; Gumpertz, M; Wollum, A G; Cobb, C; Strock, J

    2008-01-01

    Environmental health specialists, other onsite wastewater professionals, scientists, and homeowners have questioned the effectiveness of septic tank additives. This paper describes an independent, third-party, field scale, research study of the effects of three liquid bacterial septic tank additives and a control (no additive) on septic tank microbial populations. Microbial populations were measured quarterly in a field study for 12 months in 48 full-size, functioning septic tanks. Bacterial populations in the 48 septic tanks were statistically analyzed with a mixed linear model. Additive effects were assessed for three septic tank maintenance levels (low, intermediate, and high). Dunnett's t-test for tank bacteria (alpha = .05) indicated that none of the treatments were significantly different, overall, from the control at the statistical level tested. In addition, the additives had no significant effects on septic tank bacterial populations at any of the septic tank maintenance levels. Additional controlled, field-based research iswarranted, however, to address additional additives and experimental conditions.

  7. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section 151.50... phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be designed and tested for a head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket extended to 8 feet above the tank top. In addition, tank design...

  8. Installation package for a sunspot cascade solar water heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Solar water heating systems installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California are described. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank, and controls. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications are provided along with instruction on operation, maintenance, and installation of solar hot water systems.

  9. Burst Pressure Failure of Titanium Tanks Damaged by Secondary Plumes from Hypervelocity Impacts on Aluminum Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahra, Henry; Ghosn, Louis; Christiansen, Eric; Davis, B. Alan; Keddy, Chris; Rodriquez, Karen; Miller, Joshua; Bohl, William

    2011-01-01

    Metallic pressure tanks used in space missions are inherently vulnerable to hypervelocity impacts from micrometeoroids and orbital debris; thereby knowledge of impact damage and its effect on the tank integrity is crucial to a spacecraft risk assessment. This paper describes tests that have been performed to assess the effects of hypervelocity impact (HVI) damage on Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) pressure vessels burst pressure and characteristics. The tests consisted of a pair of HVI impact tests on water-filled Ti-6Al-4V tanks (water being used as a surrogate to the actual propellant) and subsequent burst tests as well as a burst test on an undamaged control tank. The tanks were placed behind Aluminum (Al) shields and then each was impacted with a 7 km/s projectile. The resulting impact debris plumes partially penetrated the Ti-6Al-4V tank surfaces resulting in a distribution of craters. During the burst tests, the tank that failed at a lower burst pressure did appear to have the failure initiating at a crater site with observed spall cracks. A fracture mechanics analysis showed that the tanks failure at the impact location may have been due to a spall crack that formed upon impact of a fragmentation on the Titanium surface. This result was corroborated with a finite element analysis from calculated Von-Mises and hoop stresses.

  10. Quench tank in-leakage diagnosis at St. Lucie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, J.E.; Au-Yang, M.K.; Beckner, D.A.; Vickery, A.N.

    1996-12-01

    In February 1995, leakage into the quench tank of the St. Lucie Nuclear Station Unit 1 was becoming an operational concern. This internal leak resulted in measurable increases in both the temperature and level of the quench tank water, and was so severe that, if the trend continued, plant shut down would be necessary. Preliminary diagnosis based on in-plant instrumentation indicated that any one of 11 valves might be leaking into the quench tank. This paper describes the joint effort by two teams of engineers--one from Florida Power & Light, the other from Framatome Technologies--to identify the sources of the leak, using the latest technology developed for valve diagnosis.

  11. Organic tanks safety program FY96 waste aging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Linehan, J.C.; Clauss, S.A.; Sharma, A.K.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Uranium and plutonium production at the Hanford Site produced large quantities of radioactive by-products and contaminated process chemicals, which are stored in underground tanks awaiting treatment and disposal. Having been made strongly alkaline and then subjected to successive water evaporation campaigns to increase storage capacity, the wastes now exist in the physical forms of salt cakes, metal oxide sludges, and partially saturated aqueous brine solutions. The tanks that contain organic process chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salt wastes may be at risk for fuel- nitrate combustion accidents. The purpose of the Waste Aging Task is to elucidate how chemical and radiological processes will have aged or degraded the organic compounds stored in the tanks. Ultimately, the task seeks to develop quantitative measures of how aging changes the energetic properties of the wastes. This information will directly support efforts to evaluate the hazard as well as to develop potential control and mitigation strategies.

  12. SLUDGE RETRIEVAL FROM HANFORD K WEST BASIN SETTLER TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERPENBECK EG; LESHIKAR GA

    2011-01-13

    In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was deployed to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from ten submerged tanks in Hanford's K-West Basin. As part of K-West Basin cleanup, the accumulated sludge needed to be removed from the 0.5 meter diameter by 5 meter long settler tanks and transferred approximately 45 meters to an underwater container for sampling and waste treatment. The abrasive, dense, non-homogeneous sludge was the product of the washing process of corroded nuclear fuel. It consists of small (less than 600 micron) particles of uranium metal, uranium oxide, and various other constituents, potentially agglomerated or cohesive after 10 years of storage. The Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS) was developed to access, mobilize and pump out the sludge from each tank using a standardized process of retrieval head insertion, periodic high pressure water spray, retraction, and continuous pumping of the sludge. Blind operations were guided by monitoring flow rate, radiation levels in the sludge stream, and solids concentration. The technology developed and employed in the STRS can potentially be adapted to similar problematic waste tanks or pipes that must be remotely accessed to achieve mobilization and retrieval of the sludge within.

  13. TANK48 CFD MODELING ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2011-05-17

    The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank to ensure uniformity of the discharge stream. Mixing is accomplished with one to four dual-nozzle slurry pumps located within the tank liquid. For the work, a Tank 48 simulation model with a maximum of four slurry pumps in operation has been developed to estimate flow patterns for efficient solid mixing. The modeling calculations were performed by using two modeling approaches. One approach is a single-phase Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model to evaluate the flow patterns and qualitative mixing behaviors for a range of different modeling conditions since the model was previously benchmarked against the test results. The other is a two-phase CFD model to estimate solid concentrations in a quantitative way by solving the Eulerian governing equations for the continuous fluid and discrete solid phases over the entire fluid domain of Tank 48. The two-phase results should be considered as the preliminary scoping calculations since the model was not validated against the test results yet. A series of sensitivity calculations for different numbers of pumps and operating conditions has been performed to provide operational guidance for solids suspension and mixing in the tank. In the analysis, the pump was assumed to be stationary. Major solid obstructions including the pump housing, the pump columns, and the 82 inch central support column were included. The steady state and three-dimensional analyses with a two-equation turbulence model were performed with FLUENT{trademark} for the single-phase approach and CFX for the two-phase approach. Recommended operational guidance was developed assuming that local fluid velocity can be used as a measure of sludge suspension and spatial mixing under single-phase tank model. For quantitative analysis, a two-phase fluid-solid model was developed for the same modeling conditions as the single

  14. Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Single-walled, jacketed aluminum tanks have been conceived for storing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in LNG-fueled motor vehicles. Heretofore, doublewall steel tanks with vacuum between the inner and outer walls have been used for storing LNG. In comparison with the vacuum- insulated steel tanks, the jacketed aluminum tanks weigh less and can be manufactured at lower cost. Costs of using the jacketed aluminum tanks are further reduced in that there is no need for the vacuum pumps heretofore needed to maintain vacuum in the vacuum-insulated tanks.

  15. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  16. High efficient heat pump system using storage tanks to increase COP by means of the ISEC concept - Part 1: Model validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.;

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the ISEC concept is to provide a high-efficient heat pump system for hot water production.The ISEC concept uses two storage tanks for the water, one discharged and one charged. Hot water for theindustrial process is tapped from the charged tank, while the other tank is charging....... Charging is done bycirculating the water in the tank through the condenser of a heat pump several times and thereby graduallyheating the water. The charging is done with a higher mass flow rate than the discharging to reach severalcirculations of the water during the time frame of one discharging....... This result in a lower condensingtemperature than if the water was heated in one step. Two test setups were built, one to test the performanceof the heat pump gradually heating the water and one to investigate the stratification in the storage tanks.Furthermore, a dynamic model of the system was implemented...

  17. Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Catalyst Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J.

    2001-06-04

    The Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team identified Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP) as an alternative to replace the In-Tank Precipitation Facility at the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy discontinued operation of the In-Tank Precipitation facility due to the potential for catalytic decomposition of sodium tetraphenylborate. The STTP applies the same process chemistry for removal of cesium from the radioactive wastes but at a controlled lower temperature and in a smaller facility that offers engineering features to mitigate potential for a catalytic reaction. However, additional understanding of the catalytic reaction, through further experimental investigation, is needed to better define the potential for a reaction to occur in the proposed facility.

  18. first tank of Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    This was the first tank of the linear accelerator Linac1, the injection system for the Proton Synchrotron, It ran for 34 years (1958 - 1992). Protons entered at the far end and were accelerated between the copper drift tubes by an oscillating electromagnetic field. The field flipped 200 million times a second (200 MHz) so the protons spent 5 nanoseconds crossing a drift tube and a gap. Moving down the tank, the tubes and gaps had to get longer as the protons gained speed. The tank accelerated protons from 500 KeV to 10 MeV. Linac1 was also used to accelerate deutrons and alpha particles for the Intersecting Storage Rings and oxygen and sulpher ions for the Super Proton Synchrotron heavy ion programme.

  19. Improved Polyurethane Storage Tank Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    5.2.2.1 Tank / Flow Network...………………………………………… 63 5.2.2.1.1 Pump…………………………….……………………. 63 5.2.2.1.2 Optimization With MacroFlow CFD ………………… 63...74 5.3.4.1 Tank Height – Rod, Level and Measuring Stick ………………. 74 5.3.4.2 Pump Pressure and Volume Totalizing …………………..…… 75...visual rating system CFD – computational fluid dynamics CFT – collapsible fuel tank DBS – double butt seam DLA – Defense Logistics Agency Energy

  20. CHARACTERIZATION AND ACTUAL WASTE TEST WITH TANK 5F SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M. S.; Crapse, K. P.; Fink, S. D.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2007-08-30

    to be water-soluble consistent with the determined composition. The analytical data for the solid residues filtered from the oxalic acid solution and filtered oxalic acid indicate a large portion of the Tank 5F sludge used in the tank cleaning test dissolved into the oxalic acid. The results of a material balance calculation indicate a high percentage of the iron, uranium, sodium, and aluminum dissolved during both tests. Approximately half of the manganese, a small portion of the plutonium, and essentially none of the nickel dissolved during the tank cleaning tests. Additionally, the results show slightly higher dissolution of the sludge in the 75 C test compared to the 50 C test however, the amount of sludge dissolution gained by using the higher temperature remains small. Some uncertainty remains with respect to the amount of plutonium dissolved in the tank cleaning test. The neutralization of the filtered oxalic acid solutions from the cleaning test produced a large volume of solids ({approx}2X the original sludge mass after filtration and air drying). A large portion of the increase in solids could be attributed to the formation of sodium oxalate. The data from analysis of the solid residues filtered from the neutralization tests and the filtrate obtained indicate most of the iron, uranium, manganese, and a large portion of the aluminum precipitated during the neutralization tests. The data for the 50 C test and the 75 C test show good agreement with the exception of the amount of aluminum precipitated from the neutralization. The slower addition rate of the oxalic acid filtrate to the simulated Tank 7F supernate in the 75 C test might account for the smaller amount of aluminum precipitated and differences in the particle size/morphology and composition of the particulates. Some evidence of uranium separation from other sludge elements appears in the 75 C data. Data collected from the tank cleaning and neutralization tests indicates most of the uranium dissolved

  1. ICPP Tank Farm systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, W.B.; Beer, M.J.; Cukars, M.; Law, J.P.; Millet, C.B.; Murphy, J.A.; Nenni, J.A.; Park, C.V.; Pruitt, J.I.; Thiel, E.C.; Ward, F.S.; Woodard, J.

    1994-01-01

    During the early years (1950--1965) of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) operations, eleven, 300,000-gallon waste storage tanks were constructed. A project was in progress to replace these aging tanks; however, since fuel reprocessing has been curtailed at ICPP, it is not clear that the new tanks are required. The Department of Energy (DOE) requested a systems engineering evaluation to determine the need for the new tanks. Over 100 alternatives were identified during a facilitated team meeting using Value Engineering techniques. After eliminating any ideas which clearly could not meet the requirements, the remaining ideas were combined into nine basic cases with five sub cases. These fourteen cases were then carefully defined using two methods. First, each case was drawn graphically to show waste processing equipment interfaces and time constraints where they existed or were imposed. Second, each case was analyzed using a time-dependent computer simulation of ICPP waste management activities to determine schedule interactions, liquid storage requirements, and solid waste quantities. Based on the evaluation data, the team developed the following recommendations: Install and operate the high-level liquid waste evaporator; minimize liquid waste generation as much as possible within the constraints of required ICPP operational, safety, and environmental commitments; bring a Waste Immobilization Facility on line by 2008 or earlier; operate NWCF as required to alleviate the need for new tank farm capacity; maximize the concentration of Na and K in the calcine to minimize the final amount of waste requiring immobilization; avoid using Bin Set 7 for calcine storage, if possible, to reduce future calcine retrieval and D&D costs; and use WM-190 for liquid waste storage and one of the pillar and panel vaulted tanks as the spare.

  2. Tank calibration; Arqueacao de tanques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Ana [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This work relates the analysis of the norms ISO (International Organization for Standardization) for calibration of vertical cylindrical tanks used in fiscal measurement, established on Joint Regulation no 1 of June 19, 2000 between the ANP (National Agency of Petroleum) and the INMETRO (National Institute of Metrology, Normalization and Industrial Quality). In this work a comparison between norms ISO and norms published by the API (American Petroleum Institute) and the IP (Institute of Petroleum) up to 2001 was made. It was concluded that norms ISO are wider than norms API, IP, and INMETRO methods in the calibration of vertical cylindrical tanks. (author)

  3. TANK SPACE ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TURNER DA; KIRCH NW; WASHENFELDER DJ; SCHAUS PS; WODRICH DD; WIEGMAN SA

    2010-04-27

    This report addresses the projected shortfall of double-shell tank (DST) space starting in 2018. Using a multi-variant methodology, a total of eight new-term options and 17 long-term options for recovering DST space were evaluated. These include 11 options that were previously evaluated in RPP-7702, Tank Space Options Report (Rev. 1). Based on the results of this evaluation, two near-term and three long-term options have been identified as being sufficient to overcome the shortfall of DST space projected to occur between 2018 and 2025.

  4. Science Road Map for Phase 2 of the Tank-Farm Vadose Zone Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachara, John M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Mann, Frederick M.

    2008-08-18

    Phase 1 of the Tank-Farm Vadose Zone Program (TFVZP) developed information on the nature and extent of vadose zone contamination in the tank farms through field studies, laboratory analyses and experiments, and historical data searches; assembled data and performed tank-farm risk analysis; and initiated interim corrective actions to lessen the impacts of tank leak contaminants. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists and external collaborators at universities and U.S. Department of Energy user facilities sampled and analyzed contaminant plumes. These types of activities will continue during Phase 2 of the TFVZP to refine and expand scientific understanding of the subsurface beneath tank farms, especially of water movement, residual waste leaching, and contaminant transport.

  5. The Politics of Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    In the 21st century, think tanks have become more than a buzzword in European public discourse. They now play important roles in the policy-making process by providing applied research, building networks and advocating policies. The book studies the development of think tanks and contemporary...... consequences in the United Kingdom, Germany, Denmark and at the EU-level. A Continental think tank tradition in which the state plays a pivotal role and an Anglo-American tradition which facilitates interaction in public policy on market-like terms have shaped the development of think tanks. On the basis...... of a typology of think tanks, quantitative data and interviews with think tank practitioners, the interplay between state and market dynamics and the development of different types of think tanks is analysed. Although think tanks develop along different institutional trajectories, it is concluded that the Anglo...

  6. Lightweight, Composite Cryogenic Tank Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm has developed and qualified strong, all-composite LOX tanks for launch vehicles. Our new 42-inch diameter tank design weighs 486 lbs and burst without...

  7. Water tower

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The water tower, being built on the highest point of the site, 460.5 m above the sea level. The tank will hold 750 m3 of water, and the tower will be topped by a knob which can serve as a geological survey reference mark.

  8. RESEARCH ON THE CONDITION TO SET A TAILRACE SURGE TANK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Gui-lian; YANG jian-dong; XU Yuan-jie; LI Jin-ping

    2004-01-01

    When using the draft-tube vacuum to be less than 8.0m as the rule to set a tailrace surge tank, a mixing function that describes the process of water-hammer vacuum and velocity-head vacuum varied with time is proposed, on the assumption that the guide vane of the hydraulic turbine and the turbine discharge were all changed linearly. An exact maximum of the draft-tube vacuum for the first-phase water-hammer and the last-phase water-hammer is obtained. Finally a much more reasonable formula of critical tailrace length is derived. The results of two cases show that the formula proposed can determine correctly and reasonably whether a tailrace surge tank is needed or not, and are more suitable for project design than the formula suggested by the specification.

  9. Design of an Experimental PCM Solar Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, Istvan Peter

    2010-09-15

    The one of the most important part of a solar collector system is the solar tank. The relevant type and capacity of the solar tank is a requirement of the good operation of the system. According the current architectural tendencies the boiler rooms are smaller, so the putting of the currently available solar tanks is very difficult. It is necessary to store the energy in a little space. The solution of the problem is the solar tank particularly filled with phase change material.

  10. Evaluation of Settler Tank Thermal Stability during Solidification and Disposition to ERDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schmidt, Andrew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Ten 16-foot-long and 20-inch diameter horizontal tanks currently reside in a stacked 2×5 (high) array in the ~20,000-gallon water-filled Weasel Pit of the 105-KW Fuel Storage Basin on the US-DOE Hanford Site. These ten tanks are part of the Integrated Water Treatment System used to manage water quality in the KW Basin and are called “settler” tanks because of their application in removing particles from the KW Basin waters. Based on process knowledge, the settler tanks are estimated to contain about 124 kilograms of finely divided uranium metal, 22 kg of uranium dioxide, and another 55 kg of other radioactive sludge. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed by CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is charged with managing the settler tanks and arranging for their ultimate disposal by burial in ERDF. The presence of finely divided uranium metal in the sludge is of concern because of the potential for thermal runaway reaction of the uranium metal with water and the formation of flammable hydrogen gas as a product of the uranium-water reaction. Thermal runaway can be instigated by external heating. The STP commissioned a formal Decision Support Board (DSB) to consider options and provide recommendations to manage and dispose of the settler tanks and their contents. Decision criteria included consideration of the project schedule and longer-term deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition (D4) of the KW Basin. The DSB compared the alternatives and recommended in-situ grouting, size-reduction, and ERDF disposal as the best of six candidate options for settler tank treatment and disposal. It is important to note that most grouts contain a complement of Portland cement as the binding agent and that Portland cement curing reactions generate heat. Therefore, concern is raised that the grouting of the settler tank contents may produce heating sufficient to instigate thermal runaway reactions in the contained uranium metal sludge.

  11. The Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project Tank Waste Retrieval Performance and Lessons Learned, vol. 1 [of 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, BE

    2003-10-07

    The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Remediation Project was the first of its kind performed in the United States. Robotics and remotely operated equipment were used to successfully transfer almost 94,000 gal of remote-handled transuranic sludge containing over 81,000 Ci of radioactive contamination from nine large underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sludge was transferred with over 439,000 gal of radioactive waste supernatant and {approx}420,500 gal of fresh water that was used in sluicing operations. The GAATs are located in a high-traffic area of ORNL near a main thoroughfare. A phased and integrated approach to waste retrieval operations was used for the GAAT Remediation Project. The project promoted safety by obtaining experience from low-risk operations in the North Tank Farm before moving to higher-risk operations in the South Tank Farm. This approach allowed project personnel to become familiar with the tanks and waste, as well as the equipment, processes, procedures, and operations required to perform successful waste retrieval. By using an integrated approach to tank waste retrieval and tank waste management, the project was completed years ahead of the original baseline schedule, which resulted in avoiding millions of dollars in associated costs. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1 provides information on the various phases of the GAAT Remediation Project. It also describes the different types of equipment and how they were used. The emphasis of Volume 1 is on the description of the tank waste retrieval performance and the lessons learned during the GAAT Remediation Project. Volume 2 provides the appendixes for the report, which include the following information: (A) Background Information for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Operable Unit; (B) Annotated Bibliography; (C) Comprehensive Listing of the Sample Analysis Data from the GAAT Remediation Project; (D) GAAT Equipment Matrix; and (E) Vendor List

  12. Tank 241-BY-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-05

    Tank 241-BY-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues{close_quotes}. Tank 241-BY-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution{close_quotes}.

  13. Results of Hg speciation testing on tank 39 and 1Q16 tank 50 samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team.i,ii The seventeenth shipment of samples was designated to include two Tank 39 samples and the 1Q16 Tank 50 Quarterly WAC sample. The surface Tank 39 sample was pulled at 262.1” from the tank bottom, and the depth Tank 39 sample was pulled at 95” from the tank bottom. The 1Q16 Tank 50 WAC sample was drawn from the 1-L variable depth sample received by SRNL.

  14. Tank 241-BY-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  15. Tank 241-BY-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in ``Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues`` (Osborne and Huckaby 1994). Tank 241-BY-108 was vapor sampled in accordance with ``Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution (Osborne et al., 1994).

  16. Source apportionment of heavy metals and ionic contaminants in rainwater tanks in a subtropical urban area in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, R; Chan, Y C; Chapman, H; Gardner, T; Shaw, G

    2012-03-15

    Due to prolonged droughts in recent years, the use of rainwater tanks in urban areas has increased in Australia. In order to apportion sources of contribution to heavy metal and ionic contaminants in rainwater tanks in Brisbane, a subtropical urban area in Australia, monthly tank water samples (24 sites, 31 tanks) and concurrent bulk deposition samples (18 sites) were collected during mainly April 2007-March 2008. The samples were analysed for acid-soluble metals, soluble anions, total inorganic carbon and total organic carbon, and characteristics such as total solid and pH. The Positive Matrix Factorisation model, EPA PMF 3.0, was used to apportion sources of contribution to the contaminants. Four source factors were identified for the bulk deposition samples, including 'crustal matter/sea salt', 'car exhausts/road side dust', 'industrial dust' and 'aged sea salt/secondary aerosols'. For the tank water samples, apart from these atmospheric deposition related factors which contributed in total to 65% of the total contaminant concentration on average, another six rainwater collection system related factors were identified, including 'plumbing', 'building material', 'galvanizing', 'roofing', 'steel' and 'lead flashing/paint' (contributing in total to 35% of the total concentration on average). The Australian Drinking Water Guideline for lead was exceeded in 15% of the tank water samples. The collection system related factors, in particular the 'lead flashing/paint' factor, contributed to 79% of the lead in the tank water samples on average. The concentration of lead in tank water was found to vary with various environmental and collection system factors, in particular the presence of lead flashing on the roof. The results also indicated the important role of sludge dynamics inside the tank on the quality of tank water.

  17. Think Tanks, Education and Elite Policy Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Glenn C.

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen think tanks operate in sophisticated ways to influence the development of education policies. In this paper, I reflect upon the influence of think tanks in the formation of national reform, using the Common Core State Standards initiative in the USA as an illustrative case. In doing so, I explore how certain think tanks,…

  18. Opposed Bellows Would Expel Contents Of Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Willie

    1994-01-01

    Proposed storage tank contains two pairs of opposed bellows used to expel its contents. Storage and expulsion volumes of tank same as those of older version of tank equipped with single bellows. Four bellows offer greater stability. Applications include automobile cooling systems and gasoline-powered tools like chain saws and leaf blowers.

  19. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shine, E. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-11

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  20. 27 CFR 19.382 - Bottling tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling tanks. 19.382... Manufacture of Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.382 Bottling tanks. All spirits shall be bottled from tanks listed and certified as accurately calibrated in the notice of...

  1. 27 CFR 19.273 - Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tanks. 19.273 Section 19... TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Construction, Equipment and Security § 19.273 Tanks. (a) General. (1) Tanks used as receptacles for spirits, denatured spirits, or wines shall be located,...

  2. 27 CFR 19.586 - Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tanks. 19.586 Section 19.586 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Containers and Marks Containers § 19.586 Tanks. Tanks...

  3. 49 CFR 172.328 - Cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tanks. 172.328 Section 172.328... SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.328 Cargo tanks. (a) Providing and affixing identification numbers. Unless a cargo tank is already marked with the identification numbers required by this subpart,...

  4. 7 CFR 58.427 - Paraffin tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paraffin tanks. 58.427 Section 58.427 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....427 Paraffin tanks. The metal tank should be adequate in size, have wood rather than metal racks...

  5. 49 CFR 172.326 - Portable tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable tanks. 172.326 Section 172.326... SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.326 Portable tanks. (a) Shipping name. No person may offer for transportation or transport a portable tank containing a hazardous material unless it is legibly marked on...

  6. 19 CFR 151.44 - Storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage tanks. 151.44 Section 151.44 Customs... Storage tanks. (a) Plans and gauge tables. When petroleum or petroleum products subject to duty at a specific rate per barrel are imported in bulk in tank vessels and are to be transferred into shore...

  7. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  8. Process Control Plan for Tank 241-SY-101 Surface Level Rise Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ESTEY, S.D.

    1999-09-28

    The tank 241-SY-101 transfer system was conceived and designed to address the immediate needs presented by rapidly changing waste conditions in tank 241-SY-101. Within the last year or so, the waste in this tank has exhibited unexpected behavior (Rassat et al. 1999) in the form of rapidly increasing crust growth. This growth has been brought about by a rapidly increasing rate of gas entrapment within the crust. It has been conceived that the lack of crust agitation beginning upon the advent of mixer pump operations may have set-up a more consolidated, gas impermeable barrier when compared to a crust regularly broken up by the prior buoyant displacement events within the tank. As a result, a series of level-growth remediation activities have been developed for tank 241-SY-101. The initial activities are also known as near-term crust mitigation. The first activity of near-term mitigation is to perform the small transfer of convective waste from tank 241-SY-101 into tank 241-SY-102. A 100 kgal transfer represents about a 10% volume reduction allowing a 10% water in-tank dilution. Current thinking holds that this should be enough to dissolve nitrite solids in the crust and perhaps largely eliminate gas retention problem in the crust (Raymond 1999).

  9. CLOSURE OF HLW TANKS FORMULATION FOR A COOLING COIL GROUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V; Erich Hansen, E

    2008-05-23

    The Tank Closure and Technology Development Groups are developing a strategy for closing the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Two Type IV tanks, 17 and 20 in the F-Area Tank Farm, have been successfully filled with grout. Type IV tanks at SRS do not contain cooling coils; on the other hand, the majority of the tanks (Type I, II, III and IIIA) do contain cooling coils. The current concept for closing tanks equipped with cooling coils is to pump grout into the cooling coils to prevent pathways for infiltrating water after tank closure. This task addresses the use of grout to fill intact cooling coils present in most of the remaining HLW tanks on Site. The overall task was divided into two phases. Phase 1 focused on the development of a grout formulation (mix design) suitable for filling the HLW tank cooling coils. Phase 2 will be a large-scale demonstration of the filling of simulated cooling coils under field conditions using the cooling coil grout mix design recommended from Phase 1. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1, the development of the cooling coil grout formulation. A grout formulation is recommended for the full scale testing at Clemson Environmental Technology Laboratory (CETL) that is composed by mass of 90% Masterflow (MF) 816 (a commercially available cable grout) and 10% blast furnace slag, with a water to cementitious material (MF 816 + slag) ratio of 0.33. This formulation produces a grout that meets the fresh and cured grout requirements detailed in the Task Technical Plan (2). The grout showed excellent workability under continuous mixing with minimal change in rheology. An alternative formulation using 90% MF 1341 and 10% blast furnace slag with a water to cementitious material ratio of 0.29 is also acceptable and generates less heat per gram than the MF 816 plus slag mix. However this MF 1341 mix has a higher plastic viscosity than the MF 816 mix due to the presence of sand in the MF 1341 cable grout and a

  10. Mixing and transient interface condensation of a liquid hydrogen tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. S.; Hasan, M. M.; Nyland, T. W.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of axial jet-induced mixing on the pressure reduction of a thermally stratified liquid hydrogen tank. The tank was nearly cylindrical, having a volume of about 0.144 cu m with 0.559 m in diameter and 0.711 m long. A mixer/pump unit, which had a jet nozzle outlet of 0.0221 m in diameter was located 0.178 m from the tank bottom and was installed inside the tank to generate the axial jet mixing and tank fluid circulation. The liquid fill and jet flow rate ranged from 42 to 85 percent (by volume) and 0.409 to 2.43 cu m/hr, respectively. Mixing tests began with the tank pressure ranging from 187.5 to 238.5 kPa at which the thermal stratification results in 4.9 to 6.2 K liquid sub cooling. The mixing time and transient vapor condensation rate at the liquid-vapor interface are determined. Two mixing time correlations, based on the thermal equilibrium and pressure equilibrium, are developed. Both mixing time correlations are expressed as functions of system and buoyancy parameters and compared well with other experimental data. The steady state condensation rate correlation of Sonin et al. based on steam-water data is modified and expressed as a function of jet subcooling. The limited liquid hydrogen data of the present study shows that the modified steady state condensation rate correlation may be used to predict the transient condensation rate in a mixing process if the instantaneous values of jet sub cooling and turbulence intensity at the interface are employed.

  11. Engineering report single-shell tank farms interim measures to limit infiltration through the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAASS, C.C.

    1999-10-14

    Identifies, evaluates and recommends interim measures for reducing or eliminating water sources and preferential pathways within the vadose zone of the single-shell tank farms. Features studied: surface water infiltration and leaking water lines that provide recharge moisture, and wells that could provide pathways for contaminant migration. An extensive data base, maps, recommended mitigations, and rough order of magnitude costs are included.

  12. Design, development of water tank-type lung phantom and dosimetric verification in institutions participating in a phase I study of stereotactic body radiation therapy in patients with T2N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group trial (JCOG0702).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Teiji; Shirato, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Masayori; Miyabe, Yuki; Kito, Satoshi; Narita, Yuichirou; Onimaru, Rikiya; Ishikura, Satoshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2014-05-01

    A domestic multicenter phase I study of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for T2N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer in inoperable patients or elderly patients who refused surgery was initiated as the Japan Clinical Oncology Group trial (JCOG0702) in Japan. Prior to the clinical study, the accuracy of dose calculation in radiation treatment-planning systems was surveyed in participating institutions, and differences in the irradiating dose between the institutions were investigated. We developed a water tank-type lung phantom appropriate for verification of the exposure dose in lung SBRT. Using this water tank-type lung phantom, the dose calculated in the radiation treatment-planning system and the measured dose using a free air ionization chamber and dosimetric film were compared in a visiting survey of the seven institutions participating in the clinical study. In all participating institutions, differences between the calculated and the measured dose in the irradiation plan were as follows: the accuracy of the absolute dose in the center of the simulated tumor measured using a free air ionization chamber was within 2%, the mean gamma value was ≤ 0.47 on gamma analysis following the local dose criteria, and the pass rate was >87% for 3%/3 mm from measurement of dose distribution with dosimetric film. These findings confirmed the accuracy of delivery doses in the institutions participating in the clinical study, so that a study with integration of the institutions could be initiated.

  13. 福清核电1、2号机组增大应急给水箱容积安全分析%Safety Analysis on the Volume Increase of Auxiliary Water Tank for Number One and Two Units of Fuqing Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟立丽; 邵舸; 顾健; 薛峻峰; 彭建平; 王志强

    2013-01-01

    When main feed water system or start-up feed water system is unavailable, auxiliary feed water system, as Engineered Safety Facility (ESF), provides water for Steam Generators (SG) to remove the stored and decay heat from the reactor core. In order to improve the safety of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) and increase operational flexibility, the water inventory of the auxiliary feed water tank is increased in the number one and two units of Fuqing NPP. The model of the NPP is built based on mechanical safety analytical code, and conservative assumptions are used in the calculation. Three typical accident sequences, such as loss of main feed water, loss of offsite power in category Ⅱ accident, and main feed water line break in category IV, are selected to analyze whether or not the inventory in auxiliary water tank after improvement satisfies the relevant requirements in RCC-R The results show that auxiliary water inventory of 713m3 is needed for loss of main feed water accident, auxiliary water inventory of 723m3 is needed for loss of offsite power accident, and auxiliary water inventory of 799m3 is needed for main feed water line break accident. The inventory in auxiliary water tank after improvement satisfies the requirements for category Ⅱ and Ⅳ accidents. The safety of NPP is improved due to the inventory redundancy and a time window is also provided for the operators to perform related accident procedures.%辅助给水系统(ASG)作为专设安全设施在主给水或启动给水不可用时向蒸汽发生器供水,以导出堆芯余热.为了提高电厂安全性,增加运行灵活性,福清核电1、2号机组对应急给水箱的有效容积进行了增加.本文采用机理性安全分析程序,建立核电厂分析模型,在计算过程中采用保守假设条件,选取Ⅱ类工况下正常给水丧失事故,厂外电丧失事故,Ⅳ类工况下主给水管道破裂事故3条典型事故序列,分析改进后的应急给水箱容量是否满足压水

  14. 33 CFR 157.10b - Segregated ballast tanks, dedicated clean ballast tanks, and special ballast arrangements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., dedicated clean ballast tanks, and special ballast arrangements for tank vessels transporting Outer..., dedicated clean ballast tanks, and special ballast arrangements for tank vessels transporting Outer..., 1980 must, if segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean ballast tanks are not required under §...

  15. Modeling of a lot scale rainwater tank system in XP-SWMM: a case study in Western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sterren, Marlène; Rahman, Ataur; Ryan, Garry

    2014-08-01

    Lot scale rainwater tank system modeling is often used in sustainable urban storm water management, particularly to estimate the reduction in the storm water run-off and pollutant wash-off at the lot scale. These rainwater tank models often cannot be adequately calibrated and validated due to limited availability of observed rainwater tank quantity and quality data. This paper presents calibration and validation of a lot scale rainwater tank system model using XP-SWMM utilizing data collected from two rainwater tank systems located in Western Sydney, Australia. The modeling considers run-off peak and volume in and out of the rainwater tank system and also a number of water quality parameters (Total Phosphorus (TP), Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Solids (TS)). It has been found that XP-SWMM can be used successfully to develop a lot scale rainwater system model within an acceptable error margin. It has been shown that TP and TS can be predicted more accurately than TN using the developed model. In addition, it was found that a significant reduction in storm water run-off discharge can be achieved as a result of the rainwater tank up to about one year average recurrence interval rainfall event. The model parameter set assembled in this study can be used for developing lot scale rainwater tank system models at other locations in the Western Sydney region and in other parts of Australia with necessary adjustments for the local site characteristics.

  16. Optimization and evaluation of a bottom substrate denitrification tank for nitrate removal from a recirculating aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pungrasmi, Wiboonluk; Playchoom, Cholticha; Powtongsook, Sorawit

    2013-08-01

    A bottom substrate denitrification tank for a recirculating aquaculture system was developed. The laboratory scale denitrification tank was an 8 L tank (0.04 m2 tank surface area), packed to a depth of 5 cm with a bottom substrate for natural denitrifying bacteria. An aquarium pump was used for gentle water mixing in the tank; the dissolved oxygen in the water was maintained in aerobic conditions (e.g. > 2 mg/L) while anoxic conditions predominated only at the bottom substrate layer. The results showed that, among the four substrates tested (soil, sand, pumice stone and vermiculite), pumice was the most preferable material. Comparing carbon supplementation using methanol and molasses, methanol was chosen as the carbon source because it provided a higher denitrification rate than molasses. When methanol was applied at the optimal COD:N ratio of 5:1, a nitrate removal rate of 4591 +/- 133 mg-N/m2 tank bottom area/day was achieved. Finally, nitrate removal using an 80 L denitrification tank was evaluated with a 610 L recirculating tilapia culture system. Nitrate treatment was performed by batch transferring high nitrate water from the nitrification tank into the denitrification tank and mixing with methanol at a COD:N ratio of 5:1. The results from five batches of nitrate treatment revealed that nitrate was successfully removed from water without the accumulation of nitrite and ammonia. The average nitrate removal efficiency was 85.17% and the average denitrification rate of the denitrification tank was 6311 +/- 945 mg-N/m2 tank bottom area/day or 126 +/- 18 mg-N/L of pumice packing volume/day.

  17. Optimization and evaluation of a bottom substrate denitrification tank for nitrate removal from a recirculating aquaculture system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wiboonluk Pungrasmi; Cholticha Playchoom; Sorawit Powtongsook

    2013-01-01

    A bottom substrate denitrification tank for a recirculating aquaculture system was developed.The laboratory scale denitrification tank was an 8 L tank (0.04 m2 tank surface area),packed to a depth of 5 cm with a bottom substrate for natural denitrifying bacteria.An aquarium pump was used for gentle water mixing in the tank; the dissolved oxygen in the water was maintained in aerobic conditions (e.g.> 2 mg/L) while anoxic conditions predominated only at the bottom substrate layer.The results showed that,among the four substrates tested (soil,sand,pumice stone and vermiculite),pumice was the most preferable material.Comparing carbon supplementation using methanol and molasses,methanol was chosen as the carbon source because it provided a higher denitrification rate than molasses.When methanol was applied at the optimal COD∶N ratio of 5∶1,a nitrate removal rate of 4591 ± 133 mg-N/m2 tank bottom area/day was achieved.Finally,nitrate removal using an 80 L denitrification tank was evaluated with a 610 L recirculating tilapia culture system.Nitrate treatment was performed by batch transferring high nitrate water from the nitrification tank into the denitrification tank and mixing with methanol at a COD∶N ratio of 5∶1.The results from five batches of nitrate treatment revealed that nitrate was successfully removed from water without the accumulation of nitrite and ammonia.The average nitrate removal efficiency was 85.17% and the average denitrification rate of the denitrification tank was 6311 ± 945 mg-N/m2 tank bottom area/day or 126 ± 18 mg-N/L of pumice packing volume/day.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION AND ACTUAL WASTE TEST WITH TANK 5F SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M. S.; Crapse, K. P.; Fink, S. D.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2007-08-30

    to be water-soluble consistent with the determined composition. The analytical data for the solid residues filtered from the oxalic acid solution and filtered oxalic acid indicate a large portion of the Tank 5F sludge used in the tank cleaning test dissolved into the oxalic acid. The results of a material balance calculation indicate a high percentage of the iron, uranium, sodium, and aluminum dissolved during both tests. Approximately half of the manganese, a small portion of the plutonium, and essentially none of the nickel dissolved during the tank cleaning tests. Additionally, the results show slightly higher dissolution of the sludge in the 75 C test compared to the 50 C test however, the amount of sludge dissolution gained by using the higher temperature remains small. Some uncertainty remains with respect to the amount of plutonium dissolved in the tank cleaning test. The neutralization of the filtered oxalic acid solutions from the cleaning test produced a large volume of solids ({approx}2X the original sludge mass after filtration and air drying). A large portion of the increase in solids could be attributed to the formation of sodium oxalate. The data from analysis of the solid residues filtered from the neutralization tests and the filtrate obtained indicate most of the iron, uranium, manganese, and a large portion of the aluminum precipitated during the neutralization tests. The data for the 50 C test and the 75 C test show good agreement with the exception of the amount of aluminum precipitated from the neutralization. The slower addition rate of the oxalic acid filtrate to the simulated Tank 7F supernate in the 75 C test might account for the smaller amount of aluminum precipitated and differences in the particle size/morphology and composition of the particulates. Some evidence of uranium separation from other sludge elements appears in the 75 C data. Data collected from the tank cleaning and neutralization tests indicates most of the uranium dissolved

  19. Fish stocking density impacts tank hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Lunger, Angela; Laursen, Jesper;

    2006-01-01

    hydrodynamics was established using in-tank-based Rhodamine WT fluorometry at a flow rate of 0.23 l s-1 (tank exchange rate of 1.9 h-1). With increasing numbers of animals, curvilinear relationships were observed for dispersion coefficients and tank mixing times. Stocking densities of 3, 6, 9 and 12 kg m-3......The effect of stocking density upon the hydrodynamics of a circular tank, configured in a recirculation system, was investigated. Red drums Sciaenops ocellatus of approximately 140 g wet weight, were stocked at five rates varying from 0 to 12 kg m-3. The impact of the presence of fish upon tank...

  20. Hanford Tank 241-C-106: Impact of Cement Reactions on Release of Contaminants from Residual Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2006-09-01

    The CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) is producing risk/performance assessments to support the closure of single-shell tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. As part of this effort, staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were asked to develop release models for contaminants of concern that are present in residual sludge remaining in tank 241-C-106 (C-106) after final retrieval of waste from the tank. Initial work to produce release models was conducted on residual tank sludge using pure water as the leaching agent. The results were reported in an earlier report. The decision has now been made to close the tanks after waste retrieval with a cementitious grout to minimize infiltration and maintain the physical integrity of the tanks. This report describes testing of the residual waste with a leaching solution that simulates the composition of water passing through the grout and contacting the residual waste at the bottom of the tank.