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Sample records for anechoic tank measurements

  1. The low-frequency sound power measuring technique for an underwater source in a non-anechoic tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Ming; Tang, Rui; Li, Qi; Shang, Da-Jing

    2018-03-01

    In order to determine the radiated sound power of an underwater source below the Schroeder cut-off frequency in a non-anechoic tank, a low-frequency extension measuring technique is proposed. This technique is based on a unique relationship between the transmission characteristics of the enclosed field and those of the free field, which can be obtained as a correction term based on previous measurements of a known simple source. The radiated sound power of an unknown underwater source in the free field can thereby be obtained accurately from measurements in a non-anechoic tank. To verify the validity of the proposed technique, a mathematical model of the enclosed field is established using normal-mode theory, and the relationship between the transmission characteristics of the enclosed and free fields is obtained. The radiated sound power of an underwater transducer source is tested in a glass tank using the proposed low-frequency extension measuring technique. Compared with the free field, the radiated sound power level of the narrowband spectrum deviation is found to be less than 3 dB, and the 1/3 octave spectrum deviation is found to be less than 1 dB. The proposed testing technique can be used not only to extend the low-frequency applications of non-anechoic tanks, but also for measurement of radiated sound power from complicated sources in non-anechoic tanks.

  2. RADAR Anechoic Chamber/RCS Measurements Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The RF Anechoic Chamber is 56 feet long by 12 feet high by 13.5 feet wide, with an adjoining electronic computer control room. A double door entrance at one end of...

  3. Anechoic Chamber test of the Electromagnetic Measurement System ground test unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, L. E.; Scott, L. D.; Oakes, E. T.

    1987-04-01

    The Electromagnetic Measurement System (EMMS) will acquire data on electromagnetic (EM) environments at key weapon locations on various aircraft certified for nuclear weapons. The high-frequency ground unit of the EMMS consists of an instrumented B61 bomb case that will measure (with current probes) the localized current density resulting from an applied EM field. For this portion of the EMMS, the first system test was performed in the Anechoic Chamber Facility at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The EMMS pod was subjected to EM radiation at microwave frequencies of 1, 3, and 10 GHz. At each frequency, the EMMS pod was rotated at many positions relative to the microwave source so that the individual current probes were exposed to a direct line-of-sight illumination. The variations between the measured and calculated electric fields for the current probes with direct illumination by the EM source are within a few db. The results obtained from the anechoic test were better than expected and verify that the high frequency ground portion of the EMMS will accurately measure the EM environments for which it was designed.

  4. Aeroacoustic measurements for an axial fan in a non-anechoic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoudi, Behdad; Foss, John F; Morris, Scott C

    2016-01-01

    Determination of the aeroacoustic emission from an axial fan in a non-anechoic environment is a challenging experimental task given ambient noise and acoustic reflections from surrounding objects. Successful strategies to address this task for a representative nine and three blade fan are presented. An array consisting of ten microphones was constructed and placed in the upstream region of the axial fans to measure the fan acoustic signature at ten distinct locations. A novel delay and sum (DS) beamforming technique (that allows precise time delays to be established by the use of cross correlation techniques) was applied to the microphone outputs in order to separate the fans’ acoustic emissions from the ambient noise and reflections from the facility walls. A numerical simulation was developed to represent the experimental facility and the measurements. The numerical simulation indicated that the extraneous noise can be satisfactorily separated from the fan noise using the array measurements and post processing the acoustic data with the present DS beamforming technique. (paper)

  5. Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber comprises a power anechoic chamber and one transverse electromagnetic cell for characterizing radiofrequency (RF) responses of...

  6. GBO RF Anechoic Chamber & Antenna Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A shielded anechoic chamber measuring 15 by 15 by 37 feet is located in the Jansky Laboratory at Green Bank. This chamber has been outfitted as a far-field antenna...

  7. Anechoic chamber in industrial plants. [construction materials and structural design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, E.; Juncu, O.; Lorian, R.; Marfievici, D.; Mararu, I.

    1974-01-01

    A light anechoic chamber for routine acoustical measurements in the machine building industry is reported. The outer housing of the chamber consists of modules cast in glass fiber reinforced polyester resin; the inner housing consists of pyramidal modules cut out of sound absorbing slates. The parameters of this anechoic chamber facilitate acoustical measurements according to ISO and CAEM recommendations.

  8. Reflectivity level of radio anechoic chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1973-01-01

    A comparison between the antenna-pattern comparison technique and the free-space voltage standing-wave ratio technique for evaluating the reflectivity level of radio anechoic chambers is presented. Based on an analysis of the two techniques, it is pointed out which parameters influence the measured...

  9. Volume measurement study for large scale input accountancy tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchikoshi, Seiji; Watanabe, Yuichi; Tsujino, Takeshi

    1999-01-01

    Large Scale Tank Calibration (LASTAC) facility, including an experimental tank which has the same volume and structure as the input accountancy tank of Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) was constructed in Nuclear Material Control Center of Japan. Demonstration experiments have been carried out to evaluate a precision of solution volume measurement and to establish the procedure of highly accurate pressure measurement for a large scale tank with dip-tube bubbler probe system to be applied to the input accountancy tank of RRP. Solution volume in a tank is determined from substitution the solution level for the calibration function obtained in advance, which express a relation between the solution level and its volume in the tank. Therefore, precise solution volume measurement needs a precise calibration function that is determined carefully. The LASTAC calibration experiments using pure water showed good result in reproducibility. (J.P.N.)

  10. Waste tank ventilation rates measured with a tracer gas method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Evans, J.C.; Sklarew, D.S.; Mitroshkov, A.V.

    1998-08-01

    Passive ventilation with the atmosphere is used to prevent accumulation of waste gases and vapors in the headspaces of 132 of the 177 high-level radioactive waste Tanks at the Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington State. Measurements of the passive ventilation rates are needed for the resolution of two key safety issues associated with the rates of flammable gas production and accumulation and the rates at which organic salt-nitrate salt mixtures dry out. Direct measurement of passive ventilation rates using mass flow meters is not feasible because ventilation occurs va multiple pathways to the atmosphere (i.e., via the filtered breather riser and unsealed tank risers and pits), as well as via underground connections to other tanks, junction boxes, and inactive ventilation systems. The tracer gas method discussed in this report provides a direct measurement of the rate at which gases are removed by ventilation and an indirect measurement of the ventilation rate. The tracer gas behaves as a surrogate of the waste-generated gases, but it is only diminished via ventilation, whereas the waste gases are continuously released by the waste and may be subject to depletion mechanisms other than ventilation. The fiscal year 1998 tracer studies provide new evidence that significant exchange of air occurs between tanks via the underground cascade pipes. Most of the single-shell waste tanks are connected via 7.6-cm diameter cascade pipes to one or two adjacent tanks. Tracer gas studies of the Tank U-102/U-103 system indicated that the ventilation occurring via the cascade line could be a significant fraction of the total ventilation. In this two-tank cascade, air evidently flowed from Tank U-103 to Tank U-102 for a time and then was observed to flow from Tank U-102 to Tank U-103

  11. Numerical Modelling and Measurement in a Test Secondary Settling Tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, C.; Larsen, Torben; Petersen, O.

    1994-01-01

    sludge. Phenomena as free and hindered settling and the Bingham plastic characteristic of activated sludge suspensions are included in the numerical model. Further characterisation and test tank experiments are described. The characterisation experiments were designed to measure calibration parameters...... for model description of settling and density differences. In the test tank experiments, flow velocities and suspended sludge concentrations were measured with different tank inlet geomotry and hydraulic and sludge loads. The test tank experiments provided results for the calibration of the numerical model......A numerical model and measurements of flow and settling in activated sludge suspension is presented. The numerical model is an attempt to describe the complex and interrelated hydraulic and sedimentation phenomena by describing the turbulent flow field and the transport/dispersion of suspended...

  12. A two dimensional finite difference time domain analysis of the quiet zone fields of an anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Deirdre A.; Luebbers, Raymond J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Kunz, Karl S.; Steich, David J.

    1992-01-01

    Prediction of anechoic chamber performance is a difficult problem. Electromagnetic anechoic chambers exist for a wide range of frequencies but are typically very large when measured in wavelengths. Three dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of anechoic chambers is possible with current computers but at frequencies lower than most chamber design frequencies. However, two dimensional FDTD (2D-FTD) modeling enables much greater detail at higher frequencies and offers significant insight into compact anechoic chamber design and performance. A major subsystem of an anechoic chamber for which computational electromagnetic analyses exist is the reflector. First, an analysis of the quiet zone fields of a low frequency anechoic chamber produced by a uniform source and a reflector in two dimensions using the FDTD method is presented. The 2D-FDTD results are compared with results from a three dimensional corrected physical optics calculation and show good agreement. Next, a directional source is substituted for the uniform radiator. Finally, a two dimensional anechoic chamber geometry, including absorbing materials, is considered, and the 2D-FDTD results for these geometries appear reasonable.

  13. Experimental investigation of sound absorption of acoustic wedges for anechoic chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, I. V.; Golubev, A. Yu.; Zverev, A. Ya.; Makashov, S. Yu.; Palchikovskiy, V. V.; Sobolev, A. F.; Chernykh, V. V.

    2015-09-01

    The results of measuring the sound absorption by acoustic wedges, which were performed in AC-3 and AC-11 reverberation chambers at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), are presented. Wedges of different densities manufactured from superfine basaltic and thin mineral fibers were investigated. The results of tests of these wedges were compared to the sound absorption of wedges of the operating AC-2 anechoic facility at TsAGI. It is shown that basaltic-fiber wedges have better sound-absorption characteristics than the investigated analogs and can be recommended for facing anechoic facilities under construction.

  14. Photogrammetry Measurements During a Tanking Test on the Space Shuttle External Tank, ET-137

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.; Schmidt, Tim; Tyson, John; Oliver, Stanley T.; Melis, Matthew E.; Ruggeri, Charles

    2012-01-01

    On November 5, 2010, a significant foam liberation threat was observed as the Space Shuttle STS-133 launch effort was scrubbed because of a hydrogen leak at the ground umbilical carrier plate. Further investigation revealed the presence of multiple cracks at the tops of stringers in the intertank region of the Space Shuttle External Tank. As part of an instrumented tanking test conducted on December 17, 2010, a three dimensional digital image correlation photogrammetry system was used to measure radial deflections and overall deformations of a section of the intertank region. This paper will describe the experimental challenges that were overcome in order to implement the photogrammetry measurements for the tanking test in support of STS-133. The technique consisted of configuring and installing two pairs of custom stereo camera bars containing calibrated cameras on the 215-ft level of the fixed service structure of Launch Pad 39-A. The cameras were remotely operated from the Launch Control Center 3.5 miles away during the 8 hour duration test, which began before sunrise and lasted through sunset. The complete deformation time history was successfully computed from the acquired images and would prove to play a crucial role in the computer modeling validation efforts supporting the successful completion of the root cause analysis of the cracked stringer problem by the Space Shuttle Program. The resulting data generated included full field fringe plots, data extraction time history analysis, section line spatial analyses and differential stringer peak ]valley motion. Some of the sample results are included with discussion. The resulting data showed that new stringer crack formation did not occur for the panel examined, and that large amounts of displacement in the external tank occurred because of the loads derived from its filling. The measurements acquired were also used to validate computer modeling efforts completed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  15. Measurements of waste tank passive ventilation rates using tracer gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Sklarew, D.S.; Evans, J.C.; Remund, K.M.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results of ventilation rate studies of eight passively ventilated high-level radioactive waste tanks using tracer gases. Head space ventilation rates were determined for Tanks A-101, AX-102, AX-103, BY-105, C-107, S-102, U-103, and U-105 using sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) and/or helium (He) as tracer gases. Passive ventilation rates are needed for the resolution of several key safety issues. These safety issues are associated with the rates of flammable gas production and ventilation, the rates at which organic salt-nitrate salt mixtures dry out, and the estimation of organic solvent waste surface areas. This tracer gas study involves injecting a tracer gas into the tank headspace and measuring its concentration at different times to establish the rate at which the tracer is removed by ventilation. Tracer gas injection and sample collection were performed by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation and/or Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation, Characterization Project Operations. Headspace samples were analyzed for He and SF 6 by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The tracer gas method was first demonstrated on Tank S-102. Tests were conducted on Tank S-102 to verify that the tracer gas was uniformly distributed throughout the tank headspace before baseline samples were collected, and that mixing was sufficiently vigorous to maintain an approximately uniform distribution of tracer gas in the headspace during the course of the study. Headspace samples, collected from a location about 4 in away from the injection point and 15, 30, and 60 minutes after the injection of He and SF 6 , indicated that both tracer gases were rapidly mixed. The samples were found to have the same concentration of tracer gases after 1 hour as after 24 hours, suggesting that mixing of the tracer gas was essentially complete within 1 hour

  16. Estimating retained gas volumes in the Hanford tanks using waste level measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, P.D.; Chen, G.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Meyer, P.A.; Miller, N.E.

    1997-09-01

    The Hanford site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Safety and environmental concerns surround these tanks and their contents. One such concern is the propensity for the waste in these tanks to generate and trap flammable gases. This report focuses on understanding and improving the quality of retained gas volume estimates derived from tank waste level measurements. While direct measurements of gas volume are available for a small number of the Hanford tanks, the increasingly wide availability of tank waste level measurements provides an opportunity for less expensive (than direct gas volume measurement) assessment of gas hazard for the Hanford tanks. Retained gas in the tank waste is inferred from level measurements -- either long-term increase in the tank waste level, or fluctuations in tank waste level with atmospheric pressure changes. This report concentrates on the latter phenomena. As atmospheric pressure increases, the pressure on the gas in the tank waste increases, resulting in a level decrease (as long as the tank waste is open-quotes softclose quotes enough). Tanks with waste levels exhibiting fluctuations inversely correlated with atmospheric pressure fluctuations were catalogued in an earlier study. Additionally, models incorporating ideal-gas law behavior and waste material properties have been proposed. These models explicitly relate the retained gas volume in the tank with the magnitude of the waste level fluctuations, dL/dP. This report describes how these models compare with the tank waste level measurements

  17. Measurement of heat transfers in cryogenic tank with several configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khemis, O.; Bessaieh, R.; Ait Ali, M.; Francois, M.X.

    2004-01-01

    The work presented here concerns the measurement of heat transfer in a cryogenic tank with several configurations. The experimental test incorporates the conductive heat in the neck, the convection heat transfers between the inner wall of the neck and the ascending vapor resulting from boiling, and the radiation heat transfers between the external envelope and the tank through a vacuum of 10 -8 mm Hg. An experimental prototype was produced in collaboration with the nuclear center of Orsay in France according to a didactic design, which takes into account the Wexler effect and the importance of the radiation compared to the conduction-convection heat transfer. The addition of a screen radiative ventilated with variable position on the neck (which can effectively replace several tens of floating screens), in order to find the optimal position, which minimizes the radiation flux, is presented in this paper

  18. Static and wind tunnel near-field/far-field jet noise measurements from model scale single-flow base line and suppressor nozzles. Summary report. [conducted in the Boeing large anechoic test chamber and the NASA-Ames 40by 80-foot wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeck, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    A test program was conducted in the Boeing large anechoic test chamber and the NASA-Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel to study the near- and far-field jet noise characteristics of six baseline and suppressor nozzles. Static and wind-on noise source locations were determined. A technique for extrapolating near field jet noise measurements into the far field was established. It was determined if flight effects measured in the near field are the same as those in the far field. The flight effects on the jet noise levels of the baseline and suppressor nozzles were determined. Test models included a 15.24-cm round convergent nozzle, an annular nozzle with and without ejector, a 20-lobe nozzle with and without ejector, and a 57-tube nozzle with lined ejector. The static free-field test in the anechoic chamber covered nozzle pressure ratios from 1.44 to 2.25 and jet velocities from 412 to 594 m/s at a total temperature of 844 K. The wind tunnel flight effects test repeated these nozzle test conditions with ambient velocities of 0 to 92 m/s.

  19. RF Anechoic Chambers, Tri-Service Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In collaboration with the Navy, there are 12 RF Anechoic and static free exposure chambers located at TSRL. These chambers cover the majority of the RF spectrum and...

  20. A Large Hemi-Anechoic Enclosure for Community-Compatible Aeroacoustic Testing of Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Beth A.

    1993-01-01

    A large hemi-anechoic (absorptive walls and acoustically hard floor) noise control enclosure has been erected around a complex of test stands at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. This new state-of-the-art Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory (APL) provides an all-weather, semisecure test environment while limiting noise to acceptable levels in surrounding residential neighborhoods. The 39.6 m (130 ft) diameter geodesic dome structure houses the new Nozzle Aeroacoustic Test Rig (NATR), an ejector-powered M = 0.3 free jet facility for acoustic testing of supersonic aircraft exhaust nozzles and turbomachinery. A multi-axis, force-measuring Powered Lift Facility (PLF) stand for testing of Short Takeoff Vertical Landing (STOVL) vehicles is also located within the dome. The design of the Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory efficiently accomodates the research functions of two separate test rigs, one of which (NATR) requires a specialized environment for taking acoustic measurements. Absorptive fiberglass wedge treatment on the interior surface of the dome provides a hemi-anechoic interior environment for obtaining the accurate acoustic measurements required to meet research program goals. The APL is the first known geodesic dome structure to incorporate transmission-loss properties as well as interior absorption into a free-standing, community-compatible, hemi-anechoic test facility.

  1. Electromagnetic absorber composite made of carbon fibers loaded epoxy foam for anechoic chamber application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Méjean, Chloé; Pometcu, Laura; Benzerga, Ratiba; Sharaiha, Ala; Le Paven-Thivet, Claire; Badard, Mathieu; Pouliguen, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon fibers loaded epoxy foam composites are proposed as microwave absorbers. • Dielectric properties (ε′, tanδ) of composites increase with carbon fibers content and length. • S 11 coefficient of a pyramidal prototype was characterized in anechoic chamber. • Epoxy prototype shows better absorption performance than commercial absorber. • S 11 of the prototype is lower than −30 dB (4–18 GHz) at normal and oblique incidences. - Abstract: This paper presents a new electromagnetic absorbing material developed from carbon fibers loaded epoxy foam for an application in anechoic chamber. The composite was developed in order to replace the currently used pyramidal absorbers made of carbon particles loaded polyurethane foam. Epoxy-composites filled with different weight percentages (from 0 wt.% to 4 wt.%) and length (1 and 3 mm) of carbon fibers were achieved. After an optimization of the dispersion of carbon fibers in composite materials, the dielectric properties of the composites were measured using a coaxial-probe in the frequency range 4–18 GHz. Results have shown that the complex permittivity of the composites increases with the amount of charge and also with the length of the carbon fibers. Absorption performance of a prototype prepared with a low concentration (0.5 wt.%) of carbon fibers was measured in an anechoic chamber: it shows a mean gain of 10 dB compared to a commercial absorber.

  2. Electromagnetic absorber composite made of carbon fibers loaded epoxy foam for anechoic chamber application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Méjean, Chloé; Pometcu, Laura [Institut d’Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes, 18 rue Henri Wallon, 22000 Saint-Brieuc (France); Benzerga, Ratiba, E-mail: ratiba.benzerga@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut d’Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes, 18 rue Henri Wallon, 22000 Saint-Brieuc (France); Sharaiha, Ala; Le Paven-Thivet, Claire; Badard, Mathieu [Institut d’Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes, 18 rue Henri Wallon, 22000 Saint-Brieuc (France); Pouliguen, Philippe [Département Recherche et Innovation Scientifique de la Direction Générale de l’Armement, 7-9 rue des Mathurins, 92221 Bagneux (France)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Carbon fibers loaded epoxy foam composites are proposed as microwave absorbers. • Dielectric properties (ε′, tanδ) of composites increase with carbon fibers content and length. • S{sub 11} coefficient of a pyramidal prototype was characterized in anechoic chamber. • Epoxy prototype shows better absorption performance than commercial absorber. • S{sub 11} of the prototype is lower than −30 dB (4–18 GHz) at normal and oblique incidences. - Abstract: This paper presents a new electromagnetic absorbing material developed from carbon fibers loaded epoxy foam for an application in anechoic chamber. The composite was developed in order to replace the currently used pyramidal absorbers made of carbon particles loaded polyurethane foam. Epoxy-composites filled with different weight percentages (from 0 wt.% to 4 wt.%) and length (1 and 3 mm) of carbon fibers were achieved. After an optimization of the dispersion of carbon fibers in composite materials, the dielectric properties of the composites were measured using a coaxial-probe in the frequency range 4–18 GHz. Results have shown that the complex permittivity of the composites increases with the amount of charge and also with the length of the carbon fibers. Absorption performance of a prototype prepared with a low concentration (0.5 wt.%) of carbon fibers was measured in an anechoic chamber: it shows a mean gain of 10 dB compared to a commercial absorber.

  3. Initial tank calibration at NUCEF critical facility. 1. Measurement procedure and its result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Hiroshi; Mineo, Hideaki; Tonoike, Kotaro; Takeshita, Isao; Hoshi, Katsuya; Hagiwara, Hiroyuki.

    1994-07-01

    Initial tank calibrations were carried out prior to hot operation of critical facilities in NUCEF: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility, for the purpose of the nuclear material accountancy and control for the facility. Raw calibration data were collected from single run per one tank by measuring differential pressure with dip-tube systems, weight of calibration liquid (demineralized water) poured into the tank, temperature in the tank and so on, without operation of tank ventilation system. Volume and level data were obtained by applying density and buoyancy corrections to the raw data. As a result, the evaluated measurement errors of volume and level were small enough, e.g. within 0.2 lit. and 1.0 mm, respectively, for Pu accountancy tanks. This paper summarizes the above-mentioned measurement procedures, collected data, data correction procedures and evaluated measurement errors. (author)

  4. Characterization of microchannel anechoic corners formed by surface acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destgeer, Ghulam; Alam, Ashar; Ahmed, Husnain; Park, Jinsoo; Jung, Jin Ho; Park, Kwangseok; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2018-02-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) generated in a piezoelectric substrate couple with a liquid according to Snell's law such that a compressional acoustic wave propagates obliquely at a Rayleigh angle ( θ t) inside the microchannel to form a region devoid of a direct acoustic field, which is termed a microchannel anechoic corner (MAC). In the present study, we used microchannels with various heights and widths to characterize the width of the MAC region formed by a single travelling SAW. The attenuation of high-frequency SAWs produced a strong acoustic streaming flow that moved the particles in and out of the MAC region, whereas reflections of the acoustic waves within the microchannel resulted in standing acoustic waves that trapped particles at acoustic pressure nodes located within or outside of the MAC region. A range of actuation frequencies and particle diameters were used to investigate the effects of the acoustic streaming flow and the direct acoustic radiation forces by the travelling as well as standing waves on the particle motion with respect to the MAC region. The width of the MAC ( w c), measured experimentally by tracing the particles, increased with the height of the microchannel ( h m) according to a simple trigonometric equation w c = h m × tan ( θ t ).

  5. Test plan for measuring ventilation rates and combustible gas levels in TWRS active catch tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-05-20

    The purpose of this test is to provide an initial screening of combustible gas concentrations in catch tanks that currently are operated by Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The data will be used to determine whether or not additional data will be needed for closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. This test will involve field measurements of ammonia, organic vapor, and total combustible gas levels in the headspace of the catch tanks. If combustible gas level in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will be collected in SUMMA canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flow through the tanks.

  6. Tri-component phononic crystals for underwater anechoic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Honggang; Liu, Yaozong; Wen, Jihong; Yu, Dianlong; Wen, Xisen

    2007-01-01

    Localized resonance in phononic crystal, composed of three-dimensional arrays of composite units, has been discovered recently. The composite unit is a high-density sphere coated by soft silicon rubber. In this Letter, the absorptive properties induced by the localized resonance are systemically investigated. The mode conversions during the Mie scattering of a single coated lead sphere in unbounded epoxy are analyzed by referring the elements of the scattering matrix. Then the anechoic properties of a slab containing a plane of such composite scatterers are investigated with the multiple-scattering method by accounting the effects of the multiple scattering and the viscous dissipation. The results show that the longitudinal to transverse mode conversion nearby the locally resonant region is an effective way to enhance the anechoic performance of the finite slab of phononic crystal. Then, the influences of the viscoelasticity of the silicon rubber and the coating thickness on the acoustic properties of the finite slab are investigated for anechoic optimization. Finally, we synthetically consider the destructive scattering in the finite slab of phononic crystal and the backing, and design an anechoic slab composed of bi-layer coated spheres. The results show that the most of the incident energy is absorbed at the desired frequency band

  7. Report on technical measurements concerning measurement of the suction of tanks at Fangel biomass conversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The inconveniences caused by the odours emerging from the biomass conversion plant in Fangel, Denmark, and the actions taken in an attempt to reduce them, are described. The plant has on several occasions been threatened with being closed down because of the smell. Airtight coverings have been fixed on all the open tanks, and the suction element has been tested to see if it is airtight. Ozone has been added in order to help get rid of the smell. Measurements have shown that it is possible to attain a small vacuum in the storage tank under normal operation, if there is a surfeit of pumping there will be too high pressure. In relation to pumping-in the pressure can be too high in the first and medium tank. Flow, pressure, hydrogen sulphide and methane concentration changes significantly in relation to the various pumping frequences. The level of hydrogen sulphide removal in the biofilter was 70-85%. The flow of hydrogen sulphide becomes less after the addition of ozone. Measurements implied that the tanks were airtight. Larger vacuums can be achieved by changing the shape of the pipe system and increasing the flow. (AB)

  8. Test plan for measuring ventilation rates and combustible gas levels in RPP active catch tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-06-03

    The purpose of this test is to provide an initial screening of combustible gas concentrations in catch tanks that currently are operated by River Protection Project (RPP). The data will be used to determine whether or not additional data will be needed for closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. This test will involve field measurements of ammonia, organic vapor, and total combustible gas levels in the headspace of the catch tanks. If combustible gas level in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will be collected in SUMMA canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flow through the tanks.

  9. Precision Radio Frequency Anechoic Chamber Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs measurements and calibration of antennas for satellites and aircraft or groundbased systems. The chamber is primarily used for optimizing antenna...

  10. Residence time distribution measurements in a pilot-scale poison tank using radiotracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, H J; Goswami, Sunil; Samantray, J S; Sharma, V K; Maheshwari, N K

    2015-09-01

    Various types of systems are used to control the reactivity and shutting down of a nuclear reactor during emergency and routine shutdown operations. Injection of boron solution (borated water) into the core of a reactor is one of the commonly used methods during emergency operation. A pilot-scale poison tank was designed and fabricated to simulate injection of boron poison into the core of a reactor along with coolant water. In order to design a full-scale poison tank, it was desired to characterize flow of liquid from the tank. Residence time distribution (RTD) measurement and analysis was adopted to characterize the flow dynamics. Radiotracer technique was applied to measure RTD of aqueous phase in the tank using Bromine-82 as a radiotracer. RTD measurements were carried out with two different modes of operation of the tank and at different flow rates. In Mode-1, the radiotracer was instantaneously injected at the inlet and monitored at the outlet, whereas in Mode-2, the tank was filled with radiotracer and its concentration was measured at the outlet. From the measured RTD curves, mean residence times (MRTs), dead volume and fraction of liquid pumped in with time were determined. The treated RTD curves were modeled using suitable mathematical models. An axial dispersion model with high degree of backmixing was found suitable to describe flow when operated in Mode-1, whereas a tanks-in-series model with backmixing was found suitable to describe flow of the poison in the tank when operated in Mode-2. The results were utilized to scale-up and design a full-scale poison tank for a nuclear reactor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of storage tank holdup measurements to reduce inventory differences in an ion exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, C.A.; Marshall, R.

    1986-01-01

    Inventory differences (ID) in an ion exchange process area have plagued the Los Alamos National Laboratory for years. The problem has always been attributed to plutonium precipitation in banks of horizontally oriented storage tanks; however, efforts to maintain the precipitates at low enough or even stable levels failed. Factoring tank holdup measurements into the end-of-month inventory balance would probably solve the ID problem; however, the authors were advised that gamma-based holdup measurements would yield very poor quality holdup estimates because of difficulties in determining transmission corrections and tank ''cross talk.'' When the ID problem became particularly troublesome in the spring of 1985, the authors evaluated two different gamma-based measurement techniques for estimating tank holdup. Not only did holdup estimates made by the two techniques agree, but plutonium recovered during intensive tank cleanout confirmed that the holdup measurements were of sufficient accuracy to be used for material balance adjustments. The measurement method chosen for routine use is somewhat unique since it is calibrated using tank cleanout data and requires no transmission corrections. The holdup measurements are made on a monthly basis and have dramatically reduced end-of-month inventory differences. This paper will present both a description of the measurement methodology and the inventory difference improvements

  12. Radiation exposure rate and liquid level measurement inside a high level liquid waste (HLLW) storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, B.; Yue, S.; Thekkevarriam, A.

    2007-01-01

    An instrument based on an inexpensive, small silicon diode has been developed and used to measure, for the first time, the gamma radiation exposure rate profile inside a 6.4 mm diameter reentrant thermo-well tube, immersed in the highly radioactive liquid solution in an HLLW storage tank. The measurement agrees with previous calculations of exposure rate, and provides confirmation for safe and effective radiation work plans and material selection for investigations and remediation of the storage tank facility. The measured radiation exposure rate profile is also used to confirm that the position of tank internal structures have not changed because of aging and corrosion, and to obtain, within a few mm, the level of liquid inside the tank. (author)

  13. A safeguards verification technique for solution homogeneity and volume measurements in process tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, S.; Franssen, F.

    1987-01-01

    A safeguards verification technique is being developed for determining whether process-liquid homogeneity has been achieved in process tanks and for authenticating volume-measurement algorithms involving temperature corrections. It is proposed that, in new designs for bulk-handling plants employing automated process lines, bubbler probes and thermocouples be installed at several heights in key accountability tanks. High-accuracy measurements of density using an electromanometer can now be made which match or even exceed analytical-laboratory accuracies. Together with regional determination of tank temperatures, these measurements provide density, liquid-column weight and temperature gradients over the fill range of the tank that can be used to ascertain when the tank solution has reached equilibrium. Temperature-correction algorithms can be authenticated by comparing the volumes obtained from the several bubbler-probe liquid-height measurements, each based on different amounts of liquid above and below the probe. The verification technique is based on the automated electromanometer system developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The IAEA has recently approved the purchase of a stainless-steel tank equipped with multiple bubbler and thermocouple probes for installation in its Bulk Calibration Laboratory at IAEA Headquarters, Vienna. The verification technique is scheduled for preliminary trials in late 1987

  14. Test Plan for Measuring Ventilation Rates and Combustible Gas Levels in TWRS Active Catch Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-10-25

    The purpose of this sampling activity is to obtain data to support an initial evaluation of potential hazards due to the presence of combustible gas in catch tanks that are currently operated by the River Protection Project (RPP). Results of the hazard analysis will be used to support closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. The data collection will be conducted in accordance with the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (Dukelow et al. 1995). Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels in the headspace of the catch tanks will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. If a combustible gas level measurement in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will he collected in SUMMA' canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flowing through the tanks. This test plan identifies the sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides the procedures for field measurement of combustible gas concentrations and ventilation rates.

  15. A statistical examination of the practical problems of measurement in accountancy tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, W.; Good, P.T.; Hamlin, A.G.

    1979-01-01

    In the first part of the paper the general problems of measurement in large accountancy tanks are considered. The generalized tank is assumed to have an extended geometry for the avoidance of criticality, to be fitted with pneumatic level indicating devices and with temperature sensors, and to contain liquid to be accounted, such as that derived from irradiated fuel elements, which is sufficiently active to generate appreciable heat and also radiolytic gases. Possible uncertainties contributed to the final measurement of fissile material contained in or discharged from the tank by the effects of hydrostatic heads, temperature, radiolysis, surface tension, and drainage are considered in detail. The magnitude of these is established from practical data and the errors combined in order to estimate the best possible performance, which, under the specified conditions, appears to be about +-0.3% (1 sigma). The implications for the design of large accountancy tanks are considered, with particular reference to the design of accountancy tanks for future plants where the above precision may not be adequate. The second part of the paper considers practical approaches to the problem of ensuring that actual performance of the measuring system approaches the best possible as closely as possible. In particular, a system of operation in which the accountancy tank is utilized essentially as a fixed volume, with the measuring systems restricted to determining small variations from this nominal volume, offers considerable promise

  16. Development Radar Absorber Material using Rice Husk Carbon for Anechoic Chamber Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulpadrianto, Z.; Yohandri, Y.; Putra, A.

    2018-04-01

    The developments of radar technology in Indonesia are very strategic due to the vast territory and had a high-level cloud cover more than 55% of the time. The objective of this research is to develop radar technology facility in Indonesia using local natural resources. The target of this research is to present a low cost and satisfy quality of anechoic chambers. Anechoic chamber is a space designed to avoid reflection of EM waves from outside or from within the room. The reflection coefficient of the EM wave is influenced by the medium imposed by the EM wave. In laboratory experimental research has been done the development of material radar absorber using rice husk. The rice husk is activated using HCl and KOH by stirring using a magnetic stirrer for 1 Hours. The results of rice husk activation were measured using a Vector Network Analyzer by varying the thickness of the ingredients and the concentration of the activation agent. The VNA measurement is obtained reflection coefficient of -12dB and. -6.22dB for 1M HCL and KOH at thickness 10mm, respectively.

  17. Nondestructive examination of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) reaction control subsystem (RCS) propellant tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, James M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper assesses the feasibility of using eddy current nondestructive examination to determine flaw sizes in completely assembled hydrazine propellant tanks. The study was performed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) project to help determine whether existing propellant tanks could meet the fracture analysis requirements of the current pressure vessel specification, MIL-STD-1522A and, therefore be used on the TRMM spacecraft. After evaluating several nondestructive test methods, eddy current testing was selected as the most promising method for determining flaw sizes on external and internal surfaces of completely assembled tanks. Tests were conducted to confirm the detection capability of the eddy current NDE, procedures were developed to inspect two candidate tanks, and the test support equipment was designed. The non-spherical tank eddy current NDE test program was terminated when the decision was made to procure new tanks for the TRMM propulsion subsystem. The information on the development phase of this test program is presented in this paper as a reference for future investigation on the subject.

  18. Determination of flow patterns in industrial gold leaching tank by radiotracer residence time distribution measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegowski, Z.; Furman, L.; Dagadu, Ch.P.K.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Danso, K.A.; Mumuni, I.I.; Adu, P.S; Amoah, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    The carbon-in-leach (CIL) process is one the most efficient methods of gold recovery from gold bearing ores. The efficiency of the leaching process greatly depends on the flow structure created by mechanical agitation (in some cases air agitation) in the leaching tanks. Residence time distribution (RTD) measurement was conducted in the CIL section of a gold processing plant in order to determine the flow structure in the first tank using the 131 I radioactive tracer. The shape of the experimental data revealed that the flow behaviour in the tank was close to an ideal mixer. Modelling of the experimental data, however, revealed that the tank was not behaving as a single perfect mixer, but consisted of two mixing zones. The flow structure in the tank was best described by the '' perfect mixers with exchange '' model consisting of two mixing zones. The model allowed the determination of flow parameters including the mean residence time, flow rate and volumes of the mixing zones. (authors)

  19. Standard practice for measuring the ultrasonic velocity in polyethylene tank walls using lateral longitudinal (LCR) waves

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for measuring the ultrasonic velocities in the outer wall of polyethylene storage tanks. An angle beam lateral longitudinal (LCR) wave is excited with wedges along a circumferential chord of the tank wall. A digital ultrasonic flaw detector is used with sending-receiving search units in through transmission mode. The observed velocity is temperature corrected and compared to the expected velocity for a new, unexposed sample of material which is the same as the material being evaluated. The difference between the observed and temperature corrected velocities determines the degree of UV exposure of the tank. 1.2 The practice is intended for application to the outer surfaces of the wall of polyethylene tanks. Degradation typically occurs in an outer layer approximately 3.2-mm (0.125-in.) thick. Since the technique does not interrogate the inside wall of the tank, wall thickness is not a consideration other than to be aware of possible guided (Lamb) wave effects or reflection...

  20. Wideband MIMO Channel Capacity Analysis in Multiprobe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyosti, Pekka; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2016-01-01

    been used to determine the test area size for a limited number of probes. However, it is desirable that the test area size is defined in terms of data rate deviation of the simulated channel in the laboratory from that of the target channel model. This paper reports MIMO capacity analysis results...... for wideband spatio-temporal channel models, with emphasis on the impact of spatial correlation at the transmit (Tx) side, the channel model, and the spatial correlation at the Rx side on the capacity simulation accuracy. Simulation results show that the number of probes is irrelevant to capacity simulation......This paper discusses over the air (OTA) testing for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) capable terminals with emphasis on wideband MIMO channel capacity analysis in a multi-probe anechoic chamber setup. In the literature, the spatial correlation simulation accuracy at the receiver (Rx) side has...

  1. Engineering report single-shell tank farms interim measures to limit infiltration through the vadose zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAASS, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies, evaluates and recommends interim measures for reducing or eliminating water sources and preferential pathways within the vadose zone of the single-shell tank farms. Features studied: surface water infiltration and leaking water lines that provide recharge moisture, and wells that could provide pathways for contaminant migration. An extensive data base, maps, recommended mitigations, and rough order of magnitude costs are included

  2. Engineering report single-shell tank farms interim measures to limit infiltration through the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAASS, C.C.

    1999-10-14

    Identifies, evaluates and recommends interim measures for reducing or eliminating water sources and preferential pathways within the vadose zone of the single-shell tank farms. Features studied: surface water infiltration and leaking water lines that provide recharge moisture, and wells that could provide pathways for contaminant migration. An extensive data base, maps, recommended mitigations, and rough order of magnitude costs are included.

  3. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, W. Y.; Wu, M. H.; Wu, K. L.; Lin, M. H.; Teng, H. H.; Tsai, Y. F.; Ko, C. C.; Yang, E. C.; Jiang, J. A.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R.

    2014-08-01

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  4. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, W. Y.; Wu, M. H.; Wu, K. L.; Lin, M. H.; Teng, H. H.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R., E-mail: krchu@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Y. F.; Ko, C. C.; Yang, E. C. [Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jiang, J. A. [Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-15

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  5. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, W Y; Wu, M H; Wu, K L; Lin, M H; Teng, H H; Tsai, Y F; Ko, C C; Yang, E C; Jiang, J A; Barnett, L R; Chu, K R

    2014-08-01

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  6. Tank design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that aboveground tanks can be designed with innovative changes to complement the environment. Tanks can be constructed to eliminate the vapor and odor emanating from their contents. Aboveground tanks are sometimes considered eyesores, and in some areas the landscaping has to be improved before they are tolerated. A more universal concern, however, is the vapor or odor that emanates from the tanks as a result of the materials being sorted. The assertive posture some segments of the public now take may eventually force legislatures to classify certain vapors as hazardous pollutants or simply health risks. In any case, responsibility will be leveled at the corporation and subsequent remedy could increase cost beyond preventive measures. The new approach to design and construction of aboveground tanks will forestall any panic which might be induced or perceived by environmentalists. Recently, actions by local authorities and complaining residents were sufficient to cause a corporation to curtail odorous emissions through a change in tank design. The tank design change eliminated the odor from fuel oil vapor thus removing the threat to the environment that the residents perceived. The design includes reinforcement to the tank structure and the addition of an adsorption section. This section allows the tanks to function without any limitation and their contents do not foul the environment. The vapor and odor control was completed successfully on 6,000,000 gallon capacity tanks

  7. Sensor for Measuring Hydrogen Partial Pressure in Parabolic Trough Power Plant Expansion Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cooney, Daniel A.

    2017-06-27

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Acciona Energy North America are working together to design and implement a process system that provides a permanent solution to the issue of hydrogen buildup at parabolic trough power plants. We are pursuing a method that selectively removes hydrogen from the expansion tanks that serve as reservoirs for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) that circulates in the collector field and power block components. Our modeling shows that removing hydrogen from the expansion tanks at a design rate reduces and maintains dissolved hydrogen in the circulating HTF to a selected target level. Our collaborative work consists of several tasks that are needed to advance this process concept to a development stage, where it is ready for implementation at a commercial power plant. Our main effort is to design and evaluate likely process-unit operations that remove hydrogen from the expansion tanks at a specified rate. Additionally, we designed and demonstrated a method and instrumentation to measure hydrogen partial pressure and concentration in the expansion-tank headspace gas. We measured hydrogen partial pressure in the headspace gas mixture using a palladium-alloy membrane, which is permeable exclusively to hydrogen. The membrane establishes a pure hydrogen gas phase that is in equilibrium with the hydrogen in the gas mixture. We designed and fabricated instrumentation, and demonstrated its effectiveness in measuring hydrogen partial pressures over a range of three orders of magnitude. Our goal is to install this instrument at the Nevada Solar One power plant and to demonstrate its effectiveness in measuring hydrogen levels in the expansion tanks under normal plant operating conditions.

  8. Techniques for sampling nuclear waste tank contents and in situ measurement of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, R.C.

    1978-04-01

    A study was conducted to develop suitable sampling equipment and techniques for characterizing the mechanical properties of nuclear wastes; identifying effective means of measuring radiation levels, temperatures, and neutron fluxes in situ in wastes; and developing a waste core sampler. A portable, stainless steel probe was developed which is placed in the tank through a riser. This probe is built for the insertion of instrumentation that can measure the contents of the tank at any level and take temperature, radiation, and neutron activation readings with reliable accuracy. A simple and reliable instrument for the in situ extraction of waste materials ranging from liquid to concrete-like substances was also developed. This portable, stainless steel waste core sampler can remove up to one liter of radioactive waste from tanks for transportation to hot cell laboratories for analysis of hardness, chemical form, and isotopic content. A cask for transporting the waste samples from the tanks to the laboratory under radiation-protected conditions was also fabricated. This cask was designed with a ''boot'' or inner-seal liner to contain any radioactive wastes that might remain on the outside of the waste core sampling device

  9. An ultrasonic instrument for measuring density and viscosity of tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheen, S.H.; Chien, H.T.; Raptis, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    An estimated 381,000 m 3 /1.1 x 10 9 Ci of radioactive waste are stored in high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Savannah River, Idaho Nuclear Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and West Valley facilities. This nuclear waste has created one of the most complex waste management and cleanup problems that face the United States. Release of radioactive materials into the environment from underground waste tanks requires immediate cleanup and waste retrieval. Hydraulic mobilization with mixer pumps will be used to retrieve waste slurries and salt cakes from storage tanks. To ensure that transport lines in the hydraulic system will not become plugged, the physical properties of the slurries must be monitored. Characterization of a slurry flow requires reliable measurement of slurry density, mass flow, viscosity, and volume percent of solids. Such measurements are preferably made with on-line nonintrusive sensors that can provide continuous real-time monitoring. With the support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM-50), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing an ultrasonic instrument for in-line monitoring of physical properties of radioactive tank waste

  10. Value-based performance measures for Hanford Tank Waste Remedition System (TWRS) Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.L.; von Winterfeldt, D.

    1996-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Program is responsible for the safe storage, retrieval, treatment, and preparation for disposal of high-level waste currently stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Richland. The TWRS program has adopted a logical approach to decision making that is based on systems engineering and decision analysis (Westinghouse Hanford Company, 1995). This approach involves the explicit consideration of stakeholder values and an evaluation of the TWRS alternatives in terms of these values. Such evaluations need to be consistent across decisions. Thus, an effort was undertaken to develop a consistent, quantifiable set of measures that can be used by TVVRS to assess alternatives against the stakeholder values. The measures developed also met two additional requirements: 1) the number of measure should be relatively small; and 2) performance with respect to the measures should be relatively easy to estimate

  11. Feasibility of Uranium Concentration Measurements for H Canyon Tank 16.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lascola, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) evaluated the feasibility of using the H Canyon on-line diode array spectrophotometer to measure uranium concentrations in Tank 16.7. On-line measurements will allow an increase in highly enriched uranium (HEU) production by removing delays associated with off-line measurements. The instrument must be able to measure uranium at concentrations below 1.0 g/L with an uncertainty no greater than 0.3 g/L. SRTC determined that the system has a limit of quantitation of 0.15 g/L. At concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 g/L, the spectrometer uncertainty is 0.10 g/L. No design changes, such as an increase in flow cell path length, are required to obtain this performance. Expected levels of iron in Tank 16.7 solutions will not interfere with the measurement. The CHEMCHEK method should not be used for confirmatory analysis, as it contributes excessively to the overall uncertainty of the measurement. SRTC expects that the spectrophotometer will meet the measurement requirements for Tank 16.7

  12. Evaluation of bubbler/diaphragm techniques to measure surface level in the waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, T.J.; Hickman, B.J.; Colson, J.B.

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the results of tests conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine if a bubbler technique can be used to determine the surface level in the waste tanks. Two techniques were evaluated. The first technique is a standard bubbler system in which a tube is placed below the surface of the liquid to be measured and air pressure inside a tube is increased until bubbles begin to become emitted from the tube. The air pressure then is a function of the pressure at the bottom of the tube. The second technique involves a system similar to the standard bubbler technique, but instead of bubbles being released into the material to be gauged, air pressure is increased against a diaphragm until enough pressure is applied to overcome the pressure of the liquid at the given depth, at which time the air then flows in a return loop back to a vent. The advantage of the diaphragm system is that it is a sealed system; thus no air is released into the waste tank materials, and it is not possible for the waste tank materials to get into the air flow. Based on the results of the tests conducted in this program, it appears that the bubbler and diaphragm systems that were tested could not be used for accurate measurements of the level in the waste tanks. Both exhibited deposits of simulated waste tank material at the end of the devices which affected the ability of the gauge to accurately determine changes in the surface level even though the measured value of the level was inaccurate. Further investigations into the cause of this inaccuracy may be warranted. Alternate diaphragm materials may improve the performance of this gauge

  13. Uncertainties in the measured quantities of water leaving waste Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minteer, D.J.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to estimate the uncertainty in the measured quantity of water which typically leaves Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system each month. Such measurements are essential for heat removal estimation and tank liquid level verification purposes. The uncertainty associated with the current, infrequent, manual method of measurement (involves various psychrometric and pressure measurements) is suspected to be unreasonably high. Thus, the possible reduction of this uncertainty using a continuous, automated method of measurement will also be estimated. There are three major conclusions as a result of this analysis: (1) the uncertainties associated with the current (infrequent, manual) method of measuring the water which typically leaves Tank 241-C-106 per month via the ventilation system are indeed quite high (80% to 120%); (2) given the current psychrometric and pressure measurement methods and any tank which loses considerable moisture through active ventilation, such as Tank 241-C-106, significant quantities of liquid can actually leak from the tank before a leak can be positively identified via liquid level measurement; (3) using improved (continuous, automated) methods of taking the psychrometric and pressure measurements, the uncertainty in the measured quantity of water leaving Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system can be reduced by approximately an order of magnitude.

  14. Uncertainties in the measured quantities of water leaving waste Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minteer, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to estimate the uncertainty in the measured quantity of water which typically leaves Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system each month. Such measurements are essential for heat removal estimation and tank liquid level verification purposes. The uncertainty associated with the current, infrequent, manual method of measurement (involves various psychrometric and pressure measurements) is suspected to be unreasonably high. Thus, the possible reduction of this uncertainty using a continuous, automated method of measurement will also be estimated. There are three major conclusions as a result of this analysis: (1) the uncertainties associated with the current (infrequent, manual) method of measuring the water which typically leaves Tank 241-C-106 per month via the ventilation system are indeed quite high (80% to 120%); (2) given the current psychrometric and pressure measurement methods and any tank which loses considerable moisture through active ventilation, such as Tank 241-C-106, significant quantities of liquid can actually leak from the tank before a leak can be positively identified via liquid level measurement; (3) using improved (continuous, automated) methods of taking the psychrometric and pressure measurements, the uncertainty in the measured quantity of water leaving Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system can be reduced by approximately an order of magnitude

  15. Test Results for Caustic Demand Measurements on Tank 241-AX-101 and Tank 241-AX-103 Archive Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, Stephanie R.; Bolling, Stacie D.

    2016-01-01

    Caustic demand testing is used to determine the necessary amount of caustic required to neutralize species present in the Hanford tank waste and obtain a target molarity of free hydroxide for tank corrosion control. The presence and quantity of hydroxide-consuming analytes are just as important in determining the caustic demand as is the amount of free hydroxide present. No single data point can accurately predict whether a satisfactory hydroxide level is being met, as it is dependent on multiple factors (e.g., free hydroxide, buffers, amphoteric metal hydroxides, bicarbonate, etc.). This enclosure contains the caustic demand, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized light microscopy (PLM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis for the tank 241-AX-101 (AX-101) and 241-AX-103 (AX-103) samples. The work was completed to fulfill a customer request outlined in the test plan, WRPS-1505529, ''Test Plan and Procedure for Caustic Demand Testing on Tank 241-AX-101 and Tank 241-AX-103 Archive Samples.'' The work results will provide a baseline to support planned retrieval of AX-101 and AX-103.

  16. Test Results for Caustic Demand Measurements on Tank 241-AX-101 and Tank 241-AX-103 Archive Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doll, Stephanie R. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Bolling, Stacie D. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-14

    Caustic demand testing is used to determine the necessary amount of caustic required to neutralize species present in the Hanford tank waste and obtain a target molarity of free hydroxide for tank corrosion control. The presence and quantity of hydroxide-consuming analytes are just as important in determining the caustic demand as is the amount of free hydroxide present. No single data point can accurately predict whether a satisfactory hydroxide level is being met, as it is dependent on multiple factors (e.g., free hydroxide, buffers, amphoteric metal hydroxides, bicarbonate, etc.). This enclosure contains the caustic demand, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized light microscopy (PLM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis for the tank 241-AX-101 (AX-101) and 241-AX-103 (AX-103) samples. The work was completed to fulfill a customer request outlined in the test plan, WRPS-1505529, “Test Plan and Procedure for Caustic Demand Testing on Tank 241-AX-101 and Tank 241-AX-103 Archive Samples.” The work results will provide a baseline to support planned retrieval of AX-101 and AX-103.

  17. Measurements of Gun Tube Motion and Muzzle Pointing Error of Main Battle Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. McCall

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning in 1990, the US Army Aberdeen Test Center (ATC began testing a prototype cannon mounted in a non-armored turret fitted to an M1A1 Abrams tank chassis. The cannon design incorporated a longer gun tube as a means to increase projectile velocity. A significant increase in projectile impact dispersion was measured early in the test program. Through investigative efforts, the cause of the error was linked to the increased dynamic bending or flexure of the longer tube observed while the vehicle was moving. Research and investigative work was conducted through a collaborative effort with the US Army Research Laboratory, Benet Laboratory, Project Manager – Tank Main Armament Systems, US Army Research and Engineering Center, and Cadillac Gage Textron Inc. New test methods, instrumentation, data analysis procedures, and stabilization control design resulted through this series of investigations into the dynamic tube flexure error source. Through this joint research, improvements in tank fire control design have been developed to improve delivery accuracy. This paper discusses the instrumentation implemented, methods applied, and analysis procedures used to characterize the tube flexure during dynamic tests of a main battle tank and the relationship between gun pointing error and muzzle pointing error.

  18. Evaluation of pressure transducers to measure surface level in the waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, T.J.; Colson, J.B.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes the results of tests conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine if pressure transducers can be used to measure the surface level in the waste tanks. A survey was first conducted to evaluate which, if any, commercially available pressure transducers were available that could meet the requirements for use in the waste tanks. More than 35 companies were contacted to determine if they manufactured a pressure transducer that could be used in the 101-SY waste tank. The three basic requirements for a pressure transducer for this application were that they were radiation-hardened, could withstand a caustic environment, and were certified to be intrinsically safe. No manufacturer was able to meet all three of these requirements with a commercially available product. Seven companies were able to meet the requirements for being radiation-hardened and being able to withstand the caustic environment. However, only two of the nine companies were willing to supply a pressure transducer for laboratory testing. The two pressure transducers that were tested in this program were the VEGA D36-38 from HiTech Technologies, Inc., and the KP-1911-A from Kaman Instrumentation Corporation. Pressure transducers operate on the principle that the pressure at the location of a sensor increases directly with the depth of the liquid above it. A liquid is required in order for these devices to operate. For these tests, water was first used to determine the ideal operation of the devices, then the devices were placed in a 101-SY waste tank simulant. The simulant had a specific gravity of 1.96 and had the consistency similar to the convective layer in the 101-SY waste tank. In order to determine the surface level with pressure transducers, the density of the material needs to be known

  19. High performance gamma measurements of equipment retrieved from Hanford high-level nuclear waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troyer, G.L.

    1997-03-17

    The cleanup of high level defense nuclear waste at the Hanford site presents several progressive challenges. Among these is the removal and disposal of various components from buried active waste tanks to allow new equipment insertion or hazards mitigation. A unique automated retrieval system at the tank provides for retrieval, high pressure washing, inventory measurement, and containment for disposal. Key to the inventory measurement is a three detector HPGe high performance gamma spectroscopy system capable of recovering data at up to 90% saturation (200,000 counts per second). Data recovery is based on a unique embedded electronic pulser and specialized software to report the inventory. Each of the detectors have different shielding specified through Monte Carlo simulation with the MCNP program. This shielding provides performance over a dynamic range of eight orders of magnitude. System description, calibration issues and operational experiences are discussed.

  20. High performance gamma measurements of equipment retrieved from Hanford high-level nuclear waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyer, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    The cleanup of high level defense nuclear waste at the Hanford site presents several progressive challenges. Among these is the removal and disposal of various components from buried active waste tanks to allow new equipment insertion or hazards mitigation. A unique automated retrieval system at the tank provides for retrieval, high pressure washing, inventory measurement, and containment for disposal. Key to the inventory measurement is a three detector HPGe high performance gamma spectroscopy system capable of recovering data at up to 90% saturation (200,000 counts per second). Data recovery is based on a unique embedded electronic pulser and specialized software to report the inventory. Each of the detectors have different shielding specified through Monte Carlo simulation with the MCNP program. This shielding provides performance over a dynamic range of eight orders of magnitude. System description, calibration issues and operational experiences are discussed

  1. MIMO OTA Testing in Small Multi-Probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llorente, Ines Carton; Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    OTA testing of MIMO capable terminals is often performed in large anechoic chambers, where planar waves impinging the test area are assumed. Furthermore, reflections from the chamber, and probe coupling are often considered negligible due to the large dimensions of the chamber. This paper...... investigates the feasibility of reducing the physical dimension of 2D multi-probe anechoic chamber setups for MIMO OTA testing, with the purpose of reducing the cost and space of the setup. In the paper, a channel emulation algorithm and chamber compensation technique are proposed for MIMO OTA testing in small...... anechoic chambers. The performance deterioration in a small anechoic chamber, i.e., with a ring radius of 0.5 m, is demonstrated via simulations....

  2. Residual stress measurement on propellant tank of 2219 aluminum alloy and study on its weak spot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chaoqun; Li, Huan; Li, Jianxiong; Luo, Chuanguang; Ni, Yanbing [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

    2017-05-15

    This paper presented residual stress measurement on two circumferential Variable polarity plasma arc welding (VPPAW) joints and one circular closed Friction stir welding (FSW) joint on the propellant tank of 2219 aluminum alloy using the indentation strain-gauge method. Quite large tensile residual stresses were attached to the center and inner areas of the circular closed FSW joint. There were very large tensile stresses in some points of the two circumferential VPPAW joints, among these points, the maximum value was +253 MPa, which was about 63 % of the yield strength of 410 MPa measured in the base material. In addition, the peak of compressive residual stress was about -160 MPa. Above all, there were two typical peaks of residual stress in the circumferential VPPAW joints, one was located in the middle part while the other one was near the start/end position of the joints. Combining the result of residual stress measurement with the characteristics of the tank structure, it can be concluded that circular closed FSW joint around the flange was a weak spot on the propellant tank. And the most vulnerable point on the circular closed FSW joint has also been found.

  3. Measurements of the isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient of KUCA C-Core with a D{sub 2}O tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyeon, Cheol Ho [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto Univ., Osaka (Japan); Shim, Hyung Jin; Choi, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Byoung Kyu [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Eun Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) is a multi-core type critical assembly consisting of three independent cores in the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute. The light-water-moderated core (Ccore) is a tank type reactor, and the experiments of the isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient (ITRC) of C-core with a D{sub 2}O tank were carried out with the use of six 10 kW heaters and a radiator system in a dump tank, one 10 kW heater in a core tank, and one 5 kW heater in the D{sub 2}O tank. The ITRCs of the C-core with the D{sub 2}O tank immersed in the core tank are considered important to investigate the mechanism of moderation and reflection effects of H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O in the core on the evaluation by numerical simulations. The objectives of this paper are to report the ITRC measurements for C-core with D{sub 2}O tank ranging between 26.7 .deg. C and 58.5 .deg. C, and to examine the accuracy of the numerical simulations by the Seoul National University Monte Carlo code, McCARD, through the comparison between measured and calculated results.

  4. Earthquake and welded structures 5: Earthquake damages and anti-earthquake measures of oil storage tanks; 5 kikenbutsu chozo tank no jishin higai to taishin taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, K. [Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    The result of field investigation carried out on the state of damages of 236 hazardous material storage tanks out of 687 caused by the Hyogoken Nambu Earthquake in 1995 is introduced together with the cases of damage and the description of the countermeasures. The events of inclination and settlement of tank bodies were confirmed in 44% among those investigated in particular with tanks having a capacity of less than 1000kl and as for the basement and ground settlement, the fact that sand spouted as a result of their fluidization was witnessed as much as 81% among those investigated and the area surrounding tanks was roughly agreed with the area where ground crack appeared. A great number of other damages such as cracking of preventive seals against rain water, breakdown of oil defense banks and so forth were also confirmed. In the latter half of the report, aseismatic standards of old and new regulations as well as on the new criterion concerning the outdoor storage tank body, its basement and ground are tabulated and 4 items of anti-earthquake measures such as the final structural check up with regard to an earthquake exceeding the designed permissible stress, consolidation of tank body structure on the basis of the revised seismic coefficient method, assurance of the steadfast basement, prevention of the elevated platform from falling down and strengthening of water-proof seals and oil defense banks are enumerated in accordance with the report of investigation and examination on the resistibility of hazardous material storage equipment against the earthquake. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. In-situ radiation measurements of the C1 and C2 waste storage tank vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, L.K.; Womble, P.C.; Weems, L.D.

    1996-09-01

    In August of 1996, the Applied Radiation Measurements Department (ARMD) of the Waste Management and Remedial Action Division (WMRAD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked with characterizing the radiation fields in the C 1 and C 2 Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) tank vault located at ORNL. These in-situ measurements were made to provide data for evaluating the potential radiological conditions for personnel working in or around the vault during future planned activities. This report describes the locations where measurements were made, the types of radiation detection instruments used, the methods employed, the problems encountered and resolved, and discusses the results obtained

  6. Non-destructive in situ measurement of radiological distributions in Hanford Site waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyer, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of radiological materials in defense nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site is being used to indicate material distributions. Both safety assessment and future processing challenges are dependent on knowledge of the distribution kinds, and quantities of various key components. Data from CdTe and neutron detector measurements are shown and correlated with physical sampling and laboratory results. The multiple assay approach is shown to increase the confidence about the material distributions. As a result, costs of physical sampling and destructive analyses can be controlled while not severely limiting the uncertainty of results

  7. Water level response measurement in a steel cylindrical liquid storage tank using image filter processing under seismic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Choi, Hyoung-Suk; Park, Dong-Uk; Baek, Eun-Rim; Kim, Jae-Min

    2018-02-01

    Sloshing refers to the movement of fluid that occurs when the kinetic energy of various storage tanks containing fluid (e.g., excitation and vibration) is continuously applied to the fluid inside the tanks. As the movement induced by an external force gets closer to the resonance frequency of the fluid, the effect of sloshing increases, and this can lead to a serious problem with the structural stability of the system. Thus, it is important to accurately understand the physics of sloshing, and to effectively suppress and reduce the sloshing. Also, a method for the economical measurement of the water level response of a liquid storage tank is needed for the exact analysis of sloshing. In this study, a method using images was employed among the methods for measuring the water level response of a liquid storage tank, and the water level response was measured using an image filter processing algorithm for the reduction of the noise of the fluid induced by light, and for the sharpening of the structure installed at the liquid storage tank. A shaking table test was performed to verify the validity of the method of measuring the water level response of a liquid storage tank using images, and the result was analyzed and compared with the response measured using a water level gauge.

  8. Contribution to the RMTC in the field of tank calibration and measurements - the TAMSCA laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, B.A.; Landat, D.; Caviglia, M.; Silvapestana, L.

    1999-01-01

    The Russian Methodological and Training Centre (RMTC) is being established for training of personnel from the various Russian and CIS nuclear facilities organizations in the control and accountancy methods, utilised in EURATOM and in the IAEA. Under the project equipment and support will be provided in a number of areas, namely containment and surveillance, training, passive/active neutron assay and mass/volume methodologies. For the latter a mass/volume measurement laboratory - a Tank Measurements and Calibration Laboratory (TAMSCA) is being set-up in IPPE, Obninsk. The goal is to upgrade the methodology within the Russian Federation in the application of mass/volume measurement techniques and render a facility suitable adapted to carrying out training courses with specific orientation for the nuclear inspectors and operators of nuclear facilities for nuclear accountancy and control [ru

  9. Subcritical measurements with a cylindrical tank of Pu-U nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Valentine, T.E.; King, W.T.

    1997-01-01

    This series of measurements with a mixed Pu-U nitrate solution (280 g Pu/liter, 180 g U/liter) in a 35.54-cm-diam cylindrical tank provides a wide variety of experimental data for subcritical configurations that can be used to verify calculational methods and nuclear data. The Pu contained 7.85 wt% 240 Pu and the uranium was natural uranium. The measurements performed were: inverse count rate, prompt neutron decay constants, inverse kinetics, and frequency analysis by the 252 Cf source driven method. These data are presented in sufficient detail that the results of the experiments can be calculated directly. For purposes of extrapolating to the delayed critical height the ratio of spectral densities was linear with height and thus provided the best estimate of critical height

  10. Risk constraint measures developed for the outcome-based strategy for tank waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, B.L.; Gajewski, S.J.; Glantz, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    This report is one of a series of supporting documents for the outcome-based characterization strategy developed by PNNL. This report presents a set of proposed risk measures with risk constraint (acceptance) levels for use in the Value of Information process used in the NCS. The characterization strategy has developed a risk-based Value of Information (VOI) approach for comparing the cost-effectiveness of characterizing versus mitigating particular waste tanks or tank clusters. The preference between characterizing or mitigating in order to prevent an accident depends on the cost of those activities relative to the cost of the consequences of the accident. The consequences are defined as adverse impacts measured across a broad set of risk categories such as worker dose, public cancers, ecological harm, and sociocultural impacts. Within each risk measure, various open-quotes constraint levelsclose quotes have been identified that reflect regulatory standards or conventionally negotiated thresholds of harm to Hanford resources and values. The cost of consequences includes the open-quotes costs close-quote of exceeding those constraint levels as well as a strictly linear costing per unit of impact within each of the risk measures. In actual application, VOI based-decision making is an iterative process, with a preliminary low-precision screen of potential technical options against the major risk constraints, followed by VOI analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of gathering additional information and to select a preferred technical option, and finally a posterior screen to determine whether the preferred option meets all relevant risk constraints and acceptability criteria

  11. Application of Multi-Layered Polyurethane Foams for Flat-Walled Anechoic Linings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, J. F.; Buchholz, Jörg; Fricke, Fergus R.

    2006-01-01

    of the application of multi-layered polyurethane foams as the flat-walled anechoic lining. The investigation includes aspects such as the efficacy of a single layer of material, the minimum number of layers of linings to achieve the minimum overall thickness for low (100Hz), mid (250Hz) and high (500Hz) cut...

  12. Floc size distributions of suspended kaolinite in an advection transport dominated tank: measurements and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoteng; Maa, Jerome P.-Y.

    2017-11-01

    In estuaries and coastal waters, floc size and its statistical distributions of cohesive sediments are of primary importance, due to their effects on the settling velocity and thus deposition rates of cohesive aggregates. The development of a robust flocculation model that includes the predictions of floc size distributions (FSDs), however, is still in a research stage. In this study, a one-dimensional longitudinal (1-DL) flocculation model along a streamtube is developed. This model is based on solving the population balance equation to find the FSDs by using the quadrature method of moments. To validate this model, a laboratory experiment is carried out to produce an advection transport-dominant environment in a cylindrical tank. The flow field is generated by a marine pump mounted at the bottom center, with its outlet facing upward. This setup generates an axially symmetric flow which is measured by an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV). The measurement results provide the hydrodynamic input data required for this 1-DL model. The other measurement results, the FSDs, are acquired by using an automatic underwater camera system and the resulting images are analyzed to validate the predicted FSDs. This study shows that the FSDs as well as their representative sizes can be efficiently and reasonably simulated by this 1-DL model.

  13. Independent verification of tank volume measurements by pressure-volume authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, S.C.; Keisch, B.

    1992-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed a portable pressure-volume authenticator** as a standard and means of checking the functionality and quality of bubbler-probe volumetric devices. The pressure-volume authenticator (PVA) consists of an automated electromanometer system that is controlled by a laptop computer, and a transportable volumetric artifact. A portable pressure gage is connected, via a scanivalve, to the operator's bubbler-probe system and independently measures all bubbler probes. The transportable volumetric artifact is a one-meter high vessel equipped with bubble-probes, computer controlled air-purge rotameters, and platinum resistance (RTD) thermometer. High quality measurements are obtained by use of a fast sampling technique and sophisticated software developed under this program. The computer software performs the following functions: (a) instrument control, (b) data acquisition, (c) on-line graphical and numerical display of measurement data, and (d) detailed data analysis. The device also may provide hands-on training for inspectors and plant operators in high quality volumetric data collection and analysis. A field demonstration of the automated electromanometer system was conducted on the PETRA input accountancy tank, JRC-Ispra in November 1991

  14. Tank SY-102 waste retrieval assessment: Rheological measurements and pump jet mixing simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Shekarriz, R.; Recknagle, K.P.

    1996-09-01

    Wastes stored in Hanford Tank 241-SY-102 are planned to be retrieved from that tank and transferred to 200 East Area through the new pipeline Replacement Cross Site Transfer System (RCSTS). Because the planned transfer of this waste will use the RCSTS, the slurry that results from the mobilization and retrieval operations must meet the applicable waste acceptance criteria for this system. This report describes results of the second phase (the detailed assessment) of the SY-102 waste retrieval study, which is a part of the efforts to establish a technical basis for mobilization of the slurry, waste retrieval, and slurry transport. Hanford Tank 241-SY-102 is located in the SY Tank Farm in the Hanford Site's 200 West Area. It was built in 1977 to serve as a feed tank for 242-S Evaporator/Crystallizer, receiving supernatant liquid from S, SX, T, and U tank farms. Since 1981, the primary sources of waste have been from 200 West Area facilities, e.g., T-Plant decontamination operations, Plutonium Finishing Plant operations, and the 222-S Laboratory. It is the only active-service double-shell tank (DST) in the 200 West Area and is used as the staging tank for cross-site transfers to 200 East Area DSTs. The tank currently stores approximately 470 kL (125 kgal) of sludge wastes from a variety of sources including the Plutonium Finishing Plant, T-Plant, and the 222-S Laboratory. In addition to the sludge, approximately twice this amount (about 930 kL) of dilute, noncomplexed waste forms a supernatant liquid layer above the sludge

  15. Measures against concrete cracking in underground type light oil tank pit construction work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Takeo; Kadowaki, Kazuhiko; Date, Masanao

    2017-01-01

    The underground type light oil tank pit set at Onagawa Nuclear Power Station is a tripartite underground pit structure made of reinforced concrete. This is a mass concrete made of deck slab / outer wall of 1.5 m in thickness and inner wall / top slab of 1.0 m in thickness. Since concrete placement season was July for the deck slab and October for the walls, the occurrence of thermal cracking was highly conceivable. As a result of investigating crack suppression measures based on the crack width of 0.2 mm or less as a guide, the application of fly ash cement and the addition of expansion material to the walls were judged effective and adopted. Thanks to these preliminary studies and careful construction control, it was possible to minimize the occurrence of cracks, but several through cracks of 0.2 mm or less were confirmed on part of the outer walls. As a countermeasure, repair by means of surface impregnation method was adopted, and quality and schedule could be secured. This paper outlines crack suppression measures and repair of the cracks that occurred after the implementation. (A.O.)

  16. Measurements of oil spill spreading in a wave tank using digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, H.; Saavedra, I.; Andreatta, A.; Llona, G.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, an experimental study of spreading of crude oil is carried out in a wave tank. The tests are performed by spilling different volumes and types of crude oil on the water surface. An experimental measurement technique was developed based on digital processing of video images. The acquisition and processing of such images is carried out by using a video camera and inexpensive microcomputer hardware and software. Processing is carried out by first performing a digital image filter, then edge detection is performed on the filtered image data. The final result is a file that contains the coordinates of a polygon that encloses the observed slick for each time step. Different types of filters are actually used in order to adequately separate the color intensifies corresponding to each of the elements in the image. Postprocessing of the vectorized images provides accurate measurements of the slick edge, thus obtaining a complete geometric representation, which is significantly different from simplified considerations of radially symmetric spreading. The spreading of the oil slick was recorded for each of the tests. Results of the experimental study are presented for each spreading regime, and analyzed in terms of the wave parameters such as period and wave height. (author)

  17. A measure for provisional-and-urgent sanitary improvement in developing countries: septic-tank performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, H; Dong, N T; Matsui, S

    2008-01-01

    Although many cities have planed to develop sewerages in developing countries, sewerage establishment still requires huge investment and engineering efforts. Improvement of existing sanitation facilities may contribute the betterment of urban sanitation before sewerage establishment. The purpose of this study is to propose a measure to improve urban sanitation in areas where a sewerage development plan is proposed but has not been yet established, based on a case study in Hanoi, Vietnam. We found that 90.5% of human excreta flowed into septic tanks. However, 89.6% of septic tanks have never been desludged in the past and their performance was observed to be at a low level. The study also showed that if they introduce regular desludging with a frequency of once a year, they can eliminate 72.8% of COD loads from septic tanks. It was indicated that the performance can be dramatically recovered by regular desludging, which could contribute urban sanitation improvement in Hanoi. In conclusion, the performance recovery of septic tanks by regular desludging was proposed as a provisional-and-urgent measure for urban sanitation improvement, together with the septage treatment in sewage sludge treatment facilities, which should be established earlier than other facilities of sewage treatment systems. IWA Publishing 2008.

  18. Emulating Spherical Wave Channel Models in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Carreño, Xavier; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2015-01-01

    to emulate spherical wave channel models in multi-probe anechoic chamber setups. In this paper, a technique based on the field synthesis principle is proposed to approximate spherical waves emitted from arbitrarily located point sources with arbitrary polarizations. Simulation results show that static......Spherical wave channel modeling has attracted huge research attention for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and short-distance MIMO systems. Current research work in multi-probe anechoic chamber systems is limited to reproduce radio channels assuming planar wavefronts. There is a need...... spherical waves can be reproduced with a limited number of probes, and the field synthesis accuracy of spherical wave depends on the location of the source point....

  19. Measurement of the ductile to brittle transition temperature for waste tank cooling coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, B.J.

    1992-09-01

    Charpy impact tests were conducted on ASTM A106 carbon steel archived from SRS waste tanks to determine the susceptibility of the cooling coils to brittle fracture during a seismic event. The highest ductile to brittle transition temperature measured was -5 degree F and, with the addition of a 30 degree F safety factor, the minimum safe operating temperature was determined to be 25 degree F. Calculations also showed that a pre-existing circumferential flaw that is 2.2in. long would be necessary to initiate brittle fracture of the pipe. These results demonstrate that the pipes will not be susceptible to brittle fracture if the cooling water inlet temperature is lowered to 50 degree F. Visual observation of the inner and outer walls of the pipe showed no localized attack or significant wall thinning. A 100--200 micron zinc coating is probably the reason for the lack of corrosion. A build-up of zinc slag occurred at pipe fittings where the weld had burned through. Although no attack was observed, the slag created several crevices which have the potential to trap the chromated water and initiate localized attack

  20. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  1. Subjective evaluation of auralizations created from multi-channel anechoic recordings of a talker in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeant, Michelle C.; Wang, Lily M.

    2005-04-01

    A high degree of speech intelligibility is very important in educational environments. When designing such spaces, like classrooms, auralizations can be used to subjectively assess the degree of speech intelligibility and clarity. Auralizations are most commonly made by convolving the impulse response (IR) of an omni-directional source with a single channel anechoic speech recording. This paper explores the idea of using multi-channel recordings to create the auralizations, using a female talker in motion. An omni-directional source is split into quadrants and the IR is calculated for each section. These IR's are convolved with the appropriate channel of the anechoic recording and then the four auralizations are mixed to create one final auralization. The auralizations were made using four-channel anechoic recordings of a person walking on a platform while talking. Subjective tests were conducted to determine the ease with which subjects could identify the direction of the movement of the source in rooms with varying amounts of absorption. This method can be used to create more realistic classroom auralizations, as teachers typically move around the room as they teach. [Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

  2. Measurements of diversity gain and radiation efficiency of the eleven antenna by using different measurement techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jian; Pivnenko, Sergey; Laitinen, Tommi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents measurement results of diversity gain and radiation efficiency by using three different measurement techniques: reverberation chamber, spherical near-field anechoic chamber, and multi-probe anechoic chamber. The results are measured over a large 2–8 GHz bandwidth which...

  3. Comparison of X-band radar backscatter measurements with area extended wave slope measurements made in a large wind wave tank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halsema, D. van; Jaehne, B.; Oost, W.A.; Calkoen, C.J.; Snoeij, P.

    1989-01-01

    Combined measurements of microwave backscatter, wind, waves, and gas exchange have been carried out in the large Delft Hydraulics wind/wave tank. This experiment was the first of a series of experiments in the VIERS-1 project. In this project, a number of Dutch and one German laboratory cooperate to

  4. WWTP Process Tank Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jesper

    The present thesis considers numerical modeling of activated sludge tanks on municipal wastewater treatment plants. Focus is aimed at integrated modeling where the detailed microbiological model the Activated Sludge Model 3 (ASM3) is combined with a detailed hydrodynamic model based on a numerical...... solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in a multiphase scheme. After a general introduction to the activated sludge tank as a system, the activated sludge tank model is gradually setup in separate stages. The individual sub-processes that are often occurring in activated sludge tanks are initially...... hydrofoil shaped propellers. These two sub-processes deliver the main part of the supplied energy to the activated sludge tank, and for this reason they are important for the mixing conditions in the tank. For other important processes occurring in the activated sludge tank, existing models and measurements...

  5. Flow field calculation around the measuring part of a circulated flow tank for measurement; Keisokuyo kairyu suiso sokuteibu no ryujo keisan ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, H; Ogura, R; Yamazaki, R [West Japan Fluid Engineering Co. Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan)

    1996-04-10

    In order to increase a fluid dynamic understanding of the flow field around the measuring part as for the leveling of free surface of the circulated flow tank for measurement, the velocity and free surface profile at the measuring part have been calculated by applying the numerical fluid dynamics. The results were compared with actual phenomena. For the average velocity at the measuring part, inclining angle of surpressing plate, and quantity of water in the tank, the flow field simulation by the numerical fluid dynamics has provided a qualitative agreement with actual phenomena. Especially, it was clarified from the viewpoint of numerical fluid dynamics that the fine adjustment of the inclining angle of surpressing plate and quantity of water in the tank greatly affect the creation of horizontal free surface at the measuring part. Furthermore, effects of the length of measuring part and the ceiling tilt angle of pipe conduit in the downstream of measuring part, which were hard to be analyzed experimentally from the viewpoint of facility and cost, were investigated. Consequently, it was clarified that there are critical length of the measuring part and optimum ceiling tilt angle in the leveling of horizontal free surface. Thus, an instruction for designing was obtained. The present flow field simulation was useful for the fluid dynamic understanding of the flow field at the measuring part, as for the leveling of horizontal free surface. 1 ref., 8 figs.

  6. Composition and quantities of retained gas measured in Hanford waste tanks 241-AW-101 A-101, AN-105, AN-104, and AN-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekarriz, A.; Rector, D.R.; Mahoney, L.A.

    1997-03-01

    This report provides the results obtained for the first five tanks sampled with the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS): Tanks 241-AW-101, A-101, AN-105, AN-104, and AN-103. The RGS is a modified version of the core sampler used at Hanford. It is designed specifically, in concert with the gas extraction equipment in the hot cell, to capture and extrude a gas-containing waste sample in a hermetically sealed system. The retained gases are then extracted and stored in small gas canisters. The composition of the gases contained in the canisters was measured by mass spectroscopy. The total gas volume was obtained from analysis of the extraction process, as discussed in detail throughout this report. The following are the findings of this research: (1) The RGS is a viable approach for measuring retained gases in double- and single-shell waste tanks at Hanford. (2) Local measurements of void fraction with the RGS agree with the results obtained with the void fraction instrument (VFI) in most cases. (3) In the tanks sampled, more than 16% of the retained gas in the nonconvective layer was nitrogen (N 2 ). The fraction of nitrogen gas was approximately 60% in Tank 241-AW-101. This finding shows that not all the retained gas mixtures are flammable. (4) In the tanks sampled, the ratios of hydrogen to oxidizers were observed to be significantly higher than 1; i.e., these tanks are fuel-rich. Based on these observations, the RGS will be used to sample for retained gases in several single-shell tanks at Hanford. The remaining sections of this summary describe the RGS-findings for the first five tanks tested. The results are described in the order in which the tanks were sampled, to reflect the increasing experience on which RGS methods were based

  7. Anechoic wind tunnel tests on high-speed train bogie aerodynamic noise

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre Iglesias, E.; Thompson, D.; Smith, M.; Kitagawa, T.; Yamazaki, N.

    2016-01-01

    Aerodynamic noise becomes a significant noise source at speeds normally reached by high-speed trains. The train bogies are identified as important sources of aerodynamic noise. Due to the difficulty to assess this noise source carrying out field tests, wind tunnel tests offer many advantages. Tests were performed in the large-scale low-noise anechoic wind tunnel at Maibara, Japan, using a 1/7 scale train car and bogie model for a range of flow speeds between 50, 76, 89 and 100 m/s. The depend...

  8. Analysis of heat-transfer measurements from 2 AEDC wind tunnels on the Shuttle external tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, K. W.

    1984-01-01

    Previous aerodynamic heating tests have been conducted in the AEDC/VKF Supersonic Wind Tunnel (A) to aid in defining the design thermal environment for the space shuttle external tank. The quality of these data has been under discussion because of the effects of low tunnel enthalpy and slow model injection rates. Recently the AEDC/VKF Hypersonic Wind Tunnel (C) has been modified to provide a Mach 4 capability that has significantly higher tunnel enthalpy with more rapid model injection rates. Tests were conducted in Tunnel C at Mach 4 to obtain data on the external tank for comparison with Tunnel A results. Data were obtained on a 0.0175 scale model of the Space Shuttle Integrated Vehicle at Re/ft = 4 x 10 to the 6th power with the tunnel stagnation temperature varying from 740 to 1440 R. Model attitude varied from an angle of attack of -5 to 5 deg and an angle of sideslip of -3 to 3 deg. One set of data was obtained in Tunnel C at Re/ft = 6.9 x 10 to the 6th for comparison with flight data. Data comparisons between the two tunnels for numerous regions on the external tank are given.

  9. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford's underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford's organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes' future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as at sign ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures

  10. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

  11. A contribution to severe accident monitoring: Level measurement of the Incontainment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST), design and qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumilov, A.; Weber, P.; Esteves, S.

    2012-07-01

    A level measurement sensor for monitoring the water level in the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) of the EPRTM (generation 3+ pressurized water reactor) during leakage and severe accidents has been developed by AREVA. The development has been accompanied by many functional and material analyses as well as tests to assure the resistivity under extreme conditions, such as high irradiation dose of 5 MGy, increased temperature up to 160 degree centigrade in conjunction with saturated steam conditions. Moreover, the sensor has been designed and experimentally verified to resist the impact of seismic events and airplane crashes as well.

  12. Tank 241-B-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.'' This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-B-103 (B-103) sampling activities. Tank B-103 was placed on the Organic Watch List in January 1991 due to review of TRAC data that predicts a TOC content of 3.3 dry weight percent. The tank was classified as an assumed leaker of approximately 30,280 liters (8,000 gallons) in 1978 and declared inactive. Tank B-103 is passively ventilated with interim stabilization and intrusion prevention measures completed in 1985

  13. 252Cf-source-driven neutron noise measurements of subcriticality for a slab tank containing aqueous Pu-U nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Blakeman, E.D.; Ragan, G.E.; Kryter, R.C.; Robinson, R.C.; Seino, H.

    1987-08-01

    In order to study nuclear criticality safety related to the development of fast breeder technology, 252 Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis measurements were performed with a Pu-U nitrate solution in a slab tank of various heights and thickness varying 11.43 cm to 19.05 cm. The results and conclusions of these experiments are (1) a capability to measure the subcriticality of a multiplying system of slab geometry to a k/sub eff/ as low as 0.7 was demonstrated, (2) calculated neutron multiplication factors agreed with those from the experiments within ∼0.02, and (3) the applicability of the method for plutonium solution systems was demonstrated. This paper describes measurements in which the height of the slab was varied for a fixed thickness and the thickness varied for a fixed height, which are the first applications of this measurement method to slab geometry

  14. Recent Advances on OTA Testing for 5G Antenna Systems in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.; Kyösti, Pekka

    2018-01-01

    Over-the-air (OTA) testing is seen as an essential method for evaluating 5G antenna systems, since conventional cable testing are no longer applicable. In the paper, we discussed the similarities and discrepancies of OTA testing in the multiprobe anechoic chamber (MPAC) setups for 4G user equipment...

  15. Research into Noise Generated by Domestic Appliances in the Anechoic Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnė Žukauskienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Loud noise has a negative impact on the entire body, especially on listening. We can hear daily noise everywhere – in the street, at work or at home. The Department of Environmental Protection of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University has adjusted an anechoic chamber adapted for suppressing sound. Under the above introduced conditions, 15 appliances (5 vacuum cleaners, 5 hair dryers and 5 shaving machines have been tested. Equivalent sound pressure level of the vacuum cleaner has varied from 66 dBA to 83 dBA, that of the hair dryer has made from 64 dBA to 70 dBA and for the shaving machine – from 39 to 56 dBA.Article in Lithuanian

  16. Directional loudness in an anechoic sound field, head-related transfer functions, and binaural summation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivonen, Ville Pekka; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    planes. Matches were obtained via a two-interval, adaptive forced-choice (2AFC) procedure for three center frequencies (0.4, 1 and 5 kHz) and two overall levels (45 and 65 dB SPL). The results showed that loudness is not constant over sound incidence angles, with directional sensitivity varying over......The effect of sound incidence angle on loudness was investigated using real sound sources positioned in an anechoic chamber. Eight normal-hearing listeners produced loudness matches between a frontal reference location and seven sources placed at other directions, both in the horizontal and median...... a range of up to 10 dB, exhibiting considerable frequency dependence, but only minor effects of overall level. The pattern of results varied substantially between subjects, but was largely accounted for by variations in individual head-related transfer functions. Modeling of binaural loudness based...

  17. Measurements of Waves in a Wind-wave Tank Under Steady and Time-varying Wind Forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadsky, Andrey; Shemer, Lev

    2018-02-13

    This manuscript describes an experimental procedure that allows obtaining diverse quantitative information on temporal and spatial evolution of water waves excited by time-dependent and steady wind forcing. Capacitance-type wave gauge and Laser Slope Gauge (LSG) are used to measure instantaneous water surface elevation and two components of the instantaneous surface slope at a number of locations along the test section of a wind-wave facility. The computer-controlled blower provides airflow over the water in the tank whose rate can vary in time. In the present experiments, the wind speed in the test section initially increases quickly from rest to the set value. It is then kept constant for the prescribed duration; finally, the airflow is shut down. At the beginning of each experimental run, the water surface is calm and there is no wind. Operation of the blower is initiated simultaneously with the acquisition of data provided by all sensors by a computer; data acquisition continues until the waves in the tank fully decay. Multiple independent runs performed under identical forcing conditions allow determining statistically reliable ensemble-averaged characteristic parameters that quantitatively describe wind-waves' variation in time for the initial development stage as a function of fetch. The procedure also allows characterizing the spatial evolution of the wave field under steady wind forcing, as well as decay of waves in time, once the wind is shut down, as a function of fetch.

  18. The New Anechoic Shielded Chambers Designed for Space and Commercial Applications at LIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Benjamim; Galvao, M. C.; Pereira, Clovis Solano

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the capabilities of the new anechoic shielded rooms designed for space and commercial applications as part of the Integration and Testing Laboratory (LIT, Laboratorio de Integracao e Testes) in Brazil. A new anechoic shielded room named CBA2 has been in full operation since March 2007 and a remodeled chamber CBA1 is planned to be ready by the end of 2008, replacing an old facility which was in operation for the last 18 years. The Brazilian Space Program started with very small and simple satellites and the old CBA1 chamber was conceived in 1987 to accomplish the EMI/EMC tests not requiring significant volumes. Since the very beginning this facility was also used by the private sector for other applications mainly due to the absorption of digital electronics in all kind of products. The intense use of this facility during the last years, operating three shifts a day, caused a normal degradation and imposed several limitations. Therefore, a new totally remodeled chamber was designed considering the state of the art in terms of absorbers and associated instrumentation. On the other hand the facility CBA2 was conceived, designed and implemented to test large satellites taking into account the advance of the technology in terms of RF frequencies, power level, testing methodologies and several other factors. A very interesting and unique aspect of this project was the partnership between the private sector and governmental institution. As a result, the total investment was shared between several companies and consequently a time-sharing use of the facility as well.

  19. Advanced temperature measurement system for the US glass industry melt tanks and delivery system. Phase 1 [final] report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Improved temperature measurement in the melting and delivery systems of the glass making process will aid in energy conservation. The ``Needs Analysis`` survey found the greatest problem was the inability to identify in situ decalibration (drift). Phase I objectives are: a more rugged reliable sensor; high quality inner protective sheath; improved data transmission hardened to the melt tank environs; a system that reduces or eliminates drift; and an improved outer protection sheath. Results show that 4 of the 5 problem areas have been resolved; with the help of the Univ. of Missouri-Rolla`s materials group, the fifth may be solvable. The major identified problem, the inability to identify in-situ drift has been solved.

  20. Technical Note: Direct measurement of continuous TMR data with a 1D tank and automated couch movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Nels C; Schmidt, Matthew C; Belley, Matthew D; Nguyen, Ngoc B; Li, H Harold; Sajo, Erno; Price, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Real-time dynamic control of the linear accelerator, couch, and imaging parameters during radiation delivery was investigated as a novel technique for acquiring tissue maximum ratio (TMR) data. TrueBeam Developer Mode (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) was used to control the linear accelerator using the Extensible Markup Language (XML). A single XML file was used to dynamically manipulate the machine, couch, and imaging parameters during radiation delivery. A TG-51 compliant 1D water tank was placed on the treatment couch, and used to position a detector at isocenter at a depth of 24.5 cm. A depth scan was performed towards the water surface. Via XML control, the treatment couch vertical position was simultaneously lowered at the same rate, maintaining the detector position at isocenter, allowing for the collection of TMR data. To ensure the detector remained at isocenter during the delivery, the in-room camera was used to monitor the detector. Continuous kV fluoroscopic images during 10 test runs further confirmed this result. TMR data at multiple Source to Detector Distances (SDD) and scan speeds were acquired to investigate their impact on the TMR data. Percentage depth dose (PDD) scans (for conversion to TMR) along with traditional discrete TMR data were acquired as a standard for comparison. More than 99.8% of the measured points had a gamma value (1%/1 mm) < 1 when compared with discrete or PDD converted TMR data. Fluoroscopic images showed that the concurrent couch and tank movements resulted in SDD errors < 1 mm. TMRs acquired at SDDs of 99, 100, and 101 cm showed differences less than 0.004. TrueBeam Developer Mode was used to collect continuous TMR data with the same accuracy as traditionally collected discrete data, but yielded higher sampled resolution and reduced acquisition time. This novel method does not require the modification of any equipment and does not use a 3D tank or reservoir. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in

  1. Decay tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Seiichi; Tagishi, Akinori; Sakata, Yuji; Kontani, Koji; Sudo, Yukio; Kaminaga, Masanori; Kameyama, Iwao; Ando, Koei; Ishiki, Masahiko.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns an decay tank for decaying a radioactivity concentration of a fluid containing radioactive material. The inside of an decay tank body is partitioned by partitioning plates to form a flow channel. A porous plate is attached at the portion above the end of the partitioning plate, that is, a portion where the flow is just turned. A part of the porous plate has a slit-like opening on the side close to the partitioning plate, that is, the inner side of the flow at the turning portion thereof. Accordingly, the primary coolants passed through the pool type nuclear reactor and flown into the decay tank are flow caused to uniformly over the entire part of the tank without causing swirling. Since a distribution in a staying time is thus decreased, the effect of decaying 16 N as radioactive nuclides in the primary coolants is increased even in a limited volume of the tank. (I.N.)

  2. Yankee Tank Creek Observatory Report No. 1: Forty-One Measures from 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, E. O.

    2014-01-01

    This report contains 41 measures of mostly STF pairs taken in 2012 and comprises those pairs not reported in other papers. All measures were taken with a 0.2M Dall-Kirkham and a DMK21 video camera working at F22.5. Both stacking and pixel correlation techniques were used to obtain measures using REDUC.

  3. Analysis of acoustic data for hybrid and electric vehicles measured on hemi-anechoic chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act of 2010 requires the National Highway Traffic Safety : Administration to conduct a rulemaking to establish a Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard requiring an alert sound for pedestrians to be emitted by electri...

  4. Supervised Self-Organizing Classification of Superresolution ISAR Images: An Anechoic Chamber Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoi Emanuel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the automatic classification of superresolution ISAR images is addressed in the paper. We describe an anechoic chamber experiment involving ten-scale-reduced aircraft models. The radar images of these targets are reconstructed using MUSIC-2D (multiple signal classification method coupled with two additional processing steps: phase unwrapping and symmetry enhancement. A feature vector is then proposed including Fourier descriptors and moment invariants, which are calculated from the target shape and the scattering center distribution extracted from each reconstructed image. The classification is finally performed by a new self-organizing neural network called SART (supervised ART, which is compared to two standard classifiers, MLP (multilayer perceptron and fuzzy KNN ( nearest neighbors. While the classification accuracy is similar, SART is shown to outperform the two other classifiers in terms of training speed and classification speed, especially for large databases. It is also easier to use since it does not require any input parameter related to its structure.

  5. A Test Model in a RF Anechoic Chamber for the Application of Wi-Fi Communication in Korean Operating NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Sik; Kim, Min Seok; Ryu, Ho Sun; Ye, Song Hae; Lee, Gwang Dae [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The objective of this study is to make a test model and confirm its effectiveness in a radio frequency (RF) anechoic chamber before conducting a field test in Korean operating NPPs for use of Wi-Fi communication technology. This paper is focused on electromagnetic/radio-frequency interference (EMI/RFI) issue and discusses a methodology and its test result for overcoming that issue. Whenever wireless communication is performed between an access point (AP) and a smart phone, EMI/RFI problem always happens around those devices. It is necessary to decide how many wireless devices local workers will use and select what facilities and systems to protect from EMI/RFI, which are so-called EMI/RFI sensitive equipment. The number of wireless devices was decided as many as possible in the area where those devices could be used, and some sensitive equipment that shall not malfunction under electromagnetic environment were chosen. The test bed which considered above mentioned conditions was constructed and an experiment was carried out inside a radio-frequency anechoic chamber. Comparing with the allowable operating envelopes for electromagnetic level from RG-1.180, each maximum level of the test results acquired from a RF anechoic chamber is not over the limit even in case of considering the maximum local workers' usage. This result shows that it is highly likely that Wi-Fi communication can be used without any problem if sensitive equipment has observed the electromagnetic susceptibility limit of RG-1.180.

  6. Nitrogen tank

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Wanted The technical file about the pressure vessel RP-270 It concerns the Nitrogen tank, 60m3, 22 bars, built in 1979, and installed at Point-2 for the former L3 experiment. If you are in possession of this file, or have any files about an equivalent tank (probably between registered No. RP-260 and -272), please contact Marc Tavlet, the ALICE Glimos.

  7. Towing Tank Measurements of Hydrodynamic Performance of a Horizontal Axis Tidal Turbine Under Unsteady Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    John Zseleczky, Mr. Daniel Rhodes, Mr. Bill Beaver and all staff of US Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory for their contributions in designing...turbine centerline. Tip vortex influence was most prevalent at X/D = 0.19, the closest measured plane to the turbine plane pictured in Figure 31

  8. Development of smart solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar tanks. A smart solar tank is a tank in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated...... by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand the volume is large, in periods with a small hot-water demand the volume is small. Based on measurements and calculations the advantage of smart SDHW systems is visualised....

  9. Hanford waste tank cone penetrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seda, R.Y.

    1995-12-01

    A new tool is being developed to characterize tank waste at the Hanford Reservation. This tool, known as the cone penetrometer, is capable of obtaining chemical and physical properties in situ. For the past 50 years, this tool has been used extensively in soil applications and now has been modified for usage in Hanford Underground Storage tanks. These modifications include development of new ''waste'' data models as well as hardware design changes to accommodate the hazardous and radioactive environment of the tanks. The modified cone penetrometer is scheduled to be deployed at Hanford by Fall 1996. At Hanford, the cone penetrometer will be used as an instrumented pipe which measures chemical and physical properties as it pushes through tank waste. Physical data, such as tank waste stratification and mechanical properties, is obtained through three sensors measuring tip pressure, sleeve friction and pore pressure. Chemical data, such as chemical speciation, is measured using a Raman spectroscopy sensor. The sensor package contains other instrumentation as well, including a tip and side temperature sensor, tank bottom detection and an inclinometer. Once the cone penetrometer has reached the bottom of the tank, a moisture probe will be inserted into the pipe. This probe is used to measure waste moisture content, water level, waste surface moisture and tank temperature. This paper discusses the development of this new measurement system. Data from the cone penetrometer will aid in the selection of sampling tools, waste tank retrieval process, and addressing various tank safety issues. This paper will explore various waste models as well as the challenges associated with tank environment

  10. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank B-111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remund, K.M.; Tingey, J.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Toth, J.J.; Ryan, F.M.; Hartley, S.A.; Simpson, D.B.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Tank 241-B-111 (hereafter referred to as B-111) is a 2,006,300 liter (530,000 gallon) single-shell waste tank located in the 200 East B tank farm at Hanford. Two cores were taken from this tank in 1991 and analysis of the cores was conducted by Battelle's 325-A Laboratory in 1993. Characterization of the waste in this tank is being done to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-44-05. Tank B-111 was constructed in 1943 and put into service in 1945; it is the second tank in a cascade system with Tanks B-110 and B-112. During its process history, B-111 received mostly second-decontamination-cycle waste and fission products waste via the cascade from Tank B-110. This tank was retired from service in 1976, and in 1978 the tank was assumed to have leaked 30,300 liters (8,000 gallons). The tank was interim stabilized and interim isolated in 1985. The tank presently contains approximately 893,400 liters (236,000 gallons) of sludge-like waste and approximately 3,800 liters (1,000 gallons) of supernate. Historically, there are no unreviewed safety issues associated with this tank and none were revealed after reviewing the data from the latest core sampling event in 1991. An extensive set of analytical measurements was performed on the core composites. The major constituents (> 0.5 wt%) measured in the waste are water, sodium, nitrate, phosphate, nitrite, bismuth, iron, sulfate and silicon, ordered from largest concentration to the smallest. The concentrations and inventories of these and other constituents are given. Since Tanks B-110 and B-111 have similar process histories, their sampling results were compared. The results of the chemical analyses have been compared to the dangerous waste codes in the Washington Dangerous Waste Regulations (WAC 173-303). This assessment was conducted by comparing tank analyses against dangerous waste characteristics 'D' waste codes; and against state waste codes

  11. Septic tank additive impacts on microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S; Hoover, M T; Clark, G H; Gumpertz, M; Wollum, A G; Cobb, C; Strock, J

    2008-01-01

    Environmental health specialists, other onsite wastewater professionals, scientists, and homeowners have questioned the effectiveness of septic tank additives. This paper describes an independent, third-party, field scale, research study of the effects of three liquid bacterial septic tank additives and a control (no additive) on septic tank microbial populations. Microbial populations were measured quarterly in a field study for 12 months in 48 full-size, functioning septic tanks. Bacterial populations in the 48 septic tanks were statistically analyzed with a mixed linear model. Additive effects were assessed for three septic tank maintenance levels (low, intermediate, and high). Dunnett's t-test for tank bacteria (alpha = .05) indicated that none of the treatments were significantly different, overall, from the control at the statistical level tested. In addition, the additives had no significant effects on septic tank bacterial populations at any of the septic tank maintenance levels. Additional controlled, field-based research iswarranted, however, to address additional additives and experimental conditions.

  12. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  13. Reduced nutrient pollution in a rural stream following septic tank upgrade and installation of runoff retention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockenden, M C; Quinton, J N; Favaretto, N; Deasy, C; Surridge, B

    2014-07-01

    Surface water quality in the UK and much of Western Europe has improved in recent decades, in response to better point source controls and the regulation of fertilizer, manure and slurry use. However, diffuse sources of pollution, such as leaching or runoff of nutrients from agricultural fields, and micro-point sources including farmyards, manure heaps and septic tank sewerage systems, particularly systems without soil adsorption beds, are now hypothesised to contribute a significant proportion of the nutrients delivered to surface watercourses. Tackling such sources in an integrated manner is vital, if improvements in freshwater quality are to continue. In this research, we consider the combined effect of constructing small field wetlands and improving a septic tank system on stream water quality within an agricultural catchment in Cumbria, UK. Water quality in the ditch-wetland system was monitored by manual sampling at fortnightly intervals (April-October 2011 and February-October 2012), with the septic tank improvement taking place in February 2012. Reductions in nutrient concentrations were observed through the catchment, by up to 60% when considering total phosphorus (TP) entering and leaving a wetland with a long residence time. Average fluxes of TP, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and ammonium-N (NH4-N) at the head of the ditch system in 2011 (before septic tank improvement) compared to 2012 (after septic tank improvement) were reduced by 28%, 9% and 37% respectively. However, TP concentration data continue to show a clear dilution with increasing flow, indicating that the system remained point source dominated even after the septic tank improvement.

  14. In-tank photo analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorvick, C.A.; Baird, D.B.; Heasler, P.G.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents an analysis performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) of photographs showing the interior of a single shell tank (SST) at the Hanford site. This report shows that in-tank photos can be used to create a plan-view map of the waste surface inside a tank, and that measuring the elevation of the waste surface from the photos is possible, but not accurate enough to be useful at this time. In-tank photos were acquired for Tanks BX111 and T111. The BX111 photos were used to create the waste surface map and to measure the waste surface elevation. T111 photos were used to measure the waste surface elevation. Uncertainty analyses of the mapping and surface elevation are included to show the accuracy of the calculations for both methods

  15. Modelling of baffled stirred tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, H.; Lahtinen, M. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The three-dimensional flow field of a baffled stirred tank has been calculated using four different turbulence models. The tank is driven by a Rushton-type impeller. The boundary condition for the impeller region has been given as a source term or by calculating the impeller using the sliding mesh technique. Calculated values have been compared with measured data. (author)

  16. Modelling of baffled stirred tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, H; Lahtinen, M [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The three-dimensional flow field of a baffled stirred tank has been calculated using four different turbulence models. The tank is driven by a Rushton-type impeller. The boundary condition for the impeller region has been given as a source term or by calculating the impeller using the sliding mesh technique. Calculated values have been compared with measured data. (author)

  17. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  18. Dual Tank Fuel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  19. MCNP Simulations of Measurement of Insulation Compaction in the Cryogenic Rocket Fuel Tanks at Kennedy Space Center by Fast/Thermal Neutron Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, R. A.; Schweitzer, J. S.; Parsons, A. M.; Arens, E. E.

    2010-01-01

    MCNP simulations have been run to evaluate the feasibility of using a combination of fast and thermal neutrons as a nondestructive method to measure of the compaction of the perlite insulation in the liquid hydrogen and oxygen cryogenic storage tanks at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Perlite is a feldspathic volcanic rock made up of the major elements Si, AI, Na, K and 0 along with some water. When heated it expands from four to twenty times its original volume which makes it very useful for thermal insulation. The cryogenic tanks at Kennedy Space Center are spherical with outer diameters of 69-70 feet and lined with a layer of expanded perlite with thicknesses on the order of 120 cm. There is evidence that some of the perlite has compacted over time since the tanks were built 1965, affecting the thermal properties and possibly also the structural integrity of the tanks. With commercially available portable neutron generators it is possible to produce simultaneously fluxes of neutrons in two energy ranges: fast (14 Me V) and thermal (25 me V). The two energy ranges produce complementary information. Fast neutrons produce gamma rays by inelastic scattering, which is sensitive to Fe and O. Thermal neutrons produce gamma rays by prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA) and this is sensitive to Si, Al, Na, K and H. The compaction of the perlite can be measured by the change in gamma ray signal strength which is proportional to the atomic number densities of the constituent elements. The MCNP simulations were made to determine the magnitude of this change. The tank wall was approximated by a I-dimensional slab geometry with an 11/16" outer carbon steel wall, an inner stainless wall and 120 cm thick perlite zone. Runs were made for cases with expanded perlite, compacted perlite or with various void fractions. Runs were also made to simulate the effect of adding a moderator. Tallies were made for decay-time analysis from t=0 to 10 ms; total detected gamma

  20. Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation and Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for Single Shell Tank Waste Management Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROGERS, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    This document is the master work plan for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) for single-shell tank (SST) farms at the Hanford Site. Evidence indicates that releases at four of the seven SST waste management areas have impacted

  1. Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation and Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for Single Shell Tank Waste Management Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS, P.M.

    2000-06-01

    This document is the master work plan for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) for single-shell tank (SST) farms at the Hanford Site. Evidence indicates that releases at four of the seven SST waste management areas have impacted.

  2. Identification of source velocities on 3D structures in non-anechoic environments: Theoretical background and experimental validation of the inverse patch transfer functions method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucejo, M.; Totaro, N.; Guyader, J.-L.

    2010-08-01

    In noise control, identification of the source velocity field remains a major problem open to investigation. Consequently, methods such as nearfield acoustical holography (NAH), principal source projection, the inverse frequency response function and hybrid NAH have been developed. However, these methods require free field conditions that are often difficult to achieve in practice. This article presents an alternative method known as inverse patch transfer functions, designed to identify source velocities and developed in the framework of the European SILENCE project. This method is based on the definition of a virtual cavity, the double measurement of the pressure and particle velocity fields on the aperture surfaces of this volume, divided into elementary areas called patches and the inversion of impedances matrices, numerically computed from a modal basis obtained by FEM. Theoretically, the method is applicable to sources with complex 3D geometries and measurements can be carried out in a non-anechoic environment even in the presence of other stationary sources outside the virtual cavity. In the present paper, the theoretical background of the iPTF method is described and the results (numerical and experimental) for a source with simple geometry (two baffled pistons driven in antiphase) are presented and discussed.

  3. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal stratification and natural convection in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank during standby periods are presented. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by heat loss are investigated...... on the natural buoyancy resulting in downward flow along the tank side walls due to heat loss of the tank and the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank...... by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and by thermal measurements. A tank with uniform temperatures and thermal stratification is studied. The distribution of the heat loss coefficient for the different parts of the tank is measured by tests and used as input to the CFD model. The investigations focus...

  4. Tank Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    For NASA's Apollo program, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, Huntington Beach, California, developed and built the S-IVB, uppermost stage of the three-stage Saturn V moonbooster. An important part of the development task was fabrication of a tank to contain liquid hydrogen fuel for the stage's rocket engine. The liquid hydrogen had to be contained at the supercold temperature of 423 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The tank had to be perfectly insulated to keep engine or solar heat from reaching the fuel; if the hydrogen were permitted to warm up, it would have boiled off, or converted to gaseous form, reducing the amount of fuel available to the engine. McDonnell Douglas' answer was a supereffective insulation called 3D, which consisted of a one-inch thickness of polyurethane foam reinforced in three dimensions with fiberglass threads. Over a 13-year development and construction period, the company built 30 tanks and never experienced a failure. Now, after years of additional development, an advanced version of 3D is finding application as part of a containment system for transporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) by ship.

  5. Feynman-α technique for measurement of detector dead time using a 30 kW tank-in-pool research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaho, E.H.K.; Intsiful, J.D.K.; Maakuu, B.T.; Anim-Sampong, S.; Nyarko, B.J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Reactor noise analysis was carried out for Ghana Research Reactor-1 GHARR-1, a tank-in-pool type reactor using the Feynman-α technique (variance-to-mean method). Measurements made at different detector positions and under subcritical conditions showed that the technique could not be used to determine the prompt decay constant for the reactor which is Be reflected with photo-neutron background. However, for very low dwell times the technique was used to measure the dead time of the detector which compares favourably with the value obtained using the α-conventional method

  6. Feynman-alpha technique for measurement of detector dead time using a 30 kW tank-in-pool research reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Akaho, E H K; Intsiful, J D K; Maakuu, B T; Nyarko, B J B

    2002-01-01

    Reactor noise analysis was carried out for Ghana Research Reactor-1 GHARR-1, a tank-in-pool type reactor using the Feynman-alpha technique (variance-to-mean method). Measurements made at different detector positions and under subcritical conditions showed that the technique could not be used to determine the prompt decay constant for the reactor which is Be reflected with photo-neutron background. However, for very low dwell times the technique was used to measure the dead time of the detector which compares favourably with the value obtained using the alpha-conventional method.

  7. Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCCARTHY, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the master work plan for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) Corrective Action Program (RCAP) for single-shell tank (SST) farms at the US. Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Hanford Site. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) initiated the RCAP to address the impacts of past and potential future tank waste releases to the environment. This work plan defines RCAP activities for the four SST waste management areas (WMAs) at which releases have contaminated groundwater. Recognizing the potential need for future RCAP activities beyond those specified in this master work plan, DOE has designated the currently planned activities as ''Phase 1.'' If a second phase of activities is needed for the WMAs addressed in Phase 1, or if releases are detected at other SST WMAs, this master work plan will be updated accordingly

  8. Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation & Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for Single Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCARTHY, M.M.

    1999-08-01

    This document is the master work plan for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) Corrective Action Program (RCAP) for single-shell tank (SST) farms at the US. Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Hanford Site. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) initiated the RCAP to address the impacts of past and potential future tank waste releases to the environment. This work plan defines RCAP activities for the four SST waste management areas (WMAs) at which releases have contaminated groundwater. Recognizing the potential need for future RCAP activities beyond those specified in this master work plan, DOE has designated the currently planned activities as ''Phase 1.'' If a second phase of activities is needed for the WMAs addressed in Phase 1, or if releases are detected at other SST WMAs, this master work plan will be updated accordingly.

  9. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented

  10. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  11. Suspending Zeolite Particles In Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is in the process of removing waste (sludge and salt cake) from million gallon waste tanks. The current practice for removing waste from the tanks is adding water, agitating the tanks with long shaft vertical centrifugal pumps, and pumping the sludge/salt solution from the tank to downstream treatment processes. This practice has left sludge heels (tilde 30,000 gallons) in the bottom of the tanks. SRS is evaluating shrouded axial impeller mixers for removing the sludge heels in the waste tanks. The authors conducted a test program to determine mixer requirements for suspending sludge heels using the shrouded axial impeller mixers. The tests were performed with zeolite in scaled tanks which have diameters of 1.5, 6.0, and 18.75 feet. The mixer speeds required to suspend zeolite particles were measured at each scale. The data were analyzed with various scaling methods to compare their ability to describe the suspension of insoluble solids with the mixers and to apply the data to a full-scale waste tank. The impact of changes in particle properties and operating parameters was also evaluated. The conclusions of the work are: Scaling of the suspension of fast settling zeolite particles was best described by the constant power per unit volume method. Increasing the zeolite particle concentration increased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Decreasing the zeolite particle size from 0.7 mm 0.3 mm decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Increasing the number of mixers in the tank decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. A velocity of 1.6 ft/sec two inches above the tank bottom is needed to suspend zeolite particles

  12. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each person...

  13. Calibration measurements and systematic studies on the detection of cosmic particles in the IceTop tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, Christian

    2012-05-01

    IceCube is an 1 km 3 large observatory at the south pole. It consists of the surface detector IceTop and the underground detector In-Ice. By the detection of Cherenkov Radiation iceCube tries to determine the sources of cosmic radiation and cosmic neutrinos. IceTop possesses a large number of IceTop tanks (ITT), which are filled with ice. In these tanks the Cherenkov radiation of the cosmic radiation can be detected with so-called digital optical modules. By this it is possible to determine the chemical composition of the cosmic radiation. Simultaneously this surface detector serves also as veto for the In-Ice detector. In this bachelor thesis the charge spectra in the ITT at DESY were studied under regardment of the electromagnetic, hadronic, and muonic component. Additionally in cooperation with 6 1 m 2 large scintillator planes by different coincidence conditions a direction selection of the cosmic radiation could be performed. By this the positions of the muon peaks could be considered for different conditions.

  14. Summary of tank waste physical properties at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Q.H.

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the physical parameters measured from Hanford Site tank wastes. Physical parameters were measured to determine the physical nature of the tank wastes to develop simulants and design in-tank equipment. The physical parameters were measured mostly from core samples obtained directly below tank risers. Tank waste physical parameters were collected through a database search, interviewing and selecting references from documents. This report shows the data measured from tank waste but does not describe how the analyses wee done. This report will be updated as additional data are measured or more documents are reviewed

  15. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-02-24

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  16. Waste tank characterization sampling limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusler, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a result of the Plant Implementation Team Investigation into delayed reporting of the exotherm in Tank 241-T-111 waste samples. The corrective actions identified are to have immediate notification of appropriate Tank Farm Operations Shift Management if analyses with potential safety impact exceed established levels. A procedure, WHC-IP-0842 Section 12.18, ''TWRS Approved Sampling and Data Analysis by Designated Laboratories'' (WHC 1994), has been established to require all tank waste sampling (including core, auger and supernate) and tank vapor samples be performed using this document. This document establishes levels for specified analysis that require notification of the appropriate shift manager. The following categories provide numerical values for analysis that may indicate that a tank is either outside the operating specification or should be evaluated for inclusion on a Watch List. The information given is intended to translate an operating limit such as heat load, expressed in Btu/hour, to an analysis related limit, in this case cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations. By using the values provided as safety flags, the analytical laboratory personnel can notify a shift manager that a tank is in potential violation of an operating limit or that a tank should be considered for inclusion on a Watch List. The shift manager can then take appropriate interim measures until a final determination is made by engineering personnel

  17. Tank 241-U-203: Tank Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1995-01-01

    The revised Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order states that a tank characterization plan will be developed for each double-shell tank and single-shell tank using the data quality objective process. The plans are intended to allow users and regulators to ensure their needs will be met and resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-U-203 sampling activities

  18. Tank 241-BY-108 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    The sampling and analytical needs associated with the 51 Hanford Site underground storage tanks classified on one or more of the four Watch Lists (ferrocyanide, organic, flammable gas, and high heat), and the safety screening of all 177 tanks have been identified through the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. DQOs identity information needed by a program group in the Tank Waste Remediation System concerned with safety issues, regulatory requirements, or the transporting and processing of tank waste. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives for tank BY-108 pertaining to sample collection, sample preparation and analysis, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements. In addition, an estimate of the current contents and status of the tank is given. Single-shell tank BY-108 is classified as a Ferrocyanide Watch List tank. The tank was declared an assumed leaker and removed from service in 1972; interim stabilized was completed in February 1985. Although not officially an Organic Watch List tank, restrictions have been placed on intrusive operations by Standing Order number-sign 94-16 (dated 09/08/94) since the tank is suspected to contain or to have contained a floating organic layer

  19. History of Tank 23, 1962 through 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G.

    1979-04-01

    Tank 23 was placed in service in April 1964 receiving contaminated water from Buildings 244-H, the Receiving Basin for Off-Site Fuel (RBOF), and 245-H, the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF). Tank 23 also provided emergency storage space for 500,000 gallons in the event of a severe contamination incident in Building 244-H. The tank has remained in this service since that time. The Tank 23 waste was processed initially by the 242-H evaporator, but since mid-1966 the waste has been processed through a zeolite bed to remove 137 C and other radioisotopes by ion exchange, and discarded to seepage basins. Inspections of the tank interior were made by using a 40-ft optical periscope and the thickness of the steel bottom of the tank was measured ultrasonically. Samples of the waste in the tank and liquid collected in the side wall and bottom sumps were analyzed. Several equipment modifications and repairs were made

  20. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents numerical investigations of thermal stratification in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank established by standby heat loss from the tank. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by standby heat loss are calculated by means of validated...... computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The measured heat loss coefficient for the different parts of the tank is used as input to the CFD model. Parametric studies are carried out using the validated models to investigate the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow...... the heat loss from the tank sides will be distributed at different levels of the tank at different thermal conditions. The results show that 20–55% of the side heat loss drops to layers below in the part of the tank without the presence of thermal stratification. A heat loss removal factor is introduced...

  1. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked on...

  2. Tank 241-BY-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    The sampling and analytical needs associated with the 51 Hanford Site underground storage tanks classified on one or more of the four Watch Lists (ferrocyanide, organic, flammable gas, and high heat), and the safety screening of all 177 tanks have been identified through the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. DQO's identify information needed by a program group in the Tank Waste Remediation System concerned with safety issues, regulatory requirements, or the transporting and processing of tank waste. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives for Tank BY-111 pertaining to sample collection, sample preparation and analysis, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements. In addition, an estimate of the current contents and status of the tank is given

  3. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft 3 of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  4. Feasibility study for measurement of insulation compaction in the cryogenic rocket fuel storage tanks at Kennedy Space Center by fast/thermal neutron techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, R. A. [Materials Science and Engineering Dept., U. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Schweitzer, J. S. [Physics Dept., U. of Connecticut, Storrs (United States); Parsons, A. M. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt (United States); Arens, E. E. [John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL (United States)

    2014-02-18

    The liquid hydrogen and oxygen cryogenic storage tanks at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) use expanded perlite as thermal insulation. Some of the perlite may have compacted over time, compromising the thermal performance and also the structural integrity of the tanks. Neutrons can readily penetrate through the 1.75 cm outer steel shell and through the entire 120 cm thick perlite zone. Neutrons interactions with materials produce characteristic gamma rays which are then detected. In compacted perlite the count rates in the individual peaks in the gamma ray spectrum will increase. Portable neutron generators can produce neutron simultaneous fluxes in two energy ranges: fast (14 MeV) and thermal (25 meV). Fast neutrons produce gamma rays by inelastic scattering which is sensitive to Si, Al, Fe and O. Thermal neutrons produce gamma rays by radiative capture in prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA), which is sensitive to Si, Al, Na, K and H among others. The results of computer simulations using the software MCNP and measurements on a test article suggest that the most promising approach would be to operate the system in time-of-flight mode by pulsing the neutron generator and observing the subsequent die away curve in the PGNA signal.

  5. Radiotracer investigation in gold leaching tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagadu, C P K; Akaho, E H K; Danso, K A; Stegowski, Z; Furman, L

    2012-01-01

    Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) is a classical method to investigate performance of chemical reactors. In the present investigation, the radioactive tracer technique was used to measure the RTD of aqueous phase in a series of gold leaching tanks at the Damang gold processing plant in Ghana. The objective of the investigation was to measure the effective volume of each tank and validate the design data after recent process intensification or revamping of the plant. I-131 was used as a radioactive tracer and was instantaneously injected into the feed stream of the first tank and monitored at the outlet of different tanks. Both sampling and online measurement methods were used to monitor the tracer concentration. The results of measurements indicated that both the methods provided identical RTD curves. The mean residence time (MRT) and effective volume of each tank was estimated. The tanks-in-series model with exchange between active and stagnant volume was used and found suitable to describe the flow structure of aqueous phase in the tanks. The estimated effective volume of the tanks and high degree of mixing in tanks could validate the design data and confirmed the expectation of the plant engineer after intensification of the process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Jet mixing long horizontal storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, J.J.; Hylton, T.D.; Youngblood, E.L.; Cummins, R.L.

    1994-12-01

    Large storage tanks may require mixing to achieve homogeneity of contents for several reasons: prior to sampling for mass balance purposes, for blending in reagents, for suspending settled solids for removal, or for use as a feed tank to a process. At ORNL, mixed waste evaporator concentrates are stored in 50,000-gal tanks, about 12 ft in diameter and 60 ft long. This tank configuration has the advantage of permitting transport by truck and therefore fabrication in the shop rather than in the field. Jet mixing experiments were carried out on two model tanks: a 230-gal (1/6-linear-scale) Plexiglas tank and a 25,000-gal tank (about 2/3 linear scale). Mixing times were measured using sodium chloride tracer and several conductivity probes distributed through the tanks. Several jet sizes and configurations were tested. One-directional and two-directional jets were tested in both tanks. Mixing times for each tank were correlated with the jet Reynolds number. Mixing times were correlated for the two tank sizes using the recirculation time for the developed jet. When the recirculation times were calculated using the distance from the nozzle to the end of the tank as the length of the developed jet, the correlation was only marginally successful. Data for the two tank sizes were correlated empirically using a modified effective jet length expressed as a function of the Reynolds number raised to the 1/3 power. Mixing experiments were simulated using the TEMTEST computer program. The simulations predicted trends correctly and were within the scatter of the experimental data with the lower jet Reynolds numbers. Agreement was not as good at high Reynolds numbers except for single nozzles in the 25,000-gal tank, where agreement was excellent over the entire range

  7. Hanford Tank Cleanup Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriochoa, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    Access to Hanford's single-shell radioactive waste storage tank C-107 was significantly improved when workers completed the cut of a 55-inch diameter hole in the top of the tank. The core and its associated cutting equipment were removed from the tank and encased in a plastic sleeve to prevent any potential spread of contamination. The larger tank opening allows use of a new more efficient robotic arm to complete tank retrieval.

  8. Tank 4 Characterization, Settling, And Washing Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Zamecnik, J.

    2009-01-01

    . (3) There is 19% more S than can be accounted for by IC sulfate measurement. This additional soluble S is detected by ICP-AES analysis of the supernate. (4) Total supernate and slurry sulfur by ICP-AES should be monitored during washing in addition to supernate sulfate in order to avoid under estimating the amount of sulfur species removed or remaining in the supernate. (5) OLI simulation calculations show that the presence of undissolved Burkeite in the Tank 4 sample is reasonable, assuming a small difference in the Na concentration that is well within the analytical uncertainties of the reported value. The following conclusions were drawn from the blend studies of Tank 4 and decanted Tank 51-E1: (1) The addition of Tank 4 slurry to a decanted Tank 51-E1 sample significantly improved the degree and time for settling. (2) The addition of Tank 4 slurry to a decanted Tank 51-E1 sample significantly improved the plastic viscosity and yield stress. (3) The SRNL washing test, where nearly all of the wash solution was decanted from the solids, indicates that approximately 96% or more of the total S was removed from the blend in these tests, and the removal of the sulfur tracks closely with that of Na. Insoluble (undissolved) S remaining in the washed sludge was calculated from an estimate of the final slurry liquid fraction, the S result in the slurry digestion, and the S in the final decant (which was very close to the method detection limit). Based on this calculated result, about 4% of the initial total S remained after these washes; this amount is equivalent to about 18% of the initially undissolved S

  9. Radiotracer investigation in gold leaching tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagadu, C.P.K., E-mail: dagadukofi@yahoo.co.uk [Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Akaho, E.H.K.; Danso, K.A. [Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Stegowski, Z.; Furman, L. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-UST, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2012-01-15

    Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) is a classical method to investigate performance of chemical reactors. In the present investigation, the radioactive tracer technique was used to measure the RTD of aqueous phase in a series of gold leaching tanks at the Damang gold processing plant in Ghana. The objective of the investigation was to measure the effective volume of each tank and validate the design data after recent process intensification or revamping of the plant. I-131 was used as a radioactive tracer and was instantaneously injected into the feed stream of the first tank and monitored at the outlet of different tanks. Both sampling and online measurement methods were used to monitor the tracer concentration. The results of measurements indicated that both the methods provided identical RTD curves. The mean residence time (MRT) and effective volume of each tank was estimated. The tanks-in-series model with exchange between active and stagnant volume was used and found suitable to describe the flow structure of aqueous phase in the tanks. The estimated effective volume of the tanks and high degree of mixing in tanks could validate the design data and confirmed the expectation of the plant engineer after intensification of the process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I-131 radioactive tracer is suitable for tracing the aqueous phase in gold ore slurry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Online data collection is more convenient method for tracer monitoring in industrial process systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tanks-in-series model with exchange between active and stagnant zones is suitable to describe the flow behavior of leaching tanks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The radiotracer RTD technique could be used to validate design data after process intensification in gold leaching tanks.

  10. Radiotracer investigation in gold leaching tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagadu, C.P.K.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Danso, K.A.; Stegowski, Z.; Furman, L.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) is a classical method to investigate performance of chemical reactors. In the present investigation, the radioactive tracer technique was used to measure the RTD of aqueous phase in a series of gold leaching tanks at the Damang gold processing plant in Ghana. The objective of the investigation was to measure the effective volume of each tank and validate the design data after recent process intensification or revamping of the plant. I-131 was used as a radioactive tracer and was instantaneously injected into the feed stream of the first tank and monitored at the outlet of different tanks. Both sampling and online measurement methods were used to monitor the tracer concentration. The results of measurements indicated that both the methods provided identical RTD curves. The mean residence time (MRT) and effective volume of each tank was estimated. The tanks-in-series model with exchange between active and stagnant volume was used and found suitable to describe the flow structure of aqueous phase in the tanks. The estimated effective volume of the tanks and high degree of mixing in tanks could validate the design data and confirmed the expectation of the plant engineer after intensification of the process. - Highlights: ► I-131 radioactive tracer is suitable for tracing the aqueous phase in gold ore slurry. ► Online data collection is more convenient method for tracer monitoring in industrial process systems. ► The tanks-in-series model with exchange between active and stagnant zones is suitable to describe the flow behavior of leaching tanks. ► The radiotracer RTD technique could be used to validate design data after process intensification in gold leaching tanks.

  11. Tank 241-C-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify the sampling analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. A Tank Characterization Plant (TCP) will be developed for each double shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. There are four Watch list tank classifications (ferrocyanide, organic salts, hydrogen/flammable gas, and high heat load). These classifications cover the six safety issues related to public and worker health that have been associated with the Hanford Site underground storage tanks. These safety issues are as follows: ferrocyanide, flammable gas, organic, criticality, high heat, and vapor safety issues. Tank C-103 is one of the twenty tanks currently on the Organic Salts Watch List. This TCP will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in accordance with the appropriate DQO documents. In addition, the current contents and status of the tank are projected from historical information. The relevant safety issues that are of concern for tanks on the Organic Salts Watch List are: the potential for an exothermic reaction occurring from the flammable mixture of organic materials and nitrate/nitrite salts that could result in a release of radioactive material and the possibility that other safety issues may exist for the tank

  12. Tank 241-AW-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1994-01-01

    The first section gives a summary of the available information for Tank AW-101. Included in the discussion are the process history and recent sampling events for the tank, as well as general information about the tank such as its age and the risers to be used for sampling. Tank 241-AW-101 is one of the 25 tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. To resolve the Flammable Gas safety issue, characterization of the tanks, including intrusive tank sampling, must be performed. Prior to sampling, however, the potential for the following scenarios must be evaluated: the potential for ignition of flammable gases such as hydrogen-air and/or hydrogen-nitrous oxide; and the potential for secondary ignition of organic-nitrate/nitrate mixtures in crust layer initiated by the burning of flammable gases or by a mechanical in-tank energy source. The characterization effort applicable to this Tank Characterization Plan is focused on the resolution of the crust burn flammable gas safety issue of Tank AW-101. To evaluate the potential for a crust burn of the waste material, calorimetry tests will be performed on the waste. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) will be used to determine whether an exothermic reaction exists

  13. Waste Tank Safety Screening Module: An aspect of Hanford Site tank waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.G.; Wood, T.W.; Babad, H.; Redus, K.S.

    1994-01-01

    Forty-five (45) of the 149 Hanford single-shell tanks have been designated as Watch-List tanks for one or more high-priority safety issues, which include significant concentrations of organic materials, ferrocyanide salts, potential generation of flammable gases, high heat generation, criticality, and noxious vapor generation. While limited waste characterization data have been acquired on these wastes under the original Tri-Party Agreement, to date all of the tank-by-tank assessments involved in these safety issue designations have been based on historical data rather than waste on data. In response to guidance from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB finding 93-05) and related direction from the US Department of Energy (DOE), Westinghouse Hanford Company, assisted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, designed a measurements-based screening program to screen all single-shell tanks for all of these issues. This program, designated the Tank Safety Screening Module (TSSM), consists of a regime of core, supernatant, and auger samples and associated analytical measurements intended to make first-order discriminations of the safety status on a tank-by-tank basis. The TSSM combines limited tank sampling and analysis with monitoring and tank history to provide an enhanced measurement-based categorization of the tanks relative to the safety issues. This program will be implemented beginning in fiscal year (FY) 1994 and supplemented by more detailed characterization studies designed to support safety issue resolution

  14. Composition and quantities of retained gas measured in Hanford waste tanks 241-U-103, S-106, BY-101, and BY-109

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, L.A.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Bates, J.M.

    1997-12-01

    This report provides the results obtained for the single-shell tanks (SSTs) sampled with the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS) during 1997: Tanks 241-U-103, 241-S-106, 241-BY-101, and 241-BY-109. The RGS is a modified version of the core sampler used at Hanford. It is designed specifically to be used in concert with the gas extraction equipment in the hot cell to capture and extrude a gas-containing waste sample in a hermetically sealed system. The four tanks represent several different types of flammable gas SSTs. Tank U-103 is on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) and is one of the highest-priority group of SSTs that show evidence of significant gas retention. Tank S-106, though not a FGWL tank, has a uniquely high barometric pressure response and continuing rapid surface level rise, indicating a large and increasing volume of retained gas. Tanks BY-101 and BY-109 are not on the FGWL but were chosen to test the effect of recent salt-well pumping on gas retention. Section 2 of this report provides an overview of the process by which retained gases in the Hanford tanks are sampled and analyzed. A detailed description of the procedure used to reduce and analyze the data is provided in Section 3. Tank-by-tank results are covered in Section 4 (with the data presented in the order in which the tanks were sampled), and an RGS system performance overview is given in Section 5. Section 6 presents conclusions from these analyses and recommendations for further research. The cited references are listed in Section 7. Appendix A describes the procedures used to extract gas and ammonia from the samples, Appendix B contains detailed laboratory data from each of the tanks, and Appendix C gives field sampling data.

  15. Composition and quantities of retained gas measured in Hanford waste tanks 241-U-103, S-106, BY-101, and BY-109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, L.A.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Bates, J.M.

    1997-12-01

    This report provides the results obtained for the single-shell tanks (SSTs) sampled with the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS) during 1997: Tanks 241-U-103, 241-S-106, 241-BY-101, and 241-BY-109. The RGS is a modified version of the core sampler used at Hanford. It is designed specifically to be used in concert with the gas extraction equipment in the hot cell to capture and extrude a gas-containing waste sample in a hermetically sealed system. The four tanks represent several different types of flammable gas SSTs. Tank U-103 is on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) and is one of the highest-priority group of SSTs that show evidence of significant gas retention. Tank S-106, though not a FGWL tank, has a uniquely high barometric pressure response and continuing rapid surface level rise, indicating a large and increasing volume of retained gas. Tanks BY-101 and BY-109 are not on the FGWL but were chosen to test the effect of recent salt-well pumping on gas retention. Section 2 of this report provides an overview of the process by which retained gases in the Hanford tanks are sampled and analyzed. A detailed description of the procedure used to reduce and analyze the data is provided in Section 3. Tank-by-tank results are covered in Section 4 (with the data presented in the order in which the tanks were sampled), and an RGS system performance overview is given in Section 5. Section 6 presents conclusions from these analyses and recommendations for further research. The cited references are listed in Section 7. Appendix A describes the procedures used to extract gas and ammonia from the samples, Appendix B contains detailed laboratory data from each of the tanks, and Appendix C gives field sampling data

  16. Performances in Tank Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel-Viorel Panaitescu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several operations which must do to maximize the performance of tank cleaning. The new advanced technologies in tank cleaning have raised the standards in marine areas. There are many ways to realise optimal cleaning efficiency for different tanks. The evaluation of tank cleaning options means to start with audit of operations: how many tanks require cleaning, are there obstructions in tanks (e.g. agitators, mixers, what residue needs to be removed, are cleaning agents required or is water sufficient, what methods can used for tank cleaning. After these steps, must be verify the results and ensure that the best cleaning values can be achieved in terms of accuracy and reliability. Technology advancements have made it easier to remove stubborn residues, shorten cleaning cycle times and achieve higher levels of automation. In this paper are presented the performances in tank cleaning in accordance with legislation in force. If tank cleaning technologies are effective, then operating costs are minimal.

  17. Screening the Hanford tanks for trapped gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, P.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Hydrogen gas is generated within the waste in these tanks. This document presents the results of a screening of Hanford's nuclear waste storage tanks for the presence of gas trapped in the waste. The method used for the screening is to look for an inverse correlation between waste level measurements and ambient atmospheric pressure. If the waste level in a tank decreases with an increase in ambient atmospheric pressure, then the compressibility may be attributed to gas trapped within the waste. In this report, this methodology is not used to estimate the volume of gas trapped in the waste. The waste level measurements used in this study were made primarily to monitor the tanks for leaks and intrusions. Four measurement devices are widely used in these tanks. Three of these measure the level of the waste surface. The remaining device measures from within a well embedded in the waste, thereby monitoring the liquid level even if the liquid level is below a dry waste crust. In the past, a steady rise in waste level has been taken as an indicator of trapped gas. This indicator is not part of the screening calculation described in this report; however, a possible explanation for the rise is given by the mathematical relation between atmospheric pressure and waste level used to support the screening calculation. The screening was applied to data from each measurement device in each tank. If any of these data for a single tank indicated trapped gas, that tank was flagged by this screening process. A total of 58 of the 177 Hanford tanks were flagged as containing trapped gas, including 21 of the 25 tanks currently on the flammable gas watch list

  18. Tank 244A tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Double-Shell Tank (DST) System currently receives waste from the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System in support of SST stabilization efforts or from other on-site facilities which generate or store waste. Waste is also transferred between individual DSTs. The mixing or commingling of potentially incompatible waste types at the Hanford Site must be addressed prior to any waste transfers into the DSTs. The primary goal of the Waste Compatibility Program is to prevent the formation of an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) as a result of improper waste management. Tank 244A is a Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) which serves as any overflow tank for the East Area Farms. Waste material is able to flow freely between the underground storage tanks and tank 244A. Therefore, it is necessary to test the waste in tank 244A for compatibility purposes. Two issues related to the overall problem of waste compatibility must be evaluated: Assurance of continued operability during waste transfer and waste concentration and Assurance that safety problems are not created as a result of commingling wastes under interim storage. The results of the grab sampling activity prescribed by this Tank Characterization Plan shall help determine the potential for four kinds of safety problems: criticality, flammable gas accumulation, energetics, and corrosion and leakage

  19. Theoretical comparison between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon; Bales, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have shown that solar combisystems based on bikini tanks for low energy houses perform better than solar domestic hot water systems based on mantle tanks. Tank-in-tank solar combisystems are also attractive from a thermal performance point of view. In this paper......, theoretical comparisons between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems are presented....

  20. Tank SY-101 void fraction instrument functional design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWethy, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    This document presents the functional design criteria for design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and installation of a void fraction instrument for Tank SY-101. This instrument will measure the void fraction in the waste in Tank SY-101 at various elevations

  1. Conventional fuel tank blunt impact tests : test and analysis results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-02

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research : and Development is conducting research into fuel tank : crashworthiness. A series of impact tests are planned to : measure fuel tank deformation under two types of dynamic : loading conditi...

  2. Test requirements of locomotive fuel tank blunt impact tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research : and Development is conducting research into passenger : locomotive fuel tank crashworthiness. A series of impact tests : are planned to measure fuel tank deformation under two types : of dy...

  3. Results of a conventional fuel tank blunt impact test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research : and Development is conducting research into passenger : locomotive fuel tank crashworthiness. A series of impact tests is : being conducted to measure fuel tank deformation under two : type...

  4. History of waste tank 22, 1965--1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G.

    1979-04-01

    Tank 22 (a 1,300,000-gallon Type IV tank) was placed in service June 6, 1965, receiving HW from tank 21. The HW was transferred back into tank 21 in September 1965 and fed to the Building 242-H evaporator. This recycled concentrate and concentrate from other waste was then received in tank 22 until the tank was filled. The HW concentrate and salt remained in the tank until November 1971 when removal was begun. The concentrated supernate was transferred from the tank followed by dissolution and removal of salt from the tank walls and bottom. The salt removal was completed in May 1974 and since that time tank 22 has served as a receiver of LW from Building 221-H. Inspections of the tank interior were made using a 40-ft optical periscope and the steel thickness of the tank bottom was measured ultrasonically. Samples of the tank vapors and liquid collected in the sidewall and bottom sumps were analyzed. Temperature and specific gravity measurements were made of waste stored in the tank. Several equipment modifications and repairs were made

  5. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachel Landry

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related sub-tasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these sub-tasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these sub-tasks were derived from the original intent

  6. Rheology of Savannah River site tank 42 and tank 51 HLW radioactive sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, B.C.; Bibler, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of the rheology of the radioactive sludge slurries at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is necessary in order to ensure that they can be retrieved from waste tanks and processed for final disposal. The high activity radioactive wastes stored as caustic slurries at SRS result from the neutralization of acid waste generated from production of nuclear defense materials. During storage, the wastes separate into a supernate layer and a sludge layer. In the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS, the radionuclides from the sludge and supernate will be immobilized into borosilicate glass for long term storage and eventual disposal. Before transferring the waste from a storage tank to the DWPF, a portion of the aluminum in the waste sludge will be dissolved and the sludge will be extensively washed to remove sodium. Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive sludges represent the first batch of HLW sludge to be processed in the DWPF. This paper presents results of rheology measurements of Tank 51 and Tank 42 at various solids concentrations. The rheologies of Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive slurries were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells Operations (SCO) at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) using a modified Haake Rotovisco RV-12 with an M150 measuring drive unit and TI sensor system. Rheological properties of the Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive sludges were measured as a function of weight percent solids. The weight percent solids of Tank 42 sludge was 27, as received. Tank 51 sludge had already been washed. The weight percent solids were adjusted by dilution with water or by concentration through drying. At 12, 15, and 18 weight percent solids, the yield stresses of Tank 51 sludge were 5, 11, and 14 dynes/cm2, respectively. The apparent viscosities were 6, 10, and 12 centipoises at 300 sec-1 shear rate, respectively

  7. Tank 241-U-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-111

  8. Tank 241-T-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-111

  9. Tank 241-U-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-103

  10. Tank 241-TX-118 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-118

  11. Tank 241-BX-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-BX-104

  12. Tank 241-TY-101 Tank Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TY-101

  13. Tank 241-T-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-107

  14. Tank 241-TX-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-105

  15. Experimental Evaluation of User Influence on Test Zone Size in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Ji, Yilin

    2017-01-01

    , an extensive measurement campaign was carried out in the paper. Two realistic LTE mockups were designed and their performance were evaluated under standard spatial channel models with and without the presence of user phantom. The measurement results have shown that the nearby user phantom can significantly...... affect the MIMO performance. However, its impact on the test zone size of the MPAC system is negligible, since emulation accuracy in terms of received power, branch power ratio (BPR), antenna correlation and measured throughput under the target and the emulated channels is not affected by the presence...... of user phantom. Moreover, results measured with the synthetic MPAC method generally match those obtained with the reference two-stage method. These findings are valuable inputs for the ongoing MIMO OTA harmonization work in the standardization....

  16. Tank car leaks gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    On January 27, 1994, a Canadian National (CN) tank car loaded with gasoline began to leak from a crack in the tank shell on the end of the car near the stub sill. The tank car had been damaged from impact switching. A part of the tank car was sent for laboratory analysis which concluded that: (1) the fracture originated in two locations in welds, (2) the cracks propagated in a symmetrical manner and progressed into the tank plate, (3) the fracture surface revealed inadequate weld fusion. A stress analysis of the tank car was conducted to determine the coupling force necessary to cause the crack. It was noted that over the last decade several problems have occurred pertaining to stub sill areas of tank cars that have resulted in hazardous material spills. An advisory was sent to Transport Canada outlining many examples where tank cars containing serious defects had passed CN inspections that were specifically designed to identify such defects. 4 figs

  17. Cold water inlet in solar tanks - valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to make a proposal for how to value a storage tank with a poor design of the cold water inlet. Based on measurements and calculations a number of curves, which are valid for this valuation, are worked out. Based on a simple test with a uniform heated storage tank the rat...

  18. Savannah River Plant waste tank inspection manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G.

    1979-01-01

    This manual is to aid in making visual and photographic inspections and steel thickness measurements of Building 241-F and -H underground waste storage tanks. It describes the inspection program, the storage tanks, the equipment and techniques used and the results of their application, and the inspection recordkeeping methods

  19. Tanks for liquids: calibration and errors assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejo, J.M.; Gutierrez Fernandez, J.; Ortiz, J.

    1980-01-01

    After a brief reference to some of the problems raised by tanks calibration, two methods, theoretical and experimental are presented, so as to achieve it taking into account measurement errors. The method is applied to the transfer of liquid from one tank to another. Further, a practical example is developed. (author)

  20. Tank 241-AZ-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, A revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) sampling activities. Tank AZ-101 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The contents of Tank AZ-101, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,630 kL (960 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-101 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 132 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,500 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.87 meters

  1. Tank 241-AZ-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process ... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) sampling activities. Tank AZ-102 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The current contents of Tank AZ-102, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,600 kL (950 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-102 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 360 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,240 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.9 meters

  2. Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    in their national contexts. Questions regarding patterns and differences in think tank organisations and functions across countries have largely been left unanswered. This paper advances a definition and research design that uses different expert roles to categorise think tanks. A sample of 34 think tanks from...

  3. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  4. Characterization of Hanford tank wastes containing ferrocyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, J.M.; Matheson, J.D.; McKinley, S.G.; Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-02-01

    Currently, 17 storage tanks on the Hanford site that are believed to contain > 1,000 gram moles (465 lbs) of ferrocyanide compounds have been identified. Seven other tanks are classified as ferrocyanide containing waste tanks, but contain less than 1,000 gram moles of ferrocyanide compounds. These seven tanks are still included as Hanford Watch List Tanks. These tanks have been declared an unreviewed safety question (USQ) because of potential thermal reactivity hazards associated with the ferrocyanide compounds and nitrate and nitrite. Hanford tanks with waste containing > 1,000 gram moles of ferrocyanide have been sampled. Extensive chemical, radiothermical, and physical characterization have been performed on these waste samples. The reactivity of these wastes were also studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis. Actual tank waste samples were retrieved from tank 241-C-112 using a specially designed and equipped core-sampling truck. Only a small portion of the data obtained from this characterization effort will be reported in this paper. This report will deal primarily with the cyanide and carbon analyses, thermal analyses, and limited physical property measurements

  5. Absolute measurement of ν/sub p/-bar for 252Cf by the large liquid scintillator tank technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    A vigorous effect to dispel the scandal of the approx. 2% dispersion in reported experimental values of 252 Cf ν-bar, the average number of neutrons emitted in spontaneous fission, has been underway over the past 5 years. The goal is to reduce the uncertainty in this fundamental parameter to the +- 0.25% level needed for reactor physics applications. Both new measurements and revaluation of older measurements are involved. At ORNL a new measurement is being carried out using the leage liquid scintillator neutron detector. Findings of the most recent experiment, incorporating improvements suggested in a preliminary study are discussed. 6 figures, 2 tables

  6. Process for the realization of a nuclear gauge measuring the amount of materials in tank under microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, P.; Cluzeau, S.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear gauge comprises a neutron source in the center of the reservoir and a neutron or gamma detector for measuring the quantity of propellant still in the reservoir whatever the thermodynamic phases, temperature, pressure or microgravity value [fr

  7. Tank calibration; Arqueacao de tanques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Ana [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This work relates the analysis of the norms ISO (International Organization for Standardization) for calibration of vertical cylindrical tanks used in fiscal measurement, established on Joint Regulation no 1 of June 19, 2000 between the ANP (National Agency of Petroleum) and the INMETRO (National Institute of Metrology, Normalization and Industrial Quality). In this work a comparison between norms ISO and norms published by the API (American Petroleum Institute) and the IP (Institute of Petroleum) up to 2001 was made. It was concluded that norms ISO are wider than norms API, IP, and INMETRO methods in the calibration of vertical cylindrical tanks. (author)

  8. Fuel storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peehs, M.; Stehle, H.; Weidinger, H.

    1979-01-01

    The stationary fuel storage tank is immersed below the water level in the spent fuel storage pool. In it there is placed a fuel assembly within a cage. Moreover, the storage tank has got a water filling and a gas buffer. The water in the storage tank is connected with the pool water by means of a filter, a surge tank and a water purification facility, temperature and pressure monitoring being performed. In the buffer compartment there are arranged catalysts a glow plugs for recombination of radiolysis products into water. The supply of water into the storage tank is performed through the gas buffer compartment. (DG) [de

  9. Transabdominal ultrasonography of the small bowel after oral administration of a non-absorbable anechoic solution: Comparison with barium enteroclysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cittadini, Giuseppe; Giasotto, Veronica; Garlaschi, Giacomo; De Cicco, Enzo; Gallo, Alessandra; Cittadini, Giorgio

    2001-03-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to determine if oral administration of a non-absorbable anechoic solution conveys any benefit during abdominal ultrasound (US), with special reference to its accuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-three adult out-patients scheduled for small bowel barium enema (SBE) were included. The day before SBE all patients underwent abdominal US before and after oral administration of an isotonic non-absorbable electrolyte solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG-ELS). Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated using SBE as a gold standard. RESULTS: After ingestion of PEG-ELS satisfactory distension of the intestinal lumen was obtained (11-25 mm) with sequential visualization of jejunoileal loops in 30.9 {+-} 17.3 min. In 15 out of 53 cases both US and SBE showed bowel changes characteristic of Crohn's disease. In three out of 53 cases both US and SBE showed neoplasms. In one out of 53 cases US was negative, SBE positive for local nodularity and ulcerations typical of Crohn's disease. In one out of 53 cases US was negative, SBE positive for macronodularity consistent with coeliac disease. In five out of 53 cases US was negative, while SBE was positive for mininodularity expressive of lymphoid hyperplasia. In 28 out of 53 cases both examinations were negative. CONCLUSION: PEG-ELS administration allows a thorough US investigation of the small bowel, with fair sensitivity (72%) and excellent specificity (100%). False negative findings are mainly due to lymphoid hyperplasia, a feature of uncertain significance in adults. Cittadini G. et al.(2001)

  10. Zircon/fluid trace element partition coefficients measured by recrystallization of Mud Tank zircon at 1.5 GPa and 800-1000 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, John C.; Peters, Timothy J.

    2018-02-01

    Hydrothermal zircon grains have trace element characteristics such as low Th/U, high U, and high rare earth element (REE) concentrations that distinguish them from magmatic, metamorphic, and altered zircon grains, but it is unclear whether these characteristics result from distinctive fluid compositions or zircon/fluid fractionation effects. New experiments aimed at measuring zircon/fluid trace element partition coefficients Dz/f involved recrystallizing natural Mud Tank zircon with low trace element concentrations in the presence of H2O, 1 m NaOH, or 1 m HCl doped with ∼1000 ppm of rare earth elements (REE), Y, U and Th and ∼500 ppm of Li, B, P, Nb, Ba, Hf, and Ta. Experiments were run for 168 h at 1.5 GPa, 800-1000 °C, and fO2 = NNO in a piston cylinder apparatus using the double capsule method. LA-ICP-MS analysis shows that run product zircon crystals have much higher trace element concentrations than in Mud Tank zircon starting material. Dz/f values were estimated from run product zircon analyses and bulk composition using mass balance. Most elements behave incompatibly, with median Dz/f being highest for Hf = 8 and lowest for B = 0.02. Addition of NaOH or HCl had little influence on Dz/f values. Dz/f for LREE are anomalously high, likely due to contamination of run product zircon with quenched solutes enriched in incompatible elements, so DLREE were estimated using lattice strain theory. Brice curves for +3 ions yield zircon/fluid DLu/DLa of ∼800-5000. A Brice curve fit to +4 ions yielded DCe4+ values. Estimated concentrations of Ce3+ and Ce4+ show that the average Ce4+/Ce3+ in zircon of 27 is much higher than in fluid of 0.02. Th and U show little fractionation, with median DTh/DU = 0.7, indicating that the low Th/U in natural hydrothermal zircon is inherited from the fluid. Natural fluid compositions estimated from measured Dz/f and published compositions of hydrothermal zircon grains from aplite and eclogite reflect the mineralogy of the host rock, e

  11. SU-E-T-118: Analysis of Variability and Stability Between Two Water Tank Phantoms Utilizing Water Tank Commissioning Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roring, J; Saenz, D; Cruz, W; Papanikolaou, N; Stathakis, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The commissioning criteria of water tank phantoms are essential for proper accuracy and reproducibility in a clinical setting. This study outlines the results of mechanical and dosimetric testing between PTW MP3-M water tank system and the Standard Imaging Doseview 3D water tank system. Methods: Measurements were taken of each axis of movement on the tank using 30 cm calipers at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, and 200 mm for accuracy and reproducibility of tank movement. Dosimetric quantities such as percent depth dose and dose profiles were compared between tanks using a 6 MV beam from a Varian 23EX LINAC. Properties such as scanning speed effects, central axis depth dose agreement with static measurements, reproducibility of measurements, symmetry and flatness, and scan time between tanks were also investigated. Results: Results showed high geometric accuracy within 0.2 mm. Central axis PDD and in-field profiles agreed within 0.75% between the tanks. These outcomes test many possible discrepancies in dose measurements across the two tanks and form a basis for comparison on a broader range of tanks in the future. Conclusion: Both 3D water scanning phantoms possess a high degree of spatial accuracy, allowing for equivalence in measurements regardless of the phantom used. A commissioning procedure when changing water tanks or upon receipt of a new tank is nevertheless critical to ensure consistent operation before and after the arrival of new hardware

  12. Tank 241-A-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-A-104. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in addition to reporting the current contents and status of the tank as projected from historical information

  13. Continuous and simultaneous measurement of the tank-treading motion of red blood cells and the surrounding flow using translational confocal micro-particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) with sub-micron resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, M; Utsubo, K; Kinoshita, H; Fujii, T; Oshima, M

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a translational confocal micro-particle image velocimetry (PIV) system is introduced to measure the microscopic interaction between red blood cells (RBCs) and the surrounding flow. Since the macroscopic behavior of RBCs, such as the tank-treading motion, is closely related to the axial migration and other flow characteristics in arterioles, the measurement method must answer the conflicting demands of sub-micron resolution, continuous measurement and applicability for high-speed flow. In order to avoid loss of the measurement target, i.e. RBCs, from the narrow field of view during high-magnification measurement, the translation stage with the flow device moves in the direction opposite the direction of flow. The proposed system achieves the measurement of higher absolute velocities compared with a conventional confocal micro-PIV system without the drawbacks derived from stage vibration. In addition, we have applied a multicolor separation unit, which can measure different phases simultaneously using different fluorescent particles, in order to clarify the interaction between RBCs and the surrounding flow. Based on our measurements, the tank-treading motion of RBCs depends on the shear stress gradient of the surrounding flow. Although, the relationship between the tank-treading frequency and the shear rate of the surrounding flow is of the same order as in the previous uniform shear rate experiments, our results reveal the remarkable behavior of the non-uniform membrane velocities and lateral velocity component of flow around the RBCs. (paper)

  14. Dynamic measurement of forward scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rusch, W.

    1975-01-01

    A dynamic method for the measurement of forward scattering in a radio anechoic chamber is described. The quantity determined is the induced-field-ratio (IFR) of conducting cylinders. The determination of the IFR is highly sensitive to 1) multiple scattering between the cylinder and the obpring...

  15. A Study of the Anechoic Performance of Rice Husk-Based, Geometrically Tapered, Hollow Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although solid, geometrically tapered microwave absorbers are preferred due to their better performance, they are bulky and must have a thickness on the order of λ or more. The goal of this study was to design lightweight absorbers that can reduce the electromagnetic reflections to less than −10 dB. We used a very simple approach; two waste materials, that is, rice husks and tire dust in powder form, were used to fabricate two independent samples. We measured and used their dielectric properties to determine and compare the propagation constants and quarter-wave thickness. The quarter-wave thickness for the tire dust was 3 mm less than that of the rice husk material, but we preferred the rice-husk material. This preference was based on the fact that our goal was to achieve minimum backward reflections, and the rice-husk material, with its low dielectric constant, high loss factor, large attenuation per unit length, and ease of fabrication, provided a better opportunity to achieve that goal. The performance of the absorbers was found to be better (lower than −20 dB, and comparison of the results proved that the hollow design with 58% less weight was a good alternative to the use of solid absorbers.

  16. Tank 241-AP-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-11-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Double-Shell Tank (DST) 241-AP-104

  17. Tank 241-C-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.'' This document satisfies that requirement for the Tank 241-C-107 (C-107) sampling activities. Currently tank C-107 is categorized as a sound, low-heat load tank with partial isolation completed in December 1982. The tank is awaiting stabilization. Tank C-107 is expected to contain three primary layers of waste. The bottom layer should contain a mixture of the following wastes: ion exchange, concentrated phosphate waste from N-Reactor, Hanford Lab Operations, strontium semi-works, Battelle Northwest, 1C, TBP waste, cladding waste, and the hot semi-works. The middle layer should contain strontium recovery supernate. The upper layer should consist of non-complexed waste

  18. Calibration measurements and systematic studies on the detection of cosmic particles in the IceTop tank; Eichmessungen und systematische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis kosmischer Teilchen im IceTop-Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Christian

    2012-05-15

    IceCube is an 1 km{sup 3} large observatory at the south pole. It consists of the surface detector IceTop and the underground detector In-Ice. By the detection of Cherenkov Radiation iceCube tries to determine the sources of cosmic radiation and cosmic neutrinos. IceTop possesses a large number of IceTop tanks (ITT), which are filled with ice. In these tanks the Cherenkov radiation of the cosmic radiation can be detected with so-called digital optical modules. By this it is possible to determine the chemical composition of the cosmic radiation. Simultaneously this surface detector serves also as veto for the In-Ice detector. In this bachelor thesis the charge spectra in the ITT at DESY were studied under regardment of the electromagnetic, hadronic, and muonic component. Additionally in cooperation with 6 1 m{sup 2} large scintillator planes by different coincidence conditions a direction selection of the cosmic radiation could be performed. By this the positions of the muon peaks could be considered for different conditions.

  19. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section 179.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and... liquid tank car tanks. ...

  20. Evaporation analysis for Tank SX-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrington, C.A.

    1994-10-01

    Decreases in historical interstitial liquid level measurements in tank SX-104 were compared to predictions of a numerical model based upon diffusion of water through a porous crust. The analysis showed that observed level decreases could be explained by evaporation

  1. Extended tank use analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFigh-Price, C.; Green, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site were originally designed for open-quotes temporaryclose quotes use. The newer double-shell tanks were designed for 50 years of use. A number of single-shell tanks failed their original design criteria to contain liquid waste soon after they were constructed. These single-shell and double-shell tanks now will be required to contain semi-solid high-activity waste well beyond their design lives. It must be determined that the waste contained in these tanks will remain stable for up to an additional 30 years of storage. This paper describes the challenge of demonstrating that the tanks that have exceeded or will exceed their design lifetime can safely store high-level waste until planned disposal actions are taken. Considerations will include structural and chemical analyses

  2. Think tanks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach-Ørsten, Mark; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard

    2016-01-01

    outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re......-politicization of Danish newspapers; but also that the news media as an arena of influence is only one part of the equation, since some of the corporatist political networks are still intact and working outside the media...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...

  3. MIMO channel measurements using optical links on small mobile terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanakiev, Boyan; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at a novel measurement device for propagation channel measurements using a fiber optic link. Although the idea of using optical links is not new, most of the developments in the area are either too big [5], short range [6] or suitable for anechoic chamber only [7]. The device...... presented here is specifically designed to fit in a very small volume and is optimized for low power consumption (runs on small battery), thus imitating the phone electronics. It can be used for anechoic chamber measurements, however it is designed for long range channel sounding measurements....

  4. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System's tank waste retrieval Program

  5. EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS OF TAILING UNDERWATER SEDIMENTS AND LIQUID INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN STORAGE TANK ON THE BASIS OF ECHOLOCATION AND GPS-SYSTEMS AT JSC “BELARUSKALI”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Mikhailov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new approach to calculate volume of tailing underwater sediments and liquid industrial wastes on the basis of innovative technologies. Two theodolites which are set at various points and a boat with a load for measuring water depth have been traditionally used for topographic survey of slime storage bottom. Horizontal directions have been simultaneously measured on the boat marker while using theodolites. Water depth has been determined while using  a 2-kg circular load which was descended into brine solution with the help of rope. In addition to rather large time and labour costs such technology has required synchronization in actions on three participants involved in the work: operators of two theodolites and boat team in every depth measuring point. Methodology has been proposed for more efficient solution of the problem. It presupposes the use of echolocation together with space localization systems (GPS-systems which can be set on a boat with the purpose to measure depth of a storage tank bed. An echolocation transducer has been installed under the boat bottom at the depth of 10 cm from the brine solution level in the slime storage.  An aerial of GPS-receiver has been fixed over the echo-sounder transducer. Horizontal positioning of bottom depth measuring points have been carried out in the local coordinate system. Formation of digital model for slime storage bottom has been executed after data input of the coordinate positioning that corresponded to corrected depths in the software package LISCAD Plus SEE. The formation has been made on the basis of a strict triangulation method.  Creation of the digital model makes it rather easy to calculate a volume between a storage bottom and a selected level (height of filling material. In this context it is possible to determine a volume and an area not only above but also lower of the datum surface. For this purpose it is recommended to use digital models which are developed

  6. High priority tank sampling and analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    In July 1993, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Board issued Recommendation 93-5 (Conway 1993) which noted that there was insufficient tank waste technical information and the pace to obtain it was too slow to ensure that Hanford Site wastes could be safely stored, that associated operations could be conducted safely, and that future disposal data requirements could be met. In response, the US Department of Energy, in May 1996, issued Revision 1 of the Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1996). The Implementation Plan presented a modified approach to achieve the original plan's objectives, concentrating on actions necessary to ensure that wastes can be safely stored, that operations can be safely conducted, and that timely characterization information for the tank waste Disposal Program could be obtained. The Implementation Plan proposed 28 High Priority tanks for near term core sampling and analysis, which along with sampling and analysis of other non-High Priority tanks, could provide the scientific and technical data to confirm assumptions, calibrate models, and.measure safety related phenomenology of the waste. When the analysis results of the High Priority and other-tank sampling were reviewed, it was expected that a series of 12 questions, 9 related to safety issues and 3 related to planning for the disposal process, should be answered allowing key decisions to be made. This report discusses the execution of the Implementation Plan and the results achieved in addressing the questions. Through sampling and analysis, all nine safety related questions have been answered and extensive data for the three disposal planning related questions have been collected, allowing for key decision making. Many more tanks than the original 28 High Priority tanks identified in the Implementation Plan were sampled and analyzed. Twenty-one High Priority tanks and 85 other tanks were core sampled and used to address the questions. Thirty-eight additional tanks were auger

  7. Fuel tank integrity research : fuel tank analyses and test plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research : and Development is conducting research into fuel tank : crashworthiness. Fuel tank research is being performed to : determine strategies for increasing the fuel tank impact : resistance to ...

  8. Farming in a fish tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youth, H

    1992-01-01

    Water, fish, and vegetables are all things that most developing countries do not have enough of. There is a method of food production called aquaculture that integrates fish and vegetable growing and conserves and purifies water at the same time. A working system that grows vegetables and fish for regional supermarkets in Massachusetts is a gravity fed system. At the top of the system is a 3,000 gallon fish rearing tank that measures 12 feet in diameter. Water trickles out of the tank and fish wastes are captured which can be composted and used in farm fields. The water goes into a bio filter that contains bacteria which convert harmful ammonia generated from fish waste into beneficial nitrate. Then the water flows into 100 foot long hydroponic tanks where lettuce grows. A 1/6 horsepower pump return the purified water to the fish tank and completes the cycle. The key to success is maintaining a balance between the fish nutrients and waste and the plants nutrients and waste. The system is estimated to produce 35,000 heads of lettuce and 2 tons of fish annually which translates into $23,500. The system could be adapted to developing countries with several modifications to reduce the start up cost.

  9. History of waste tank 14, 1957 through 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.L.; Tharin, D.W.; Jones, D.W.; Lohr, D.R.

    1977-08-01

    Tank 14 was placed in service as a receiver of fresh high heat waste (HW) in September 1957. Annulus leakage was discovered in April 1959 and continued until annulus ventilation was increased in January 1965. Practically all of the approximately 40 leak sites that have been identified on the tank wall are located at or below the bottom horizontal weld. Tank supernate was removed from the tank in preparation for a sludge removal operation which was performed in December 1968. The tank was then filled to its present level with blended supernate from tanks 10 and 13. In December 1972, supernate was inadvertently siphoned into the annulus through a dewatering jet, filling the annulus pan to a level of 33 in. The waste was promptly returned to the tank. Inspections of the tank interior and annulus were performed by direct observation, with a 40-ft optical periscope, and with photography and closed circuit television. Radioactive waste was first found in the annulus during visual inspection in May 1959. Samples of sludge, supernate, tank vapors, and leaked material in the annulus were analyzed, and numerous tank temperature profiles were taken. Soil and tank wall temperatures were measured in a study of tank nil ductility transition temperature. Six cooling coils failed, five of which occurred within 7 months after sludge removal. Several modifications to equipment and various equipment repairs were made. 14 figures, 3 tables

  10. History of waste tank 1, 1954 through 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G.; Stevens, W.E.

    1978-10-01

    Tank 1 was placed in service as a receiver of high heat waste (HW) in October 1954. The supernate was removed from the tank in October 1961 and the tank began receiving low heat waste (LW) in January 1962. The LW supernate was decanted in October 1962 and prior to beginning a second HW filling in April 1963. The supernate from this HW filling was decanted twice in 1969. Sludge removal operations were conducted in May and August 1969 in order to use tank 1 for salt storage. The first evaporator concentrate receipt was in September 1969 and tank 1 has only been used as a salt storage tank since. Leakage from the tank into the annulus was discovered in February 1969. Deposits less than 1/4 inch deep of leaked waste were found on the pan floor. However, no leak sites have been found. Inspections of the tank interior and annulus were made by direct observation and by using a 40-ft optical periscope. Samples of sludge, supernate, tank vapors, and leaked material into the annulus were analyzed and tank temperature profiles were taken. Deflection measurements were made of the primary tank bottom knuckle plate while filling the tank with salt. Two vertical cooling coils have failed. Several equipment modifications and various equipment repairs were made. 18 figures, 2 tables

  11. A survey of the exposure to Ostertagia ostertagi in dairy cow herds in Europe through the measurement of antibodies in milk samples from the bulk tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, A B; J Vercruysse; Charlier, J

    2008-10-20

    Measurement of antibodies to Ostertagia ostertagi in bulk tank milk (BTM) has value as a diagnostic indicator for potential production losses and anthelmintic treatment responses in dairy herds. Most of the recent data on O. ostertagi antibodies in milk have been generated in Belgium and Canada; the purpose of this study was to determine the range of O. ostertagi antibody levels in several European countries. BTM samples were collected during the autumn of 2005 and 2006 from a total of 1185 dairy herds from dairy farming regions in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom. Antibody titres to O. ostertagi were determined by indirect ELISA and expressed as optical density ratios (ODR). In addition, relationships between ODR and management practices were investigated. For each country the mean ODR and the 25th-75th percentile values were determined. Mean BTM ODR values in herds with access to yards, paddocks and pastures ranged from 0.3 in Italy to 0.6 in Portugal and the UK/Ireland. The BTM ODR values obtained in this study were generally lower than those described in the literature for Belgium, but comparable with those in Canada. Variations between different European countries appeared to reflect different husbandry practices, particularly those related to access to pasture. The association analyses showed correlations between the BTM O. ostertagi ODR, outside access and grazing management, consistent with the publications from Belgium and Canada. When diagnostic values appropriate for different production situations and environments have been further validated, the test will provide an objective, quantitative assessment of the O. ostertagi status of a dairy herd and the possible impact this may have on performance and potential responses to anthelmintic treatment. This represents a significant step forward in evidence-based medicine for dairy veterinarians, advisors and farmers.

  12. Heated Aluminum Tanks Resist Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.

    1983-01-01

    Simple expedient of heating foam-insulated aluminum alloy tanks prevents corrosion by salt-laden moisture. Relatively-small temperature difference between such tank and surrounding air will ensure life of tank is extended by many years.

  13. Tank characterization reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research

  14. Acoustic imaging of underground storage tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mech, S.J.

    1995-09-01

    Acoustics is a potential tool to determine the properties of high level wastes stored in Underground Storage Tanks. Some acoustic properties were successfully measured by a limited demonstration conducted in 114-TX. This accomplishment provides the basis for expanded efforts to qualify techniques which depend on the acoustic properties of tank wastes. This work is being sponsored by the Department of Energy under the Office of Science and Technology. In FY-1994, limited Tank Waste Remediation Systems EM-30 support was available at Hanford and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL) were engaged for analysis support, and Elohi Geophysics, Inc. for seismic testing services. Westinghouse-Hanford Company provided the testing and training, supplied the special engineering and safety analysis equipment and procedures, and provided the trained operators for the actual tank operations. On 11/9/94, limited in-tank tests were successfully conducted in tank 114-TX. This stabilized Single Shell Tank was reported as containing 16.8 feet of waste, the lower 6.28 feet of which contained interstitial liquid. Testing was conducted over the lower 12 feet, between two Liquid Observation Wells thirty feet apart. The ''quick-look'' data was reviewed on-site by MIT and Elohi

  15. Tank 241-C-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-105

  16. Tank 241-BY-106 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BY-106

  17. Tank 241-AX-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-AX-104

  18. Tank 241-AX-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-AX-102

  19. Tank 241-C-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-101

  20. Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-AP-107

  1. Tank Space Options Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOYLES, V.C.

    2001-01-01

    A risk-based priority for the retrieval of Hanford Site waste from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) has been adopted as a result of changes to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1997) negotiated in 2000. Retrieval of the first three tanks in the retrieval sequence fills available capacity in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) by 2007. As a result, the HFFACO change established a milestone (M-45-12-TO1) requiring the determination of options that could increase waste storage capacity for single-shell tank waste retrieval. The information will be considered in future negotiations. This document fulfills the milestone requirement. This study presents options that were reviewed for the purpose of increasing waste storage capacity. Eight options are identified that have the potential for increasing capacity from 5 to 10 million gallons, thus allowing uninterrupted single-shell tank retrieval until the planned Waste Treatment Plant begins processing substantial volumes of waste from the double-shell tanks in 2009. The cost of implementing these options is estimated to range from less than $1 per gallon to more than $14 per gallon. Construction of new double-shell tanks is estimated to cost about $63 per gallon. Providing 5 to 10 million gallons of available double-shell tank space could enable early retrieval of 5 to 9 high-risk single-shell tanks beyond those identified for retrieval by 2007. These tanks are A-101, AX-101, AX-103, BY-102, C-107, S-105, S-106, S-108, and S-109 (Garfield et al. 2000). This represents a potential to retrieve approximately 14 million total curies, including 3,200 curies of long-lived mobile radionuclides. The results of the study reflect qualitative analyses conducted to identify promising options. The estimated costs are rough-order-of magnitude and, therefore, subject to change. Implementing some of the options would represent a departure from the current baseline and may adversely impact the

  2. DETAILED MODELLING OF CHARGING BEHAVIOUR OF SMART SOLAR TANKS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The charging behaviour of smart solar tanks for solar combisystems for one-family houses is investigated with detailed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements. The smart solar tank can be charged with a variable auxiliary volume fitted...... or by an electric heating element in a side-arm mounted on the side of the tank. Detailed CFD models of the smart tanks are built with different mesh densities in the tank and in the side-arm. The thermal conditions of the tank during charging are calculated with the CFD models. The fluid flow and temperature...... by the mesh densities, the distribution of computational cells, the physical model and time steps used in the simulations. The findings of the investigations will be used as guidance for creation of CFD models for optimal design of smart solar tanks....

  3. 49 CFR 179.201 - Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to non-pressure tank car tanks. 179.201 Section 179.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes... car tanks. ...

  4. Nuclear fuel technology - Tank calibration and volume determination for nuclear materials accountancy - Part 2: Data standardization for tank calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of the volume and height of liquid in a process accountancy tank are often made in order to estimate or verify the tank's calibration or volume measurement equation. The calibration equation relates the response of the tank's measurement system to some independent measure of tank volume. The ultimate purpose of the calibration exercise is to estimate the tank's volume measurement equation (the inverse of the calibration equation), which relates tank volume to measurement system response. In this part of ISO 18213, it is assumed that the primary measurement-system response variable is liquid height and that the primary measure of liquid content is volume. This part of ISO 18213 presents procedures for standardizing a set of calibration data to a fixed set of reference conditions so as to minimize the effect of variations in ambient conditions that occur during the measurement process. The procedures presented herein apply generally to measurements of liquid height and volume obtained for the purpose of calibrating a tank (i.e. calibrating a tank's measurement system). When used in connection with other parts of ISO 18213, these procedures apply specifically to tanks equipped with bubbler probe systems for measuring liquid content. The standardization algorithms presented herein can be profitably applied when only estimates of ambient conditions, such as temperature, are available. However, the most reliable results are obtained when relevant ambient conditions are measured for each measurement of volume and liquid height in a set of calibration data. Information is provided on scope, physical principles, data required, calibration data, dimensional changes in the tank, multiple calibration runs and results on standardized calibration data. Four annexes inform about density of water, buoyancy corrections for mass determination, determination of tank heel volume and statistical method for aligning data from several calibration runs. A bibliography is

  5. Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel meeting, July 20, 1990: Hanford Tank Safety Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; Morgan, L.G.

    1991-02-01

    The second meeting of the Tank Waste Science Panel was held July 20, 1990. Science Panel members discussed the prioritization of various analyses to be performed on core samples from tank 101-SY, and were asked to review and comment on the draft Westinghouse Hanford Company document ''Analytical Chemistry Plan.'' They also reviewed and discussed the initial contributions to the report titled Chemical and Physical Processes in Tank 101-SY: A Preliminary Report. Science Panel members agreed that a fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical processes in the tank is essential, and strongly recommended that no remediation measures be taken until there is a better understanding of the chemical and physical phenomena that result in the episodic gas release from tank 101-SY. 1 ref

  6. TANK FARM ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment, The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or Notice of Construction for an inclusive listing of requirements

  7. Hanford tanks initiative alternatives generation and analysis plan for AX tank farm closure basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaus, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is: (1) to review the HTI Mission Analysis and related documents to determine their suitability for use in developing performance measures for AX Tank Farm closure, (2) to determine the completeness and representativeness of selected alternative closure scenarios, (3) to determine the completeness of current plans for development of tank end-state criteria, and (4) to analyze the activities that are necessary and sufficient to recommend the end-state criteria and performance measures for the AX Tank Farm and recommend activities not currently planned to support establishment of its end-state criteria

  8. Reactor pressure tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, H.; Scholz, M.; Jungmann, A.

    1975-01-01

    In a reactor pressure tank for a nuclear reactor, self-locking hooks engage a steel ring disposed over the removable cover of the steel vessel. The hooks exert force upon the cover to maintain the cover in a closed position during operation of the reactor pressure tank. The force upon the removal cover is partly the result of the increasing temperature and thermal expansion of the steel vessel during operation. The steel vessel is surrounded by a reinforced-concrete tank. (U.S.)

  9. Tank farm potential ignition sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaief, C.C. III.

    1996-01-01

    This document identifies equipment, instrumentation, and sensors that are located in-tank as well as ex-tank in areas that may have communication paths with the tank vapor space. For each item, and attempt is made to identify the potential for ignition of flammable vapors using a graded approach. The scope includes all 177 underground storage tanks

  10. Improving the Tank Scout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, R. L

    2006-01-01

    .... While the tank battalions recognize the importance and value of the scout platoon, they are restricted from employing scouts to their full potential due to the platoon's inflexible structure and limited capabilities...

  11. Tank waste treatment science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFemina, J.P.; Blanchard, D.L.; Bunker, B.C.; Colton, N.G.; Felmy, A.R.; Franz, J.A.; Liu, J.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Remediation efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site require that many technical and scientific principles be combined for effectively managing and disposing the variety of wastes currently stored in underground tanks. Based on these principles, pretreatment technologies are being studied and developed to separate waste components and enable the most suitable treatment methods to be selected for final disposal of these wastes. The Tank Waste Treatment Science Task at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is addressing pretreatment technology development by investigating several aspects related to understanding and processing the tank contents. The experimental work includes evaluating the chemical and physical properties of the alkaline wastes, modeling sludge dissolution, and evaluating and designing ion exchange materials. This paper gives some examples of results of this work and shows how these results fit into the overall Hanford waste remediation activities. This work is part of series of projects being conducted for the Tank Waste Remediation System

  12. Ocean Technology Development Tank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The new SWFSC laboratory in La Jolla incorporates a large sea- and fresh-water Ocean Technology Development Tank. This world-class facility expands NOAA's ability to...

  13. Sonar Tank Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Sonar Tank Facility permits low cost initial 'wet' testing and check out prior to full scale deployment at sea. It can manage controlled conditions calibration...

  14. Improving the Tank Scout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, R. L

    2006-01-01

    Within the Marine Corps' tank battalions is a unique asset that is often improperly employed and not well known within the other components of the Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF): the scout platoon...

  15. Modeling Propellant Tank Dynamics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of my work will be to develop accurate models of self-pressurizing propellant tanks for use in designing hybrid rockets. The first key goal is to...

  16. TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-05-31

    particles have higher density and/or larger size than indicated by previous analysis of SRS sludge and sludge simulants. (5) Tank 21 waste characterization, laboratory settling tests, and additional field turbidity measurements during mixing evolutions are recommended to better understand potential risk for extended (> 60 days) settling times in Tank 21.

  17. OPTIMISATION OF MANTLE TANKS FOR LOW FLOW SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1996-01-01

    A model, describing the heat transfer coefficients in the mantle of a mantle tank has been developed. The model is validated by means of measurements with varying operational conditions for different designed mantle tanks. The model has been implemented in an existing detailed mathematical...... with the programme and by means of tests of three SDHW systems with different designed mantle tanks. Based on the investigations design rules for mantle tanks are proposed. The model, describing the heat transfer coefficients in the mantle is approximate. In addition, the measurements have revealed...... that a temperature stratification in the hot water tank, above the mantle is built up. This phenomenon may be important, but it is not taken into calculation in the programme. Therefore, theoretical and practical work is continuing in order to make a more precise model for the whole mantle tank....

  18. Analysis of ICPP tank farm infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, B.T.

    1993-10-01

    This report addresses water seeping into underground vaults which contain high-level liquid waste (HLLW) storage tanks at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Each of the vaults contains from one to three sumps. The original purpose of the sumps was to serve as a backup leak detection system for release of HLLW from the storage tanks. However, water seeps into most of the vaults, filling the sumps, and defeating their purpose as a leak detection system. Leak detection for the HLLW storage tanks is based on measuring the level of liquid inside the tank. The source of water leaking into the vaults was raised as a concern by the State of Idaho INEL Oversight Group because this source could also be leaching contaminants released to soil in the vicinity of the tank farm and transporting contaminants to the aquifer. This report evaluates information concerning patterns of seepage into vault sumps, the chemistry of water in sumps, and water balances for the tank farm to determine the sources of water seeping into the vaults

  19. Building 310 retention tanks characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholeen, C.M.; Geraghty, D.C.

    1996-12-01

    The Health Physics Section of ANL performed a characterization of the Building 310 Service Floor Retention Tank Facility during the months of July and August, 1996. The characterization included measurements for radioactivity, air sampling for airborne particles and sampling to determine the presence and quantity of hazardous materials requiring remediation. Copies of previous lead and asbestos sampling information was obtained from ESH-IH. The facility consists of ten retention tanks located in rooms, A-062A, A-050A, A-038A, A-026A, and an entry room A-068A which contained miscellaneous pumps and other scrap material. Significant contamination was found in each room except room A-068A which had two contaminated spots on the floor and a discarded contaminated pump. Room A-062A: This room had the highest radiation background. Therefore, beta readings reflected the background readings. The floor, west wall, and the exterior of tank No. 1 had areas of alpha contamination. The piping leading from the tank had elevated gamma readings. There were low levels of smearable contamination on the west wall-Room A-050A: Alpha and Beta contamination is wide spread on the floor, west wall and the lower portion of the north wall. An area near the electrical box on the west wall had alpha and beta loose contamination. The exterior of tank No. 4 also had contaminated areas. The grate in front of tank No. 4 was contaminated. The piping leading from tanks No. 2, 3, and 4 had elevated gamma readings. There were low levels of smearable contamination on tank No. 4 and on the tar paper that is glued to the floor

  20. Analysis and characterization of double shell tank 241-AP-108

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    This document is the first part of a three-part report describing the analysis and characterization of double shell tank 241-AP-108 which is located at the Hanford Reservation.This document is the analytical laboratory data package entitled 'Analysis and Characterization of Double Shell Tank 241-AP-108' which contains a case sampling history, the sampling protocols, the analytical procedures, sampling and analysis quality assurance and quality control measures, and chemical analysis results for samples obtained from the tank

  1. SINGLE-SHELL TANKS LEAK INTEGRITY ELEMENTS/SX FARM LEAK CAUSES AND LOCATIONS - 12127

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VENETZ TJ; WASHENFELDER D; JOHNSON J; GIRARDOT C

    2012-01-25

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) developed an enhanced single-shell tank (SST) integrity project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. One primary recommendation was to expand the leak assessment reports (substitute report or LD-1) to include leak causes and locations. The recommendation has been included in the M-045-9IF Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) as one of four targets relating to SST leak integrity. The 241-SX Farm (SX Farm) tanks with leak losses were addressed on an individual tank basis as part of LD-1. Currently, 8 out of 23 SSTs that have been reported to having a liner leak are located in SX Farm. This percentage was the highest compared to other tank farms which is why SX Farm was analyzed first. The SX Farm is comprised of fifteen SSTs built 1953-1954. The tanks are arranged in rows of three tanks each, forming a cascade. Each of the SX Farm tanks has a nominal I-million-gal storage capacity. Of the fifteen tanks in SX Farm, an assessment reported leak losses for the following tanks: 241-SX-107, 241-SX-108, 241-SX-109, 241-SX-111, 241-SX-112, 241-SX-113, 241-SX-114 and 241-SX-115. The method used to identify leak location consisted of reviewing in-tank and ex-tank leak detection information. This provided the basic data identifying where and when the first leaks were detected. In-tank leak detection consisted of liquid level measurement that can be augmented with photographs which can provide an indication of the vertical leak location on the sidewall. Ex-tank leak detection for the leaking tanks consisted of soil radiation data from laterals and drywells near the tank. The in-tank and ex-tank leak detection can provide an indication of the possible leak location radially around and under the tank. Potential leak causes were determined using in-tank and ex-tank information that is not directly related to

  2. Single-Shell Tanks Leak Integrity Elements/ SX Farm Leak Causes and Locations - 12127

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardot, Crystal [URS- Safety Management Solutions, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Harlow, Don [ELR Consulting Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Venetz, Theodore; Washenfelder, Dennis [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Johnson, Jeremy [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) developed an enhanced single-shell tank (SST) integrity project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. One primary recommendation was to expand the leak assessment reports (substitute report or LD-1) to include leak causes and locations. The recommendation has been included in the M-045-91F Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) as one of four targets relating to SST leak integrity. The 241-SX Farm (SX Farm) tanks with leak losses were addressed on an individual tank basis as part of LD-1. Currently, 8 out of 23 SSTs that have been reported to having a liner leak are located in SX Farm. This percentage was the highest compared to other tank farms which is why SX Farm was analyzed first. The SX Farm is comprised of fifteen SSTs built 1953-1954. The tanks are arranged in rows of three tanks each, forming a cascade. Each of the SX Farm tanks has a nominal 1-million-gal storage capacity. Of the fifteen tanks in SX Farm, an assessment reported leak losses for the following tanks: 241-SX-107, 241-SX-108, 241-SX-109, 241-SX- 111, 241-SX-112, 241-SX-113, 241-SX-114 and 241-SX-115. The method used to identify leak location consisted of reviewing in-tank and ex-tank leak detection information. This provided the basic data identifying where and when the first leaks were detected. In-tank leak detection consisted of liquid level measurement that can be augmented with photographs which can provide an indication of the vertical leak location on the sidewall. Ex-tank leak detection for the leaking tanks consisted of soil radiation data from laterals and dry-wells near the tank. The in-tank and ex-tank leak detection can provide an indication of the possible leak location radially around and under the tank. Potential leak causes were determined using in-tank and ex-tank information that is not directly related to

  3. High priority tank sampling and analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.M.

    1998-03-05

    In July 1993, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) transmitted Recommendation 93-5 (Conway 1993) to the US Department of Energy (DOE). Recommendation 93-5 noted that there was insufficient tank waste technical information and the pace to obtain it was too slow to ensure that Hanford Site wastes could be safely stored, that associated operations could be conducted safely, and that future disposal data requirements could be met. In May 1996, the DOE issued Revision 1 of the Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1996). The Implementation Plan revision presented a modified approach to achieve the original plan`s objectives. The approach concentrated on actions necessary to ensure that wastes can be safely stored, that operations can be safely conducted, and that timely characterization information for the tank waste Disposal Program could be obtained. The Implementation Plan proposed 28 High Priority tanks, which, if sampled and analyzed, were expected to provide information to answer questions regarding safety and disposal issues. The High Priority tank list was originally developed in Section 9.0 of the Tank Waste Characterization Basis (Brown et al. 1995) by integrating the needs of the various safety and disposal programs. The High Priority tank list represents a set of tanks that were expected to provide the highest information return for characterization resources expended. The High Priority tanks were selected for near-term core sampling and were not expected to be the only tanks that would provide meaningful information. Sampling and analysis of non-High Priority tanks also could be used to provide scientific and technical data to confirm assumptions, calibrate models, and measure safety related phenomenological characteristics of the waste. When the sampling and analysis results of the High Priority and other tanks were reviewed, it was expected that a series of questions should be answered allowing key decisions to be made. The first

  4. High priority tank sampling and analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    In July 1993, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) transmitted Recommendation 93-5 (Conway 1993) to the US Department of Energy (DOE). Recommendation 93-5 noted that there was insufficient tank waste technical information and the pace to obtain it was too slow to ensure that Hanford Site wastes could be safely stored, that associated operations could be conducted safely, and that future disposal data requirements could be met. In May 1996, the DOE issued Revision 1 of the Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1996). The Implementation Plan revision presented a modified approach to achieve the original plan's objectives. The approach concentrated on actions necessary to ensure that wastes can be safely stored, that operations can be safely conducted, and that timely characterization information for the tank waste Disposal Program could be obtained. The Implementation Plan proposed 28 High Priority tanks, which, if sampled and analyzed, were expected to provide information to answer questions regarding safety and disposal issues. The High Priority tank list was originally developed in Section 9.0 of the Tank Waste Characterization Basis (Brown et al. 1995) by integrating the needs of the various safety and disposal programs. The High Priority tank list represents a set of tanks that were expected to provide the highest information return for characterization resources expended. The High Priority tanks were selected for near-term core sampling and were not expected to be the only tanks that would provide meaningful information. Sampling and analysis of non-High Priority tanks also could be used to provide scientific and technical data to confirm assumptions, calibrate models, and measure safety related phenomenological characteristics of the waste. When the sampling and analysis results of the High Priority and other tanks were reviewed, it was expected that a series of questions should be answered allowing key decisions to be made. The first

  5. History of waste tank 11, 1955 through 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.L.; Tharin, D.W.; Lohr, D.R.

    1978-10-01

    Tank 11 was placed in service as a receiver of low heat waste (LW) in July 1955. In November 1961, the supernate was decanted from the sludge to prepare tank 11 for receipt of frame waste. In July 1962, the supernate was again decanted and tank 11 was used to receive fresh high heat waste (HW) from the enriched uranium process in Building 221-H. Again, the supernate was decanted in June 1965 and July 1967 to allow the tank to be reused for waste receipt. In order to use tank 11 for solid salt storage, a sludge removal operation was conducted in October 1969. The operation was unsuccessful. Tank 11 consequently received hot concentrated supernate from tank 10 blended with dilute waste and was later returned to service as a receiver of HW. A small, apparently inactive leak site was found in April 1974. Inspections have been made of the annulus and the interior of the tank both visually and with an optical periscope. Samples of the sludge, supernate, and tank vapor have been analyzed. Top-to-bottom profiles of radiation and temperature in the tank have been taken and measurements were made of deflections in the bottom knuckle plate due to changing liquid level. One horizontal and seventeen vertical cooling coils have failed, all within one month following the sludge removal operation. Several equipment modifications and various equipment repairs were made. 14 figures, 3 tables

  6. Fuel tank tourism; Tanktourismus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, M.; Banfi, S.; Haan, P. de

    2000-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made of the extent of so-called 'tank tourism' in Switzerland. The report attempts to how much motor fuel is purchased in border-near filling stations by persons from the other side of the border as a result of price differences in the different countries. The two methods used to estimate the extent of tank tourism, an ex-post analysis and the analysis of filling station turnover, are explained. Only road-traffic is considered; tank tourism in the aviation area is not looked at in this study. The extent of tank tourism is estimated for petrol and diesel fuels. The individual figures produced by the two methods are compared and the difference between them discussed. The report also investigates the effect of changing prices on tank tourism and discusses the problem of estimating the figures for 'off-road' consumers such as tractors and construction machines.

  7. Ferrocyanide tank waste stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ferrocyanide wastes were generated at the Hanford Site during the mid to late 1950s as a result of efforts to create more tank space for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The ferrocyanide process was developed to remove 137 CS from existing waste and newly generated waste that resulted from the recovery of valuable uranium in Hanford Site waste tanks. During the course of research associated with the ferrocyanide process, it was recognized that ferrocyanide materials, when mixed with sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite, were capable of violent exothermic reaction. This chemical reactivity became an issue in the 1980s, when safety issues associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes in Hanford Site tanks became prominent. These safety issues heightened in the late 1980s and led to the current scrutiny of the safety issues associated with these wastes, as well as current research and waste management programs. Testing to provide information on the nature of possible tank reactions is ongoing. This document supplements the information presented in Summary of Single-Shell Tank Waste Stability, WHC-EP-0347, March 1991 (Borsheim and Kirch 1991), which evaluated several issues. This supplement only considers information particular to ferrocyanide wastes

  8. COOLING COIL EFFECTS ON BLENDING IN A PILOT SCALE TANK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.; Steeper, T.

    2010-01-01

    Blending, or mixing, processes in 1.3 million gallon nuclear waste tanks are complicated by the fact that miles of serpentine, vertical, cooling coils are installed in the tanks. As a step toward investigating blending interference due to coils in this type of tank, a 1/10.85 scale tank and pump model were constructed for pilot scale testing. A series of tests were performed in this scaled tank by adding blue dye to visualize blending, and by adding acid or base tracers to solution to quantify the time required to effectively blend the tank contents. The acid and base tests were monitored with pH probes, which were located in the pilot scale tank to ensure that representative samples were obtained. Using the probes, the hydronium ion concentration [H + ] was measured to ensure that a uniform concentration was obtained throughout the tank. As a result of pilot scale testing, a significantly improved understanding of mixing, or blending, in nuclear waste tanks has been achieved. Evaluation of test data showed that cooling coils in the waste tank model increased pilot scale blending times by 200% in the recommended operating range, compared to previous theoretical estimates of a 10-50% increase. Below the planned operating range, pilot scale blending times were increased by as much as 700% in a tank with coils installed. One pump, rather than two or more, was shown to effectively blend the tank contents, and dual pump nozzles installed parallel to the tank wall were shown to provide optimal blending. In short, experimental results varied significantly from expectations.

  9. Results of a diesel multiple unit fuel tank blunt impact test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-04

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development is conducting research into passenger locomotive fuel tank crashworthiness. A series of impact tests is being conducted to measure fuel tank deformation under two types of dyn...

  10. The tank's dynamic response under nuclear explosion blast wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mei; Wang Lianghou; Li Xiaotian; Yu Suyuan; Zhang Zhengming; Wan Li

    2005-01-01

    To weapons and equipment, blast wave is the primary destructive factor. In this paper, taken the real model-59 tank as an example, we try to transform the damage estimation problem into computing a fluid structure interaction problem with finite element method. The response of tank under nuclear explosion blast wave is computed with the general-coupling algorithm. Also, the dynamical interaction of blast wave and tank is reflected in real time. The deformation of each part of the tank is worked out and the result corresponds to the real-measured data. (authors)

  11. Acoustic Profiling of Bottom Sediments in Large Oil Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svet, V. D.; Tsysar', S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Characteristic features of acoustic profiling of bottom sediments in large oil storage tanks are considered. Basic acoustic parameters of crude oil and bottom sediments are presented. It is shown that, because of the presence of both transition layers in crude oil and strong reverberation effects in oil tanks, the volume of bottom sediments that is calculated from an acoustic surface image is generally overestimated. To reduce the error, additional post-processing of acoustic profilometry data is proposed in combination with additional measurements of viscosity and tank density distributions in vertical at several points of the tank.

  12. Inerting ballast tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, Gabriel L.; Bronneberg, Jos [SBM Offshore, AA Schiedam (Netherlands); Barros, Maria A.S.D. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This report expands upon the work conducted by SBM Offshore to develop a tank preservation treatment, which is intended to achieve a service life of 30 years. This work focuses on the corrosion problems, in the ballast tanks, based on new built hulls, both for the Gas Exploration Market, the FLNG - Floating Liquefied Natural Gas, and for the Oil Exploration market - FPSO's - Floating Production Storage and offloading Units. Herein, the corrosion rate input comes from the various references related to the process of nitrogen injection, which is expected to extend the vessel's time life. The essential elements of this solution comprise the deoxygenation process, corrosion models, coating effects, tests from laboratory, shipboard tests, corrosion institutes and regulations applicable to the operation. The best corrosion protection system for ballast tanks area combines a coating system and an inert gas system. The condition of the tanks will be dependent upon the level of protection applied to the steel structure, including, but not limited to coating, cathodic protection, etc. There is a need for products which extend the life time. It is not sufficient, only have good theoretical base for the corrosion and an excellent treatment system. In addition, the design of the ships structure must also eliminate the presence of local stress concentrations which can result in fatigue cracking and rupture of the protective coating barrier starting the corrosion. As a direct result of this, more problems in corrosion can be mitigated, vessels can have a better corrosion performance with less maintenance and repairs to coating systems in ballast tanks. Furthermore ships will be positively impacted operationally due to less frequent dry docking. There is a huge potential in the application of inert gas to combat the corrosion rate inside the ballast tanks, one of the most corrosive environments on earth. This application can have a direct impact on vessel structure

  13. Failure analysis of buried tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Failure of a buried tank can be hazardous. Failure may be a leak through which product is lost from the tank; but also through which contamination can occur. Failures are epidemic -- because buried tanks are out of sight, but also because designers of buried tanks have adopted analyses developed for pressure tanks. So why do pressure tanks fail when they are buried? Most failures of buried tanks are really soil failures. Soil compresses, or slips, or liquefies. Soil is not only a load, it is a support without which the tank deforms. A high water table adds to the load on the tank. It also reduces the strength of the soil. Based on tests, structural analyses are proposed for empty tanks buried in soils of various quality, with the water table at various levels, and with internal vacuum. Failure may be collapse tank. Such collapse is a sudden, audible inversion of the cylinder when the sidefill soil slips. Failure may be flotation. Failure may be a leak. Most leaks are fractures in the welds in overlap seams at flat spots. Flat spots are caused by a hard bedding or a heavy surface wheel load. Because the tank wall is double thick at the overlap, shearing stress in the weld is increased. Other weld failures occur when an end plate shears down past a cylinder; or when the tank is supported only at its ends like a beam. These, and other, failures can be analyzed with justifiable accuracy using basic principles of mechanics of materials. 10 figs

  14. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.L.; Ahrendt, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  15. Fuel tank crashworthiness : loading scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development is conducting research into fuel tank crashworthiness. The breaching of fuel tanks during passenger : rail collisions and derailments increases the potential of serious injury...

  16. Data Observations on Double Shell Tank (DST) Flammable Gas Watch List Tank Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-09-28

    This report provides the data from the retained gas sampler, void fraction instrument, ball rheometer, standard hydrogen monitoring system, and other tank data pertinent to gas retention and release behavior in the waste stored in double-shelled Flammable Gas Watch List tanks at Hanford. These include tanks 241-AN-103,241-AN-104, 241-AN-105, 241-AW-101, 241-SY-101, and 241-SY-103. The tanks and the waste they contain are described in terms of fill history and chemistry. The results of mixer pump operation and recent waste transfers and back-dilution in SY-101 are also described. In-situ measurement and monitoring systems are described and the data are summarized under the categories of thermal behavior, waste configuration and properties, gas generation and composition, gas retention and historical gas release behavior.

  17. Small Device For Short-Range Antenna Measurements Using Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanakiev, Boyan Radkov; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Christensen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a practical solution for implementing an antenna radiation pattern measurement device using optical fibers. It is suitable for anechoic chambers as well as short range channel sounding. The device is optimized for small size and provides a cheap and easy way to make optical antenna...

  18. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AW-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    One of the major functions of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize wastes in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis, along with other available information about a tank, are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendices serve as the TCR for double-shell tank 241-AW-105. The objectives of this report are to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-AW-105 waste; and to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. The response to technical issues is summarized in Section 2.0, and the best-basis inventory estimate is presented in Section 3.0. Recommendations regarding safety status and additional sampling needs are provided in Section 4.0. Supporting data and information are contained in the appendices. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone Characterization. information presented in this report originated from sample analyses and known historical sources. While only the results of a recent sampling event will be used to fulfill the requirements of the data quality objectives (DQOs), other information can be used to support or question conclusions derived from these results. Historical information for tank 241-AW-105 is provided in Appendix A, including surveillance information, records pertaining to waste transfers and tank operations, and expected tank contents derived from a process knowledge model. The recent sampling event listed, as well as pertinent sample data obtained before 1996, are summarized in Appendix B along with the sampling results. The results of the 1996 grab sampling event satisfied the data requirements specified in the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for this tank. In addition, the tank headspace flammability was measured, which addresses

  19. Aboveground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    With the 1988 promulgation of the comprehensive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for underground storage of petroleum and hazardous substances, many existing underground storage tank (UST) owners have been considering making the move to aboveground storage. While on the surface, this may appear to be the cure-all to avoiding the underground leakage dilemma, there are many other new and different issues to consider with aboveground storage. The greatest misconception is that by storing materials above ground, there is no risk of subsurface environmental problems. it should be noted that with the aboveground storage tank (AGST) systems, there is still considerable risk of environmental contamination, either by the failure of onground tank bottoms or the spillage of product onto the ground surface where it subsequently finds its way to the ground water. In addition, there are added safety concerns that must be addressed. So what are the other specific areas of concern besides environmental to be addressed when making the decision between underground and aboveground tanks? The primary issues that will be addressed in this paper are: Safety, Product Losses, Cost Comparison of USTs vs AGSTs, Space Availability/Accessibility, Precipitation Handling, Aesthetics and Security, Pending and Existing Regulations

  20. Underground storage tank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Underground storage tanks, UST'S, have become a major component of the Louisville District's Environmental Support Program. The District's Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ''JOC type'' contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ''boiler plate'' information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor's bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor's factor to determine the value of the work

  1. Task 7c: Worm tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Worm tank has a unique shape. In the seismic design of a worm tank, it is desirable to clear the behavior of the worm tank under the seismic loading. We assumed that there are two phenomena in the seismic behavior of the worm tank same as the behavior of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. One is a sloshing behavior of the water and another is the dynamic response of the worm tank. In this study, we investigate the dynamic characteristics of the worm tank during the strong earthquakes. We conducted the vibration tests to clarify the seismic behaviors of the worm tanks and obtained the valuable data to verify the analytical method. It was found that the natural frequency can be calculated using the eigenvalue formula of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. Lower modes of the worm tank are identical with that of the rectangular tank. We can estimate the surface behavior and the impact mode using the data of the rectangular tank. (author)

  2. SRS Tank Structural Integrity Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maryak, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the Structural Integrity Program is to ensure continued safe management and operation of the waste tanks for whatever period of time these tanks are required. Matthew Maryak provides an overview of the Structural Integrity Program to open Session 5 (Waste Storage and Tank Inspection) of the 2010 EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange.

  3. High organic containing tanks: Assessing the hazard potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.C.P.; Babad, H.

    1991-09-01

    Eight Hanford Site tanks contain organic chemicals at concentrations believed to be greater than 10 mole percent sodium acetate equivalent mixed with the oxidizing salts sodium nitrate/sodium nitrite. Also, three of the hydrogen and ferrocyanide tanks appear on the organic tank list. Concentrations of organics that may be present in some tanks could cause an exothermic reaction given a sufficient driving force, such as high temperatures. However, the difference between ignition temperatures and actual tank temperatures measured is so large that the probability of such a reaction is considered very low. The consequences of the postulated reaction are about the same as the scenarios for an explosion in a ''burping'' hydrogen tank. Although work on this issue is just beginning, consideration of hazards associated with heating nitrate-nitrite mixtures containing organic materials is an integral part of both the hydrogen and ferrocyanide tank efforts. High concentrations of organic compounds have been inferred (from tank transfer, flow sheet records, and limited analytical data) in eight single-shell tanks. Many organic chemicals, if present in concentrations above 10 dry weight percent (sodium acetate equivalent), have the potential to react with nitrate-nitrites constituents at temperatures above 200 degree C (392 degree F) in an exothermic manner. The concentrations of organic materials in the listed single-shell tanks, and their chemical identity, is not accurately known at present. A tank sampling program has been planned to provide more information on the contents of these tanks and to serve as a basis for laboratory testing and safety evaluations. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. Design and Instrumentation of a Measurement and Calibration System for an Acoustic Telemetry System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Deng

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS is an active sensing technology developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, for detecting and tracking small fish. It is used primarily for evaluating behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System to the Pacific Ocean. It provides critical data for salmon protection and development of more “fish-friendly” hydroelectric facilities. The objective of this study was to design and build a Measurement and Calibration System (MCS for evaluating the JSATS components, because the JSATS requires comprehensive acceptance and performance testing in a controlled environment before it is deployed in the field. The MCS consists of a reference transducer, a water test tank lined with anechoic material, a motion control unit, a reference receiver, a signal conditioner and amplifier unit, a data acquisition board, MATLAB control and analysis interface, and a computer. The fully integrated MCS has been evaluated successfully at various simulated distances and using different encoded signals at frequencies within the bandwidth of the JSATS transmitter. The MCS provides accurate acoustic mapping capability in a controlled environment and automates the process that allows real-time measurements and evaluation of the piezoelectric transducers, sensors, or the acoustic fields. The MCS has been in use since 2009 for acceptance and performance testing of, and further improvements to, the JSATS.

  5. Sample preparation of tank 241-C-106 grab samples and testing For compatibility with tank 241-AY-102 supernate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    This test plan describes a sample separation method which will be used to obtain physical measurements and separated 241-C-106 solids and supernate fractions. In addition compatibility of tank 241-C-106 sludge with tank 241-AY-102 supernate will be determined

  6. 49 CFR 180.519 - Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tank. Before testing, the pressure gauge must be shown to be accurate within 1 percent at test measure. The expansion gauge must be shown to be accurate, at test pressure, to within 1 percent. Expansion must be recorded in cubic cm. Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of total...

  7. Evaluation and monitoring plan for consolidation tanks: Gunite and Associated Tanks Operable Unit, Waste Area Grouping 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the results of an integrity evaluation of Tanks W-8 and W-9, part of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT), in the South Tank Farm at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), together with a plan for monitoring those tanks for potential releases during the GAAT CERCLA treatability study and waste removal activities. This work was done in support of an ORNL plan to use W-8 and W-9 as consolidation tanks during remediation of the other tanks in the North and South Tank Farms. The analysis portion of the report draws upon both tank-internal measurements of liquid volume change and tank-external measurements of the change in electrical conductivity of the groundwater in the dry wells adjacent to each tank. The results of the analysis show that both W-8 and W-9 are liquid-tight and are suitable for use as consolidation tanks. The recommended monitoring plan will utilize the dry well conductivity monitoring method as the primary release detection tool during the CERCLA activities. This method is expected to be able to detect releases of less than 0.5 gal/h with a 95% probability of detection, most of the time. The results described here validate three prior independent efforts: a liquid integrity assessment made in 1995, a structural integrity assessment made in 1995 by experts in the field of gunite tanks, and a structural integrity assessment made in 1994 using a three-dimensional, finite-element computer model. This work, along with the three prior efforts, shows that Tanks W-8 and W-9 are structurally sound and liquid-tight. Based upon this work it is concluded that these tanks are suitable for use as consolidation tanks during the GAAT CERCLA treatability study and waste removal actions and it is recommended that the tanks be monitored for potential releases during this period using the methods described in this report

  8. Storage Tanks - Selection Of Type, Design Code And Tank Sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatla, M.N; El Hady, M.

    2004-01-01

    The present work gives an insight into the proper selection of type, design code and sizing of storage tanks used in the Petroleum and Process industries. In this work, storage tanks are classified based on their design conditions. Suitable design codes and their limitations are discussed for each tank type. The option of storage under high pressure and ambient temperature, in spherical and cigar tanks, is compared to the option of storage under low temperature and slight pressure (close to ambient) in low temperature and cryogenic tanks. The discussion is extended to the types of low temperature and cryogenic tanks and recommendations are given to select their types. A study of pressurized tanks designed according to ASME code, conducted in the present work, reveals that tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DIV 2 provides cost savings over tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DlV 1. The present work is extended to discuss the parameters that affect sizing of flat bottom cylindrical tanks. The analysis shows the effect of height-to-diameter ratio on tank instability and foundation loads

  9. Tank drive : ZCL takes its composite tank technology worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-06-15

    Edmonton-based ZCL Composites Inc. is North America's largest manufacturer and supplier of fibreglass reinforced plastic (FRP) underground storage tanks. The company has aggressively pursued new markets in the oil sands, shale gas gas, and other upstream petroleum industries. The manufacturer also targets water and sewage applications, and provides customized corrosion solutions for a variety of industries. The company developed its double-walled FRP tanks in response to Canadian Environmental Protection Act rules requiring cathodic protection for steel tanks, leak detection, and secondary containment. ZCL supplies approximately 90 per cent of the new tanks installed by gasoline retailers in Canada. Future growth is expected to be strong, as many old tanks will soon need to be replaced. The company has also developed a method of transforming underground single wall tanks into secondarily contained systems without digging them out. The company has also recently signed licence agreements with tank manufacturers in China. 3 figs.

  10. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy's high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provide an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements; assessed each requirement; and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of normalized ASME SA 516, Grade 70, carbon steel

  11. Double shell tanks plutonium inventory assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusler, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides an evaluation that establishes plutonium inventory estimates for all DSTs based on known tank history information, the DST plutonium inventory tracking system, tank characterization measurements, tank transfer records, and estimated average concentration values for the various types of waste. These estimates use data through December 31, 1994, and give plutonium estimates as of January 1, 1995. The plutonium inventory values for the DSTs are given in Section 31. The plutonium inventory estimate is 224 kg for the DSTs and 854 kg for the SSTs for a total of 1078 kg. This value compares favorably with the total plutonium inventory value of 981 kg obtained from the total plutonium production minus plutonium recovery analysis estimates

  12. Tank farm nuclear criticality review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of stored wastes at the Hanford Site Tank Farm Complex was reviewed by a team of senior technical personnel whose expertise covered all appropriate aspects of fissile materials chemistry and physics. The team concluded that the detailed and documented nucleonics-related studies underlying the waste tanks criticality safety basis were sound. The team concluded that, under current plutonium inventories and operating conditions, a nuclear criticality accident is incredible in any of the Hanford single-shell tanks (SST), double-shell tanks (DST), or double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTS) on the Hanford Site

  13. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis Report identifies the initial states of the system and the desired final states of the system. The Mission Analysis Report identifies target measures of success appropriate to program-level accomplishments. It also identifies program-level requirements and major system boundaries and interfaces

  14. 78 FR 63235 - Tank Vessel Oil Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2013-0522] Tank Vessel Oil Transfers... that it is considering new measures to reduce the risks of oil spills in oil transfer operations from...), U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue...

  15. Do Fish Enhance Tank Mixing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Laursen, Jesper; Craig, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    The design of fish rearing tanks represents a critical stage in the development of optimal aquaculture systems, especially in the context of recirculating systems. Poor hydrodynamics can compromise water quality, waste management and the physiology and behaviour of fish, and thence, production...... potential and operational profitability. The hydrodynamic performance of tanks, therefore, represents an important parameter during the tank design process. Because there are significant complexities in combining the rigid principles of hydrodynamics with the stochastic behaviour of fish, however, most data...... upon tank hydrokinetics has been derived using tanks void of fish. Clearly, the presence of randomly moving objects, such as fish, in a water column will influence not only tank volumes by displacing water, but due to their activity, water dynamics and associated in-tank processes. In order...

  16. 40 CFR 1051.515 - How do I test my fuel tank for permeation emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I test my fuel tank for... Procedures § 1051.515 How do I test my fuel tank for permeation emissions? Measure permeation emissions by weighing a sealed fuel tank before and after a temperature-controlled soak. (a) Preconditioning fuel soak...

  17. 40 CFR 1060.520 - How do I test fuel tanks for permeation emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I test fuel tanks for... STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Test Procedures § 1060.520 How do I test fuel tanks for permeation emissions? Measure permeation emissions by weighing a sealed fuel tank before and after a temperature-controlled soak. (a...

  18. 49 CFR 179.101 - Individual specification requirements applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to pressure tank car tanks. 179.101 Section 179.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT... tank car tanks. Editorial Note: At 66 FR 45186, Aug. 28, 2001, an amendment published amending a table...

  19. 49 CFR 179.301 - Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-unit tank car tanks. 179.301 Section 179.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.301 Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) In...

  20. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.500 Section 179.500 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks. ...

  1. Bacterial growth in solar heating prepared and traditional tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagh, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark it has been put forward that the introduction of solar heating prepared tanks into the building regulation can cause increased nuisance with respect to bacterial growth in hot water for domestic use. The reason is that solar heating prepared tanks have a larger volume and another form of operation than traditional tanks. In this investigation the difference between bacterial growth in solar heating prepared and traditional tanks was measured by heterotrophic plate counts as a general parameter for microbiological growth. There was no significant difference between the bacterial number in the solar heating prepared tanks and in the traditional tanks, either for bacteria determined at 37 deg. C, 44 deg. C, 55 deg. C or at 65 deg. C. The hot water for domestic use from the solar heating prepared tanks and the traditional tanks had in most cases a bacterial number below 1.000 CFU/ml, and all tests had a bacterial number below 10.000 CFU/ml. The number of bacteria must be considered low seen in relation to the other measurements of bacteria in hot water for domestic use, particularly in larger block of flats. (au)

  2. A science think tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, F [The Australian, (Australia)

    1999-07-01

    A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning.

  3. A science think tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, F.

    1999-01-01

    A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning

  4. Tank type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Fumio.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention concerns a tank type reactor capable of securing reactor core integrity by preventing incorporation of gases to an intermediate heat exchanger, thgereby improving the reliability. In a conventional tank type reactor, since vortex flows are easily caused near the inlet of an intermediate heat exchanger, there is a fear that cover gases are involved into the coolant main streams to induce fetal accidents. In the present invention, a reactor core is suspended by way of a suspending body to the inside of a reactor vessel and an intermediate heat exchanger and a pump are disposed between the suspending body and the reactor vessel, in which a vortex current preventive plate is attached at the outside near the coolant inlet on the primary circuit of the intermediate heat exchanger. In this way vortex or turbulence near the inlet of the intermediate heata exchanger or near the surface of coolants can be prevented. Accordingly, the cover gases are no more involved, to insure the reactor core integrity and obtain a tank type nuclear reactor of high reliability. (I.S.)

  5. Sludge Batch 7B Qualification Activities With SRS Tank Farm Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-01-01

    projected noble metals content for SB7b. Characterization was performed on the Tank 51 SB7b samples and SRNL performed DWPF simulations using the Tank 40 SB7b material. This report documents: (1) The preparation and characterization of the Tank 51 SB7b and Tank 40 SB7b samples. (2) The performance of a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation using the SB7b Tank 40 sample. The simulation included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid was added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and reduce mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit was added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters were based on work with a nonradioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and characterization and durability testing (as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT)) of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the SRAT receipt, SRAT product, and SME product. This program was controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R and D) for the DWPF. It should be noted that much of the data in this document has been published in interoffice memoranda. The intent of this technical report is bring all of the SB7b related data together in a single permanent record and to discuss the overall aspects of SB7b processing.

  6. Theoretical study of solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    . Originality/value - Many different Solar Combisystem designs have been commercialized over the years. In the IEA-SHC Task 26, twenty one solar combisystems have been described and analyzed. Maybe the mantle tank approach also for solar combisystems can be used with advantage? This might be possible...... if the solar heating system is based on a so called bikini tank. Therefore the new developed solar combisystems based on bikini tanks is compared to the tank-in-tank solar combisystems to elucidate which one is suitable for three different houses with low energy heating demand, medium and high heating demand.......Purpose - Low flow bikini solar combisystems and high flow tank-in-tank solar combisystems have been studied theoretically. The aim of the paper is to study which of these two solar combisystem designs is suitable for different houses. The thermal performance of solar combisystems based on the two...

  7. Silicon Analysis of Tank 8F and Tank 40H Turbidity Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    The need for silicon measurements in the field exists and can enhance the scheduling of waste transfers in both F- and H-Area Tank Farms. This report examines the use of field turbidity measurements as an at-line method to ensure that entrainment of silicon-bearing sludge materials are minimized

  8. Tank type LMFBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Hiroshi

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To detect the abnormality in the suspended body or reactor core supporting structures thereby improve the safety and reliability of tank type LMFBR reactors. Constitution: Upon inspection during reactor operation period, the top end of the gripper sensing rod of a fuel exchanger is abutted against a supporting bed and the position of the reactor core supporting structures from the roof slab is measured by a stroke measuring device. Then, the sensing rod is pulled upwardly to abut against the arm portion and the position is measured by the stroke measuring device. The measuring procedures are carried out for all of the sensing rods and the measured values are compared with a previously determined value at the initial stage of the reactor operation. As a result, it is possible to detect excess distortions and abnormal deformation in the suspended body or reactor core supporting structures. Furthermore, integrity of the suspended body against thermal stresses can be secured by always measuring the coolant liquid level by the level measuring sensor. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Characterization of selected waste tanks from the active LLLW system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1996-08-01

    From September 1989 through January of 1990, there was a major effort to sample and analyze the Active Liquid-Low Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL which include the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST). The purpose of this report is to summarize additional analytical data collected from some of the active waste tanks from November 1993 through February 1996. The analytical data for this report was collected for several unrelated projects which had different data requirements. The overall analyte list was similar for these projects and the level of quality assurance was the same for all work reported. the new data includes isotopic ratios for uranium and plutonium and an evaluation of the denature ratios to address criticality concerns. Also, radionuclides not previously measured in these waste tanks, including 99Tc and 237Np, are provided in this report

  10. Hanford double shell tank corrosion monitoring instrument tree prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.L.; Edgemon, G.L.; Ohl, P.C.

    1995-11-01

    High-level nuclear wastes at the Hanford site are stored underground in carbon steel double-shell and single-shell tanks (DSTs and SSTs). The installation of a prototype corrosion monitoring instrument tree into DST 241-A-101 was completed in December 1995. The instrument tree has the ability to detect and discriminate between uniform corrosion, pitting, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) through the use of electrochemical noise measurements and a unique stressed element, three-electrode probe. The tree itself is constructed of AISI 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403), with probes in the vapor space, vapor/liquid interface and liquid. Successful development of these trees will allow their application to single shell tanks and the transfer of technology to other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Keywords: Hanford, radioactive waste, high-level waste tanks, electrochemical noise, probes, double-shell tanks, single-shell tanks, corrosion

  11. Characterization and decant of Tank 42H sludge sample ESP-200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    DWPF Engineering requested that the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) provide a demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet on sludge from Tank 42H in the Shielded Cell facility. A 5 liter sample of the Tank 42H sludge (ESP-200), obtained with the tank contents fully mixed, arrived at SRTC on January 20, 1998. This report details receipt of the 5 liter sample at SRTC, the decant of the sample, and the characterization of the pre- and post-decant Tank 42H sludge. Evaluation of the measured composition of the supernate indicates Sample ESP-200 became diluted approximately 20 percent by volume prior to receipt. This dilution complicates the relationship of the characterization of Post-Decant ESP-200 to the current contents of Tank 42H. For the purposes of modeling the current tank contents of Tank 42H, this report provides an estimated composition based on analytical data of recent samples from Tank 42H

  12. Characterization and decant of Tank 42H sludge sample ESP-200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.S.

    2000-04-25

    DWPF Engineering requested that the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) provide a demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet on sludge from Tank 42H in the Shielded Cell facility. A 5 liter sample of the Tank 42H sludge (ESP-200), obtained with the tank contents fully mixed, arrived at SRTC on January 20, 1998. This report details receipt of the 5 liter sample at SRTC, the decant of the sample, and the characterization of the pre- and post-decant Tank 42H sludge. Evaluation of the measured composition of the supernate indicates Sample ESP-200 became diluted approximately 20 percent by volume prior to receipt. This dilution complicates the relationship of the characterization of Post-Decant ESP-200 to the current contents of Tank 42H. For the purposes of modeling the current tank contents of Tank 42H, this report provides an estimated composition based on analytical data of recent samples from Tank 42H.

  13. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable

  14. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable.

  15. Gaseous analytes of concern at Hanford Tank Farms. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Large amounts of toxic and radioactive waste materials are stored in underground tanks at DOE sites. When the vapors in the tank headspaces vent to the open atmosphere a potentially dangerous situation can occur for personnel in the area. An open-path atmospheric pollution monitor is being developed for DOE to monitor the open air space above these tanks. In developing this monitor it is important to know what hazardous gases are most likely to be found in dangerous concentrations. These gases are called the Analytes of Concern. At the present time, measurements in eight tanks have detected thirty-one analytes in at least two tanks and fifteen analytes in only one tank. In addition to these gases, Carbon tetrachloride is considered to be an Analyte of Concern because it permeates the ground around the tanks. These Analytes are described and ranked according to a Hazard Index which combines their vapor pressure, density, and approximate danger level. The top sixteen ranked analytes which have been detected in at least two tanks comprise an open-quotes Analytes of Concern Test Listclose quotes for determining the system performance of the atmospheric pollution monitor under development. A preliminary examination of the infrared spectra, barring atmospheric interferences, indicates that: The pollution monitor will detect all forty-seven Analytes exclamation point

  16. Single-shell tank riser resistance to ground test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiewert, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    This Test Procedure provides the general directions for conducting Single-Shell Tank Riser to Earth Measurements which will be used by engineering as a step towards providing closure for the Lightning Hazard Issue

  17. Recommended Practices to Improve Nurse Tank Safety: Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This project addressed four topics: Pinhole leaks in nurse tanks were studied by radiography, serial milling, and side-angle ultrasound. These measurements indicated that welding surfaces contaminated by water, mill scale, rust, or other contamin...

  18. Separation of radiated sound field components from waves scattered by a source under non-anechoic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    to the source. Thus the radiated free-field component is estimated simultaneously with solving the inverse problem of reconstructing the sound field near the source. The method is particularly suited to cases in which the overall contribution of reflected sound in the measurement plane is significant....

  19. 27 CFR 24.229 - Tank car and tank truck requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.229 Tank car and tank truck requirements. Railroad tank cars and tank trucks used to transport spirits for use in wine production will be constructed...

  20. Tank Characterization Report for Double-Shell Tank (DST) 241-AN-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report interprets information about the tank answering a series of six questions covering areas such as information drivers, tank history, tank comparisons, disposal implications, data quality and quantity, and unique aspects of the tank

  1. Tank Characterization Report for Single-Shell Tank 241-C-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Interprets information about the tank answering a series of six questions covering areas such as information drivers, tank history, tank comparisons, disposal implications, data quality and quantity, and unique aspects of the tank

  2. 46 CFR 154.420 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.420 Section 154.420 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.420 Tank design. (a) The structure of an integral tank must meet the deep tank scantling standards...

  3. 46 CFR 154.439 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.439 Section 154.439 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type A § 154.439 Tank design. An independent tank type A must meet the deep tank standard of the...

  4. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at least...

  5. 49 CFR 229.217 - Fuel tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tank. 229.217 Section 229.217 Transportation... tank. (a) External fuel tanks. Locomotives equipped with external fuel tanks shall, at a minimum... to the fuel tank safety requirements of § 238.223 or § 238.423 of this chapter. The Director of the...

  6. Tal en tanke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernfelt, Frederik; Hendricks, Vincent

    Den svenske biskop og poet Esais Tegnèr har engang sagt: "Menneskers ord og tanker fødes sammen, at tale uklart er at tænke uklart." Denne lærebog er et lynkursus i at tænke og tale klart - og i at være på vagt over for uklar tænkning og tale, hvor den end optræder.Tal en tanke er hurtigt læst og...

  7. Tank closure reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-01-01

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr 90 , the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel

  8. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  9. Tank Waste Remediation System Tank Waste Analysis Plan. FY 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, C.S.; Dove, T.H.

    1994-01-01

    This documents lays the groundwork for preparing the implementing the TWRS tank waste analysis planning and reporting for Fiscal Year 1995. This Tank Waste Characterization Plan meets the requirements specified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, better known as the Tri-Party Agreement

  10. Uncertainty and sampling issues in tank characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebetrau, A.M.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Kashporenko, D.M.

    1997-06-01

    A defensible characterization strategy must recognize that uncertainties are inherent in any measurement or estimate of interest and must employ statistical methods for quantifying and managing those uncertainties. Estimates of risk and therefore key decisions must incorporate knowledge about uncertainty. This report focuses statistical methods that should be employed to ensure confident decision making and appropriate management of uncertainty. Sampling is a major source of uncertainty that deserves special consideration in the tank characterization strategy. The question of whether sampling will ever provide the reliable information needed to resolve safety issues is explored. The issue of sample representativeness must be resolved before sample information is reliable. Representativeness is a relative term but can be defined in terms of bias and precision. Currently, precision can be quantified and managed through an effective sampling and statistical analysis program. Quantifying bias is more difficult and is not being addressed under the current sampling strategies. Bias could be bounded by (1) employing new sampling methods that can obtain samples from other areas in the tanks, (2) putting in new risers on some worst case tanks and comparing the results from existing risers with new risers, or (3) sampling tanks through risers under which no disturbance or activity has previously occurred. With some bound on bias and estimates of precision, various sampling strategies could be determined and shown to be either cost-effective or infeasible

  11. Hanford Tank Farm interim storage phase probabilistic risk assessment outline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-19

    This report is the second in a series examining the risks for the high level waste (HLW) storage facilities at the Hanford Site. The first phase of the HTF PSA effort addressed risks from Tank 101-SY, only. Tank 101-SY was selected as the initial focus of the PSA because of its propensity to periodically release (burp) a mixture of flammable and toxic gases. This report expands the evaluation of Tank 101-SY to all 177 storage tanks. The 177 tanks are arranged into 18 farms and contain the HLW accumulated over 50 years of weapons material production work. A centerpiece of the remediation activity is the effort toward developing a permanent method for disposing of the HLW tank`s highly radioactive contents. One approach to risk based prioritization is to perform a PSA for the whole HLW tank farm complex to identify the highest risk tanks so that remediation planners and managers will have a more rational basis for allocating limited funds to the more critical areas. Section 3 presents the qualitative identification of generic initiators that could threaten to produce releases from one or more tanks. In section 4 a detailed accident sequence model is developed for each initiating event group. Section 5 defines the release categories to which the scenarios are assigned in the accident sequence model and presents analyses of the airborne and liquid source terms resulting from different release scenarios. The conditional consequences measured by worker or public exposure to radionuclides or hazardous chemicals and economic costs of cleanup and repair are analyzed in section 6. The results from all the previous sections are integrated to produce unconditional risk curves in frequency of exceedance format.

  12. Tank 5 Model for Sludge Removal Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LEE, SI

    2004-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics methods have been used to develop and provide slurry pump operational guidance for sludge heel removal in Tank 5. Flow patterns calculated by the model were used to evaluate the performance of various combinations of operating pumps and their orientation under steady-state indexed and transient oscillation modes. A model used for previous analyses has been updated to add the valve housing distribution piping and pipe clusters of the cooling coil supply system near pump no. 8 to the previous tank Type-I model. In addition, the updated model included twelve concrete support columns. This model would provide a more accurate assessment of sludge removal capabilities. The model focused on removal of the sludge heel located near the wall of Tank 5 using the two new slurry pumps. The models and calculations were based on prototypic tank geometry and expected normal operating conditions as defined by Tank Closure Project Engineering. Computational fluid dynamics models of Tank 5 with different operating conditions were developed using the FLUENT (trademark) code. The modeling results were used to assess the efficiency of sludge suspension and removal operations in the 75-ft tank. The models employed a three-dimensional approach, a two-equation turbulence model, and an approximate representation of flow obstructions. The calculated local velocity was used as a measure of sludge removal and mixing capability. For the simulations, modeling calculations were performed with indexed pump orientations until an optimum flow pattern near the potential location of the sludge heel was established for sludge removal. The calculated results demonstrated that the existing slurry pumps running at 3801 gpm flowrate per nozzle could remove the sludge from the tank with a 101 in liquid level, based on a historical minimum sludge suspension velocity of 2.27 ft/sec. The only exception is the region within maximum 4.5 ft distance from the tank wall boundary at the

  13. 49 CFR 179.100 - General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.100 Section 179.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100 General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks. ...

  14. 49 CFR 179.102 - Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.102 Section 179.102 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102 Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks. (a) In addition to...

  15. 49 CFR 179.103 - Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.103 Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks. (a) In addition to the applicable...

  16. HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK CLOSURE PROJECT AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, K.D.; Wessman, D.

    2003-01-01

    tank -specific access interface devices have been integrated to provide a system that efficiently cleans tank walls and heel solids in an acidic, radioactive environment. Through the deployment of the tank cleaning system, the INEEL High Level Waste Program has cleaned tanks to meet RCRA clean closure standards and DOE closure performance measures. Design, development, and testing of tank grouting delivery equipment were completed in October 2002. The system incorporates lessons learned from closures at other DOE facilities. The grout will be used to displace the tank residuals remaining after the cleaning is complete. To maximize heel displacement to the discharge pump, grout was placed in a sequence of five positions utilizing two riser locations. The project is evaluating the use of six positions to optimize the residuals removed. After the heel has been removed and the residuals stabilized, the tank, piping, and secondary containment will be grouted

  17. Hanford Tank Farms Vadose Zone, Addendum to the TX Tank Farm Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatz, R.

    2000-01-01

    This addendum to the TX Tank Farm Report (GJO-97-13-TAR, GJO-HAN-11) published in September 1997 incorporates the results of high-rate and repeat logging activities along with shape factor analysis of the logging data. A high-rate logging system was developed and deployed in the TX Tank Farm to measure cesium-137 concentration levels in high gamma flux zones where the spectral gamma logging system was unable to collect usable data because of high dead times and detector saturation. This report presents additional data and revised visualizations of subsurface contaminant distribution in the TX Tank Farm at the DOE Hanford Site in the state of Washington

  18. Hanford Tank Farms Vadose Zone, Addendum to the T Tank Farm Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spatz, Robert

    2000-07-01

    This addendum to the T Tank Farm Report (GJO-99-101-TARA, GJO-HAN-27) published in September 1999 incorporates the results of high-rate and repeat logging activities along with shape factor analysis of the logging incorporates the results of high-rate and repeat logging activities along with shape factor analysis of the logging data. A high-rate logging system was developed and deployed in the T Tank Farm to measure cesium-137 concentration levels in high gamma flux zones where the spectral gamma logging system was unable to collect usable data because of high dead times and detector saturation. This report presents additional data and revised visualizations of subsurface contaminant distribution in the T Tank Farm at the DOE Hanford Site in the state of Washington.

  19. Rheology of Savannah River site tank 42 HLW radioactive sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, B.C.

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge of the rheology of the radioactive sludge slurries at the Savannah River Site is necessary in order to ensure that they can be retrieved from waste tanks and processed for final disposal. At Savannah River Site, Tank 42 sludge represents on of the first HLW radioactive sludges to be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The rheological properties of unwashed Tank 42 sludge slurries at various solids concentrations were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells at the Savannah River Technology Center using a modified Haake Rotovisco viscometer

  20. Flammable gas tank safety program: Technical basis for gas analysis and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Flammable gases generated in radioactive liquids. Twenty-five high level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks located underground at the Hanford Site are on a Flammable Gas Watch List because they contain waste which tends to retain the gases generated in it until rather large quantities are available for sudden release to the tank head space; if a tank is full it has little dome space, and a flammable concentration of gases could be produced--even if the tank is ventilated. If the waste has no tendency to retain gas generated in it then a continual flammable gas concentration in the tank dome space is established by the gas production rate and the tank ventilation rate (or breathing rate for unventilated tanks); this is also a potential problem for Flammable Gas Watch List tanks, and perhaps other Hanford tanks too. All Flammable Gas Watch List tanks will be fitted with Standard Hydorgen Monitoring Systems so that their behavior can be observed. In some cases, such as tank 241-SY-101, the data gathered from such observations will indicate that tank conditions need to be mitigated so that gas release events are either eliminated or rendered harmless. For example, a mixer pump was installed in tank 241-SY-101; operating the pump stirs the waste, replacing the large gas release events with small releases of gas that are kept below twenty-five percent of the lower flammability limit by the ventilation system. The concentration of hydrogen measured in Hanford waste tanks is greater than that of any other flammable gas. Hydrogen levels measured with a Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System in excess of 0.6 volume percent will cause Westinghouse Hanford Company to consider actions which will decrease the amount of flammable gas in the tank

  1. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula...

  2. Surplus yeast tank failing catastrophically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2016-01-01

    GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air...

  3. Solitons in a wave tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, M.; Smith, H.; Scott, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    A wave tank experiment (first described by the nineteenth-century engineer and naval architect John Scott Russell) relates a linear eigenvalue problem from elementary quantum mechanics to a striking feature of modern nonlinear wave theory: multiple generation of solitons. The tank experiment is intended for lecture demonstrations. 19 references, 6 figures

  4. 1990 waste tank inspection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G.

    1990-01-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Tank conditions are evaluated by inspection using periscopes, still photography, and video systems for visual imagery. Inspections made in 1990 are the subject of this report

  5. Nuclear fuel technology - Tank calibration and volume determination for nuclear materials accountancy - Part 1: Procedural overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Accurate determinations of volume are a fundamental component of any measurement-based system of control and accountability in a facility that processes or stores nuclear materials in liquid form. Volume determinations are typically made with the aid of a calibration or volume measurement equation that relates the response of the tank's measurement system to some independent measure of tank volume. The ultimate purpose of the calibration exercise is to estimate the tank's volume measurement equation (the inverse of the calibration equation), which relates tank volume to measurement system response. The steps carried out to acquire data for estimating the tank's calibration or volume measurement equation are collectively described as the process of tank calibration. This part of ISO 18213 describes procedures for tank calibration and volume determination for nuclear process tanks equipped with pressure-measurement systems for determining liquid content. Specifically, overall guidance is provided for planning a calibration exercise undertaken to obtain the data required for the measurement equation to estimate a tank's volume. The key steps in the procedure are also presented for subsequently using the estimated volume-measurement equation to determine tank liquid volumes. The procedures presented apply specifically to tanks equipped with bubbler probe systems for measuring liquid content. Moreover, these procedures produce reliable results only for clear (i.e. without suspended solids), homogeneous liquids that are at both thermal and static equilibrium. The paper elaborates on scope, physical principles involved, the calibration model, equipment required, a typical tank calibration procedure, calibration planning and pre-calibration activities, and volume determination. A bibliography is provided

  6. Hanford site waste tank characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the on-going work in the characterization of the Hanford-Site high-level waste tanks. The waste in these tanks was produced as part of the nuclear weapons materials processing mission that occupied the Hanford Site for the first 40 years of its existence. Detailed and defensible characterization of the tank wastes is required to guide retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal technology development, to address waste stability and reactivity concerns, and to satisfy the compliance criteria for the various regulatory agencies overseeing activities at the Hanford Site. The resulting Tank Characterization Reports fulfill these needs, as well as satisfy the tank waste characterization milestones in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order

  7. Three-Dimensional Surface Geophysical Exploration of the 200-Series Tanks at the 241-C Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crook, N. [HydroGEOPHYSICS, Inc., Tuscon, AZ (United States); McNeill, M. [HydroGEOPHYSICS, Inc., Tuscon, AZ (United States); Dunham, Ralph [Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Glaser, Danney R. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-26

    A surface geophysical exploration (SGE) survey using direct current electrical resistivity was conducted within the C Tank Farm in the vicinity of the 200-Series tanks at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This survey was the second successful SGE survey to utilize the GeotectionTM-180 Resistivity Monitoring System which facilitated a much larger survey size and faster data acquisition rate. The primary objective of the C Tank Farm SGE survey was to provide geophysical data and subsurface imaging results to support the Phase 2 RCRA Facility Investigation, as outlined in the Phase 2 RCRA Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures work plan RPP-PLAN-39114.

  8. Three-Dimensional Surface Geophysical Exploration of the 200-Series Tanks at the 241-C Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, N.; McNeill, M.; Dunham, Ralph; Glaser, Danney R.

    2014-01-01

    A surface geophysical exploration (SGE) survey using direct current electrical resistivity was conducted within the C Tank Farm in the vicinity of the 200-Series tanks at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This survey was the second successful SGE survey to utilize the Geotection(TM)-180 Resistivity Monitoring System which facilitated a much larger survey size and faster data acquisition rate. The primary objective of the C Tank Farm SGE survey was to provide geophysical data and subsurface imaging results to support the Phase 2 RCRA Facility Investigation, as outlined in the Phase 2 RCRA Facility Investigation / Corrective Measures work plan RPP-PLAN-39114

  9. Underground storage tanks: State regulations and compliance strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    In an effort to resolve underground storage tank (UST) management problems, several states and localities have moved ahead of EPA in the promulgation of UST regulations. Developed independently, these regulations represent different strategies for ensuring compliance: from an extensive set of permitting requirements that allow for the implementation of site-specific control measures to a uniform set of technical and operational requirements that vary according to installation date. For the tank owner, complying with these regulations can be a time-consuming and frustrating endeavor. However, during the course of several environmental audits of similar facilities in different states, useful strategies were observed or developed that enabled facilities to respond more effectively to requirements: these included computerization of files, designation of tank custodians, installation of low-maintenance equipment, and increased use of above-ground tanks. Of special additional interest was the wide variation in costs for similar tank services quoted by both private and government sources. These strategies are coupled with general observations on the efficacy of the various regulatory approaches to provide a field view that may be useful to tank owners and others involved in underground tank management and evaluation

  10. Tank-automotive robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Gerald R.

    1999-07-01

    To provide an overview of Tank-Automotive Robotics. The briefing will contain program overviews & inter-relationships and technology challenges of TARDEC managed unmanned and robotic ground vehicle programs. Specific emphasis will focus on technology developments/approaches to achieve semi- autonomous operation and inherent chassis mobility features. Programs to be discussed include: DemoIII Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV), Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR), Intelligent Mobility, Commanders Driver Testbed, Collision Avoidance, International Ground Robotics Competition (ICGRC). Specifically, the paper will discuss unique exterior/outdoor challenges facing the IGRC competing teams and the synergy created between the IGRC and ongoing DoD semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle and DoT Intelligent Transportation System programs. Sensor and chassis approaches to meet the IGRC challenges and obstacles will be shown and discussed. Shortfalls in performance to meet the IGRC challenges will be identified.

  11. Flammable gas tank waste level reconciliation tank 241-SX-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddie, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Fluor Daniel Northwest was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 241-SX-105 (SX-105, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document states that Tank SX-105 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit criterion, based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the Welty Report is the basis for this letter report. The Welty Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Welty Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unaccounted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Welty Report tracked Tank SX-105 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 20.75 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unaccounted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford and Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation are interested in determining the validity of unexplained surface level changes reported in the Welty Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unaccounted for surface level changes as shown in the Welty Report from 1973 through 1980. Tank SX-105 initially received waste from REDOX starting the second quarter of 1955. After June 1975, the tank primarily received processed waste (slurry) from the 242-S Evaporator/Crystallizer and transferred supernate waste to Tanks S-102 and SX-102. The Welty Report shows a cumulative change of 20.75 in. from June 1973 through December 1980

  12. Tank farms hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ''Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001'' as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process

  13. Evaluation of the integrity of existing NFS waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    Various means of investigating the integrity of the existing NFS waste tanks are presented, including: visual inspection, ultrasonic testing, acoustic-emission monitoring, radiography, and forced-vibration testing. The experience that exists in performing such investigations of high-level radioactive waste tanks is documented, including: visual inspections, photography, wall-thickness measurements, and forced-vibration testing. An evaluation is made on the relative merits of the presented inspection and testing alternatives

  14. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.

    1990-08-01

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes

  15. Calibrating the input accountancy tanks on THORP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, C.G.; Hillier, A.P.; Temple, A.

    1995-01-01

    BNFL's Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP), at Sellafield in the UK, processes oxide fuels from customers around the world. The fuel moves through the plant from shearing and dissolution in the Head End and subsequently to solvent extraction in the Chemical Plant. Clarified dissolver liquor is accumulated in three large buffer storage tanks (each of approximately 75 m 3 capacity), in the Head End prior to feeding to the Chemical Plant. The amount of dissolver liquor being passed to these tanks is accurately measured in one of two Input Accountancy Tanks, which are each of 23 m 3 working capacity, and are equipped with high accuracy weight and level measurement systems. Several papers have been published which describe the principles applied to achieve the Safeguarding of THORP. This paper describes the setting to work of a key measurement point in the THORP process and details the complex trials that were begun during the early commissioning phases, to ensure that these accountancy systems would eventually be fully characterized

  16. Supporting document for the Southeast Quadrant historical tank content estimate report for SY-tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Consort, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Southeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground double-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East and West Areas. This report summarizes historical information such as waste history, temperature profiles, psychrometric data, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance are included. Components of the data management effort, such as Waste Status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layer Model, Supernatant Mixing Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates which generate these tank content estimates, are also given in this report

  17. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  18. Analysis Of The Tank 5F Final Characterization Samples-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  19. Evaluation of tank thermal expansion data in CALDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, S.; Weh, R.

    1991-01-01

    A thermal expansion test involving a large annular input reprocessing tank was carried out as a part of the CALDEX Project at the TEKO test facility in Karlsruhe, FRG. The objective of this test was to investigate thermal expansion properties of the tank and effects on various pressure and level measurement instruments used in the determination of liquid volume. In the thermal expansion test, a weak nitric acid solution was heated internally to a temperature of 60 degrees C by means of steam injection through the sparge ring. After heating, the annular tank took about one hour to thermally equilibrate, and it took another hour for the sparge ring and pulsator pipes to fill before thermal effects could be followed. The temperature at the end of the test, after tank and its contents had cooled undisturbed for fifty hours, was 29.9 degrees C. Thirteen instrument readings were obtained during each measurement cycle of roughly 70 seconds for a total of over 2800 readings per instrument. Thermal expansion effects for the CALDEX annular tank were consistent with that reported for cylindrical tanks. Temperature variations effect each type of probe in a way that depends on the properties of the probe and the characteristics of the measurement system. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Hanford Tank Farm interim storage phase probabilistic risk assessment outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report is the second in a series examining the risks for the high level waste (HLW) storage facilities at the Hanford Site. The first phase of the HTF PSA effort addressed risks from Tank 101-SY, only. Tank 101-SY was selected as the initial focus of the PSA because of its propensity to periodically release (burp) a mixture of flammable and toxic gases. This report expands the evaluation of Tank 101-SY to all 177 storage tanks. The 177 tanks are arranged into 18 farms and contain the HLW accumulated over 50 years of weapons material production work. A centerpiece of the remediation activity is the effort toward developing a permanent method for disposing of the HLW tank's highly radioactive contents. One approach to risk based prioritization is to perform a PSA for the whole HLW tank farm complex to identify the highest risk tanks so that remediation planners and managers will have a more rational basis for allocating limited funds to the more critical areas. Section 3 presents the qualitative identification of generic initiators that could threaten to produce releases from one or more tanks. In section 4 a detailed accident sequence model is developed for each initiating event group. Section 5 defines the release categories to which the scenarios are assigned in the accident sequence model and presents analyses of the airborne and liquid source terms resulting from different release scenarios. The conditional consequences measured by worker or public exposure to radionuclides or hazardous chemicals and economic costs of cleanup and repair are analyzed in section 6. The results from all the previous sections are integrated to produce unconditional risk curves in frequency of exceedance format

  1. Soil load above Hanford waste storage tanks (2 volumes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianka, E.W.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a compilation of work performed as part of the Dome Load Control Project in 1994. Section 2 contains the calculations of the weight of the soil over the tank dome for each of the 75-feet-diameter waste-storage tanks located at the Hanford Site. The chosen soil specific weight and soil depth measured at the apex of the dome crown are the same as those used in the primary analysis that qualified the design. Section 3 provides reference dimensions for each of the tank farm sites. The reference dimensions spatially orient the tanks and provide an outer diameter for each tank. Section 4 summarizes the available soil surface elevation data. It also provides examples of the calculations performed to establish the present soil elevation estimates. The survey data and other data sources from which the elevation data has been obtained are printed separately in Volume 2 of this Supporting Document. Section 5 contains tables that provide an overall summary of the present status of dome loads. Tables summarizing the load state corresponding to the soil depth and soil specific weight for the original qualification analysis, the gravity load requalification for soil depth and soil specific weight greater than the expected actual values, and a best estimate condition of soil depth and specific weight are presented for the Double-Shell Tanks. For the Single-Shell Tanks, only the original qualification analysis is available; thus, the tabulated results are for this case only. Section 6 provides a brief overview of past analysis and testing results that given an indication of the load capacity of the waste storage tanks that corresponds to a condition approaching ultimate failure of the tank. 31 refs

  2. Thermographic Methods of Detecting Insulation Voids in Large Cryogenic Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ellen; Nurge, Mark; Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Four very large (900Kgal) cryogenic liquid hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks at Kennedy Space Center's LC-39 launch pads were constructed in 1965 to support the Apollo/Saturn V Program and continue to support the Space Shuttle Program. These double-walled spherical tanks with powdered insulation in the annular region, have received minimal refurbishment or even inspection over the years. Intrusively inspecting these tanks would mean a significant down time to the program as the cryogenic liquid and the perlite insulation would have to be removed which would be a significant task and long-term schedule disruption. A study of the tanks was performed to determine the extent to which performance and structural information could be revealed without intrusive inspection. Thermal images of the tanks were taken over a variety of environmental conditions to determine the best conditions under which to compare and use thermography as a health monitoring technique as the tanks continue to age. The settling and subsequent compaction of insulation is a serious concern for cryogenic tanks. Comparison of images from the tanks reveals significant variations in the insulation in the annual regions and point to the use of thermography as a way to monitor for insulation migration and possible compaction. These measurements, when combined with mathematical models of historical boil-off data provide key insight to the condition of the vessels. Acceptance testing methods for new tanks, before they are filled with cryogenic commodity (and thereby thermally cycled), are needed and we explore how thermography can be used to accomplish this.

  3. Sloshing impact in roofed tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uras, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A large number of high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks exists in various tank farms. Seismic activities at those locations may cause significant sloshing in HLW tanks. These tanks are covered to avoid any spilling during large amplitude earthquakes. However, large amplitude sloshing may result in impact on the cover or the roof of the tank. Hence, a better understanding of the impact phenomenon is necessary to assess the safety of the tanks currently in existence, and to establish design guidelines for future designs. A pressure based formulation is derived to model sloshing impact in roared tanks. It is incorporated into Argonne's in-house finite element code FLUSTR-ANL. A numerical test case with a harmonic input excitation is studied. The simulation results indicate that linear behavior is preserved beyond the first impact, and some mesh distortion is observed following a stronger second impact. During the impact, the displacement of the contacting surface nodes remains constant, and the velocities are reduced to zero. An identification of impacting nodes is possible from the dynamic pressures induced in surface elements

  4. Sloshing impact in roofed tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uras, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A large number of high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks exists in various tank farms. Seismic activities at those locations may cause significant sloshing in HLW tanks. These tanks are covered to avoid any spilling during large amplitude earthquakes. However, large amplitude sloshing may result in impact on the cover or the roof of the tank. Hence, a better understanding of the impact phenomenon is necessary to assess the safety of the tanks currently in existence, and to establish design guidelines for future designs. A pressure based formulation is derived to model sloshing impact in roofed tanks. It is incorporated into Argonne's in-house finite element code FLUSTR-ANL. A numerical test case with a harmonic input excitation is studied. The simulation results indicate that linear behavior is preserved beyond the first impact, and some mesh distortion is observed following a stronger second impact. During the impact, the displacement of the contacting surface nodes remains constant, and the velocities are reduced to zero. An identification of impacting nodes is possible from the dynamic pressures induced in surface elements

  5. Radio Frequency Anechoic Chamber Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the design, manufacture, and test of antenna systems. The facility is also used as an electromagnetic compatibility/radio frequency interference...

  6. Low-Power Anechoic Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Develops and evaluates the effectiveness of electronic attack (EA) techniques against antiship cruise missiles. All terminal countermeasures programmed in...

  7. Analysis Of The Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2012-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  8. Analysis of the Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm- 243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 6F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.; Shine, G.

    2012-06-28

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  10. Analysis of the Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2013-01-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm- 243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  11. Analysis Of The Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  12. Analysis of Tank 38H (HTF-38-17-52, -53) and Tank 43H (HTF-43-17-54, -55) Samples for Support of the Enrichment Control and Corrosion Control Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-09

    SRNL analyzed samples from Tank 38H and Tank 43H to support ECP and CCP. The total uranium in the Tank 38H surface sample was 41.3 mg/L while the sub-surface sample was 43.5 mg/L. The Tank 43H samples contained total uranium concentrations of 28.5 mg/L in the surface sample and 28.1 mg/L in the sub-surface sample. The U-235 percentage ranged from 0.62% to 0.63% for the Tank 38H samples and Tank 43H samples. The total uranium and percent U-235 results in the table appear slightly lower than recent Tank 38H and Tank 43H uranium measurements. The plutonium results in the table show a large difference between the surface and sub-surface sample concentrations for Tank 38H. The Tank 43H plutonium results closely match the range of values measured on previous samples. The Cs-137 results for the Tank 38H surface and sub-surface samples show similar concentrations slightly higher than the concentrations measured in recent samples. The Cs-137 results for the two Tank 43H samples also show similar concentrations within the range of values measured on previous samples. The four samples show silicon concentrations somewhat lower than the previous samples with values ranging from 124 to 168 mg/L.

  13. Organic carbon in Hanford single-shell tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, J.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Heasler, P.G.; Whitney, P.D.

    1994-07-01

    This report documents an analysis performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) involving the organic carbon laboratory measurement data for Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTS) obtained from a review of the laboratory analytical data. This activity was undertaken at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The objective of this study is to provide a best estimate, including confidence levels, of total organic carbon (TOC) in each of the 149 SSTs at Hanford. The TOC analyte information presented in this report is useful as part of the criteria to identify SSTs for additional measurements or monitoring for the organic safety program. This report is a precursor to an investigation of TOC and moisture in Hanford SSTS, in order to provide best estimates for each together in one report. Measured laboratory data were obtained for 75 of the 149 SSTS. The data represent a thorough investigation of data from 224 tank characterization datasets, including core-sampling and process laboratory data. Liquid and solid phase TOC values were investigated by examining selected tanks with both reported TOC values in solid and liquid phases. Some relationships were noted, but there was no clustering of data or significance between the solid and liquid phases. A methodology was developed for estimating the distribution and levels of TOC in SSTs using a logarithmic scale and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. The methodology grouped tanks according to waste type using the Sort On Radioactive Waste Type (SORWT) grouping method. The SORWT model categorizes Hanford SSTs into groups of tanks expected to exhibit similar characteristics based on major waste types and processing histories. The methodology makes use of laboratory data for the particular tank and information about the SORWT group of which the tank is a member. Recommendations for a simpler tank grouping strategy based on organic transfer records were made

  14. Tank 241-BY-110 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-BY-110

  15. Tank characterization report for single shell tank 241-SX-108

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggers, R.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-11

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in tank 241-SX-108. This report supports the requirements of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44-09.

  16. Tank 241-S-107 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-S-107

  17. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakestraw, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks

  18. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakestraw, L.D.

    1994-11-15

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks.

  19. Tank 241-AN-102 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-AN-102

  20. Tank 241-U-111 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-U-111

  1. Tank 241-B-106 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-B-106

  2. Tank 241-SY-103 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-SY-103

  3. Tank characterization report for single-shell Tank B-201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heasler, P.G.; Remund, K.M.; Tingey, J.M.; Baird, D.B.; Ryan, F.M.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to characterize the waste in single shell Tank B-201. Characterization includes the determination of the physical, chemical (e.g., concentrations of elements and organic species), and radiological properties of the waste. These determinations are made using analytical results from B-201 core samples as well as historical information about the tank. The main objective is to determine average waste properties: but in some cases, concentrations of analytes as a function of depth were also determined. This report also consolidates the available historical information regarding Tank B-201, arranges the analytical information from the recent core sampling in a useful format, and provides an interpretation of the data within the context of what is known about the tank

  4. Ecodesign of Liquid Fuel Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicevska, Jana; Bazbauers, Gatis; Repele, Mara

    2011-01-01

    The subject of the study is a 10 litre liquid fuel tank made of metal and used for fuel storage and transportation. The study dealt with separate life cycle stages of this product, compared environmental impacts of similar fuel tanks made of metal and plastic, as well as analysed the product's end-of-life cycle stage, studying the waste treatment and disposal scenarios. The aim of this study was to find opportunities for improvement and to develop proposals for the ecodesign of 10 litre liquid fuel tank.

  5. Construction of calibration curve for accountancy tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takayuki; Goto, Yoshiki; Nidaira, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Tanks are equipped in a reprocessing plant for accounting solution of nuclear material. The careful measurement of volume in tanks is very important to implement rigorous accounting of nuclear material. The calibration curve relating the volume and level of solution needs to be constructed, where the level is determined by differential pressure of dip tubes. Several calibration curves are usually employed, but it's not explicitly decided how many segment are used, where to select segment, or what should be the degree of polynomial curve. These parameters, i.e., segment and degree of polynomial curve are mutually interrelated to give the better performance of calibration curve. Here we present the construction technique of giving optimum calibration curves and their characteristics. (author)

  6. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford tank initiative: Applications to the AX Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balsley, S.D.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Borns, D.J.; McKeen, R.G.

    1998-07-01

    A combined engineering and geochemistry approach is recommended for the stabilization of waste in decommissioned tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm, Hanford, WA. A two-part strategy of desiccation and gettering is proposed for treatment of the in-tank residual wastes. Dry portland cement and/or fly ash are suggested as an effective and low-cost desiccant for wicking excess moisture from the upper waste layer. Getters work by either ion exchange or phase precipitation to reduce radionuclide concentrations in solution. The authors recommend the use of specific natural and man-made compounds, appropriately proportioned to the unique inventory of each tank. A filler design consisting of multilayered cementitous grout with interlayered sealant horizons should serve to maintain tank integrity and minimize fluid transport to the residual waste form. External tank soil contamination is best mitigated by placement of grouted skirts under and around each tank, together with installation of a cone-shaped permeable reactive barrier beneath the entire tank farm. Actinide release rates are calculated from four tank closure scenarios ranging from no action to a comprehensive stabilization treatment plan (desiccant/getters/grouting/RCRA cap). Although preliminary, these calculations indicate significant reductions in the potential for actinide transport as compared to the no-treatment option

  7. Surface gamma-ray survey of SX Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromswold, D.C.; Arthur, R.J.

    1996-08-01

    Measurements made over the surface of the SX Tank Farm at Hanford show Cs 137 to be the only significant gamma ray emitting contaminant. A high-purity germanium detector collected the data in the surface survey. Most of the detected radiation originated from specific above ground objects, such as pipes and vents. One area of increased radiation in the north section of the tank farm between tanks SX-102 and SX-105, was apparently due to contamination of the soil by Cs 137. An area of interest near tanks SX-108, SX-111, and SX-112, below which borehole logs has indicated deep Cs 137 contamination, also showed Cs 137 at the surface, but the signal originated mainly from surface objects rather than from contaminated soils. A significant result of the surface survey is the understanding that surface objects with contamination can affect the signal observed by borehole logging tools as they reach the ground surface

  8. Mission analysis report for the Hanford Tanks Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaus, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    This mission analysis report for the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) supports the Hanford Site's Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Retrieval Program in its commitment to remove waste from the SSTs for treatment and final closure of the tanks. The results of the HTI will support the US Department of Energy's (DOE) privatization of retrieval efforts. This report addresses the HTI problem statement: Alternative technologies to past practice sluicing (PPS) have not yet been demonstrated to remove the hard heel from a sluiced tank or to remove waste from a leaking SST. Nor have performance-based criteria for cleanout and closure been demonstrated to the degree necessary to validate them as technically and economically achievable. This report also defines the mission statement and mission boundaries; the known interfaces, both programmatic and project; the mission level requirements; the test and evaluation methodology; and measures of success

  9. History of waste tank 12, 1956 through 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.L.; Tharin, D.W.; Lohr, D.R.

    1978-09-01

    Tank 12 was placed in service as a receiver for high heat waste (HW) in September 1956 and continued in this service through 1974. From August 1963 through December 1974, the supernate was decanted (leaving the sludge) five times to allow the tank to be refilled with HW. Inspections have been made and photographs taken in the annular space with an optical periscope and a lead-shielded camera. A salt-encrusted leak site was discovered in May 1974. No other leak sites have been found. Analytical samples have been taken of sludge, supernate, and vapor. Primary tank wall thickness, heat transfer coefficient measurements, and profiles of tank temperature differences have been obtained. Several modifications to equipment and various equipment repairs were made

  10. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-T-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    A major function of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize wastes in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis, along with other available information about a tank, are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendixes serve as the TCR for single-shell tank 241-T-102. The objectives of this report are to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-T-102 waste; and to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. The response to technical issues is summarized in Section 2.0, and the best-basis inventory estimate is presented in Section 3.0. Recommendations regarding safety status and additional sampling needs are provided in Section 4.0. Supporting data and information are contained in the appendixes. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-44-05. Characterization information presented in this report originated from sample analyses and known historical sources. The most recent core sampling of tank 241-T-102 (March 1993) predated the existence of data quality objectives (DQOs). An assessment of the technical issues from the currently applicable DQOs was made using data from the 1993 push mode core sampling event, a July 1994 grab sampling event, and a May 1996 vapor flammability measurement. Historical information for tank 241-T-102, provided in Appendix A, includes surveillance information, records pertaining to waste transfers and tank operations, and expected tank contents derived from a process knowledge model. Appendix B contains further sampling and analysis data from the March 1993 push mode core sampling event and data from the grab sampling event in August 1994 and May 1996 vapor flammability measurement. Of the two push mode cores taken in March of 1993, cores 55

  11. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-T-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1997-06-24

    A major function of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize wastes in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis, along with other available information about a tank, are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendixes serve as the TCR for single-shell tank 241-T-102. The objectives of this report are to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-T-102 waste; and to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. The response to technical issues is summarized in Section 2.0, and the best-basis inventory estimate is presented in Section 3.0. Recommendations regarding safety status and additional sampling needs are provided in Section 4.0. Supporting data and information are contained in the appendixes. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-44-05. Characterization information presented in this report originated from sample analyses and known historical sources. The most recent core sampling of tank 241-T-102 (March 1993) predated the existence of data quality objectives (DQOs). An assessment of the technical issues from the currently applicable DQOs was made using data from the 1993 push mode core sampling event, a July 1994 grab sampling event, and a May 1996 vapor flammability measurement. Historical information for tank 241-T-102, provided in Appendix A, includes surveillance information, records pertaining to waste transfers and tank operations, and expected tank contents derived from a process knowledge model. Appendix B contains further sampling and analysis data from the March 1993 push mode core sampling event and data from the grab sampling event in August 1994 and May 1996 vapor flammability measurement. Of the two push mode cores taken in March of 1993, cores 55

  12. 46 CFR 154.446 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.446 Section 154.446 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type B § 154.446 Tank design. An independent tank type B must meet the calculations under § 154...

  13. Double-shell tank emergency pumping guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    This Double-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Guide provides the preplanning necessary to expeditiously remove any waste that may leak from the primary tank to the secondary tank for Hanfords 28 DSTs. The strategy is described, applicable emergency procedures are referenced, and transfer routes and pumping equipment for each tank are identified

  14. Double-shell tank emergency pumping guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    This Double-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Guide provides the preplanning necessary to expeditiously remove any waste that may leak from the primary tank to the secondary tank for Hanford's 28 DSTS. The strategy is described, applicable emergency procedures are referenced, and transfer routes and pumping equipment for each tank are identified

  15. continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and the small and large intestines as plug flow reactor (PFR) ... from the two equations are used for the reactor sizing of the modeled reactors.

  16. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  17. Storage Tank Legionella and Community

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage Tank Legionella and Community. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Qin, K., I. Struewing, J. Santodomingo, D. Lytle, and J. Lu....

  18. Research Award: Think Tank Iniave

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... be learned from these examples to help strengthen think tanks more widely? ... What is the nature of the applied research market in (some) ... A Master's in economics, development studies, public policy, or polical sciences;.

  19. History of waste tank 9 , 1955--1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tharin, D.W.; Lohr, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Tank 9 was placed in service as a receiver for Purex HLW on July 19, 1955. Filling was essentially completed in December 1955, and this original complement of waste remained in the tank until December 1965, when most of the liquid was decanted to allow refilling. In July 1966, the remaining liquid and approximately 15 inches of sludge were removed using 3000 to 3500 psi water introduced through nozzles to mobilize the sludge. The tank was then used as a receiver and cooler for aged HLW solution concentrated by the tank farm evaporator; the resulting crystallized salt, covered with saturated solution, is now stored in this tank. Inspections have been made of the tank interior and annulus by direct observation and with a 40-ft optical periscope. Analytical samples have been taken of the sludge, supernate, vapor, and leaked material in the annulus. Top-to-bottom profiles of radiation and temperature have been obtained in the annulus and tank, respectively, and measurements have been made of roof deflection caused by salt adhering to roof-supported cooling coils. Leaked waste was discovered in the annulus pan in October 1957. During 1958-59, the annulus pan was flushed nine times with water in 2000-gallon batches, jetting the waste and flush water into the primary tank. However, waste leakage into the annulus continued. The maximum liquid depth reached in the annulus was about 12 inches. This was jetted out in 1961., but some leakage continued theeeafter as indicated by roddings. The roddings showed no standing liquid by August 1964, but some liquid may have been present undera salt crust. In March 1972, salt depth in the annulus was measured to be 8 to 10 in., and the bottom 3 in. was quite wet. The salt remains although most of the liquid has been removed

  20. 27 CFR 24.230 - Examination of tank car or tank truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.230 Examination of tank car or tank truck. Upon arrival of a tank car or tank truck at the bonded wine premises, the proprietor shall... calibration chart is available at the bonded wine premises, the spirits may be gauged by volume in the tank...

  1. Radio-Frequency Tank Eigenmode Sensor for Propellant Quantity Gauging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Buchanan, David A.; Follo, Jeffrey C.; Vaden, Karl R.; Wagner, James D.; Asipauskas, Marius; Herlacher, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Although there are several methods for determining liquid level in a tank, there are no proven methods to quickly gauge the amount of propellant in a tank while it is in low gravity or under low-settling thrust conditions where propellant sloshing is an issue. Having the ability to quickly and accurately gauge propellant tanks in low-gravity is an enabling technology that would allow a spacecraft crew or mission control to always know the amount of propellant onboard, thus increasing the chances for a successful mission. The Radio Frequency Mass Gauge (RFMG) technique measures the electromagnetic eigenmodes, or natural resonant frequencies, of a tank containing a dielectric fluid. The essential hardware components consist of an RF network analyzer that measures the reflected power from an antenna probe mounted internal to the tank. At a resonant frequency, there is a drop in the reflected power, and these inverted peaks in the reflected power spectrum are identified as the tank eigenmode frequencies using a peak-detection software algorithm. This information is passed to a pattern-matching algorithm, which compares the measured eigenmode frequencies with a database of simulated eigenmode frequencies at various fill levels. A best match between the simulated and measured frequency values occurs at some fill level, which is then reported as the gauged fill level. The database of simulated eigenmode frequencies is created by using RF simulation software to calculate the tank eigenmodes at various fill levels. The input to the simulations consists of a fairly high-fidelity tank model with proper dimensions and including internal tank hardware, the dielectric properties of the fluid, and a defined liquid/vapor interface. Because of small discrepancies between the model and actual hardware, the measured empty tank spectra and simulations are used to create a set of correction factors for each mode (typically in the range of 0.999 1.001), which effectively accounts for

  2. Results of vapor space monitoring of flammable gas Watch List tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the measurement of headspace gas concentrations and monitoring results from the Hanford tanks that have continuous flammable gas monitoring. The systems used to monitor the tanks are Standard Hydrogen Monitoring Systems. Further characterization of the tank off-gases was done with Gas Characterization Systems and vapor grab samples. The background concentrations of all tanks are below the action level of 6250 ppm. Other information which can be derived from the measurements (such as generation rate, release rate, and ventilation rate) is also discussed

  3. Results of Vapor Space Monitoring of Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCAIN, D.J.

    2000-09-27

    This report documents the measurement of headspace gas concentrations and monitoring results from the Hanford tanks that have continuous flammable gas monitoring. The systems used to monitor the tanks are Standard Hydrogen Monitoring Systems. Further characterization of the tank off-gases was done with Gas Characterization systems and vapor grab samples. The background concentrations of all tanks are below the action level of 6250 ppm. Other information which can be derived from the measurements (such as generation rate, released rate, and ventilation rate) is also discussed.

  4. Thermal Stratification in Small Solar Domestic Storage Tanks caused by Draw-offs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    As shown in many research studies in the past, the thermal stratification of the tank caused by draw-offs has a high impact on the performance of a Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) system. Nevertheless, in most tank models for system simulations the influence of the draw-off pattern on the mixing...... behaviour is not taken into account sufficiently. Two typical Danish domestic water storage tanks, each with a volume of about 150 l, were investigated. In both tanks the inlet pipes are placed at the bottom and hot water is drawn from the upper part of tank. Above the inlet pipes, differently shaped plates...... are placed in order to reduce the mixing of the incoming cold water with the warmer storage water. To measure the thermal stratification thermocouples were placed in a vertical glass tube inside the tank. Measurements were carried out with different draw-off volumes, flow rates, and initial temperatures...

  5. Risk based inspection for atmospheric storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agus; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Ismail, Rifky; Kim, Seon Jin

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion is an attack that occurs on a metallic material as a result of environment's reaction.Thus, it causes atmospheric storage tank's leakage, material loss, environmental pollution, equipment failure and affects the age of process equipment then finally financial damage. Corrosion risk measurement becomesa vital part of Asset Management at the plant for operating any aging asset.This paper provides six case studies dealing with high speed diesel atmospheric storage tank parts at a power plant. A summary of the basic principles and procedures of corrosion risk analysis and RBI applicable to the Process Industries were discussed prior to the study. Semi quantitative method based onAPI 58I Base-Resource Document was employed. The risk associated with corrosion on the equipment in terms of its likelihood and its consequences were discussed. The corrosion risk analysis outcome used to formulate Risk Based Inspection (RBI) method that should be a part of the atmospheric storage tank operation at the plant. RBI gives more concern to inspection resources which are mostly on `High Risk' and `Medium Risk' criteria and less on `Low Risk' shell. Risk categories of the evaluated equipment were illustrated through case study analysis outcome.

  6. Evaluation of performance of Son Tek Argonaut acoustic doppler velocity log in tow tank and sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A; Madhan, R.; Mascarenhas, A.A; Desai, R.G.P.; VijayKumar, K.; Dias, M.; Tengali, S.; Methar, A

    Performance of a 500-kHz, 3-beam downward-looking Sontex Argonaut acoustic Doppler velocity log (DVL) based on measurements at tow-tank and sea is addressed. Its accuracy and linearity under tow-tank measurements were largely scattered...

  7. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford Tank Initiative: Applications to the AX tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report investigates five technical areas for stabilization of decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the Hanford Site AX Farm. The investigations are part of a preliminary evacuation of end-state options for closure of the AX Tanks. The five technical areas investigated are: (1) emplacement of cementations grouts and/or other materials; (2) injection of chemicals into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing); (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks; (4) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur; and (5) combined geochemical and hydrological modeling. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five areas. Detailed cost-benefit analyses of the technologies are not provided. This investigation was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, during FY 1997 by tank Focus Area (EM-50) funding

  8. Tank safety screening data quality objective. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, J.W.

    1995-04-27

    The Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) will be used to classify 149 single shell tanks and 28 double shell tanks containing high-level radioactive waste into safety categories for safety issues dealing with the presence of ferrocyanide, organics, flammable gases, and criticality. Decision rules used to classify a tank as ``safe`` or ``not safe`` are presented. Primary and secondary decision variables used for safety status classification are discussed. The number and type of samples required are presented. A tabular identification of each analyte to be measured to support the safety classification, the analytical method to be used, the type of sample, the decision threshold for each analyte that would, if violated, place the tank on the safety issue watch list, and the assumed (desired) analytical uncertainty are provided. This is a living document that should be evaluated for updates on a semiannual basis. Evaluation areas consist of: identification of tanks that have been added or deleted from the specific safety issue watch lists, changes in primary and secondary decision variables, changes in decision rules used for the safety status classification, and changes in analytical requirements. This document directly supports all safety issue specific DQOs and additional characterization DQO efforts associated with pretreatment and retrieval. Additionally, information obtained during implementation can assist in resolving assumptions for revised safety strategies, and in addition, obtaining information which will support the determination of error tolerances, confidence levels, and optimization schemes for later revised safety strategy documentation.

  9. Light Duty Utility Arm deployment in Tank WM-188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) was successfully deployed in Tank WM-188 during February and March of 1999 at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) tank farm at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Some equipment problems were identified, but most were indicative of any first time activity. Deployment during cold weather imposed additional equipment risks, but in general, equipment response to the winter conditions was better than expected. Three end effectors were demonstrated during the deployment. All performed as expected, although the limited resolution of the Alternating Current Field Measurement end effector cannot absolutely confirm tank integrity, which is necessary for future tank inspections. Four heel samples were taken with the sampler end effector and a broad spectrum of analyses were performed. A detailed inspection of the tank interior was performed with the High Resolution Stereo Video System end effector. The sample information is proving invaluable to the development of new treatment flowsheets and waste forms. It is expected that the LDUA will be deployed for tank inspections through the next several years to support other Notice of Non-Compliance (NON) Consent Order requirements and several other ongoing initiatives

  10. Light Duty Utility Arm deployment in Tank WM-188

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, M.W.

    1999-12-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) was successfully deployed in Tank WM-188 during February and March of 1999 at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) tank farm at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Some equipment problems were identified, but most were indicative of any first time activity. Deployment during cold weather imposed additional equipment risks, but in general, equipment response to the winter conditions was better than expected. Three end effectors were demonstrated during the deployment. All performed as expected, although the limited resolution of the Alternating Current Field Measurement end effector cannot absolutely confirm tank integrity, which is necessary for future tank inspections. Four heel samples were taken with the sampler end effector and a broad spectrum of analyses were performed. A detailed inspection of the tank interior was performed with the High Resolution Stereo Video System end effector. The sample information is proving invaluable to the development of new treatment flowsheets and waste forms. It is expected that the LDUA will be deployed for tank inspections through the next several years to support other Notice of Non-Compliance (NON) Consent Order requirements and several other ongoing initiatives.

  11. Light Duty Utility Arm Deployment in Tank WM-188

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Michael W

    2000-01-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) was successfully deployed in Tank WM-188 during February and March of 1999 at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) tank farm at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Some equipment problems were identified, but most were indicative of any first time activity. Deployment during cold weather imposed additional equipment risks, but in general, equipment response to the winter conditions was better than expected. Three end effectors were demonstrated during the deployment. All performed as expected, although the limited resolution of the Alternating Current Field Measurement end effector cannot absolutely confirm tank integrity, which is necessary for future tank inspections. Four heel samples were taken with the sampler end effector and a broad spectrum of analyses were performed. A detailed inspection of the tank interior was performed with the High Resolution Stereo Video System end effector. The sample information is proving invaluable to the development of new treatment flowsheets and waste forms. It is expected that the LDUA will be deployed for tank inspections through the next several years to support other Notice of NonCompliance (NON) Consent Order requirements and several other ongoing initiatives.

  12. A risk-based approach to prioritize underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidambariah, V.; Travis, C.C.; Trabalka, J.R.; Thomas, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a risk-based approach for rapid prioritization of low level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks (LLLW USTs) for possible interim corrective measures and/or ultimate closure. The ranking of LLLW USTs is needed to ensure that tanks with the greatest potential for adverse impact on the environment and human health receive top priority for further evaluation and remediation. Wastes from the LLLW USTs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were pumped out at the time the tanks were removed from service. The residual liquids and sludge contain a mixture of radionuclides and chemicals. Contaminants of concern that were identified in the liquid phase of the inactive LLLW USTs include, the radionuclides, 9O Sr, 137 Cs and 233 U and the chemicals, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, methyl ethyl ketone, mercury, lead and chromium. The risk-based approach for prioritization of the LLLW USTs is based upon three major criteria: (1) leaking characteristics of the tank; (2) location of the tanks; and (3) toxic potential of the tank contents

  13. Initial tank calibration at NUCEF critical facility. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Hiroshi

    1994-07-01

    Analyses on initial tank calibration data were carried out for the purpose of the nuclear material accountancy and control for critical facilities in NUCEF: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility. Calibration functions to evaluate volume of nuclear material solution in accountancy tanks were determined by regression analysis on the data considering dimension and shape of the tank. The analyses on dip-tube separation (probe separation), which are necessary to evaluate solution density in the tanks, were also carried out. As a result, regression errors of volume calculated with the calibration functions were within 0.05 lit. (0.01%) at a nominal level of Pu accountancy tanks. Errors of the evaluated dip-tube separations were also small, e.g. within 0.2mm (0.11%). Therefore, it was estimated that systematic errors of bulk measurements would satisfy the target value of NUCEF critical facilities (0.3% for Pu accountancy tanks). This paper summarizes the data analysis methods, results of analysis and evaluated errors. (author)

  14. Rheology of Savannah River Site Tank 51 HLW radioactive sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, B.C.

    1993-01-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 51 HLW radioactive sludge represents a major portion of the first batch of sludge to be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The rheological properties of Tank 51 sludge will determine if the waste sludge can be pumped by the current DWPF process cell pump design and the homogeneity of melter feed slurries. The rheological properties of Tank 51 sludge and sludge/frit slurries at various solids concentrations were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells Operations (SCO) at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) using a modified Haake Rotovisco viscometer system. Rheological properties of Tank 51 radioactive sludge/Frit 202 slurries increased drastically when the solids content was above 41 wt %. The yield stresses of Tank 51 sludge and sludge/frit slurries fall within the limits of the DWPF equipment design basis. The apparent viscosities also fall within the DWPF design basis for sludge consistency. All the results indicate that Tank 51 waste sludge and sludge/frit slurries are pumpable throughout the DWPF processes based on the current process cell pump design, and should produce homogeneous melter feed slurries

  15. Relationship Between Flowability And Tank Closure Grout Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C. A.; Stefanko, D. B.; Hay, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    After completion of waste removal and chemical cleaning operations, Tanks 5-F and 6-F await final closure. The project will proceed with completing operational closure by stabilizing the tanks with grout. Savannah River Remediation's (SRR) experience with grouting Tanks 18-F and 19-F showed that slump-flow values were correlated with flow/spread inside these tanks. Less mounding was observed when using grouts with higher slump-flow. Therefore, SRNL was requested to evaluate the relationship between flowability and cured properties to determine whether the slump-flow maximum spread of Mix LP no. 8-16 could be increased from 28 inches to 30 inches without impacting the grout quality. A request was also made to evaluate increasing the drop height from 5 feet to 10 feet with the objective of enhancing the flow inside the tank by imparting more kinetic energy to the placement. Based on a review of the grout property data for Mix LP no. 8-16 collected from Tank 18-F and 19-F quality control samples, the upper limit for slump-flow measured per ASTM C 1611 can be increased from 28 to 30 inches without affecting grout quality. However, testing should be performed prior to increasing the drop height from 5 to 10 feet or observations should be made during initial filling operations to determine whether segregation occurs as a function of drop heights between 5 and 10 feet. Segregation will negatively impact grout quality. Additionally, increasing the delivery rate of grout into Tanks 5-F and 6-F by using a higher capacity concrete/grout pump will result in better grout spread/flow inside the tanks

  16. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SAMPLING OF TANK 19 IN F TANK FARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.; Shine, G.

    2009-12-14

    Representative sampling is required for characterization of the residual material in Tank 19 prior to operational closure. Tank 19 is a Type IV underground waste storage tank located in the F-Tank Farm. It is a cylindrical-shaped, carbon steel tank with a diameter of 85 feet, a height of 34.25 feet, and a working capacity of 1.3 million gallons. Tank 19 was placed in service in 1961 and initially received a small amount of low heat waste from Tank 17. It then served as an evaporator concentrate (saltcake) receiver from February 1962 to September 1976. Tank 19 also received the spent zeolite ion exchange media from a cesium removal column that once operated in the Northeast riser of the tank to remove cesium from the evaporator overheads. Recent mechanical cleaning of the tank removed all mounds of material. Anticipating a low level of solids in the residual waste, Huff and Thaxton [2009] developed a plan to sample the waste during the final clean-up process while it would still be resident in sufficient quantities to support analytical determinations in four quadrants of the tank. Execution of the plan produced fewer solids than expected to support analytical determinations in all four quadrants. Huff and Thaxton [2009] then restructured the plan to characterize the residual separately in the North and the South regions: two 'hemispheres.' This document provides sampling recommendations to complete the characterization of the residual material on the tank bottom following the guidance in Huff and Thaxton [2009] to split the tank floor into a North and a South hemisphere. The number of samples is determined from a modification of the formula previously published in Edwards [2001] and the sample characterization data for previous sampling of Tank 19 described by Oji [2009]. The uncertainty is quantified by an upper 95% confidence limit (UCL95%) on each analyte's mean concentration in Tank 19. The procedure computes the uncertainty in analyte

  17. Evaluation of tank waste transfers at 241-AW tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    A number of waste transfers are needed to process and feed waste to the private contractors in support of Phase 1 Privatization. Other waste transfers are needed to support the 242-A Evaporator, saltwell pumping, and other ongoing Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) operations. The purpose of this evaluation is to determine if existing or planned equipment and systems are capable of supporting the Privatization Mission of the Tank Farms and continuing operations through the end of Phase 1B Privatization Mission. Projects W-211 and W-314 have been established and will support the privatization effort. Equipment and system upgrades provided by these projects (W-211 and W-314) will also support other ongoing operations in the tank farms. It is recognized that these projects do not support the entire transfer schedule represented in the Tank Waste Remediation system Operation and Utilization Plan. Additionally, transfers surrounding the 241-AW farm must be considered. This evaluation is provided as information, which will help to define transfer paths required to complete the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission. This document is not focused on changing a particular project, but it is realized that new project work in the 241-AW Tank Farm is required

  18. TANK VIBRATION LIMIT STUDY IN SUPPORT OF THE VADOSE ZONE DRILLING OPERATION [SEC 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STURGES, M.H.

    2005-01-18

    The analysis contained herein supports the 0.1 g vibration limit that is currently established for the tanks. The natural frequency distributions and mode shapes for several different tank-soil models are presented. These frequencies can be compared to the natural frequencies from the measured test data. The best tank-soil model can then be selected for further study. This document is provided for historical information and has not been reviewed and checked beyond originator.

  19. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  20. Commissioning and cross-comparison of four scanning water tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Saenz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Water scanning systems are commonly used for data collection to characterize dosimetric properties of photon and electron beams, and the commissioning of such systems has been previously described. The aim in this study, however, was to investigate tank-specific dependencies as well as conduct a dosimetric comparison between four distinct water scanning systems.Methods: Four water scanning systems were studied including the PTW MP3-M Phantom Tank, the Standard Imaging DoseView 3D, the IBA Blue Phantom, and the Sun Nuclear 3D Scanner. Mechanical accuracy and reproducibility was investigated by driving the chamber holder to nominal positions relative to a zero point and using a leveled caliper with 30 cm range to measure the actual position. Dosimetric measurements were also performed not only to compare percent-depth-dose (PDD curves and profiles between tanks but also to assess dependencies such as directionality, scanning speed, and reproducibility for each tank individually. A PTW Semiflex 31010 ionization chamber with a sensitive volume of 0.125 cc was used at a Varian Clinac 2300 linear accelerator.Results: Mechanical precision was ensured to within 0.1 mm with the standard deviation (SD of reproducibility <0.1 mm for measurements made with calipers. Dependencies on scanning direction and speed are presented. 6 MV PDDs between tanks agreed to within 0.6% relative to an averaged PDD beyond dmax and within 2.5% in the build-up region. Specifically, the maximum difference was 1.0% between MP3-M and Blue Phantom at 6.1 cm depth. Lateral profiles agreed between tanks within 0.5% in the central 80% of the field. 6 MeV PDD maximum difference was 1.3% occurring at the steepest portion, where the R50 was nevertheless within 0.6 mm across tanks. Setup uncertainties estimated at ≤1 mm are presumed to have contributed some of the difference between water tank data.Conclusion: Modern water scanning systems have achieved high accuracy across

  1. Identification of single-shell tank in-tank hardware obstructions to retrieval at Hanford Site Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, R.A.

    1994-10-01

    Two retrieval technologies, one of which uses robot-deployed end effectors, will be demonstrated on the first single-shell tank (SST) waste to be retrieved at the Hanford Site. A significant impediment to the success of this technology in completing the Hanford retrieval mission is the presence of unique tank contents called in-tank hardware (ITH). In-tank hardware includes installed and discarded equipment and various other materials introduced into the tank. This paper identifies those items of ITH that will most influence retrieval operations in the arm-based demonstration project and in follow-on tank operations within the SST farms

  2. 241-AY-101 Tank Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.

    2013-08-26

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tank 241-AY-101. The construction history of tank 241-AY-101 has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In tank 241-AY-101, the second double-shell tank constructed, similar issues as those with tank 241-AY-102 construction reoccurred. The overall extent of similary and affect on tank 241-AY-101 integrity is described herein.

  3. 241-AW Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.; Reeploeg, Gretchen E.

    2013-11-19

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for the 241-AW tank farm. The construction history of the 241-AW tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AW tank farm, the fourth double-shell tank farm constructed, similar issues as those with tank 241-AY-102 construction occured. The overall extent of similary and affect on 241-AW tank farm integrity is described herein.

  4. Flammable gas tank waste level reconcilliation tank 241-SX-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddie, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Fluoro Dynel Northwest (FDNW) was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 24 1-S-1 1 1 (S-I 1 1, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document (ref 1) states that Tank SX-102 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit (FL) criterion (ref 2), based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the ''Wallet Report'' is the basis for this letter report (ref 3). The Wallet Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Wallet Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells, see Appendix A. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unacquainted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Wallet Report tracked Tank S- 102 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 19.95 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unacquainted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford (DASH) and Leached Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) are interested in determining the validity of the unexplained surface level changes reported in the 0611e Wallet Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unacquainted for surface level changes as shown in the Wallet Report from 1973 through 1980

  5. Optical inspections of research reactor tanks and tank components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Hammer, J.

    1988-01-01

    By the end of 1987 worldwide there were 326 research reactors in operation, 276 of them operating more than 10 years, and 195 of them operating more than 20 years. The majority of these reactors are swimming-pool type or tank type reactors using aluminium as structural material. Although aluminium has prooven its excellent properties for reactor application in primary system, it is however subjected to various types of corrosion if it gets into contact with other materials such as mild steel in the presence of destilled water. This paper describes various methods of research reactor tank inspections, maintenance and repair possibilities. 9 figs. (Author)

  6. Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Single-walled, jacketed aluminum tanks have been conceived for storing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in LNG-fueled motor vehicles. Heretofore, doublewall steel tanks with vacuum between the inner and outer walls have been used for storing LNG. In comparison with the vacuum- insulated steel tanks, the jacketed aluminum tanks weigh less and can be manufactured at lower cost. Costs of using the jacketed aluminum tanks are further reduced in that there is no need for the vacuum pumps heretofore needed to maintain vacuum in the vacuum-insulated tanks.

  7. Levitating Drop in a Tilted Rotating Tank - Gallery of Fluid Motion Entry V044

    OpenAIRE

    White, Andrew; Swan, David; Ward, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A cylindrical acrylic tank with inner diameter D = 4 in. is mounted such that its axis of symmetry is at some angle measured from the vertical plane. The mixing tank is identical to that described in [1] The tank is filled with 200 mL of 1000 cSt silicone oil and a 5 mL drop of de-ionized water is placed in the oil volume. The water drop is allowed to come to rest and then a motor rotates the tank about its axis of symmetry at a fixed frequency = 0.3 Hz. Therefore the Reynolds number is fixed...

  8. first tank of Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    This was the first tank of the linear accelerator Linac1, the injection system for the Proton Synchrotron, It ran for 34 years (1958 - 1992). Protons entered at the far end and were accelerated between the copper drift tubes by an oscillating electromagnetic field. The field flipped 200 million times a second (200 MHz) so the protons spent 5 nanoseconds crossing a drift tube and a gap. Moving down the tank, the tubes and gaps had to get longer as the protons gained speed. The tank accelerated protons from 500 KeV to 10 MeV. Linac1 was also used to accelerate deutrons and alpha particles for the Intersecting Storage Rings and oxygen and sulpher ions for the Super Proton Synchrotron heavy ion programme.

  9. Analysis of tank 38H (HTF-38-17-18, -19) and tank 43H (HTF-43-17-20, -21) samples for support of the enrichment control and corrosion control programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-01

    SRNL analyzed samples from Tank 38H and Tank 43H to support ECP and CCP. The total uranium in the Tank 38H samples ranged from 53.7 mg/L for the surface sample to 57.0 mg/L in the sub-surface sample. The Tank 43H samples showed uranium concentrations of 46.2 mg/L for the surface sample and 45.7 mg/L in the sub-surface sample. The U-235 percentage was 0.63% in the Tank 38H samples and 0.62% in the Tank 43H samples. The total uranium and percent U-235 results appear consistent with recent Tank 38H and Tank 43H uranium measurements. The plutonium results for the Tank 38H surface sample are slightly higher than recent sample results, while the Tank 43H plutonium results are within the range of values measured on previous samples. The Cs-137 results for the Tank 38H surface and subsurface samples are slightly higher than the concentrations measured in recent samples. The Cs-137 results for the two Tank 43H samples are within the range of values measured on previous samples. The comparison of the sum of the cations in each sample versus the sum of the anions shows a difference of 23% for the Tank 38H surface sample and 18% for the Tank 43H surface sample. The four samples show silicon concentrations somewhat lower than the previous samples with values ranging from 80.2 to 105 mg/L.

  10. Tank Space Alternatives Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.A.; Kirch, N.W.; Washenfelder, D.J.; Schaus, P.S.; Wodrich, D.D.; Wiegman, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    This report addresses the projected shortfall of double-shell tank (DST) space starting in 2018. Using a multi-variant methodology, a total of eight new-term options and 17 long-term options for recovering DST space were evaluated. These include 11 options that were previously evaluated in RPP-7702, Tank Space Options Report (Rev. 1). Based on the results of this evaluation, two near-term and three long-term options have been identified as being sufficient to overcome the shortfall of DST space projected to occur between 2018 and 2025.

  11. Tank waste concentration mechanism study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, L.C.; Johnson, L.J.

    1994-09-01

    This study determines whether the existing 242-A Evaporator should continue to be used to concentrate the Hanford Site radioactive liquid tank wastes or be replaced by an alternative waste concentration process. Using the same philosophy, the study also determines what the waste concentration mechanism should be for the future TWRS program. Excess water from liquid DST waste should be removed to reduce the volume of waste feed for pretreatment, immobilization, and to free up storage capacity in existing tanks to support interim stabilization of SSTS, terminal cleanout of excess facilities, and other site remediation activities

  12. Tank 241-BY-103 Tank Characterization Plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BY-103

  13. Tank 241-C-103 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-103

  14. Out-of-tank evaporator demonstration: Tanks focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    Approximately 100 million gal of liquid waste is stored in underground storage tanks (UST)s at the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), and Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This waste is radioactive with a high salt content. The US Department of Energy (DOE) wants to minimize the volume of radioactive liquid waste in USTs by removing the excess water. This procedure conserves tank space; lowers the cost of storage; and reduces the volume of wastes subsequently requiring separation, immobilization, and disposal. The Out-of-Tank Evaporator Demonstration (OTED) was initiated to test a modular, skid-mounted evaporator. A mobile evaporator system manufactured by Delta Thermal Inc. was selected. The evaporator design was routinely used in commercial applications such as concentrating metal-plating wastes for recycle and concentrating ethylene glycol solutions. In FY 1995, the skid-mounted evaporator system was procured and installed in an existing ORNL facility (Building 7877) with temporary shielding and remote controls. The evaporator system was operational in January 1996. The system operated 24 h/day and processed 22,000 gal of Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernatant. The distillate contained essentially no salts or radionuclides. Upon completion of the demonstration, the evaporator underwent decontamination testing to illustrate the feasibility of hands-on maintenance and potential transport to another DOE facility. This report describes the process and the evaporator, its performance at ORNL, future plans, applications of this technology, cost estimates, regulatory and policy considerations, and lessons learned

  15. Tank waste remediation system tank waste retrieval risk management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimper, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    This Risk Management Plan defines the approach to be taken to manage programmatic risks in the TWRS Tank Waste Retrieval program. It provides specific instructions applicable to TWR, and is used to supplement the guidance given by the TWRS Risk Management procedure

  16. STS-133/ET-137 Tanking Test Photogrammetry Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stanley T.

    2012-01-01

    Following the launch scrub of Space Shuttle mission STS-133 on November 5, 2010, an anomalous condition of cracked and raised thermal protection system (TPS) foam was observed on the External Tank (ET). Subsequent dissection of the affected TPS region revealed cracks in the feet of two Intertank (IT) metallic stringers. An extensive investigation into the cause(s) and corrective action(s) for the cracked stringers was initiated, involving a wide array of material and structural tests and nondestructive evaluations, with the intent to culminate into the development of flight rational. One such structural test was the instrumented tanking test performed on December 17, 2010. The tanking test incorporated two three-dimensional optical displacement measurement systems to measure full-field outer surface displacements of the TPS surrounding the affected region that contained the stringer cracks. The results showed that the radial displacement and rotation of the liquid oxygen (LO2) tank flange changed significantly as the fluid level of the LO2 approached and passed the LO2 tank flange.

  17. 49 CFR 172.326 - Portable tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... petroleum gas (LPG) that is unodorized as authorized in § 173.315(b)(1) unless it is legibly marked NON... the portable tank are not visible. (d) NON-ODORIZED marking on portable tanks containing LPG. After...

  18. 33 CFR 183.510 - Fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.510 Fuel tanks. (a) Each fuel tank in a boat must have been tested by its manufacturer under § 183.580 and not leak when...

  19. Lightweight, Composite Cryogenic Tank Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm has developed and qualified strong, all-composite LOX tanks for launch vehicles. Our new 42-inch diameter tank design weighs 486 lbs and burst without...

  20. AX Tank Farm ancillary equipment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  1. The Politics of Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    consequences in the United Kingdom, Germany, Denmark and at the EU-level. A Continental think tank tradition in which the state plays a pivotal role and an Anglo-American tradition which facilitates interaction in public policy on market-like terms have shaped the development of think tanks. On the basis......In the 21st century, think tanks have become more than a buzzword in European public discourse. They now play important roles in the policy-making process by providing applied research, building networks and advocating policies. The book studies the development of think tanks and contemporary...... of a typology of think tanks, quantitative data and interviews with think tank practitioners, the interplay between state and market dynamics and the development of different types of think tanks is analysed. Although think tanks develop along different institutional trajectories, it is concluded that the Anglo...

  2. Thermal destratification in small standard solar tanks due to mixing during tapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to investigate the thermal destratification in small standard solar tanks due to mixing during tapping. Three different cold water inlet designs are tested. A model of the tested solar tank is verified. Based on the measurements and the calculations it is elucidated how...

  3. Biomembrane oxidizing tank used in the process of bacterial heap leaching of uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Yunsheng; Fan Baotuan; Liu Jian; Zheng Ying; Liu Chao

    2004-01-01

    The construction characteristic of biomembrane oxidizing tank and specialty of packing material used in the process of bacterial heap leaching of uranium ore are introduced in this paper. Method for designing biomembrane oxidizing tank, layout principle of aeration system and measurements on running management are summarized

  4. Design of an Experimental PCM Solar Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, Istvan Peter

    2010-09-15

    The one of the most important part of a solar collector system is the solar tank. The relevant type and capacity of the solar tank is a requirement of the good operation of the system. According the current architectural tendencies the boiler rooms are smaller, so the putting of the currently available solar tanks is very difficult. It is necessary to store the energy in a little space. The solution of the problem is the solar tank particularly filled with phase change material.

  5. Tank 241-U-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-U-106. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  6. Competitive Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    in opportunity structures that are mediated by historically constituted institutions in knowledge regimes. The paper distinguishes between four different strategies, the authoritative, the collaborative, the agenda-setting and the competitive strategy that are distinguished by the relations think tanks have...

  7. Simple characterisation of solar DHW tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the project is to compare different methods used for testing small solar domestic hot water tanks. A small hot water tank is tested at three different European laboratories by means of the test methods normally used at the laboratories. The tank is marketed in Denmark.The test carried ...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A SMART SOLAR TANK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of small SDHW systems based on so-called smart solar tanks are presented. A smart solar tank is a hot water tank in which the domestic water can both be heated by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply sys...

  9. SRS tank closure. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    High-level waste (HLW) tank closure technology is designed to stabilize any remaining radionuclides and hazardous constituents left in a tank after bulk waste removal. Two Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW tanks were closed after cleansing and then filling each tank with three layers of grout. The first layer consists of a chemically reducing grout. The fill material has chemical properties that retard the movement of some radionuclides and chemical constituents. A layer of controlled low-strength material (CLSM), a self-leveling fill material, is placed on top of the reducing grout. CLSM provides sufficient strength to support the overbearing weight. The final layer is a free-flowing, strong grout similar to normal concrete. After the main tank cavity is filled, risers are filled with grout, and all waste transfer piping connected to the tank is isolated. The tank ventilation system is dismantled, and the remaining systems are isolated. Equipment that remains with the tank is filled with grout. The tank and ancillary systems are left in a state requiring only limited surveillance. Administrative procedures are in place to control land use and access. DOE eventually plans to remove all of its HLW storage tanks from service. These tanks are located at SRS, Hanford, and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Low-activity waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge Reservation are also scheduled for closure

  10. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shine, E. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-11

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  11. 49 CFR 179.10 - Tank mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank mounting. 179.10 Section 179.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Design Requirements § 179.10 Tank mounting. (a) The manner in which tanks are attached to the car...

  12. DOUBLE SHELL TANK EMERGENCY PUMPING GUIDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REBERGER, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    This document provides preplanning necessary to expeditiously remove any waste that may leak from the primary tank to the secondary tank for Hanford's 28 DSTs. The strategy is described, applicable emergency procedures are referenced, and transfer routes and pumping equipment for each tank are identified

  13. Heater for Combustible-Gas Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Walter B.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed heater for pressurizing hydrogen, oxygen, or another combustible liquid or gas sealed in immersion cup in pressurized tank. Firmly supported in finned cup, coiled rod transfers heat through liquid metal to gas tank. Heater assembly welded or bolted to tank flange.

  14. Remote inspection of underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.L.; Martinson, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the US Department of Energy. The ICPP's mission is to process government-owned spent nuclear fuel. The process involves dissolving the fuel, extracting off uranium, and calcining the waste to a solid form for storage, Prior to calcining, WINCO temporarily stores the liquid waste from this process in eleven 1,135,600-l(300,000-gal), 15,2-m (50-ft)-diam, high-level liquid waste tanks. Each of these stainless steel tanks is contained within an underground concrete vault. The only access to the interior of the tanks is through risers that extend from ground level to the dome of the tanks. WINCO is replacing these tanks because of their age and the fact that they do not meet all of the current design requirements. The tanks will be replaced in two phases. WINCO is now in the Title I design stage for four new tank and vault systems to replace five of the existing systems. The integrity of the six remaining tanks must be verified to continue their use until they can be replaced in the second phase. To perform any integrity analysis, the inner surface of the tanks must be inspected. The remote tank inspection (RTI) robotic system, designed by RedZone Robotics of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was developed to access the interior of the tanks and position various end effectors required to perform tank wall inspections

  15. Stabilization of In-Tank Residual Wastes and External-Tank Soil Contamination for the Hanford Tank Closure Program: Applications to the AX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.L.; Dwyer, B.P.; Ho, C.; Krumhansl, J.L.; McKeen, G.; Molecke, M.A.; Westrich, H.R.; Zhang, P.

    1998-11-01

    Technical support for the Hanford Tank Closure Program focused on evaluation of concepts for immobilization of residual contaminants in the Hanford AX tanks and underlying soils, and identification of cost-effective approaches to improve long-term performance of AX tank farm cIosure systems. Project objectives are to develop materials or engineered systems that would significantly reduce the radionuclide transport to the groundwater from AX tanks containing residual waste. We pursued several studies that, if implemented, would help achieve these goals. They include: (1) tank fill design to reduce water inilltration and potential interaction with residual waste; (2) development of in-tank getter materials that would specifically sorb or sequester radionuclides; (3) evaluation of grout emplacement under and around the tanks to prevent waste leakage during waste retrieval or to minimize water infiltration beneath the tanks; (4) development of getters that will chemically fix specific radionuclides in soils under tanks; and (5) geochemical and hydrologic modeling of waste-water-soil-grout interactions. These studies differ in scope from the reducing grout tank fill employed at the Savannah River Site in that our strategy improves upon tank fill design by providing redundancy in the barriers to radionuclide migration and by modification the hydrogeochemistry external to the tanks.

  16. 7 CFR 58.427 - Paraffin tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paraffin tanks. 58.427 Section 58.427 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....427 Paraffin tanks. The metal tank should be adequate in size, have wood rather than metal racks to...

  17. Tank 241-TX-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-TX-105 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-TX-105 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  18. Tank 241-C-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-C-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-C-108 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  19. Tank 241-BY-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issuesclose quotes. Tank 241-BY-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolutionclose quotes

  20. Tank 241-BY-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  1. Tank 241-BY-111 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-111 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-111 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  2. Tank 241-C-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-C-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues (Osborne and Huckaby 1994). Tank 241-C-108 was vapor sampled in accordance with Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution (Osborne et al., 1994)

  3. Tank 241-TX-118 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-TX-118 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-TX-118 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  4. Tank 241-BY-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in ''Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues'' (Osborne and Huckaby 1994). Tank 241-BY-108 was vapor sampled in accordance with ''Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution (Osborne et al., 1994)

  5. Tank 241-BY-112 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-112 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-112 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  6. Tank 241-C-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-C-104 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-C-104 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  7. Tank 241-BY-103 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-103 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-103 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  8. Tank 241-BY-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-106 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-106 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  9. Tank 241-U-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-U-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-U-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  10. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

    2014-01-01

    accurately determine a volume is a function of the quantity and quality of the waste tank images. Currently, mapping is performed remotely with closed circuit video cameras and still photograph cameras due to the hazardous environment. There are two methods that can be used to create a solids volume map. These methods are: liquid transfer mapping / post transfer mapping and final residual solids mapping. The task is performed during a transfer because the liquid level (which is a known value determined by a level measurement device) is used as a landmark to indicate solids accumulation heights. The post transfer method is primarily utilized after the majority of waste has been removed. This method relies on video and still digital images of the waste tank after the liquid transfer is complete to obtain the relative height of solids across a waste tank in relation to known and usable landmarks within the waste tank (cooling coils, column base plates, etc.). In order to accurately monitor solids over time across various cleaning campaigns, and provide a technical basis to support final waste tank closure, a consistent methodology for volume determination has been developed and implemented at SRS

  11. Design of second generation Hanford tank corrosion monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgemon, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    small amplitude signals that are spontaneously generated by electrochemical reactions occurring at corroding or other surfaces. Laboratory studies and recent reports on field applications have reported that EN analysis is well suited for monitoring and identifying the onset of localized corrosion, and for measuring uniform corrosion rates. A two year laboratory study was started at Hanford in 1995 to provide a technical basis for using EN in Hanford nuclear waste tanks. Based on this study, a prototype system was constructed and deployed in DST 241-AZ-101 in August, 1996. Based on the successful demonstration of this prototype for more than a year, a first-generation full-scale system was designed and installed into DST 241-AN-107 in September 1997. This document summarizes the design and operational requirements of the second-generation full-scale system scheduled for deployment into 241-AY-102

  12. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AP-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAMBERT, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    In April 1993, Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-102 was sampled to determine waste feed characteristics for the Hanford Grout Disposal Program. This Tank Characterization Report presents an overview of that tank sampling and analysis effort, and contains observations regarding waste characteristics, expected bulk inventory, and concentration data for the waste contents based on this latest sampling data and information on the history of the tank. Finally, this report makes recommendations and conclusions regarding tank operational safety issues

  13. Underground storage tank soft waste dislodging and conveyance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellner, A.F.S.

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this task is to demonstrate potential technical solutions and to acquire engineering data and information on the retrieval technologies applicable for use in retrieving waste from underground storage tanks. This task focuses on soft waste dislodging and conveyance technologies that would be used in conjunction with a manipulator-based retrieval system. This retrieval task focuses on Hanford single-shell tanks, but the results may also have applications to other waste retrieval problems. This work is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Technology Development, sponsored by the DOE's Richland Operations Office under the Underground Storage Tanks Integrated Demonstration (USTID) program. This task is one element of the whole waste dislodging and conveyance system in the USTID. The tank wastes contain both hazardous and radioactive constituents. This task focuses on the processes for dislodging and retrieving soft wastes, mainly sludge. Sludge consists primarily of heavy-metal, iron, and aluminum precipitates. Sludges vary greatly in their physical properties and may contain pockets of liquid. Sludges have been described as varying in consistency from thick slurry to sticky clay and as sandy with hard chunks of material. The waste is believed to have adhesive and cohesive properties. The quantitative physical properties of the wastes have yet to be measured. The waste simulants used in the testing program emulate the physical properties of the tank waste

  14. Tank waste remediation system heat stress control program report, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carls, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Protecting employees from heat stress within tank farms during the summer months is challenging. Work constraints typically experienced in tank farms complicate the measures taken to protect employees from heat stress. TWRS-Industrial Hygiene (IH) has endeavored to control heat stress injuries by anticipating, recognizing, evaluating and controlling the factors which lead or contribute to heat stress in Tank Farms. The TWRS Heat Stress Control Program covers such areas as: employee and PIC training, communication of daily heat stress alerts to tank farm personnel, setting work/rest regimens, and the use of engineering and personal protective controls when applicable. The program has increased worker awareness of heat stress and prevention, established provisions for worker rest periods, increased drinking water availability to help ensure worker hydration, and allowed for the increased use of other protective controls to combat heat stress. The TWRS Heat Stress Control Program is the cornerstone for controlling heat stress among tank farm employees. The program has made great strides since it's inception during the summer of 1994. Some improvements can still be made to enhance the program for the summer of 1996, such as: (1) procurement and use of personal heat stress monitoring equipment to ensure appropriate application of administrative controls, (2) decrease the need for use of containment tents and anti-contamination clothing, and (3) providing a wider variety of engineering and personal protective controls for heat stress prevention

  15. Dryout modeling in support of the organic tank safety project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.

    1998-08-01

    This work was performed for the Organic Tank Safety Project to evaluate the moisture condition of the waste surface organic-nitrate bearing tanks that are classified as being conditionally safe because sufficient water is present. This report describes the predictive modeling procedure used to predict the moisture content of waste in the future, after it has been subjected to dryout caused by water vapor loss through passive ventilation. This report describes a simplified procedure for modeling the drying out of tank waste. Dryout occurs as moisture evaporates from the waste into the headspace and then exits the tank through ventilation. The water vapor concentration within the waste of the headspace is determined by the vapor-liquid equilibrium, which depends on the waste's moisture content and temperature. This equilibrium has been measured experimentally for a variety of waste samples and is described by a curve called the water vapor partial pressure isotherm. This curve describes the lowering of the partial pressure of water vapor in equilibrium with the waste relative to pure water due to the waste's chemical composition and hygroscopic nature. Saltcake and sludge are described by two distinct calculations that emphasize the particular physical behavior or each. A simple, steady-state model is devised for each type to obtain the approximate drying behavior. The report shows the application of the model to Tanks AX-102, C-104, and U-105

  16. High-Precision Plutonium Isotopic Compositions Measured on Los Alamos National Laboratory’s General’s Tanks Samples: Bearing on Model Ages, Reactor Modelling, and Sources of Material. Further Discussion of Chronometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Khalil J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rim, Jung Ho [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Porterfield, Donivan R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Roback, Robert Clifford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stanley, Floyd E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-29

    In this study, we re-analyzed late-1940’s, Manhattan Project era Plutonium-rich sludge samples recovered from the ''General’s Tanks'' located within the nation’s oldest Plutonium processing facility, Technical Area 21. These samples were initially characterized by lower accuracy, and lower precision mass spectrometric techniques. We report here information that was previously not discernable: the two tanks contain isotopically distinct Pu not only for the major (i.e., 240Pu, 239Pu) but trace (238Pu ,241Pu, 242Pu) isotopes. Revised isotopics slightly changed the calculated 241Am-241Pu model ages and interpretations.

  17. Permeation barrier for lightweight liquid hydrogen tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultheiss, D.

    2007-04-16

    For the future usage of hydrogen as an automotive fuel, its on-board storage is crucial. One approach is the storage of liquid hydrogen (LH2, 20 K) in double-walled, vacuum insulated tanks. The introduction of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) as structural material enables a high potential of reducing the weight in comparison to the state-of-the-art stainless steel tanks. The generally high permeability of hydrogen through plastics, however, can lead to long-term degradation of the insulating vacuum. The derived objective of this dissertation was to find and apply an adequate permeation barrier (liner) on CFRP. The investigated liners were either foils adhered on CFRP specimens or coatings deposited on CFRP specimens. The coatings were produced by means of thermal spraying, metal plating or physical vapor deposition (PVD). The materials of the liners included Al, Au, Cu, Ni and Sn as well as stainless steel and diamond-like carbon. The produced liners were tested for their permeation behavior, thermal shock resistance and adherence to the CFRP substrate. Additionally, SEM micrographs were used to characterize and qualify the liners. The foils, although being a good permeation barrier, adhered weakly to the substrate. Furthermore, leak-free joining of foil segments is a challenge still to be solved. The metal plating liners exhibited the best properties. For instance, no permeation could be detected through a 50 {mu}m thick Cu coating within the accuracy of the measuring apparatus. This corresponds to a reduction of the permeation gas flow by more than factor 7400 compared to uncoated CFRP. In addition, the metal platings revealed a high adherence and thermal shock resistance. The coatings produced by means of thermal spraying and PVD did not show a sufficient permeation barrier effect. After having investigated the specimens, a 170 liter CFRP tank was fully coated with 50 {mu}m Cu by means of metal plating. (orig.)

  18. Modeling Analysis For Grout Hopper Waste Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    2012-01-01

    The Saltstone facility at Savannah River Site (SRS) has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout nuclear waste slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The primary objective of the work was to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45 o pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45 o pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation. Steady state analyses with a two-equation turbulence model were performed. All analyses were based on three-dimensional results. Recommended operational guidance was developed by using the basic concept that local shear rate profiles and flow patterns can be used as a measure of hydraulic performance and spatial stirring. Flow patterns were estimated by a Lagrangian integration technique along the flow paths

  19. Tanks focus area. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, J.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management is tasked with a major remediation project to treat and dispose of radioactive waste in hundreds of underground storage tanks. These tanks contain about 90,000,000 gallons of high-level and transuranic wastes. We have 68 known or assumed leaking tanks, that have allowed waste to migrate into the soil surrounding the tank. In some cases, the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in the safest possible condition until their eventual remediation to reduce the risk of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. Science and technology development for safer, more efficient, and cost-effective waste treatment methods will speed up progress toward the final remediation of these tanks. The DOE Office of Environmental Management established the Tanks Focus Area to serve as the DOE-EM's technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation in partnership with the Offices of Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. The Tanks Focus Area is responsible for leading, coordinating, and facilitating science and technology development to support remediation at DOE's four major tank sites: the Hanford Site in Washington State, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in Idaho, Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank. Safety is integrated across all the functions and is a key component of the Tanks Focus Area program

  20. Second Order Sliding Mode Control of the Coupled Tanks System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayiz Abu Khadra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Four classes of second order sliding mode controllers (2-SMC have been successfully applied to regulate the liquid level in the second tank of a coupled tanks system. The robustness of these classes of 2-SMC is investigated and their performances are compared with a first order controller to show the merits of these controllers. The effectiveness of these controllers is verified through computer simulations. Comparison between the controllers is based on the time domain performance measures such as rise time, settling time, and the integral absolute error. Results showed that controllers are able to regulate the liquid level with small differences in their performance.

  1. Quench tank in-leakage diagnosis at St. Lucie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, J.E.; Au-Yang, M.K.; Beckner, D.A.; Vickery, A.N.

    1996-12-01

    In February 1995, leakage into the quench tank of the St. Lucie Nuclear Station Unit 1 was becoming an operational concern. This internal leak resulted in measurable increases in both the temperature and level of the quench tank water, and was so severe that, if the trend continued, plant shut down would be necessary. Preliminary diagnosis based on in-plant instrumentation indicated that any one of 11 valves might be leaking into the quench tank. This paper describes the joint effort by two teams of engineers--one from Florida Power & Light, the other from Framatome Technologies--to identify the sources of the leak, using the latest technology developed for valve diagnosis.

  2. Mission analysis report for single-shell tank leakage mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruse, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides an analysis of the leakage mitigation mission applicable to past and potential future leakage from the Hanford Site's 149 single-shell high-level waste tanks. This mission is a part of the overall missions of the Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Waste Remediation System division to remediate the tank waste in a safe and acceptable manner. Systems engineers principles are being applied to this effort. Mission analysis supports early decision making by clearly defining program objectives. This documents identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work

  3. Quench tank in-leakage diagnosis at St. Lucie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.E.; Au-Yang, M.K.; Beckner, D.A.; Vickery, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    In February 1995, leakage into the quench tank of the St. Lucie Nuclear Station Unit 1 was becoming an operational concern. This internal leak resulted in measurable increases in both the temperature and level of the quench tank water, and was so severe that, if the trend continued, plant shut down would be necessary. Preliminary diagnosis based on in-plant instrumentation indicated that any one of 11 valves might be leaking into the quench tank. This paper describes the joint effort by two teams of engineers--one from Florida Power ampersand Light, the other from Framatome Technologies--to identify the sources of the leak, using the latest technology developed for valve diagnosis

  4. Organic tanks safety program FY96 waste aging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Linehan, J.C.; Clauss, S.A.; Sharma, A.K.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Uranium and plutonium production at the Hanford Site produced large quantities of radioactive by-products and contaminated process chemicals, which are stored in underground tanks awaiting treatment and disposal. Having been made strongly alkaline and then subjected to successive water evaporation campaigns to increase storage capacity, the wastes now exist in the physical forms of salt cakes, metal oxide sludges, and partially saturated aqueous brine solutions. The tanks that contain organic process chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salt wastes may be at risk for fuel- nitrate combustion accidents. The purpose of the Waste Aging Task is to elucidate how chemical and radiological processes will have aged or degraded the organic compounds stored in the tanks. Ultimately, the task seeks to develop quantitative measures of how aging changes the energetic properties of the wastes. This information will directly support efforts to evaluate the hazard as well as to develop potential control and mitigation strategies

  5. Investigation of the Solvis stratification inlet pipe for solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Jordan, Ulrike; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1960’ties the influence of the thermal stratification in hot water tanks on the thermal performance of solar heating systems has been studied intensively. It was found, that the thermal performance of a solar heating system is increasing for increasing thermal stratification in the hot...... water tank. The temperature of the storage water heated by the solar collector loop usually varies strongly during the day. In order to reach a good thermal stratification in the tank, different types of pipes, plates, diffusers and other devices have been investigated in the past (e.g. Loehrke, 1979...... conditions. Temperature measurements were carried out and an optical method called Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to visualize the flow around the flaps....

  6. Advancing medical device innovation through collaboration and coordination of structured data capture pilots: Report from the Medical Device Epidemiology Network (MDEpiNet) Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Results-Oriented, Time Bound (SMART) Think Tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Terrie L; Drozda, Joseph P; Baskin, Kevin M; Tcheng, James; Conway, Karen; Wilson, Natalia; Marinac-Dabic, Danica; Heise, Theodore; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2017-12-01

    The Medical Device Epidemiology Network (MDEpiNet) is a public private partnership (PPP) that provides a platform for collaboration on medical device evaluation and depth of expertise for supporting pilots to capture, exchange and use device information for improving device safety and protecting public health. The MDEpiNet SMART Think Tank, held in February, 2013, sought to engage expert stakeholders who were committed to improving the capture of device data, including Unique Device Identification (UDI), in key electronic health information. Prior to the Think Tank there was limited collaboration among stakeholders beyond a few single health care organizations engaged in electronic capture and exchange of device data. The Think Tank resulted in what has become two sustainable multi-stakeholder device data capture initiatives, BUILD and VANGUARD. These initiatives continue to mature within the MDEpiNet PPP structure and are well aligned with the goals outlined in recent FDA-initiated National Medical Device Planning Board and Medical Device Registry Task Force white papers as well as the vision for the National Evaluation System for health Technology.%. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Information regarding flammable vapors, gases, and aerosols is presented for the purpose of resolving the tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability issue. Analyses of recent vapor and liquid samples, as well as visual inspections of the tank headspace, are discussed in the context of tank dynamics. This document is restricted to issues regarding the flammability of gases, vapors, and an aerosol that may exist in the headspace of tank 241-C-103. While discussing certain information about the organic liquid present in tank 241-C-103, this document addresses neither the potential for, nor consequences of, a pool fire involving this organic liquid; they will be discussed in a separate report

  8. Fish stocking density impacts tank hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Lunger, Angela; Laursen, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    The effect of stocking density upon the hydrodynamics of a circular tank, configured in a recirculation system, was investigated. Red drums Sciaenops ocellatus of approximately 140 g wet weight, were stocked at five rates varying from 0 to 12 kg m-3. The impact of the presence of fish upon tank...... hydrodynamics was established using in-tank-based Rhodamine WT fluorometry at a flow rate of 0.23 l s-1 (tank exchange rate of 1.9 h-1). With increasing numbers of animals, curvilinear relationships were observed for dispersion coefficients and tank mixing times. Stocking densities of 3, 6, 9 and 12 kg m-3...

  9. Tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Information regarding flammable vapors, gases, and aerosols is presented for the purpose of resolving the tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability issue. Analyses of recent vapor and liquid samples, as well as visual inspections of the tank headspace, are discussed in the context of tank dynamics. This document is restricted to issues regarding the flammability of gases, vapors, and an aerosol that may exist in the headspace of tank 241-C-103. While discussing certain information about the organic liquid present in tank 241-C-103, this document addresses neither the potential for, nor consequences of, a pool fire involving this organic liquid; they will be discussed in a separate report.

  10. Polymer/Silicate Nanocomposites Used to Manufacture Gas Storage Tanks With Reduced Permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sandi G.; Johnston, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been considerable research in the area of polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites. This research has shown that the dispersion of small amounts of an organically modified layered silicate improves the polymer strength, modulus, thermal stability, and barrier properties. There have been several reports on the dispersion of layered silicates in an epoxy matrix. Potential enhancements to the barrier properties of epoxy/silicate nanocomposites make this material attractive for low permeability tankage. Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) have several advantages for cryogenic storage tanks. They are lightweight, strong, and stiff; therefore, a smaller fraction of a vehicle's potential payload capacity is used for propellant storage. Unfortunately, the resins typically used to make PMC tanks have higher gas permeability than metals. This can lead to hydrogen loss through the body of the tank instead of just at welds and fittings. One approach to eliminate this problem is to build composite tanks with thin metal liners. However, although these tanks provide good permeability performance, they suffer from a substantial mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion, which can lead to failure of the bond between the liner and the body of the tank. Both problems could be addressed with polymersilicate nanocomposites, which exhibit reduced hydrogen permeability, making them potential candidates for linerless PMC tanks. Through collaboration with Northrop Grumman and Michigan State University, nanocomposite test tanks were manufactured for the NASA Glenn Research Center, and the helium permeability was measured. An organically modified silicate was prepared at Michigan State University and dispersed in an epoxy matrix (EPON 826/JeffamineD230). The epoxy/silicate nanocomposites contained either 0 or 5 wt% of the organically modified silicate. The tanks were made by filament winding carbon fibers with the nanocomposite resin. Helium permeability

  11. Results of Sludge Mobilization Testing at Hanford High Level Waste (HLW) Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    Waste stored in the Tank 241-AZ-101 at the US DOE Hanford is scheduled as the initial feed for high-level waste vitrification. Tank 241-AZ-101 currently holds over 3,000,000 liters of waste made up of a settled sludge layer covered by a layer of liquid supernant. To retrieve the waste from the tank, it is necessary to mobilize and suspend the settled sludge so that the resulting slurry can be pumped from the tank for treatment and vitrification. Two 223.8-kilowatt mixer pumps have been installed in Tank 241-AZ-101 to mobilize the settled sludge layer of waste for retrieval. In May of 2000, the mixer pumps were subjected to a series of tests to determine (1) the extent to which the mixer pumps could mobilize the settle sludge layer of waste, (2) if the mixer pumps could function within operating parameters, and (3) if state-of-the-art monitoring equipment could effectively monitor and quantify the degree of sludge mobilization and suspension. This paper presents the major findings and results of the Tank 241-AZ-101 mixer pump tests, based on analysis of data and waste samples that were collected during the testing. Discussion of the results focuses on the effective cleaning radius achieved and the volume and concentration of sludge mobilized, with both one and two pumps operating in various configurations and speeds. The Tank 241-AZ-101 mixer pump tests were unique in that sludge mobilization parameters were measured using actual waste in an underground storage tank at the hanford Site. The methods and instruments that were used to measure waste mobilization parameters in Tank 241-AZ-101 can be used in other tanks. It can be concluded from the testing that the use of mixer pumps is an effective retrieval method for the mobilization of settled solids in Tank 241-AZ-101

  12. 49 CFR 393.67 - Liquid fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a front tire in a straight ahead position. In determining whether a fuel tank on a truck or truck... this section. The specified tests are a measure of performance only. Alternative procedures which assure that equipment meets the required performance standards may be used. . (1) Safety venting system...

  13. Analysis of lime-slurry stirred tank carbonation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAleese, J.P.; Belt, B.A.; Datesh, J.R.; Shaeffer, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    Gas residence time distributions were determined for a stirred tank carbonation reactor. Empirical correlations for the first and second moments of the residence time distribution (RTD) curves as functions of flow rates and impeller speeds were obtained. Decontamination factors for 85 Kr were measured

  14. Corrosion control of carbon steel radioactive-liquid storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ji Young.

    1997-05-01

    As the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) continues vitrification operation and begins decontamination activities, it is vital to continue to maintain the integrity of the high-level waste tanks and prevent further corrosion that may disrupt the operation. This report describes the current operational status and some corrosion concerns with corresponding control measure recommendations. 14 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Corrosion of steel tanks in liquid nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carranza, Ricardo M.; Giordano, Celia M.; Saenz, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work is to understand how solution chemistry would impact on the corrosion of waste storage steel tanks at the Hanford Site. Future tank waste operations are expected to process wastes that are more dilute with respect to some current corrosion inhibiting waste constituents. Assessment of corrosion damage and of the influence of exposure time and electrolyte composition, using simulated (non-radioactive) wastes, of the double-shell tank wall carbon steel alloys is being conducted in a statistically designed long-term immersion experiment. Corrosion rates at different times of immersion were determined using both weight-loss determinations and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Localized corrosion susceptibility was assessed using short-term cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves. The results presented in this paper correspond to electrochemical and weight-loss measurements of the immersed coupons during the first year of immersion from a two year immersion plan. A good correlation was obtained between electrochemical measurements, weight-loss determinations and visual observations. Very low general corrosion rates ( -1 ) were estimated using EIS measurements, indicating that general corrosion rate of the steel in contact with liquid wastes would no be a cause of tank failure even for these out-of-chemistry limit wastes. (author) [es

  16. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground...

  17. Factors influencing suspended solids concentrations in activated sludge settling tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y; Pipes, W O

    1999-05-31

    A significant fraction of the total mass of sludge in an activated sludge process may be in the settling tanks if the sludge has a high sludge volume index (SVI) or when a hydraulic overload occurs during a rainstorm. Under those conditions, an accurate estimate of the amount of sludge in the settling tanks is needed in order to calculate the mean cell residence time or to determine the capacity of the settling tanks to store sludge. Determination of the amount of sludge in the settling tanks requires estimation of the average concentration of suspended solids in the layer of sludge (XSB) in the bottom of the settling tanks. A widely used reference recommends averaging the concentrations of suspended solids in the mixed liquor (X) and in the underflow (Xu) from the settling tanks (XSB=0. 5{X+Xu}). This method does not take into consideration other pertinent information available to an operator. This is a report of a field study which had the objective of developing a more accurate method for estimation of the XSB in the bottom of the settling tanks. By correlation analysis, it was found that only 44% of the variation in the measured XSB is related to sum of X and Xu. XSB is also influenced by the SVI, the zone settling velocity at X and the overflow and underflow rates of the settling tanks. The method of averaging X and Xu tends to overestimate the XSB. A new empirical estimation technique for XSB was developed. The estimation technique uses dimensionless ratios; i.e., the ratio of XSB to Xu, the ratio of the overflow rate to the sum of the underflow rate and the initial settling velocity of the mixed liquor and sludge compaction expressed as a ratio (dimensionless SVI). The empirical model is compared with the method of averaging X and Xu for the entire range of sludge depths in the settling tanks and for SVI values between 100 and 300 ml/g. Since the empirical model uses dimensionless ratios, the regression parameters are also dimensionless and the model can be

  18. ICPP Tank Farm planning through 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, W.B.; Millet, C.B.; Staiger, M.D.; Ward, F.S.

    1998-01-01

    Historically, liquid high-level waste (HLW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant has been stored in the Tank Farm after which it is calcined with the calcine being stored in stainless steel bins. Following the curtailment of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing in 1992, the HLW treatment methods were re-evaluated to establish a path forward for producing a final waste form from the liquid sodium bearing wastes (SBW) and the HLW calcine. Projections for significant improvements in waste generation, waste blending and evaporation, and calcination were incorporated into the Tank Farm modeling. This optimized modeling shows that all of the SBW can be calcined by the end of 2012 as required by the Idaho Settlement Agreement. This Tank Farm plan discusses the use of each of the eleven HLW tanks and shows that two tanks can be emptied, allowing them to be Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closed by 2006. In addition, it describes the construction of each tank and vault, gives the chemical concentrations of the contents of each tank, based on historical input and some sampling, and discusses the regulatory drivers important to Tank Farm operation. It also discusses new waste generation, the computer model used for the Tank Farm planning, the operating schedule for each tank, and the schedule for when each tank will be empty and closed

  19. Sampling plan to support HLW tank 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodwell, P.O.; Martin, B.

    1997-01-01

    Plans are to remove the residual waste from the annulus of High-Level Waste Tank 16, located in the H-Area Tank Farm, in 1998. The interior of the tank is virtually clean. In the late 1970's, the waste was removed from the interior of the tank by several campaigns of waste removal with slurry pumps, spray washing, and oxalic acid cleaning. The annulus of the tank at one time had several thousand gallons of waste salt, which had leaked from the tank interior. Some of this salt was removed by adding water to the annulus and circulating, but much of the salt remains in the annulus. In order to confirm the source term used for fate and transport modeling, samples of the tank interior and annulus will be obtained and analyzed. If the results of the analyses indicate that the data used for the initial modeling is bounding then no changes will be made to the model. However, if the results indicate that the source term is higher than that assumed in the initial modeling, thus not bounding, additional modeling will be performed. The purpose of this Plan is to outline the approach to sampling the annulus and interior of Tank 16 as a prerequisite to salt removal in the annulus and closure of the entire tank system. The sampling and analysis of this tank system must be robust to reasonably ensure the actual tank residual is within the bounds of analysis error

  20. Pad B Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Felicia

    2007-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is home to two liquid hydrogen storage tanks, one at each launch pad of Launch Complex 39. The liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad B has a significantly higher boil off rate that the liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad A. This research looks at various calculations concerning the at Launch Pad B in an attempt to develop a solution to the excess boil off rate. We will look at Perlite levels inside the tank, Boil off rates, conductive heat transfer, and radiant heat transfer through the tank. As a conclusion to the research, we will model the effects of placing an external insulation to the tank in order to reduce the boil off rate and increase the economic efficiency of the liquid hydrogen storage tanks.

  1. Hanford Site Waste Storage Tank Information Notebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husa, E.I.; Raymond, R.E.; Welty, R.K.; Griffith, S.M.; Hanlon, B.M.; Rios, R.R.; Vermeulen, N.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides summary data on the radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 East and West Areas at the Hanford Site. The summary data covers each of the existing 161 Series 100 underground waste storage tanks (500,000 gallons and larger). It also contains information on the design and construction of these tanks. The information in this report is derived from existing reports that document the status of the tanks and their materials. This report also contains interior, surface photographs of each of the 54 Watch List tanks, which are those tanks identified as Priority I Hanford Site Tank Farm Safety Issues in accordance with Public Law 101-510, Section 3137*

  2. Tank 50H Tetraphenylborate Destruction Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, T.B.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted several scoping tests with both Tank 50H surrogate materials (KTPB and phenol) as well as with actual Tank 50H solids. These tests examined whether we could destroy the tetraphenylborate in the surrogates or actual Tank 50H material either by use of Fenton's Reagent or by hydrolysis (in Tank 50H conditions at a maximum temperature of 50 degrees C) under a range of conditions. The results of these tests showed that destruction of the solids occurred only under a minority of conditions. (1)Using Fenton's Reagent and KTPB as the Tank 50H surrogate, no reaction occurred at pH ranges greater than 9. (2)Using Fenton's Reagent and phenol as the Tank 50H surrogate, no reaction occurred at a pH of 14. (3)Using Fenton's Reagent and actual Tank 50H slurry, a reaction occurred at a pH of 9.5 in the presence of ECC additives. (4)Using Fenton's Reagent and actual Tank 50H slurry, after a thirty three day period, all attempts at hydrolysis (at pH 14) were too slow to be viable. This happened even in the case of higher temperature (50 degrees C) and added (100 ppm) copper. Tank 50H is scheduled to return to HLW Tank Farm service with capabilities of transferring and receiving salt supernate solutions to and from the Tank Farms and staging feed for the Saltstone Facility. Before returning Tank 50H to Tank Farm service as a non-organic tank, less than 5 kg of TPB must remain in Tank 50H. Recently, camera inspections in Tank 50H revealed two large mounds of solid material, one in the vicinity of the B5 Riser Transfer Pump and the other on the opposite side of the tank. Personnel sampled and analyzed this material to determine its composition. The sample analysis indicated presence of a significant quantity of organics in the solid material. This quantity of organic material exceeds the 5 kg limit for declaring only trace amounts of organic material remain in Tank 50H. Additionally, these large volumes of solids, calculated as approximately 61K gallons, present other

  3. Hanford Tank Safety Project: Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel meeting, February 7--8, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, D.M. [comp.

    1991-06-01

    The Tank Waste Science Panel met February 7--8, 1991, to review the latest data from the analyses of the October 24, 1990, gas release from Tank 241-SY-101 (101-SY) at Hanford; discuss the results of work being performed in support of the Hanford Tank Safety Project; and be briefed on the ferrocyanide issues included in the expanded scope of the Science Panel. The shapes of the gas release curves from the past three events are similar and correlate well with changes in waste level, but the correlation between the released volume of gas and the waste height is not as good. An analysis of the kinetics of gas generation from waste height measurements in Tank 101-SY suggests that the reaction giving rise to the gases in the tank is independent of the gas pressure and independent of the physical processes that give rise to the episodic release of the gases. Tank waste height data were also used to suggest that a floating crust formed early in the history of the tank and that the current crust is being made thicker in the eastern sector of the tank by repeated upheaval of waste slurry onto the surface. The correlation between the N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} generated in the October release appears to be 1:1, suggesting a single mechanistic pathway. Analysis of other gas generation ratios, however, suggests that H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O are evolved together, whereas N{sub 2} is from the air. If similar ratios are observed in planned radiolysis experiments are Argonne National Laboratory, radiolysis would appear to be generating most of the gases in Tank 101-SY. Data from analysis of synthetic waste crust using a dynamic x-ray diffractometer suggest that, in air, organics are being oxidized and liberating CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Experiments at Savannah River Laboratory indicate that irradiation of solutions containing NO{sub 3} and organics can produce N{sub 2}O.

  4. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment

  5. Sand filter clogging by septic tank effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spychała, M; Błazejewski, R

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise conditions and factors affecting fine sand clogging by septic tank effluent on the basis of physical modelling. The physical model consisted of 12 sand columns dosed with sewage from one household (5 persons), preliminary treated in a septic tank. Hydraulic loadings of the sand filters were equal to 82 mm/d. The mean discharge from sand columns, measured as the effluent volume collected during 10 minutes, decreased significantly over the experiment period from 34 cm3/min in August 2000 to 20 cm3/min in August 2001 at the same temperature of about 20 degrees C. First the columns clogged almost completely after 480 days in December 2001, however six columns had remained unclogged till the end of the experiment (March 2002). The temperature had a significant impact on hydraulic conductivity. A vertical distribution of accumulated mass and biomass was investigated in partly clogged sand. Microscopic survey of the clogging layer showed a presence of live micro-organisms, residuals of dead micro-organisms, particularly pieces of small animal armour and many fibres. These particles accelerated the accumulation of solids in the upper clogging layer. The study indicated that temperature impact on the filter hydraulic conductivity was more significant for biological activity, than for sewage viscosity.

  6. Ferrocyanide tank safety program: Cesium uptake capacity of simulated ferrocyanide tank waste. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgeson, I.E.; Bryan, S.A.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the capacity for 137 Cs uptake by mixed metal ferrocyanides present in Hanford Site waste tanks, and to assess the potential for aggregation of these 137 Cs-exchanged materials to form ''hot-spots'' in the tanks. This research, performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company, stems from concerns regarding possible localized radiolytic heating within the tanks. After ferrocyanide was added to 18 high-level waste tanks in the 1950s, some of the ferrocyanide tanks received considerable quantities of saltcake waste that was rich in 137 Cs. If radioactive cesium was exchanged and concentrated by the nickel ferrocyanide present in the tanks, the associated heating could cause tank temperatures to rise above the safety limits specified for the ferrocyanide-containing tanks, especially if the supernate in the tanks is pumped out and the waste becomes drier

  7. Understanding Think Tank University Relationships

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    pmartin@idrc.ca

    10 Abr 2013 ... Comprensión de las relaciones entre think tanks y universidades en .... Políticas Globales de Salud Pública. Políticas Sociales y Económicas. Ciencia e Innovación. El IDRC lleva décadas de trabajo en cuestiones de género, ..... Estrategia adecuada para mitigar los riesgos de seguridad y éticos de los ...

  8. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study, wall coring and scraping in Tanks W-3 and W-4 (North Tank Farm), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This plan documents the procedures for collecting and analyzing wall core and wall scraping samples from Tanks W-3 and W-4 in the North Tank Farm. This is in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Treatability Study of the Gunite and Associated Tanks at ORNL. The sampling and analysis will be in concert with sludge retrieval and sluicing of the tanks. Wall scraping and wall core samples will be collected from each quadrant in each tank by using a scraping sampler and a coring drill deployed by the Houdini robot vehicle. Each sample will be labeled, transported to the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory and analyzed for physical/radiological characteristics, including total activity, gross alpha, gross beta, radioactive Sr + Cs, and other alpha and gamma emitting radionuclides. The Data Quality Objectives process, based on US EPA guidance (EPA QA/G-4, Sept. 1994), was applied to identify the objectives of this sampling and analysis. Results of the analysis will be used to validate predictions of a Sr concrete diffusion model, estimate the amount of radioactivity remaining in the tank shells, provide information to correlate with measurements taken by the Gunite Tank Isotope Mapping Probe and the Characterization End Effector, and estimate the performance of the wall cleaning system

  9. CRITICAL ASSUMPTIONS IN THE F-TANK FARM CLOSURE OPERATIONAL DOCUMENTATION REGARDING WASTE TANK INTERNAL CONFIGURATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hommel, S.; Fountain, D.

    2012-03-28

    The intent of this document is to provide clarification of critical assumptions regarding the internal configurations of liquid waste tanks at operational closure, with respect to F-Tank Farm (FTF) closure documentation. For the purposes of this document, FTF closure documentation includes: (1) Performance Assessment for the F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (hereafter referred to as the FTF PA) (SRS-REG-2007-00002), (2) Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Closure of F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (DOE/SRS-WD-2012-001), (3) Tier 1 Closure Plan for the F-Area Waste Tank Systems at the Savannah River Site (SRR-CWDA-2010-00147), (4) F-Tank Farm Tanks 18 and 19 DOE Manual 435.1-1 Tier 2 Closure Plan Savannah River Site (SRR-CWDA-2011-00015), (5) Industrial Wastewater Closure Module for the Liquid Waste Tanks 18 and 19 (SRRCWDA-2010-00003), and (6) Tank 18/Tank 19 Special Analysis for the Performance Assessment for the F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (hereafter referred to as the Tank 18/Tank 19 Special Analysis) (SRR-CWDA-2010-00124). Note that the first three FTF closure documents listed apply to the entire FTF, whereas the last three FTF closure documents listed are specific to Tanks 18 and 19. These two waste tanks are expected to be the first two tanks to be grouted and operationally closed under the current suite of FTF closure documents and many of the assumptions and approaches that apply to these two tanks are also applicable to the other FTF waste tanks and operational closure processes.

  10. An approximate-reasoning-based method for screening flammable gas tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Smith, R.E.

    1998-03-01

    High-level waste (HLW) produces flammable gases as a result of radiolysis and thermal decomposition of organics. Under certain conditions, these gases can accumulate within the waste for extended periods and then be released quickly into the dome space of the storage tank. As part of the effort to reduce the safety concerns associated with flammable gas in HLW tanks at Hanford, a flammable gas watch list (FGWL) has been established. Inclusion on the FGWL is based on criteria intended to measure the risk associated with the presence of flammable gas. It is important that all high-risk tanks be identified with high confidence so that they may be controlled. Conversely, to minimize operational complexity, the number of tanks on the watchlist should be reduced as near to the true number of flammable risk tanks as the current state of knowledge will support. This report presents an alternative to existing approaches for FGWL screening based on the theory of approximate reasoning (AR) (Zadeh 1976). The AR-based model emulates the inference process used by an expert when asked to make an evaluation. The FGWL model described here was exercised by performing two evaluations. (1) A complete tank evaluation where the entire algorithm is used. This was done for two tanks, U-106 and AW-104. U-106 is a single shell tank with large sludge and saltcake layers. AW-104 is a double shell tank with over one million gallons of supernate. Both of these tanks had failed the screening performed by Hodgson et al. (2) Partial evaluations using a submodule for the predictor likelihood for all of the tanks on the FGWL that had been flagged previously by Whitney (1995)

  11. System Description for Tank 241-AZ-101 Waste Retrieval Data Acquisition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROMERO, S.G.

    2000-01-01

    The proposed activity provides the description of the Data Acquisition System for Tank 241-AZ-101. This description is documented in HNF-5572, Tank 241-AZ-101 Waste Retrieval Data Acquisition System (DAS). This activity supports the planned mixer pump tests for Tank 241-AZ-101. Tank 241-AZ-101 has been selected for the first full-scale demonstration of a mixer pump system. The tank currently holds over 960,000 gallons of neutralized current acid waste, including approximately 12.7 inches of settling solids (sludge) at the bottom of the tank. As described in Addendum 4 of the FSAR (LMHC 2000a), two 300 HP mixer pumps with associated measurement and monitoring equipment have been installed in Tank 241-AZ-101. The purpose of the Tank 241-AZ-101 retrieval system Data Acquisition System (DAS) is to provide monitoring and data acquisition of key parameters in order to confirm the effectiveness of the mixer pumps utilized for suspending solids in the tank. The suspension of solids in Tank 241-AZ-101 is necessary for pretreatment of the neutralized current acid waste and eventual disposal as glass via the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. HNF-5572 provides a basic description of the Tank 241-AZ-101 retrieval system DAS, including the field instrumentation and application software. The DAS is provided to fulfill requirements for data collection and monitoring. This document is not an operations procedure or is it intended to describe the mixing operation. This USQ screening provides evaluation of HNF-5572 (Revision 1) including the changes as documented on ECN 654001. The changes include (1) add information on historical trending and data backup, (2) modify DAS I/O list in Appendix E to reflect actual conditions in the field, and (3) delete IP address in Appendix F per Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. request

  12. Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-01-01

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other

  13. 241-SY Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Gunter, Jason R.; Venetz, Theodore J.

    2013-07-25

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tanks 241-SY-101, 241-SY-102, and 241-SY-103. The construction history of the 241-SY tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank 241-AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank 241-AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-SY tank farm, the third DST farm constructed, refractory quality and stress relief were improved, while similar tank and liner fabrication issues remained.

  14. 241-AZ Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Gunter, Jason R.; Venetz, Theodore J.

    2013-07-30

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102. The construction history of the 241-AZ tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AZ tank farm, the second DST farm constructed, both refractory quality and tank and liner fabrication were improved.

  15. Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State has the most diverse and largest amount of highly radioactive waste of any site in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored in large underground tanks since 1944. A Tank Waste Remediation System Program has been established within the DOE to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Waste Management 1993 Symposium Papers and Viewgraphs covered the following topics: Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Overview; Tank Waste Retrieval Issues and Options for their Resolution; Tank Waste Pretreatment - Issues, Alternatives and Strategies for Resolution; Low-Level Waste Disposal - Grout Issue and Alternative Waste Form Technology; A Strategy for Resolving High-Priority Hanford Site Radioactive Waste Storage Tank Safety Issues; Tank Waste Chemistry - A New Understanding of Waste Aging; Recent Results from Characterization of Ferrocyanide Wastes at the Hanford Site; Resolving the Safety Issue for Radioactive Waste Tanks with High Organic Content; Technology to Support Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Objectives

  16. Secondary Containment Design for the LLNL B801 Diala Oil Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-14

    Design is to add an extension to the secondary containment of tank T1-A3 at building 801. Piping from the inner tank penetrates the secondary containment tank below the liquid level of the primary tank. To meet Oil Pollution Prevention Regulation 40 CFR 120.7 the single wall piping needs to be provided with secondary containment. Steel Tank Institute (STI) conference publication states: §112.3(d)(1)(iii) –SPCC Plan requirements- Systems shall be designed in accordance with good engineering practice, including consideration of applicable industry standards and that procedures for required inspections and testing have been established. Section 112.7(a)(2) allows for deviations from specific rule requirements, provided the Owner/operator responsible to select, document and implement alternate measure and a PE certifies the SPCC Plan in accordance with good engineering practices, including consideration of industry standards

  17. Advantages using inlet stratification devices in solar domestic hot water storage tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon; Bava, Federico

    2017-01-01

    performances of two solar domestic hot water systems are presented. One system is a traditional high flow system with a heat exchanger spiral in the tank. The other system is a low flow system with an external heat exchanger and a newly developed inlet stratifier from EyeCular Technologies ApS installed......The thermal performance of a domestic hot water system is strongly affected by whether the storage tank is stratified or not. Thermal stratification can be built up in a solar storage tank if the heated water from the solar collectors enters the tank through an inlet stratifier.Measured thermal...... with the stratification device has a higher thermal performance compared to the system with the heat exchanger spiral inside the tank.The relative performance (defined as the ratio between the net utilized solar energy of the low flow system and the net utilized solar energy of the high flow system), is a function...

  18. Tank bromeliads capture Saharan dust in El Yunque National Forest, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Dana L.; Moynihan, Kylen M.; Ariori, Carolyn; Bodkin, Gavin; Doria, Gabriela; Enright, Katherine; Hatfield-Gardner, Rémy; Kravet, Emma; Nuttle, C. Miller; Shepard, Lisa; Ku, Timothy C. W.; O'Connell, Suzanne; Resor, Phillip G.

    2018-01-01

    Dust from Saharan Africa commonly blows across the Atlantic Ocean and into the Caribbean. Most methods for measuring this dust either are expensive if collected directly from the atmosphere, or depend on very small concentrations that may be chemically altered if collected from soil. Tank bromeliads in the dwarf forest of El Yunque National Forest, Puerto Rico, have a structure of overlapping leaves used to capture rainwater and other atmospheric inputs. Therefore, it is likely that these bromeliads are collecting in their tanks Saharan dust along with local inputs. Here we analyze the elemental chemistry, including rare earth elements (REEs), of tank contents in order to match their chemical fingerprint to a provenance of the Earth's crust. We find that the tank contents differ from the local soils and bedrock and are more similar to published values of Saharan dust. Our study confirms the feasibility of using bromeliad tanks to trace Saharan dust in the Caribbean.

  19. Design and evaluation of an aeroacoustic wind tunnel for measurement of axial flow fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilka, M; Anthoine, J; Schram, C

    2011-12-01

    An anechoic wind tunnel dedicated to fan self-noise studies has been designed and constructed at the von Karman Institute The multi-chamber, mass flow driven design allows for all fan performance characteristics, aerodynamic quantities (e.g., wake turbulence measurements), and acoustic properties to be assessed in the same facility with the same conditions. The acoustic chamber performance is assessed using the optimum reference method and found to be within the ISO 3745 standards down to 150 Hz for pure tone and broadband source mechanisms. The additional influence of installation effects of an aerodynamic inlet was found to create a scattered sound field only near the source location, while still providing good anechoic results at more distant sound pressure measurement positions. It was found to have inflow properties, span-wise uniformity, and low turbulence intensity, consistent with those desired for fan self-noise studies. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  20. Safe interim storage of Hanford tank wastes, draft environmental impact statement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This Draft EIS is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). DOE and Ecology have identified the need to resolve near-term tank safety issues associated with Watchlist tanks as identified pursuant to Public Law (P.L.) 101-510, Section 3137, ''Safety Measures for Waste Tanks at Hanford Nuclear Reservation,'' of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991, while continuing to provide safe storage for other Hanford wastes. This would be an interim action pending other actions that could be taken to convert waste to a more stable form based on decisions resulting from the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) EIS. The purpose for this action is to resolve safety issues concerning the generation of unacceptable levels of hydrogen in two Watchlist tanks, 101-SY and 103-SY. Retrieving waste in dilute form from Tanks 101-SY and 103-SY, hydrogen-generating Watchlist double shell tanks (DSTs) in the 200 West Area, and storage in new tanks is the preferred alternative for resolution of the hydrogen safety issues