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Sample records for andsevere human obesity

  1. Lack of Support for the Association Between GAD2 Polymorphisms andSevere Human Obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swarbrick, Michael M.; Waldenmaier, Bjorn; Pennacchio, Len A.; Lind,Denise L.; Cavazos, Martha M.; Geller, Frank; Merriman, Raphael; Ustaszewska, Anna; Malloy, Mary; Scherag, Andre; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; Rief,Winfried; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck; Pullinger, Clive R.; Kane, John P.; Dent, Robert; McPherson, Ruth; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand,Johannes; Vaisse, Christian

    2004-11-17

    Demonstration of association between common genetic variants and chronic human diseases such as obesity could have profound implications for the prediction, prevention and treatment of these conditions. Unequivocal proof of such an association, however, requires adherence to established methodological guidelines, which include independent replication of initial positive findings. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within GAD2 were found to be associated with class III obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m2) in 188 families (612 individuals) segregating the condition and a case-control study of 575 cases and 646 lean controls. Functional data supporting a pathophysiological role for one of the SNPs (-243A>G) were also presented. In the present study, we attempted to replicate this association in larger groups of subjects, and to extend the functional studies of the -243A>G SNP. In 2,327 subjects comprising 692 German nuclear families with severe, early-onset obesity, we found no evidence for a relationship between the three GAD2 SNPs and obesity, whether SNPs were studied individually or as haplotypes. In two independent case-control studies (a total of 680 class III obesity cases and 1,186 lean controls), there was no significant relationship between the -243A>G SNP and obesity (odds ratio (OR) = 0.99, 95% CI 0.83 - 1.18,in the pooled sample). These negative findings were reinforced by a meta-analysis for the association between the 243G allele and class III obesity, which yielded an OR of 1.11 (95% CI 0.90 - 1.36) in a total sample of 1,252 class III obese cases and 1,800 lean controls. Finally,we were unable to confirm or extend the functional data pertaining to the -243A>G variant. Potential confounding variables in association studies involving common variants and complex diseases (low power to detect modest genetic effects, over-interpretation of marginal data, population stratification and biological plausibility) are also discussed in the context of GAD2 and

  2. Genetic & epigenetic approach to human obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rajender Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an important clinical and public health challenge, epitomized by excess adipose tissue accumulation resulting from an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure. It is a forerunner for a variety of other diseases such as type-2-diabetes (T2D, cardiovascular diseases, some types of cancer, stroke, hyperlipidaemia and can be fatal leading to premature death. Obesity is highly heritable and arises from the interplay of multiple genes and environmental factors. Recent advancements in Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have shown important steps towards identifying genetic risks and identification of genetic markers for lifestyle diseases, especially for a metabolic disorder like obesity. According to the 12 th u0 pdate of Human Obesity Gene Map there are 253 quantity trait loci (QTL for obesity related phenotypes from 61 genome wide scan studies. Contribution of genetic propensity of individual ethnic and racial variations in obesity is an active area of research. Further, understanding its complexity as to how these variations could influence ones susceptibility to become or remain obese will lead us to a greater understanding of how obesity occurs and hopefully, how to prevent and treat this condition. In this review, various strategies adapted for such an analysis based on the recent advances in genome wide and functional variations in human obesity are discussed.

  3. Obesity accelerates epigenetic aging of human liver

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, S.; Erhart, W.; Brosch, M; Ammerpohl, O; von Schonfels, W.; Ahrens, M.; Heits, N; Bell, J. T.; Tsai, P.-C.; Spector, T.D.; Deloukas, P.; Siebert, R.; Sipos, B.; Becker, T.; C. Rocken

    2014-01-01

    Because obese people are at an increased risk of many age-related diseases, it is a plausible hypothesis that obesity increases the biological age of some tissues and cell types. However, it has been difficult to detect such an accelerated aging effect because it is unclear how to measure tissue age. Here we use a recently developed biomarker of aging (known as “epigenetic clock”) to study the relationship between epigenetic age and obesity in several human tissues. We report an unexpectedly ...

  4. Obesity accelerates epigenetic aging of human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Steve; Erhart, Wiebke; Brosch, Mario; Ammerpohl, Ole; von Schönfels, Witigo; Ahrens, Markus; Heits, Nils; Bell, Jordana T; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Spector, Tim D; Deloukas, Panos; Siebert, Reiner; Sipos, Bence; Becker, Thomas; Röcken, Christoph; Schafmayer, Clemens; Hampe, Jochen

    2014-10-28

    Because of the dearth of biomarkers of aging, it has been difficult to test the hypothesis that obesity increases tissue age. Here we use a novel epigenetic biomarker of aging (referred to as an "epigenetic clock") to study the relationship between high body mass index (BMI) and the DNA methylation ages of human blood, liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. A significant correlation between BMI and epigenetic age acceleration could only be observed for liver (r = 0.42, P = 6.8 × 10(-4) in dataset 1 and r = 0.42, P = 1.2 × 10(-4) in dataset 2). On average, epigenetic age increased by 3.3 y for each 10 BMI units. The detected age acceleration in liver is not associated with the Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Activity Score or any of its component traits after adjustment for BMI. The 279 genes that are underexpressed in older liver samples are highly enriched (1.2 × 10(-9)) with nuclear mitochondrial genes that play a role in oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport. The epigenetic age acceleration, which is not reversible in the short term after rapid weight loss induced by bariatric surgery, may play a role in liver-related comorbidities of obesity, such as insulin resistance and liver cancer. PMID:25313081

  5. Contribution of daily and seasonal biorhythms to obesity in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Witowski, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    While the significance of obesity as a serious health problem is well recognized, little is known about whether and how biometerological factors and biorhythms causally contribute to obesity. Obesity is often associated with altered seasonal and daily rhythmicity in food intake, metabolism and adipose tissue function. Environmental stimuli affect both seasonal and daily rhythms, and the latter are under additional control of internal molecular oscillators, or body clocks. Modifications of clock genes in animals and changes to normal daily rhythms in humans (as in shift work and sleep deprivation) result in metabolic dysregulation that favours weight gain. Here, we briefly review the potential links between biorhythms and obesity in humans.

  6. Mutation analysis of the MCHR1 gene in human obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermter, Anne-Kathrin; Reichwald, Kathrin; Büch, Thomas;

    2005-01-01

    The importance of the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system for regulation of energy homeostasis and body weight has been demonstrated in rodents. We analysed the human MCH receptor 1 gene (MCHR1) with respect to human obesity.......The importance of the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system for regulation of energy homeostasis and body weight has been demonstrated in rodents. We analysed the human MCH receptor 1 gene (MCHR1) with respect to human obesity....

  7. Interindividual variation in posture allocation: possible role in human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, James A; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M; McCrady, Shelly K; Krizan, Alisa C; Olson, Leslie R; Kane, Paul H; Jensen, Michael D; Clark, Matthew M

    2005-01-28

    Obesity occurs when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. Humans expend energy through purposeful exercise and through changes in posture and movement that are associated with the routines of daily life [called nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)]. To examine NEAT's role in obesity, we recruited 10 lean and 10 mildly obese sedentary volunteers and measured their body postures and movements every half-second for 10 days. Obese individuals were seated, on average, 2 hours longer per day than lean individuals. Posture allocation did not change when the obese individuals lost weight or when lean individuals gained weight, suggesting that it is biologically determined. If obese individuals adopted the NEAT-enhanced behaviors of their lean counterparts, they might expend an additional 350 calories (kcal) per day. PMID:15681386

  8. Dysfunction of human subcutaneous fat arterioles in obesity alone or obesity associated with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Adriana; Popov, Doina; Constantin, Anamaria; Nemecz, Miruna; Alexandru, Nicoleta; Cochior, Daniel; Tudor, Aura

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of obesity alone and obesity associated with Type 2 diabetes on the structure, vascular reactivity and response to insulin of isolated human subcutaneous fat arterioles; these effects were correlated with the expression of insulin signalling proteins. Periumbilical subcutaneous adipose tissue was explanted during surgery, small arterioles (internal diameter 220 ± 40 μm) were dissected out and investigated by electron microscopy, myography and immunoblotting. Compared with the subcutaneous arterioles of lean subjects, obesity activated the endothelium, enhanced the accumulation of collagen within vascular wall and increased the sensitivity of adrenergic response; obesity also diminished eNOS (endothelial NO synthase) protein expression, NO production, and endothelium-dependent and insulin-induced vasodilatation, as well as the protein expression of both IRS (insulin receptor substrates)-1 and IRS-2 and of the downstream molecules in the insulin signalling pathway, such as PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase), phospho-Akt and Akt. When obesity was associated with Type 2 diabetes, these changes were significantly augmented. In conclusion, obesity alone or obesity associated with Type 2 diabetes alters human periumbilical adipose tissue arterioles in terms of structure, function and biochemsitry, including diminished eNOS expression and reduced levels of IRS-1, IRS-2, PI3K and Akt in the insulin signalling pathway. PMID:20979575

  9. Unraveling the genetics of human obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Mutch

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of modern molecular biology tools in deciphering the perturbed biochemistry and physiology underlying the obese state has proven invaluable. Identifying the hypothalamic leptin/melanocortin pathway as critical in many cases of monogenic obesity has permitted targeted, hypothesis-driven experiments to be performed, and has implicated new candidates as causative for previously uncharacterized clinical cases of obesity. Meanwhile, the effects of mutations in the melanocortin-4 receptor gene, for which the obese phenotype varies in the degree of severity among individuals, are now thought to be influenced by one's environmental surroundings. Molecular approaches have revealed that syndromes (Prader-Willi and Bardet-Biedl previously assumed to be controlled by a single gene are, conversely, regulated by multiple elements. Finally, the application of comprehensive profiling technologies coupled with creative statistical analyses has revealed that interactions between genetic and environmental factors are responsible for the common obesity currently challenging many Westernized societies. As such, an improved understanding of the different "types" of obesity not only permits the development of potential therapies, but also proposes novel and often unexpected directions in deciphering the dysfunctional state of obesity.

  10. Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Ruth E; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Klein, Samuel; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2006-12-21

    Two groups of beneficial bacteria are dominant in the human gut, the Bacteroidetes and the Firmicutes. Here we show that the relative proportion of Bacteroidetes is decreased in obese people by comparison with lean people, and that this proportion increases with weight loss on two types of low-calorie diet. Our findings indicate that obesity has a microbial component, which might have potential therapeutic implications.

  11. The gut microbiota in human energy homeostasis and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Michael; Knight, Rob; Leibel, Rudolph L

    2015-09-01

    Numerous studies of rodents suggest that the gut microbiota populations are sensitive to genetic and environmental influences, and can produce or influence afferent signals that directly or indirectly impinge on energy homeostatic systems affecting both energy balance (weight gain or loss) and energy stores. Fecal transplants from obese and lean human, and from mouse donors to gnotobiotic mice, result in adoption of the donor somatotype by the formerly germ-free rodents. Thus, the microbiota is certainly implicated in the development of obesity, adiposity-related comorbidities, and the response to interventions designed to achieve sustained weight reduction in mice. More studies are needed to determine whether the microbiota plays a similarly potent role in human body-weight regulation and obesity.

  12. Altered autophagy in human adipose tissues in obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Autophagy is a housekeeping mechanism, involved in metabolic regulation and stress response, shown recently to regulate lipid droplets biogenesis/breakdown and adipose tissue phenotype. Objective: We hypothesized that in human obesity autophagy may be altered in adipose tissue in a fat d...

  13. Laboratory animals as surrogate models of human obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cecilia NILSSON; Kirsten RAUN; Fei-fei YAN; Marianne O LARSEN; Mads TANG-CHRISTENSEN

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases represent a growing socioeconomic problem throughout the world.Great emphasis has been put on establishing treatments for this condition,including pharmacological intervention.However,there are many obstacles and pitfalls in the development process from pre-clinical research to the pharmacy counter,and there is no certainty that what has been observed pre-clinically will translate into an improvement in human health.Hence,it is important to test potential new drugs in a valid translational model early in their development.In the current mini-review,a number of monogenetic and polygenic models of obesity will be discussed in view of their translational character.

  14. Insulin degradation by adipose tissue is increased in human obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Rafecas Jorba, Immaculada; Fernández López, José Antonio; Salinas, Isabel; X. Formiguera Sala; Remesar Betlloch, Xavier; Foz Sala, M. (Màrius); Alemany, Marià

    1995-01-01

    White adipose tissue samples from obese and lean patients were used for the estimation ofinsulin protease and insulin:glutathione transhydrogenase using 1251-labeled insulin. There was no activity detected in the absence of reduced glutathione, which indicates that insulin is cleaved in human adipose "tissue through reduction of the disulfide bridge between the chains. O bese patients showed higher transhydrogenase activity (per U tissue protein wt, per U tissue wt, and in the total adipose t...

  15. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...

  16. The cat as a model for human obesity: insights into depot-specific inflammation associated with feline obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, H; Janssens, G P J; de Rooster, H; Polis, I; Peters, I; Ducatelle, R; Nguyen, P; Buyse, J; Rochus, K; Xu, J; Verbrugghe, A; Hesta, M

    2013-10-01

    According to human research, the location of fat accumulation seems to play an important role in the induction of obesity-related inflammatory complications. To evaluate whether an inflammatory response to obesity depends on adipose tissue location, adipokine gene expression, presence of immune cells and adipocyte cell size of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were compared between lean and obese cats. Additionally, the present study proposes the cat as a model for human obesity and highlights the importance of animal models for human research. A total of ten chronically obese and ten lean control cats were included in the present study. Body weight, body condition score and body composition were determined. T-lymphocyte, B-lymphocyte, macrophage concentrations and adipocyte cell size were measured in adipose tissue at different locations. Serum leptin concentration and the mRNA expression of leptin and adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, chemoligand-5, IL-8, TNF-alpha, interferon-gamma, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured in blood and adipose tissues (abdominal and inguinal SAT, and omental, bladder and renal VAT). Feline obesity was characterised by increased adipocyte cell size and altered adipokine gene expression, in favour of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Consequently, concentration of T-lymphocytes was increased in the adipose tissue of obese cats. Alteration of adipose tissue was location dependent in both lean and obese cats. Moreover, the observed changes were more prominent in SAT compared with VAT.

  17. A PYY Q62P variant linked to human obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Kavaslar, Nihan; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewska,Anna; Collier, John Michael; Hebert, Sybil; Doelle, Heather; Dent,Robert; Pennacchio, Len A.; McPherson, Ruth

    2005-06-27

    Members of the pancreatic polypeptide family and the irreceptors have been implicated in the control of food intake in rodents and humans. To investigate whether nucleotide changes in these candidate genes result in abnormal weight in humans, we sequenced the coding exons and splice sites of seven family members (NPY, PYY, PPY, NPY1R, NPY2R, NPY4R, and NPY5R) in a large cohort of extremely obese (n=379) and lean (n=378) individuals. In total we found eleven rare non-synonymous variants, four of which exhibited familial segregation, NPY1R L53P and PPY P63L with leanness and NPY2R D42G and PYY Q62P with obesity. Functional analysis of the obese variants revealed NPY2R D42G to have reduced cell surface expression, while previous cell culture based studies indicated variant PYY Q62P to have altered receptor binding selectivity and we show that it fails to reduce food intake through mouse peptide injection experiments. These results support that rare non-synonymous variants within these genes can alter susceptibility to human body mass index extremes.

  18. Adipocyte lipases and defect of lipolysis in human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langin, Dominique; Dicker, Andrea; Tavernier, Geneviève; Hoffstedt, Johan; Mairal, Aline; Rydén, Mikael; Arner, Erik; Sicard, Audrey; Jenkins, Christopher M; Viguerie, Nathalie; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Gross, Richard W; Holm, Cecilia; Arner, Peter

    2005-11-01

    The mobilization of fat stored in adipose tissue is mediated by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and the recently characterized adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), yet their relative importance in lipolysis is unknown. We show that a novel potent inhibitor of HSL does not inhibit other lipases. The compound counteracted catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis in mouse adipocytes and had no effect on residual triglyceride hydrolysis and lipolysis in HSL-null mice. In human adipocytes, catecholamine- and natriuretic peptide-induced lipolysis were completely blunted by the HSL inhibitor. When fat cells were not stimulated, glycerol but not fatty acid release was inhibited. HSL and ATGL mRNA levels increased concomitantly during adipocyte differentiation. Abundance of the two transcripts in human adipose tissue was highly correlated in habitual dietary conditions and during a hypocaloric diet, suggesting common regulatory mechanisms for the two genes. Comparison of obese and nonobese subjects showed that obesity was associated with a decrease in catecholamine-induced lipolysis and HSL expression in mature fat cells and in differentiated preadipocytes. In conclusion, HSL is the major lipase for catecholamine- and natriuretic peptide-stimulated lipolysis, whereas ATGL mediates the hydrolysis of triglycerides during basal lipolysis. Decreased catecholamine-induced lipolysis and low HSL expression constitute a possibly primary defect in obesity. PMID:16249444

  19. Mapping and annotating obesity-related genes in pig and human genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Pier Luigi; Fontanesi, Luca; Piovesan, Damiano; Fariselli, Piero; Casadio, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Background. Obesity is a major health problem in both developed and emerging countries. Obesity is a complex disease whose etiology involves genetic factors in strong interplay with environmental determinants and lifestyle. The discovery of genetic factors and biological pathways underlying human obesity is hampered by the difficulty in controlling the genetic background of human cohorts. Animal models are then necessary to further dissect the genetics of obesity. Pig has emerged as one of the most attractive models, because of the similarity with humans in the mechanisms regulating the fat deposition. Results. We collected the genes related to obesity in humans and to fat deposition traits in pig. We localized them on both human and pig genomes, building a map useful to interpret comparative studies on obesity. We characterized the collected genes structurally and functionally with BAR+ and mapped them on KEGG pathways and on STRING protein interaction network. Conclusions. The collected set consists of 361 obesity related genes in human and pig genomes. All genes were mapped on the human genome, and 54 could not be localized on the pig genome (release 2012). Only for 3 human genes there is no counterpart in pig, confirming that this animal is a good model for human obesity studies. Obesity related genes are mostly involved in regulation and signaling processes/pathways and relevant connection emerges between obesity-related genes and diseases such as cancer and infectious diseases.

  20. Similar Adiponectin Levels in Obese Normotensive and Obese Hypertensive Men and No Vasorelaxant Effect of Adiponectin on Human Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Rasmus; Asferg, Camilla; Berg, Jais O;

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for hypertension, but the mechanism linking obesity to hypertension is not fully elucidated. In obesity, circulating concentrations of adiponectin are decreased and hypoadiponectinaemia has in some but not all studies been associated with increased risk....... In conclusion, obese hypertensive men have similar serum concentrations of adiponectin as obese normotensive men. In combination with the in vitro data, these findings question a pathogenic role of adiponectin in human hypertension....... of hypertension. Due to this inconsistency, we decided to study adiponectin from two aspects in a cross-sectional in vivo study and in an experimental in vitro study. In the cross-sectional study, 103 men with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2) were studied; 63 had 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) ≥ 130...

  1. Obesity and Bariatric Surgery Drive Epigenetic Variation of Spermatozoa in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donkin, Ida; Versteyhe, Soetkin; Ingerslev, Lars R.;

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a heritable disorder, with children of obese fathers at higher risk of developing obesity. Environmental factors epigenetically influence somatic tissues, but the contribution of these factors to the establishment of epigenetic patterns in human gametes is unknown. Here, we hypothesized...... that weight loss remodels the epigenetic signature of spermatozoa in human obesity. Comprehensive profiling of the epigenome of sperm from lean and obese men showed similar histone positioning, but small non-coding RNA expression and DNA methylation patterns were markedly different. In a separate cohort...

  2. Comparative analyses of QTLs influencing obesity and metabolic phenotypes in pigs and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pant, Sameer Dinkar; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Jacobsen, Mette Juul;

    2015-01-01

    in different populations. Several important genes previously associated to obesity in human studies, along with novel genes were identified. Altogether, this study provides novel insight that may further the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying human obesity.......The pig is a well-known animal model used to investigate genetic and mechanistic aspects of human disease biology. They are particularly useful in the context of obesity and metabolic diseases because other widely used models (e.g. mice) do not completely recapitulate key pathophysiological...... features associated with these diseases in humans. Therefore, we established a F2 pig resource population (n = 564) designed to elucidate the genetics underlying obesity and metabolic phenotypes. Segregation of obesity traits was ensured by using breeds highly divergent with respect to obesity traits...

  3. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obese, follow an unhealthy diet, and have an eating disorder all at the same time. Sometimes, medical problems or treatments cause weight gain, including: Underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) Medicines such ...

  4. Three-dimensional surface imaging system for assessing human obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bugao; Yu, Wurong; Yao, Ming; Pepper, M. Reese; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H.

    2009-10-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity suggests a need to develop a convenient, reliable, and economical tool for assessment of this condition. Three-dimensional (3-D) body surface imaging has emerged as an exciting technology for the estimation of body composition. We present a new 3-D body imaging system, which is designed for enhanced portability, affordability, and functionality. In this system, stereo vision technology is used to satisfy the requirement for a simple hardware setup and fast image acquisition. The portability of the system is created via a two-stand configuration, and the accuracy of body volume measurements is improved by customizing stereo matching and surface reconstruction algorithms that target specific problems in 3-D body imaging. Body measurement functions dedicated to body composition assessment also are developed. The overall performance of the system is evaluated in human subjects by comparison to other conventional anthropometric methods, as well as air displacement plethysmography, for body fat assessment.

  5. A 3D surface imaging system for assessing human obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B.; Yu, W.; Yao, M.; Yao, X.; Li, Q.; Pepper, M. R.; Freeland-Graves, J. H.

    2009-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity suggests a need to develop a convenient, reliable and economical tool for assessment of this condition. Three-dimensional (3D) body surface imaging has emerged as an exciting technology for estimation of body composition. This paper presents a new 3D body imaging system, which was designed for enhanced portability, affordability, and functionality. In this system, stereo vision technology was used to satisfy the requirements for a simple hardware setup and fast image acquisitions. The portability of the system was created via a two-stand configuration, and the accuracy of body volume measurements was improved by customizing stereo matching and surface reconstruction algorithms that target specific problems in 3D body imaging. Body measurement functions dedicated to body composition assessment also were developed. The overall performance of the system was evaluated in human subjects by comparison to other conventional anthropometric methods, as well as air displacement plethysmography, for body fat assessment.

  6. Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-01-01

    A new report provides compelling evidence of the high prevalence of overweight and obesity throughout the world. The prevalence has increased since 1980, but at different rates across ages, times and locations. Studies exploring the causes of these differences could aid development of effective...

  7. The Cat as a Model for Human Obesity and Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoenig, Margarethe

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is the most common nutritional disorder of cats and is a risk factor for diabetes. Similar to developments in obese people, obese cats show peripheral tissue insulin resistance and may demonstrate glucose intolerance when challenged with pharmacological amounts of glucose. However, they compensate well for the insulin resistance and do not show elevated glucose concentrations when monitored during their regular daily routine, including postprandial periods. This is possible because ob...

  8. Expression of Obesity Hormone Leptin in Human Colorectal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-chun Cong; Xian-wei Dai; Ming-yang Shen; Jun-jiang Wang; Chun-sheng Chen; Hong Zhang; Lei Qiao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The obesity hormone, leptin, has been found to participate in the development and proliferation of normal and malignant tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of leptin in human colorectal cancer.Methods: Serum leptin levels were measured via ABC-ELLSA in 30 colorectal cancers and 24 normal controls. Leptin concentration in colorectal cancer was analyzed in terms of selected clinicopathological features and some oncogenes.Results: The mean concentration of leptin was significantly higher for colorectal cancers(3.54±1.46 ng/ml) than normal controls(2.27±0.99 ng/ml), no gender difference was observed in this study. Leptin expression in poorly differentiated tumors was obviously lower than those in moderately and well differentiated tumors. There were no statistically significant correlations between leptin and the serum CEA and CA199 in colorectal cancers (P>0.05), and between leptin and the expressions of K-RAS, P53, APC, DCC genes in tumor tissues (P>0.05).Conclusion: Leptin is overexpressed in human colorectal cancer, which is related to the differentiation degrees of the tumor. There is no correlation between leptin expression and chages of oncogenes in colorectal cancers.

  9. The importance of gene-environment interactions in human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddon, Hudson; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Meyre, David

    2016-09-01

    The worldwide obesity epidemic has been mainly attributed to lifestyle changes. However, who becomes obese in an obesity-prone environment is largely determined by genetic factors. In the last 20 years, important progress has been made in the elucidation of the genetic architecture of obesity. In parallel with successful gene identifications, the number of gene-environment interaction (GEI) studies has grown rapidly. This paper reviews the growing body of evidence supporting gene-environment interactions in the field of obesity. Heritability, monogenic and polygenic obesity studies provide converging evidence that obesity-predisposing genes interact with a variety of environmental, lifestyle and treatment exposures. However, some skepticism remains regarding the validity of these studies based on several issues, which include statistical modelling, confounding, low replication rate, underpowered analyses, biological assumptions and measurement precision. What follows in this review includes (1) an introduction to the study of GEI, (2) the evidence of GEI in the field of obesity, (3) an outline of the biological mechanisms that may explain these interaction effects, (4) methodological challenges associated with GEI studies and potential solutions, and (5) future directions of GEI research. Thus far, this growing body of evidence has provided a deeper understanding of GEI influencing obesity and may have tremendous applications in the emerging field of personalized medicine and individualized lifestyle recommendations. PMID:27503943

  10. Obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Callaway, C W

    1987-01-01

    Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complicatio...

  11. Obesity, More than a 'Cosmetic' Problem. Current Knowledge and Future Prospects of Human Obesity Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana; Hasnain, Shahida

    2016-02-01

    Obesity has been designated as a global epidemic by WHO as its prevalence has increased at an alarming rate in the last few decades worldwide. It is a risk factor for diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular problems, etc. The contribution of genes to the development of obesity was confirmed in late twentieth century. The concept of monogenic obesity came with the identification of leptin, and mutations in its gene, followed by the discovery of more single gene mutations. However, the recent explosion of obesity could not be explained on the basis of these rare mutations and it was after the first genome-wide association study in 2007 that made possible the identification of different effect size variants in many candidate and non-candidate genes acting in a quantitative way to add to body weight. These studies laid down the basis for polygenic cause of common forms of obesity. The role of epigenetic regulation in the modulation of energy regulation pathway was another important explanation put forward in the latter half of the past decade. Taking into account the quantitative contribution of different variants has given the concept of obesity risk scoring in order to score individuals into different risk groups so as to decide for treatment options.

  12. The art of targeting gut microbiota for tackling human obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguirre, M.; Venema, K.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been expressed regarding strategies to tackle worldwide obesity because of its accelerated wide spread accompanied with numerous negative effects on health and high costs. Obesity has been traditionally associated with an imbalance in energy consumed when compa

  13. Differential co-expression analysis of obesity-associated networks in human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Walley, A J; Jacobson, P.; Falchi, M.; Bottolo, L.; Andersson, J.C.; Petretto, E; Bonnefond, A.; Vaillant, E; Lecoeur, C; Vatin, V.; Jernas, M; Balding, D; Petteni, M.; Park, Y S; Aitman, T

    2011-01-01

    Objective To use a unique obesity-discordant sib-pair study design to combine differential expression analysis, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) mapping, and a co-expression regulatory network approach in subcutaneous human adipose tissue to identify genes relevant to the obese state. Study design Genome-wide transcript expression in subcutaneous human adipose tissue was measured using Affymetrix U133+2.0 microarrays and genomewide genotyping data was obtained using an Applied Biosy...

  14. Oxidative Stress in Obesity: A Critical Component in Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Marseglia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, a social problem worldwide, is characterized by an increase in body weight that results in excessive fat accumulation. Obesity is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and leads to several diseases, including metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular, fatty liver diseases, and cancer. Growing evidence allows us to understand the critical role of adipose tissue in controlling the physic-pathological mechanisms of obesity and related comorbidities. Recently, adipose tissue, especially in the visceral compartment, has been considered not only as a simple energy depository tissue, but also as an active endocrine organ releasing a variety of biologically active molecules known as adipocytokines or adipokines. Based on the complex interplay between adipokines, obesity is also characterized by chronic low grade inflammation with permanently increased oxidative stress (OS. Over-expression of oxidative stress damages cellular structures together with under-production of anti-oxidant mechanisms, leading to the development of obesity-related complications. The aim of this review is to summarize what is known in the relationship between OS in obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  15. Physiological models of body composition and human obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapses Sue A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The body mass index (BMI is the standard parameter for predicting body fat fraction and for classifying degrees of obesity. Currently available regression equations between BMI and fat are based on 2 or 3 parameter empirical fits and have not been validated for highly obese subjects. We attempt to develop regression relations that are based on realistic models of body composition changes in obesity. These models, if valid, can then be extrapolated to the high fat fraction of the morbidly obese. Methods The analysis was applied to 3 compartment (density and total body water measurements of body fat. The data was collected at the New York Obesity Research Center, Body Composition Unit, as part of ongoing studies. A total of 1356 subjects were included, with a BMI range of 17 to 50 for males and 17 to 65 for females. The body composition model assumes that obese subjects can be represented by the sum of a standard lean reference subject plus an extra weight that has a constant adipose, bone and muscle fraction. Results There is marked age and sex dependence in the relationship between BMI and fat fraction. There was no significant difference among Caucasians, Blacks and Hispanics while Asians had significantly greater fat fraction for the same BMI. A linear relationship between BMI and fat fraction provides a good description for men but overestimates the fat fraction in morbidly obese women for whom a non-linear regression should be used. New regression relations for predicting body fat just from experimental measurements of body density are described that are more accurate then those currently used. From the fits to the experimental BMI and density data, a quantitative description of the bone, adipose and muscle body composition of lean and obese subjects is derived. Conclusion Physiologically realistic models of body composition provide both accurate regression relations and new insights about changes in body composition in

  16. Expression studies of six human obesity-related genes in seven tissues from divergent pig breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirera, S; Jensen, M S; Elbrønd, V S; Moesgaard, S G; Christoffersen, B Ø; Kadarmideen, H N; Skovgaard, K; Bruun, C V; Karlskov-Mortensen, P; Jørgensen, C B; Fredholm, M

    2014-02-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally and has become the cause of several major health risks worldwide. Presently, more than 100 loci have been related to obesity and metabolic traits in humans by genome-wide association studies. The complex genetic architecture behind obesity has triggered a need for the development of better animal models than rodents. The pig has emerged as a very promising biomedical model to study human obesity traits. In this study, we have characterized the expression patterns of six obesity-related genes, leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), fat mass and obesity associated (FTO), neuronal growth regulator 1 (NEGR)1 and adiponectin (ADIPOQ), in seven obesity-relevant tissues (liver; muscle; pancreas; hypothalamus; and retroperitoneal, subcutaneous and mesenteric adipose tissues) in two pig breeds (production pigs and Göttingen minipigs) that deviate phenotypically and genetically from each other with respect to obesity traits. We observe significant differential expression for LEP, LEPR and ADIPOQ in muscle and in all three adipose tissues. Interestingly, in pancreas, LEP expression is only detected in the fat minipigs. FTO shows significant differential expression in all tissues analyzed, and NEGR1 shows significant differential expression in muscle, pancreas, hypothalamus and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The MC4R transcript can be detected only in hypothalamus. In general, the expression profiles of the investigated genes are in accordance with those observed in human studies. Our study shows that both the differences between the investigated breeds and the phenotypic state with respect to obesity/leanness play a large role for differential expression of the obesity-related genes.

  17. The Human Gut Microbiome: A Review of the Effect of Obesity and Surgically Induced Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Timothy E.; Morton, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in parallel genomic processing and computational mapping have been applied to the native human microbial environment to provide a new understanding of the role of the microbiome in health and disease. In particular, studies of the distal gut microbiome have proposed that changes in gut microbiota are related to obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and Western diet. We examined the changes in the distal gut microbiome composition as it relates to the lean and obese phenotypes, part...

  18. Dysfunction of human subcutaneous FAT arterioles in obesity associated or not with Type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Georgescu, Adriana; Popov, Doina; Constantin, Anamaria; Nemecz, Miruna; Alexandru, Nicoleta; Cochior, Daniel; Tudor, Aura

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The present study aimed to examine the effects of obesity and obesity associated with type 2 diabetes on the structure, vascular reactivity, and response to insulin of isolated human subcutaneous fat arterioles; these effects were correlated with the expression of insulin signaling proteins. Research Design and Methods: Periumbilical subcutaneous adipose tissue was explanted at surgery, small arterioles (internal diameter 220 ? 40 mm) were dissected out and inve...

  19. Is it acceptable to use animals to model obese humans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Olsson, I. Anna S.;

    2014-01-01

    studies of obesity's causes and therapies distract attention from preventive efforts. Drawing on both empirical data and moral reasoning, we argue that the relevant attributions of responsibility and claims about distraction are not plausible, and that, therefore, there is no reason to single out the use...

  20. Social sciences and humanities contribution to tackle the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lotte; Sandøe, Peter; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul;

    To address the obesity epidemic, European researchers need to come together to find the best solutions and use their combined knowledge to provide the most innovative research ideas. By gathering more than 50 researchers and stakeholders from around Europe, we took an important step towards...

  1. Functional polymorphism of IL-1 alpha and its potential role in obesity in humans and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Young Um

    Full Text Available Proinflammatory cytokines secreted from adipose tissue contribute to the morbidity associated with obesity. IL-1α is one of the proinflammatory cytokines; however, it has not been clarified whether IL-1α may also cause obesity. In this study, we investigated whether polymorphisms in IL-1α contribute to human obesity. A total of 260 obese subjects were genotyped for IL-1α C-889T (rs1800587 and IL-1α G+4845T (rs17561. Analyses of genotype distributions revealed that both IL-1α polymorphisms C-889T (rs1800587 and G+4845T (rs17561 were associated with an increase in body mass index in obese healthy women. In addition, the effect of rs1800587 on the transcriptional activity of IL-1α was explored in pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. Significant difference was found between the rs1800587 polymorphism in the regulatory region of the IL-1α gene and transcriptional activity. We extended these observations in vivo to a high-fat diet-induced obese mouse model and in vitro to pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. IL-1α levels were dramatically augmented in obese mice, and triglyceride was increased 12 hours after IL-1α injection. Taken together, IL-1α treatment regulated the differentiation of preadipocytes. IL-1α C-889T (rs1800587 is a functional polymorphism of IL-1α associated with obesity. IL-1α may have a critical function in the development of obesity.

  2. Argument for a non-linear relationship between severity of human obesity and dopaminergic tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, A; Fenske, W K; Hankir, M K

    2015-10-01

    Alterations in the dopaminergic system have been implicated in both animal and human obesity. However, to date, a comprehensive model on the nature and functional relevance of this relationship is missing. In particular, human data remain equivocal in that seemingly inconsistent reports exist of positive, negative or even no relationships between dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the striatum and measures of obesity. Further, data on receptor availability have been commonly interpreted as reflecting receptor density, despite the possibility of an alternative interpretation, namely alterations in the basal levels of endogenous dopaminergic tone. Here, we provide a unifying framework that is able to explain the seemingly contradictory findings and offer an alternative and novel perspective on existing data. In particular, we suggest (i) a quadratic relationship between alterations in the dopaminergic system and degree of obesity, and (ii) that the observed alterations are driven by shifts in the balance between general dopaminergic tone and phasic dopaminergic signalling. The proposed model consistently integrates human data on molecular and behavioural characteristics of overweight and obesity. Further, the model provides a mechanistic framework accounting not only for the consistent observation of altered (food) reward-responsivity but also for the differences in reinforcement learning, decision-making behaviour and cognitive performance associated with measures of obesity. PMID:26098597

  3. Stigmatization of obese individuals by human resource professionals: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giel Katrin E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight-related stigmatization is a public health problem. It impairs the psychological well-being of obese individuals and hinders them from adopting weight-loss behaviors. We conducted an experimental study to investigate weight stigmatization in work settings using a sample of experienced human resource (HR professionals from a real-life employment setting. Methods In a cross-sectional, computer-based experimental study, a volunteer sample of 127 HR professionals (age: 41.1 ± 10.9 yrs., 56% female, who regularly make career decisions about other people, evaluated individuals shown in standardized photographs regarding work-related prestige and achievements. The photographed individuals differed with respect to gender, ethnicity, and Body Mass Index (BMI. Results Participants underestimated the occupational prestige of obese individuals and overestimated it for normal-weight individuals. Obese people were more often disqualified from being hired and less often nominated for a supervisory position, while non-ethnic normal-weight individuals were favored. Stigmatization was most pronounced in obese females. Conclusions The data suggest that HR professionals are prone to pronounced weight stigmatization, especially in women. This highlights the need for interventions targeting this stigmatization as well as stigma-management strategies for obese individuals. Weight stigmatization and its consequences needs to be a topic that is more strongly addressed in clinical obesity care.

  4. Effect of repeated US stimulation on adiponectin secretion by adipocytes of obese human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yasutomo; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Satoh, Masaaki; Irie, Takasuke; Itoh, Kouichi

    2006-05-01

    To clarify the effect of the repeated sonication on the adiponectin secretion by adipocytes obtained from obese subjects. Using 1-MHz continuous-wave ultrasound at an intensity of 0.50 or 2.1 W/cm2, we sonicated culture flasks of subcutaneous adipocytes obtained from obese human subjects, in a series of 3 sessions of US stimulation applied for a daily total of 15 min. For the measurement of adiponectin secretion, 50 μl of the culture medium was collected from each flask every 24 h after the 1st stimulation. Quantification of adiponectin protein levels in cell culture supernatants was performed with a commercially available ELISA kit recommended by the manufacturer. The adiponectin concentrations in the culture medium of the US stimulation groups rose significantly (padiponectin secretion in obese human adipocytes.

  5. An F2 pig resource population as a model for genetic studies of obesity and obesity-related diseases in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette; Kadarmideen, Haja; Mark, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a rising worldwide public health problem. Difficulties to precisely measure various obesity traits and the genetic heterogeneity in human have been major impediments to completely disentangle genetic factors causing obesity. The pig is a relevant model for studying human obesity...... showed strong genetic correlations with slaughter traits (e.g. rg between abdominal circumference and leaf fat at slaughtering: 0.66). Genetic correlations between fat-related traits and the glucose level vary between 0.35 and 0.74 and show a strong correlation between adipose tissue and impaired glucose...... metabolism. Our power calculations showed a minimum of 80% power for QTL detection for all phenotypes. We revealed genetic correlations at population level, for the first time, for several difficult to measure and novel OOR traits and diseases. The results underpin the potential of the established F2 pig...

  6. Lack of support for the association between GAD2 polymorphisms and severe human obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Swarbrick

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The demonstration of association between common genetic variants and chronic human diseases such as obesity could have profound implications for the prediction, prevention, and treatment of these conditions. Unequivocal proof of such an association, however, requires independent replication of initial positive findings. Recently, three (-243 A>G, +61450 C>A, and +83897 T>A single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within glutamate decarboxylase 2 (GAD2 were found to be associated with class III obesity (body mass index > 40 kg/m2. The association was observed among 188 families (612 individuals segregating the condition, and a case-control study of 575 cases and 646 lean controls. Functional data supporting a pathophysiological role for one of the SNPs (-243 A>G were also presented. The gene GAD2 encodes the 65-kDa subunit of glutamic acid decarboxylase-GAD65. In the present study, we attempted to replicate this association in larger groups of individuals, and to extend the functional studies of the -243 A>G SNP. Among 2,359 individuals comprising 693 German nuclear families with severe, early-onset obesity, we found no evidence for a relationship between the three GAD2 SNPs and obesity, whether SNPs were studied individually or as haplotypes. In two independent case-control studies (a total of 680 class III obesity cases and 1,186 lean controls, there was no significant relationship between the -243 A>G SNP and obesity (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.83-1.18, p = 0.89 in the pooled sample. These negative findings were recapitulated in a meta-analysis, incorporating all published data for the association between the -243G allele and class III obesity, which yielded an OR of 1.11 (95% CI 0.90-1.36, p = 0.28 in a total sample of 1,252 class III obese cases and 1,800 lean controls. Moreover, analysis of common haplotypes encompassing the GAD2 locus revealed no association with severe obesity in families with the condition. We also obtained functional data for the

  7. Human obesity and insulin resistance: lessons from experiments of nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rahilly, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The past decade or so has seen the adipocyte catapulted from a position of relative obscurity onto the centre stage of biomedical science. Having long been viewed largely as a passive storage depot for energy in times of plenty and a fuel reservoir called upon in times of need, the discovery that the adipocyte is an active participant in the control mechanisms for both energy balance and intermediary metabolism represents one of the most stunning paradigm shifts in modern mammalian biology. The normal control of energy homeostasis is now known to be highly dependent on the adipocyte-secreted hormone, leptin. Defects in the leptin signalling pathway, both inherited and acquired, are now known to contribute to the important clinical problem of obesity. Dysfunction of adipocytes, in both obesity and lipodystrophies, is now considered to be critically involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The range of metabolites, steroids and bioactive peptides now known to be actively produced by adipocytes and influencing organs as diverse as brain, muscle, liver and pancreatic islet has increased dramatically. Our understanding of how these are co-ordinated to regulate normal metabolism and are dysregulated in metabolic disease is still in its infancy. However what is clear is that the adipocyte, until recently the 'Cinderella Cell' of metabolism, has rapidly become the 'Belle of the Ball'. PMID:18269171

  8. Human obesity associated with an intronic SNP in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in energy balance. In population studies, SNPs of the BDNF locus have been linked to obesity, but the mechanism by which these variants cause weight gain is unknown. Here, we examined human hypothalamic BDNF expression in association with 44 ...

  9. Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract reduces body weight and fat mass in obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P bioimpedance method: -0.51 ± 1.89 kg vs -2.38 ± 2.30 kg, P < .05; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: 0.38 ± 1.59 kg vs -2.26 ± 2.37 kg, P < .05). Changes in lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c did not differ between the 2 groups. No drug-related adverse events were observed during the study. In conclusion, ASE significantly decreases body weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity. PMID:27333958

  10. Human muscle fiber type-specific insulin signaling: Impact of obesity and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Peter Hjorth; Pedersen, Andreas J T; Birk, Jesper Bratz;

    2015-01-01

    /or metabolic enzymes. Pools of type I and II fibers were prepared from biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscles from lean, obese and type 2 diabetic subjects before and after a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Type I fibers compared to type II fibers have higher protein levels of the insulin receptor, GLUT4......-responses to insulin adjusted for protein level were not different between fiber types. Independently of fiber type, insulin signaling was similar (TBC1D1, GS and PDH-E1α) or decreased (Akt and TBC1D4) in muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes compared to lean and obese subjects. We conclude that human type I...

  11. A Mouse Model for the Metabolic Effects of the Human Fat Mass and Obesity Associated FTO Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Church; Sheena Lee; Bagg, Eleanor A. L.; James S McTaggart; Robert Deacon; Thomas Gerken; Angela Lee; Lee Moir; Jasmin Mecinović; Mohamed M. Quwailid; Christopher J. Schofield; Ashcroft, Frances M.; Cox, Roger D.

    2009-01-01

    Human FTO gene variants are associated with body mass index and type 2 diabetes. Because the obesity-associated SNPs are intronic, it is unclear whether changes in FTO expression or splicing are the cause of obesity or if regulatory elements within intron 1 influence upstream or downstream genes. We tested the idea that FTO itself is involved in obesity. We show that a dominant point mutation in the mouse Fto gene results in reduced fat mass, increased energy expenditure, and unchanged physic...

  12. SIRT3 Deficiency Induces Endothelial Insulin Resistance and Blunts Endothelial-Dependent Vasorelaxation in Mice and Human with Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Yang; Julei Zhang; Wenjuan Xing; Xing Zhang; Jie Xu; Haifeng Zhang; Li Chen; Xiaona Ning; Gang Ji; Jia Li; Qingchuan Zhao; Feng Gao

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates the critical role of Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) in the development of many metabolic diseases, but the contribution of SIRT3 to vascular homeostasis remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of SIRT3 in endothelial insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction in obesity. We found an impaired insulin-induced mesenteric vasorelaxation and concomitant reduced vascular SIRT3 expression in morbid obese human subjects compared with the non-obese sub...

  13. DNAJB3/HSP-40 cochaperone is downregulated in obese humans and is restored by physical exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehad Abubaker

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major risk factor for a myriad of disorders such as insulin resistance and diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these chronic conditions are complex but low grade inflammation and alteration of the endogenous stress defense system are well established. Previous studies indicated that impairment of HSP-25 and HSP-72 was linked to obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes in humans and animals while their induction was associated with improved clinical outcomes. In an attempt to identify additional components of the heat shock response that may be dysregulated by obesity, we used the RT(2-Profiler PCR heat shock array, complemented with RT-PCR and validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Using adipose tissue biopsies and PBMC of non-diabetic lean and obese subjects, we report the downregulation of DNAJB3 cochaperone mRNA and protein in obese that negatively correlated with percent body fat (P = 0.0001, triglycerides (P = 0.035 and the inflammatory chemokines IP-10 and RANTES (P = 0.036 and P = 0.02, respectively. DNAJB positively correlated with maximum oxygen consumption (P = 0.031. Based on the beneficial effect of physical exercise, we investigated its possible impact on DNAJB3 expression and indeed, we found that exercise restored the expression of DNAJB3 in obese subjects with a concomitant decrease of phosphorylated JNK. Using cell lines, DNAJB3 protein was reduced following treatment with palmitate and tunicamycin which is suggestive of the link between the expression of DNAJB3 and the activation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress. DNAJB3 was also shown to coimmunoprecipiate with JNK and IKKβ stress kinases along with HSP-72 and thus, suggesting its potential role in modulating their activities. Taken together, these data suggest that DNAJB3 can potentially play a protective role against obesity.

  14. Striatal dopamine D2-like receptor correlation patterns with human obesity and opportunistic eating behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juen; Simmons, W. Kyle; Herscovitch, Peter; Martin, Alex; Hall, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is believed to be driven by a food environment that promotes consumption of inexpensive, convenient, high-calorie, palatable foods. Individual differences in obesity susceptibility or resistance to weight loss may arise due to alterations in the neurocircuitry supporting food reward and eating habits. In particular, dopamine signaling in the ventromedial striatum is thought to encode food reward and motivation, whereas dopamine in the dorsal and lateral striatum orchestrates the development of eating habits. We measured striatal dopamine D2-like receptor binding potential (D2BP) using positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]fallypride in 43 human subjects with body mass indices (BMI) ranging from 18–45 kg/m2. Opportunistic eating behavior and BMI were both positively associated with D2BP in the dorsal and lateral striatum, whereas BMI was negatively associated with D2BP in the ventromedial striatum. These results suggest that obese people have alterations in dopamine neurocircuitry that may increase their susceptibility to opportunistic overeating while at the same time making food intake less rewarding, less goal-directed, and more habitual. Whether or not the observed neurocircuitry alterations pre-existed or occurred as a result of obesity development, they may perpetuate obesity given the omnipresence of palatable foods and their associated cues. PMID:25199919

  15. Enteropeptidase: a gene associated with a starvation human phenotype and a novel target for obesity treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Braud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity research focuses essentially on gene targets associated with the obese phenotype. None of these targets have yet provided a viable drug therapy. Focusing instead on genes that are involved in energy absorption and that are associated with a "human starvation phenotype", we have identified enteropeptidase (EP, a gene associated with congenital enteropeptidase deficiency, as a novel target for obesity treatment. The advantages of this target are that the gene is expressed exclusively in the brush border of the intestine; it is peripheral and not redundant. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Potent and selective EP inhibitors were designed around a boroarginine or borolysine motif. Oral administration of these compounds to mice restricted the bioavailability of dietary energy, and in a long-term treatment it significantly diminished the rate of increase in body weight, despite ad libitum food intake. No adverse reactions of the type seen with lipase inhibitors, such as diarrhea or steatorrhea, were observed. This validates EP as a novel, druggable target for obesity treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In vivo testing of novel boroarginine or borolysine-based EP inhibitors validates a novel approach to the treatment of obesity.

  16. 21 CFR 250.11 - Thyroid-containing drug preparations intended for treatment of obesity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... condition is directly related to hypothyroidism and there exists a concurrent need for appetite control (in... obesity not related to hypothyroidism are regarded as misbranded. Such combinations when offered for obesity in humans directly attributable to established hypothyroidism are regarded as new drugs within...

  17. Effect of Bariatric Weight Loss on the Adipose Lipolytic Transcriptome in Obese Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakun Karki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dysregulated lipolysis has been implicated in mechanisms of cardiometabolic disease and inflammation in obesity. Purpose. We sought to examine the effect of bariatric weight loss on adipose tissue lipolytic gene expression and their relationship to systemic metabolic parameters in obese subjects. Methods/Results. We biopsied subcutaneous adipose tissue in 19 obese individuals (BMI 42 ± 5 kg/m2, 79% female at baseline and after a mean period of 8 ± 5 months (range 3–15 months following bariatric surgery. We performed adipose tissue mRNA expression of proteins involved in triglyceride hydrolysis and correlated their weight loss induced alterations with systemic parameters associated with cardiovascular disease risk. mRNA transcripts of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, and lipid droplet proteins comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58 and perilipin increased significantly after weight loss (p<0.05 for all. ATGL expression correlated inversely with plasma triglyceride (TG, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C, and glucose, and HSL expression correlated negatively with glucose, while CGI-58 was inversely associated with HbA1C. Conclusion. We observed increased expression of adipose tissue lipolytic genes following bariatric weight loss which correlated inversely with systemic markers of lipid and glucose metabolism. Functional alterations in lipolysis in human adipose tissue may play a role in shaping cardiometabolic phenotypes in human obesity.

  18. An integrated approach of comparative genomics and heritability analysis of pig and human on obesity trait: evidence for candidate genes on human chromosome 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional candidate gene approach has been widely used for the study of complex diseases including obesity. However, this approach is largely limited by its dependence on existing knowledge of presumed biology of the phenotype under investigation. Our combined strategy of comparative genomics and chromosomal heritability estimate analysis of obesity traits, subscapular skinfold thickness and back-fat thickness in Korean cohorts and pig (Sus scrofa), may overcome the limitations of candidate gene analysis and allow us to better understand genetic predisposition to human obesity. Results We found common genes including FTO, the fat mass and obesity associated gene, identified from significant SNPs by association studies of each trait. These common genes were related to blood pressure and arterial stiffness (P = 1.65E-05) and type 2 diabetes (P = 0.00578). Through the estimation of variance of genetic component (heritability) for each chromosome by SNPs, we observed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.479) between genetic contributions of human and pig to obesity traits. Furthermore, we noted that human chromosome 2 (syntenic to pig chromosomes 3 and 15) was most important in explaining the phenotypic variance for obesity. Conclusions Obesity genetics still awaits further discovery. Navigating syntenic regions suggests obesity candidate genes on chromosome 2 that are previously known to be associated with obesity-related diseases: MRPL33, PARD3B, ERBB4, STK39, and ZNF385B. PMID:23253381

  19. An integrated approach of comparative genomics and heritability analysis of pig and human on obesity trait: evidence for candidate genes on human chromosome 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jaemin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional candidate gene approach has been widely used for the study of complex diseases including obesity. However, this approach is largely limited by its dependence on existing knowledge of presumed biology of the phenotype under investigation. Our combined strategy of comparative genomics and chromosomal heritability estimate analysis of obesity traits, subscapular skinfold thickness and back-fat thickness in Korean cohorts and pig (Sus scrofa, may overcome the limitations of candidate gene analysis and allow us to better understand genetic predisposition to human obesity. Results We found common genes including FTO, the fat mass and obesity associated gene, identified from significant SNPs by association studies of each trait. These common genes were related to blood pressure and arterial stiffness (P = 1.65E-05 and type 2 diabetes (P = 0.00578. Through the estimation of variance of genetic component (heritability for each chromosome by SNPs, we observed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.479 between genetic contributions of human and pig to obesity traits. Furthermore, we noted that human chromosome 2 (syntenic to pig chromosomes 3 and 15 was most important in explaining the phenotypic variance for obesity. Conclusions Obesity genetics still awaits further discovery. Navigating syntenic regions suggests obesity candidate genes on chromosome 2 that are previously known to be associated with obesity-related diseases: MRPL33, PARD3B, ERBB4, STK39, and ZNF385B.

  20. Genetics of Adiposity in Large Animal Models for Human Obesity-Studies on Pigs and Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, M; Szczerbal, I; Switonski, M

    2016-01-01

    The role of domestic mammals in the development of human biomedical sciences has been widely documented. Among these model species the pig and dog are of special importance. Both are useful for studies on the etiology of human obesity. Genome sequences of both species are known and advanced genetic tools [eg, microarray SNP for genome wide association studies (GWAS), next generation sequencing (NGS), etc.] are commonly used in such studies. In the domestic pig the accumulation of adipose tissue is an important trait, which influences meat quality and fattening efficiency. Numerous quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for pig fatness traits were identified, while gene polymorphisms associated with these traits were also described. The situation is different in dog population. Generally, excessive accumulation of adipose tissue is considered, similar to humans, as a complex disease. However, research on the genetic background of canine obesity is still in its infancy. Between-breed differences in terms of adipose tissue accumulation are well known in both animal species. In this review we show recent advances of studies on adipose tissue accumulation in pigs and dogs, and their potential importance for studies on human obesity. PMID:27288831

  1. Obesity and Low-Grade Inflammation Increase Plasma Follistatin-Like 3 in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Claus; Pedersen, Maria; Rinnov, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rodent models suggest that follistatin-like 3 (fstl3) is associated with diabetes and obesity. In humans, plasma fstl3 is reduced with gestational diabetes. In vitro, TNF-α induces fstl3 secretion, which suggests a link to inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the association between...... plasma fstl3 and obesity, insulin resistance, and low-grade inflammation in humans. STUDY DESIGN: Plasma fstl3 levels were determined in a cross-sectional study including three groups: patients with type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and healthy controls. In addition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS...... and associated with fat mass and low-grade inflammation. Furthermore, TNF-α increased plasma fstl3, suggesting that TNF-α is one of the inflammatory drivers of increased systemic levels of fstl3....

  2. Serum Autotaxin/ENPP2 Correlates with Insulin Resistance in Older Humans with Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, Valerie L.; Trybula, Joy S.; Wills, Rachel C.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Dubé, John J.; Kienesberger, Petra C; Kershaw, Erin E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Autotaxin (ATX) is an adipocyte-derived lysophospholipase D that generates the lipid signaling molecule lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). The ATX/LPA pathway in adipose tissue has recently been implicated in obesity and insulin resistance in animal models, but the role of circulating ATX in humans remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between serum ATX and insulin resistance. Methods In this retrospective study, older (60–75 years), non-diabetic ...

  3. Different Roles of Mast Cells in Obesity and Diabetes: Lessons from Experimental Animals and Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Michael A.; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) play an important role in allergic hyperresponsiveness and in defending microorganism infections. Recent studies of experimental animals and humans have suggested that MCs participate in obesity and diabetes. MC distribution and activities in adipose tissues may vary, depending on the locations of different adipose tissues. In addition to releasing inflammatory mediators to affect adipose tissue extracellular matrix remodeling and to promote inflammatory cell recruitment and ...

  4. Food and drug reward: overlapping circuits in human obesity and addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both drug addiction and obesity can be defined as disorders in which the saliency value of one type of reward (drugs and food, respectively) becomes abnormally enhanced relative to, and at the expense of others. This model is consistent with the fact that both drugs and food have powerful reinforcing effects - partly mediated by dopamine increases in the limbic system - that, under certain circumstances or in vulnerable individuals, could overwhelm the brain's homeostatic control mechanisms. Such parallels have generated significant interest in understanding the shared vulnerabilities and trajectories between addiction and obesity. Now, brain imaging discoveries have started to uncover common features between these two conditions and to delineate some of the overlapping brain circuits whose dysfunctions may explain stereotypic and related behavioral deficits in human subjects. These results suggest that both obese and drug addicted individuals suffer from impairments in dopaminergic pathways that regulate neuronal systems associated not only with reward sensitivity and incentive motivation, but also with conditioning (memory/learning), impulse control (behavioral inhibition), stress reactivity and interoceptive awareness. Here, we integrate findings predominantly derived from positron emission tomography that investigate the role of dopamine in drug addiction and in obesity and propose an updated working model to help identify treatment strategies that may benefit both of these conditions.

  5. Food and drug reward: overlapping circuits in human obesity and addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow N. D.; Wang G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Baler, R.

    2012-12-01

    Both drug addiction and obesity can be defined as disorders in which the saliency value of one type of reward (drugs and food, respectively) becomes abnormally enhanced relative to, and at the expense of others. This model is consistent with the fact that both drugs and food have powerful reinforcing effects - partly mediated by dopamine increases in the limbic system - that, under certain circumstances or in vulnerable individuals, could overwhelm the brain's homeostatic control mechanisms. Such parallels have generated significant interest in understanding the shared vulnerabilities and trajectories between addiction and obesity. Now, brain imaging discoveries have started to uncover common features between these two conditions and to delineate some of the overlapping brain circuits whose dysfunctions may explain stereotypic and related behavioral deficits in human subjects. These results suggest that both obese and drug addicted individuals suffer from impairments in dopaminergic pathways that regulate neuronal systems associated not only with reward sensitivity and incentive motivation, but also with conditioning (memory/learning), impulse control (behavioral inhibition), stress reactivity and interoceptive awareness. Here, we integrate findings predominantly derived from positron emission tomography that investigate the role of dopamine in drug addiction and in obesity and propose an updated working model to help identify treatment strategies that may benefit both of these conditions.

  6. The evolution of human adiposity and obesity: where did it all go wrong?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C. K. Wells

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Because obesity is associated with diverse chronic diseases, little attention has been directed to the multiple beneficial functions of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue not only provides energy for growth, reproduction and immune function, but also secretes and receives diverse signaling molecules that coordinate energy allocation between these functions in response to ecological conditions. Importantly, many relevant ecological cues act on growth and physique, with adiposity responding as a counterbalancing risk management strategy. The large number of individual alleles associated with adipose tissue illustrates its integration with diverse metabolic pathways. However, phenotypic variation in age, sex, ethnicity and social status is further associated with different strategies for storing and using energy. Adiposity therefore represents a key means of phenotypic flexibility within and across generations, enabling a coherent life-history strategy in the face of ecological stochasticity. The sensitivity of numerous metabolic pathways to ecological cues makes our species vulnerable to manipulative globalized economic forces. The aim of this article is to understand how human adipose tissue biology interacts with modern environmental pressures to generate excess weight gain and obesity. The disease component of obesity might lie not in adipose tissue itself, but in its perturbation by our modern industrialized niche. Efforts to combat obesity could be more effective if they prioritized ‘external’ environmental change rather than attempting to manipulate ‘internal’ biology through pharmaceutical or behavioral means.

  7. Imaging methods for analyzing body composition in human obesity and cardiometabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabolt, Lynn A; Welch, E Brian; Silver, Heidi J

    2015-09-01

    Advances in the technological qualities of imaging modalities for assessing human body composition have been stimulated by accumulating evidence that individual components of body composition have significant influences on chronic disease onset, disease progression, treatment response, and health outcomes. Importantly, imaging modalities have provided a systematic method for differentiating phenotypes of body composition that diverge from what is considered normal, that is, having low bone mass (osteopenia/osteoporosis), low muscle mass (sarcopenia), high fat mass (obesity), or high fat with low muscle mass (sarcopenic obesity). Moreover, advances over the past three decades in the sensitivity and quality of imaging not just to discern the amount and distribution of adipose and lean tissue but also to differentiate layers or depots within tissues and cells is enhancing our understanding of distinct mechanistic, metabolic, and functional roles of body composition within human phenotypes. In this review, we focus on advances in imaging technologies that show great promise for future investigation of human body composition and how they are being used to address the pandemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. PMID:26250623

  8. Proteomics analysis of human obesity reveals the epigenetic factor HDAC4 as a potential target for obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abu-Farha

    Full Text Available Sedentary lifestyle and excessive energy intake are prominent contributors to obesity; a major risk factors for the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these chronic conditions is of relevant importance as it might lead to the identification of novel anti-obesity targets. The purpose of the current study is to investigate differentially expressed proteins between lean and obese subjects through a shot-gun quantitative proteomics approach using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs extracts as well as potential modulation of those proteins by physical exercise. Using this approach, a total of 47 proteins showed at least 1.5 fold change between lean and obese subjects. In obese, the proteomic profiling before and after 3 months of physical exercise showed differential expression of 38 proteins. Thrombospondin 1 (TSP1 was among the proteins that were upregulated in obese subjects and then decreased by physical exercise. Conversely, the histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4 was downregulated in obese subjects and then induced by physical exercise. The proteomic data was further validated by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry in both PBMCs and adipose tissue. We also showed that HDAC4 levels correlated positively with maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 Max but negatively with body mass index, percent body fat, and the inflammatory chemokine RANTES. In functional assays, our data indicated that ectopic expression of HDAC4 significantly impaired TNF-α-dependent activation of NF-κB, establishing thus a link between HDAC4 and regulation of the immune system. Together, the expression pattern of HDAC4 in obese subjects before and after physical exercise, its correlation with various physical, clinical and metabolic parameters along with its inhibitory effect on NF-κB are suggestive of a protective role of HDAC4 against obesity. HDAC4 could therefore represent

  9. Obesity-related metabolic dysfunction in dogs: a comparison with human metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tvarijonaviciute Asta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, metabolic syndrome (MS has gained attention in human metabolic medicine given its associations with development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Canine obesity is associated with the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and mild hypertension, but the authors are not aware of any existing studies examining the existence or prevalence of MS in obese dogs. Thirty-five obese dogs were assessed before and after weight loss (median percentage loss 29%, range 10-44%. The diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation were modified in order to define canine obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD, which included a measure of adiposity (using a 9-point body condition score [BCS], systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma cholesterol, plasma triglyceride, and fasting plasma glucose. By way of comparison, total body fat mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, whilst total adiponectin, fasting insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP were measured using validated assays. Results Systolic blood pressure (P = 0.008, cholesterol (P = 0.003, triglyceride (P = 0.018, and fasting insulin (P P = 0.001. However, hsCRP did not change with weight loss. Prior to weight loss, 7 dogs were defined as having ORMD, and there was no difference in total fat mass between these dogs and those who did not meet the criteria for ORMD. However, plasma adiponectin concentration was less (P = 0.031, and plasma insulin concentration was greater (P = 0.030 in ORMD dogs. Conclusions In this study, approximately 20% of obese dogs suffer from ORMD, and this is characterized by hypoadiponectinaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. These studies can form the basis of further investigations to determine path genetic mechanisms and the health significance for dogs, in terms of disease associations and outcomes of weight loss.

  10. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and obesity development in humans: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang-Péronard, J L; Andersen, Helle Raun; Jensen, T K;

    2011-01-01

    This study reviewed the literature on the relations between exposure to chemicals with endocrine-disrupting abilities and obesity in humans. The studies generally indicated that exposure to some of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals was associated with an increase in body size in humans...... dibenzofurans found either associations with weight gain or an increase in waist circumference, or no association. The one study investigating relations with bisphenol A found no association. Studies investigating prenatal exposure indicated that exposure in utero may cause permanent physiological changes...

  11. Effects of Gut Microbiota Manipulation by Antibiotics on Host Metabolism in Obese Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijnders, Dorien; Goossens, Gijs H; Hermes, Gerben D A;

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been implicated in obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, although evidence in humans is scarce. We investigated how gut microbiota manipulation by antibiotics (7-day administration of amoxicillin, vancomycin, or placebo) affects host metabolism in 57 obese, prediabetic men....... Vancomycin, but not amoxicillin, decreased bacterial diversity and reduced Firmicutes involved in short-chain fatty acid and bile acid metabolism, concomitant with altered plasma and/or fecal metabolite concentrations. Adipose tissue gene expression of oxidative pathways was upregulated by antibiotics......, whereas immune-related pathways were downregulated by vancomycin. Antibiotics did not affect tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, energy/substrate metabolism, postprandial hormones and metabolites, systemic inflammation, gut permeability, and adipocyte size. Importantly, energy harvest, adipocyte size...

  12. GAD2 on chromosome 10p12 is a candidate gene for human obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Boutin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The gene GAD2 encoding the glutamic acid decarboxylase enzyme (GAD65 is a positional candidate gene for obesity on Chromosome 10p11-12, a susceptibility locus for morbid obesity in four independent ethnic populations. GAD65 catalyzes the formation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, which interacts with neuropeptide Y in the paraventricular nucleus to contribute to stimulate food intake. A case-control study (575 morbidly obese and 646 control subjects analyzing GAD2 variants identified both a protective haplotype, including the most frequent alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs +61450 C>A and +83897 T>A (OR = 0.81, 95% CI [0.681-0.972], p = 0.0049 and an at-risk SNP (-243 A>G for morbid obesity (OR = 1.3, 95% CI [1.053-1.585], p = 0.014. Furthermore, familial-based analyses confirmed the association with the obesity of SNP +61450 C>A and +83897 T>A haplotype (chi(2 = 7.637, p = 0.02. In the murine insulinoma cell line betaTC3, the G at-risk allele of SNP -243 A>G increased six times GAD2 promoter activity (p G SNP was associated with higher hunger scores (p = 0.007 and disinhibition scores (p = 0.028, as assessed by the Stunkard Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. As GAD2 is highly expressed in pancreatic beta cells, we analyzed GAD65 antibody level as a marker of beta-cell activity and of insulin secretion. In the control group, -243 A>G, +61450 C>A, and +83897 T>A SNPs were associated with lower GAD65 autoantibody levels (p values of 0.003, 0.047, and 0.006, respectively. SNP +83897 T>A was associated with lower fasting insulin and insulin secretion, as assessed by the HOMA-B% homeostasis model of beta-cell function (p = 0.009 and 0.01, respectively. These data support the hypothesis of the orexigenic effect of GABA in humans and of a contribution of genes involved in GABA metabolism in the modulation of food intake and in the development of morbid obesity.

  13. Pathways commonly dysregulated in mouse and human obese adipose tissue: FAT/CD36 modulates differentiation and lipogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, E.; Héraud, S; Mojallal, A; Lequeux, C; Weiss-Gayet, M; Damour, O.; Géloën, A.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is linked to adipose tissue hypertrophy (increased adipocyte cell size) and hyperplasia (increased cell number). Comparative analyses of gene datasets allowed us to identify 1426 genes which may represent common adipose phenotype in humans and mice. Among them we identified several adipocyte-specific genes dysregulated in obese adipose tissue, involved in either fatty acid storage (acyl CoA synthase ACSL1, hormone-sensitive lipase LIPE, aquaporin 7 AQP7, perilipin PLIN) or cell adhesi...

  14. Short-term Cold Acclimation Recruits Brown Adipose Tissue in Obese Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Mark J W; van der Lans, Anouk A J J; Brans, Boudewijn; Hoeks, Joris; Jardon, Kelly M C; Schaart, Gert; Mottaghy, Felix M; Schrauwen, Patrick; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-05-01

    Recruitment of brown adipose tissue (BAT) has emerged as a potential tool to combat obesity and associated metabolic complications. Short-term cold acclimation has been shown not only to enhance the presence and activity of BAT in lean humans but also to improve the metabolic profile of skeletal muscle to benefit glucose uptake in patients with type 2 diabetes. Here we examined whether short-term cold acclimation also induced such adaptations in 10 metabolically healthy obese male subjects. A 10-day cold acclimation period resulted in increased cold-induced glucose uptake in BAT, as assessed by [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. BAT activity was negatively related to age, with a similar trend for body fat percentage. In addition, cold-induced glucose uptake in BAT was positively related to glucose uptake in visceral white adipose tissue, although glucose uptake in visceral and subcutaneous white adipose tissue depots was unchanged upon cold acclimation. Cold-induced skeletal muscle glucose uptake tended to increase upon cold acclimation, which was paralleled by increased basal GLUT4 localization in the sarcolemma, as assessed through muscle biopsies. Proximal skin temperature was increased and subjective responses to cold were slightly improved at the end of the acclimation period. These metabolic adaptations to prolonged exposure to mild cold may lead to improved glucose metabolism or prevent the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. PMID:26718499

  15. Dysregulation of the Peripheral and Adipose Tissue Endocannabinoid System in Human Abdominal Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüher, Matthias; Engeli, Stefan; Klöting, Nora; Berndt, Janin; Fasshauer, Mathias; Bátkai, Sádor; Pacher, Pál; Schön, Michael R.; Jordan, Jens; Stumvoll, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system has been suspected to contribute to the association of visceral fat accumulation with metabolic diseases. We determined whether circulating endocannabinoids are related to visceral adipose tissue mass in lean, subcutaneous obese, and visceral obese subjects (10 men and 10 women in each group). We further measured expression of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes in paired samples of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in all 60 subjects. Circulating 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) was significantly correlated with body fat (r = 0.45, P = 0.03), visceral fat mass (r = 0.44, P = 0.003), and fasting plasma insulin concentrations (r = 0.41, P = 0.001) but negatively correlated to glucose infusion rate during clamp (r = 0.39, P = 0.009). In visceral adipose tissue, CB1 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.32, P = 0.01), fasting insulin (r = 0.48, P < 0.001), and circulating 2-AG (r = 0.5, P < 0.001), whereas FAAH gene expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.39, P = 0.01) and circulating 2-AG (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that abdominal fat accumulation is a critical correlate of the dysregulation of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human obesity. Thus, the endocannabinoid system may represent a primary target for the treatment of abdominal obesity and associated metabolic changes. PMID:17065342

  16. Age-related obesity and type 2 diabetes dysregulate neuronal associated genes and proteins in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mehran; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Daghighi, Mojtaba; Özcan, Behiye; Akbarkhanzadeh, Vishtaseb; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Amini, Marzyeh; Mazza, Tommaso; Pazienza, Valerio; Motazacker, Mahdi M; Mahmoudi, Morteza; De Rooij, Felix W M; Sijbrands, Eric; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Rezaee, Farhad

    2015-10-01

    Despite numerous developed drugs based on glucose metabolism interventions for treatment of age-related diseases such as diabetes neuropathies (DNs), DNs are still increasing in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (T1D, T2D). We aimed to identify novel candidates in adipose tissue (AT) and pancreas with T2D for targeting to develop new drugs for DNs therapy. AT-T2D displayed 15 (e.g. SYT4 up-regulated and VGF down-regulated) and pancreas-T2D showed 10 (e.g. BAG3 up-regulated, VAV3 and APOA1 down-regulated) highly differentially expressed genes with neuronal functions as compared to control tissues. ELISA was blindly performed to measure proteins of 5 most differentially expressed genes in 41 human subjects. SYT4 protein was upregulated, VAV3 and APOA1 were down-regulated, and BAG3 remained unchanged in 1- Obese and 2- Obese-T2D without insulin, VGF protein was higher in these two groups as well as in group 3- Obese-T2D receiving insulin than 4-lean subjects. Interaction networks analysis of these 5 genes showed several metabolic pathways (e.g. lipid metabolism and insulin signaling). Pancreas is a novel site for APOA1 synthesis. VGF is synthesized in AT and could be considered as good diagnostic, and even prognostic, marker for age-induced diseases obesity and T2D. This study provides new targets for rational drugs development for the therapy of age-related DNs.

  17. Circulating Blood Monocyte Subclasses and Lipid-Laden Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Human Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Pecht

    Full Text Available Visceral adipose tissue foam cells are increased in human obesity, and were implicated in adipose dysfunction and increased cardio-metabolic risk. In the circulation, non-classical monocytes (NCM are elevated in obesity and associate with atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that circulating NCM correlate and/or are functionally linked to visceral adipose tissue foam cells in obesity, potentially providing an approach to estimate visceral adipose tissue status in the non-surgical obese patient.We preformed ex-vivo functional studies utilizing sorted monocyte subclasses from healthy donors. Moreover, we assessed circulating blood monocyte subclasses and visceral fat adipose tissue macrophage (ATM lipid content by flow-cytometry in paired blood and omental-fat samples collected from patients (n = 65 undergoing elective abdominal surgery.Ex-vivo, NCM and NCM-derived macrophages exhibited lower lipid accumulation capacity compared to classical or intermediate monocytes/-derived macrophages. Moreover, of the three subclasses, NCM exhibited the lowest migration towards adipose tissue conditioned-media. In a cohort of n = 65, increased %NCM associated with higher BMI (r = 0.250,p<0.05 and ATM lipid content (r = 0.303,p<0.05. Among patients with BMI≥25Kg/m2, linear regression models adjusted for age, sex or BMI revealed that NCM independently associate with ATM lipid content, particularly in men.Collectively, although circulating blood NCM are unlikely direct functional precursor cells for adipose tissue foam cells, their increased percentage in the circulation may clinically reflect higher lipid content in visceral ATMs.

  18. Hyperleptinemia is associated with parameters of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in obese human beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Solís-Lozano, Lourdes; Suárez-Álvarez, Karina; González-Chávez, Antonio; Béjar, Yadira L.; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo; Escobedo, Galileo

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone that has been involved in hypothalamic and systemic inflammation, altered food-intake patterns, and metabolic dysfunction in obese mice. However, it remains unclear whether leptin has a relationship with parameters of systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in humans. We thus evaluated in a cross-sectional study the circulating levels of leptin in 40 non-obese and 41 obese Mexican individuals, examining their relationship with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 12, IL-10, central obesity, serum glucose and insulin levels, and serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. Circulating levels of leptin, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-10, and insulin were measured by ELISA, while concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol were determined by enzymatic assays. As expected, serum levels of leptin exhibited a significant elevation in obese individuals as compared to non-obese subjects, showing a clear association with increased body mass index (r = 0.4173), central obesity (r = 0.4678), and body fat percentage (r = 0.3583). Furthermore, leptin also showed a strong relationship with serum TNF-α (r = 0.6989), IL-12 (r = 0.3093), and IL-10 (r = −0.5691). Interestingly, leptin was also significantly related with high concentrations of fasting glucose (r = 0.5227) and insulin (r = 0.2229), as well as elevated levels of insulin resistance (r = 0.3611) and circulating triglyceride (r = 0.4135). These results suggest that hyperleptinemia is strongly associated with the occurrence of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic alteration in obese subjects. Further clinical research is still needed to determine whether hyperleptinemia may be a potential marker for recognizing the advent of obesity-related metabolic disorders in human beings. PMID:23986664

  19. Hyperleptinemia is associated with parameters of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in obese human beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia eLeon-Cabrera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone that has been involved in hypothalamic and systemic inflammation, altered food-intake patterns, and metabolic dysfunction in obese mice. However, it remains unclear whether leptin has a relationship with parameters of systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in humans. We thus evaluated in a cross-sectional study the circulating levels of leptin in 40 non-obese and 41 obese Mexican individuals, examining their relationship with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a, interleukin (IL 12, IL-10, central obesity, serum glucose and insulin levels, and serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. Circulating levels of leptin, TNF-a, IL-12, IL-10, and insulin were measured by ELISA, while concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol were determined by enzymatic assays. As expected, serum levels of leptin exhibited a significant elevation in obese individuals as compared to non-obese subjects, showing a clear association with increased body mass index (r=0.4173, central obesity (r=0.4678, and body fat percentage (r=0.3583. Furthermore, leptin also showed a strong relationship with serum TNF-a (r=0.6989, IL-12 (r=0.3093, and IL-10 (r=-0.5691. Interestingly, leptin was also significantly related with high concentrations of fasting glucose (r=0.5227 and insulin (r=0.2229, as well as elevated levels of insulin resistance (r=0.3611 and circulating triglyceride (r=0.4135. These results suggest that hyperleptinemia is strongly associated with the occurrence of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic alteration in obese subjects. Further clinical research is still needed to determine whether hyperleptinemia may be a potential marker for recognizing the advent of obesity-related metabolic disorders in human beings.

  20. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for twelve weeks increases lean body mass in obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Susan E; Chalecki, Allison M; Miller, Paul; Conway, Jason; Austin, Gregory L; Hardin, James W; Albright, Craig D; Thuillier, Philippe

    2007-05-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) alters body composition in animal models, but few studies have examined the effects of CLA supplementation on body composition and clinical safety measures in obese humans. In the present study, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine the changes in body composition and clinical laboratory values following CLA (50:50 ratio of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers) supplementation for 12 wk in otherwise healthy obese humans. Forty-eight participants (13 males and 35 females) were randomized to receive placebo (8 g safflower oil/d), 3.2 g/d CLA, or 6.4 g/d CLA for 12 wk. Changes in body fat mass and lean body mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Resting energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry. Clinical laboratory values and adverse-event reporting were used to monitor safety. Lean body mass increased by 0.64 kg in the 6.4 g/d CLA group (P < 0.05) after 12 wk of intervention. Significant decreases in serum HDL-cholesterol and sodium, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and significant increases in serum alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, and IL-6, and white blood cells occurred in the 6.4 g/d CLA group, although all values remained within normal limits. The intervention was well tolerated and no severe adverse events were reported, although mild gastrointestinal adverse events were reported in all treatment groups. In conclusion, whereas CLA may increase lean body mass in obese humans, it may also increase markers of inflammation in the short term.

  1. Physical Exercise Reduces the Expression of RANTES and Its CCR5 Receptor in the Adipose Tissue of Obese Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Baturcam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available RANTES and its CCR5 receptor trigger inflammation and its progression to insulin resistance in obese. In the present study, we investigated for the first time the effect of physical exercise on the expression of RANTES and CCR5 in obese humans. Fifty-seven adult nondiabetic subjects (17 lean and 40 obese were enrolled in a 3-month supervised physical exercise. RANTES and CCR5 expressions were measured in PBMCs and subcutaneous adipose tissue before and after exercise. Circulating plasma levels of RANTES were also investigated. There was a significant increase in RANTES and CCR5 expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese compared to lean. In PBMCs, however, while the levels of RANTES mRNA and protein were comparable between both groups, CCR5 mRNA was downregulated in obese subjects (P<0.05. Physical exercise significantly reduced the expression of both RANTES and CCR5 (P<0.05 in the adipose tissue of obese individuals with a concomitant decrease in the levels of the inflammatory markers TNF-α, IL-6, and P-JNK. Circulating RANTES correlated negatively with anti-inflammatory IL-1ra (P=0.001 and positively with proinflammatory IP-10 and TBARS levels (P<0.05. Therefore, physical exercise may provide an effective approach for combating the deleterious effects associated with obesity through RANTES signaling in the adipose tissue.

  2. Quantitative variation in obesity-related traits and insulin precursors linked to the OB gene region on human chromosome 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggirala, R.; Stern, M.P.; Reinhart, L.J. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Despite the evidence that human obesity has strong genetic determinants, efforts at identifying specific genes that influence human obesity have largely been unsuccessful. Using the sibship data obtained from 32 low-income Mexican American pedigrees ascertained on a type II diabetic proband and a multipoint variance-components method, we tested for linkage between various obesity-related traits plus associated metabolic traits and 15 markers on human chromosome 7. We found evidence for linkage between markers in the OB gene region and various traits, as follows: D7S514 and extremity skinfolds (LOD = 3.1), human carboxypeptidase A1 (HCPA1) and 32,33-split proinsulin level (LOD = 4.2), and HCPA1 and proinsulin level (LOD = 3.2). A putative susceptibility locus linked to the marker D7S514 explained 56% of the total phenotypic variation in extremity skinfolds. Variation at the HCPA1 locus explained 64% of phenotypic variation in proinsulin level and {approximately}73% of phenotypic variation in split proinsulin concentration, respectively. Weaker evidence for linkage to several other obesity-related traits (e.g., waist circumference, body-mass index, fat mass by bioimpedance, etc.) was observed for a genetic location, which is {approximately}15 cM telomeric to OB. In conclusion, our study reveals that the OB region plays a significant role in determining the phenotypic variation of both insulin precursors and obesity-related traits, at least in Mexican Americans. 66 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Human Obesity Associated with an Intronic SNP in the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyang Mou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays a key role in energy balance. In population studies, SNPs of the BDNF locus have been linked to obesity, but the mechanism by which these variants cause weight gain is unknown. Here, we examined human hypothalamic BDNF expression in association with 44 BDNF SNPs. We observed that the minor C allele of rs12291063 is associated with lower human ventromedial hypothalamic BDNF expression (p < 0.001 and greater adiposity in both adult and pediatric cohorts (p values < 0.05. We further demonstrated that the major T allele for rs12291063 possesses a binding capacity for the transcriptional regulator, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D0B, knockdown of which disrupts transactivation by the T allele. Binding and transactivation functions are both disrupted by substituting C for T. These findings provide a rationale for BDNF augmentation as a targeted treatment for obesity in individuals who have the rs12291063 CC genotype.

  4. A mouse model for the metabolic effects of the human fat mass and obesity associated FTO gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Church

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Human FTO gene variants are associated with body mass index and type 2 diabetes. Because the obesity-associated SNPs are intronic, it is unclear whether changes in FTO expression or splicing are the cause of obesity or if regulatory elements within intron 1 influence upstream or downstream genes. We tested the idea that FTO itself is involved in obesity. We show that a dominant point mutation in the mouse Fto gene results in reduced fat mass, increased energy expenditure, and unchanged physical activity. Exposure to a high-fat diet enhances lean mass and lowers fat mass relative to control mice. Biochemical studies suggest the mutation occurs in a structurally novel domain and modifies FTO function, possibly by altering its dimerisation state. Gene expression profiling revealed increased expression of some fat and carbohydrate metabolism genes and an improved inflammatory profile in white adipose tissue of mutant mice. These data provide direct functional evidence that FTO is a causal gene underlying obesity. Compared to the reported mouse FTO knockout, our model more accurately reflects the effect of human FTO variants; we observe a heterozygous as well as homozygous phenotype, a smaller difference in weight and adiposity, and our mice do not show perinatal lethality or an age-related reduction in size and length. Our model suggests that a search for human coding mutations in FTO may be informative and that inhibition of FTO activity is a possible target for the treatment of morbid obesity.

  5. Sex-based fMRI differences in obese humans in response to high vs. low energy food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geliebter, Allan; Pantazatos, Spiro P; McOuatt, Haley; Puma, Lauren; Gibson, Charlisa D; Atalayer, Deniz

    2013-04-15

    Gender specific effects on human eating have been previously reported. Here we investigated sex-based differences in neural activation via whole-brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in response to high energy-dense (high-ED) vs. low-ED visual and auditory food cues in obese men vs. women in both fed and fasted states. The results show that in response to high vs. low ED foods in the fed state, obese men (vs. women) had greater activation in brain areas associated with motor control regions (e.g. supplementary motor areas) whereas women showed greater activation in cognitive-related regions. In the fasted state, obese men had greater activation in a visual-attention region whereas obese women showed greater activation in affective and reward related processing regions (e.g. caudate). Overall the results support our a priori hypothesis that obese women (vs. men) have greater neural activation in regions associated with cognition and emotion-related brain regions. These findings may improve our understanding of sex specific differences among obese individuals in eating behavior. PMID:23261871

  6. Genetics of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Apurva; Srivastava, Neena; Mittal, Balraj

    2016-10-01

    Numerous classical genetic studies have proved that genes are contributory factors for obesity. Genes are directly responsible for obesity associated disorders such as Bardet-Biedl and Prader-Willi syndromes. However, both genes as well as environment are associated with obesity in the general population. Genetic epidemiological approaches, particularly genome-wide association studies, have unraveled many genes which play important roles in human obesity. Elucidation of their biological functions can be very useful for understanding pathobiology of obesity. In the near future, further exploration of obesity genetics may help to develop useful diagnostic and predictive tests for obesity treatment. PMID:27605733

  7. Genetic variants influencing effectiveness of exercise training programmes in obesity - an overview of human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leońska-Duniec, A; Ahmetov, I I; Zmijewski, P

    2016-09-01

    Frequent and regular physical activity has significant benefits for health, including improvement of body composition and help in weight control. Consequently, promoting training programmes, particularly in those who are genetically predisposed, is a significant step towards controlling the presently increasing epidemic of obesity. Although the physiological responses of the human body to exercise are quite well described, the genetic background of these reactions still remains mostly unknown. This review not only summarizes the current evidence, through a literature review and the results of our studies on the influence of gene variants on the characteristics and range of the body's adaptive response to training, but also explores research organization problems, future trends, and possibilities. We describe the most reliable candidate genetic markers that are involved in energy balance pathways and body composition changes in response to training programmes, such as FTO, MC4R, ACE, PPARG, LEP, LEPR, ADRB2, and ADRB3. This knowledge can have an enormous impact not only on individualization of exercise programmes to make them more efficient and safer, but also on improved recovery, traumatology, medical care, diet, supplementation and many other areas. Nevertheless, the current studies still represent only the first steps towards a better understanding of the genetic factors that influence obesity-related traits, as well as gene variant x physical activity interactions, so further research is necessary. PMID:27601774

  8. Genetic variants influencing effectiveness of exercise training programmes in obesity – an overview of human studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetov, II; Zmijewski, P

    2016-01-01

    Frequent and regular physical activity has significant benefits for health, including improvement of body composition and help in weight control. Consequently, promoting training programmes, particularly in those who are genetically predisposed, is a significant step towards controlling the presently increasing epidemic of obesity. Although the physiological responses of the human body to exercise are quite well described, the genetic background of these reactions still remains mostly unknown. This review not only summarizes the current evidence, through a literature review and the results of our studies on the influence of gene variants on the characteristics and range of the body's adaptive response to training, but also explores research organization problems, future trends, and possibilities. We describe the most reliable candidate genetic markers that are involved in energy balance pathways and body composition changes in response to training programmes, such as FTO, MC4R, ACE, PPARG, LEP, LEPR, ADRB2, and ADRB3. This knowledge can have an enormous impact not only on individualization of exercise programmes to make them more efficient and safer, but also on improved recovery, traumatology, medical care, diet, supplementation and many other areas. Nevertheless, the current studies still represent only the first steps towards a better understanding of the genetic factors that influence obesity-related traits, as well as gene variant x physical activity interactions, so further research is necessary. PMID:27601774

  9. Rare Syndromes and Common Variants of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene in Human Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J C

    2016-01-01

    Rare genetic disorders that cause BDNF haploinsufficiency, such as WAGR syndrome, 11p deletion, and 11p inversion, serve as models for understanding the role of BDNF in human energy balance and neurocognition. Patients with BDNF haploinsufficiency or inactivating mutations of the BDNF receptor exhibit hyperphagia, childhood-onset obesity, intellectual disability, and impaired nociception. Prader-Willi, Smith-Magenis, and ROHHAD syndromes are separate genetic disorders that do not directly affect the BDNF locus but share many similar clinical features with BDNF haploinsufficiency, and BDNF insufficiency is believed to possibly contribute to the pathophysiology of each of these conditions. In the general population, common variants of BDNF that affect BDNF gene expression or BDNF protein processing have also been associated with modest alterations in energy balance and cognitive functioning. Thus, variable degrees of BDNF insufficiency appear to contribute to a spectrum of excess weight gain and cognitive impairment that ranges in phenotypic severity. In this modern era of precision medicine, genotype-specific therapies aimed at increasing BDNF signaling in patients with rare and common disorders associated with BDNF insufficiency could serve as useful approaches for treating obesity and neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:27288826

  10. Human intestinal microbiota composition is associated with local and systemic inflammation in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdam, F.J.; Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, S.; Jonge, de C.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Erbil, R.; Greve, J.W.; Buurman, W.A.; Vos, de W.M.; Rensen, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Intestinal microbiota have been suggested to contribute to the development of obesity, but the mechanism remains elusive. The relationship between microbiota composition, intestinal permeability, and inflammation in nonobese and obese subjects was investigated. DESIGN AND METHODS: Fecal m

  11. The influence of insulin on the raised plasma fibronectin concentration in human obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgård, A; Andersen, T; Gluud, C

    1986-01-01

    in the controls (obese r = 0.06, controls r = 0.02; p greater than 0.05). Plasma fibronectin was insignificantly correlated with body weight (obese r = 0.21, controls r = 0.15; p greater than 0.05) and percentage overweight (obese r = 0.27, controls r = 0.04; p greater than 0.05). The raised level of circulating...... insulin may in part explain the excess of plasma fibronectin obese subjects....

  12. Genome wide association study identifies KCNMA1 contributing to human obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Hong; Arner, Peter; Hoffstedt, Johan;

    2011-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association (GWA) analyses have identified common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with obesity. However, the reported genetic variation in obesity explains only a minor fraction of the total genetic variation expected to be present in the population....... Thus many genetic variants controlling obesity remain to be identified. The aim of this study was to use GWA followed by multiple stepwise validations to identify additional genes associated with obesity....

  13. Functional Relationship between Obesity and Male Reproduction: from Humans to Animal Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerds, K.J.; Rooij, de D.G.; Keijer, J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increase in the incidence of obesity has a substantial societal health impact. Contrasting reports have been published on whether overweight and obesity affect male fertility. To clarify this, we have reviewed published data on the relation between overweight/obesity, semen parameter

  14. Olfactory receptor genes cooperate with protocadherin genes in human extreme obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariman, E.C.; Szklarczyk, R.J.; Bouwman, F.G.; Aller, E.E.; Baak, M.A. van; Wang, P.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, the incidence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past decades. More knowledge about the complex etiology of obesity is needed in order to find additional approaches for treatment and prevention. Investigating the exome sequencing data of 30 extremely obese subjects (BMI 45-65

  15. Weight loss after gastric bypass surgery in human obesity remodels promoter methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barres, Romain; Kirchner, Henriette; Rasmussen, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation provides a mechanism by which environmental factors can control insulin sensitivity in obesity. Here, we assessed DNA methylation in skeletal muscle from obese people before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Obesity was associated with altered expression of a subset...

  16. The circulatory and metabolic responses to hypoxia in humans - with special reference to adipose tissue physiology and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Heinonen (Ilkka); R. Boushel (Robert); K.K. Kalliokoski (Kari)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAdipose tissue metabolism and circulation play an important role in human health. It is well-known that adipose tissue mass is increased in response to excess caloric intake leading to obesity and further to local hypoxia and inflammatory signaling. Acute exercise increases blood supply

  17. You are what you eat, or are you? The challenges of translating high-fat-fed rodents to human obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, M; Chandrasekera, P C; Barnard, N D

    2014-09-08

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are rapidly growing worldwide epidemics with major health consequences. Various human-based studies have confirmed that both genetic and environmental factors (particularly high-caloric diets and sedentary lifestyle) greatly contribute to human T2DM. Interactions between obesity, insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction result in human T2DM, but the mechanisms regulating the interplay among these impairments remain unclear. Rodent models of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity have been used widely to study human obesity and T2DM. With >9000 publications on PubMed over the past decade alone, many aspects of rodent T2DM have been elucidated; however, correlation to human obesity/diabetes remains poor. This review investigates the reasons for this translational discrepancy by critically evaluating rodent HFD models. Dietary modification in rodents appears to have limited translatable benefit for understanding and treating human obesity and diabetes due-at least in part-to divergent dietary compositions, species/strain and gender variability, inconsistent disease penetrance, severity and duration and lack of resemblance to human obesogenic pathophysiology. Therefore future research efforts dedicated to acquiring translationally relevant data-specifically human data, rather than findings based on rodent studies-would accelerate our understanding of disease mechanisms and development of therapeutics for human obesity/T2DM.

  18. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Diogo, E-mail: diogopestana@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); CINTESIS—Center for Research in Health Technologies and Information Systems, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Gil [General Surgery Department, S. João Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Sá, Carla [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, Virgínia C. [Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Requimte—Instituto Superior de Engenharia, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, P-4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Teixeira, Diana; Norberto, Sónia [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Ana [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, P-4200-465 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2014-08-15

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) were collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (R{sub S}=0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (R{sub S}=0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (R{sub S}=0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (R{sub S}=0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to their

  19. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) were collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (RS=0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (RS=0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (RS=0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (RS=0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to their metabolic effects and not

  20. Alterations of Mitochondrial Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Human Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliaki, Chrysi; Roden, Michael

    2016-07-17

    Mitochondrial function refers to a broad spectrum of features such as resting mitochondrial activity, (sub)maximal oxidative phosphorylation capacity (OXPHOS), and mitochondrial dynamics, turnover, and plasticity. The interaction between mitochondria and insulin sensitivity is bidirectional and varies depending on tissue, experimental model, methodological approach, and features of mitochondrial function tested. In human skeletal muscle, mitochondrial abnormalities may be inherited (e.g., lower mitochondrial content) or acquired (e.g., impaired OXPHOS capacity and plasticity). Abnormalities ultimately lead to lower mitochondrial functionality due to or resulting in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Similar mechanisms can also operate in adipose tissue and heart muscle. In contrast, mitochondrial oxidative capacity is transiently upregulated in the liver of obese insulin-resistant humans with or without fatty liver, giving rise to oxidative stress and declines in advanced fatty liver disease. These data suggest a highly tissue-specific interaction between insulin sensitivity and oxidative metabolism during the course of metabolic diseases in humans. PMID:27146012

  1. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Fenxia; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Chu, Chao; Wang, Yang; Wang, Dan; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Wang, Jun-Kui; Guan, Gong-Chang; Ren, Ke-Yu; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated fasting ghrelin concentrations during a high-salt diet. Thirty-eight non-obese and normotensive subjects (aged 25 to 50 years) were selected from a rural community in Northern China. They were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for three days at baseline, a low-salt diet for seven days (3 g/day, NaCl), then a high-salt diet for seven days (18 g/day). The concentration of plasma ghrelin was measured using an immunoenzyme method (ELISA). High-salt intake significantly increased fasting ghrelin levels, which were higher during the high-salt diet (320.7 ± 30.6 pg/mL) than during the low-salt diet (172.9 ± 8.9 pg/mL). The comparison of ghrelin levels between the different salt diets was statistically-significantly different (p sodium excretion and fasting ghrelin levels was demonstrated. Our data indicate that a high-salt diet elevates fasting ghrelin in healthy human subjects, which may be a novel underlying mechanism of obesity. PMID:27240398

  2. Monitoring bacterial community of human gut microbiota reveals an increase in Lactobacillus in obese patients and Methanogens in anorexic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Armougom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of the bacterial communities of the gut microbiota have revealed a shift in the ratio of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in obese patients. Determining the variations of microbial communities in feces may be beneficial for the identification of specific profiles in patients with abnormal weights. The roles of the archaeon Methanobrevibacter smithii and Lactobacillus species have not been described in these studies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed an efficient and robust real-time PCR tool that includes a plasmid-based internal control and allows for quantification of the bacterial divisions Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Lactobacillus as well as the methanogen M. smithii. We applied this technique to the feces of 20 obese subjects, 9 patients with anorexia nervosa, and 20 normal-weight healthy controls. Our results confirmed a reduction in the Bacteroidetes community in obese patients (p<0.01. We found a significantly higher Lactobacillus species concentration in obese patients than in lean controls (p=0.0197 or anorexic patients (p=0.0332. The M. smithii concentration was much higher in anorexic patients than in the lean population (p=0.0171. CONCLUSIONS: Lactobacillus species are widely used as growth promoters in the farm industry and are now linked to obesity in humans. The study of the bacterial flora in anorexic patients revealed an increase in M. smithii. This increase might represent an adaptive use of nutrients in this population.

  3. Obesity and prostate cancer: gene expression signature of human periprostatic adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periprostatic (PP adipose tissue surrounds the prostate, an organ with a high predisposition to become malignant. Frequently, growing prostatic tumor cells extend beyond the prostatic organ towards this fat depot. This study aimed to determine the genome-wide expression of genes in PP adipose tissue in obesity/overweight (OB/OW and prostate cancer patients. Methods Differentially expressed genes in human PP adipose tissue were identified using microarrays. Analyses were conducted according to the donors' body mass index characteristics (OB/OW versus lean and prostate disease (extra prostatic cancer versus organ confined prostate cancer versus benign prostatic hyperplasia. Selected genes with altered expression were validated by real-time PCR. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA was used to investigate gene ontology, canonical pathways and functional networks. Results In the PP adipose tissue of OB/OW subjects, we found altered expression of genes encoding molecules involved in adipogenic/anti-lipolytic, proliferative/anti-apoptotic, and mild immunoinflammatory processes (for example, FADS1, down-regulated, and LEP and ANGPT1, both up-regulated. Conversely, in the PP adipose tissue of subjects with prostate cancer, altered genes were related to adipose tissue cellular activity (increased cell proliferation/differentiation, cell cycle activation and anti-apoptosis, whereas a downward impact on immunity and inflammation was also observed, mostly related to the complement (down-regulation of CFH. Interestingly, we found that the microRNA MIRLET7A2 was overexpressed in the PP adipose tissue of prostate cancer patients. Conclusions Obesity and excess adiposity modified the expression of PP adipose tissue genes to ultimately foster fat mass growth. In patients with prostate cancer the expression profile of PP adipose tissue accounted for hypercellularity and reduced immunosurveillance. Both findings may be liable to promote a favorable

  4. Hormonal and Dietary Characteristics in Obese Human Subjects with and without Food Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Pardis Pedram; Guang Sun

    2014-01-01

    The concept of food addiction (FA) is a potentially important contributing factor to the development of obesity in the general population; however, little is known about the hormonal and dietary differences between obesity with and without FA. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore potential biomarkers, including various hormones and neuropeptides, which regulate appetite and metabolism, and dietary components that could potentially differentiate obesity with and without FA. Of the 73...

  5. Effects of maternal stress and obesity on human feto-placental glucocorticoid exposure

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, James Richard

    2014-01-01

    Fetal exposure to excess glucocorticoids has been proposed as a key determinant of pregnancy outcome, as well as a predictor of long term health of the offspring through a phenomenon known as ‘developmental programming’. Obesity and ‘stress’ during pregnancy are two potential sources of altered fetal exposure to glucocorticoids. One in five pregnant women is obese at antenatal booking, and maternal obesity increases risk of offspring complications including higher birth weig...

  6. Association of adenovirus 36 infection with obesity and metabolic markers in humans: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohide Yamada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that Adenovirus 36 (Ad36 influences the risk of obesity in humans. Clarifying the relationship between Ad36 infection and obesity could lead to more effective approaches for the management of obesity. The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to confirm the influence of Ad36 infection on obesity and metabolic markers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library for pertinent articles (including their references published between 1951 and April 22, 2012. Only English language reports of original observational studies were included in this meta-analysis. Data extraction was performed independently by two reviewers. Weighted mean differences (WMDs and pooled odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated using the random effects model. Of 237 potentially relevant studies, 10 cross-sectional studies (n = 2,870 conformed to the selection criteria. Pooled analysis showed that the WMD for BMI of Ad36 infection compared with non-infection was 3.19 (95% CI 1.44-4.93; P<0.001. Sensitivity analysis restricted to studies of adults yielded a similar result of 3.18 (95% CI 0.78-5.57; P = 0.009. The increased risk of obesity associated with Ad36 infection was also significant (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.01-3.56; P = 0.047. No significant differences were found in relation to total cholesterol (P = 0.83, triglycerides (P = 0.64, HDL (P = 0.69, blood glucose (P = 0.08, waist circumstance (P = 0.09, and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.25. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Ad36 infection was associated with the risk of obesity and weight gain, but was not associated with abnormal metabolic markers including waist circumstance. It suggests that Ad36 infection is more associated with accumulation of subcutaneous fat than that of visceral fat. The relationship between Ad36 and obesity should be assessed by further studies, including well

  7. Exercise, Obesity, and Cutaneous Wound Healing: Evidence from Rodent and Human Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Pence, Brandt D.; Jeffrey A Woods

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Impaired cutaneous wound healing is a major health concern. Obesity has been shown in a number of studies to impair wound healing, and chronic nonhealing wounds in obesity and diabetes are a major cause of limb amputations in the United States.

  8. The Effects of Agricultural Research and Farm Subsidy Policies on Human Nutrition and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Julian M.; Sumner, Daniel A.; Stephen A Vosti

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural policies including farm programs and R&D are said to have contributed to obesity by making food commodities cheaper and thereby encouraging consumption. This paper explores the links from agricultural policy to food prices and consumption and suggests that contribution of agricultural policy to obesity is not so clear.

  9. Association of Lipidome Remodeling in the Adipocyte Membrane with Acquired Obesity in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietilainen, K. H.; Rog, T.; Seppanen-Laakso, T.;

    2011-01-01

    Identification of early mechanisms that may lead from obesity towards complications such as metabolic syndrome is of great interest. Here we performed lipidomic analyses of adipose tissue in twin pairs discordant for obesity but still metabolically compensated. In parallel we studied more evolved...

  10. Obesity and age-related alterations in the gene expression of zinc-transporter proteins in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, R H; Hyde, T M; Kleinman, J E;

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing. Major risk factors for AD are advancing age and diabetes. Lately, obesity has been associated with an increased risk of dementia. Obese and diabetic individuals are prone to decreased circulating levels of zinc, reducing the amount of zinc...... participate in intracellular zinc homeostasis. Altered expression of zinc-regulatory proteins has been described in AD patients. Using microarray data from human frontal cortex (BrainCloud), this study investigates expression of the SCLA30A (ZNT) and SCLA39A (ZIP) families of genes in a Caucasian and African...... expression similar to what is seen in the early stages of AD. Increasing BMI also correlated with reduced expression of ZNT6. In conclusion, we found that the expression of genes that regulate intracellular zinc homeostasis in the human frontal cortex is altered with increasing age and affected by increasing...

  11. Recent progress in genetics, epigenetics and metagenomics unveils the pathophysiology of human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeyre, Marie; Yazdi, Fereshteh T; Kaur, Yuvreet; Meyre, David

    2016-06-01

    In high-, middle- and low-income countries, the rising prevalence of obesity is the underlying cause of numerous health complications and increased mortality. Being a complex and heritable disorder, obesity results from the interplay between genetic susceptibility, epigenetics, metagenomics and the environment. Attempts at understanding the genetic basis of obesity have identified numerous genes associated with syndromic monogenic, non-syndromic monogenic, oligogenic and polygenic obesity. The genetics of leanness are also considered relevant as it mirrors some of obesity's aetiologies. In this report, we summarize ten genetically elucidated obesity syndromes, some of which are involved in ciliary functioning. We comprehensively review 11 monogenic obesity genes identified to date and their role in energy maintenance as part of the leptin-melanocortin pathway. With the emergence of genome-wide association studies over the last decade, 227 genetic variants involved in different biological pathways (central nervous system, food sensing and digestion, adipocyte differentiation, insulin signalling, lipid metabolism, muscle and liver biology, gut microbiota) have been associated with polygenic obesity. Advances in obligatory and facilitated epigenetic variation, and gene-environment interaction studies have partly accounted for the missing heritability of obesity and provided additional insight into its aetiology. The role of gut microbiota in obesity pathophysiology, as well as the 12 genes associated with lipodystrophies is discussed. Furthermore, in an attempt to improve future studies and merge the gap between research and clinical practice, we provide suggestions on how high-throughput '-omic' data can be integrated in order to get closer to the new age of personalized medicine. PMID:27154742

  12. Recent progress in genetics, epigenetics and metagenomics unveils the pathophysiology of human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeyre, Marie; Yazdi, Fereshteh T; Kaur, Yuvreet; Meyre, David

    2016-06-01

    In high-, middle- and low-income countries, the rising prevalence of obesity is the underlying cause of numerous health complications and increased mortality. Being a complex and heritable disorder, obesity results from the interplay between genetic susceptibility, epigenetics, metagenomics and the environment. Attempts at understanding the genetic basis of obesity have identified numerous genes associated with syndromic monogenic, non-syndromic monogenic, oligogenic and polygenic obesity. The genetics of leanness are also considered relevant as it mirrors some of obesity's aetiologies. In this report, we summarize ten genetically elucidated obesity syndromes, some of which are involved in ciliary functioning. We comprehensively review 11 monogenic obesity genes identified to date and their role in energy maintenance as part of the leptin-melanocortin pathway. With the emergence of genome-wide association studies over the last decade, 227 genetic variants involved in different biological pathways (central nervous system, food sensing and digestion, adipocyte differentiation, insulin signalling, lipid metabolism, muscle and liver biology, gut microbiota) have been associated with polygenic obesity. Advances in obligatory and facilitated epigenetic variation, and gene-environment interaction studies have partly accounted for the missing heritability of obesity and provided additional insight into its aetiology. The role of gut microbiota in obesity pathophysiology, as well as the 12 genes associated with lipodystrophies is discussed. Furthermore, in an attempt to improve future studies and merge the gap between research and clinical practice, we provide suggestions on how high-throughput '-omic' data can be integrated in order to get closer to the new age of personalized medicine.

  13. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ameliorating the Obesity-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Animal Models and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wei Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and type II diabetes, are increasing dramatically, perhaps caused by the change in the fatty acid composition of common human diets. Adipose tissue plays a role as the major energy reservoir in the body. An excess of adipose mass accumulation caused by chronic positive energy balance results in obesity. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, DHA (docosahexaenoic acid and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid exert numerous beneficial effects to maintain physiological homeostasis. In the current review, the physiology of n-3 PUFA effects in the body is delineated from studies conducted in both human and animal experiments. Although mechanistic studies in human are limited, numerous studies conducted in animals and models in vitro provide potential molecular mechanisms of the effects of these fatty acids. Three aspects of n-3 PUFA in adipocyte regulation are discussed: (1 lipid metabolism, including adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and lipogenesis; (2 energy expenditure, such as mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation; and (3 inflammation, including adipokines and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Additionally, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA regulate gene expression are highlighted. The beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities.

  14. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ameliorating the Obesity-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Animal Models and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-Wei; Chien, Yi-Shan; Chen, Yu-Jen; Ajuwon, Kolapo M.; Mersmann, Harry M.; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and type II diabetes, are increasing dramatically, perhaps caused by the change in the fatty acid composition of common human diets. Adipose tissue plays a role as the major energy reservoir in the body. An excess of adipose mass accumulation caused by chronic positive energy balance results in obesity. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) exert numerous beneficial effects to maintain physiological homeostasis. In the current review, the physiology of n-3 PUFA effects in the body is delineated from studies conducted in both human and animal experiments. Although mechanistic studies in human are limited, numerous studies conducted in animals and models in vitro provide potential molecular mechanisms of the effects of these fatty acids. Three aspects of n-3 PUFA in adipocyte regulation are discussed: (1) lipid metabolism, including adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and lipogenesis; (2) energy expenditure, such as mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation; and (3) inflammation, including adipokines and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Additionally, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA regulate gene expression are highlighted. The beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:27735847

  15. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated fasting ghrelin concentrations during a high-salt diet. Thirty-eight non-obese and normotensive subjects (aged 25 to 50 years were selected from a rural community in Northern China. They were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for three days at baseline, a low-salt diet for seven days (3 g/day, NaCl, then a high-salt diet for seven days (18 g/day. The concentration of plasma ghrelin was measured using an immunoenzyme method (ELISA. High-salt intake significantly increased fasting ghrelin levels, which were higher during the high-salt diet (320.7 ± 30.6 pg/mL than during the low-salt diet (172.9 ± 8.9 pg/mL. The comparison of ghrelin levels between the different salt diets was statistically-significantly different (p < 0.01. A positive correlation between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and fasting ghrelin levels was demonstrated. Our data indicate that a high-salt diet elevates fasting ghrelin in healthy human subjects, which may be a novel underlying mechanism of obesity.

  16. Downregulation of STEAP4, a highly-expressed TNF-α-inducible gene in adipose tissue, is associated with obesity in humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-mei ZHANG; Xia CHI; Bin WANG; Min ZHANG; Yu-hui NI; Rong-hua CHEN; Xiao-nan LI; Xi-rong GUO

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To determine the relationship between six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 4 (STEAP4) expression and obesity. Methods: RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses were performed to determine the differential expressions of STEAP4 mRNA and protein, respectively, in human omental adipose tissue from obese patients and normal weight controls. The expression pattern of STEAP4 mRNA in various human tissues was determined by RT-PCR. The subcellular localization of the STEAP4 protein in human adipose tissue was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Finally, we confirmed that cultured human omental adi- pose tissue undergoes TNF-α-mediated regulation of the STEAP4 expression.Results: STEAP4 mRNA and protein levels were downregulated in omental adi-pose tissue from obese patients relative to normal controls. The STEAP4 expres-sion was most abundant in human adipose tissue. An immunohistochemical analy-sis confirmed that STEAP4 was associated with the plasma membrane of adipocytes. The STEAP4 expression was induced by TNF-α in a dose-dependent manner in human adipose tissue. Conclusion: STEAP4 was abundantly expressed in human adipose tissue, and the STEAP4 expression was significantly downregulated in obese patients. STEAP4 localized to the plasma membrane of adipocytes, and the STEAP4 expression was induced by TNF-α in adipose tissue.These data suggest that STEAP4 may play a significant role in the development of human obesity.

  17. Olfactory receptor genes cooperate with protocadherin genes in human extreme obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariman, Edwin C M; Szklarczyk, Radek; Bouwman, Freek G; Aller, Erik E J G; van Baak, Marleen A; Wang, Ping

    2015-07-01

    Worldwide, the incidence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past decades. More knowledge about the complex etiology of obesity is needed in order to find additional approaches for treatment and prevention. Investigating the exome sequencing data of 30 extremely obese subjects (BMI 45-65 kg/m(2)) shows that predicted damaging missense variants in olfactory receptor genes on chromosome 1q and rare predicted damaging variants in the protocadherin (PCDH) beta-cluster genes on chromosome 5q31, reported in our previous work, co-localize in subjects with extreme obesity. This implies a synergistic effect between genetic variation in these gene clusters in the predisposition to extreme obesity. Evidence for a general involvement of the olfactory transduction pathway on itself could not be found. Bioinformatic analysis indicates a specific involvement of the PCDH beta-cluster genes in controlling tissue development. Further mechanistic insight needs to await the identification of the ligands of the 1q olfactory receptors. Eventually, this may provide the possibility to manipulate food flavor in a way to reduce the risk of overeating and of extreme obesity in genetically predisposed subjects.

  18. Alanine flux in obese and healthy humans as evaluated by 15N- and 2H3-labeled alanines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of plasma alanine flux as measured in humans using L-[15N]-alanine or L-[3,3,3-2H3]alanine were compared by simultaneous intravenous infusion of both tracers. Plasma isotope enrichments were measured by chemical ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In 16 obese women before and during a hypocaloric diet and in 4 normal men in the postabsorptive and fed states, the fluxes were highly correlated (r2 = 0.93) although plasma alanine flux with the 2H tracer was two to three times greater than that obtained with [15N]alanine. The fluxes decreased with the hypocaloric diet in obese subjects and increased during the fed state in healthy adults. Thus, although the estimates of alanine flux differed according to the tracer used, both appear to give equivalent information about changes in alanine kinetics induced by the nutritional conditions examined

  19. The Circulatory and Metabolic Responses to Hypoxia in Humans – With Special Reference to Adipose Tissue Physiology and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Ilkka H. A.; Boushel, Robert; Kalliokoski, Kari K.

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue metabolism and circulation play an important role in human health. It is well-known that adipose tissue mass is increased in response to excess caloric intake leading to obesity and further to local hypoxia and inflammatory signaling. Acute exercise increases blood supply to adipose tissue and mobilization of fat stores for energy. However, acute exercise during systemic hypoxia reduces subcutaneous blood flow in healthy young subjects, but the response in overweight or obese subjects remains to be investigated. Emerging evidence also indicates that exercise training during hypoxic exposure may provide additive benefits with respect to many traditional cardiovascular risk factors as compared to exercise performed in normoxia, but unfavorable effects of hypoxia have also been documented. These topics will be covered in this brief review dealing with hypoxia and adipose tissue physiology. PMID:27621722

  20. Future management of human obesity: understanding the meaning of genetic susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins AB

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Arthur B Jenkins,1,2 Lesley V Campbell2,3 1School of Medicine, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia; 2Diabetes and Obesity Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Diabetes Centre and Department of Endocrinology, St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Gene–environment interactions are central to the expression of obesity. The condition is strongly heritable (ie, genetic, and most of the variation in obesity levels between countries and between individuals can be explained by the effects of obesogenic environments on individual genetic susceptibilities. The nature of the obesogenic environmental influences is not clear in detail, but they correlate closely with measures of affluence. The causes of variation in genetic susceptibility are also not clearly defined, but their general nature has become clearer. The failure of genome-wide association studies or large linkage studies to identify or replicate causative genetic variants, together with the segregation of obesity-related traits in families, implicates a heterogenetic mechanism in which rare, dominantly or additively expressed genetic variants are responsible for most of common obesity. The search for rare causative variants continues with some successes, but those identified contribute very little to the overall burden and, assuming heterogenetics, there are many more to find. The time when genomic risk factors provide more information than do currently available markers, such as family history, is a long way off. Genomic studies to date have contributed little, if anything, to the prevention and treatment of common obesity and its associated disorders. This contrasts with the obvious and immediate potential implications of the well-established overall genetic basis of obesity, which have not yet been exploited in the clinical or public health arenas. Genomic studies, which have helped to define the genetic basis of

  1. Effects of living at two ambient temperatures on 24-h blood pressure and neuroendocrine function among obese and non-obese humans: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2013-05-01

    The effects of environmental temperature on blood pressure and hormones in obese subjects in Japan were compared in two seasons: summer vs winter. Five obese (BMI, 32 ± 5 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23 ±3 kg/m2) men participated in this experiment at latitude 35°10' N and longitude 136°57.9' E. The average environmental temperature was 29 ± 1 °C in summer and 3 ± 1 °C in winter. Blood samples were analyzed for leptin, ghrelin, catecholamines, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and glucose. Blood pressure was measured over the course of 24 h in summer and winter. A Japanese version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire was also administered each season. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures in obese men were significantly higher in winter (lower environmental temperatures) than in summer (higher environmental temperatures). Noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations were also significantly higher at lower environmental temperatures in obese subjects, but ghrelin, TSH, fT3, fT4, insulin and glucose were not significantly different in summer and winter between obese and non-obese subjects. Leptin, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in winter in obese than non-obese men. Results from the POMS questionnaire showed a significant rise in Confusion at lower environmental temperatures (winter) in obese subjects. In this pilot study, increased blood pressure may have been due to increased secretion of noradrenaline in obese men in winter, and the results suggest that blood pressure control in obese men is particularly important in winter.

  2. Pathways commonly dysregulated in mouse and human obese adipose tissue: FAT/CD36 modulates differentiation and lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, E; Héraud, S; Mojallal, A; Lequeux, C; Weiss-Gayet, M; Damour, O; Géloën, A

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is linked to adipose tissue hypertrophy (increased adipocyte cell size) and hyperplasia (increased cell number). Comparative analyses of gene datasets allowed us to identify 1426 genes which may represent common adipose phenotype in humans and mice. Among them we identified several adipocyte-specific genes dysregulated in obese adipose tissue, involved in either fatty acid storage (acyl CoA synthase ACSL1, hormone-sensitive lipase LIPE, aquaporin 7 AQP7, perilipin PLIN) or cell adhesion (fibronectin FN1, collagens COL1A1, COL1A3, metalloprotein MMP9, or both (scavenger receptor FAT/CD36). Using real-time analysis of cell surface occupancy on xCELLigence system we developed a new method to study lipid uptake and differentiation of mouse 3T3L1 fibroblasts and human adipose stem cells. Both processes are regulated by insulin and fatty acids such as oleic acid. We showed that fatty acid addition to culture media increased the differentiation rate and was required for full differentiation into unilocular adipocytes. Significant activation of lipogenesis, i.e. lipid accumulation, by either insulin or oleic acid was monitored in times ranging from 1 to 24 h, depending on differentiation state, whereas significant effects on adipogenesis, i.e., surperimposed lipid accumulation and gene transcriptional regulations were measured after 3 to 4 d. Combination of selected times for analysis of lipid contents, cell counts, size fractionations, and gene transcriptional regulations showed that FAT/CD36 specific inhibitor AP5258 significantly increased cell survival of oleic acid-treated mouse and human adipocytes, and partially restored the transcriptional response to oleic acid in the presence of insulin through JNK pathway. Taken together, these data open new perspectives to study the molecular mechanisms commonly dysregulated in mouse and human obesity at the level of lipogenesis linked to hypertrophy and adipogenesis linked to hyperplasia. PMID:26257990

  3. Genome-wide Linkage Disequilibrium Linkage Analysis (LDLA) of Body Fat Traits in an F2 Porcine Model for Human Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pant, Sameer Dinkar; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Cirera Salicio, Susanna;

    . Subsequently bioinformatic analysis was performed to identify genes in close proximity of chromosomal positions where statistically significant QTLs were identified. Several important genes previously linked to obesity (e.g. BBS4, CHRNA2, DLK1), along with other novel genes were identified, that together......ABSTRACT: Purebred Duroc and Yorkshire sows were crossed with Göttingen minipig boars to obtain two separate F2 intercross resource populations (n=287 and 279 respectively). Several obesity, metabolic and slaughter measurements were recorded from birth to slaughter (220 ± 45 days). In addition...... provide novel insights that may further the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying human obesity....

  4. An Obesity Risk SNP (rs17782313 near the MC4R Gene Is Associated with Cerebrocortical Insulin Resistance in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Tschritter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R by insulin sensitive neurons is a central mechanism in body weight regulation, and genetic variants in the MC4R gene (e.g., rs17782313 are associated with obesity. By using magnetoencephalography, we addressed whether rs17782313 affects the cerebrocortical insulin response. We measured the cerebrocortical insulin response by using magnetoencephalography in a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (versus placebo in 51 nondiabetic humans (26 f/25 m, age 35±3 years, BMI 28±1kg/m2. The C-allele of rs17782313 was minor allele (frequency 23%, and the genotype distribution (TT 30, TC 19, CC 2 was in Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium. Insulin-stimulated cerebrocortical theta activity was decreased in the presence of the C-allele (TT 33±16 fT; TC/CC −27±20 fT; P=.023, and this effect remained significant after adjusting for BMI and peripheral insulin sensitivity (P=.047. Cerebrocortical theta activity was impaired in carriers of the obesity risk allele. Therefore, cerebral insulin resistance may contribute to the obesity effect of rs17782313.

  5. Expression studies of six human obesity-related genes in seven tissues from divergent pig breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera, S.; Jensen, M. S.; Elbrønd, V. S.;

    2014-01-01

    receptor (MC4R), fat mass and obesity associated (FTO), neuronal growth regulator 1 (NEGR)1 and adiponectin (ADIPOQ), in seven obesity-relevant tissues (liver; muscle; pancreas; hypothalamus; and retroperitoneal, subcutaneous and mesenteric adipose tissues) in two pig breeds (production pigs and Göttingen...... minipigs) that deviate phenotypically and genetically from each other with respect to obesity traits. We observe significant differential expression for LEP, LEPR and ADIPOQ in muscle and in all three adipose tissues. Interestingly, in pancreas, LEP expression is only detected in the fat minipigs. FTO...... shows significant differential expression in all tissues analyzed, and NEGR1 shows significant differential expression in muscle, pancreas, hypothalamus and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The MC4R transcript can be detected only in hypothalamus. In general, the expression profiles of the investigated...

  6. Hormonal and Dietary Characteristics in Obese Human Subjects with and without Food Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardis Pedram

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of food addiction (FA is a potentially important contributing factor to the development of obesity in the general population; however, little is known about the hormonal and dietary differences between obesity with and without FA. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore potential biomarkers, including various hormones and neuropeptides, which regulate appetite and metabolism, and dietary components that could potentially differentiate obesity with and without FA. Of the 737 adults recruited from the general Newfoundland population, 58 food-addicted and non-food-addicted overweight/obese individuals (FAO, NFO matched for age, sex, BMI and physical activity were selected. A total of 34 neuropeptides, gut hormones, pituitary polypeptide hormones and adipokines were measured in fasting serum. We found that the FAO group had lower levels of TSH, TNF-α and amylin, but higher levels of prolactin, as compared to NFO group. The total calorie intake (per kg body weight, the dietary intake of fat (per g/kg body weight, per BMI and per percentage of trunk fat and the percent calorie intake from fat and carbohydrates (g/kg was higher in the FAO group compared to the NFO group. The FAO subjects consumed more sugar, minerals (including sodium, potassium, calcium and selenium, fat and its components (such as saturated, monounsaturated and trans fat, omega 3 and 6, vitamin D and gamma-tocopherol compared to the NFO group. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating possible differences in hormonal levels and micro-nutrient intakes between obese individuals classified with and without food addiction. The findings provide insights into the mechanisms by which FA could contribute to obesity.

  7. Biology of Obesity: Lessons from Animal Models of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Keizo Kanasaki; Daisuke Koya

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is an epidemic problem in the world and is associated with several health problems, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory failure, muscle weakness, and cancer. The precise molecular mechanisms by which obesity induces these health problems are not yet clear. To better understand the pathomechanisms of human disease, good animal models are essential. In this paper, we will analyze animal models of obesity and their use in the research of obesity-associated human he...

  8. Synchronized human skeletal myotubes of lean, obese and type 2 diabetic patients maintain circadian oscillation of clock genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jan; Timmers, Silvie; Moonen-Kornips, Esther; Duez, Helene; Staels, Bart; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.; Schrauwen, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Cell and animal studies have demonstrated that circadian rhythm is governed by autonomous rhythmicity of clock genes. Although disturbances in circadian rhythm have been implicated in metabolic disease development, it remains unknown whether muscle circadian rhythm is altered in human models of type 2 diabetes. Here we used human primary myotubes (HPM) to investigate if rhythmicity of clock- and metabolic gene expression is altered in donors with obesity or type 2 diabetes compared to metabolically healthy donors. HPM were obtained from skeletal muscle biopsies of four groups: type 2 diabetic patients and their BMI- and age-matched obese controls and from lean, healthy and young endurance trained athletes and their age-matched sedentary controls. HPM were differentiated for 7 days before synchronization by serum shock followed by gene expression profiling over the next 72 hours. HPM display robust circadian rhythms in clock genes, but REVERBA displayed dampened rhythmicity in type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, rhythmicity in NAMPT and SIRT1 expression was only observed in HPM from trained athletes. Rhythmicity in expression of key-regulators of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism was modest. We demonstrate that in human skeletal muscle REVERBA/B, NAMPT and SIRT1 circadian rhythms are affected in donors of sedentary life style and poor health status. PMID:27756900

  9. Functional consequences of microbial shifts in the human gastrointestinal tract linked to antibiotic treatment and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E.; Bargiela, R.; Suarez Diez, M.; Friedrichs, A.; Pérez-Cobas, A.E.; Gosalbes, M.J.; Knecht, H.; Martinez-Martinez, M.; Seifert, J.; Bergen, von M.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    The microbiomes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of individuals receiving antibiotics and those in obese subjects undergo compositional shifts, the metabolic effects and linkages of which are not clearly understood. Herein, we set to gain insight into these effects, particularly with regard to ca

  10. Influence of exogenous human growth hormone on the metabolism of fasting obese patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, F.; Kinderen, P.J. der; Riet, H.G. van; Thijssen, J.H.H.; Wayjen, R.G.A.

    1972-01-01

    Three obese female patients were investigated during three courses of starvation. In two of them these periods lasted 12 days; in one 6 days. During the second starvation period HGH was administered on alternate days in a dosage of 10 mg. Plasma values of FFA, hydroxybutyric acid, insulin, electroly

  11. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits obesity and fat accumulation, and improves liver steatosis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Chou; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Yeh, Da-Ming; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is associated with a great diversity of diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Our previous report suggested that Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) had a metabolic-regulating and liver-protecting potential. In this study, we performed a clinical trial to further confirm the effect of HSE. Subjects with a BMI ≧ 27 and aged 18-65, were randomly divided into control (n = 17) and HSE-treated (n = 19) groups, respectively, for 12 weeks. Our data showed that consumption of HSE reduced body weight, BMI, body fat and the waist-to-hip ratio. Serum free fatty acid (FFA) was lowered by HSE. Anatomic changes revealed that HSE improved the illness of liver steatosis. Ingestion of HSE was well tolerated and there was no adverse effect during the trial. No alteration was found for serum α-amylase and lipase. The clinical effect should mainly be attributed to the polyphenols of HSE, since composition analysis showed that branched chain-amino acids, which is associated with obesity, is not obviously high. In conclusion, consumption of HSE reduced obesity, abdominal fat, serum FFA and improved liver steatosis. HSE could act as an adjuvant for preventing obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver.

  12. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits obesity and fat accumulation, and improves liver steatosis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Chou; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Yeh, Da-Ming; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is associated with a great diversity of diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Our previous report suggested that Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) had a metabolic-regulating and liver-protecting potential. In this study, we performed a clinical trial to further confirm the effect of HSE. Subjects with a BMI ≧ 27 and aged 18-65, were randomly divided into control (n = 17) and HSE-treated (n = 19) groups, respectively, for 12 weeks. Our data showed that consumption of HSE reduced body weight, BMI, body fat and the waist-to-hip ratio. Serum free fatty acid (FFA) was lowered by HSE. Anatomic changes revealed that HSE improved the illness of liver steatosis. Ingestion of HSE was well tolerated and there was no adverse effect during the trial. No alteration was found for serum α-amylase and lipase. The clinical effect should mainly be attributed to the polyphenols of HSE, since composition analysis showed that branched chain-amino acids, which is associated with obesity, is not obviously high. In conclusion, consumption of HSE reduced obesity, abdominal fat, serum FFA and improved liver steatosis. HSE could act as an adjuvant for preventing obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver. PMID:24549255

  13. Maternal obesity programs senescence signaling and glucose metabolism in osteo-progenitors from rat and human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional status during intrauterine and early postnatal life impacts the risk of chronic diseases, presumably via epigenetic mechanisms. However, evidence on the impact of gestational events on regulation of embryonic bone cell fate is sparse. We investigated the effects of maternal obesity on fe...

  14. Leptin modulates human Sertoli cells acetate production and glycolytic profile: a novel mechanism of obesity-induced male infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana D; Moreira, Ana C; Sá, Rosália; Monteiro, Mariana P; Sousa, Mário; Carvalho, Rui A; Silva, Branca M; Oliveira, Pedro F; Alves, Marco G

    2015-09-01

    Human feeding behavior and lifestyle are gradually being altered, favoring the development of metabolic diseases, particularly type 2 diabetes and obesity. Leptin is produced by the adipose tissue acting as a satiety signal. Its levels have been positively correlated with fat mass and hyperleptinemia has been proposed to negatively affect male reproductive function. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms by which this hormone affects male fertility remain unknown. Herein, we hypothesize that leptin acts on human Sertoli cells (hSCs), the "nurse cells" of spermatogenesis, altering their metabolism. To test our hypothesis, hSCs were cultured without or with leptin (5, 25 and 50ng/mL). Leptin receptor was identified by qPCR and Western blot. Protein levels of glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT2 and GLUT3), phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) were determined by Western Blot. LDH activity was assessed and metabolite production/consumption determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Oxidative damage was evaluated by assessing lipid peroxidation, protein carbonilation and nitration. Our data shows that leptin receptor is expressed in hSCs. The concentration of leptin found in lean, healthy patients, upregulated GLUT2 protein levels and concentrations of leptin found in lean and obese patients increased LDH activity. Of note, all leptin concentrations decreased hSCs acetate production illustrating a novel mechanism for this hormone action. Moreover, our data shows that leptin does not induce or protect hSCs from oxidative damage. We report that this hormone modulates the nutritional support of spermatogenesis, illustrating a novel mechanism that may be linked to obesity-induced male infertility. PMID:26071642

  15. CCAAT-enhancer-binding Protein β (C/EBPβ) and Downstream Human Placental Growth Hormone Genes Are Targets for Dysregulation in Pregnancies Complicated by Maternal Obesity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Hana; Jin, Yan; Menticoglou, Savas; Cattini, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Human chorionic somatomammotropin (CS) and placental growth hormone variant (GH-V) act as metabolic adaptors in response to maternal insulin resistance, which occurs in “normal” pregnancy. Maternal obesity can exacerbate this “resistance,” suggesting that CS, GH-V, or transcription factors that regulate their production might be targets. The human CS genes, hCS-A and hCS-B, flank the GH-V gene. A significant decrease in pre-term placental CS/GH-V RNA levels was observed in transgenic mice containing the CS/GH-V genes in a model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced maternal obesity. Similarly, a decrease in CS/GH-V RNA levels was detected in term placentas from obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2) versus lean (BMI 20–25 kg/m2) women. A specific decrease in transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) RNA levels was also seen with obesity; C/EBPβ is required for mouse placenta development and is expressed, like CS and GH-V, in syncytiotrophoblasts. Binding of C/EBPβ to the CS gene downstream enhancer regions, which by virtue of their position distally flank the GH-V gene, was reduced in placenta chromatin from mice on a HFD and in obese women; a corresponding decrease in RNA polymerase II associated with CS/GH-V promoters was also observed. Detection of decreased endogenous CS/GH-V RNA levels in human placental tumor cells treated with C/EBPβ siRNA is consistent with a direct effect. These data provide evidence for CS/GH-V dysregulation in acute HFD-induced obesity in mouse pregnancy and chronic obesity in human pregnancy and implicate C/EBPβ, a factor associated with CS regulation and placental development. PMID:23782703

  16. CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and downstream human placental growth hormone genes are targets for dysregulation in pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Hana; Jin, Yan; Menticoglou, Savas; Cattini, Peter A

    2013-08-01

    Human chorionic somatomammotropin (CS) and placental growth hormone variant (GH-V) act as metabolic adaptors in response to maternal insulin resistance, which occurs in "normal" pregnancy. Maternal obesity can exacerbate this "resistance," suggesting that CS, GH-V, or transcription factors that regulate their production might be targets. The human CS genes, hCS-A and hCS-B, flank the GH-V gene. A significant decrease in pre-term placental CS/GH-V RNA levels was observed in transgenic mice containing the CS/GH-V genes in a model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced maternal obesity. Similarly, a decrease in CS/GH-V RNA levels was detected in term placentas from obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m(2)) versus lean (BMI 20-25 kg/m(2)) women. A specific decrease in transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) RNA levels was also seen with obesity; C/EBPβ is required for mouse placenta development and is expressed, like CS and GH-V, in syncytiotrophoblasts. Binding of C/EBPβ to the CS gene downstream enhancer regions, which by virtue of their position distally flank the GH-V gene, was reduced in placenta chromatin from mice on a HFD and in obese women; a corresponding decrease in RNA polymerase II associated with CS/GH-V promoters was also observed. Detection of decreased endogenous CS/GH-V RNA levels in human placental tumor cells treated with C/EBPβ siRNA is consistent with a direct effect. These data provide evidence for CS/GH-V dysregulation in acute HFD-induced obesity in mouse pregnancy and chronic obesity in human pregnancy and implicate C/EBPβ, a factor associated with CS regulation and placental development.

  17. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles alter expression of obesity and T2D-associated risk genes in human adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, S.; Daghighi, S.; Motazacker, M. M.; Badlou, B.; Sanjabi, B.; Akbarkhanzadeh, A.; Rowshani, A. T.; Laurent, S.; Peppelenbosch, M. P.; Rezaee, F.

    2013-07-01

    Adipocytes hypertrophy is the main cause of obesity and its affliction such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Since superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are used for a wide range of biomedical/medical applications, we aimed to study the effect of SPIONs on 22 and 29 risk genes (Based on gene wide association studies) for obesity and T2D in human adipocytes. The mRNA expression of lipid and glucose metabolism genes was changed upon the treatment of human primary adipocytes with SPIONs. mRNA of GULP1, SLC30A8, NEGR1, SEC16B, MTCH2, MAF, MC4R, and TMEM195 were severely induced, whereas INSIG2, NAMPT, MTMR9, PFKP, KCTD15, LPL and GNPDA2 were down-regulated upon SPIONs stimulation. Since SEC16B gene assist the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and this gene were highly expressed upon SPIONs treatment in adipocytes, it is logic to assume that SPIONs may play a crucial role in this direction, which requires more consideration in the future.

  18. Pro-inflammatory wnt5a and anti-inflammatory sFRP5 are differentially regulated by nutritional factors in obese human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik M Schulte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue. These inflammatory cells affect adipocytes not only by classical cytokines but also by the secreted glycopeptide wnt5a. Healthy adipocytes are able to release the wnt5a inhibitor sFRP5. This protective effect, however, was found to be diminished in obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine (1 whether obese human subjects exhibit increased serum concentrations of wnt5a and (2 whether wnt5a and/or sFRP5 serum concentrations in obese subjects can be influenced by caloric restriction. METHODOLOGY: 23 obese human subjects (BMI 44.1 ± 1.1 kg/m(2 and 12 age- and sex-matched lean controls (BMI 22.3 ± 0.4 kg/m(2 were included in the study. Obese subjects were treated with a very low-calorie diet (approximately 800 kcal/d for 12 weeks. Body composition was assessed by impedance analysis, insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA-IR and the leptin-to-adiponectin ratio and wnt5a and sFRP5 serum concentrations were measured by ELISA. sFRP5 expression in human adipose tissue biopsies was further determined on protein level by immunohistology. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pro-inflammatory wnt5a was not measurable in any serum sample of lean control subjects. In patients with obesity, however, wnt5a became significantly detectable consistent with low grade inflammation in such subjects. Caloric restriction resulted in a weight loss from 131.9 ± 4.0 to 112.3 ± 3.2 kg in the obese patients group. This was accompanied by a significant decrease of HOMA-IR and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, indicating improved insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, these metabolic improvements were associated with a significant increase in serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory factor and wnt5a-inhibitor sFRP5. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Obesity is associated with elevated serum levels of pro-inflammatory wnt5a in humans. Furthermore, caloric restriction beneficially affects serum concentrations

  19. Efficacy of Slim339 in reducing body weight of overweight and obese human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toromanyan, Edward; Aslanyan, Gayane; Amroyan, Elmira; Gabrielyan, Emil; Panossian, Alexander

    2007-12-01

    A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study has been carried out in order to evaluate the effect of orally self-administered Slim339, a proprietary fixed combination of Garcinia cambogia extract with calcium pantothenate (standardized for the content of hydroxycitric acid and pantothenic acid) and extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Rosa damascena, Lavandula officinalis and Cananga odorata, on body weight in overweight and obese volunteers. During a 60-day treatment period, the average reduction in body weight for the group receiving Slim339 (n = 30) was 4.67% compared with 0.63% for the placebo group (n = 28) (p or=3 kg were recorded for 23 subjects in the treatment group and only one in the placebo group. It is concluded that Slim339 represents a potential therapy for obesity. PMID:17639559

  20. Oral insulin (human, murine, or porcine) does not prevent diabetes in the non-obese diabetic mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Minh N; Gibson, Claire; Rydén, Anna K E; Perdue, Nikole; Boursalian, Tamar E; Pagni, Philippe P; Coppieters, Ken; Skonberg, Christian; Porsgaard, Trine; von Herrath, Matthias; Vela, Jose Luis

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown oral insulin prevents type 1 diabetes (T1D) in mouse models, however human trials were inconclusive. We tested the ability of different insulins to prevent T1D in non-obese diabetic mice. Mice received oral insulin or PBS twice weekly and disease was monitored. Contrary to previous studies, no insulin tested showed significant ability to prevent T1D, nor did testing of linked suppression in a delayed type hypersensitivity model have reproducible effect. To investigate delivery of antigen within the GI tract, blue dye was fed to mice. Dye traveled 5-8 cm from stomach to small intestine within 10s, suggesting orally administered antigen may not get digested in the stomach in mice. Insulin incubated with jejunum extracts was instantly digested. Thus, in humans large doses of insulin may be required to achieve tolerance as antigen may be more vulnerable to digestion in the stomach even before reaching the small intestine.

  1. Metabolic signatures of cultured human adipocytes from metabolically healthy versus unhealthy obese individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Böhm

    Full Text Available Among obese subjects, metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity (MHO/MUHO can be differentiated: the latter is characterized by whole-body insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and subclinical inflammation. Aim of this study was, to identify adipocyte-specific metabolic signatures and functional biomarkers for MHO versus MUHO.10 insulin-resistant (IR vs. 10 insulin-sensitive (IS non-diabetic morbidly obese (BMI >40 kg/m2 Caucasians were matched for gender, age, BMI, and percentage of body fat. From subcutaneous fat biopsies, primary preadipocytes were isolated and differentiated to adipocytes in vitro. About 280 metabolites were investigated by a targeted metabolomic approach intracellularly, extracellularly, and in plasma.Among others, aspartate was reduced intracellularly to one third (p = 0.0039 in IR adipocytes, pointing to a relative depletion of citric acid cycle metabolites or reduced aspartate uptake in MUHO. Other amino acids, already known to correlate with diabetes and/or obesity, were identified to differ between MUHO's and MHO's adipocytes, namely glutamine, histidine, and spermidine. Most species of phosphatidylcholines (PCs were lower in MUHO's extracellular milieu, though simultaneously elevated intracellularly, e.g., PC aa C32∶3, pointing to increased PC synthesis and/or reduced PC release. Furthermore, altered arachidonic acid (AA metabolism was found: 15(S-HETE (15-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid; 0 vs. 120pM; p = 0.0014, AA (1.5-fold; p = 0.0055 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22∶6; 2-fold; p = 0.0033 were higher in MUHO. This emphasizes a direct contribution of adipocytes to local adipose tissue inflammation. Elevated DHA, as an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, might be a hint for counter-regulatory mechanisms in MUHO.We identified adipocyte-inherent metabolic alterations discriminating between MHO and MUHO.

  2. The relationship between active ghrelin levels and human obesity involves alterations in resting energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Paolo; Verti, Barbara; Savia, Giulio; Walker, Gillian E; Guzzaloni, Gabriele; Tagliaferri, Mariantonella; Di Blasio, Annamaria; Liuzzi, Antonio

    2004-02-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric hormone that exerts a stimulatory effect on appetite and fat accumulation. Ser(3) octanoylation is regarded as a prerequisite for ghrelin biological activity, although des-octanoylated forms may retain biological functions in vitro. Circulating ghrelin levels are usually low in obesity and in states of positive energy balance. Hence, the aim of our study was to analyze plasma active and serum total ghrelin levels in 20 obese (ages, 22-42 yr; body mass index, 41.3 +/- 1.1 kg/m(2)) and 20 lean subjects (ages, 22-43 yr; body mass index, 22.4 +/- 0.6 kg/m(2)) as well as their relationship to measures of glucose homeostasis, body fat, and resting energy expenditure (REE). The measured/predicted REE percentage ratio was calculated to subdivide groups into those with positive (> or = 100% ) and negative (abnormal energy profit adds new evidence to the relationship between ghrelin activity and energy balance in obesity. PMID:14764817

  3. Interleukin-7 Plasma Levels in Human Differentiate Anorexia Nervosa, Constitutional Thinness and Healthy Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Natacha; Viltart, Odile; Loyens, Anne; Bruchet, Céline; Nadin, Katia; Wolowczuk, Isabelle; Estour, Bruno; Galusca, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a cytokine involved in energy homeostasis as demonstrated in rodents. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by restrained eating behavior despite adaptive orexigenic regulation profile including high ghrelin plasma levels. Constitutional thinness is a physiological condition of resistance to weight gain with physiological anorexigenic profile including high Peptide YY plasma level. Healthy obesity can be considered as a physiological state of resistance to weight loss with opposite appetite regulating profile to constitutional thinness including low Peptide YY plasma level. No studies in IL-7 are yet available in those populations. Therefore we evaluated circadian plasma levels of IL-7 in anorexia nervosa compared to constitutional thinness, healthy obese and control females. Materials and Methods 10 restrictive-type anorexia nervosa women, 5 bingeing/purging anorexia nervosa woman, 5 recovered restrictive anorexia nervosa women, 4 bulimic females, 10 constitutional thinness women, 7 healthy obese females, and 10 normal weight women controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, performed in endocrinology unit and academic laboratory. Twelve-point circadian profiles of plasma IL-7 levels were measured in each subject. Results 24h mean IL-7 plasma levels (pg/ml, mean±SEM) were decreased in restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (123.4±14.4, pobese patients (51±3.2, pobesity, with low IL-7, is once again in mirror image of constitutional thinness with normal high IL-7. PMID:27611669

  4. Mature adipocyte proteome reveals differentially altered protein abundances between lean, overweight and morbidly obese human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Masood, Afshan; Almidani, Ghaith M; Alsadhan, Abdulmajeed A; Bassas, Abdulelah F; Duncan, Mark W; Alfadda, Assim A

    2015-02-01

    Overweight (OW) and obese individuals are considered to be graded parts of the scale having increasing weight as a common feature. They may not, however, be part of the same continuum and may differ metabolically. In this study we applied an untargeted proteomic approach to compare protein abundances in mature adipocytes derived from the subcutaneous adipose tissue of overweight and morbidly obese female subjects to those of lean age matched controls. Mature adipocytes were isolated from liposuction samples of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue collected from both lean (L; n = 7, 23.3 ± 0.4 kg/m(2); mean BMI ± SD), overweight (OW; n = 8, 27.9 ± 0.6 kg/m(2); mean BMI ± SD) and morbidly obese (MOB; n = 7, 44.8 ± 3.8 kg/m(2); mean BMI ± SD) individuals. Total protein extracts were then compared by two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE). One hundred and ten differentially expressed protein spots (i.e., fitting the statistical criteria ANOVA test, p interaction; in contrast, in the MOB group the major interacting pathways are associated with lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry and cancer. The differences in abundance of the differentially regulated proteins were validated by immunoblotting. These findings provide insights into metabolic differences in OW and MOB individuals. PMID:25498962

  5. B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS is expressed in human adipocytes in vivo and is related to obesity but not to insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Müller

    Full Text Available Inflammation and metabolism have been shown to be evolutionary linked and increasing evidence exists that pro-inflammatory factors are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Until now, most data suggest that within adipose tissue these factors are secreted by cells of the innate immune system, e. g. macrophages. In the present study we demonstrate that B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS is increased in human obesity. In contrast to several pro-inflammatory factors, we found the source of BLyS in human adipose tissue to be the adipocytes rather than immune cells. In grade 3 obese human subjects, expression of BLyS in vivo in adipose tissue is significantly increased (p<0.001. Furthermore, BLyS serum levels are elevated in grade 3 human obesity (862.5+222.0 pg/ml vs. 543.7+60.7 pg/ml in lean controls, p<0.001 and are positively correlated to the BMI (r = 0.43, p<0.0002. In the present study, bariatric surgery significantly altered serum BLyS concentrations. In contrast, weight loss due to a very-low-calorie-formula-diet (800 kcal/d had no such effect. To examine metabolic activity of BLyS, in a translational research approach, insulin sensitivity was measured in human subjects in vivo before and after treatment with the human recombinant anti-BLyS antibody belimumab. Since BLyS is known to promote B-cell proliferation and immunoglobulin secretion, the present data suggest that adipocytes of grade 3 obese human subjects are able to activate the adaptive immune system, suggesting that in metabolic inflammation in humans both, innate and adaptive immunity, are of pathophysiological relevance.

  6. Human serum levels of fetal antigen 1 (FA1/Dlk1) increase with obesity, are negatively associated with insulin sensitivity and modulate inflammation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chacón, M R; Miranda, M; Jensen, C H;

    2008-01-01

    -to-hip ratio, waist circumference, fat-free mass and fat mass. Clinical parameters: lipid profile (high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides), glycemic profile (fasting glucose, insulin, S(i), HOMA-IR (Homeostasis Model Assessment......OBJECTIVE:To investigate fetal antigen 1 (FA1) protein within the context of human obesity and its relation with insulin sensitivity. SUBJECTS: Cross-sectional study that analyses circulating levels of FA1 in two selected human cohorts: n=127 men for the study of FA1 circulating levels...... of Insulin Resistance), cytokines (sIL-6), adipokines (adiponectin) and circulating soluble fractions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptors 1 and 2 (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2). RESULTS: IN the obesity study, levels of FA1 in serum were found to increase with obesity. The S(i) index was negatively dependent on FA1...

  7. Proteomics analysis of human skeletal muscle reveals novel abnormalities in obesity and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Hyonson; Bowen, Benjamin P; Lefort, Natalie;

    2010-01-01

    directions for research. In previous studies, gene expression analyses show a coordinated pattern of reduction in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gene expression in insulin resistance. However, changes in mRNA levels may not predict changes in protein abundance. An approach to identify global protein abundance...... changes involving the use of proteomics was used here. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Muscle biopsies were obtained basally from lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic volunteers (n = 8 each); glucose clamps were used to assess insulin sensitivity. Muscle protein was subjected to mass spectrometry...

  8. Normal mitochondrial function and increased fat oxidation capacity in leg and arm muscles in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ara, I; Larsen, S; Stallknecht, Bente Merete;

    2011-01-01

    Aim/hypothesis:The aim of this study was to investigate mitochondrial function, fibre-type distribution and substrate oxidation during exercise in arm and leg muscles in male postobese (PO), obese (O) and age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched control (C) subjects. The hypothesis of the study...... was that fat oxidation during exercise might be differentially preserved in leg and arm muscles after weight loss.Methods:Indirect calorimetry was used to calculate fat and carbohydrate oxidation during both progressive arm-cranking and leg-cycling exercises. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from musculus...... deltoideus (m. deltoideus) and m. vastus lateralis muscles. Fibre-type composition, enzyme activity and O(2) flux capacity of saponin-permeabilized muscle fibres were measured, the latter by high-resolution respirometry.Results:During the graded exercise tests, peak fat oxidation during leg cycling...

  9. A Low-Glycemic Diet Lifestyle Intervention Improves Fat Utilization during Exercise in Older Obese Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Haus, Jacob M; Cook, Marc A;

    2013-01-01

    exchange ratio during exercise was unchanged in the LoGIX group but increased in the HiGIX group (P fat oxidation during exercise expressed in relation to changes in body weight was increased in the LoGIX group (+10.6 ± 3.6%; P ... lipid was reduced (P fat utilization during exercise independent of changes in energy expenditure. This highlights the potential therapeutic value of low-glycemic foods for reversing metabolic defects in obesity.......-glycemic (HiGIX) diets. Changes in indirect calorimetry (VO2 ; VCO2 ) were assessed at rest, during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and during submaximal exercise (walking: 65% VO2 max, 200 kcal energy expenditure). Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) was measured by (1) H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy...

  10. Cathepsin-D, a key protease in breast cancer, is up-regulated in obese mouse and human adipose tissue, and controls adipogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Masson

    Full Text Available The aspartic protease cathepsin-D (cath-D is overexpressed by human epithelial breast cancer cells and is closely correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. The adipocyte is one of the most prominent cell types in the tumor-microenvironment of breast cancer, and clinical studies have shown that obesity increases the incidence of breast cancer. Here, we provide the first evidence that cath-D expression is up-regulated in adipose tissue from obese human beings, as well as in adipocytes from the obese C57BI6/J mouse. Cath-D expression is also increased during human and mouse adipocyte differentiation. We show that cath-D silencing in 3T3-F442A murine preadipocytes leads to lipid-depleted cells after adipogenesis induction, and inhibits of the expression of PPARγ, HSL and aP2 adipocyte differentiation markers. Altogether, our findings demonstrate the key role of cath-D in the control of adipogenesis, and suggest that cath-D may be a novel target in obesity.

  11. Biology of Obesity: Lessons from Animal Models of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keizo Kanasaki

    2011-01-01

    problems, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory failure, muscle weakness, and cancer. The precise molecular mechanisms by which obesity induces these health problems are not yet clear. To better understand the pathomechanisms of human disease, good animal models are essential. In this paper, we will analyze animal models of obesity and their use in the research of obesity-associated human health conditions and diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

  12. Gene-chip studies of adipogenesis-regulated microRNAs in mouse primary adipocytes and human obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Iain J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipose tissue abundance relies partly on the factors that regulate adipogenesis, i.e. proliferation and differentiation of adipocytes. While components of the transcriptional program that initiates adipogenesis is well-known, the importance of microRNAs in adipogenesis is less well studied. We thus set out to investigate whether miRNAs would be actively modulated during adipogenesis and obesity. Methods Several models exist to study adipogenesis in vitro, of which the cell line 3T3-L1 is the most well known, albeit not the most physiologically appropriate. Thus, as an alternative, we produced EXIQON microarray of brown and white primary murine adipocytes (prior to and following differentiation to yield global profiles of miRNAs. Results We found 65 miRNAs regulated during in vitro adipogenesis in primary adipocytes. We evaluated the similarity of our responses to those found in non-primary cell models, through literature data-mining. When comparing primary adipocyte profiles, with those of cell lines reported in the literature, we found a high degree of difference in 'adipogenesis' regulated miRNAs suggesting that the model systems may not be accurately representing adipogenesis. The expression of 10 adipogenesis-regulated miRNAs were studied using real-time qPCR and then we selected 5 miRNAs, that showed robust expression, were profiled in subcutaneous adipose tissue obtained from 20 humans with a range of body mass indices (BMI, range = 21-48, and all samples have U133+2 Affymetrix profiles provided. Of the miRNAs tested, mir-21 was robustly expressed in human adipose tissue and positively correlated with BMI (R2 = 0.49, p Conclusion In conclusion, we provide a preliminary analysis of miRNAs associated with primary cell in vitro adipogenesis and demonstrate that the inflammation-associated miRNA, mir-21 is up-regulated in subcutaneous adipose tissue in human obesity. Further, we provide a novel transcriptomics database of

  13. Laboratory, Epidemiological, and Human Intervention Studies Show That Tea (Camellia sinensis) May Be Useful in the Prevention of Obesity12

    OpenAIRE

    Grove, Kimberly A.; Lambert, Joshua D.

    2010-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) and tea polyphenols have been studied for the prevention of chronic diseases, including obesity. Obesity currently affects >20% of adults in the United States and is a risk factor for chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Given this increasing public health concern, the use of dietary agents for the prevention of obesity would be of tremendous benefit. Whereas many laboratory studies have demonstrated the potential eff...

  14. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Zhang; Fenxia Li; Fu-Qiang Liu; Chao Chu; Yang Wang; Dan Wang; Tong-Shuai Guo; Jun-Kui Wang; Gong-Chang Guan; Ke-Yu Ren; Jian-Jun Mu

    2016-01-01

    Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated...

  15. Impact of metabolic regulators on the expression of the obesity associated genes FTO and NAMPT in human preadipocytes and adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Friebe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: FTO and NAMPT/PBEF/visfatin are thought to play a role in obesity but their transcriptional regulation in adipocytes is not fully understood. In this study, we evaluated the transcriptional regulation of FTO and NAMPT in preadipocytes and adipocytes by metabolic regulators. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed FTO mRNA expression during human adipocyte differentiation of Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS cells and primary subcutaneous preadipocytes in vitro and evaluated the effect of the metabolic regulators glucose, insulin, dexamethasone, IGF-1 and isoproterenol on FTO and NAMPT mRNA expression in SGBS preadipocytes and adipocytes. FTO mRNA levels were not significantly modulated during adipocyte differentiation. Also, metabolic regulators had no impact on FTO expression in preadipocytes or adipocytes. In SGBS preadipocytes NAMPT expression was more than 3fold induced by dexamethasone and isoproterenol and 1.6fold by dexamethasone in adipocytes. Complete glucose restriction caused an increase in NAMPT mRNA expression by more than 5fold and 1.4fold in SGBS preadipocytes and adipocytes, respectively. CONCLUSION: FTO mRNA expression is not significantly affected by differentiation or metabolic regulators in human adipocytes. The stimulation of NAMPT expression by dexamethasone, isoproterenol and complete glucose restriction may indicate a regulation of NAMPT by metabolic stress, which was more pronounced in preadipocytes compared to mature adipocytes.

  16. Impact of Metabolic Regulators on the Expression of the Obesity Associated Genes FTO and NAMPT in Human Preadipocytes and Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönberg, Maria; Bernhard, Falk; Büttner, Petra; Landgraf, Kathrin; Kiess, Wieland; Körner, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Background FTO and NAMPT/PBEF/visfatin are thought to play a role in obesity but their transcriptional regulation in adipocytes is not fully understood. In this study, we evaluated the transcriptional regulation of FTO and NAMPT in preadipocytes and adipocytes by metabolic regulators. Methodology and Principal Findings We assessed FTO mRNA expression during human adipocyte differentiation of Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) cells and primary subcutaneous preadipocytes in vitro and evaluated the effect of the metabolic regulators glucose, insulin, dexamethasone, IGF-1 and isoproterenol on FTO and NAMPT mRNA expression in SGBS preadipocytes and adipocytes. FTO mRNA levels were not significantly modulated during adipocyte differentiation. Also, metabolic regulators had no impact on FTO expression in preadipocytes or adipocytes. In SGBS preadipocytes NAMPT expression was more than 3fold induced by dexamethasone and isoproterenol and 1.6fold by dexamethasone in adipocytes. Complete glucose restriction caused an increase in NAMPT mRNA expression by more than 5fold and 1.4fold in SGBS preadipocytes and adipocytes, respectively. Conclusion FTO mRNA expression is not significantly affected by differentiation or metabolic regulators in human adipocytes. The stimulation of NAMPT expression by dexamethasone, isoproterenol and complete glucose restriction may indicate a regulation of NAMPT by metabolic stress, which was more pronounced in preadipocytes compared to mature adipocytes. PMID:21687707

  17. Establishment of a human flora associated mice for obesity patient%肥胖患者HFA小鼠模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾本华; 唐欢; 李文霞; 袁静; 邓人伟; 魏泓

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study gut microbiota of obesity patient colonized in germ free mice. Method 20 Kunming mice were inoculated with feces from an obesity patient to construct a human flora associated ( HFA) mice model. Feces of HFA mice and patient were detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Result The richness (S) of obesity patient and HFA mice were 24 and 12.04 ± 3.68; ihe Shannon Index (H') of obesity patient and HFA mice were 3. 02 and 2. 46 ± 0. 33; the Similarity Dice of obesity patient and HFA mice was 26%. Most gut microbiota of male mice differed from those of female mice in the cluster profile; and the gut microbiota of male HFA mice were more semblable to human donor than those of female mice. Conclusion HFA mice are able to partly imitate microbiota of obesity patient. The HFA mice model for obesity patient is a new tool for study of the relationship between obesity and microbiota.%目的 研究肥胖患者的肠道菌群在无菌小鼠体内的定植规律.方法 选取20只无菌KM小鼠,接种肥胖患者的粪便,构建菌群人源化(HFA)动物模型,利用变性梯度凝胶电泳技术(DGGE)评价患者肠道菌群在无菌小鼠体内的定植规律.结果 HFA小鼠菌群平均丰富度(richness,S)为12.04±3.68,肥胖患者的条带S为24,为HFA小鼠S的2倍;肥胖患者Shannon指数(H')为3.02,HFA小鼠平均H'为2.46±0.33;HFA小鼠与人肠道菌群的总相似度为26%;大部分雌性HFA小鼠与雄性HFA小鼠在聚类分析图上分离,且雄性HFA小鼠与患者更为相似.结论 HFA小鼠体内能部分模拟肥胖患者的微生物区系,且与患者性别相同的小鼠模拟得更好.本实验建立的HFA模型为肥胖与肠道菌群关系的进一步研究提供新的选择.

  18. CD36- and GPR120-mediated Ca2+ Signaling in Human Taste Bud Cells Mediates Differential Responses to Fatty Acids and is Altered in Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdener, Mehmet Hakan; Subramaniam, Selvakumar; Sundaresan, Sinju; Sery, Omar; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Besnard, Philippe; Abumrad, Nada A.; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims It is important to increase our understanding of gustatory detection of dietary fat and its contribution to fat preference. We studied the roles of the fat taste receptors CD36 and GPR120 and their interactions via Ca2+ signaling in fungiform taste bud cells (TBC). Methods We measured Ca2+ signaling in human TBC, transfected with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against mRNAs encoding CD36 and GPR120 (or control siRNAs). We also studied Ca2+ signaling in TBC from CD36−/− mice and from wild-type lean and obese mice. Additional studies were conducted with mouse enteroendocrine cell line STC-1 that express GPR120 and stably transfected with human CD36. We measured release of serotonin and GLP-1 from human and mice TBC in response to CD36 and GPR120 activation. Results High concentrations of linoleic acid induced Ca2+ signaling via CD36 and GPR120 in human and mice TBC as well as in STC-1 cells, whereas low concentrations induced Ca2+ signaling via only CD36. Incubation of human and mice fungiform TBC with lineoleic acid downregulated CD36 and upregulated GPR120 in membrane lipid rafts. Obese mice had decreased spontaneous preference for fat. Fungiform TBC from obese mice had reduced Ca2+ and serotonin responses but increased release of GLP1, along with reduced levels of CD36 and increased levels of GPR120 in lipid rafts. Conclusions CD36 and GPR120 have non-overlapping roles in TBC signaling during oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids; these are differentially regulated by obesity. PMID:24412488

  19. Epigenetics of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopomo, A; Burgio, E; Migliore, L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disease, which is becoming an epidemic health problem: it has been recently defined in terms of Global Pandemic. Over the years, the approaches through family, twins and adoption studies led to the identification of some causal genes in monogenic forms of obesity but the origins of the pandemic of obesity cannot be considered essentially due to genetic factors, because human genome is not likely to change in just a few years. Epigenetic studies have offered in recent years valuable tools for the understanding of the worldwide spread of the pandemic of obesity. The involvement of epigenetic modifications-DNA methylation, histone tails, and miRNAs modifications-in the development of obesity is more and more evident. In the epigenetic literature, there are evidences that the entire embryo-fetal and perinatal period of development plays a key role in the programming of all human organs and tissues. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms involved in the epigenetic programming require a new and general pathogenic paradigm, the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease theory, to explain the current epidemiological transition, that is, the worldwide increase of chronic, degenerative, and inflammatory diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Obesity and its related complications are more and more associated with environmental pollutants (obesogens), gut microbiota modifications and unbalanced food intake, which can induce, through epigenetic mechanisms, weight gain, and altered metabolic consequences. PMID:27288829

  20. Lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue during exercise in lean and obese humans. Roles of insulin and natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppo, Katrien; Larrouy, Dominique; Marques, Marie A;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative contributions of various hormones involved in the regulation of lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) during exercise and to assess the impact of obesity on this regulation. Eight lean and eight obese men performed a 60-min cyc...

  1. Changes in human dendritic cell number and function in severe obesity may contribute to increased susceptibility to viral infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, D

    2013-02-26

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key immune sentinels linking the innate and adaptive immune systems. DCs recognise danger signals and initiate T-cell tolerance, memory and polarisation. They are critical cells in responding to a viral illness. Obese individuals have been shown to have an impaired response to vaccinations against virally mediated conditions and to have an increased susceptibility to multi-organ failure in response to viral illness. We investigated if DCs are altered in an obese cohort (mean body mass index 51.7±7.3 kg m(-2)), ultimately resulting in differential T-cell responses. Circulating DCs were found to be significantly decreased in the obese compared with the lean cohort (0.82% vs 2.53%). Following Toll-like receptor stimulation, compared with lean controls, DCs generated from the obese cohort upregulated significantly less CD83 (40% vs 17% mean fluorescence intensity), a molecule implicated in the elicitation of T-cell responses, particularly viral responses. Obese DCs produced twofold more of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 than lean controls, and in turn stimulated fourfold more IL-4-production from allogenic naive T cells. We conclude that obesity negatively impacts the ability of DCs to mature and elicit appropriate T-cell responses to a general stimulus. This may contribute to the increased susceptibility to viral infection observed in severe obesity.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 26 February 2013; doi:10.1038\\/ijo.2013.16.

  2. Calorie Restriction-like Effects of 30 Days of Resveratrol Supplementation on Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Profile in Obese Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, S.; Konings, E.; Bilet, L.; Houtkooper, R.H.; Weijer, van de T.; Goossens, G.H.; Hoeks, J.; Krieken, van der S.; Ryu, D.; Kersten, A.H.; Moonen-Kornips, E.; Hesselink, M.K.C.; Kunz, I.; Schrauwen-Hinderling, V.B.; Blaak, E.E.; Auwerx, J.; Schrauwen, P.

    2011-01-01

    Resveratrol is a natural compound that affects energy metabolism and mitochondrial function and serves as a calorie restriction mimetic, at least in animal models of obesity. Here, we treated 11 healthy, obese men with placebo and 150 mg/day resveratrol (resVida) in a randomized double-blind crossov

  3. “Infectobesity: viral infections (especially with human adenovirus-36: Ad-36) may be a cause of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, van V.J.T.; Sitnyakowsky, L.; Jeffery, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years viral infections have been recognized as possible cause of obesity, alongside the traditionally recognized causes (genetic inheritance, and behaviour/environmental causes such as diet exercise, cultural practices and stress). Although four viruses have been reported to induce obesity

  4. Treating diet-induced diabetes and obesity with human embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic progenitor cells and antidiabetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruin, Jennifer E; Saber, Nelly; Braun, Natalie; Fox, Jessica K; Mojibian, Majid; Asadi, Ali; Drohan, Campbell; O'Dwyer, Shannon; Rosman-Balzer, Diana S; Swiss, Victoria A; Rezania, Alireza; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2015-04-14

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived pancreatic progenitor cells effectively reverse hyperglycemia in rodent models of type 1 diabetes, but their capacity to treat type 2 diabetes has not been reported. An immunodeficient model of type 2 diabetes was generated by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in SCID-beige mice. Exposure to HFDs did not impact the maturation of macroencapsulated pancreatic progenitor cells into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells following transplantation, and the cell therapy improved glucose tolerance in HFD-fed transplant recipients after 24 weeks. However, since diet-induced hyperglycemia and obesity were not fully ameliorated by transplantation alone, a second cohort of HFD-fed mice was treated with pancreatic progenitor cells combined with one of three antidiabetic drugs. All combination therapies rapidly improved body weight and co-treatment with either sitagliptin or metformin improved hyperglycemia after only 12 weeks. Therefore, a stem cell-based therapy may be effective for treating type 2 diabetes, particularly in combination with antidiabetic drugs.

  5. Treating Diet-Induced Diabetes and Obesity with Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Progenitor Cells and Antidiabetic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Bruin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived pancreatic progenitor cells effectively reverse hyperglycemia in rodent models of type 1 diabetes, but their capacity to treat type 2 diabetes has not been reported. An immunodeficient model of type 2 diabetes was generated by high-fat diet (HFD feeding in SCID-beige mice. Exposure to HFDs did not impact the maturation of macroencapsulated pancreatic progenitor cells into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells following transplantation, and the cell therapy improved glucose tolerance in HFD-fed transplant recipients after 24 weeks. However, since diet-induced hyperglycemia and obesity were not fully ameliorated by transplantation alone, a second cohort of HFD-fed mice was treated with pancreatic progenitor cells combined with one of three antidiabetic drugs. All combination therapies rapidly improved body weight and co-treatment with either sitagliptin or metformin improved hyperglycemia after only 12 weeks. Therefore, a stem cell-based therapy may be effective for treating type 2 diabetes, particularly in combination with antidiabetic drugs.

  6. Prolonged Exposure of Primary Human Muscle Cells to Plasma Fatty Acids Associated with Obese Phenotype Induces Persistent Suppression of Muscle Mitochondrial ATP Synthase β Subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Lee; Hanavan, Paul D; Campbell, Latoya E; De Filippis, Elena; Lake, Douglas F; Coletta, Dawn K; Roust, Lori R; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Carroll, Chad C; Katsanos, Christos S

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies show reduced abundance of the β-subunit of mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase (β-F1-ATPase) in skeletal muscle of obese individuals. The β-F1-ATPase forms the catalytic core of the ATP synthase, and it is critical for ATP production in muscle. The mechanism(s) impairing β-F1-ATPase metabolism in obesity, however, are not completely understood. First, we studied total muscle protein synthesis and the translation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase in obese (BMI, 36±1 kg/m2) and lean (BMI, 22±1 kg/m2) subjects. Both total protein synthesis (0.044±0.006 vs 0.066±0.006%·h-1) and translation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase (0.0031±0.0007 vs 0.0073±0.0004) were lower in muscle from the obese subjects when compared to the lean controls (Ptranslation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase in primary myotubes cultured from a lean subject, and after exposure to NEFA extracted from serum of an obese subject, were similar to those obtained in humans. Among candidate microRNAs (i.e., non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression), we identified miR-127-5p in preventing the production of β-F1-ATPase. Muscle expression of miR-127-5p negatively correlated with β-F1-ATPase protein translation efficiency in humans (r = - 0.6744; Pexposure of primary myotubes derived from the lean subject to NEFA extracted from the obese subject. On the other hand, locked nucleic acid inhibitor synthesized to target miR-127-5p significantly increased β-F1-ATPase translation efficiency in myotubes (0.6±0.1 vs 1.3±0.3, in control vs exposure to 50 nM inhibitor; Ptranslation as an important consequence of obesity. PMID:27532680

  7. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  8. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Ahmet; Koca, Fahrettin; Fıçıcıoğlu, Can; Çam, Halit; Mıkla, Şerare

    1995-01-01

    Management of childhood obesity and its early and late complications are among the most difficult problems confronted by pediatricians and practitioners The purpose of this review is to provide information for the evaluation and treatment of childhood obesity Key nbsp;words: nbsp;Child Obesity Etiology Management Complications

  9. Sun Exposure and Its Effects on Human Health: Mechanisms through Which Sun Exposure Could Reduce the Risk of Developing Obesity and Cardiometabolic Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Naomi; Geldenhuys, Sian; Gorman, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant burden on global healthcare due to its high prevalence and associations with chronic health conditions. In our animal studies, ongoing exposure to low dose ultraviolet radiation (UVR, found in sunlight) reduced weight gain and the development of signs of cardiometabolic dysfunction in mice fed a high fat diet. These observations suggest that regular exposure to safe levels of sunlight could be an effective means of reducing the burden of obesity. However, there is limited knowledge around the nature of associations between sun exposure and the development of obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction, and we do not know if sun exposure (independent of outdoor activity) affects the metabolic processes that determine obesity in humans. In addition, excessive sun exposure has strong associations with a number of negative health consequences such as skin cancer. This means it is very important to “get the balance right” to ensure that we receive benefits without increasing harm. In this review, we detail the evidence around the cardiometabolic protective effects of UVR and suggest mechanistic pathways through which UVR could be beneficial. PMID:27727191

  10. Gastric emptying of solids in humans: improved evaluation by Kaplan-Meier plots, with special reference to obesity and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that obesity is associated with an altered rate of gastric emptying, and that there are also sex differences in gastric emptying. The results of earlier studies examining gastric emptying rates in obesity and in males and females have proved inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of obesity and gender on gastric emptying, by extending conventional evaluation methods with Kaplan-Meier plots, in order to assess whether these factors have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying tests. Twenty-one normal-weight volunteers and nine obese subjects were fed a standardised technetium-99m labelled albumin omelette. Imaging data were acquired at 5- and 10-min intervals in both posterior and anterior projections with the subjects in the sitting position. The half-emptying time, analysed by Kaplan-Meier plot (log-rank test), were shorter in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects and later in females compared to males. Also, the lag-phase and half-emptying time were shorter in obese females than in normal females. This study shows an association between different gastric emptying rates and obesity and gender. Therefore, body mass index and gender have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying studies. (orig.). With 6 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Gastric emptying of solids in humans: improved evaluation by Kaplan-Meier plots, with special reference to obesity and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grybaeck, P. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Naeslund, E. [Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute at Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Hellstroem, P.M. [Department of Internal Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Backman, L. [Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute at Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    It has been suggested that obesity is associated with an altered rate of gastric emptying, and that there are also sex differences in gastric emptying. The results of earlier studies examining gastric emptying rates in obesity and in males and females have proved inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of obesity and gender on gastric emptying, by extending conventional evaluation methods with Kaplan-Meier plots, in order to assess whether these factors have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying tests. Twenty-one normal-weight volunteers and nine obese subjects were fed a standardised technetium-99m labelled albumin omelette. Imaging data were acquired at 5- and 10-min intervals in both posterior and anterior projections with the subjects in the sitting position. The half-emptying time, analysed by Kaplan-Meier plot (log-rank test), were shorter in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects and later in females compared to males. Also, the lag-phase and half-emptying time were shorter in obese females than in normal females. This study shows an association between different gastric emptying rates and obesity and gender. Therefore, body mass index and gender have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying studies. (orig.). With 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides modulate intestinal microbiota and metabolic parameters of humanized gnotobiotic diet induced obesity mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique Respondek

    Full Text Available Prebiotic fibres like short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS are known to selectively modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota and especially to stimulate Bifidobacteria. In parallel, the involvement of intestinal microbiota in host metabolic regulation has been recently highlighted. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of scFOS on the composition of the faecal microbiota and on metabolic parameters in an animal model of diet-induced obesity harbouring a human-type microbiota. Forty eight axenic C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with a sample of faecal human microbiota and randomly assigned to one of 3 diets for 7 weeks: a control diet, a high fat diet (HF, 60% of energy derived from fat or an isocaloric HF diet containing 10% of scFOS (HF-scFOS. Mice fed with the two HF gained at least 21% more weight than mice from the control group. Addition of scFOS partially abolished the deposition of fat mass but significantly increased the weight of the caecum. The analysis of the taxonomic composition of the faecal microbiota by FISH technique revealed that the addition of scFOS induced a significant increase of faecal Bifidobacteria and the Clostridium coccoides group whereas it decreased the Clostridium leptum group. In addition to modifying the composition of the faecal microbiota, scFOS most prominently affected the faecal metabolome (e.g. bile acids derivatives, hydroxyl monoenoic fatty acids as well as urine, plasma hydrophilic and plasma lipid metabolomes. The increase in C. coccoides and the decrease in C. leptum, were highly correlated to these metabolic changes, including insulinaemia, as well as to the weight of the caecum (empty and full but not the increase in Bifidobacteria. In conclusion scFOS induce profound metabolic changes by modulating the composition and the activity of the intestinal microbiota, that may partly explain their effect on the reduction of insulinaemia.

  13. [Asthma, obesity and diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, P; Delgado, J; Gallego, L T; Bobolea, I; Pedrosa, Ma; García de Lorenzo, A; Quirce, S

    2012-01-01

    Asthma and obesity have a considerable impact on public health and their prevalence has increased in recent years. Numerous studies have linked both disorders. Most prospective studies show that obesity is a risk factor for asthma and have found a positive correlation between baseline body mass index (BMI) and the subsequent development of asthma, although these results are not conclusive when studying the association between airway hyperresponsiveness with BMI. Furthermore, several studies suggest that whereas weight gain increases the risk of asthma, weight loss improves the course of the illness. Different factors could explain this association. Obesity is capable of reducing pulmonary compliance, lung volumes and the diameter of peripheral respiratory airways as well as affecting the volume of blood in the lungs and the ventilation-perfusion relationship. Furthermore, the increase in the normal functioning of adipose tissue in obese subjects leads to a systemic proinflammatory state, which produces a rise in the serum concentrations of several cytokines, the soluble fractions of their receptors and chemokines. Many of these mediators are synthesized and secreted by cells from adipose tissue and receive the generic name of adipokines, including IL-6, IL-10, eotaxin, TNF-α, TGF- 1, PCR, leptin y adiponectin. Finally, specific regions of the human genome which are related to both asthma and obesity have been identified. Most studies point out that obesity is capable of increasing the prevalence and incidence of asthma, although this effect appears to be modest. The treatment of obese asthmatics must include a weight control program. PMID:22566313

  14. No insulating effect of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alexander W; Csikasz, Robert I; von Essen, Gabriella; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2016-07-01

    The development of obesity may be aggravated if obesity itself insulates against heat loss and thus diminishes the amount of food burnt for body temperature control. This would be particularly important under normal laboratory conditions where mice experience a chronic cold stress (at ≈20°C). We used Scholander plots (energy expenditure plotted against ambient temperature) to examine the insulation (thermal conductance) of mice, defined as the inverse of the slope of the Scholander curve at subthermoneutral temperatures. We verified the method by demonstrating that shaved mice possessed only half the insulation of nonshaved mice. We examined a series of obesity models [mice fed high-fat diets and kept at different temperatures, classical diet-induced obese mice, ob/ob mice, and obesity-prone (C57BL/6) vs. obesity-resistant (129S) mice]. We found that neither acclimation temperature nor any kind or degree of obesity affected the thermal insulation of the mice when analyzed at the whole mouse level or as energy expenditure per lean weight. Calculation per body weight erroneously implied increased insulation in obese mice. We conclude that, in contrast to what would be expected, obesity of any kind does not increase thermal insulation in mice, and therefore, it does not in itself aggravate the development of obesity. It may be discussed as to what degree of effect excess adipose tissue has on insulation in humans and especially whether significant metabolic effects are associated with insulation in humans. PMID:27189935

  15. Molecular Characterization of the Tumor Suppressor Candidate 5 Gene: Regulation by PPARγ and Identification of TUSC5 Coding Variants in Lean and Obese Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trina A. Knotts

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor suppressor candidate 5 (TUSC5 is a gene expressed abundantly in white adipose tissue (WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT, and peripheral afferent neurons. Strong adipocyte expression and increased expression following peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ agonist treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes suggested a role for Tusc5 in fat cell proliferation and/or metabolism. However, the regulation of Tusc5 in WAT and its potential association with obesity phenotypes remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the TUSC5 gene is a bona fide PPARγ target and evaluated whether its WAT expression or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the TUSC5 coding region are associated with human obesity. Induction of Tusc5 mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by troglitazone and GW1929 followed a dose-response consistent with these agents' binding affinities for PPARγ. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP experiments confirmed that PPARγ protein binds a ∼−1.1 kb promotor sequence of murine TUSC5 transiently during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis, concurrent with histone H3 acetylation. No change in Tusc5 mRNA or protein levels was evident in type 2 diabetic patients treated with pioglitazone. Tusc5 expression was not induced appreciably in liver preparations overexpressing PPARs, suggesting that tissue-specific factors regulate PPARγ responsiveness of the TUSC5 gene. Finally, we observed no differences in Tusc5 WAT expression or prevalence of coding region SNPs in lean versus obese human subjects. These studies firmly establish the murine TUSC5 gene locus as a PPARγ target, but the significance of Tusc5 in obesity phenotypes or in the pharmacologic actions of PPARγ agonists in humans remains equivocal.

  16. Different effects of hyperlipidic diets in human lactation and adulthood: growth versus the development of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemany Marià

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After birth, the body shifts from glucose as primary energy substrate to milk-derived fats, with sugars from lactose taking a secondary place. At weaning, glucose recovers its primogeniture and dietary fat role decreases. In spite of human temporary adaptation to a high-fat (and sugars and protein diet during lactation, the ability to thrive on this type of diet is lost irreversibly after weaning. We could not revert too the lactating period metabolic setting because of different proportions of brain/muscle metabolism in the total energy budget, lower thermogenesis needs and capabilities, and absence of significant growth in adults. A key reason for change was the limited availability of foods with high energy content at weaning and during the whole adult life of our ancestors, which physiological adaptations remain practically unchanged in our present-day bodies. Humans have evolved to survive with relatively poor diets interspersed by bouts of scarcity and abundance. Today diets in many societies are largely made up from choice foods, responding to our deeply ingrained desire for fats, protein, sugars, salt etc. Consequently our diets are not well adjusted to our physiological needs/adaptations but mainly to our tastes (another adaptation to periodic scarcity, and thus are rich in energy roughly comparable to milk. However, most adult humans cannot process the food ingested in excess because our cortical-derived craving overrides the mechanisms controlling appetite. This is produced not because we lack the biochemical mechanisms to use this energy, but because we are unprepared for excess, and wholly adapted to survive scarcity. The thrifty mechanisms compound the effects of excess nutrients and damage the control of energy metabolism, developing a pathologic state. As a consequence, an overflow of energy is generated and the disease of plenty develops.

  17. Lean body mass in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, G B; Welle, S L

    1983-01-01

    Most obese individuals, both children and adults, have an increase in lean weight (LBM) as well as fat, the former accounting for as much as 40 percent of the excess weight in some studies. Intentional overfeeding of normal individuals augments LBM as well as fat. Human obesity thus differs from some types of experimental and hereditary obesity in animals, since these are associated with a decreased LBM. Exceptions are those individuals with Cushing's syndrome.

  18. Human Fetuin-A Rs4918 Polymorphism and its Association with Obesity in Healthy Persons and in Patients with Myocardial Infarction in Two Hungarian Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temesszentandrási, György; Vörös, Krisztián; Márkus, Bernadett; Böröcz, Zoltán; Kaszás, Edit; Prohászka, Zoltán; Falus, András; Cseh, Károly; Kalabay, László

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Human fetuin A (AHSG) has been associated with the development of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis. Observations on the role of AHSG rs4918 single-nucleotide polymorphism are contradictory. We investigated the association between variants of rs4918 and parameters of obesity, lipid status, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), adipokines (adiponectin, resistin, leptin), and insulin resistance in healthy persons and in patients with previous myocardial infarction. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional study comprising cohort 1 (81 healthy individuals) and cohort 2 (157 patients with previous myocardial infarction). We used the allele-specific KASP genotyping assay to detect rs4918 polymorphism. RESULTS In cohort 1, G-nucleotide carriers had significantly lower serum TNFα, adiponectin, and higher leptin concentrations than in non-G carriers. These differences, however, were not observed in cohort 2. In cohort 2, G-carriers had lower BMI and waist circumferences than in non-G carriers. The G allele was more frequent among lean than obese patients (RR=1.067, 95%CI=1.053-2.651, p=0.015). An association between BMI and rs4918 polymorphism was observed among patients without diabetes (CC/CG/GG genotypes: p=0.003, G vs. non-G allele: p=0.008) but not in diabetics. In addition, a strong linearity between BMI and the CC/CG/GG genotypes (association value: 4.416, p=0.036) and the frequency of the G allele (7.420, p=0.006) could be identified. In cohort 2, non-obese, non-diabetic G-carriers still had lower BMI and waist circumferences than in non-G carriers. CONCLUSIONS The rs4918 minor variant is associated with lower TNFα and adiponectin, higher leptin levels in healthy persons, and more favorable anthropomorphic parameters of obesity in cohort 2. PMID:27487851

  19. Effects of Gut Microbiota Manipulation by Antibiotics on Host Metabolism in Obese Humans: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnders, Dorien; Goossens, Gijs H; Hermes, Gerben D A; Neis, Evelien P J G; van der Beek, Christina M; Most, Jasper; Holst, Jens J; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Kootte, Ruud S; Nieuwdorp, Max; Groen, Albert K; Olde Damink, Steven W M; Boekschoten, Mark V; Smidt, Hauke; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Blaak, Ellen E

    2016-07-12

    The gut microbiota has been implicated in obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, although evidence in humans is scarce. We investigated how gut microbiota manipulation by antibiotics (7-day administration of amoxicillin, vancomycin, or placebo) affects host metabolism in 57 obese, prediabetic men. Vancomycin, but not amoxicillin, decreased bacterial diversity and reduced Firmicutes involved in short-chain fatty acid and bile acid metabolism, concomitant with altered plasma and/or fecal metabolite concentrations. Adipose tissue gene expression of oxidative pathways was upregulated by antibiotics, whereas immune-related pathways were downregulated by vancomycin. Antibiotics did not affect tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, energy/substrate metabolism, postprandial hormones and metabolites, systemic inflammation, gut permeability, and adipocyte size. Importantly, energy harvest, adipocyte size, and whole-body insulin sensitivity were not altered at 8-week follow-up, despite a still considerably altered microbial composition, indicating that interference with adult microbiota by 7-day antibiotic treatment has no clinically relevant impact on metabolic health in obese humans. PMID:27411009

  20. Gut microbiota and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The human intestine harbors a complex bacterial community called the gut microbiota. This microbiota is specific to each individual despite the existence of several bacterial species shared by the majority of adults. The influence of the gut microbiota in human health and disease has been revealed in the recent years. Particularly, the use of germ-free animals and microbiota transplant showed that the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, and lead to identification of several mechanisms. In humans, differences in microbiota composition, functional genes and metabolic activities are observed between obese and lean individuals suggesting a contribution of the gut microbiota to these phenotypes. Finally, the evidence linking gut bacteria to host metabolism could allow the development of new therapeutic strategies based on gut microbiota modulation to treat or prevent obesity.

  1. Obesity and gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Binkowska-Borgosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.

  2. Hypertension in obesity: is leptin the culprit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Stephanie E; Cowley, Michael A

    2013-02-01

    The number of obese or overweight humans continues to increase worldwide. Hypertension is a serious disease that often develops in obesity, but it is not clear how obesity increases the risk of hypertension. However, both obesity and hypertension increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this review, we examine how obesity may increase the risk of developing hypertension. Specifically, we discuss how the adipose-derived hormone leptin influences the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), through actions in the brain to elevate energy expenditure (EE) while also contributing to hypertension in obesity.

  3. Obesity-insulin targeted genes in the 3p26-25 region in human studies and LG/J and SM/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraja, Aldi T; Lawson, Heather A; Arnett, Donna K; Borecki, Ingrid B; Broeckel, Ulrich; de las Fuentes, Lisa; Hunt, Steven C; Province, Michael A; Cheverud, James; Rao, D C

    2012-08-01

    Identifying metabolic syndrome (MetS) genes is important for novel drug development and health care. This study extends the findings on human chromosome 3p26-25 for an identified obesity-insulin factor QTL, with an LOD score above 3. A focused association analysis comprising up to 9578 African American and Caucasian subjects from the HyperGEN Network (908 African Americans and 1025 whites), the Family Heart Study (3035 whites in time 1 and 1943 in time 2), and the Framingham Heart Study (1317 in Offspring and 1320 in Generation 3) was performed. The homologous mouse region was explored in an F(16) generation of an advanced intercross between the LG/J and SM/J inbred strains, in an experiment where 1002 animals were fed low-fat (247 males; 254 females) or high-fat (253 males; 248 females) diets. Association results in humans indicate pleiotropic effects for SNPs within or surrounding CNTN4 on obesity, lipids and blood pressure traits and for SNPs near IL5RA, TRNT1, CRBN, and LRRN1 on central obesity and blood pressure. Linkage analyses of this region in LG/J×SM/J mice identify a highly significant pleiotropic QTL peak for insulin and glucose levels, as well as response to glucose challenge. The mouse results show that insulin and glucose levels interact with high and low fat diets and differential gene expression was identified for Crbn and Arl8b. In humans, ARL8B resides ~137kbps away from BHLHE40, expression of which shows up-regulation in response to insulin treatment. This focused human genetic analysis, incorporating mouse research evidenced that 3p26-25 has important genetic contributions to MetS components. Several of the candidate genes have functions in the brain. Their interaction with MetS and the brain warrants further investigation.

  4. Dietary Polyphenols and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Meydani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated metabolic disorders are considered a major threat to the public’s health. While several diet and exercise programs are available for weight loss and prevention of weight regain, progress is often slow and disappointing. Recently, natural bioactive phytochemicals present in foods have been discovered for their potential health benefit effects on the prevention of chronic disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory and metabolic diseases including obesity.Polyphenols are a class of naturally-occurring phytochemicals, of which some such as catechins, anthocynines, resveratrol and curcumin have been shown to modulate physiological and molecular pathways that are involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity. The potential in vivo, beneficial effects of these polyphenols on adiposity and obesity as complementary agents in the up-regulation of energy expenditure have emerged by investigating these compounds in cell cultures, animal models of obesity and in some human clinical and epidemiological studies. In this brief review, the efficacy of the above-named polyphenols and their potential efficacy to modulate obesity and some associated disorders are discussed.

  5. CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein α Is a Crucial Regulator of Human Fat Mass and Obesity Associated Gene Transcription and Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several susceptibility loci have been reported associated with obesity and T2DM in GWAS. Fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO is the first gene associated with body mass index (BMI and risk for diabetes in diverse patient populations. FTO is highly expressed in the brain and pancreas, and is involved in regulating dietary intake and energy expenditure. While much is known about the epigenetic mutations contributing to obesity and T2DM, less is certain with the expression regulation of FTO gene. In this study, a highly conserved canonical C/EBPα binding site was located around position −45~−54 bp relative to the human FTO gene transcriptional start site. Site-directed mutagenesis of the putative C/EBPα binding sites decreased FTO promoter activity. Overexpression and RNAi studies also indicated that C/EBPα was required for the expression of FTO. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP experiment was carried out and the result shows direct binding of C/EBPα to the putative binding regions in the FTO promoter. Collectively, our data suggest that C/EBPα may act as a positive regulator binding to FTO promoter and consequently, activates the gene transcription.

  6. Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics on Obesity, Insulin Resistance Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Review of Human Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jose Sáez-Lara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of probiotics and synbiotics in the prevention and treatment of different disorders has dramatically increased over the last decade. Both probiotics and synbiotics are well known ingredients of functional foods and nutraceuticals and may provide beneficial health effects because they can influence the intestinal microbial ecology and immunity. The present study reviews the effects of probiotics and synbiotics on obesity, insulin resistance syndrome (IRS, type 2 diabetes (T2D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in human randomized clinical trials. Select probiotics and synbiotics provided beneficial effects in patients with obesity, mainly affecting the body mass index and fat mass. Some probiotics had beneficial effects on IRS, decreasing the cell adhesion molecule-1 levels, and the synbiotics decreased the insulin resistance and plasma lipid levels. Moreover, select probiotics improved the carbohydrate metabolism, fasting blood glucose, insulin sensitivity and antioxidant status and also reduced metabolic stress in subjects with T2D. Some probiotics and synbiotics improved the liver and metabolic parameters in patients with NAFLD. The oral intake of probiotics and synbiotics as co-adjuvants for the prevention and treatment of obesity, IRS, T2D and NAFLD is partially supported by the data shown in the present review. However, further studies are required to understand the precise mechanism of how probiotics and synbiotics affect these metabolic disorders.

  7. Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics on Obesity, Insulin Resistance Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Review of Human Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Lara, Maria Jose; Robles-Sanchez, Candido; Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco Javier; Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gil, Angel

    2016-01-01

    The use of probiotics and synbiotics in the prevention and treatment of different disorders has dramatically increased over the last decade. Both probiotics and synbiotics are well known ingredients of functional foods and nutraceuticals and may provide beneficial health effects because they can influence the intestinal microbial ecology and immunity. The present study reviews the effects of probiotics and synbiotics on obesity, insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in human randomized clinical trials. Select probiotics and synbiotics provided beneficial effects in patients with obesity, mainly affecting the body mass index and fat mass. Some probiotics had beneficial effects on IRS, decreasing the cell adhesion molecule-1 levels, and the synbiotics decreased the insulin resistance and plasma lipid levels. Moreover, select probiotics improved the carbohydrate metabolism, fasting blood glucose, insulin sensitivity and antioxidant status and also reduced metabolic stress in subjects with T2D. Some probiotics and synbiotics improved the liver and metabolic parameters in patients with NAFLD. The oral intake of probiotics and synbiotics as co-adjuvants for the prevention and treatment of obesity, IRS, T2D and NAFLD is partially supported by the data shown in the present review. However, further studies are required to understand the precise mechanism of how probiotics and synbiotics affect these metabolic disorders. PMID:27304953

  8. Use of pyrosequencing and DNA barcodes to monitor variations in Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes communities in the gut microbiota of obese humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoult Didier

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies of 16S rRNA genes in the mammalian gut microbiota distinguished a higher Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in obese individuals compared to lean individuals. This ratio was estimated using a clonal Sanger sequencing approach which is time-consuming and requires laborious data analysis. In contrast, new high-throughput pyrosequencing technology offers an inexpensive alternative to clonal Sanger sequencing and would significantly advance our understanding of obesity via the development of a clinical diagnostic method. Here we present a cost-effective method that combines 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and DNA barcodes of the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes to determine the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in the gut microbiota of obese humans. Results The main result was the identification of DNA barcodes targeting the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. These barcodes were validated using previously published 16S rRNA gut microbiota clone libraries. In addition, an accurate F/B ratio was found when the DNA barcodes were applied to short pyrosequencing reads of published gut metagenomes. Finally, the barcodes were utilized to define the F/B ratio of 16S rRNA pyrosequencing data generated from brain abscess pus and cystic fibrosis sputum. Conclusion Using DNA barcodes of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes 16S rRNA genes combined with pyrosequencing is a cost-effective method for monitoring relevant changes in the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes bacterial communities in microbial ecosystems.

  9. Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics on Obesity, Insulin Resistance Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Review of Human Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Lara, Maria Jose; Robles-Sanchez, Candido; Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco Javier; Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gil, Angel

    2016-01-01

    The use of probiotics and synbiotics in the prevention and treatment of different disorders has dramatically increased over the last decade. Both probiotics and synbiotics are well known ingredients of functional foods and nutraceuticals and may provide beneficial health effects because they can influence the intestinal microbial ecology and immunity. The present study reviews the effects of probiotics and synbiotics on obesity, insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in human randomized clinical trials. Select probiotics and synbiotics provided beneficial effects in patients with obesity, mainly affecting the body mass index and fat mass. Some probiotics had beneficial effects on IRS, decreasing the cell adhesion molecule-1 levels, and the synbiotics decreased the insulin resistance and plasma lipid levels. Moreover, select probiotics improved the carbohydrate metabolism, fasting blood glucose, insulin sensitivity and antioxidant status and also reduced metabolic stress in subjects with T2D. Some probiotics and synbiotics improved the liver and metabolic parameters in patients with NAFLD. The oral intake of probiotics and synbiotics as co-adjuvants for the prevention and treatment of obesity, IRS, T2D and NAFLD is partially supported by the data shown in the present review. However, further studies are required to understand the precise mechanism of how probiotics and synbiotics affect these metabolic disorders. PMID:27304953

  10. 11Beta-HSD type 1 expression in human adipose tissue: impact of gender, obesity, and fat localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Søren Kildeberg; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Fisker, Sanne;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pre-receptor amplification of glucocorticoids is, in part, determined by the isoenzymes 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type 1 and type 2, interconverting inert cortisone and active cortisol. Increased tissue activity of cortisol may play a part in features...... abdominal surgery (lean men, 10), minor gynecological surgery (lean woman, 10), or gastric banding operations (obese men, 10; and obese women, 10). Gene expressions of 11beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue samples were determined by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Lean...... women had lower 11beta-HSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue compared with men (62% lower, p adipose tissue was higher in obese subjects compared with lean subjects in both women...

  11. Obesity, Affluence and Urbanisation in India

    OpenAIRE

    Raghav Gaiha; Raghbendra Jha; Vani S. Kulkarni

    2010-01-01

    Based on data collected from a representative national sample, India Human Development Survey 2005, this paper investigates the links between obesity among children and among adults with a number of socio economic characteristics as well as household and location specific variables. Both child and adult obesity are far from negligible, which is a matter of concern, given the links between obesity and some diseases. There are strong links between socio-economic indicators and risk of obesity. ...

  12. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children are obese. Twin and adoption studies demonstrate a large genetic component to obesity, especially in adults. However, the increasing prevalence of obesity over the last 20 years can only be explained by environmental factors. In most obese individuals, no measurable differences in metabolism can be detected. Few children engage in regular physical activity. Obese children and adults uniformly underreport the amount of food they eat. Obesity is particularly related to increased consumption of high-fat foods. BMI is a quick and easy way to screen for childhood obesity. Treating childhood obesity relies on positive family support and lifestyle changes involving the whole family. Food preferences are influenced early by parental eating habits, and when developed in childhood, they tend to remain fairly constant into adulthood. Children learn to be active or inactive from their parents. In addition, physical activity (or more commonly, physical inactivity) habits that are established in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Weight loss is usually followed by changes in appetite and metabolism, predisposing individuals to regain their weight. However, when the right family dynamics exist--a motivated child with supportive parents--long-term success is possible.

  13. Genome-wide association study reveals genetic architecture of eating behavior in pigs and its implications for humans obesity by comparative mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Ostersen, Tage;

    2013-01-01

    are important for genetic improvement of pig feed efficiency. We have also conducted pig-human comparative gene mapping to reveal key genomic regions and/or genes on the human genome that may influence eating behavior in human beings and consequently affect the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome...... found to have moderate genome-wide significance (pgene on chromosome (SSC) 14 was very strongly associated with NVD. Thirty-six SNPs were located in genome regions where QTLs have previously been reported...... for behavior and/or feed intake traits in pigs. The regions: 64–65 Mb on SSC 1, 124–130 Mb on SSC 8, 63–68 Mb on SSC 11, 32–39 Mb and 59–60 Mb on SSC 12 harbored several signifcant SNPs. Synapse genes (GABRR2, PPP1R9B, SYT1, GABRR1, CADPS2, DLGAP2 and GOPC), dephosphorylation genes (PPM1E, DAPP1, PTPN18, PTPRZ...

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Genetic Architecture of Eating Behaviors in Pigs and its Implications for Humans Obesity by Comparative Genome Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Ostersen, Tage;

    2013-01-01

    for geneticimprovement of pig feed efficiency. The results of pig-human comparative genemapping revealed some important genomic regions and/or genes on the humangenome that may influence eating behavior in human and consequently affect thedevelopment of obesity and metabolic syndromes. This is the first......This study was aimed at identifying genomic regions controlling feeding behaviors inDanish Duroc boars and its potential implications for eating behaviors in humans.Individual daily feed intake (DFI), total daily time spent in feeder (TPD), number of dailyvisits to feeder (NVD), time spent to eat...... per visit (TPV), mean feed intake per visit(FPV) and mean feed intake rate (FR) were available on 1130 boars. All boars weregenotyped using the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip. The association analyseswere performed using the GenABEL package in R. Sixteen SNPs had moderategenome-wide significant (p...

  15. Do nutrient-gut-microbiota interactions play a role in human obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diamant, M.; Vaughan, E.E.; Vos, de W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The current obesity and type 2 diabetes pandemics have causes beyond changes in eating and exercise habits against a susceptible genetic background. Gut bacteria seem to additionally contribute to the differences in body weight, fat distribution, insulin sensitivity and glucose- and lipid-metabolism

  16. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles alter expression of obesity and T2D-associated risk genes in human adipocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharifi, S.; Daghighi, S.; Motazacker, M. M.; Badlou, B.; Sanjabi, B.; Akbarkhanzadeh, A.; Rowshani, A. T.; Laurent, S.; Peppelenbosch, M. P.; Rezaee, F.

    2013-01-01

    Adipocytes hypertrophy is the main cause of obesity and its affliction such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Since superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are used for a wide range of biomedical/medical applications, we aimed to study the effect of SPIONs on 22 and 29 risk genes (Based on gene

  17. Investigations of the human endocannabinoid system in two subcutaneous adipose tissue depots in lean subjects and in obese subjects before and after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Marianne Faurholt; Wellner, Niels; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin;

    2011-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (ECs) have a role in obesity by affecting appetite and through peripheral effects. Obesity is associated with a dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS).......Endocannabinoids (ECs) have a role in obesity by affecting appetite and through peripheral effects. Obesity is associated with a dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS)....

  18. Influence of obesity and insulin sensitivity on insulin signaling genes in human omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, R; Cui, W; Simard, S; Cianflone, K

    2008-02-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are independent risk factors for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue samples from nonobese (NO), insulin-sensitive obese (ISO), and insulin-resistant obese (IRO) subjects from subcutaneous (SC) and omental (OM) adipose tissue (n = 28) were analyzed by microarray and confirmed by real-time PCR. Insulin signaling gene expression changes were greater in OM than in SC tissue and were related to insulin resistance rather than to obesity; few genes correlated with body mass index. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) increased in the IRO versus pooled insulin-sensitive (NO+ISO) subjects. In glucose transport, PI3Kalpha and PDK2 decreased in IRO subjects, whereas PI3Kgamma, Akt2, GLUT4, and GLUT1 increased. IRS-1 regulators Jnk and IKK increased in IRO (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001 respectively). In protein synthesis, most genes examined were downregulated in IRO subjects, including mTor, Rheb, and 4EBP and eIF members (all P < 0.05). In proliferation, SHC, SOS, and Raf1 (P < 0.05) were increased, whereas Ras and MEK1/2 kinase 1 (P < 0.05) were decreased, in IRO subjects. Finally, in differentiation, PPARgamma, CEBPalpha, and CEBPbeta decreased, whereas PPARdelta, CEBPgamma, and CEBPepsilon increased, in IRO subjects (P < 0.05). Together, microarray and real-time PCR data demonstrate that insulin resistance rather than obesity is associated with altered gene expression of insulin signaling genes, especially in OM adipose tissue. PMID:17986714

  19. Interactions between Obesity Status and Dietary Intake of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Oils on Human Gut Microbiome Profiles in the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shuaihua; Khazanehei, Hamidreza; Jones, Peter J.; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Long-term dietary fatty acid intake is believed to induce changes in the human gut microbiome which might be associated with human health or obesity status; however, considerable debate remains regarding the most favorable ratios of fatty acids to optimize these processes. The objective of this sub-study of a double-blinded randomized crossover clinical study, the canola oil multi-center intervention trial, was to investigate effects of five different novel oil blends fed for 30 days each on the intestinal microbiota in 25 volunteers with risk of metabolic syndrome. The 60 g treatments included three MUFA-rich diets: (1) conventional canola oil (Canola); (2) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (CanolaDHA); (3) high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic); and two PUFA-rich diets: (4) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75) (CornSaff); and (5) a blend of flax/safflower oil (60:40) (FlaxSaff). Stool samples were collected at the end of each period. DNA was extracted and amplified for 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. A total of 17 phyla and 187 genera were identified. While five novel oil treatments failed to alter bacterial phyla composition, obese participants resulted in a higher proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes than overweight or normal weight groups (P = 0.01). Similarly at the genus level, overall bacterial distribution was highly associated with subjects’ body mass index (BMI). Treatment effects were observed between MUFA- and PUFA-rich diets, with the three MUFA diets elevating Parabacteroides, Prevotella, Turicibacter, and Enterobacteriaceae’s populations, while the two PUFA-rich diets favored the higher abundance of Isobaculum. High MUFA content feedings also resulted in an increase of Parabacteroides and a decrease of Isobaculum in obese, but not overweight subjects. Data suggest that BMI is a predominant factor in characterization of human gut microbiota profile, and that MUFA-rich and PUFA-rich diets impact the composition of gut microbiota at lower

  20. FA1 Induces Pro-Inflammatory and Anti-Adipogenic Pathways/Markers in Human Myotubes Established from Lean, Obese, and Type 2 Diabetic Subjects but Not Insulin Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Gaster, Michael

    2013-01-01

    /FA1 in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in human subjects, we studied the effects of chronic FA1 on the intermediary metabolism in myotubes established from lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects. Methods: Myotube cultures were established from lean and obese control subjects, and...... established from lean, obese, and T2D subjects. Instead, chronic FA1 exposure induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression (IL-6 and CCL2) in association with reducing adipogenic markers (ADD1, AP2, CD36, and PPARg2) in myotubes. Consistent with this observation, addition of FA1 to cultured myotubes was show...... to significantly inhibit their differentiation into adipocyte. Conclusion: Our results exclude direct effects of FA1 on glucose and lipid metabolism in cultured myotubes established from lean, obese, and T2D subjects. Therefore, the pathogenesis of FA1-induced IR might mainly be mediated via the FA1...

  1. Adenovirus 36 and Obesity: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Ponterio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an epidemic of obesity starting about 1980 in both developed and undeveloped countries definitely associated with multiple etiologies. About 670 million people worldwide are obese. The incidence of obesity has increased in all age groups, including children. Obesity causes numerous diseases and the interaction between genetic, metabolic, social, cultural and environmental factors are possible cofactors for the development of obesity. Evidence emerging over the last 20 years supports the hypothesis that viral infections may be associated with obesity in animals and humans. The most widely studied infectious agent possibly linked to obesity is adenovirus 36 (Adv36. Adv36 causes obesity in animals. In humans, Adv36 associates with obesity both in adults and children and the prevalence of Adv36 increases in relation to the body mass index. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that the viral E4orf1 protein (early region 4 open reading frame 1, Adv mediates the Adv36 effect including its adipogenic potential. The Adv36 infection should therefore be considered as a possible risk factor for obesity and could be a potential new therapeutic target in addition to an original way to understand the worldwide rise of the epidemic of obesity. Here, the data indicating a possible link between viral infection and obesity with a particular emphasis to the Adv36 will be reviewed.

  2. Mood, food, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity. PMID:25225489

  3. Effects of Consuming Dietary Fructose versus Glucose on de novo Lipogenesis in Overweight and Obese Human Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The effects of consuming a diet high in fructose,compared to a diet high in glucose, on the rate ofhepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in overweightand obese individuals were studied. Thesesubjects were given a diet in which either glucoseor fructose was substituted for 25% of their energyrequirements for 10 weeks. During the fasted state,subjects’ DNL for those on a glucose and fructosediet were similar. However, in the fed state, DNLwas increased significantly in subjects given afructose diet...

  4. Artificial synthesis and cloning of human obese gene%人肥胖(obese)基因的人工合成及克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林; 吴无畏

    2000-01-01

    根据人肥胖基因的cDNA序列,通过合理的引物设计、链延伸反应、PCR反应以及分子克隆等步骤,成功地合成出编码瘦蛋白(Leptin)的肥胖基因(ob基因)全长片段,并将其克隆至pUC18载体质粒上.序列分析和酶切鉴定显示肥胖基因得到了正确合成和克隆.%According to the known sequence of human ob gene cDNA,the gene coding the leptin was synthesized and cloned into pUC18 vector after reasonable primer designing,DNA strain extending,PCR reaction and molecular cloning.Sequence analysis and RE digest results showed the ob gene was synthesized and cloned correctly.

  5. Differences in Insula and Pre-/Frontal Responses during Reappraisal of Food in Lean and Obese Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurabh; Grundeis, Felicitas; Brand, Cristin; Hwang, Han-Jeong; Mehnert, Jan; Pleger, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Brain regions involved in the reappraisal of tasty but unhealthy foods are of special interest for the development of new therapeutic interventions for obesity, such as non-invasive brain stimulation or neurofeedback. Here, we visually presented food items (i.e., high/low caloric) to obese and lean individuals during electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, while they either admitted or regulated their food desire. During admitting the desire for low and high calorie foods, obese as well as lean individuals showed higher activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), whereas the right frontal operculum was involved in the reappraisal of the same foods, suggesting interplay between executive control and gustatory regions. Only in lean participants, we found an interaction between calorie content and the regulate/admit conditions in bilateral anterior insular cortices, suggesting that the anterior insula, assumed to primarily host gustatory processes, also underpins higher cognitive processes involved in food choices, such as evaluating the foods' calorie content for its reappraisal. PMID:27458355

  6. Diet, Gut Microbiota and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Li and Chuanxian Wei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that alteration of gut microbiota ('dysbiosis' can lead to a number of diseases, including obesity, which affects a large population in the world and is now a global health issue. The mechanisms of gut microbiota-mediated obesity are just being explored and characterized in recent years. It has been suggested that dysbiosis of gut microbiota contributes to obesity development mainly in three ways: affecting energy harvest, altering host gene expression, and triggering chronic inflammation. Among the factors that determine and influence gut microbiota composition, diet is one of the best characterized in human and animal studies, and has been long linked with weight gain or loss. In this review, we will discuss recent advances of mechanisms through which gut microbiota dysbiosis leads to obesity. We will further discuss the underlying causes of obesity-related gut microbiota, highlighting dietary effects.

  7. Maternal obesity and prenatal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshenawy, Summer; Simmons, Rebecca

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a significant and increasing public health concern in the United States and worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological evidence clearly shows that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the increased susceptibility of humans to obesity and its associated comorbidities; the interplay of these factors is explained by the concept of epigenetics. The impact of maternal obesity goes beyond the newborn period; fetal programming during the critical window of pregnancy, can have long term detrimental effects on the offspring as well as future generations. Emerging evidence is uncovering a link between the clinical and molecular findings in the offspring with epigenetic changes in the setting of maternal obesity. Research targeted towards reducing the transgenerational propagation and developmental programming of obesity is vital in reducing the increasing rates of disease.

  8. Human-Specific SNP in Obesity Genes, Adrenergic Receptor Beta2 (ADRB2), Beta3 (ADRB3), and PPAR γ2 (PPARG), during Primate Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Akiko; Nakamura, Shin; Mitsunaga, Fusako; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Udono, Toshifumi; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2012-01-01

    Adrenergic-receptor beta2 (ADRB2) and beta3 (ADRB3) are obesity genes that play a key role in the regulation of energy balance by increasing lipolysis and thermogenesis. The Glu27 allele in ADRB2 and the Arg64 allele in ADRB3 are associated with abdominal obesity and early onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in many ethnic groups. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) is required for adipocyte differentiation. Pro12Ala mutation decreases PPARG activity and resistance to NIDDM. In humans, energy-expense alleles, Gln27 in ADRB2 and Trp64 in ADRB3, are at higher frequencies than Glu27 and Arg64, respectively, but Ala12 in PPARG is at lower frequency than Pro12. Adaptation of humans for lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of fat accumulation could be considered by examining which alleles in these genes are dominant in non-human primates (NHP). All NHP (P. troglodytes, G. gorilla, P. pygmaeus, H. agilis and macaques) had energy-thrifty alleles, Gly16 and Glu27 in ADRB2, and Arg64 in ADRB3, but did not have energy-expense alleles, Arg16, Gln27 and Trp64 alleles. In PPARG gene, all NHP had large adipocyte accumulating type, the Pro12 allele. Conclusions These results indicate that a tendency to produce much more heat through the energy-expense alleles developed only in humans, who left tropical rainforests for savanna and developed new features in their heat-regulation systems, such as reduction of body hair and increased evaporation of water, and might have helped the protection of entrails from cold at night, especially in glacial periods. PMID:22937051

  9. Human-specific SNP in obesity genes, adrenergic receptor beta2 (ADRB2, Beta3 (ADRB3, and PPAR γ2 (PPARG, during primate evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Takenaka

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Adrenergic-receptor beta2 (ADRB2 and beta3 (ADRB3 are obesity genes that play a key role in the regulation of energy balance by increasing lipolysis and thermogenesis. The Glu27 allele in ADRB2 and the Arg64 allele in ADRB3 are associated with abdominal obesity and early onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM in many ethnic groups. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG is required for adipocyte differentiation. Pro12Ala mutation decreases PPARG activity and resistance to NIDDM. In humans, energy-expense alleles, Gln27 in ADRB2 and Trp64 in ADRB3, are at higher frequencies than Glu27 and Arg64, respectively, but Ala12 in PPARG is at lower frequency than Pro12. Adaptation of humans for lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of fat accumulation could be considered by examining which alleles in these genes are dominant in non-human primates (NHP. All NHP (P. troglodytes, G. gorilla, P. pygmaeus, H. agilis and macaques had energy-thrifty alleles, Gly16 and Glu27 in ADRB2, and Arg64 in ADRB3, but did not have energy-expense alleles, Arg16, Gln27 and Trp64 alleles. In PPARG gene, all NHP had large adipocyte accumulating type, the Pro12 allele. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that a tendency to produce much more heat through the energy-expense alleles developed only in humans, who left tropical rainforests for savanna and developed new features in their heat-regulation systems, such as reduction of body hair and increased evaporation of water, and might have helped the protection of entrails from cold at night, especially in glacial periods.

  10. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  11. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood Obesity Facts The prevalence of obesity among low-income children aged 2 through 4 years, by state ... Obesity now affects 1 in 6 children and adolescents in the United States. Childhood Obesity Facts How ...

  12. Hormones and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Hormones and Obesity Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

  13. Relationship of age and body mass index to the expression of obesity and osteoarthritis related genes in human meniscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Muhammad Farooq; Sandell, Linda J.; Cheverud, James M.; Brophy, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Aging and obesity contribute to the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis with little information on their relation to gene expression in joint tissues, particularly the meniscus. Here, we test the hypothesis that patient age and body mass index (BMI) correlate with the expression of osteoarthritis- and obesity-related gene signatures in the meniscus. Design Meniscus was obtained from patients (N=68) undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. The mRNA expression of twenty-four osteoarthritis-related and four obesity-related genes in meniscus was assessed by qRT-PCR. The relationship between gene expression and patient age and BMI was analyzed using Spearman’s rank-order correlation. Hierarchical cluster dendrogram and heat maps were generated to study inter-gene associations. Results Age was negatively correlated (P<0.05) with the expression of MMP-1 (r=−0.447), NFκB2 (r=−0.361), NFκBIA (r=−0.312), IκBA (r=−0.308), IL-8 (r=−0.305), ADAMTS-4 (r=−0.294), APLN (r=−0.250) and IL-6 (r=−0.244). Likewise, BMI was negatively correlated with the expression of APLN (r=−0.328), ACAN (r=−0.268) and MMP-1 (r=−0.261). After adjusting for the correlation between age and BMI (r=0.310; P=0.008), the only independent effect of BMI on gene expression was for APLN (r=−0.272). However, age had an independent effect on expression on ADAMTS-4 (r=−0.253), MMP-1 (r=−0.399), IL-8 (r=−0.327), COL1A1 (r=−0.287), NFκBIA (r=−0.278), NFκB2 (r=−0.312) and IκBA (r=−0.299). The gene-correlation analysis identified four clusters of potentially relevant genes: transcription factors, matrix degrading enzymes, cytokines and chemokines, and obesity genes. Conclusion Age and BMI were negatively correlated with several osteoarthritis- and obesity-related genes. While the bulk of these changes appeared to be driven by age, expression of APLN was related to BMI. Inter-gene correlations implicated a common regulatory role of strongly

  14. Development of a neuromedin U-human serum albumin conjugate as a long-acting candidate for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Comparison with the PEGylated peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Philippe; Peier, Andrea M; Talamo, Fabio; Ingallinella, Paolo; Lahm, Armin; Barbato, Gaetano; Di Marco, Annalise; Desai, Kunal; Zytko, Karolina; Qian, Ying; Du, Xiaobing; Ricci, Davide; Monteagudo, Edith; Laufer, Ralph; Pocai, Alessandro; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Marsh, Donald J; Pessi, Antonello

    2014-01-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is an endogenous peptide implicated in the regulation of feeding, energy homeostasis, and glycemic control, which is being considered for the therapy of obesity and diabetes. A key liability of NMU as a therapeutic is its very short half-life in vivo. We show here that conjugation of NMU to human serum albumin (HSA) yields a compound with long circulatory half-life, which maintains full potency at both the peripheral and central NMU receptors. Initial attempts to conjugate NMU via the prevalent strategy of reacting a maleimide derivative of the peptide with the free thiol of Cys34 of HSA met with limited success, because the resulting conjugate was unstable in vivo. Use of a haloacetyl derivative of the peptide led instead to the formation of a metabolically stable conjugate. HSA-NMU displayed long-lasting, potent anorectic, and glucose-normalizing activity. When compared side by side with a previously described PEG conjugate, HSA-NMU proved superior on a molar basis. Collectively, our results reinforce the notion that NMU-based therapeutics are promising candidates for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. PMID:24222478

  15. Effects of reduced weight maintenance and leptin repletion on functional connectivity of the hypothalamus in obese humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hinkle

    Full Text Available Treating obesity has proven to be an intractable challenge, in part, due to the difficulty of maintaining reduced weight. In our previous studies of in-patient obese subjects, we have shown that leptin repletion following a 10% or greater weight loss reduces many of the metabolic (decreased energy expenditure, sympathetic nervous system tone, and bioactive thyroid hormones and behavioral (delayed satiation changes that favor regain of lost weight. FMRI studies of these same subjects have shown leptin-sensitive increases in activation of the right hypothalamus and reduced activation of the cingulate, medial frontal and parahippocampal gryi, following weight loss, in response to food stimuli. In the present study, we expanded our cohort of in-patient subjects and employed psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis to examine changes in the functional connectivity of the right hypothalamus. During reduced-weight maintenance with placebo injections, the functional connectivity of the hypothalamus increased with visual areas and the dorsal anterior cingulate (dorsal ACC in response to food cues, consistent with higher sensitivity to food. During reduced-weight maintenance with leptin injections, however, the functional connectivity of the right hypothalamus increased with the mid-insula and the central and parietal operculae, suggesting increased coupling with the interoceptive system, and decreased with the orbital frontal cortex, frontal pole and the dorsal ACC, suggesting a down-regulated sensitivity to food. These findings reveal neural mechanisms that may underlie observed changes in sensitivity to food cues in the obese population during reduced-weight maintenance and leptin repletion.

  16. The Gut Microbiome and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, George Kunnackal; Mullin, Gerard E

    2016-07-01

    The gut microbiome consists of trillions of bacteria which play an important role in human metabolism. Animal and human studies have implicated distortion of the normal microbial balance in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Bacteria causing weight gain are thought to induce the expression of genes related to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism thereby leading to greater energy harvest from the diet. There is a large body of evidence demonstrating that alteration in the proportion of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes leads to the development of obesity, but this has been recently challenged. It is likely that the influence of gut microbiome on obesity is much more complex than simply an imbalance in the proportion of these phyla of bacteria. Modulation of the gut microbiome through diet, pre- and probiotics, antibiotics, surgery, and fecal transplantation has the potential to majorly impact the obesity epidemic. PMID:27255389

  17. Oral and gastrointestinal sensing of dietary fat and appetite regulation in humans: modification by diet and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya J Little

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fat interacts with receptors in both the oral cavity and the gastrointestinal (GI tract to regulate fat and energy intake. This review discusses recent developments in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effects of fat, through its digestive products, fatty acids (FA, on GI function and energy intake, the role of oral and intestinal FA receptors, and the implications that changes in oral and small intestinal sensitivity in response to ingested fat may have for the development of obesity.

  18. Morbidly obese human subjects have increased peripheral blood CD4 + T cells with skewing toward a Treg- and Th2-dominated phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. van der Weerd (Kim); W.A. Dik (Willem); B. Schrijver (Benjamin); D.H. Schweitzer (Dave ); A.W. Langerak (Ton); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); R.M. Kiewiet-Kemper (Rosalie); M.O. van Aken (Maarten); A. van Huisstede (Astrid); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques); A.J. van der Lelij (Aart Jan); F.J.T. Staal (Frank); P.M. van Hagen (Martin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObesity is associated with local T-cell abnormalities in adipose tissue. Systemic obesity-related abnormalities in the peripheral blood T-cell compartment are not well defined. In this study, we investigated the peripheral blood T-cell compartment of morbidly obese and lean subjects. We

  19. Invariant NKT cells and CD1d(+) cells amass in human omentum and are depleted in patients with cancer and obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Lydia

    2012-02-01

    Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1d and respond rapidly by killing tumor cells and release cytokines that activate and regulate adaptive immune responses. They are essential for tumor rejection in various mouse models, but clinical trials in humans involving iNKT cells have been less successful, partly due to their rarity in humans compared with mice. Here we describe an accumulation of functional iNKT cells in human omentum, a migratory organ with healing properties. Analysis of 39 omental samples revealed that T cells are the predominant lymphoid cell type and of these, 10% expressed the invariant Valpha24Jalpha18 TCR chain, found on iNKT cells, higher than in any other human organ tested to date. About 15% of omental hematopoietic cells expressed CD1d, compared with 1% in blood (p<0.001). Enriched omental iNKT cells killed CD1d(+) targets and released IFN-gamma and IL-4 upon activation. Omental iNKT-cell frequencies were lower in patients with severe obesity (p=0.005), and with colorectal carcinoma (p=0.004) compared with lean healthy subjects. These data suggest a novel role for the omentum in immune regulation and tumor immunity and identify it as a potential source of iNKT cells for therapeutic use.

  20. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar Wittner Bynner...

  1. Macrophages and Adipocytes in Human Obesity Adipose Tissue Gene Expression and Insulin Sensitivity During Calorie Restriction and Weight Stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capel, F.; Klimcakova, E.; Viguerie, N.;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-We investigated the regulation of adipose tissue gene expression during different phases of a dietary weight loss program and its relation with insulin sensitivity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Twenty-two obese women followed a dietary intervention program composed of an energy restriction...... phase with a 4-week very-low-calorie diet and a weight stabilization period composed of a 2-month low-calorie diet followed by 3-4 months of a weight maintenance diet. At each time point, a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were performed. Adipose tissue gene...... during the dietary intervention program. Transcriptome profiling revealed two main patterns of variations. The first involved 464 mostly adipocyte genes involved in metabolism that were downregulated during energy restriction, upregulated during weight stabilization, and unchanged during the dietary...

  2. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  3. Current Topics in Canine and Feline Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamper, Beth

    2016-09-01

    The domestication and urbanization of dogs and cats has dramatically altered their environment and behavior. Human and pet obesity is a global concern, particularly in developed countries. An increased incidence of chronic disease is associated with obesity secondary to low-grade systemic inflammation. This article reviews current research into the genetic, dietary, and physiologic factors associated with obesity, along with use of "omics" technology to better understand and characterize this disease. PMID:27368578

  4. Polymorphic human (CTAT)n microsatellite provides a conserved linkage marker for mouse mutants causing cleft palate, vestibular defects, obesity and ataxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, A.J.; Burgess, D.L.; Kohrman, D. [Univ. of MIchigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The Twirler mutation (Tw) causing cleft palate {plus_minus} cleft lip, vestibular defects and obesity is located within 0.5 cM of an ataxia locus (ax) on mouse chromosome 18. We identified a transgene-induced insertional mutation with vestibular and craniofacial defects that appears to be a new allele of Twirler. Mouse DNA flanking the transgene insertion site was isolated from a cosmid library. An evolutionarily conserved, zoo blot positive cosmid subclone was used to probe a human {lambda} genomic library. From the sequence of a highly homologous human {lambda} clone, we designed STS primers and screened a human P1 library. DNA from two positive P1 clones was hybridized with simple sequence probes, and a (CTAT){sub 12} repeat was detected. Analysis of 62 CEPH parents with primers flanking the repeat identified six alleles containing 9 to 14 copies of the repeat, at frequencies of 0.17, 0.17, 0.17, 0.27, 0.15 and 0.07, respectively. The observed heterozygosity was 49/62 with a calculated PIC value of 0.76. This polymorphic microsatellite marker, designated Umi3, was mapped to the predicted conserved human linkage group by analysis of somatic cell hybrid panels. The anticipated short distance between Umi3 and the disease genes will facilitate detection of linkage in small families. We would like to type appropriate human pedigrees with Umi3 in order to identify patients with inherited disorders homologous to the mouse mutations Twirler and ataxia.

  5. Obesity-Related Metabolomic Analysis of Human Subjects in Black Soybean Peptide Intervention Study by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography and Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jung Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify key metabolites related to weight reduction in humans by studying the metabolic profiles of sera obtained from 34 participants who underwent dietary intervention with black soybean peptides (BSP for 12 weeks. This research is a sequel to our previous work in which the effects of BSP on BMI and blood composition of lipid were investigated. Sera of the study were subjected to ultra performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, and the data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA score plots. Body mass index and percent body fat of the test group were reduced. Levels of betaine, benzoic acid, pyroglutamic acid, pipecolic acid, N-phenylacetamide, uric acid, l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine, and lysophosphatidyl cholines (lysoPCs (C18:1, C18:2, C20:1, and C20:4 showed significant increases. Levels of l-proline, valine, l-leucine/isoleucine, hypoxanthine, glutamine, l-methionine, phenylpyruvic acid, several carnitine derivatives, and lysoPCs (C14:0, PC16:0, C15:0, C16:0, C17:1, C18:0, and C22:0 were significantly decreased. In particular, lysoPC 16:0 with a VIP value of 12.02 is esteemed to be the most important metabolite for evaluating the differences between the 2 serum samples. Our result confirmed weight-lowering effects of BSP, accompanied by favorable changes in metabolites in the subjects’ blood. Therefore, this research enables us to better understand obesity and increases the predictability of the obesity-related risk by studying metabolites present in the blood.

  6. Obesity in children

    OpenAIRE

    Canoy, Dexter; Bundred, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is the result of long-term energy imbalances, where daily energy intake exceeds daily energy expenditure. Obesity in children is associated with physical as well as psychosocial problems. Long-term adverse health consequences of childhood obesity may include increased risk for cardiovascular and metabolic disease in adulthood. Most obese adolescents stay obese as adults.

  7. The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human gut is densely populated by commensal and symbiotic microbes (the "gut microbiota"), with the majority of the constituent microorganisms being bacteria. Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in the development of obesity, obesity-associated inflam...

  8. Role of HGF in obesity-associated tumorigenesis: C3(1)-TAg mice as a model for human basal-like breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sundaram, Sneha; Freemerman, Alex J.; Johnson, Amy R.; Milner, J. Justin; McNaughton, Kirk K.; Galanko, Joseph A.; Bendt, Katharine M.; Darr, David B.; Charles M Perou; Melissa A Troester; Makowski, Liza

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with basal-like breast cancer (BBC), an aggressive breast cancer subtype. The objective of this study was to determine whether obesity promotes BBC onset in adulthood and to evaluate the role of stromal-epithelial interactions in obesity-associated tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) plays a promoting role in BBC, which express the HGF receptor, c-Met. In C3(1)-Tag mice, a murine model of BBC, we demonstrated that obesity leads to a signifi...

  9. Impact of Obesity on Cardiopulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Marjorie L

    2016-09-01

    Although there are known detrimental effects of obesity on the heart and lungs, few data exist showing obesity as risk factor for cardiopulmonary disorders in dogs and cats. It is probable that increased abdominal fat is detrimental as it is in humans, and there is evidence of negative effects of increased intrathoracic fat. As well as physical effects of fat, increased inflammatory mediators and neurohormonal effects of obesity likely contribute to cardiopulmonary disorders. Weight loss in overweight individuals improves cardiac parameters and exercise tolerance. Obesity in patients with obstructive airway disorders is recognized to increase disease severity. PMID:27264052

  10. Chronobiology and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Garaulet

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronobiology is a word derived from three Greek stems: kronos for time, bios for life and logos for study. From microarrays studies, now it is accepted that 10-30% of the human genome is under the control of circadian molecular clocks. This implies that most behavioral, physiological and biochemical variables display circadian rhythms in their expression. In its simplest form, circadian clocks are composed of a set of proteins that generate self-sustained circadian oscillations. The molecular clock comprises two transcription factors, CLOCK and BMAL1, whereas PERs and CRYs are responsible for the negative limb. One of the most important questions related to the circadian system and obesity, was to elucidate if adipose tissue displayed circadian rhythmicity or whether it had an internal peripheral clock. Our group of research has provided an overall view of the internal temporal order of circadian rhythms in human adipose tissue. A new concept related to illness is Chronodisruption (CD. It is defined as a relevant disturbance of the internal temporal order of physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms. In our modern society, CD may be common in several conditions such as jet lag, shift work, light at night, or social jet lag. In addition clock gene polymorphisms and aging may have also chronodisruptive effects. Our group has also demonstrated that Obesity and CD are also highly interconnected. With the help of chronobiology we can reach a new view of obesity considering not only "what" are the factors involved in obesity, but also "when" these factors are produced.

  11. Determinants of obesity in transition economies: The case of Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizov, M.I.; Huffman, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines human obesity, measured as weight and body mass index (BMI), and its determinants in Russia. Obesity increased dramatically during transition from a planned to a market economy, by 38 percent. We determine the factors contributing to rising obesity using individual level data fro

  12. Infectious and Environmental Influences on the Obesity Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Lili; Lyons, Jasmine; Magliano, Dianna J

    2016-09-01

    Over the last two decades, the prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly. While it is intuitively appealing to believe that the causes of obesity are manifestly related to excess dietary intake, combined with a reduced expenditure of energy via a decrease in physical activity, it is also been noted that the evidence for these as the sole causes of the obesity epidemic is incomplete. This has led to the search for other causes of obesity, particularly those which stem from the environment we live in. This review will explore two putative causes of obesity: infections and environmental pollutants. It will focus on the key human infection associated with obesity-human adenovirus 36 (Ad36) and will discuss several environmental pollutants which have been postulated to be involved in the development of obesity: bisphenol A, phthalates and persistent organic pollutants. For each of these, the epidemiology and biological mechanisms underpinning the association of these agents with obesity will be reviewed. PMID:27394433

  13. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may stimulate or inhibit cell growth. For example, leptin, which is more abundant in obese people, seems ... is known about the relationship between obesity and kidney cancer? Obesity has been consistently associated with renal ...

  14. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is a condition in some obese people in which poor breathing leads to ... Maintain a healthy weight and avoid obesity. Use your CPAP or BiPAP treatment as your provider prescribed.

  15. Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome? Obesity hypoventilation (HI-po-ven-tih- ... NHLBI Research Featured in HBO Documentary Series on Obesity Hear people talk about their challenges and successes ...

  16. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  17. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  18. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  19. Human monoclonal antibodies against glucagon receptor improve glucose homeostasis by suppression of hepatic glucose output in diet-induced obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook-Dong Kim

    Full Text Available AIM: Glucagon is an essential regulator of hepatic glucose production (HGP, which provides an alternative therapeutic target for managing type 2 diabetes with glucagon antagonists. We studied the effect of a novel human monoclonal antibody against glucagon receptor (GCGR, NPB112, on glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese (DIO mice. METHODS: The glucose-lowering efficacy and safety of NPB112 were investigated in DIO mice with human GCGR for 11 weeks, and a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study was conducted to measure HGP. RESULTS: Single intraperitoneal injection of NPB112 with 5 mg/kg effectively decreased blood glucose levels in DIO mice for 5 days. A significant reduction in blood glucose was observed in DIO mice treated with NPB112 at a dose ≥5 mg/kg for 6 weeks, and its glucose-lowering effect was dose-dependent. Long-term administration of NPB112 also caused a mild 29% elevation in glucagon level, which was returned to the normal range after discontinuation of treatment. The clamp study showed that DIO mice injected with NPB112 at 5 mg/kg were more insulin sensitive than control mice, indicating amelioration of insulin resistance by treatment with NPB112. DIO mice treated with NPB112 showed a significant improvement in the ability of insulin to suppress HGP, showing a 33% suppression (from 8.3 mg/kg/min to 5.6 mg/kg/min compared to the 2% suppression (from 9.8 mg/kg/min to 9.6 mg/kg/min in control mice. In addition, no hypoglycemia or adverse effect was observed during the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A novel human monoclonal GCGR antibody, NPB112, effectively lowered the glucose level in diabetic animal models with mild and reversible hyperglucagonemia. Suppression of excess HGP with NPB112 may be a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  20. Randomized trial on the effects of a 7-d low-glycemic diet and exercise intervention on insulin resistance in older obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Haus, Jacob M; Kelly, Karen R;

    2009-01-01

    The optimal combination of diet and exercise that produces the greatest reversal of obesity-related insulin resistance is unknown.......The optimal combination of diet and exercise that produces the greatest reversal of obesity-related insulin resistance is unknown....

  1. MAP3K8 (TPL2/COT) Affects Obesity-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation without Systemic Effects in Humans and in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballak, D.B.; Essen, P. van; Diepen, J.A. van; Jansen, H.J.; Hijmans, A.G.; Matsuguchi, T.; Sparrer, H.; Tack, C.J.J.; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Stienstra, R.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue often accompanies obesity, leading to insulin resistance and increasing the risk for metabolic diseases. MAP3K8 (TPL2/COT) is an important signal transductor and activator of pro-inflammatory pathways that has been linked to obesity-induced adipose ti

  2. Role of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Obesity, Insulin Resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, and Associated Hepatic Co-Morbidities: A Comprehensive Review of Human and Rodent Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, M.C.; Kleemann, R.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory state that drives the -development of obesity-related co-morbidities such as insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and cardiovascular disease. This metabolic inflammation is thought to originate in t

  3. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Adult Obesity Prevalence Maps Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Obesity Prevalence in 2015 Varies Across States and Territories ...

  4. Childhood Obesity and the Right to Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is now a global health epidemic, yet the obligations of states to prevent obesity through fulfillment of the right to health have received limited consideration. This article examines the childhood obesity recommendations of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (the...... committee on the CRC), the Special Rapporteur on the right to health, and the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights. It suggests how their engagement might be strengthened. It concludes that the final report of the World Health Organization’s Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity could provide the committee...... on the CRC with a more systematic basis for advising and assessing preventive measures taken by states. Moreover, while the interim report envisages a central role for states in childhood obesity prevention, it pays inadequate attention to their obligations under international human rights law. It is hoped...

  5. Insights in Public Health: The Childhood Obesity Prevention Task Force (ACT 269): Recommendations for Obesity Prevention in Hawai‘i

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Katie; Fuddy, Loretta J; Greenwood, MRC; Pressler, Virginia; Rajan, Ranjani; St John, Tonya Lowery; Sinclair, Bronwyn M; Irvin, Lola

    2013-01-01

    Obesity in both adults and children is a critical issue in Hawai‘i, as well as nationally and internationally. Today in Hawai‘i, 57 percent of adults are overweight or obese as are almost 1 in 3 children entering kindergarten. Each year, obesity costs Hawai‘i more than $470 million in medical expenditures alone.1 These staggering human and economic costs underscore the serious need for Hawai‘i to address obesity now.

  6. A whey-protein supplement increases fat loss and spares lean muscle in obese subjects: a randomized human clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Loren S

    2008-03-01

    reduce the risk of obesity related disease, the results have practical significance.

  7. Interaction of obesity and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Bailey, D; Thomas, D

    2015-12-01

    There is evidence that certain infections may induce obesity. Obese persons may also have more severe infections and have compromised response to therapies. The objective of this study is to review the available literature identifying infections that potentially contribute to greater body mass index (BMI) and differential responses of overweight and obese persons to infections. A systematic literature review of human studies examining associations between infections and weight gain, differential susceptibility, severity, and response to prevention and treatment of infection according to BMI status (January 1980-July 2014) was conducted. Three hundred and forty-three studies were eligible for inclusion. Evidence indicated that viral infection by human adenovirus Ad36 and antibiotic eradication of Helicobacter pylori were followed by weight gain. People who were overweight or obese had higher susceptibility to developing post-surgical infections, H1N1 influenza and periodontal disease. More severe infections tended to be present in people with a larger BMI. People with a higher BMI had a reduced response to vaccinations and antimicrobial drugs. Higher doses of antibiotics were more effective in obese patients. Infections may influence BMI, and BMI status may influence response to certain infections, as well as to preventive and treatment measures. These observations have potential clinical implications. PMID:26354800

  8. Paradoxical Effects of Fruit on Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satya P.; Chung, Hea J.; Kim, Hyeon J.; Hong, Seong T.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is exponentially increasing regardless of its preventable characteristics. The current measures for preventing obesity have failed to address the severity and prevalence of obesity, so alternative approaches based on nutritional and diet changes are attracting attention for the treatment of obesity. Fruit contains large amounts of simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc.), which are well known to induce obesity. Thus, considering the amount of simple sugars found in fruit, it is reasonable to expect that their consumption should contribute to obesity rather than weight reduction. However, epidemiological research has consistently shown that most types of fruit have anti-obesity effects. Thus, due to their anti-obesity effects as well as their vitamin and mineral contents, health organizations are suggesting the consumption of fruit for weight reduction purposes. These contradictory characteristics of fruit with respect to human body weight management motivated us to study previous research to understand the contribution of different types of fruit to weight management. In this review article, we analyze and discuss the relationships between fruit and their anti-obesity effects based on numerous possible underlying mechanisms, and we conclude that each type of fruit has different effects on body weight. PMID:27754404

  9. The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian; Obin, Martin S; Zhao, Liping

    2013-02-01

    The human gut is densely populated by commensal and symbiotic microbes (the "gut microbiota"), with the majority of the constituent microorganisms being bacteria. Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in the development of obesity, obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. In this review we discuss molecular and cell biological mechanisms by which the microbiota participate in host functions that impact the development and maintenance of the obese state, including host ingestive behavior, energy harvest, energy expenditure and fat storage. We additionally explore the diverse signaling pathways that regulate gut permeability and bacterial translocation to the host and how these are altered in the obese state to promote the systemic inflammation ("metabolic endotoxemia") that is a hallmark of obesity and its complications. Fundamental to our discussions is the concept of "crosstalk", i.e., the biochemical exchange between host and microbiota that maintains the metabolic health of the superorganism and whose dysregulation is a hallmark of the obese state. Differences in community composition, functional genes and metabolic activities of the gut microbiota appear to distinguish lean vs obese individuals, suggesting that gut 'dysbiosis' contributes to the development of obesity and/or its complications. The current challenge is to determine the relative importance of obesity-associated compositional and functional changes in the microbiota and to identify the relevant taxa and functional gene modules that promote leanness and metabolic health. As diet appears to play a predominant role in shaping the microbiota and promoting obesity-associated dysbiosis, parallel initiatives are required to elucidate dietary patterns and diet components (e.g., prebiotics, probiotics) that promote healthy gut microbiota. How the microbiota promotes human health and disease is a rich area of investigation that is likely to generate

  10. HEALTH RISKS OF OBESITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunbode, A.M.; A A Fatiregun; Ogunbode, O.O.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is becoming of interest as a non-communicable disease. There is however a dearth of information on obesity in this environment, as literature in developing countries is limited. Review of health risks of obesity is useful in order to increase the pool of available information in Nigeria and to draw attention to obesity and its attendant health risks.

  11. Managing childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has steadily increased over the last decades, with approximately 35% of children aged 6-19 classified as overweight or obese. Recently, a plateau in the increasing rates of obesity has been observed. Despite this leveling off, overweight and obese children are hea...

  12. MicroRNA 21 regulates the proliferation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells and high-fat diet-induced obesity alters microRNA 21 expression in white adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Jeong; Hwang, Soo Hyun; Cho, Hyun Hwa; Shin, Keun Koo; Bae, Yong Chan; Jung, Jin Sup

    2012-01-01

    A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) differentiation could provide new insights into a number of diseases including obesity. Our previous study demonstrated that microRNA-21 (miR-21) controls the adipogenic differentiation of hASCs. In this study, we determined the expression of miR-21 in white adipose tissues in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model to examine the relationship between miR-21 and obesity and the effect of miR-21 on hASCs proliferation. Our study showed biphasic changes of miR-21 expression and a correlation between miR-21 level and adipocyte number in the epididymal fat of HFD mice. Over-expression of miR-21 decreased cell proliferation, whereas inhibiting miR-21 with 2'-O-methyl-antisense RNA increased it. Over-expression of miR-21 decreased both protein and mRNA levels of STAT3, whereas inhibiting miR-21 with 2'-O-methyl-antisense RNA increased these levels. The activity of a luciferase construct containing the miR-21 target site from the STAT3 3'UTR was lower in LV-miR21-infected hASCs than in LV-miLacZ infected cells. RNA interference-mediated down-regulation of STAT3 decreased cell proliferation without affecting adipogenic differentiation. These findings provide the evidence of the correlation between miR-21 level and adipocyte number in the white adipose tissue of HFD-induced obese mice, which provides new insights into the mechanisms of obesity.

  13. Elevated NF-κB activation is conserved in human myocytes cultured from obese type 2 diabetic patients and attenuated by AMP-activated protein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Charlotte Jane; Pedersen, Maria; Pedersen, Bente K;

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether the inflammatory phenotype found in obese and diabetic individuals is preserved in isolated, cultured myocytes and to assess the effectiveness of pharmacological AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation upon the attenuation of inflammation in these myocytes....

  14. Chronodisruption and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attempts to understand the causes of obesity and develop new therapeutic strategies have mostly focused on caloric intake and energy expenditure. Recent studies have shown that the circadian clock controls energy homeostasis by regulating circadian expression and/or activity of enzymes, hormones, and transport systems involved in metabolism. Moreover, disruption of circadian rhythms leads to obesity and metabolic disorders. CONTENT:Regularly alternating periods of light and darkness, such as normally occur with the rising and the setting of the sun, are essential for the maintenance of undisturbed circadian rhythms in all organisms including humans. The light-dark environment, as detected by specialized photoreceptors in the retinas, impacts the endogenous circadian clock in the anterior hypothalamus, the suprachiasmatic nuclei. These nuclei, via both neural and humoral signals, communicate with cells throughout the organism to establish regular circadian rhythms. The introduction of artificial sources of light roughly 150 years ago has significantly undermined the naturally occurring light-dark environment and, likewise, has disturbed circadian rhythms since light is now available at unusual times, i.e., at night. Light at night is known to cause circadian disruption and melatonin suppression. Many potentially pathophysiological consequences of these artificial light-mediated changes, include cancer, cardiovascular diseases, insomnia, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cognitive disorders may be aggravated by the increased exposure to light at night, which is inevitable in well-developed societies that have undergone extensive electrification. SUMMARY: Therefore, it is plausible that resetting of the circadian clock can be used as a new approach to attenuate obesity. Feeding regimens, such as restricted feeding, calorie restriction and intermittent fasting, provide a time cue and reset the circadian clock and

  15. Adipose Tissue Endothelial Cells From Obese Human Subjects: Differences Among Depots in Angiogenic, Metabolic, and Inflammatory Gene Expression and Cellular Senescence

    OpenAIRE

    Villaret, A; Galitzky, J; Decaunes, P.; Esteve, D.; Marques, M.-A.; Sengenes, C.; Chiotasso, P.; Tchkonia, T.; Lafontan, M.; Kirkland, J L; Bouloumie, A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Regional differences among adipose depots in capacities for fatty acid storage, susceptibility to hypoxia, and inflammation likely contribute to complications of obesity. We defined the properties of endothelial cells (EC) isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) biopsied in parallel from obese subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The architecture and properties of the fat tissue capillary network were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and...

  16. Ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) root exhibits an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes and anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Lee, Yun Ju; Kim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2014-03-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera) root, a well-known medicinal plant in Asia, is reported to have various therapeutic benefits, including anti-diabetes, anti-hypertension, and anti-hyperlipidaemia. We hypothesized that the ethanol extract of lotus root (ELR) would exhibit an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes as well as anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with ELR in human pre-adipocytes resulted in inhibition of lipid accumulation and attenuated expression of adipogenic transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and adipocyte marker genes, such as glucose transporter 4 and leptin. Administration of ELR resulted in a significant decrease in relative weights of adipose tissues in rats fed a high-fat diet. Consumption of a high-fat diet resulted in an increase in serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels; however, administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the levels of TC and TG. Administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the level of serum leptin and insulin. Administration of ELR in rats fed a high-fat diet resulted in a decrease in hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content, elevated by a high-fat diet and an increase in superoxide dismutase activity and hepatic glutathione content. These results suggest that lotus root exerts anti-oxidant and anti-obesity effects and could be used as a functional and nutraceutical ingredient in combatting obesity-related diseases.

  17. Obesity-related hypertension: possible pathophysiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaněčková, Ivana; Maletínská, Lenka; Behuliak, Michal; Nagelová, Veronika; Zicha, Josef; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2014-12-01

    Hypertension is one of the major risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, but despite a century of clinical and basic research, the discrete etiology of this disease is still not fully understood. The same is true for obesity, which is recognized as a major global epidemic health problem nowadays. Obesity is associated with an increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors including hypertension, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia. Epidemiological studies have shown that excess weight gain predicts future development of hypertension, and the relationship between BMI and blood pressure (BP) appears to be almost linear in different populations. There is no doubt that obesity-related hypertension is a multifactorial and polygenic trait, and multiple potential pathogenetic mechanisms probably contribute to the development of higher BP in obese humans. These include hyperinsulinemia, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system stimulation, abnormal levels of certain adipokines such as leptin, or cytokines acting at the vascular endothelial level. Moreover, some genetic and epigenetic mechanisms are also in play. Although the full manifestation of both hypertension and obesity occurs predominantly in adulthood, their roots can be traced back to early ontogeny. The detailed knowledge of alterations occurring in the organism of experimental animals during particular critical periods (developmental windows) could help to solve this phenomenon in humans and might facilitate the age-specific prevention of human obesity-related hypertension. In addition, better understanding of particular pathophysiological mechanisms might be useful in so-called personalized medicine.

  18. Genetic polymorphisms of human β-adrenergic receptor genes and their association with obesity%人类β-肾上腺素受体基因的遗传多态性及其与肥胖的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昭前; 莫玮; 黄琼; 周宏灏

    2007-01-01

    The prevalent rates of overweight and obesity are steadily increasing all over the world. Previous studies of some candidate genes have indicated that most of the genes are associated with obesity in human adipose tissue. As much as 40% of the variations in body mass could be attributed to genetic difference. The β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) plays a major role in the regulation of energy balance in humans. A high sympathetic nervous system activity has been shown to be associated with obesity and is believed to have pathogenetic relevance. Several common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including Gly389Arg in β1-AR, Gln27Glu in β2-AR, and Trp64Arg in β3-AR in humans could alter receptor function and these variations ofβ-ARs were shown to have certain association with obesity. Here we summarize the genetic polymorphisms of human β-ARs and their potential impacts to obesity.%在世界范围内,肥胖和超重的发生率正在稳步增长.过去有关候选基因的大量研究已经表明,大多数基因与人类脂肪组织中肥胖的发生相关.与人体体质量相关的40%以上的基因变异可以产生遗传差异.β-肾上腺素受体在人体能量平衡调节中扮演重要作用,交感神经系统的高度激活被认为与肥胖的发生密切相关.β-肾上腺素受体的单核苷酸多态性如β1-肾上腺素受体Gly389Arg,β2-肾上腺素受体Gln27Glu和β3-肾上腺素受体Trp64Arg已经被证明能够改变受体的功能,并与肥胖的发生有关.本文就β-肾上腺素受体的遗传多态性以及它们在肥胖发生中的作用作一综述.

  19. Increased aldosterone: mechanism of hypertension in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Colleen

    2014-05-01

    The prevalence of both obesity and hypertension are increasing worldwide. Hypertension is a common consequence of obesity. Increased central adiposity is associated with increased aldosterone levels and blood pressure in human beings. A number of small studies have shown an association between obesity-mediated hypertension and mechanisms directly linked to increased levels of aldosterone. These studies have shown a trend toward relatively greater blood pressure reduction using aldosterone-receptor blockers compared with other classes of antihypertensive agents. Other than treatment for weight loss, treatment of hypertension with specific antihypertensive medications that block or reduce aldosterone action are appropriate in obese patients. Further research is needed to understand the exact role of the adipocyte in obesity-mediated hypertension.

  20. Targeting microRNAs in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huangming; Sun, Lei; Lodish, Harvey F

    2009-10-01

    Obesity is a serious health problem worldwide associated with an increased risk of life-threatening diseases such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and certain types of cancer. Fundamental for the development of novel therapeutics for obesity and its associated metabolic syndromes is an understanding of the regulation of fat cell development. Recent computational and experimental studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a role in metabolic tissue development, lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis. In addition, many miRNAs are dysregulated in metabolic tissues from obese animals and humans, which potentially contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated complications. In this review we summarize the current state of understanding of the roles of miRNAs in metabolic tissues under normal development and obese conditions, and discuss the potential use of miRNAs as therapeutic targets.

  1. Similarities between obesity in pets and children: the addiction model

    OpenAIRE

    Pretlow, Robert A.; Corbee, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity in pets is a frustrating, major health problem. Obesity in human children is similar. Prevailing theories accounting for the rising obesity rates – for example, poor nutrition and sedentary activity – are being challenged. Obesity interventions in both pets and children have produced modest short-term but poor long-term results. New strategies are needed. A novel theory posits that obesity in pets and children is due to ‘treats’ and excessive meal amounts given by the ‘pet–parent’ and...

  2. Melanocortin 4 receptor mutations in obese Czech children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hainerová, Irena; Larsen, Lesli H; Holst, Birgitte;

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in the melanocortin 4 receptor gene (MC4R) represent the most common known cause of monogenic human obesity.......Mutations in the melanocortin 4 receptor gene (MC4R) represent the most common known cause of monogenic human obesity....

  3. Immunometabolism in Obese Asthmatics: Are We There Yet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa G. Wood

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is now recognised as a worldwide epidemic. The recent International Association for the Study of Obesity/International Obesity Taskforce (IASO/IOTF analysis estimates that approximately 1.0 billion adults are currently overweight and a further 475 million are obese. Obesity has huge psychosocial impact with obese children and adolescents facing discrimination and stigmatization in many areas of their lives leading to body dissatisfaction, low self-esteem and depression. Indeed, obesity is recognised as an important risk factor for the development of several chronic diseases such as hypertension, cancer, asthma and metabolic syndrome. Chronic low grade systemic inflammation is considered as a hallmark of obesity and may possibly explain the link between obesity and chronic disease, in particular the increased incidence, prevalence and severity of asthma in obese individuals. There is now strong evidence for infiltration of immune and inflammatory cells into adipose tissue that drives systemic inflammation and subsequent end organ damage. In addition to adipocytes, the key adipose tissue resident immune cells are macrophages and mast cells. Immunometabolism, as an emerging field of investigation, explores the pivotal role of these immune cells in translating immunological changes to metabolic effects in obesity. Abundance of free fatty acids, along with other inflammatory cytokines shift the balance of metabolic homeostasis to pro-inflammatory status by influencing the development of inflammatory cell lineage, which, further exhibits distinct functional phenotypes. There is emerging evidence for macrophage activation and functional polarization of an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype towards a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype of macrophages in obese adipose tissue. Similarly, studies in both obese humans and murine models reveal the pathognomic presence of an increased number of mast cells in visceral adipose tissue. These suggest a possible

  4. Obesity: A Venusian story of Paleolithic proportions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna G Seshadri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Art through the ages has been a marker of societal trends and fashion. Obesity is proscribed by physicians and almost reviled by today′s society. While Venus (Aphrodite continues to be the role model for those to aspire to free themselves from the clutches of obesity, Paleolithic humans had a different view of the perfect female form. Whether the Venus of Willendorf was a fashion symbol will be never answered, but the fact is that she remains testimony to the fact that obesity has been with us for several millennia.

  5. Plasma sphingosine-1-phosphate is elevated in obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg M Kowalski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dysfunctional lipid metabolism is a hallmark of obesity and insulin resistance and a risk factor for various cardiovascular and metabolic complications. In addition to the well known increase in plasma triglycerides and free fatty acids, recent work in humans and rodents has shown that obesity is associated with elevations in the bioactive class of sphingolipids known as ceramides. However, in obesity little is known about the plasma concentrations of sphinogsine-1-phosphate (S1P, the breakdown product of ceramide, which is an important signaling molecule in mammalian biology. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of obesity on circulating S1P concentration and its relationship with markers of glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma S1P levels were determined in high-fat diet (HFD-induced and genetically obese (ob/ob mice along with obese humans. Circulating S1P was elevated in both obese mouse models and in obese humans compared with lean healthy controls. Furthermore, in humans, plasma S1P positively correlated with total body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HbA1c (%, total and LDL cholesterol. In addition, fasting increased plasma S1P levels in lean healthy mice. CONCLUSION: We show that elevations in plasma S1P are a feature of both human and rodent obesity and correlate with metabolic abnormalities such as adiposity and insulin resistance.

  6. Human-Specific SNP in Obesity Genes, Adrenergic Receptor Beta2 (ADRB2), Beta3 (ADRB3), and PPAR γ2 (PPARG), during Primate Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Takenaka, Akiko; Nakamura, Shin; Mitsunaga, Fusako; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Udono, Toshifumi; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2012-01-01

    Adrenergic-receptor beta2 (ADRB2) and beta3 (ADRB3) are obesity genes that play a key role in the regulation of energy balance by increasing lipolysis and thermogenesis. The Glu27 allele in ADRB2 and the Arg64 allele in ADRB3 are associated with abdominal obesity and early onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in many ethnic groups. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) is required for adipocyte differentiation. Pro12Ala mutation decreases PPARG activity and ...

  7. Exergaming and obesity in youth: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zan; Zeng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Nan Zeng, Zan Gao College of Education and Human Development, School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: Although exergaming has been used as a physical activity modality among various populations, the evidence regarding its effectiveness on health-related outcomes in overweight/obese individuals remains unclear. The current study systematically reviewed literature and summarized findings of exergame-based interventions in overweight/obese populat...

  8. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  9. Obesity and health (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity increases a person's risk of illness and death due to diabetes, stroke, heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, and kidney and gallbladder disease. Obesity may increase the risk for some types of ...

  10. Economics, Policy, and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Maria L.; Nayga, Rodolfo M.

    2004-01-01

    The US population now leads the world in obesity rates. The estimated societal cost of the overweight and obesity issue exceeds $115 billion. Policy may play a role if economically justifiable but conflicting interests exist.

  11. Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity.

  12. Endocrine system and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, Doyle D; Reed, Mary Jane

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is associated with significant alterations in endocrine function. An association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia has been well documented. This article highlights the complexities of treating endocrine system disorders in obese patients.

  13. Obesity and Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Apnea and Anesthesia Smoking and Anesthesia Outpatient Surgery Obesity and Anesthesia More than one-third of Americans ... Sleep Apnea, a chronic medical problem common with obesity, can present with serious breathing problems before, during, ...

  14. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000085.htm Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is a condition in some ...

  15. Overweight and Obesity Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the full list of resources ​​. Overweight and Obesity Statistics Page Content About Overweight and Obesity Prevalence of ... adults age 20 and older [ Top ] Physical Activity Statistics Adults Research Findings Research suggests that staying active ...

  16. Past and future corollaries of theories on causes of metabolic syndrome and obesity related co-morbidities part 2: a composite unifying theory review of human-specific co-adaptations to brain energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Anne-Thea

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) predicts type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, and their rates have escalated over the last few decades. Obesity related co-morbidities also overlap the concept of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, understanding of the syndrome's underlying causes may have been misapprehended. The current paper follows on from a theory review by McGill, A-T in Archives of Public Health, 72: 30. This accompanying paper utilises research on human evolution and new biochemistry to theorise on why MetS and obesity arise and how they affect the population. The basis of this composite unifying theory is that the proportionately large, energy-demanding human brain may have driven co-adaptive mechanisms to provide, or conserve, energy for the brain. A 'dual system' is proposed. 1) The enlarged, complex cortico-limbic-striatal system increases dietary energy by developing strong neural self-reward/motivation pathways for the acquisition of energy dense food, and (2) the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) cellular protection system amplifies antioxidant, antitoxicant and repair activity by employing plant chemicals. In humans who consume a nutritious diet, the NRF2 system has become highly energy efficient. Other relevant human-specific co-adaptations are explored. In order to 'test' this composite unifying theory it is important to show that the hypothesis and sub-theories pertain throughout the whole of human evolution and history up till the current era. Corollaries of the composite unifying theory of MetS are examined with respect to past under-nutrition and malnutrition since agriculture began 10,000 years ago. The effects of man-made pollutants on degenerative change are examined. Projections are then made from current to future patterns on the state of 'insufficient micronutrient and/or unbalanced high energy malnutrition with central obesity and metabolic dysregulation' or 'malnubesity'. Forecasts

  17. Obesity and ARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Hibbert, Kathryn; Rice, Mary; Malhotra, Atul

    2012-01-01

    Obesity prevalence continues to increase globally, with figures exceeding 30% of some populations. Patients who are obese experience alterations in baseline pulmonary mechanics, including airflow obstruction, decreased lung volumes, and impaired gas exchange. These physiologic changes have implications in many diseases, including ARDS. The unique physiology of patients who are obese affects the presentation and pathophysiology of ARDS, and patients who are obese who have respiratory failure p...

  18. Environmental Perturbations: Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Shore, Stephanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity currently affects about one third of the U.S. population, while another one third is overweight. The importance of obesity for certain conditions such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes is well appreciated. The effects of obesity on the respiratory system have received less attention and are the subject of this chapter. Obesity alters the static mechanic properties of the respiratory system leading to a reduction in the functional residual capacity (FRC) and the expiratory reserve v...

  19. The obesity epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Kollar, Lenka; Epifano, Evienne; McKneight, Molly; Miskovich, Jeff; Moore, Heather

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of chronic, noncommunicable diseases, such as heart disease, is increasing at an alarming rate on the global scale. The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity have led to an upsurge in cases of diabetes and other obesity-related diseases. About 18 million people die every year from heart disease, of which diabetes and obesity are major predisposing factors. Worldwide, more than 1.1 billion adults are overweight, 312 million of which are obese. The number of children that a...

  20. Canine and feline obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Palmer, Clare; Corr, Sandra;

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a drastic increase in the rates of overweight and obesity among people living in some developed nations. There has also been increased concern over obesity in companion animals. In the latest article in Veterinary Record's series on One Health, Peter Sandøe and colleagues...... argue that the relationship between obesity in people and in companion animals is closer and more complex than previously thought, and that obesity should be treated as a One Health problem....

  1. Obesity and Diabetes:

    OpenAIRE

    Diamant, Allison L.; Babey, Susan H.; Wolstein, Joelle; Jones, Malia

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of both diabetes and obesity has grown significantly in California. Six million adults are obese and an additional 9.3 million are overweight. Obesity is a significant risk factor for diabetes; more than two million adults have been diagnosed with diabetes in California. Obesity and diabetes disproportionately affect people of color, the poor and those with the least education in California. Policy and environmental changes that promote and encourage physical activity and healt...

  2. Obesity and metabolic inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Obesity epidemics affect 35.7% of adults and approximately 17% of children in the United States. Obesity has been associated with several health disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, fatty liver disease, and certain forms of cancer. Medical costs associated with obesity were estimated at $147 billion in 2008. Chronic tissue inflammation, particularly in adipose tissue, has been considered as a key underlying mechanism for the development of obesity-related metabolic syn...

  3. The Complexity of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Katti

    2010-01-01

    With Americans fatter and more malnourished than ever--almost two-thirds of the population is considered overweight or obese compared with 56 percent in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and people of color and the poor are the most obese of all--federal and university researchers and outreach workers from various anti-obesity organizations aim to…

  4. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile inde

  5. Obesity, Physical Activity - Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    Childhood obesity starts at a very early age, and preventive measures taken early enough may retard the development of fat cells. It appears that physical activity plays an important role in reducing obesity. The activity program must start early, in preschool days. It is felt that screening children for obesity when they first enter school and…

  6. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zammit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

  7. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth;

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma....

  8. Obesity and Psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Colleen S.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    This report describes a collaborative study undertaken by 72 psychoanalysts in an effort to (1) collect systematic data about obese patients in psychoanalysis and (2) assess the effect of psychoanalysis in the treatment of obesity. A total of 84 obese and 63 normal weight patients was studied. Each analyst completed a detailed questionnaire on his…

  9. Childhood environment and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  10. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  11. Neuroendocrine perturbations in human obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Petra

    2006-01-01

    The evolutionary advantage to conserve energy in the form of adipose issue in order to survive long periods of food shortage in the past, turned into a major health problem in current times of plenty. Excess accumulation of body fat, or “obesity”, is associated with severely increased co-morbidity a

  12. Imitative obesity and relative utility.

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchflower, David G.; Oswald, Andrew J.; Van Landeghem, Bert

    2009-01-01

    If human beings care about their relative weight, a form of imitative obesity can emerge (in which people subconsciously keep up with the weight of the Joneses). Using Eurobarometer data on 29 countries, this paper provides cross-sectional evidence that overweight perceptions and dieting are influenced by a person's relative BMI, and longitudinal evidence from the German Socioeconomic Panel that well-being is influenced by relative BMI. Highly educated people see themselves as fatter -- at an...

  13. Dissociation of GLP-1 and insulin association with food processing in the brain: GLP-1 sensitivity despite insulin resistance in obese humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Heni

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The postprandial release of GLP-1 might alter reward processes in the orbitofrontal cortex and might thereby support the termination of food intake and reduce hunger. While obese persons showed brain insulin resistance, no GLP-1 resistance was observed. Our study provides novel insight into the central regulation of food intake by the incretin hormone GLP-1.

  14. Reduced Systemic Levels of IL-10 Are Associated with the Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Insulin Resistance in Morbidly Obese Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Leon-Cabrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA has been related to elevation of inflammatory cytokines and development of insulin resistance in morbidly obese (MO subjects. However, it is still unclear whether the systemic concentration of anti-inflammatory mediators is also affected in MO subjects directly related to the severity of OSA and level of insulin resistance. Normal weight and MO subjects were subjected to overnight polysomnography in order to establish the severity of OSA, according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI. Blood samples were obtained for estimation of total cholesterol and triglycerides, insulin, glucose, insulin resistance, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 12 (IL12, and interleukin 10 (IL-10. Serum levels of IL-10 were significantly lower in MO subjects with OSA than in MO and control individuals without OSA. Besides being inversely associated with serum TNF-α and IL-12, decreased IL-10 levels were significantly related to increased AHI, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Serum IL-10 is significantly reduced in morbidly obese subjects with severe OSA while also showing a clear relationship with a state of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance probably regardless of obesity in the present sample. It may be of potential clinical interest to identify the stimulatory mechanisms of IL-10 in obese individuals with OSA.

  15. Combined epigallocatechin-3-gallate and resveratrol supplementation for 12 wk increases mitochondrial capacity and fat oxidation, but not insulin sensitivity, in obese humans: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Most, Jasper; Timmers, S.; Warnke, I.; Jocken, J.J.W.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Groot, de Philip; Bendik, Igor; Schrauwen, Patrick; Goossens, Gijs H.; Blaak, Ellen E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The obese insulin-resistant state is characterized by
    impairments in lipid metabolism.We previously showed that 3-d supplementation
    of combined epigallocatechin-3-gallate and resveratrol
    (EGCG+RES) increased energy expenditure and improved the
    capacity to switch from fat

  16. Meta-analysis on the effect of the N363S polymorphism of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (GRL on human obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-González Miguel

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since both excess glucocorticoid secretion and central obesity are clinical features of some obese patients, it is worthwhile to study a possible association of glucocorticoid receptor gene (GRL variants with obesity. Previous studies have linked the N363S variant of the GRL gene to increased glucocorticoid effects such as higher body fat, a lower lean-body mass and a larger insulin response to dexamethasone. However, contradictory findings have been also reported about the association between this variant and obesity phenotypes. Individual studies may lack statistical power which may result in disparate results. This limitation can be overcome using meta-analytic techniques. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between the N363S polymorphism of the GRL gene and obesity risk. In addition to published research, we included also our own unpublished data -three novel case-control studies- in the meta-analysis The new case-control studies were conducted in German and Spanish children, adolescents and adults (total number of subjects: 1,117. Genotype was assessed by PCR-RFLP (Tsp509I. The final formal meta-analysis included a total number of 5,909 individuals. Results The meta-analysis revealed a higher body mass index (BMI with an overall estimation of +0.18 kg/m2 (95% CI: +0.004 to +0.35 for homo-/heterozygous carriers of the 363S allele of the GRL gene in comparison to non-carriers. Moreover, differences in pooled BMI were statistically significant and positive when considering one-group studies from the literature in which participants had a BMI below 27 kg/m2 (+ 0.41 kg/m2 [95% CI +0.17 to +0.66], but the differences in BMI were negative when only our novel data from younger (aged under 45 and normal weight subjects were pooled together (-0.50 kg/m2 [95% CI -0.84 to -0.17]. The overall risk for obesity for homo-/heterozygous carriers of the 363S allele was not statistically significant in the meta

  17. Satellite cells derived from obese humans with type 2 diabetes and differentiated into myocytes in vitro exhibit abnormal response to IL-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Scheele

    Full Text Available Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with chronically elevated systemic levels of IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine with a role in skeletal muscle metabolism that signals through the IL-6 receptor (IL-6Rα. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle in obesity-associated type 2 diabetes develops a resistance to IL-6. By utilizing western blot analysis, we demonstrate that IL-6Rα protein was down regulated in skeletal muscle biopsies from obese persons with and without type 2 diabetes. To further investigate the status of IL-6 signaling in skeletal muscle in obesity-associated type 2 diabetes, we isolated satellite cells from skeletal muscle of people that were healthy (He, obese (Ob or were obese and had type 2 diabetes (DM, and differentiated them in vitro into myocytes. Down-regulation of IL-6Rα was conserved in Ob myocytes. In addition, acute IL-6 administration for 30, 60 and 120 minutes, resulted in a down-regulation of IL-6Rα protein in Ob myocytes compared to both He myocytes (P<0.05 and DM myocytes (P<0.05. Interestingly, there was a strong time-dependent regulation of IL-6Rα protein in response to IL-6 (P<0.001 in He myocytes, not present in the other groups. Assessing downstream signaling, DM, but not Ob myocytes demonstrated a trend towards an increased protein phosphorylation of STAT3 in DM myocytes (P = 0.067 accompanied by a reduced SOCS3 protein induction (P<0.05, in response to IL-6 administration. Despite this loss of negative control, IL-6 failed to increase AMPKα2 activity and IL-6 mRNA expression in DM myocytes. There was no difference in fusion capacity of myocytes between cell groups. Our data suggest that negative control of IL-6 signaling is increased in myocytes in obesity, whereas a dysfunctional IL-6 signaling is established further downstream of IL-6Rα in DM myocytes, possibly representing a novel mechanism by which skeletal muscle function is compromised in type 2 diabetes.

  18. Locus of Control and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eNeymotin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the developed world, the hazards associated with obesity have largely outstripped the risk of starvation. Obesity remains a difficult public health issue to address, due in large part to the many disciplines involved. A full understanding requires knowledge in the fields of genetics, endocrinology, psychology, sociology, economics, and public policy – among others. In this short review, which serves as an introduction to the Frontiers in Endocrinology research topic, we address one cross-disciplinary relationship: the interaction between the hunger/satiation neural circuitry, an individual’s perceived locus of control, and the risk for obesity. Mammals have evolved a complex system for modulating energy intake. Overlaid on this, in humans, there exists a wide variation in perceived locus of control – that is, the extent to which an individual believes to be in charge of the events that affect them. Whether one has primarily an internal or external locus of control itself affects, and is affected by, external and physiological factors and has been correlated with the risk for obesity. Thus, the path from hunger and satiation to an individual’s actual behavior may often be moderated by psychological factors, included among which is locus of control.

  19. Obesity and cancer: mechanistic insights from transdisciplinary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allott, Emma H; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is associated with a range of health outcomes that are of clinical and public health significance, including cancer. Herein, we summarize epidemiologic and preclinical evidence for an association between obesity and increased risk of breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Moreover, we describe data from observational studies of weight change in humans and from calorie-restriction studies in mouse models that support a potential role for weight loss in counteracting tumor-promoting properties of obesity in breast and prostate cancers. Given that weight loss is challenging to achieve and maintain, we also consider evidence linking treatments for obesity-associated co-morbidities, including metformin, statins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, with reduced breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Finally, we highlight several challenges that should be considered when conducting epidemiologic and preclinical research in the area of obesity and cancer, including the measurement of obesity in population-based studies, the timing of obesity and weight change in relation to tumor latency and cancer diagnosis, and the heterogeneous nature of obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Given that obesity is a complex trait, comprised of behavioral, epidemiologic and molecular/metabolic factors, we argue that a transdisciplinary approach is the key to understanding the mechanisms linking obesity and cancer. As such, this review highlights the critical need to integrate evidence from both epidemiologic and preclinical studies to gain insight into both biologic and non-biologic mechanisms contributing to the obesity-cancer link.

  20. Obesity and cancer: mechanistic insights from transdisciplinary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allott, Emma H; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is associated with a range of health outcomes that are of clinical and public health significance, including cancer. Herein, we summarize epidemiologic and preclinical evidence for an association between obesity and increased risk of breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Moreover, we describe data from observational studies of weight change in humans and from calorie-restriction studies in mouse models that support a potential role for weight loss in counteracting tumor-promoting properties of obesity in breast and prostate cancers. Given that weight loss is challenging to achieve and maintain, we also consider evidence linking treatments for obesity-associated co-morbidities, including metformin, statins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, with reduced breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Finally, we highlight several challenges that should be considered when conducting epidemiologic and preclinical research in the area of obesity and cancer, including the measurement of obesity in population-based studies, the timing of obesity and weight change in relation to tumor latency and cancer diagnosis, and the heterogeneous nature of obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Given that obesity is a complex trait, comprised of behavioral, epidemiologic and molecular/metabolic factors, we argue that a transdisciplinary approach is the key to understanding the mechanisms linking obesity and cancer. As such, this review highlights the critical need to integrate evidence from both epidemiologic and preclinical studies to gain insight into both biologic and non-biologic mechanisms contributing to the obesity-cancer link. PMID:26373570

  1. Breastfeeding: a natural defence against obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella D'Angelo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today, obesity represents one of the most serious health problems facing both children and adults. Childhood obesity has several causes, including genetic factors, dietary habits, personal behaviours, and interaction of all of these. It often leads to adult obesity, which causes health problems including heart disease, diabetes, and even early death. Thus, many studies have investigated possible measures to prevent childhood obesity, and breastfeeding is considered an important early preventive intervention. Despite the fact that several milk formulas have been demonstrated to be safe and effective for feeding both term and premature infants, for its immunological and nutritional qualitative advantages, human milk is nowadays universally recognized as the optimal feeding choice for healthy, sick and preterm infants. To date, it is however still unclear whether breastfeeding can prevent childhood obesity. In fact, literature data provide controversial results, probably due to several confounding factors, including maternal habits, age, level of education, lifestyle, race, parity, pregnancy complications, types of delivery, and infant health factors. Thus, whether breastfeeding protects against obesity is still unclear. Further researches, by reducing the influence of confounding factors and improving the accuracy of the effect estimate, are needed to confirm the validity of the role of breastfeeding in reducing the risk of developing childhood overweight. This review briefly summarizes what is known on the possible relationship between breastfeeding and prevention of obesity development.

  2. Developmental origins of obesity: programmed adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mina; Beall, Marie; Ross, Michael G

    2013-02-01

    The metabolic syndrome epidemic, including a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among pregnant women, represents a significant public health problem. There is increasing recognition that the risk of adult obesity is clearly influenced by prenatal and infant environmental exposures, particularly nutrition. This tenet is the fundamental basis of developmental programming. Low birth weight, together with infant catch-up growth, is associated with a significant risk of adult obesity. Exposure to maternal obesity, with or without GDM, or having a high birth weight also represents an increased risk for childhood and adult obesity. Animal models have replicated human epidemiologic findings and elucidated potential programming mechanisms that include altered organ development, cellular signaling responses, and epigenetic modifications. Prenatal care has made great strides in optimizing maternal, fetal, and neonatal health, and now has the opportunity to begin interventions which prevent or reduce childhood/adult obesity. Guidelines that integrate optimal pregnancy nutrition and weight gain, management of GDM, and newborn feeding strategies with long-term consequences on adult obesity, remain to be elucidated.

  3. Challenges in obesity research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu Palou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors -often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood- can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity.

  4. Challenges in obesity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors--often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood--can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity.

  5. Challenges in obesity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors--often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood--can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity. PMID:24010755

  6. Obesity and hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Zhong; Lu, Wen; Zong, Xue-Feng; Ruan, Hong-Yun; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The imbalance between energy intake and expenditure is the main cause of excessive overweight and obesity. Technically, obesity is defined as the abnormal accumulation of ≥20% of body fat, over the individual's ideal body weight. The latter constitutes the maximal healthful value for an individual that is calculated based chiefly on the height, age, build and degree of muscular development. However, obesity is diagnosed by measuring the weight in relation to the height of an individual, thereby determining or calculating the body mass index. The National Institutes of Health have defined 30 kg/m2 as the limit over which an individual is qualified as obese. Accordingly, the prevalence of obesity in on the increase in children and adults worldwide, despite World Health Organization warnings. The growth of obesity and the scale of associated health issues induce serious consequences for individuals and governmental health systems. Excessive overweight remains among the most neglected public health issues worldwide, while obesity is associated with increasing risks of disability, illness and death. Cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of mortality worldwide, particularly hypertension and diabetes, are the main illnesses associated with obesity. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying obesity-associated hypertension or other associated metabolic diseases remains to be adequately investigated. In the present review, we addressed the association between obesity and cardiovascular disease, particularly the biological mechanisms linking obesity and hypertension. PMID:27703502

  7. Role of sympathetic nervous system and neuropeptides in obesity hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, J. E.; M.W. Brands; D.A. Hildebrandt; Kuo, J.; Fitzgerald, S.

    2000-01-01

    Obesity is the most common cause of human essential hypertension in most industrialized countries. Although the precise mechanisms of obesity hypertension are not fully understood, considerable evidence suggests that excess renal sodium reabsorption and a hypertensive shift of pressure natriuresis play a major role. Sympathetic activation appears to mediate at least part of the obesity-induced sodium retention and hypertension since adrenergic blockade or renal denervation markedly attenuates...

  8. Determinants of obesity in transition economies: the case of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Sonya K.; Rizov, Marian

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines human obesity, measured as weight and body mass index (BMI), and its determinants in Russia. Obesity increased dramatically during transition from a planned to a market economy, by 38%. We determine the factors contributing to rising obesity using individual level data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey for 1994 and 2004. We find a strong positive effect of diet/caloric intake and a strong negative effect of smoking on weight and BMI. Gender, education, and inc...

  9. Obesity Trends, Determinants and Policy Implications in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Roemling, Cornelia; Qaim, Matin

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is becoming a serious issue in many developing countries, with negative implications for economic growth and human wellbeing. While previous micro level studies on obesity have mostly used cross-section data, we analyze trends and determinants with panel data from Indonesia. Over the past 20 years, obesity has increased remarkably in Indonesia across all population groups, including rural and low income strata. The problem is particularly severe among women. Panel regressions confirm ...

  10. Nutrition transition and obesity prevention through the life-course

    OpenAIRE

    Kac, G; Pérez-Escamilla, R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss concepts regarding the nutrition transition (NT), the several stages it has encompassed over human history, dietary shifts it is associated with and its implications to the life-course approach for obesity prevention. NT is a phenomenon characterized by an inversion of the nutrition profile, that is, an increase in obesity and a reduction in undernutrition. Obesity and associated chronic diseases are the most important expressions of NT today. Some importan...

  11. OPEN about obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissner, L; Troiano, R P; Midthune, D;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obesity-related under-reporting of usual dietary intake is one of the most persistent sources of bias in nutrition research. The aim of this paper is to characterize obese and non-obese individuals with respect to reporting errors observed with two common dietary instruments, using...... energy and protein recovery biomarkers as reference measures. POPULATION AND METHODS: This report employs data from the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) study. Analyses are based on stratified samples of 211 (57 obese) men and 179 (50 obese) women who completed 24-h recalls (24HR), food...... frequency questionnaires (FFQ), doubly labelled water (DLW) and urinary nitrogen (UN) assessments. RESULTS: In obese and non-obese subgroups, FFQ yielded lower energy and protein intake estimates than 24HR, although biomarker-based information indicated under-reporting with both dietary instruments. Gender...

  12. Obesity and Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Fujimoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in the Japanese population has been increasing dramatically in step with the Westernization of lifestyles and food ways. Our study demonstrated significant associations between obesity and a number of gastrointestinal disorders in a large sample population in Japan. We demonstrated that reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia were strongly related to obesity (BMI > 25 in the Japanese. In particular, obesity with young male was a high risk for these diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that obesity is also associated with Barrett’s esophagus and colorectal adenoma; however, obesity was not a risk factor for these diseases in our study. The difference of ethnicity of our subjects may partly explain why we found no data to implicate obesity as a risk factor for Barrett’s esophagus. Arterial sclerosis associated with advanced age and hyperglycemia was accompanied by an increased risk of colorectal adenoma.

  13. Orexin: Pathways to obesity resistance?

    OpenAIRE

    Butterick, Tammy A.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.; Nixon, Joshua P.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has increased in prevalence worldwide, attributed in part to the influences of an obesity-promoting environment and genetic factors. While obesity and overweight increasingly seem to be the norm, there remain individuals who resist obesity. We present here an overview of data supporting the idea that hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A (OXA; hypocretin 1) may be a key component of brain mechanisms underlying obesity resistance. Prior work with models of obesity and obesity resistance i...

  14. Pediatric Obesity: Looking into Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Marcella Malavolti; Paolo De Cristofaro; Angelo Pietrobelli; Simone Rugolotto

    2009-01-01

    Prevalence of pediatric obesity continues to rise worldwide. Increasing the number of health care practitioners as well as pediatricians with expertise in obesity treatment is necessary. Because many obese patients suffer obesity-associated cardiovascular, metabolic and other health complications that could increase the severity of obesity, it is fundamental not only to identify the child prone to obesity as early as possible, but to recognize, treat and monitor obesity-related diseases durin...

  15. Relationships of Adrenoceptor Polymorphisms with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Masuo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes are rapidly growing public health problems. Heightened sympathetic nerve activity is a well-established observation in obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. Human obesity, hypertension, and diabetes have strong genetic as well as environmental determinants. Reduced energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate are predictive of weight gain, and the sympathetic nervous system participates in regulating energy balance through thermogenesis. The thermogenic effects of catecholamines in obesity are mainly mediated via the β2, and β3-adrenergic receptors in humans. Further, β2-adrenoceptors importantly influence vascular reactivity and may regulate blood pressure. β-adrenoceptor polymorphisms have also been associated with adrenoceptor desensitization, increased adiposity, insulin resistance, and enhanced sympathetic nervous activity. Many epidemiological studies have shown strong relationships between adrenoceptor polymorphisms and obesity, but the observations have been discordant. This paper will discuss the current topics involving the influence of the sympathetic nervous system and β2- and β3-adrenoceptor polymorphisms in obesity.

  16. The brain's supply and demand in obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubera, Britta; Hubold, Christian; Zug, Sophia; Wischnath, Hannah; Wilhelm, Ines; Hallschmid, Manfred; Entringer, Sonja; Langemann, Dirk; Peters, Achim

    2012-01-01

    During psychosocial stress, the brain demands extra energy from the body to satisfy its increased needs. For that purpose it uses a mechanism referred to as “cerebral insulin suppression” (CIS). Specifically, activation of the stress system suppresses insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells, and in this way energy—particularly glucose—is allocated to the brain rather than the periphery. It is unknown, however, how the brain of obese humans organizes its supply and demand during psychosocial stress. To answer this question, we examined 20 obese and 20 normal weight men in two sessions (Trier Social Stress Test and non-stress control condition followed by either a rich buffet or a meager salad). Blood samples were continuously taken and subjects rated their vigilance and mood by standard questionnaires. First, we found a low reactive stress system in obesity. While obese subjects showed a marked hormonal response to the psychosocial challenge, the cortisol response to the subsequent meal was absent. Whereas the brains of normal weight subjects demanded for extra energy from the body by using CIS, CIS was not detectable in obese subjects. Our findings suggest that the absence of CIS in obese subjects is due to the absence of their meal-related cortisol peak. Second, normal weight men were high reactive during psychosocial stress in changing their vigilance, thereby increasing their cerebral energy need, whereas obese men were low reactive in this respect. Third, normal weight subjects preferred carbohydrates after stress to supply their brain, while obese men preferred fat and protein instead. We conclude that the brain of obese people organizes its need, supply, and demand in a low reactive manner. PMID:22408618

  17. Long-term effect of insulin on glucose transport and insulin binding in cultured adipocytes from normal and obese humans with and without non-insulin-dependent diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, M K; Taylor, L G; Pories, W J; Flickinger, E G; Meelheim, D; Atkinson, S.; Sehgal, N S; Caro, J F

    1987-01-01

    We have tested the hypothesis that in vitro exposure of insulin-resistant adipocytes with insulin results in improved insulin action. A primary culture system of adipocytes from obese subjects with or without non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and nonobese control subjects has been developed. The adipocytes when cultured in serum-free medium do not lose their original characteristics in regard to insulin binding and glucose transport. The adipocytes from three groups were incubat...

  18. Skeletal muscle metabolic characteristics before and after energy restriction in human obesity: fibre type, enzymatic beta-oxidative capacity and fatty acid-binding protein content.

    OpenAIRE

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W.H.M.; Kuipers, H; Glatz, J.F.; van der Vusse, G. J.

    1998-01-01

    University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands. BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle has the ability to adapt as result of dietary, hormonal or pharmacological interventions affecting energy metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of energy restriction on skeletal muscle metabolic characteristics in obese women. METHODS: The effects of 8 weeks' energy restriction on body composition, energy expenditure and skeletal muscle characteristics were investigated in 28 h...

  19. Intracellular Retention of Human Melanocortin-4 Receptor:A Molecular Mechanism Underlying Early-onset Obesity in F261S Pedigree of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI-CHEN FANG; WEI-PING JIA; SHU-BING CAI; XIN-YU SHAO; RONG ZHANG; CONG-RONG WANG; YU-QIAN BAO; KUN-SAN XIANG

    2008-01-01

    To investigate how F261S mutation identified from Chinese obese patients affects the function of melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) and to analyze the obesity-related phenotypes in subjects carrying the F261S mutation. Methods F261S mutant of MC4R was generated by site-directed mutagenesis. Plasmids encoding wild-type or F261S mutant of MC4R were transfected into HEK293 and COS-7 cells to examine their functional characteristics. Signaling properties of F261S MC4R were assessed by measuring intracellular cAMP levels in response to α-MSH stimulation. Cell surface expression of F261S MC4R was compared with that of wild-type MC4R. Clinical examinations were performed in subjects carrying F261S mutation and in non-mutated controls. Results The α-MSH-stimulated reporter gene activity was significantly reduced in cells expressing F261S MC4R, with a maximal response equal to 57% of wild-type MC4R. The F261S mutation also led to a significant change in the EC value compared with the wild-type receptor (P<0.01). Immunofluorescent assay revealed a marked reduction in plasma membrane localization of the MC4R in cells expressing the F261S mutant receptor. The resting metabolic rate and fat composition of the mutant carriers were not significantly different from those of the non-mutated obese controls. Conclusions The decreased response to α-MSH due to the intracellular retention of MC4R may cause early-onset obesity in the F261S pedigree of Chinese.

  20. The sociology of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Annika; Lissner, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    The current obesity epidemic is largely driven by environmental factors, including nutritional transition towards refined and fatty foods with the growing production of energy-dense food at relatively low cost, increased access to motor vehicles, mechanisation of work and sedentary lifestyles. These influences in modern society are modified by individual characteristics. Ultimately, energy intake in excess of caloric expenditure causes obesity, but why this occurs in some but not all individuals is not known. Obesity is more prevalent in the lower socioeconomic classes but even so, there is a varying relation of socioeconomic status with obesity between countries at different stages of development and, even in the Western world, socioeconomic gradients with respect to obesity are both heterogeneous and in transition. Potential mechanisms for an effect of obesity on subsequent social status have been proposed, the most obvious being related to the stigmatisation experienced by the obese. Obesity seems to be causally related to mood disturbances, whereas there is no conclusive evidence that the reverse is true. When considering psychological aspects of obesity, depressive symptoms are more likely to be consequences, rather than causes of obesity. PMID:18230907

  1. Leptin receptor 170 kDa (OB-R170) protein expression is reduced in obese human skeletal muscle: a potential mechanism of leptin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuentes, T; Ara, I; Guadalupe-Grau, A;

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether obesity-associated leptin resistance could be due to down-regulation of leptin receptors (OB-Rs) and/or up-regulation of suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) in skeletal muscle, which blunt janus kinase 2-dependent leptin...... signalling and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and reduce AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation. Deltoid and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained from 20 men: 10 non-obese control subjects (mean +/- s.......d. age, 31 +/- 5 years; height, 184 +/- 9 cm; weight, 91 +/- 13 kg; and percentage body fat, 24.8 +/- 5.8%) and 10 obese (age, 30 +/- 7 years; height, 184 +/- 8 cm; weight, 115 +/- 8 kg; and percentage body fat, 34.9 +/- 5.1%). Skeletal muscle OB-R170 (OB-R long isoform) protein expression was 28 and 25...

  2. Variation at diabetes- and obesity-associated Loci may mirror neutral patterns of human population diversity and diabetes prevalence in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Srilakshmi M; Halebeedu, Pradeep; Kadandale, Jayarama S; Mirazon Lahr, Marta; Gallego Romero, Irene; Yadhav, Jamuna R; Iliescu, Mircea; Rai, Niraj; Crivellaro, Federica; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Villems, Richard; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Muniyappa, Kalappagowda; Chandra, H Sharat; Kivisild, Toomas

    2013-09-01

    South Asian populations harbor a high degree of genetic diversity, due in part to demographic history. Two studies on genome-wide variation in Indian populations have shown that most Indian populations show varying degrees of admixture between ancestral north Indian and ancestral south Indian components. As a result of this structure, genetic variation in India appears to follow a geographic cline. Similarly, Indian populations seem to show detectable differences in diabetes and obesity prevalence between different geographic regions of the country. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation at diabetes- and obesity-associated loci may be potentially related to different genetic ancestries. We genotyped 2977 individuals from 61 populations across India for 18 SNPs in genes implicated in T2D and obesity. We examined patterns of variation in allele frequency across different geographical gradients and considered state of origin and language affiliation. Our results show that most of the 18 SNPs show no significant correlation with latitude, the geographic cline reported in previous studies, or by language family. Exceptions include KCNQ1 with latitude and THADA and JAK1 with language, which suggests that genetic variation at previously ascertained diabetes-associated loci may only partly mirror geographic patterns of genome-wide diversity in Indian populations.

  3. [The pharmacotherapy of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai, Kinga Anna; Mirzahosseini, Arash; Noszál Béla; Tóth, Gergő

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is considered the most concerning and blatantly visible--yet most neglected--public health problem by the WHO. The steadily increasing number of overweight and obese people has reached 2.3 billion and 700 million worldwide, respectively. Obesity is a complex condition, one that presents serious health risks with respect to type 2 diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension, therefore controlling the global obesity epidemic decreases not only health problems, but also expenditure. The underlying cause of obesity is a metabolic disorder of genetic, central nervous system or endocrine etiology that manifests in increased nutritional intake and/or decreased physical activity ultimately leading to excessive lipogenesis. The natural treatment of obesity, that is often advised, is comprised of healthy lifestyle choices, namely low-calorie diet and exercise. However, the pharmaceutic treatment of obesity is just as important; having a better compliance rate, anti-obesity drugs also improve quality of life and patient-care outcome concerning accompanying diseases. In most countries only one drug is currently available against obesity: orlistat, which is a specific and irreversible lipase inhibitor. One of the reasons for the scarce number of anti-obesity drugs is the complex pathomechanism involved in obesity. Interference with the intricate biochemical processes that govern alimentation may lead to widespread adverse effects. The advances of the field however, have prompted novel drug leads. In the past few years FDA has approved new drugs for the treatment of obesity, recently liraglutide in 2014. The approval of drug combinations, such as phentermine/topiramate and bupropion/naltrexone are also noteworthy, the components of which have been previously approved, but not necessarily for obesity as main indication. Furthermore, there are many anti-obesity drug candidates currently in clinical phase trials, with promisingly modest adverse effect profiles; hence

  4. The Impact of Obesity on Developmental Coordination Disorder in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Kastner, Julia; Petermann, Franz; Jekauc, Darko; Worth, Annette; Bos, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) as well as overweight and obesity are of increasing importance in the study of human development. Data on the relation between DCD and obesity in adolescence are of particular interest because both phenomena are unlikely to disappear with age. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of…

  5. Obesity and NAFLD: the role of bacteria and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duseja, Ajay; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar

    2014-02-01

    There are trillions of microorganisms in the human intestine collectively called gut microbiota. Obesity may be affected by the gut microbiota through energy harvesting and fat storage by the bacteria. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is also responsible for endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and its consequences including obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Relationship between gut microbiota and NAFLD is also dependent on altered choline and bile acid metabolism and endogenous alcohol production by gut bacteria. Further evidence linking gut microbiota with obesity and NAFLD comes from studies showing usefulness of probiotics in animals and patients with NAFLD. This article reviews the relationship among gut microbiota, obesity, and NAFLD.

  6. Predisposition to Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna Julie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2012-01-01

    Obesity prevention should remain a priority, even if there is some suggestion that the epidemic may presently have reached a stable level. However, previous interventions have not been effective in preventing overweight and obesity, and at the same time studies suggest that some subgroups are more...... predisposed to future obesity. The purpose of this paper is to review interventions on obesity prevention published during the past year, and to examine if interventions targeting predisposed groups or individuals seem more efficient in preventing obesity than studies targeting general populations. Among 15...... status. Thus, we may be more successful in preventing obesity when targeting predisposed individuals, but more studies are needed before a firm conclusion can be drawn....

  7. Obesity in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chu Chin; Mahmood, Tahir

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached alarming proportions globally, and continues to rise in both developed and developing countries. Maternal obesity has become one of the most commonly occurring risk factors in obstetric practice. The 2003-2005 report of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom highlighted obesity as a significant risk for maternal death [1]. More than half of all women who died from direct or indirect causes were either overweight or obese. For the mother, obesity increases the risk of obstetric complications during the antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal period, as well as contributing to technical difficulties with fetal assessment. The offspring of obese mothers also have a higher rate of perinatal morbidity and an increased risk of long-term health problems.

  8. Obesity and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Kirsten Riis; Andersen, Malene Lundgren; Schantz, Anne Louise

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As obesity is an increasing problem among fertile women, it is crucial that specialists involved in the treatment of these women be aware of the risks of complications and know how to deal with them. Complications associated with obesity in pregnancy are gestational diabetes mellitus......, hypertensive disorders, and thromboembolic complications. Complications associated with obesity in labor are augmentation, early amniotomy, cephalopelvic disproportion, cesarean section, and perioperative morbidity. Complications associated with obesity in children are macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, small...... for gestational age, late fetal death, and congenital malformations, especially neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the potential complications associated with obesity and pregnancy. RESULTS: Obesity is associated with a higher risk of all reviewed complications except small for gestational age....

  9. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Diamant, Zuzana; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant impact on asthma incidence and manifestations. The purpose of the review is to discuss recent observations regarding the association between obesity and asthma focusing on underlying mechanisms, clinical presentation, response to therapy and effect...... of weight reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obese patients with asthma may represent a unique phenotype, which is more difficult to control, less responsive to asthma medications and by that may have higher healthcare utilization. A number of common comorbidities...... have been linked to both obesity and asthma, and may, therefore, contribute to the obese-asthma phenotype. Furthermore, recently published studies indicate that even a modest weight reduction can improve clinical manifestations and outcome of asthma. SUMMARY: Compared with normal-weight patients, obese...

  10. Obesity and obstetric anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, H S; Paech, M J; McDonnell, N J

    2011-07-01

    Obesity is increasing in the population as a whole, and especially in the obstetric population, among whom pregnancy-induced physiological changes impact on those already present due to obesity. In particular, changes in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems during pregnancy further alter the physiological effects and comorbidities of obesity. Obese pregnant women are at increased risk of diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, ischaemic heart disease, congenital malformations, operative delivery postpartum infection and thromboembolism. Regional analgesia and anaesthesia is usually preferred but may be challenging. Obese pregnant women appear to have increased morbidity and mortality associated with caesarean delivery and general anaesthesia for caesarean delivery in particular, and more anaesthesia-related complications. This article summarises the physiological and pharmacological implications of obesity and pregnancy and describes the issues surrounding the management of these women for labour and delivery. PMID:21823371

  11. Genetics of Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common disorders; indeed there is general consensus on these findings from generally positive replication outcomes by independent groups. To date, there have been only a few GWAS-related reports for childhood obesity specifically, with studies primarily uncovering loci in the adult setting instead. It is clear that a number of loci previously reported from GWAS analyses of adult BMI and/or obesity also play a role in childhood obesity.

  12. [Obesity and gastrointestinal motility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Seong

    2006-08-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) motility has a crucial role in the food consumption, digestion and absorption, and also controls the appetite and satiety. In obese patients, various alterations of GI motility have been investigated. The prevalence of GERD and esophageal motor disorders in obese patients are higher than those of general population. Gastric emptying of solid food is generally accelerated and fasting gastric volume especially in distal stomach is larger in obese patients without change in accommodation. Contractile activity of small intestine in fasting period is more prominent, but orocecal transit is delayed. Autonomic dysfunction is frequently demonstrated in obese patients. These findings correspond with increased appetite and delayed satiety in obese patients, but causes or results have not been confirmed. Therapeutic interventions of these altered GI motility have been developed using botulinum toxin, gastric electrical stimulation in obese patients. Novel agents targeted for GI hormone modulation (such as ghrelin and leptin) need to be developed in the near future. PMID:16929152

  13. Anesthetizing the obese child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anette; Lenz, Katja; Abildstrøm, Hanne;

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing. The focus of this review is the special anesthetic considerations regarding the perioperative management of obese children. With obesity the risk of comorbidity such as asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, and diabetes increases....... The obese child has an increased risk of perioperative complications especially related to airway management and ventilation. There is a significantly increased risk of difficult mask ventilation and perioperative desaturation. Furthermore, obesity has an impact on the pharmacokinetics of most anesthetic...... drugs. This has important implications on how to estimate the optimal drug dose. This article offers a review of the literature on definition, prevalence and the pathophysiology of childhood obesity and provides suggestions on preanesthetic evaluation, airway management and dosage of the anesthetic...

  14. 人腺病毒36型与肥胖发生相互关系的研究进展%Current research progress on human adenovirus type 36 and obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董瑞; 高晓萌; 商庆龙; 谷鸿喜

    2013-01-01

    The potential connection between human adenovirus type 36 (Ad-36) infection and obesity has received extensive research attentions in recent years. Studies indicated that Ad-36 antibody may be associated with body mass index (BMI) in obesity population, and the results were further confirmed in animal model and in vitro cellular models. Viral EA orf-1 gene, cellular adipocyte differentiation pathway and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway are current focal points of mechanism studies. Since limited data is available, more epidemiological data and mechanism studies are needed to confirm the relationship between Ad-36 infection and obesity.%病毒感染与肥胖发生之间关系的研究在近年来受到关注,尤其是人腺病毒36型(Ad-36)感染.Ad-36抗体的存在与肥胖者体质指数增加具有相关性,体外动物模型和细胞模型实验也支持Ad-36诱导肥胖发生.在肥胖发生机制方面,E4 orf-1基因和脂肪细胞分化通路受到关注,磷脂酰肌醇3激酶(PI3K)途径被认为在Ad-36引发降血糖作用中发挥重要作用.目前,Ad-36的研究数据仍然有限,其与肥胖发生之间关系的确认需更多的流行病学数据和更深入的研究.

  15. Transcriptomic identification of ADH1B as a novel candidate gene for obesity and insulin resistance in human adipose tissue in Mexican Americans from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deidre A Winnier

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a complex metabolic disease that is more prevalent in ethnic groups such as Mexican Americans, and is strongly associated with the risk factors obesity and insulin resistance. The goal of this study was to perform whole genome gene expression profiling in adipose tissue to detect common patterns of gene regulation associated with obesity and insulin resistance. We used phenotypic and genotypic data from 308 Mexican American participants from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES. Basal fasting RNA was extracted from adipose tissue biopsies from a subset of 75 unrelated individuals, and gene expression data generated on the Illumina BeadArray platform. The number of gene probes with significant expression above baseline was approximately 31,000. We performed multiple regression analysis of all probes with 15 metabolic traits. Adipose tissue had 3,012 genes significantly associated with the traits of interest (false discovery rate, FDR ≤ 0.05. The significance of gene expression changes was used to select 52 genes with significant (FDR ≤ 10(-4 gene expression changes across multiple traits. Gene sets/Pathways analysis identified one gene, alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B that was significantly enriched (P < 10(-60 as a prime candidate for involvement in multiple relevant metabolic pathways. Illumina BeadChip derived ADH1B expression data was consistent with quantitative real time PCR data. We observed significant inverse correlations with waist circumference (2.8 x 10(-9, BMI (5.4 x 10(-6, and fasting plasma insulin (P < 0.001. These findings are consistent with a central role for ADH1B in obesity and insulin resistance and provide evidence for a novel genetic regulatory mechanism for human metabolic diseases related to these traits.

  16. Anti-obesity effects of gut microbiota are associated with lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Cheng, Po-Ching; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is rapidly becoming endemic in industrialized countries and continues to increase in developing countries worldwide. Obesity predisposes people to an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have described an association between obesity and certain gut microbiota, suggesting that gut microbiota might play a critical role in the development of obesity. Although probiotics have many beneficial health effects in humans and animals, attention has only recently been drawn to manipulating the gut microbiota, such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB), to influence the development of obesity. In this review, we first describe the causes of obesity, including the genetic and environmental factors. We then describe the relationship between the gut microbiota and obesity, and the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota influence energy metabolism and inflammation in obesity. Lastly, we focus on the potential role of LAB in mediating the effects of the gut microbiota in the development of obesity.

  17. The gut microbiota and obesity: from correlation to causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liping

    2013-09-01

    The gut microbiota has been linked with chronic diseases such as obesity in humans. However, the demonstration of causality between constituents of the microbiota and specific diseases remains an important challenge in the field. In this Opinion article, using Koch's postulates as a conceptual framework, I explore the chain of causation from alterations in the gut microbiota, particularly of the endotoxin-producing members, to the development of obesity in both rodents and humans. I then propose a strategy for identifying the causative agents of obesity in the human microbiota through a combination of microbiome-wide association studies, mechanistic analysis of host responses and the reproduction of diseases in gnotobiotic animals.

  18. El factor de necrosis tumoral-α, la resistencia a la insulina, el metabolismo de lipoproteínas y la obesidad en humanos Tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin resistance, the lipoprotein metabolism and obesity in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª M. Ramírez Alvarado

    2012-12-01

    produces proinflammatory molecules as tumor necrosis factor-α, which has local effects on adipocyte physiology and systemic effects in other organs. Many studies linking TNF-α, obesity, insulin resistance and lipid metabolism have been conducted in rats, rabbits and dogs, but the results observed in several of these studies have been conflicting and many of them have not been able to reproduce in humans, which on human makes difficult the interpretation of the effect of TNF-α on human metabolism. Objective: To conduct a systematic review of human studies which relates, TNF-α insulin resistance and lipoprotein metabolism. Methods: We searched the PubMed database for studies in humans, human tissue and human cell lines linking TNF-α, obesity, insulin resistance and lipoprotein. Results: There is a increased production of TNF-α on adipose tissue of obese. TNF-α decreases the cellular response to insulin in adipocytes, hepatocytes and human muscle cells. There is an increase of TNF-α in patients with dyslipidemia, and inactivation of TNF-α affects lipid metabolism. In human hepatocytes, TNF-α inhibits expression of APO AI, which may decrease the secretion of high density lipoproteins. TNF-α affects the excretion of cholesterol by inhibiting the enzyme cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase in hepatocytes. Conclusion: TNF-α decreases the cellular response to insulin, and has effects on the metabolism of cholesterol and lipoproteins in humans. A better understanding of the mechanisms of the inflammatory response induced obesity in humans, can lead to identifying new therapeutic targets that can prevent the complications associated with obesity.

  19. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Zammit; Helen Liddicoat; Ian Moonsie; et al

    2010-01-01

    Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ produ...

  20. DBS for Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Franco; Fonoff, Erich T; Pedro Alvarenga; Antonio Carlos Lopes; Euripides C Miguel; Manoel J. Teixeira; Durval Damiani; Clement Hamani

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic, progressive and prevalent disorder. Morbid obesity, in particular, is associated with numerous comorbidities and early mortality. In patients with morbid obesity, pharmacological and behavioral approaches often have limited results. Bariatric surgery is quite effective but is associated with operative failures and a non-negligible incidence of side effects. In the last decades, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been investigated as a neurosurgical modality to treat variou...

  1. Reduced adipose tissue lymphatic drainage of macromolecules in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate subcutaneous adipose tissue lymphatic drainage (ATLD) of macromolecules in lean and obese subjects and, furthermore, to evaluate whether ATLD may change in parallel with adipose tissue blood flow. Lean and obese male subjects were studied before and after...... an oral glucose load. Adipose-tissue blood flow was measured in the anterior subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue by the (133)Xe-washout technique. ATLD was measured as the disappearance rate of (99m)Tc-labelled nanoaggregated human albumin, during fasting and after an oral glucose load. A significant...... the lymphatic system in obese subjects. Furthermore, they suggest that postprandial changes in ATLD taking place in lean subjects are not observed in obese subjects. This may have a role in the development of obesity-related inflammation in hypertrophic adipose tissue.International Journal of Obesity advance...

  2. Obesity in children with developmental and/or physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandini, Linda; Danielson, Melissa; Esposito, Layla E; Foley, John T; Fox, Michael H; Frey, Georgia C; Fleming, Richard K; Krahn, Gloria; Must, Aviva; Porretta, David L; Rodgers, Anne Brown; Stanish, Heidi; Urv, Tiina; Vogel, Lawrence C; Humphries, Kathleen

    2015-07-01

    Children with developmental or physical disabilities, many of whom face serious health-related conditions, also are affected by the current obesity crisis. Although evidence indicates that children with disabilities have a higher prevalence of obesity than do children without disabilities, little is known of the actual magnitude of the problem in this population. To address this concern, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) held a conference on obesity in children with intellectual, developmental, or physical disabilities, bringing together scientists and practitioners in the fields of obesity and disability to foster collaboration, identify barriers to healthy weight status in populations with disabilities, propose avenues to solutions through research and practice, and develop a research agenda to address the problem. This article describes current knowledge about prevalence of obesity in this population, discusses factors influencing obesity risk, and summarizes recommendations for research presented at the conference.

  3. In Search of New Therapeutic Targets in Obesity Treatment: Sirtuins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kurylowicz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the available non-invasive medical therapies for obesity are non-efficient in a long-term evaluation; therefore there is a constant need for new methods of treatment. Research on calorie restriction has led to the discovery of sirtuins (silent information regulators, SIRTs, enzymes regulating different cellular pathways that may constitute potential targets in the treatment of obesity. This review paper presents the role of SIRTs in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism as well as in the differentiation of adipocytes. How disturbances of SIRTs’ expression and activity may lead to the development of obesity and related complications is discussed. A special emphasis is placed on polymorphisms in genes encoding SIRTs and their possible association with susceptibility to obesity and metabolic complications, as well as on data regarding altered expression of SIRTs in human obesity. Finally, the therapeutic potential of SIRTs-targeted strategies in the treatment of obesity and related disorders is discussed.

  4. DBS for Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ruth; Fonoff, Erich T.; Alvarenga, Pedro; Lopes, Antonio Carlos; Miguel, Euripides C.; Teixeira, Manoel J.; Damiani, Durval; Hamani, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic, progressive and prevalent disorder. Morbid obesity, in particular, is associated with numerous comorbidities and early mortality. In patients with morbid obesity, pharmacological and behavioral approaches often have limited results. Bariatric surgery is quite effective but is associated with operative failures and a non-negligible incidence of side effects. In the last decades, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been investigated as a neurosurgical modality to treat various neuropsychiatric disorders. In this article we review the rationale for selecting different brain targets, surgical results and future perspectives for the use of DBS in medically refractory obesity. PMID:27438859

  5. DBS for Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Franco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic, progressive and prevalent disorder. Morbid obesity, in particular, is associated with numerous comorbidities and early mortality. In patients with morbid obesity, pharmacological and behavioral approaches often have limited results. Bariatric surgery is quite effective but is associated with operative failures and a non-negligible incidence of side effects. In the last decades, deep brain stimulation (DBS has been investigated as a neurosurgical modality to treat various neuropsychiatric disorders. In this article we review the rationale for selecting different brain targets, surgical results and future perspectives for the use of DBS in medically refractory obesity.

  6. Controversies in Obesity Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Karandish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The markedly high prevalence of obesity contributes to the increased incidence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea, and heart disease. Because of high prevalence of obesity in almost all countries, it has been the focus of many researches throughout the world during the recent decades. Along with increasing researches, new concepts and controversies have been emerged. The existing controversies on the topic are so deep that some researches argue on absolutely philosophical questions such as “Is obesity a disease?” or “Is it correct to treat obesity?” These questions are based on a few theories and real data that explain obesity as a biological adaptation and also the final results of weight loss programs. Many people attempt to lose weight by diet therapy, physical activity and lifestyle modifications. Importantly, weight loss strategies in the long term are ineffective and may have unintended consequences including decreasing energy expenditure, complicated appetite control, eating disorders, reducing self-esteem, increasing the plasma and tissue levels of persistent organic pollutants that promote metabolic complications, and consequently, higher risk of repeated cycles of weight loss and weight regain. In this review, major paradoxes and controversies on obesity including classic obesity paradox, pre-obesity; fat-but-fit theory, and healthy obesity are explained. In addition, the relevant strategies like “Health at Every Size” that emphasize on promotion of global health behaviors rather than weight loss programs are explained.

  7. Update on obesity surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Eisenberg; Andrew J Duffy; Robert L Bell

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the United States has reached epidemic proportions. With more than 30 million Americans clinically obese, the younger population has also been affected. Surgical therapy should be offered to the severely obese patient who is refractory to nonsurgical therapy, as established by the 1991 NIH Consensus Conference on Gastrointestinal Surgery for Severe Obesity. Surgery is currently the most effective therapy for weight loss. It is far more effective than any other treatment modality, both in terms of the amount of weight loss and in terms of durability in maintaining weight loss.

  8. Obesity and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Kirsten Riis; Andersen, Malene Lundgren; Schantz, Anne Louise

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As obesity is an increasing problem among fertile women, it is crucial that specialists involved in the treatment of these women be aware of the risks of complications and know how to deal with them. Complications associated with obesity in pregnancy are gestational diabetes mellitus...... for gestational age, late fetal death, and congenital malformations, especially neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the potential complications associated with obesity and pregnancy. RESULTS: Obesity is associated with a higher risk of all reviewed complications except small for gestational age....

  9. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  10. What Are Overweight and Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Overweight and Obesity? Español The terms "overweight" and "obesity" refer to ... disease risk. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Obesity happens one pound at a time. So does ...

  11. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve M.; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B.; Bahijri, Suhad M.; Alfadul, Sulaiman M.; Ajabnoor, Ghada M. A.; Azhar, Esam I.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014 microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity. PMID:27625997

  12. 用ENDEAVOUR软件鉴定肥胖症致病基因GAD2%Verification of candidate gene GAD2 for human obesity by ENDEAVOUR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张焕萍; 张小白

    2011-01-01

    Disease genes identification is very important for understanding disease pathogenesis and improving clinic treatment. The computational gene prioritization tools have the advantages of huge data sources, efficient data processing and low costs. Many researchers have studied the disputing candidate disease gene GAD2 for obesity on chromosome 1 Op 12 by association studies but obtained contradictory conclusions. In this paper, the probability of gene GAD2 being an obesity disease gene is verified by the computational gene prioritization tool ENDEAVOUR. The prioritization strategies of ENDEAVOUR are based on the similarity between the candidate gene and the profile derived from genes already known to be involved in the processes (the training genes) by genomic data fusion. In the computational results, the first rank of gene GAD2 means that the probability of gene GAD2 being an obesity disease gene is high. The results are helpful to explain the biological mechanism of gene GAD2 and genetic factors of the complex obesity disease..%鉴别复杂疾病致病基因对于治疗和预防疾病作用非常重要,致病基因预测软件是鉴别致病基因的有效工具.位于染色体10p12的基因GAD2是尚有争议的肥胖基因,许多研究者用实验方法研究基因GAD2,却得出了不一致的结论.基于生物计算的致病基因预测软件能弥补实验的不足,已成为揭示疾病发病机理和预测致病基因的有效途径,本文采用ENDEAVOUR软件来验证基因GAD2是否为肥胖症致病基因,该软件运用多种生物数据,根据每一个候选基因与已知致病基因的相似程度以排序,结果在35个候选基因中,基因GAD2排在最前面,表明基因GAD2最可能是肥胖症致病基因.预测结果有利于重新解释基因GAD2的生物功能,促使肥胖症药物的研制及治疗水平的提高.

  13. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and the regulation of human invariant natural killer T cells: lessons from obesity, diabetes and psoriasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A E

    2011-11-01

    The innate immune cells, invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells), are implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, an inflammatory condition associated with obesity and other metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and dyslipidaemia. We observed an improvement in psoriasis severity in a patient within days of starting treatment with an incretin-mimetic, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist. This was independent of change in glycaemic control. We proposed that this unexpected clinical outcome resulted from a direct effect of GLP-1 on iNKT cells.

  14. Obesity and academic performances in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Herlina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Adolescence is a phase of dynamic development in human life, marked by rapid physical growth, in addition to mental, emotional, and social development. Adolescent obesity has been related to metabolic disease, in addition to psychological disorders, which may lead to a negative impact on academic performances. Objective To assess academic performances in adolescents with obesity Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Junior High School No. 14 in Bandung from December 2010 to July 2011. Subjects were aged 12 to 14 years, and were divided into two groups: obese or good nutritional status. Statistical analysis using Fisher’s exact test was performed to assess the association of obesity and academic performances. T-test was used to compare subjects’ mean mathematics and Eenglish performances in the two groups. Results There were 240 students who met the inclusion criteria. Since there were 40 obese subjects in the first group, we randomized the remaining students to obtain 40 subjects with good nutritional status for the second group. Bbest academic performances in mathematics and Eenglish was obtained mostly by subjects in the good nutrition group (38/40 and 39/40, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association of lower performances in mathematics (mean difference -2.8; 95%CI -5 to -0.6; P=0.043 and English (mean difference -1.9; 95%CI -3.5 to -0.2; P=0.001 to obesity. We also found a significant association of better mathematics (P=0.001 and English performances (P=0.004 to the father’s occupation. Additional English lessons were not associated with higher English performances in the obese group (mean difference 0.2; 95%CI -2.9 to 3.2; P=0.885. Conclusion Obese adolescents tend to have poorer academic performances compared to those with good nutritional status. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:12-5.

  15. Causes of metabolic syndrome and obesity-related co-morbidities Part 1: A composite unifying theory review of human-specific co-adaptations to brain energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Anne-Thea

    2014-01-01

    The medical, research and general community is unable to effect significantly decreased rates of central obesity and related type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. All conditions seem to be linked by the concept of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the underlying causes are not known. MetS markers may have been mistaken for causes, thus many treatments are destined to be suboptimal. The current paper aims to critique current paradigms, give explanations for their persistence, and to return to first principles in an attempt to determine and clarify likely causes of MetS and obesity related comorbidities. A wide literature has been mined, study concepts analysed and the basics of human evolution and new biochemistry reviewed. A plausible, multifaceted composite unifying theory is formulated. The basis of the theory is that the proportionately large, energy-demanding human brain may have driven co-adaptive mechanisms to provide, or conserve, energy for the brain. A 'dual system' is proposed. 1) The enlarged, complex cortico-limbic-striatal system increases dietary energy by developing strong neural self-reward/motivation pathways for the acquisition of energy dense food, and (2) the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) cellular protection system amplifies antioxidant, antitoxicant and repair activity by employing plant chemicals, becoming highly energy efficient in humans. The still-evolving, complex human cortico-limbic-striatal system generates strong behavioural drives for energy dense food procurement, including motivating agricultural technologies and social system development. Addiction to such foods, leading to neglect of nutritious but less appetizing 'common or garden' food, appears to have occurred. Insufficient consumption of food micronutrients prevents optimal human NRF2 function. Inefficient oxidation of excess energy forces central and non-adipose cells to store excess toxic lipid. Oxidative stress and

  16. Morphometric Analysis of Recognized Genes for Autism Spectrum Disorders and Obesity in Relationship to the Distribution of Protein-Coding Genes on Human Chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austen B. McGuire

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian chromosomes are comprised of complex chromatin architecture with the specific assembly and configuration of each chromosome influencing gene expression and function in yet undefined ways by varying degrees of heterochromatinization that result in Giemsa (G negative euchromatic (light bands and G-positive heterochromatic (dark bands. We carried out morphometric measurements of high-resolution chromosome ideograms for the first time to characterize the total euchromatic and heterochromatic chromosome band length, distribution and localization of 20,145 known protein-coding genes, 790 recognized autism spectrum disorder (ASD genes and 365 obesity genes. The individual lengths of G-negative euchromatin and G-positive heterochromatin chromosome bands were measured in millimeters and recorded from scaled and stacked digital images of 850-band high-resolution ideograms supplied by the International Society of Chromosome Nomenclature (ISCN 2013. Our overall measurements followed established banding patterns based on chromosome size. G-negative euchromatic band regions contained 60% of protein-coding genes while the remaining 40% were distributed across the four heterochromatic dark band sub-types. ASD genes were disproportionately overrepresented in the darker heterochromatic sub-bands, while the obesity gene distribution pattern did not significantly differ from protein-coding genes. Our study supports recent trends implicating genes located in heterochromatin regions playing a role in biological processes including neurodevelopment and function, specifically genes associated with ASD.

  17. Fetoplacental Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction as an Early Phenomenon in the Programming of Human Adult Diseases in Subjects Born from Gestational Diabetes Mellitus or Obesity in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Leiva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and obesity in pregnancy (OP are pathological conditions associated with placenta vascular dysfunction coursing with metabolic changes at the fetoplacental microvascular and macrovascular endothelium. These alterations are seen as abnormal expression and activity of the cationic amino acid transporters and endothelial nitric oxide synthase isoform, that is, the “endothelial L-arginine/nitric oxide signalling pathway.” Several studies suggest that the endogenous nucleoside adenosine along with insulin, and potentially arginases, are factors involved in GDM-, but much less information regards their role in OP-associated placental vascular alterations. There is convincing evidence that GDM and OP prone placental endothelium to an “altered metabolic state” leading to fetal programming evidenced at birth, a phenomenon associated with future development of chronic diseases. In this paper it is suggested that this pathological state could be considered as a metabolic marker that could predict occurrence of diseases in adulthood, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes mellitus (including gestational diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

  18. Morphometric Analysis of Recognized Genes for Autism Spectrum Disorders and Obesity in Relationship to the Distribution of Protein-Coding Genes on Human Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Austen B; Rafi, Syed K; Manzardo, Ann M; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-05-05

    Mammalian chromosomes are comprised of complex chromatin architecture with the specific assembly and configuration of each chromosome influencing gene expression and function in yet undefined ways by varying degrees of heterochromatinization that result in Giemsa (G) negative euchromatic (light) bands and G-positive heterochromatic (dark) bands. We carried out morphometric measurements of high-resolution chromosome ideograms for the first time to characterize the total euchromatic and heterochromatic chromosome band length, distribution and localization of 20,145 known protein-coding genes, 790 recognized autism spectrum disorder (ASD) genes and 365 obesity genes. The individual lengths of G-negative euchromatin and G-positive heterochromatin chromosome bands were measured in millimeters and recorded from scaled and stacked digital images of 850-band high-resolution ideograms supplied by the International Society of Chromosome Nomenclature (ISCN) 2013. Our overall measurements followed established banding patterns based on chromosome size. G-negative euchromatic band regions contained 60% of protein-coding genes while the remaining 40% were distributed across the four heterochromatic dark band sub-types. ASD genes were disproportionately overrepresented in the darker heterochromatic sub-bands, while the obesity gene distribution pattern did not significantly differ from protein-coding genes. Our study supports recent trends implicating genes located in heterochromatin regions playing a role in biological processes including neurodevelopment and function, specifically genes associated with ASD.

  19. The Obesity Epidemic

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-18

    Learn about obesity and the community initiatives taking place to prevent and reduce this epidemic.  Created: 7/18/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity.   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

  20. Obesity: A Bibliographic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The study of obesity is a relatively new interdisciplinary academic field. The community college library shelves should contain two types of resources. First, several kinds of reference materials, and second, a host of broader materials that place the discussion of obesity within a cultural framework. This overview is divided into two major…

  1. Childhood Obesity. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Liane M.

    In this discussion of childhood obesity, the medical and psychological problems associated with the condition are noted. Childhood obesity most likely results from an interaction of nutritional, psychological, familial, and physiological factors. Three factors--the family, low-energy expenditure, and heredity--are briefly examined. Early…

  2. Public Health England Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health England

    2014-01-01

    The Public Health England Obesity website provides a single point of contact for wide-ranging authoritative information on data, evaluation, evidence and research related to weight status and its determinants. They work closely with a wide range of organisations and provide support to policy makers and practitioners involved in obesity and related issues.

  3. Health risks of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000348.htm Health risks of obesity To use the sharing features on this page, ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Obesity Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  4. Defining Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood Obesity Facts The prevalence of obesity among low-income children aged 2 through 4 years, by state ... and their relation to cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents. Int. J. Obes. , 29(11), pp.1346–1352. ...

  5. Gender, Obesity, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a health condition, but its consequences extend far beyond the realm of health. To illuminate an important route by which the experience of obesity can filter into the status attainment process, this study drew on nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to test a social psychological…

  6. Severe childhood obesity matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.H. Slootweg

    2014-01-01

    To date, obesity represents a major public health challenge. Obesity is at any age a concern but in pediatric populations it is particularly alarming because of its immediate biomedical and psychosocial consequences and the expectation that it will lead to an increase in morbidity and mortality and

  7. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data has established increasing adiposity as a risk factor for incident asthma. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and asthma are incompletely understood. In the present paper, we review current knowledge of possible mechanisms mediating the observed...... association between obesity and asthma....

  8. Obesity Treatment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ianosi Edith

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a disease with severe health consequences and increased risk of mortality. The most commonly used criteria to assess the presence and the severity of obesity are body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and the presence of the health conditions caused or worsened by obesity. Worldwide obesity has more than doubled in the last 4 decades. Obesity is the second of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide (after smoking. Obesity has a plurifactorial pathogenesis. The central perturbation consists in the imbalance between calories intake and calories consumption (by inappropriate diet and sedentary lifestyle. Identification of all the ethiological factors is important for treatment and prophylaxis. Weight loss benefits are multiple and important: improvement in glicemic control and in plasma lipid levels, blood presure control, obstructiv sleep apneea reduction, improvement in management of daily activities and profesional performances, increase quality of life, reduction in mortality. Overweight or obese patient will complete a diagnostic and a treatment program. Treatment of obesity claims a targeted multidimensional therapy: weight and lifestyle management, diet, sustained physical activity in daily life, exercise, decrease life stressors, smoking cessation, drug therapy, bariatric surgery psichological, familial and social suport. Weight loss program must be carefully planned, adapted to the patient’s abilities and comorbidities and supervised by a nutritionist and a physiotherapist.

  9. [The epidemiology of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Castillo, Claudia P; Pichardo-Ontiveros, Edgar; López-R, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    In excess of 50% of adult population and nearly one third of children in Mexico have overweight and obesity. This accounts for slightly >32,671,000 million persons, excluding children; thus, total numbers are even more significant. These figures are alarming for those responsible for the economic future and well-being of Mexico. Overweight and obesity lead to higher risk of mortality as well as development of multiple diseases, mainly coronary heart disease, diabetes type 2, cancer, and stroke, which are at present the principal causes of mortality in Mexico. The World Health Organization (WHO) announced that there are throughout the world more than one billion adults with overweight, of whom 300 million have obesity. In addition to the obesity epidemic in Mexico, there is high prevalence of diabetes type 2. Coexistence of both epidemics has been denominated the twin epidemic. As many as 80% of cases of type 2 diabetes are linked with overweight or obesity, particularly abdominal obesity. The disease was once thought to be limited to adults, but obese children are now developing the illness. In Mexico, we are able to refer to at least three epidemics, because not only are obesity and type 2 diabetes advancing rapidly in the country, but also cardiovascular disease, linked with high prevalence of both hypertension and metabolic syndrome as reported by scientists based on Mexican National Health Survey 2000 data. PMID:15641467

  10. Emotional Toll of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... only are there health costs associated with childhood obesity , but your child’s weight problem is also intimately entangled in his ... the physical diseases and conditions that often accompany obesity. You can ... words of your own overweight child. In a society that puts a premium on ...

  11. Battling the Obesity Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mark; Moag-Stahlberg, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    Describes causes of overweight and obesity in children; cites research linking good nutrition and a child's capacity to learn; includes six Web-based links to resources to help principals and teachers reduce the serious problem of overweight and obese children. (PKP)

  12. Renal consequences of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumnik, Beata; Myśliwiec, Michał

    2010-08-01

    The worldwide prevalence of obesity and its associated metabolic and cardiovascular disorders has risen dramatically within the past 2 decades. Our objective is to review the mechanisms that link obesity with altered kidney function. Current evidence suggests that excess weight gain may be responsible for 65-75% of the risk for arterial hypertension. Impaired renal pressure natriuresis, initially due to increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption, is a key factor linking obesity with hypertension. Obesity increases renal sodium reabsorption by activating the renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems, and by altering intrarenal physical forces. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ, secreting hormones/cytokines (e.g., leptin) which may trigger sodium retention and hypertension. Additionally, excess visceral adipose tissue may physically compress the kidneys, increasing intrarenal pressures and tubular reabsorption. Eventually, sustained obesity via hyperinsulinemia, due to resistance to insulin, causes hyperfiltration, resulting in structural changes in the kidneys--glomerular hyperthrophy and occasionally focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The consequences of kidney injury are continuous loss of glomerular filtration rate, further increase of arterial pressure and escalation of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is a growing awareness of the renal consequences of obesity, and considerable progress is being made in understanding its pathophysiology. Weight reduction results in lowered proteinuria. Aside from low sodium diet and exercises, more widespread use of renoprotective therapy (e.g., ACE inhibitors and statins) in treatment of hypertension in obese subjects should be advocated. Renal protection should result in reducing the cardiovascular complications of obesity. PMID:20671624

  13. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant negative impact on asthma control and risk of exacerbations. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies evaluating the effects of weight reduction on asthma control in obese adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies have shown that weight...... reduction in obese patients is associated with improvements in symptoms, use of controller medication, and asthma-related quality of life together with a reduction in the risk for severe exacerbations. Furthermore, several studies have also revealed improvements in lung function and airway responsiveness...... reduction in obese adults with asthma leads to an overall improvement in asthma control, including airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Weight reduction should be a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with asthma....

  14. Paediatric asthma and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Sean R; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2006-12-01

    None of the explanations proposed for the increase in paediatric asthma have been adequate. It is becoming apparent that the cause of the increase in asthma must be multi-factorial. Increasing attention has been focused on the role of lifestyle in the development of asthma. Lifestyle changes that have occurred in children are those in diet and decreased physical activity, with obesity being the product of these changes. The increase in asthma, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle have occurred together. However, a temporal relationship between asthma, obesity and decreased physical activity has not been determined in the paediatric literature. Limited data suggest that decreased physical activity could be playing a role in the aetiology of asthma independent of obesity. Furthermore, there has been substantial research on the benefits of exercise programmes for paediatric patients with asthma. Longitudinal trials monitoring physical activity, obesity and the development of asthma are needed. PMID:17098637

  15. Obesity in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    Background: The obesity epidemic has led to an increase in obese women of childbearing age. This gives cause for concern because prepregnancy obesity is associated with a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The newly established Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) has a size that permits...... an investigation of the association between maternal obesity and rare, but important outcomes, for which more insight is needed, such as fetal death, subtypes of preterm birth, and neonatal mortality. The low participation rate of 30% to the DNBC may, however, raise new questions related to the validity...... of the findings, so we also carried out a study of the consequences of this selection on the estimates of relative risk.Studies of maternal obesity: Within the DNBC we examined the association between prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and the risk of fetal death (n=54,505), subtypes of preterm birth (n=62...

  16. Obesity and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is more prevalent in obese compared with normal weight subjects. Our aim has been to review current knowledge of the impact of obesity on asthma severity, asthma control, and response to therapy.Several studies have shown that overweight and obesity is associated with more severe asthma...... and impaired quality of life compared with normal weight individuals. Furthermore, obesity is associated with poorer asthma control, as assessed by asthma control questionnaires, limitations in daily activities, breathlessness and wheezing, use of rescue medication, unscheduled doctor visits, emergency...... department visits, and hospitalizations for acute asthma. Studies of the impact of a high body mass index (BMI) on response to asthma therapy have, however, revealed conflicting results. Most studies show that overweight and obesity is associated with less favorable response to asthma therapy with regard...

  17. Sexual function and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, S H; Wagner, G; Heitmann, B L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the relationship between obesity and sexual function. METHOD: A search in the medical literature from 1966 and onwards was carried out through Medline and Embase for publications on obesity, in combination with Medical Subject Heading words related to sexual...... function and dysfunction. COMMENTS: Four prospective and seven cross-sectional studies were found describing association between obesity and erectile dysfunction (ED). One cross-sectional study was found describing obesity and female sexual dysfunction (FSD). The prospective studies on ED all demonstrated...... activity among both men and women after weight loss intervention. CONCLUSION: Support for the assumption that obesity is associated with ED was found in both prospective and cross-sectional studies. FSD was not adequately described in the literature and prospective studies are needed here. Results from...

  18. Obesity and craniopharyngioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruzzi Patrizia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An epidemic of pediatric obesity has occurred across the world in recent years. There are subgroups within the population at high-risk of becoming obese and especially of having experience of precocious cardiovascular and metabolic co-morbidities of obesity. One of these subgroups comprises patients treated for childhood cancers and namely survivors of craniopharyngioma. The high incidence of obesity in this group makes these patients an important disease model to better understand the metabolic disturbances and the mechanisms of weight gain among cancer survivors. The hypothalamic-pituitary axis damage secondary to cancer therapies or to primary tumor location affect long-term outcomes. Nevertheless, the aetiology of obesity in craniopharyngioma is not yet fully understood. The present review has the aim of summarizing the published data and examining the most accepted mechanisms and main predisposing factors related to weight gain in this particular population.

  19. Obesity and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawer, Rickie; Brisbon, Nancy; Plumb, James

    2009-09-01

    Obesity has become the second leading preventable cause of disease and death in the United States, trailing only tobacco use. Weight control, dietary choices, and levels of physical activity are important modifiable determinants of cancer risk. Physicians have a key role in integrating multifactorial approaches to prevention and management into clinical care and advocating for systemic prevention efforts. This article provides an introduction to the epidemiology and magnitude of childhood and adult obesity; the relationship between obesity and cancer and other chronic diseases; potential mechanisms postulated to explain these relationships; a review of recommended obesity treatment and assessment guidelines for adults, adolescents, and children; multilevel prevention strategies; and an approach to obesity management in adults using the Chronic Care Model.

  20. [Obesity in elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechleitner, Monika

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing also in the elderly population. The European Euronut-Seneca study described an obesity prevalence of 12-41% in elderly women and of 8-24% in elderly men. Obesity in the elderly is related to the cardiometabolic risk, but also to degenerative joint diseases and impaired physical functions. Some discrepancies are caused by the description of a so-called obesity paradox with a more favourable prognosis for certain diseases in the presence of overweight compared to normal or reduced body weight. The so-called sarcopenic obesity is associated with the worst prognosis.Preventive and therapeutic regimens should consider the increased risk of malnutrition in elderly. The combinations of individually tailored nutritional recommendations and physical exercise is of advantage for the prognosis of comorbidities and the quality of life. PMID:26820990

  1. Refeeding hypertension in dietary obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel model of nutritionally induced hypertension in the rat is described. Dietary obesity was produced by providing sweet milk in addition to regular chow, which elicited a 52% increase in caloric intake. Despite 54% greater body weight gain and 139% heavier retroperitoneal fat pads, 120 days of overfeeding failed to increase systolic pressure in the conscious state or mean arterial pressure under urethan anesthesia. In contrast, mild hypertension developed in intermittantly fasted obese animals. The first 4-day supplemented fast was initiated 4 wk after the introduction of sweet milk, when the animals were 47 g overweight relative to chow-fed controls. Thereafter, 4 days of starvation were alternated with 2 wk of refeeding for a total of 4 cycles. A rapid fall in systolic blood pressure accompanied the onset of supplemented fasting and was maintained thereafter. With refeeding, blood pressure rose precipitously, despite poststarvation anorexia. Blood pressure tended to rise slightly over the remainder of the realimentation period. After the 4th supplemented fast, hypertension was sustained during 30 days of refeeding. Cumulative caloric intake in starved-refed rats fell within 2% of that in chow-fed controls. Refeeding hypertension appeared to be due to increased sympathetic nervous activity, since (1) cardiac β-adrenergic receptors were downregulated, as indicated by a 40% decrease in the maximum binding of [3H]dihydroalpranolol; and (2) the decrease in heart rate as a result of β-blockade was enhanced. Refeeding hypertension in the dietary obese rat may be a potential animal model for some forms of human obesity-related hypertension

  2. Refeeding hypertension in dietary obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernsberger, P.; Nelson, D.O. (Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (USA))

    1988-01-01

    A novel model of nutritionally induced hypertension in the rat is described. Dietary obesity was produced by providing sweet milk in addition to regular chow, which elicited a 52% increase in caloric intake. Despite 54% greater body weight gain and 139% heavier retroperitoneal fat pads, 120 days of overfeeding failed to increase systolic pressure in the conscious state or mean arterial pressure under urethan anesthesia. In contrast, mild hypertension developed in intermittantly fasted obese animals. The first 4-day supplemented fast was initiated 4 wk after the introduction of sweet milk, when the animals were 47 g overweight relative to chow-fed controls. Thereafter, 4 days of starvation were alternated with 2 wk of refeeding for a total of 4 cycles. A rapid fall in systolic blood pressure accompanied the onset of supplemented fasting and was maintained thereafter. With refeeding, blood pressure rose precipitously, despite poststarvation anorexia. Blood pressure tended to rise slightly over the remainder of the realimentation period. After the 4th supplemented fast, hypertension was sustained during 30 days of refeeding. Cumulative caloric intake in starved-refed rats fell within 2% of that in chow-fed controls. Refeeding hypertension appeared to be due to increased sympathetic nervous activity, since (1) cardiac {beta}-adrenergic receptors were downregulated, as indicated by a 40% decrease in the maximum binding of ({sup 3}H)dihydroalpranolol; and (2) the decrease in heart rate as a result of {beta}-blockade was enhanced. Refeeding hypertension in the dietary obese rat may be a potential animal model for some forms of human obesity-related hypertension.

  3. Gender and obesity specific MicroRNA expression in adipose tissue from lean and obese pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Caroline M. Junker; Anthon, Christian; Jacobsen, Mette Juul;

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a complex condition that increases the risk of life threatening diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Studying the gene regulation of obesity is important for understanding the molecular mechanisms behind the obesity derived diseases and may lead to better intervention ...... expressed miRNAs in subcutaneous adipose tissue by RNA sequencing (RNAseq). Both male and female pigs are included to explore gender differences. The RNAseq study shows that the most highly expressed miRNAs are in accordance with comparable studies in pigs and humans. A total of six mi......RNAs are differentially expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue between the lean and obese group of pigs, and in addition gender specific significant differential expression is observed for a number of miRNAs. The differentially expressed miRNAs have been verified using qPCR. The results of these studies in general...

  4. Current mapping of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pérez Rodrigo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of women are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced the largest absolute increase in the number of overweight and obese people between 1980 and 2008, followed by Brazil and Mexico. The regions with the largest increase in the prevalence of female obesity were Central Latin America, Oceania and Southern Latin America. Updated data provide evidence that the progression of the epidemic has effectively slowed for the past ten years in several countries. In low-income countries obesity is generally more prevalent among the better-off, while disadvantaged groups are increasingly affected as countries grow. Many studies have shown an overall socio-economic gradient in obesity in modern industrialized societies. Rates tend to decrease progressively with increasing socio-economic status. Children obesity rates in Spain are amongst the highest in the OECD. One in 3 children aged 13 to 14 are overweight. Overweight in infants and young children is observed in the upper middle-income countries. However, the fastest growth occurs in the group of lower middle-income countries. There is a growing body of evidence for an inverse association between SES and child obesity in developed countries. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high in all age groups in many countries, but especially worrying in children and adolescents in developed countries and economies in transition.

  5. Current mapping of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of women are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced the largest absolute increase in the number of overweight and obese people between 1980 and 2008, followed by Brazil and Mexico. The regions with the largest increase in the prevalence of female obesity were Central Latin America, Oceania and Southern Latin America. Updated data provide evidence that the progression of the epidemic has effectively slowed for the past ten years in several countries. In low-income countries obesity is generally more prevalent among the better-off, while disadvantaged groups are increasingly affected as countries grow. Many studies have shown an overall socio-economic gradient in obesity in modern industrialized societies. Rates tend to decrease progressively with increasing socio-economic status. Children obesity rates in Spain are amongst the highest in the OECD. One in 3 children aged 13 to 14 are overweight. Overweight in infants and young children is observed in the upper middle-income countries. However, the fastest growth occurs in the group of lower middle-income countries. There is a growing body of evidence for an inverse association between SES and child obesity in developed countries. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high in all age groups in many countries, but especially worrying in children and adolescents in developed countries and economies in transition.

  6. The chronobiology, etiology and pathophysiology of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of CD on human health is an emerging issue. Many records link CD with diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular, cognitive impairment and obesity, all of them conducive to premature aging. The amount of sleep has declined by 1.5 h over the past century, accompanied by an important increas...

  7. How Can Overweight and Obesity Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Obesity happens one pound at a time. So does prevention. 09/07/2012 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National ...

  8. Mrap2 Accessory Linked to Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tiemin; Elmquist, Joel K.; Williams, Kevin W.

    2013-01-01

    Melanocortin receptors are critical modulators of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Companion studies published in Science (Asai et al., 2013; Sebag et al., 2013) establish a role for melanocortin receptor accessory protein 2 (Mrap2) in regulating melanocortin receptor activity and in the development of obesity in zebrafish, rodents, and humans.

  9. Establishment and evaluation of human flora associated animals related with Kazakh obese children in Xinjiang%新疆哈萨克族肥胖儿童菌群人源化动物模型的建立及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新彩; 李敏; 徐佩茹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish human flora associated (HFA) animal models related with Kazakh obese children in Xinjiang based on germ-free (GF) mice, study the engraftment of intestinal flora in GF mice, to provide a new way for the further study of the physiopathologic mechanism of Kazakh obese children. Methods We collected fresh feces from Kazakh obese children, and 20 GF C57BL/6J mice (half male and half female) were selected. The GF mice received gavage inoculation of bacterium suspension from Kazakh obese children when they were three-week-old. On the one month after inoculation, fresh feces samples were collected, PCR-DGGE method was adopted to detect, similarity UPGMA clustering analysis method was used to analyze the DGGE profiles, in order to understand the engraftment of intestinal flora in HFA animal models. Results The average richness of flora in HFA mice was 0.76 times of Kazakh obesity children; the average Evenness and Shannon-Wiener of flora in HFA mice were below Kazakh obesity children; but there was no obvious statistical significance; the similarity dice of Kazakh obesity children and HFA mice was 64%, the similarity between HFA mice was 73%-94%; Most gut microbiota of female mice differed from those of male mice in the cluster profile. Conclusion (1) It was successful to simulate the character intestinal flora environment of Kazakh obese children based on GF C57BL/6J mice. (2) HFA animal model is a new method for study of the relationship between Kazakh obese children and intestinal flora.%目的:利用无菌小鼠建立新疆哈萨克族肥胖儿童菌群人源化(HFA)动物模型,研究哈萨克族肥胖儿童的肠道菌群在无菌小鼠体内的定植规律,为深入研究哈萨克族儿童肥胖的病理生理机制提供了一种新的选择方式。方法收集新疆哈萨克族肥胖儿童新鲜粪便样本,选取20只无菌级 C57BL/6J 小鼠(雌雄各半),于无菌小鼠3周龄时,开始灌胃接种哈萨克族肥胖

  10. Microbial Reprogramming Inhibits Western Diet-Associated Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Poutahidis, Theofilos; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Smillie, Christopher; Levkovich, Tatiana; Perrotta, Alison; Bhela, Siddheshvar; Varian, Bernard J.; Ibrahim, Yassin M.; Jessica R Lakritz; Kearney, Sean M.; Chatzigiagkos, Antonis; Hafler, David A.; Eric J Alm; Erdman, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    A recent epidemiological study showed that eating ‘fast food’ items such as potato chips increased likelihood of obesity, whereas eating yogurt prevented age-associated weight gain in humans. It was demonstrated previously in animal models of obesity that the immune system plays a critical role in this process. Here we examined human subjects and mouse models consuming Westernized ‘fast food’ diet, and found CD4+ T helper (Th)17-biased immunity and changes in microbial communities and abdomin...

  11. Microbial Reprogramming Inhibits Western Diet-Associated Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Theofilos Poutahidis; Markus Kleinewietfeld; Christopher Smillie; Tatiana Levkovich; Alison Perrotta; Siddheshvar Bhela; Varian, Bernard J.; Ibrahim, Yassin M.; Jessica R Lakritz; Kearney, Sean M.; Antonis Chatzigiagkos; Hafler, David A.; Eric J Alm; Erdman, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    A recent epidemiological study showed that eating ‘fast food’ items such as potato chips increased likelihood of obesity, whereas eating yogurt prevented age-associated weight gain in humans. It was demonstrated previously in animal models of obesity that the immune system plays a critical role in this process. Here we examined human subjects and mouse models consuming Westernized ‘fast food’ diet, and found CD4[superscript +] T helper (Th)17-biased immunity and changes in microbial communiti...

  12. Obesity-Related Diseases Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Lena Kirchner

    The prevalence of obesity has increased epidemically during the past four decades and worldwide more than half a billion adults are now obese. Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Thus, effective ...... for prevention. The main purpose of this PhD was to explore the effect of dietary modulation of the gut microbiota on disease markers in obese individuals....... strategies to reduce obesity-related morbidity and mortality are essential. It has been hypothesized that the microbes in the human gut are involved in the development of obesity-related diseases and that intake of nutrients affecting the gut microbial community in specific ways, can be a new strategy......The prevalence of obesity has increased epidemically during the past four decades and worldwide more than half a billion adults are now obese. Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Thus, effective...

  13. Upper gastrointestinal sensitivity to meal-related signals in adult humans - relevance to appetite regulation and gut symptoms in health, obesity and functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2016-08-01

    Both the stomach and small intestine play important roles in sensing the arrival of a meal, and its physico-chemical characteristics, in the gastrointestinal lumen. The presence of a meal in the stomach provides a distension stimulus, and, as the meal empties into the small intestine, nutrients interact with small intestinal receptors, initiating the release of gut hormones, associated with feedback regulation of gastrointestinal functions, including gut motility, and signaling to the central nervous system, modulating eating behaviours, including energy intake. Lipid appears to have particularly potent effects, also in close interaction with, and modulating the effects of, gastric distension, and involving the action of gut hormones, particularly cholecystokinin (CCK). These findings have not only provided important, and novel, insights into how gastrointestinal signals interact to modulate subjective appetite perceptions, including fullness, but also laid the foundation for an increasing appreciation of the role of altered gastrointestinal sensitivities, e.g. as a consequence of excess dietary intake in obesity, or underlying the induction of gastrointestinal symptoms in functional dyspepsia (a condition characterized by symptoms, including bloating, nausea and early fullness, amongst others, after meals, particularly those high in fat, in the absence of any structural or functional abnormalities in the gastrointestinal tract). This paper will review the effects of dietary nutrients, particularly lipid, on gastrointestinal function, and associated effects on appetite perceptions and energy intake, effects of interactions of gastrointestinal stimuli, as well as the role of altered gastrointestinal sensitivities (exaggerated, or reduced) in eating-related disorders, particularly obesity and functional dyspepsia. PMID:27013098

  14. Desaturation of excess intramyocellular triacylglycerol in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S B; Madsbad, S; Mu, Huiling;

    2010-01-01

    in sedentary subjects. In addition, it was validated if IMTG palmitic acid is associated with insulin resistance as suggested earlier. DESIGN: Cross-sectional human study. SUBJECTS: In skeletal muscle biopsies, which were obtained from sedentary subjects (34 women, age 48+/-2 years (27 obese including 7 type 2...... diabetes (T2DM), body mass index (BMI)=35.5+/-0.8 kg m(-2)) and 25 men, age 49+/-2 years (20 obese including 6 T2DM, BMI=35.8+/-0.8 kg m(-2))), IMTG FA composition was determined by gas-liquid chromatography after separation from phospholipids by thin-layer chromatography. RESULTS: Independently of gender...

  15. Obesity and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Ejder Apay

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity; a state of being 20% over one’s normal weight due to excessive fat; that is, it is defined as the accumulation of too much fat in the body. The rate of obesity in the world has elevated. In the last two decades, it is considered that there have been increases in the rates of the obesity with changes in the socio-economic state and nutritional habits in Turkey as well as in modern western countries. The increase of the obesity is a matter of concern but the aspect which is much more matter of concern is in the increase of obesity in women at the reproductive age or gradually increasing rate of being overweight. If the pregnant woman is obese, most of the physiological changes occurring during pregnancy may be various. During their childbearing years, obese women are at an increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes, labour induction, caesareans births, and failed vaginal birth following to caesarean. Nurses should have the knowledge to adapt the care they provide according to this knowledge and encourage the pregnant women to acquire behaviours which will improve their health. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(4.000: 345-350

  16. Obesity and economic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Roland; An, Ruopeng

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes current understanding of economic factors during the obesity epidemic and dispels some widely held, but incorrect, beliefs. Rising obesity rates coincided with increases in leisure time (rather than increased work hours), increased fruit and vegetable availability (rather than a decline in healthier foods), and increased exercise uptake. As a share of disposable income, Americans now have the cheapest food available in history, which fueled the obesity epidemic. Weight gain was surprisingly similar across sociodemographic groups or geographic areas, rather than specific to some groups (at every point in time; however, there are clear disparities). It suggests that if one wants to understand the role of the environment in the obesity epidemic, one needs to understand changes over time affecting all groups, not differences between subgroups at a given time. Although economic and technological changes in the environment drove the obesity epidemic, the evidence for effective economic policies to prevent obesity remains limited. Taxes on foods with low nutritional value could nudge behavior toward healthier diets, as could subsidies/discounts for healthier foods. However, even a large price change for healthy foods could close only part of the gap between dietary guidelines and actual food consumption. Political support has been lacking for even moderate price interventions in the United States and this may continue until the role of environmental factors is accepted more widely. As opinion leaders, clinicians play an important role in shaping the understanding of the causes of obesity. PMID:24853237

  17. Contemporary pharmacological obesity treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaszubska Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, obesity has become a global epidemic. Consequently, worldwide costs associated with managing obesity and obesity-related comorbidities are huge. Numerous studies have focused on discerning the appropriate proper treatment of weight related problems such as overweight and obesity. Moreover, many clinical trials have been conducted for many years in order to introduce effective anti-obesity drugs. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of current and future pharmacotherapy for obesity, and to provide the reader with a determination of the concentration and composition of long and short term anti-obesity drugs, doing so by placing emphasis on pharmacotherapy and up-to-day solutions. It should be noted that, currently, the worldwide pharmacotherapy is represented by phendimetrazine, benzphetamine and diethylpropion, as well as by orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate, naltrexone/bupropion and liraglutide. In our paper, individual cases of patients’ needs are thoroughly illustrated by way of examples. Medical prescriptions and contraindications are also described.

  18. [Obesity Paradox and Stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Ralf; Oesch, Lisa; Sarikaya, Hakan

    2016-07-01

    The obesity paradox suggests that overweight and obese patients of older age may have higher survival rates after stroke as compared to normalweight patients. However, the results need a cautious interpretation due to selection bias, treatment bias and different patients’ characteristics. Moreover, randomized studies that prove a benefit of weight reduction are still lacking. As obesity is an independet risk factor for stroke, weight reduction should still be recommended in overweight patients. Randomized-controlled studies are needed to prove the effect of weight reduction on morbidity and mortality after stroke. PMID:27381308

  19. [Management of childhood obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubern, Béatrice

    2010-09-01

    Endocrine diseases (hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency, hypercortisolism) are exceptional in obese children and are searched only in case of short stature. It is not necessary to test systematically glucose tolerance (fasting glucose; oral glucose tolerance test) and lipids in order to look for obesity related comorbidities. Decreased caloric intake is the main goal for the treatment. Ways to succeed need to be adapted to each child with pragmatism and without dogmatism. Goals for treatment are reasonable (stabilization of weight excess). Weight loss surgery in obese children may be discussed in some cases with multidisciplinary expert team (doctors, surgeons, psychologist...) and close collaboration between adults teams and paediatricians. PMID:20615656

  20. Pharmacotherapy for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Katherine H; Shukla, Alpana P; Igel, Leon I; Kumar, Rekha B; Aronne, Louis J

    2016-09-01

    Successful treatment of obesity requires a multidisciplinary approach including diet, exercise and behavioral modification. As lifestyle changes are not sufficient for some patients, pharmacologic therapies should be considered as adjuncts to lifestyle interventions. In this article, we review clinical indications, mechanisms of action, dosing/administration, side effects, drug interactions and contraindications for the six most widely prescribed obesity medications. We also summarize the efficacy data from phase 3 trials which led to drug approval. As multiple agents are sometimes required for clinically significant weight loss, the future of obesity medicine will likely involve combinations of agents in addition to behavioral counseling. PMID:27519128

  1. Eating disorders and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunkard, Albert J

    2011-12-01

    In conclusion, 2 types of disordered eating behaviors affect some overweight and obese persons. BED and NES present an excellent opportunity to recognize, treat, and prevent these disorders that, at the least, maintain, and at worst, promote, overweight and obesity. Articles in this volume by Wilson and co-workers and Allison and colleagues discuss current treatment options for BED and NES, respectively. Clinicians are encouraged to evaluate the presence of BED and NES in all patients who seek treatment for their obesity. Although the prevalence of these 2 eating disorders is relatively low, both are associated with significant distress and dysfunction that can be ameliorated with effective treatment. PMID:22098802

  2. Obesity and Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Riobó Serván

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and relative impairment in insulin secretion and its possible long term complications. Its pathogenesis is poorly understood, but both genetic and environmental factors, such as obesity and aging, play a key role. "Diabesity" is a new term which refers to diabetes occurring in the context of obesity. In this article, we will discuss the epidemiology and impact of diabetes and obesity and will also outline the components of the metabolic syndrome and the studies that demonstrate that screening and prevention are possible in an attempt to control this epidemic.

  3. The childhood obesity epidemic: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a medical condition resulting from the accumulation of excess fat in the human body to the extent that it might have great harm effects on the human health by increasing the diseases lowering the average life expectancy. A person who has a body mass index (BMI of more than 30 kg/m 2 is classified as obese; this is how obesity can be defined for adult, which is different than that in children. To account for variability by sex and age, BMI in children must be compared with sex- and age-specific reference values (Centers for Disease Control growth chart. The terminology that is used for high BMI-for-age in children in has been based on the recommendation of an expert committee convened by federal agencies. Parents can be a good example for their children by modeling healthful eating behaviors and being physically active. Parents can also be effective advocates by being involved in efforts in their schools, and community to expand the access and availability of opportunities for physical activity and healthful eating. In the case of being an obese child, that means suffering from many health problems and obesity-related diseases such as elevated blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes and heart diseases. Diabetes is considered as one of the obesity-related diseases; type 2 diabetes in children has linked with obesity; when the pancreas starts to produce the insulin hormone, excess body fat will not allow child's body to use the insulin as it should be which can lead to being a diabetic patient. Schools also play a vital role in teaching the students on how to eat properly and select the best meal with keeping their bodies flexible by doing physical activities. It is important in order to keep children away from being in disasters by having a lot of obesity-related diseases (e.g., heart attacks and diabetes, which can lead to premature death in obese children. Children must be healthy since those children growing up in today's world

  4. Sleep, obesity and physicians' education

    OpenAIRE

    Ratneswaran, Culadeeban; Kadhum, Murtaza; Pengo, Martino F.; Steier, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    More than two thirds of the US population is obese or overweight, with worldwide obesity rates doubling since 1980. Obesity causes serious health risks including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer (1). It is also associated with respiratory conditions like obesity hypoventilation syndrome, asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Obesity causes a 6-fold increase in OSA prevalence (2) and over the last two decades, has caused a rise in the prevalence of OSA to 10% in middle-aged mal...

  5. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with m...

  6. Combating Child Obesity in America

    OpenAIRE

    Canavan, Erin

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the child obesity epidemic that is gripping our nation, and explores various causes and treatments that may help to defeat child obesity. First there is a description of the obesity epidemic, its causal factors, and its consequences. Additionally there is a summary and critique of the FDA’s obesity report and recommendations. There is a description of drug treatments that are available for obese children and why more research is necessary to ensure the s...

  7. Obesity and exercise in adoloscent period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Mendeş

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence period is a special period during which fastest growth and development occur in humans and which includes transition from childhood to adulthood. World Health Organization (WHO define 10-19 age-group individuals as adolescence and 15- 24 age-group individuals as youthood. That today’s community lacks knowledge of workout, inadequate awareness of the benefits of workout to human health and acceptance of the continuity of sedentary life gives rise to the incidence of lots of chronic diseases such as high-blood pressure, cardio-pulmonary diseases, obesity and diabetes.In recent years, childhood and adolescence obesity has become an important health problem as a result of the decline in physical activities. In this context, workout along with balanced diet is one of the precautions that can be suggested in terms of the prevention of obesity. The purpose of this study (compilation is to provide information on keeping human health by means of an awareness of workout in adolescence period which is the most important stage preceding adulthood; to summarize the issue in relation to the written documents existing in the relevant literature, and to make suggestions about healthy future generations through workout in adolescence period.In conclusion, successful results regarding the treatment of obesity in adolescence can be achieved through aerobics along with low-calorie diet.

  8. Carotenoids in Adipose Tissue Biology and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, M Luisa; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Cell, animal and human studies dealing with carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology with implications for the etiology and management of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are reviewed. Most studied carotenoids in this context are β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, together with β-carotene-derived retinoids and some other apocarotenoids. Studies indicate an impact of these compounds on essential aspects of adipose tissue biology including the control of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), adipocyte metabolism, oxidative stress and the production of adipose tissue-derived regulatory signals and inflammatory mediators. Specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives restrain adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy while enhancing fat oxidation and energy dissipation in brown and white adipocytes, and counteract obesity in animal models. Intake, blood levels and adipocyte content of carotenoids are reduced in human obesity. Specifically designed human intervention studies in the field, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. In summary, studies support a role of specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives in the prevention of excess adiposity, and suggest that carotenoid requirements may be dependent on body composition. PMID:27485231

  9. Manikin families representing obese airline passengers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanjun; Park, Woojin; Kim, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passenger spaces designed without proper anthropometric analyses can create serious problems for obese passengers, including: possible denial of boarding, excessive body pressures and contact stresses, postural fixity and related health hazards, and increased risks of emergency evacuation failure. In order to help address the obese passenger's accommodation issues, this study developed male and female manikin families that represent obese US airline passengers. Anthropometric data of obese individuals obtained from the CAESAR anthropometric database were analyzed through PCA-based factor analyses. For each gender, a 99% enclosure cuboid was constructed, and a small set of manikins was defined on the basis of each enclosure cuboid. Digital human models (articulated human figures) representing the manikins were created using a human CAD software program. The manikin families were utilized to develop design recommendations for selected aircraft seat dimensions. The manikin families presented in this study would greatly facilitate anthropometrically accommodating large airline passengers.

  10. Mesolimbic dopamine and its neuromodulators in obesity and binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naef, Lindsay; Pitman, Kimberley A; Borgland, Stephanie L

    2015-12-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic prevalence, and much research has focused on homeostatic and nonhomeostatic mechanisms underlying overconsumption of food. Mesocorticolimbic circuitry, including dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), is a key substrate for nonhomeostatic feeding. The goal of the present review is to compare changes in mesolimbic dopamine function in human obesity with diet-induced obesity in rodents. Additionally, we will review the literature to determine if dopamine signaling is altered with binge eating disorder in humans or binge eating modeled in rodents. Finally, we assess modulation of dopamine neurons by neuropeptides and peripheral peptidergic signals that occur with obesity or binge eating. We find that while decreased dopamine concentration is observed with obesity, there is inconsistency outside the human literature on the relationship between striatal D2 receptor expression and obesity. Finally, few studies have explored how orexigenic or anorexigenic peptides modulate dopamine neuronal activity or striatal dopamine in obese models. However, ghrelin modulation of dopamine neurons may be an important factor for driving binge feeding in rodents.

  11. Monomeric tartrate resistant acid phosphatase induces insulin sensitive obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Lång

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue, which may link adipose inflammation to insulin resistance. However, the impact of inflammatory cells in the pathophysiology of obesity remains unclear. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP is an enzyme expressed by subsets of macrophages and osteoclasts that exists either as an enzymatically inactive monomer or as an active, proteolytically processed dimer. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using mice over expressing TRAP, we show that over-expression of monomeric, but not the dimeric form in adipose tissue leads to early onset spontaneous hyperplastic obesity i.e. many small fat cells. In vitro, recombinant monomeric, but not proteolytically processed TRAP induced proliferation and differentiation of mouse and human adipocyte precursor cells. In humans, monomeric TRAP was highly expressed in the adipose tissue of obese individuals. In both the mouse model and in the obese humans the source of TRAP in adipose tissue was macrophages. In addition, the obese TRAP over expressing mice exhibited signs of a low-grade inflammatory reaction in adipose tissue without evidence of abnormal adipocyte lipolysis, lipogenesis or insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Monomeric TRAP, most likely secreted from adipose tissue macrophages, induces hyperplastic obesity with normal adipocyte lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity.

  12. Role of taurine in the pathogenesis of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru

    2015-07-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is present in mammalian tissues in millimolar concentrations. Taurine is involved in a diverse array of biological and physiological functions, including bile salt conjugation, osmoregulation, membrane stabilization, calcium modulation, anti-oxidation, and immunomodulation. The prevalence of obesity and being overweight continues to rise worldwide at an alarming rate. Obesity is associated with a higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and other clinical conditions. Ingestion of taurine has been shown to alleviate metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity in animal models. A global epidemiological survey showed that 24-h urinary taurine excretion, as a marker of dietary taurine intake, was inversely associated with BMI, blood pressure, and plasma cholesterol in humans. In addition, taurine chloramine, an endogenous product derived from activated neutrophils, has been reported to suppress obesity-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in adipocytes. Synthetic activity and concentration of taurine in adipose tissues and plasma have been shown to decrease in humans and animals during the development of obesity, suggesting a relationship between taurine deficiency and obesity. In this review, I summarize the effects of taurine on the progression of obesity in animal models and humans. Furthermore, I discuss possible mechanisms underlying the antiobesity effects of taurine.

  13. Mesolimbic dopamine and its neuromodulators in obesity and binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naef, Lindsay; Pitman, Kimberley A; Borgland, Stephanie L

    2015-12-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic prevalence, and much research has focused on homeostatic and nonhomeostatic mechanisms underlying overconsumption of food. Mesocorticolimbic circuitry, including dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), is a key substrate for nonhomeostatic feeding. The goal of the present review is to compare changes in mesolimbic dopamine function in human obesity with diet-induced obesity in rodents. Additionally, we will review the literature to determine if dopamine signaling is altered with binge eating disorder in humans or binge eating modeled in rodents. Finally, we assess modulation of dopamine neurons by neuropeptides and peripheral peptidergic signals that occur with obesity or binge eating. We find that while decreased dopamine concentration is observed with obesity, there is inconsistency outside the human literature on the relationship between striatal D2 receptor expression and obesity. Finally, few studies have explored how orexigenic or anorexigenic peptides modulate dopamine neuronal activity or striatal dopamine in obese models. However, ghrelin modulation of dopamine neurons may be an important factor for driving binge feeding in rodents. PMID:26514168

  14. Greenhouse gas benefits of fighting obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem in both industrialized and rapidly industrializing countries. It increases greenhouse gas emissions through higher fuel needs for transportation of heavier people, lifecycle emissions from additional food production and methane emissions from higher amounts of organic waste. A reduction of average weight by 5 kg could reduce OECD transport CO2 emissions by more than 10 million t. While the shift from beef to other forms of meat in industrialized and countries in transition has lead to lifecycle emissions savings of 20 million t CO2 equivalent between 1990 and 2005, emissions due to obesity-promoting foodstuffs have increased by more than 400 million t in advanced developing countries. Emissions in OECD countries could be reduced by more than 4 million t through reduction of associated food waste. Due to the intimate behavioural nature of the obesity problem, policies to reduce obesity such as food taxation, subsidization of human-powered transport, incentives to reduce sedentary leisure and regulation of fat in foodstuffs have not yet been implemented to any extent. The emissions benefits of fiscal and regulatory measures to reduce obesity could accelerate the tipping point where a majority of voters feels that the problem warrants policy action. (author)

  15. Greenhouse gas benefits of fighting obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelowa, Axel [University of Zuerich, Muehlegasse 21, 8001 Zuerich (Switzerland); Dransfeld, Bjoern [Perspectives GmbH, Sonnenredder 55, 22045 Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem in both industrialized and rapidly industrializing countries. It increases greenhouse gas emissions through higher fuel needs for transportation of heavier people, lifecycle emissions from additional food production and methane emissions from higher amounts of organic waste. A reduction of average weight by 5 kg could reduce OECD transport CO{sub 2} emissions by more than 10 million t. While the shift from beef to other forms of meat in industrialized and countries in transition has lead to lifecycle emissions savings of 20 million t CO{sub 2} equivalent between 1990 and 2005, emissions due to obesity-promoting foodstuffs have increased by more than 400 million t in advanced developing countries. Emissions in OECD countries could be reduced by more than 4 million t through reduction of associated food waste. Due to the intimate behavioural nature of the obesity problem, policies to reduce obesity such as food taxation, subsidization of human-powered transport, incentives to reduce sedentary leisure and regulation of fat in foodstuffs have not yet been implemented to any extent. The emissions benefits of fiscal and regulatory measures to reduce obesity could accelerate the tipping point where a majority of voters feels that the problem warrants policy action. (author)

  16. Overweight and Obesity Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... Resources Additional Reading from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Obesity and Socioeconomic Status in Adults: ...

  17. Maternal obesity and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S R; Kolberg, B H; Varner, M W; Railsback, L D

    1987-05-01

    We examined the risk of maternal obesity in 588 pregnant women weighing at least 113.6 kilograms (250 pounds) during pregnancy. Compared with a control group matched for age and parity, we found a significantly increased risk in the obese patient for gestational diabetes, hypertension, therapeutic induction, prolonged second stage of labor, oxytocin stimulation of labor, shoulder dystocia, infants weighing more than 4,000 grams and delivery after 42 weeks gestation. Certain operative complications were also more common in obese women undergoing cesarean section including estimated blood loss of more than 1,000 milliliters, operating time of more than two hours and wound infection postoperatively. These differences remained significant after controlling for appropriate confounding variables. We conclude that maternal obesity should be considered a high risk factor.

  18. Disability and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy Makers CDC Employees and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Disability and Obesity Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... children and teens » Challenges Facing People with Disabilities People with disabilities can find it more difficult ...

  19. [Prevention of infant obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Cordero, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem, demanding urgent and clear defined actions in order to stop the rapid increase on its prevalence and all health consequences associated. The best strategy to stop the rapid increase in childhood obesity is to prevent it. In order to do so, multiple defined actions between government, industry, community organizations, schools, families and health-care professionals. The general and family physicians, pediatricians, nurses, dieticians and other clinicians should be engaged, as a key actor, in the prevention of childhood obesity. The health-care professionals have frequent opportunities to inform to children, youth and their parents about the importance of prevention of obesity and to promote and engage them in healthy life styles, particularly, a healthy diet and regular physical activity. PMID:22352128

  20. Homeostatic theory of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Marks

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Health is regulated by homeostasis, a property of all living things. Homeostasis maintains equilibrium at set-points using feedback loops for optimum functioning of the organism. Imbalances in homeostasis causing overweight and obesity are evident in more than 1 billion people. In a new theory, homeostatic obesity imbalance is attributed to a hypothesized ‘Circle of Discontent’, a system of feedback loops linking weight gain, body dissatisfaction, negative affect and over-consumption. The Circle of Discontent theory is consistent with an extensive evidence base. A four-armed strategy to halt the obesity epidemic consists of (1 putting a stop to victim-blaming, stigma and discrimination; (2 devalorizing the thin-ideal; (3 reducing consumption of energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and drinks; and (4 improving access to plant-based diets. If fully implemented, interventions designed to restore homeostasis have the potential to halt the obesity epidemic.

  1. Does Inflammation Mediate the Association Between Obesity and Insulin Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adabimohazab, Razieh; Garfinkel, Amanda; Milam, Emily C; Frosch, Olivia; Mangone, Alexander; Convit, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    In adult obesity, low-grade systemic inflammation is considered an important step in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance (IR). The association between obesity and inflammation is less well established in adolescents. Here, we ascertain the importance of inflammation in IR among obese adolescents by utilizing either random forest (RF) classification or mediation analysis approaches. The inflammation balance score, composed of eight pro- and anti-inflammatory makers, as well as most of the individual inflammatory markers differed significantly between lean and overweight/obese. In contrast, adiponectin was the only individual marker selected as a predictor of IR by RF, and the balance score only revealed a medium-to-low importance score. Neither adiponectin nor the inflammation balance score was found to mediate the relationship between obesity and IR. These findings do not support the premise that low-grade systemic inflammation is a key for the expression of IR in the human. Prospective longitudinal studies should confirm these findings.

  2. Obesity and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    This women's health podcast focuses on obesity in women and girls. It discusses obesity-related health risks and includes tips to help achieve and maintain a healthy weight.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  3. Childhood Obesity PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done.  Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/6/2013.

  4. Obesity, metabolism, and hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Landsberg, L

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between obesity and hypertension is complex and poorly understood. A developing body of information suggests that metabolic factors related to the obese state are importantly involved. The pertinent observations include: (1) Diet influences sympathetic nervous system activity. Fasting suppresses, while carbohydrate and fat feeding stimulate, sympathetic activity. (2) Dietary-induced changes in sympathetic activity contribute to the changes in metabolic rate that accompany cha...

  5. Obesity in show dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

  6. Psoriasis and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Gürer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has been thought that a strong association exists between metabolic syndrome, specifically obesity, and psoriasis. Obesity is a multifactorial disease affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Adipokines (e.g. leptin secreted by the adipose tissue are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The main role of leptin is to adjust metabolism by controlling appetite. Serum leptin levels in patients with severe and moderate psoriasis were found to be higher than in normal control groups. In many similar studies, leptin secretion has been found to stimulate keratinocyte proliferation, which is one of the characteristics of psoriasis. Although many studies showed increased prevalence of obesity in psoriasis patients, few others reported development of obesity in psoriasis patients. Additionally, obesity was found to affect treatment responses not only in classical systemic/topical treatment approaches in psoriasis, but also in newer biological treatments. Overall, increasing epidemiological evidence suggests strong association between obesity and psoriasis, increase in serum leptin levels is thought to have a major role, and weight loss may have significant impact on response to treatment.

  7. Reduced Capacity for Fatty Acid Oxidation in Rats with Inherited Susceptibility to Diet-Induced Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Hong; Friedman, Mark I.

    2007-01-01

    High-fat, energy-dense diets promote weight gain and obesity in humans and other animals, but the mechanisms underlying such diet-induced obesity remain elusive. To determine whether a reduced capacity to oxidize fat is involved in the etiology of diet-induced obesity, we examined different measures of fatty acid oxidation in rats selectively bred for susceptibility (DIO) or resistance (DR) to dietary obesity before and after they were fed a high-fat diet and became obese. DIO rats eating a l...

  8. Similarities between obesity in pets and children: the addiction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretlow, Robert A; Corbee, Ronald J

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in pets is a frustrating, major health problem. Obesity in human children is similar. Prevailing theories accounting for the rising obesity rates - for example, poor nutrition and sedentary activity - are being challenged. Obesity interventions in both pets and children have produced modest short-term but poor long-term results. New strategies are needed. A novel theory posits that obesity in pets and children is due to 'treats' and excessive meal amounts given by the 'pet-parent' and child-parent to obtain affection from the pet/child, which enables 'eating addiction' in the pet/child and results in parental 'co-dependence'. Pet-parents and child-parents may even become hostage to the treats/food to avoid the ire of the pet/child. Eating addiction in the pet/child also may be brought about by emotional factors such as stress, independent of parental co-dependence. An applicable treatment for child obesity has been trialled using classic addiction withdrawal/abstinence techniques, as well as behavioural addiction methods, with significant results. Both the child and the parent progress through withdrawal from specific 'problem foods', next from snacking (non-specific foods) and finally from excessive portions at meals (gradual reductions). This approach should adapt well for pets and pet-parents. Pet obesity is more 'pure' than child obesity, in that contributing factors and treatment points are essentially under the control of the pet-parent. Pet obesity might thus serve as an ideal test bed for the treatment and prevention of child obesity, with focus primarily on parental behaviours. Sharing information between the fields of pet and child obesity would be mutually beneficial. PMID:27469280

  9. Hyperglycemia abolishes meal-induced satiety by a dysregulation of ghrelin and peptide YY3-36 in healthy overweight/obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian; Solomon, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Satiety and satiety-regulating gut hormone levels are abnormal in hyperglycemic individuals. We aimed to determine whether these abnormalities are secondary to hyperglycemia. Ten healthy overweight/obese subjects (age: 56 ± 3 yr; BMI: 30.3 ± 1.2 kg/m(2)) received three equicaloric meals at t = 0, 4......, and 8 h in the absence (control trial) and presence of experimental hyperglycemia (hyperglycemia trial; 5.4 mM above basal). Circulating levels of glucose, insulin, ghrelin, and peptide YY (PYY)3-36 and visual analog scale ratings of satiety were measured throughout each trial. In the control trial......, glucose, insulin, PYY3-36, and the feeling of fullness were increased in the postprandial periods, whereas ghrelin was decreased. In the hyperglycemia trial, in which plasma glucose was increased to 11.2 ± 0.1 mmol/l, postprandial meal responses (AUC: 0-2, 4-6, and 8-10 h) of PYY3-36 were lower (meal 1, P...

  10. Obesity-induced hypertension: interaction of neurohumoral and renal mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John E; do Carmo, Jussara M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Wang, Zhen; Hall, Michael E

    2015-03-13

    Excess weight gain, especially when associated with increased visceral adiposity, is a major cause of hypertension, accounting for 65% to 75% of the risk for human primary (essential) hypertension. Increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption impairs pressure natriuresis and plays an important role in initiating obesity hypertension. The mediators of abnormal kidney function and increased blood pressure during development of obesity hypertension include (1) physical compression of the kidneys by fat in and around the kidneys, (2) activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and (3) increased sympathetic nervous system activity. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is likely due, in part, to renal compression, as well as sympathetic nervous system activation. However, obesity also causes mineralocorticoid receptor activation independent of aldosterone or angiotensin II. The mechanisms for sympathetic nervous system activation in obesity have not been fully elucidated but may require leptin and activation of the brain melanocortin system. With prolonged obesity and development of target organ injury, especially renal injury, obesity-associated hypertension becomes more difficult to control, often requiring multiple antihypertensive drugs and treatment of other risk factors, including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, and inflammation. Unless effective antiobesity drugs are developed, the effect of obesity on hypertension and related cardiovascular, renal and metabolic disorders is likely to become even more important in the future as the prevalence of obesity continues to increase. PMID:25767285

  11. Standardization of model to induce obesity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gipsis Suárez Román

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a risk factor for multiple diseases. There are various rat models to induce this condition. Genetic models and diet-induced obesity are expensive. Within the models of hypothalamic obesity, there is one achieved by the administration of monosodium glutamate during the neonatal period. This substance is not expensive and causes the major metabolic alterations observed in human obesity. Objective: to select an appropriate treatment scheme to induce obesity with monosodium glutamate during neonatal period. Methods: monosodium glutamate was administered to Wistar rats during the neonatal period, using three different treatment schemes (with five, seven and ten doses of 4mg/g/day through two routes of administration: subcutaneous and intraperitoneal routes. Controls were administered 0.9% sodium chloride. To establish the diagnosis of obesity, the following variables were measured at 90 days: weight, snout-anus length and Lee index. Results: with all treatment schemes tested, snout-anus length was statistically different between the group treated with monosodium glutamate and the controls group. 100% of the rats that reached adulthood injected with monosodium glutamate was obese. Conclusion: the scheme of five doses of monosodium glutamate, applied subcutaneously on alternate days, was selected as obesity is obtained with less handling and lower percentage of neonatal deaths.

  12. An age structured model for obesity prevalence dynamics in populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto González Parra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Modeling the correlation of the development of obesity in a population with age and time and predict the dynamics of the correlation of the development of obesity in a population with age and time under different scenarios in Valencia (Spain. Materials and methods. An age structured mathematical model is used to describe the future dynamics of obesity prevalence for different ages in human population with excess weight. Simulation of the model with parameters estimated using the Health Survey of the Region of Valencia 2000 (4.319 interviews and Health Survey of the Region of Valencia 2005 (4.012 interviews. The model considers only overweight and obese populations since these subpopulations are the most relevant on obesity health concern. Results. The model allows predicting and studying the prevalence of obesity for each age. Results showed an increasing trend of obesity in the following years in well accordance with the trend observed in several countries. Conclusions. Based on the numerical simulations it is possible to conclude that the age structured mathematical model is suitable to forecast the obesity epidemic in each age group in different countries. Additionally, this type of models may be applied to study other characteristics of other populations such animal populations.

  13. Scale-free correlations in the geographical spreading of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallos, Lazaros; Barttfeld, Pablo; Havlin, Shlomo; Sigman, Mariano; Makse, Hernan

    2012-02-01

    Obesity levels have been universally increasing. A crucial problem is to determine the influence of global and local drivers behind the obesity epidemic, to properly guide effective policies. Despite the numerous factors that affect the obesity evolution, we show a remarkable regularity expressed in a predictable pattern of spatial long-range correlations in the geographical spreading of obesity. We study the spatial clustering of obesity and a number of related health and economic indicators, and we use statistical physics methods to characterize the growth of the resulting clusters. The resulting scaling exponents allow us to broadly classify these indicators into two separate universality classes, weakly or strongly correlated. Weak correlations are found in generic human activity such as population distribution and the growth of the whole economy. Strong correlations are recovered, among others, for obesity, diabetes, and the food industry sectors associated with food consumption. Obesity turns out to be a global problem where local details are of little importance. The long-range correlations suggest influence that extends to large scales, hinting that the physical model of obesity clustering can be mapped to a long-range correlated percolation process.

  14. Obesity-induced hypertension: interaction of neurohumoral and renal mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John E; do Carmo, Jussara M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Wang, Zhen; Hall, Michael E

    2015-03-13

    Excess weight gain, especially when associated with increased visceral adiposity, is a major cause of hypertension, accounting for 65% to 75% of the risk for human primary (essential) hypertension. Increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption impairs pressure natriuresis and plays an important role in initiating obesity hypertension. The mediators of abnormal kidney function and increased blood pressure during development of obesity hypertension include (1) physical compression of the kidneys by fat in and around the kidneys, (2) activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and (3) increased sympathetic nervous system activity. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is likely due, in part, to renal compression, as well as sympathetic nervous system activation. However, obesity also causes mineralocorticoid receptor activation independent of aldosterone or angiotensin II. The mechanisms for sympathetic nervous system activation in obesity have not been fully elucidated but may require leptin and activation of the brain melanocortin system. With prolonged obesity and development of target organ injury, especially renal injury, obesity-associated hypertension becomes more difficult to control, often requiring multiple antihypertensive drugs and treatment of other risk factors, including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, and inflammation. Unless effective antiobesity drugs are developed, the effect of obesity on hypertension and related cardiovascular, renal and metabolic disorders is likely to become even more important in the future as the prevalence of obesity continues to increase.

  15. 自噬在肥胖中的研究进展%Research advance in autophagy in obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王李洁; 杨怡; 孙永红; 郑筱祥

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a harmful nutritional metabolic disorder to human health. Autophagy is a catabolic mechanism whereby cells degrade intracellular substances. Recent studies show that autophagy was closely correlated with insulin resistance, fat composing, and lipid droplet and triglyceride accumulation. Here, we review the association between autophagy and obesity, which may provide theoretical and experimental evidence for prevention of obesity and related diseases.

  16. Obesity and Developmental Functioning among Children Aged 2-4 Years. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #08-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John; Spiess, C. Katharina

    2008-01-01

    In developed countries, obesity tends to be associated with worse labor market outcomes. One possible reason is that obesity leads to less human capital formation early in life. This paper investigates the association between obesity and the developmental functioning of children at younger ages (2-4 years) than ever previously examined. Data from…

  17. Effects of Food Restriction on Fat Metabolism Index of Monosodium Glutamate in Obese Rats and Human%限食对谷氨酸钠肥胖大鼠及人体肥胖代谢指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关真民; 王慧; 程俊美; 鹿勇

    2013-01-01

    Investigation has been conducted to observe the effect of short-term food restriction on fat metabolism index of obesity and rat by means not only of animal experiment:glutamate obese rats have been divided into control group and food restriction group,and the Lee index weight,fat index and glycerin three greases' change of the two groups observed,but also of human experiment:the subjects were 21women,aged 22-45 years old.Limited food have been given seven days of fasting,first days for the buff er,the first 2-6 days for fasting days,seventh days for the restoration of day,food restriction for first days of acupuncture points and massage.Observation has been done on the body fat,body fat percentage,body weight,BMI and the change of waist circumference before and after food restriction.Results show that glutamate obese rats with food restriction group's weight,Lee index,fat index and glycerin three greases is markedly decreased with a very significant difference (p<0.01) compared with the control group; 21 subjects in the dietary restriction of body fat,body fat percentage and waist circumference are also significantly decreased and had significant difference (p<0.05),and the body weight and BMI decreased with a very significant difference (p<0.01).It is concluded that food restriction therapy has im portant significance for obesity treatment and prevention of complications.%目的 观察短期限食对肥胖人群及大鼠脂肪代谢指标的影响.方法 动物实验:将谷氨酸钠肥胖大鼠分为对照组和限食组,并分别观察两组体重、Lee指数、脂肪指数和甘油三酯的变化;人体实验:受试者为21名女性,年龄22~45岁.限食者均限食7天,第1天为缓冲日,第2~6天为禁食日,第7天为恢复日.观察限食前后体脂、体脂百分率、体重、BMI和腰围的变化.结果 谷氨酸钠肥胖大鼠限食组体重、Lee指数、脂肪指数和甘油三酯与对照组相比明显下降,

  18. Mutational analysis of the UCP2 core promoter and relationships of variants with obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Louise T; Andersen, Gitte; Larsen, Lesli H;

    2003-01-01

    To identify polymorphisms in the human uncoupling protein 2 gene (UCP2) promoter and to investigate whether these were associated with obesity or weight gain.......To identify polymorphisms in the human uncoupling protein 2 gene (UCP2) promoter and to investigate whether these were associated with obesity or weight gain....

  19. Comprehensive Map of Molecules Implicated in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannadham, Jaisri; Jaiswal, Hitesh Kumar; Agrawal, Stuti; Rawal, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic affecting over 1.5 billion people and is one of the risk factors for several diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. We have constructed a comprehensive map of the molecules reported to be implicated in obesity. A deep curation strategy was complemented by a novel semi-automated text mining system in order to screen 1,000 full-length research articles and over 90,000 abstracts that are relevant to obesity. We obtain a scale free network of 804 nodes and 971 edges, composed of 510 proteins, 115 genes, 62 complexes, 23 RNA molecules, 83 simple molecules, 3 phenotype and 3 drugs in "bow-tie" architecture. We classify this network into 5 modules and identify new links between the recently discovered fat mass and obesity associated FTO gene with well studied examples such as insulin and leptin. We further built an automated docking pipeline to dock orlistat as well as other drugs against the 24,000 proteins in the human structural proteome to explain the therapeutics and side effects at a network level. Based upon our experiments, we propose that therapeutic effect comes through the binding of one drug with several molecules in target network, and the binding propensity is both statistically significant and different in comparison with any other part of human structural proteome. PMID:26886906

  20. Comprehensive Map of Molecules Implicated in Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaisri Jagannadham

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global epidemic affecting over 1.5 billion people and is one of the risk factors for several diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. We have constructed a comprehensive map of the molecules reported to be implicated in obesity. A deep curation strategy was complemented by a novel semi-automated text mining system in order to screen 1,000 full-length research articles and over 90,000 abstracts that are relevant to obesity. We obtain a scale free network of 804 nodes and 971 edges, composed of 510 proteins, 115 genes, 62 complexes, 23 RNA molecules, 83 simple molecules, 3 phenotype and 3 drugs in "bow-tie" architecture. We classify this network into 5 modules and identify new links between the recently discovered fat mass and obesity associated FTO gene with well studied examples such as insulin and leptin. We further built an automated docking pipeline to dock orlistat as well as other drugs against the 24,000 proteins in the human structural proteome to explain the therapeutics and side effects at a network level. Based upon our experiments, we propose that therapeutic effect comes through the binding of one drug with several molecules in target network, and the binding propensity is both statistically significant and different in comparison with any other part of human structural proteome.

  1. Factors associated with childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, W

    1991-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with host factors that enhance susceptibility and environmental factors that increase food intake and decrease energy expenditure. Obese children underreport food intake and probably consume more food to maintain their weight at increased levels. Prevalence of obesity is related to family variables, including parental obesity, family size and age, and socioeconomic status. Television viewing is strongly associated with the prevalence of obesity through its impact on food intake and activity. How these environmental variables are behaviorally interrelated to the genesis of obesity is unclear.

  2. Can We Prevent Obesity-Related Metabolic Diseases by Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahe, Lena K; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli H

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are characterized by specific alterations in the human gut microbiota. Experimental studies with gut microbiota transplantations in mice and in humans indicate that a specific gut microbiota composition can be the cause and not just the consequence of the obese state and metabolic disease, which suggests a potential for gut microbiota modulation in prevention and treatment of obesity-related metabolic diseases. In addition, dietary intervention studies have suggested that modulation of the gut microbiota can improve metabolic risk markers in humans, but a causal role of the gut microbiota in such studies has not yet been established. Here, we review and discuss the role of the gut microbiota in obesity-related metabolic diseases and the potential of dietary modulation of the gut microbiota in metabolic disease prevention and treatment.

  3. Can we prevent obesity-related metabolic diseases by dietary modulation of the gut microbiota?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are characterized by specific alterations in the human gut microbiota. Experimental studies with gut...... microbiota transplantations in mice and in humans indicate that a specific gut microbiota composition can be the cause and not just the consequence of the obese state and metabolic disease, which suggests a potential for gut microbiota modulation in prevention and treatment of obesity-related metabolic...... diseases. In addition, dietary intervention studies have suggested that modulation of the gut microbiota can improve metabolic risk markers in humans, but a causal role of the gut microbiota in such studies has not yet been established. Here, we review and discuss the role of the gut microbiota in obesity...

  4. MedlinePlus: Obesity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Obesity in children Related Health Topics Body Weight Child Nutrition Obesity Weight Control National Institutes of Health The primary ... Nation Growing Challenge of "Diabesity" Healthy Weight, Healthy Child Reducing Childhood Obesity Reducing Childhood Obesity: We Can! Wanted: Active Role ...

  5. Morbidity of severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, J G

    2001-10-01

    Although obesity is an easy diagnosis to make, its etiologies, pathophysiology, and symptomatology are extraordinarily complex. Progress in surgical technique and anesthesiological management has substantially improved the safety of performing operations on the severely obese in the last 20 years. These improvements have occurred more or less empirically, without a full understanding of etiology or pathophysiology, although this has advanced concomitantly with improvements in practice. This review has attempted to provide a framework to facilitate progress in the neglected areas of patient selection and choice of operation, in an effort to improve long-term outcome. Despite the disparate etiologies of obesity and its diverse comorbidities and complications, there are unifying interdependent pathogenetic mechanisms of great relevance to the practice of antiobesity surgery. The rate of eating, whether driven by HPA dysfunction, ambient stress, or related hereditary susceptibility factors including the increased energy demands of an expanded body fat mass, participates in a cycle that results in disordered satiety (see Fig. 3). This leads to substrate overload, causing extensive metabolic abnormalities such as atherogenesis, insulin resistance, thrombogenesis, and carcinogenesis. This interpretation of the pathophysiology of obesity ironically accords with the original meaning of the word obesity: "to overeat." The ultimate solution to the problem of obesity--preventing it--will not be forthcoming until the food industry is forced to lower production and change its marketing strategies, as the liquor and tobacco industries in the United States were compelled to do. This cannot occur until the large and fast-growing populations of industrialized nations become educated in the personal implications of the energy principle. Regardless of whether school curricula are modified to prioritize health education, the larger problems of cultural and economic change remain for

  6. Obesity and asthma: co-morbidity or causal relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huisstede, A; Braunstahl, G J

    2010-09-01

    There is substantial evidence that obesity and asthma are related. "Obese asthma" may be a unique phenotype of asthma, characterized by decreased lung volumes, greater symptoms for a given degree of lung function impairment, destabilization or lack of asthma control, lack of eosinophilic inflammation and a different response to controller medication. Whether this relationship between obesity and asthma is causal or represents co-morbidity due to other factors is unclear. In previous reviews concerning the relationship between obesity and asthma, five hypotheses were put forth. One of these hypotheses is that a low grade systemic inflammation caused by adipokines from the fat tissue causes or enhances bronchial inflammation. In animal models, there is an increasing amount of evidence for the role of adipokines derived from fat tissue in the relationship between obesity and asthma. The data are conflicting in humans. Since obesity is a component of the metabolic syndrome and the metabolic syndrome is also a form of systemic inflammation, it is to be expected that there is a relationship between metabolic syndrome and asthma. The few data that are available show that there is no relationship between metabolic syndrome and asthma, but there is one between the metabolic syndrome and asthma-like symptoms. Further research is needed to confirm the relationship between obesity and asthma in humans, where a rigorous approach in the diagnosis of asthma is essential. PMID:21214041

  7. Obesity and the obesity paradox in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pritha P; Fonarow, Gregg C; Horwich, Tamara B

    2015-02-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the general population and is associated with an increased risk for the development of new-onset heart failure (HF). However, in acute and chronic HF, overweight and mild to moderate obesity is associated with substantially improved survival compared with normal weight. This phenomenon has been termed the "obesity paradox" in HF. The majority of data pertaining to the obesity paradox identifies obesity with body mass index; however, the reliability of this method has been questioned. Newer studies have explored the use of other measures of body fat and body composition, including waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, skinfold thickness, and bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition. The relationship between the obesity paradox and cardiorespiratory fitness in HF is also discussed in this review, and we explore the various potential explanations for the obesity paradox and summarize the current evidence and guidelines for intentional weight loss treatments for HF in the obese population.

  8. Regulated expression of the obese gene product (leptin) in white adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    MacDougald, O A; Hwang, C. S.; Fan, H; Lane, M D

    1995-01-01

    A mutation within the obese gene was recently identified as the genetic basis for obesity in the ob/ob mouse. The obese gene product, leptin, is a 16-kDa protein expressed predominantly in adipose tissue. Consistent with leptin's postulated role as an extracellular signaling protein, human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with the obese gene secreted leptin with minimal intracellular accumulation. Upon differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes, the leptin mRNA was expresse...

  9. The role of leptin in human lipid and glucose metabolism: the effects of acute recombinant human leptin infusion in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Mygind, Helene; Grøndahl, Thomas S;

    2011-01-01

    Obese and lean humans treated with leptin have not experienced convincing weight-loss results compared with the dramatic weight losses observed in obese rodents.......Obese and lean humans treated with leptin have not experienced convincing weight-loss results compared with the dramatic weight losses observed in obese rodents....

  10. [Childhood obesity and dyslipidemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Díaz, Rita Angélica; Wacher-Rodarte, Niels H

    2014-01-01

    Screening and treatment of plasma lipid abnormalities secondary to obesity are among the interventions that should be implemented in children who are overweight or obese, in order to prevent a cardiovascular event. Dyslipidemias are a group of asymptomatic diseases that are commonly caused by abnormal levels of lipoproteins in blood; they are a comorbidity that is commonly related to obesity, without considering the age of the patient. Among dyslipidemias, hypertriglyceridemia has the highest prevalence. The etiology of the dyslipidemia should be identified; it allows the proper selection of therapy for the patients and their family. The goal is the prevention of cardiovascular complications. Reduced caloric intake and a structured physical activity plan should be considered for initial treatment for all the overweight and obese patients. For adherence to treatment to be successful, the participation of the primary care physician and a multidisciplinary team is required. With treatment, the risks and complications can be reduced. The participation of a specialist in handling the pediatric obese patient with dyslipidemia should be limited to severe cases or those at risk for having pancreatitis.

  11. Dietary treatments of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, W

    1987-01-01

    Dietary treatment of obesity is based on one or another of two premises: that the obese eat too much or that they eat the wrong things. The first is a tautology lacking explanatory power. The second is a meaningful and promising hypothesis but has yet to be effectively applied. At present, virtually all outpatient treatments of obesity, including behavior modification, are based on the first premise and consist of strategies for reducing the subject's caloric intake. Most such interventions produce short-term weight loss. Regain after the end of treatment remains the usual outcome. A survey of studies published in the period 1977-1986 and reporting on dietary or behavioral treatment of obesity reveals that the maximum percentage of body weight lost is, on average, 8.5 percent--no different from the value, 8.9%, in similar studies from 1966-1976, as reviewed by Wing and Jeffery. The principal determinant of success in such programs appears to be the intake weight of the subjects: the higher the intake weight, the more successful the intervention will appear to be. The goals and research methods of studies on dietary treatments for obesity are overdue for ethical as well as scientific reevaluation. The same may be said for the numerous programs providing such treatment outside the context of research.

  12. OBESITY-INDUCED HYPERTENSION: INTERACTION OF NEUROHUMORAL AND RENAL MECHANISMS

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, John E.; do Carmo, Jussara M.; da Silva, Alexandre A.; Wang, Zhen; Hall, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Excess weight gain, especially when associated with increased visceral adiposity, is a major cause of hypertension, accounting for 65–75% of the risk for human primary (essential) hypertension. Increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption impairs pressure natriuresis and plays an important role in initiating obesity hypertension. The mediators of abnormal kidney function and increased blood pressure during development of obesity hypertension include 1) physical compression of the kidneys by fa...

  13. Severe Obesity and Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161011.html Severe Obesity and Heart Failure Study sees link even without ... 2016 FRIDAY, Sept. 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Severe obesity appears to be an independent risk factor for ...

  14. Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources ​​. Alternate Language URL Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity Page Content How can I tell if I ... type 2 diabetes. [ Top ] How are overweight and obesity treated? The best way to control your weight ...

  15. What Causes Overweight and Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Overweight and Obesity? Lack of Energy Balance A lack of energy ... Deficiency article. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Obesity happens one pound at a time. So does ...

  16. Defining overweight and obesity - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your child has. Measuring body fat and diagnosing obesity in children is different than measuring these things in adults. ... 44. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for obesity in ... adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation ...

  17. Dissolve energy obesity by energy diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Heum [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    Every organism takes needed materials or energy from outside and excretes unessential things to outside. This is called a metabolism or energy metabolism. Calculating the amount of energy consumed by human in the world by converting to the amount of metabolism of an animal to survive, the weight of a human being is corresponding to an animal with a weigh of 40 ton. Human beings can find a solution to dissolve energy obesity or can maintain a massive status by finding a new energy source in the universe.

  18. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  19. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  20. Obesity: Causes and Treatment Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Berrin Zuhal Bulucu Altunkaynak; Elvan Özbek

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is an important and chronic disease. It occurs due to more body fat accumulation than normal levels, it associates with many factor and it needs to medical treatment. Important risk factors of obesity are feeding habits, sexualty (Female), age, education, marriage, labor number and hereditary. Obesity, may be originated from hereditary factors and it progresses very fastly in developed and developing countries. More than 30 % percent of population is obese in Turkey (male %7,9 female ...

  1. The Medical Risks of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Pi-Sunyer, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is at epidemic proportions in the United States and in other developed and developing countries. The prevalence of obesity is increasing not only in adults, but especially among children and adolescents. In the United States in 2003 to 2004, 17.1% of children and adolescents were overweight, and 32.2% of adults were obese. Obesity is a significant risk factor for and contributor to increased morbidity and mortality, most importantly from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes, but ...

  2. Childhood obesity and prevention approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Yildiz; Berna Eren Fidanci; Derya Suluhan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past two decades. The growing incidence of childhood obesity is alarming, given the significant short and long term health problems associated with obesity. Being overweight or obese may increase the rate of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It may contribute to shortening life expectancy and adversely affects the quality of life. Therefore, it is important to prevent childhood obe...

  3. [Overweight and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haua-Navarro, Karime

    2016-09-01

    Obesity represents nowadays a significant health problem, leading to multiple efforts in order to identify its causal factors and the prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for its attention. Dairy intake is among the dietary factors that have been studied, and they frequently, but not consistently nor conclusively, have shown to be protective factors for the development of overweight, obesity and their comorbidities. Current literature addresses the reason underlying the association between dairy intake and obesity from two explanatory lines: the contribution of these products to total energy intake and the influence of some of their nutritional components -mainly calcium, protein and fat- on the underlying processes for the development of this condition. The objective of this article is to review the current knowledge on these topics. PMID:27603887

  4. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Dabal Laila

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is becoming a major medical concern in several parts of the world, with huge economic impacts on health- care systems, resulting mainly from increased cardiovascular risks. At the same time, obesity leads to a number of sleep-disordered breathing patterns like obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS, leading to increased morbidity and mortality with reduced quality of life. OHS is distinct from other sleep- related breathing disorders although overlap may exist. OHS patients may have obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea with hypercapnia and sleep hypoventilation, or an isolated sleep hypoventilation. Despite its major impact on health, this disorder is under-recognized and under-diagnosed. Available management options include aggressive weight reduction, oxygen therapy and using positive airway pressure techniques. In this review, we will go over the epidemiology, pathophysiology, presentation and diagnosis and management of OHS.

  5. [Obesity and hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyi, Gábor; Kollár, Réka

    2013-11-01

    The frequency of hypertension and obesity is gradually growing in Hungary. At present 68.5% of men and 78% of women are obese. Hypertension and obesity are the most important risk factors of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. The relationship between increased sympathetic activity and hypertension is well known. Waist circumference and body fat mass correlate significantly with sympathetic activity, in which hyperlipidemia plays also a role. The increased activity of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system via its vascular and renal effects also contributes to an increase of blood pressure. Increased sympathetic activity with decreasing vagal tone accompanying the imbalance of the autonomous nervous system is independent and significant risk factor of cardiovascular events including sudden cardiac death.

  6. Endocrine disruptors and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Jerrold J; Newbold, Retha; Schug, Thaddeus T

    2015-11-01

    The increasing incidence of obesity is a serious global public health challenge. Although the obesity epidemic is largely fueled by poor nutrition and lack of exercise, certain chemicals have been shown to potentially have a role in its aetiology. A substantial body of evidence suggests that a subclass of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which interfere with endocrine signalling, can disrupt hormonally regulated metabolic processes, especially if exposure occurs during early development. These chemicals, so-called 'obesogens' might predispose some individuals to gain weight despite their efforts to limit caloric intake and increase levels of physical activity. This Review discusses the role of EDCs in the obesity epidemic, the latest research on the obesogen concept, epidemiological and experimental findings on obesogens, and their modes of action. The research reviewed here provides knowledge that health scientists can use to inform their research and decision-making processes. PMID:26391979

  7. Early prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  8. Long-term moderate calorie restriction inhibits inflammation without impairing cell-mediated immunity: a randomized controlled trial in non obese humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calorie restriction (CR) inhibits inflammation and slows aging in many animal species, but in rodents housed in pathogen-free facilities, CR impairs immunity against certain pathogens. However, little is known about the effects of long-term moderate CR on immune function in humans. In this multi-cen...

  9. Fibroblast growth factor 21 is elevated in metabolically unhealthy obesity and affects lipid deposition, adipogenesis, and adipokine secretion of human abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Berti

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: The hepatokine FGF21 exerts weak lipogenic and anti-adipogenic actions and marked adiponectin-suppressive and leptin and interleukin-6 release-promoting effects in human differentiating preadipocytes. Together with the higher serum concentrations in MUHO subjects, our findings reveal FGF21 as a circulating factor promoting the development of metabolically unhealthy adipocytes.

  10. Fight Obesity in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratsis, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    U.S. health experts declared obesity an epidemic over a decade ago. Schools have tried to implement prevention programs for students, but as budgets shrink, educating students about obesity is increasingly falling to classroom instructors, including science teachers. The good news is that obesity-related classroom activities can be engaging, and…

  11. Pregnancy and obesity: Practical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Duvekot (Johannes)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractObesity is presently the most prevalent health threat in the western world, and its influence on general health is rapidly increasing. Obesity has also developed as a major and frequent risk factor for pregnancy complications. Complications often encountered in obese pregnant women are h

  12. New Approaches in Obesity Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. de Niet

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObesity has become a global epidemic among all age groups. A number of countries have even experienced a notable shift from under- to over nutrition in youngsters or a double burden of both malnutrition and obesity. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines overweight and obesity as “a

  13. Childhood Obesity: Prediction and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael D.

    Obesity in children is a problem both insidious and acute. Childhood obesity has been indicated as a forerunner of adult obesity; it is also an immediate problem for the child. Given the lack of evidence for long term maintenance of any weight loss, this paper investigates the etiology of the disorder as a prelude to prevention. Upon review of the…

  14. Childhood Obesity. Special Reference Briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the problem of childhood obesity and how it can lead to obesity in the adult. Eighty-four abstracts are presented of studies on the identification, prevention, and treatment of obesity in children, focusing on diet and psychological attitudes. Subjects of the studies were children ranging in age from infancy through…

  15. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  16. Chronodisruption and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Meiliana; Nurrani Mustika Dewi; Andi Wijaya

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attempts to understand the causes of obesity and develop new therapeutic strategies have mostly focused on caloric intake and energy expenditure. Recent studies have shown that the circadian clock controls energy homeostasis by regulating circadian expression and/or activity of enzymes, hormones, and transport systems involved in metabolism. Moreover, disruption of circadian rhythms leads to obesity and metabolic disorders. CONTENT:Regularly alternating periods of light and darkne...

  17. English obesity policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2015-01-01

    Problem definitions constitute a crucial part of the policy process. In 2008 the Labour Government presented a plan to reduce the obesity prevalence in England. Only three years later the Conservative-Liberal Government introduced a plan on the same topic, which it presented as new and innovative....... The aim of this study is to analyse the respective governments' problematisations of obesity and to identify similarities and differences. Despite the different hues of the two governments, the programmes are surprisingly similar. They seek to simultaneously govern and not to govern. They adhere...

  18. Sleep in obese patients

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya Victorova Strueva; Galina Afanas'evna Melnichenko; Mikhail Gur'evich Poluektov; Larisa Victorovna Savel'eva; Gul'nara Victorovna Katsiya; Nikolay Petrovich Goncharov

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of duration and individual characteristics of sleep and chronotype on body weight, eating behavior, anxiety, depression, life quality, metabolic and hormonal parameters of obese patients. Materials and methods: 200 patients with primary obesity were studied: 83 men and 117 women at age from 18 to 61 years old, median age 41,5 years [31,0; 50,0]; body weight 107 kg [94; 128,5], waist circumference 112 cm [102; 124]; neck circumf...

  19. Impact of endotoxin challenge in obese pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duburcq, Thibault; Hubert, Thomas; Saint-Léger, Pierre; Mangalaboyi, Jacques; Favory, Raphael; Gmyr, Valery; Quintane, Laurence; Tailleux, Anne; Staels, Bart; Tournoys, Antoine; Pattou, François; Jourdain, Mercé

    2014-06-01

    Studies exploring the influence of obesity on septic shock remain limited and controversial. Pigs were chosen as a clinically relevant species, resembling to humans in various functions. We hypothesize obesity may impair porcine acute endotoxic shock. Four groups of five "Yucatan" minipigs were studied: lean and obese control groups, lean lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group receiving Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS) and obese LPS group receiving the same endotoxin dose. We measured hemodynamic and oxygenation parameters, skin microvascular blood flow at rest and during reactive hyperemia, von Willebrand factor, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin 6. All measurements were performed at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 150, and 300 min. Results were given as median with 25th to 75th interquartile range. Control groups remained stable during the study period. In LPS groups, administration of endotoxin resulted in a typical hypokinetic shock. In obese LPS group at 300 min, we observed a significant impairment of cardiac index (1.2 [1.06-1.45] vs. 1.7 [1.57-1.97] L/min per m, P = 0.008) compared with the lean LPS group; moreover, pulmonary hypertension (mean arterial pressure: 42 [39-47] vs. 32 [28-34] mmHg, P = 0.008), hypoxemia (partial pressure of oxygen: 216 [178-262] vs. 325 [285-414] mmHg, P = 0.02), and lactate levels (5.8 [4.2-6.8] vs. 3.9 [2.2-5.5] mmol/L, P = 0.04) were significantly higher compared with the lean LPS group. Throughout the study, rest flow and peak flow during reactive hyperemia were more decreased in the obese LPS group. Compared with the lean LPS group, tumor necrosis factor α levels at 60 min (269 [178-428] vs. 126 [105-166] ng/mL, P = 0.03) and interleukin 6 levels at 300 min (101 [61-142] vs. 52 [36-64] ng/mL, P = 0.03) were significantly higher in the obese LPS group. In our model of endotoxic shock, obese pigs developed a more severe hemodynamic failure with pronounced microcirculatory dysfunction and proinflammatory response. PMID:24569508

  20. Oxytocin and cardioprotection in diabetes and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Jankowski, Marek; Broderick, Tom L; Gutkowska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) emerges as a drug for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. The entire OT system is synthesized in the rat and human heart. The direct myocardial infusion with OT into an ischemic or failing heart has the potential to elicit a variety of cardioprotective effects. OT treatment attenuates cardiomyocyte (CMs) death induced by ischemia-reperfusion by activating pro-survival pathways within injured CMs in vivo and in isolated cells. OT treatment reduces cardiac apoptosis, fibrosis, ...

  1. The Gut Bacteria-Driven Obesity Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compare, Debora; Rocco, Alba; Sanduzzi Zamparelli, Marco; Nardone, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for the overall health of the host, while a perturbation in gut microbial communities can contribute to disease susceptibility. Obesity is a complex process involving genetic and environmental factors with an epidemiological burden that makes it a major public health issue. Studies of germ-free or gnotobiotic mice provided evidence that the diversity, as well as the presence and relative proportion of different microbes in the gut play active roles in energy homeostasis. Similarly, human studies showed that both the diversity of the microbiota and the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio are decreased in obese individuals. The 'obese microbiota' seems to be able to increase dietary energy harvest and favor weight gain and fat deposition. Although research in this field has just started and many of the available data are still conflicting, the results are providing exciting perspectives, and gut microbiota manipulation has already become a new target for both prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:27028448

  2. Exergaming and obesity in youth: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng N

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nan Zeng, Zan Gao College of Education and Human Development, School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: Although exergaming has been used as a physical activity modality among various populations, the evidence regarding its effectiveness on health-related outcomes in overweight/obese individuals remains unclear. The current study systematically reviewed literature and summarized findings of exergame-based interventions in overweight/obese populations with the goal of clarifying the current perspectives on exergaming and obesity. The initial search yielded 202 articles from six databases; 12 studies were included after evaluating for inclusion criteria and removing duplicates. Among these studies, seven were randomized controlled trials, two were control trials, and three were comparison studies. Overall, exergaming has the potential to attenuate weight gain and shows promise when used for physical activity and physical fitness promotion. Further, exergame play is positively associated with psychological well-being, but its effects on physiological outcomes are inconclusive. Finally, effects of exergaming on energy intake are not clear. Existing evidence supports that exergaming may elicit some health benefits in people who are overweight or/and obese. The limited number of available randomized controlled trials, however, restrict the ability to draw a conclusion that exergaming can trigger a change in all health-related outcomes. More research is warranted to make definitive conclusions regarding the effects of exergaming on health-related outcomes in such populations. Keywords: active video game, weight loss, children and adolescents, systematic review

  3. Roles of proanthocyanidin rich extracts in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadó, M Josepa; Casanova, Ester; Fernández-Iglesias, Anabel; Arola, Lluis; Bladé, Cinta

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disorder involving an abnormal or excessive amount of body fat. Obese people have a very high probability of developing metabolic syndrome, a condition in which cholesterol, lipid, and glucose levels rise, causing diabetes and heart disease. From the point of view of energy balance, the main contributors to obesity are excessive energy intake, inadequate energy expenditure and metabolic malfunctions. For this reason, health organisations are working to implement policies and plans to promote healthy eating and active living. However, these measures have not yet proven sufficient to combat this worldwide epidemic; therefore, drugs and bioactive compounds are being investigated to complement the existing strategies. In the present review, we discuss the available data regarding the modulation of obesity by proanthocyanidin rich extracts. Because studies with human subjects are very scarce, we focus on studies using laboratory animals. The results of in vitro studies are included because, although they cannot be directly extrapolated to the biological effects of proanthocyanidin, they can reveal some mechanisms of action. PMID:25669490

  4. The biological control of voluntary exercise, spontaneous physical activity and daily energy expenditure in relation to obesity: human and rodent perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Garland, Theodore; Schutz, Heidi; Chappell, Mark A.; Keeney, Brooke K.; Meek, Thomas H.; Copes, Lynn E.; Acosta, Wendy; Drenowatz, Clemens; Maciel, Robert C.; van Dijk, Gertjan; Kotz, Catherine M.; Eisenmann, Joey C; Garland, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Mammals expend energy in many ways, including basic cellular maintenance and repair, digestion, thermoregulation, locomotion, growth and reproduction. These processes can vary tremendously among species and individuals, potentially leading to large variation in daily energy expenditure (DEE). Locomotor energy costs can be substantial for large-bodied species and those with high-activity lifestyles. For humans in industrialized societies, locomotion necessary for daily activities is often rela...

  5. Development and standardization of radioimmunoassay technique for human proinsulin determining and its use in the study of type II diabetes mellitus associated to obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of immunoassay methodology for proinsulin is important to define its physiological and pathophysiological significance in humans. Serum concentration of proinsulin are elevated in patients with type II Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) and recently diagnosed Type I, so a raised circulating concentration of proinsulin may serve as an early indicator of β cells dysfunction. recently, in NIDDM the serum concentrations of proinsulin and its B-chain-C-peptide junctional split form, des (31-32), were found to correlate with diastolic blood pressure, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The development of a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) methodology for proinsulin has been difficult due to its low concentration in serum and the presence of proinsulin conversion intermediates in fluids and tissues. Also other potentially cross-reactive peptides, including insulin and C-peptide, can interfere in the assay. This work describe a highly specific human proinsulin RIA developed by using biosynthetic human proinsulin (hPI) as immunogen, standard and tracer. (author)

  6. Pregnancy risks associated with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mission, John F; Marshall, Nicole E; Caughey, Aaron B

    2015-06-01

    Obesity has increased dramatically in the United States over the last several decades, with approximately 40% of pregnant women now considered overweight or obese. Obesity has been shown to be associated with numerous poor pregnancy outcomes, including increased rates of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal macrosomia, stillbirth, postterm pregnancy, and increased rates of cesarean delivery. Many of these complications have been found to increase even further with increasing body mass index in a dose-response fashion. In this review, the association of obesity with maternal, fetal, and pregnancy outcomes is discussed as are the recommendations for caring for the obese gravida.

  7. Psychological issues in pediatric obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurvinder Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity.

  8. The effects of obesity on skeletal muscle regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry eAkhmedov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus are accompanied by increased lipid deposition in adipose and non-adipose tissues including liver, pancreas, heart and skeletal muscle. Recent publications report impaired regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle following injury in obese mice. Although muscle regeneration has not been thoroughly studied in obese and type 2 diabetic humans and mechanisms leading to decreased muscle regeneration in obesity remain elusive, the initial findings point to the possibility that muscle satellite cell function is compromised under conditions of lipid overload. Elevated toxic lipid metabolites and increased proinflammatory cytokines as well as insulin and leptin resistance that occur in obese animals may contribute to decreased regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle. In addition, obesity-associated alterations in the metabolic state of skeletal muscle fibers and satellite cells may directly impair the potential for satellite cell-mediated repair. Here we discuss recent studies that expand our understanding of how obesity negatively impacts skeletal muscle maintenance and regeneration.

  9. The interplay between obesity and cancer: a fly view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Susumu

    2016-09-01

    Accumulating epidemiological evidence indicates a strong clinical association between obesity and an increased risk of cancer. The global pandemic of obesity indicates a public health trend towards a substantial increase in cancer incidence and mortality. However, the mechanisms that link obesity to cancer remain incompletely understood. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been increasingly used to model an expanding spectrum of human diseases. Fly models provide a genetically simpler system that is ideal for use as a first step towards dissecting disease interactions. Recently, the combining of fly models of diet-induced obesity with models of cancer has provided a novel model system in which to study the biological mechanisms that underlie the connections between obesity and cancer. In this Review, I summarize recent advances, made using Drosophila, in our understanding of the interplay between diet, obesity, insulin resistance and cancer. I also discuss how the biological mechanisms and therapeutic targets that have been identified in fly studies could be utilized to develop preventative interventions and treatment strategies for obesity-associated cancers. PMID:27604692

  10. The interplay between obesity and cancer: a fly view

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accumulating epidemiological evidence indicates a strong clinical association between obesity and an increased risk of cancer. The global pandemic of obesity indicates a public health trend towards a substantial increase in cancer incidence and mortality. However, the mechanisms that link obesity to cancer remain incompletely understood. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been increasingly used to model an expanding spectrum of human diseases. Fly models provide a genetically simpler system that is ideal for use as a first step towards dissecting disease interactions. Recently, the combining of fly models of diet-induced obesity with models of cancer has provided a novel model system in which to study the biological mechanisms that underlie the connections between obesity and cancer. In this Review, I summarize recent advances, made using Drosophila, in our understanding of the interplay between diet, obesity, insulin resistance and cancer. I also discuss how the biological mechanisms and therapeutic targets that have been identified in fly studies could be utilized to develop preventative interventions and treatment strategies for obesity-associated cancers. PMID:27604692

  11. Serum IL-12 Is Increased in Mexican Obese Subjects and Associated with Low-Grade Inflammation and Obesity-Related Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Suárez-Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-(IL- 12 has been recently suggested to participate during development of insulin resistance in obese mice. Nevertheless, serum IL-12 levels have not been accurately determined in overweight and obese humans. We thus studied serum concentrations of IL-12 in Mexican adult individuals, examining their relationship with low-grade inflammation and obesity-related parameters. A total of 147 healthy individuals, 43 normal weight, 61 overweight, and 43 obese subjects participated in the study. Circulating levels of IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, leptin, insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured after overnight fasting in all of the study subjects. Waist circumference and body fat percentage were recorded for all the participants. Serum IL-12 was significantly higher in overweight and obese individuals than in normal weight controls. Besides being strongly related with body mass index (r=0.5154, serum IL-12 exhibited a significant relationship with abdominal obesity (r=0.4481, body fat percentage (r=0.5625, serum glucose (r=0.3158, triglyceride (r=0.3714, and TNF-α (r=0.4717. Thus, serum levels of IL-12 are increased in overweight and obese individuals and show a strong relationship with markers of low-grade inflammation and obesity in the Mexican adult population. Further research is needed to understand the role of IL-12 in developing obesity-associated alterations in humans.

  12. Serum IL-12 Is Increased in Mexican Obese Subjects and Associated with Low-Grade Inflammation and Obesity-Related Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Álvarez, K.; Solís-Lozano, L.; Leon-Cabrera, S.; González-Chávez, A.; Gómez-Hernández, G.; Quiñones-Álvarez, M. S.; Serralde-Zúñiga, A. E.; Hernández-Ruiz, J.; Ramírez-Velásquez, J.; Galindo-González, F. J.; Zavala-Castillo, J. C.; De León-Nava, M. A.; Robles-Díaz, G.; Escobedo, G.

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-(IL-) 12 has been recently suggested to participate during development of insulin resistance in obese mice. Nevertheless, serum IL-12 levels have not been accurately determined in overweight and obese humans. We thus studied serum concentrations of IL-12 in Mexican adult individuals, examining their relationship with low-grade inflammation and obesity-related parameters. A total of 147 healthy individuals, 43 normal weight, 61 overweight, and 43 obese subjects participated in the study. Circulating levels of IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), leptin, insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured after overnight fasting in all of the study subjects. Waist circumference and body fat percentage were recorded for all the participants. Serum IL-12 was significantly higher in overweight and obese individuals than in normal weight controls. Besides being strongly related with body mass index (r = 0.5154), serum IL-12 exhibited a significant relationship with abdominal obesity (r = 0.4481), body fat percentage (r = 0.5625), serum glucose (r = 0.3158), triglyceride (r = 0.3714), and TNF-α (r = 0.4717). Thus, serum levels of IL-12 are increased in overweight and obese individuals and show a strong relationship with markers of low-grade inflammation and obesity in the Mexican adult population. Further research is needed to understand the role of IL-12 in developing obesity-associated alterations in humans. PMID:23533314

  13. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  14. Sleep in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Victorova Strueva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of duration and individual characteristics of sleep and chronotype on body weight, eating behavior, anxiety, depression, life quality, metabolic and hormonal parameters of obese patients. Materials and methods: 200 patients with primary obesity were studied: 83 men and 117 women at age from 18 to 61 years old, median age 41,5 years [31,0; 50,0]; body weight 107 kg [94; 128,5], waist circumference 112 cm [102; 124]; neck circumference 41 cm [38; 46], body mass index (BMI 36,9 [32,8; 42,3]. Results: We found an association between sleep duration, chronotype and the emotional eating. Significant sleep reduction (to less than 6 hours was associated with high level of anxiety, depression, emotional eating and insomnia. Younger age, early onset and shorter duration of obesity and brisk weight gain during last is connected to the evening chronotype. The emotional eating associated with hypersomnolence in the absence of statistically significant increase of anxiety and depression in individuals with evening chronotype. Sleep duration and chronotype have no significant effect on the body weight, metabolic, hormonal parameters and the dynamics of body. weight after 7±1 months of treatment of obesity.

  15. Obesity and dyslipidemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Franssen; H. Monajemi; E.S.G. Stroes; J.J.P. Kastelein

    2011-01-01

    Dyslipidemia associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome is one of the central features contributing to the increased CV risk in these patients. In view of the pandemic of the metabolic syndrome, it is imperative to fully understand the mechanisms leading to the metabolic lipid phenotype befo

  16. Games and childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...

  17. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarize

  18. Physical activity in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Eveline; Geenen, Rinie

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise education in overweight and obese patients not only requires knowledge of physical exercise programs, but also knowledge of psychological processes such as cognitions that may hamper adherence to the exercise program and knowledge of social processes, e.g., consciousness of the sti

  19. Physical activity in obesity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Eveline; Geenen,

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise education in overweight and obese patients not only requires knowledge of physical exercise programs, but also knowledge of psychological processes such as cognitions that may hamper adherence to the exercise program and knowledge of social processes, e.g., consciousness of the sti

  20. 新疆哈萨克族肥胖儿童菌群人源化动物模型的建立%Establishment of Human Flora-associated Animal Model for Obese Children of Xinjiang Kazakh Nationality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新彩; 徐佩茹; 李敏; 艾比白•艾尔肯; 王红清

    2016-01-01

    目的:利用无菌小鼠建立新疆哈萨克族肥胖儿童菌群人源化( HFA)动物模型,为深入研究哈萨克族儿童肥胖的病理生理机制提供新的研究方式。方法收集新疆哈萨克族7~13岁肥胖儿童新鲜粪便,男女各10例。20只3周龄无菌级C57BL/6J小鼠(雌雄各半),按照性别进行分组并编号。小鼠灌胃接种哈萨克族肥胖儿童粪便菌悬液0.1 ml/次,隔日一次,共接种3次,且接种时遵循性别一致原则。于接种后第7天收集小鼠新鲜粪便标本,提取基因组DNA后,采用特异性引物对16S rRNA V3区进行PCR扩增,对扩增产物运用DGGE方法分离并鉴定,以了解HFA动物模型中肠道菌群的定植情况。结果接种哈萨克族肥胖儿童肠道菌群后的无菌小鼠盲肠均减小为正常小鼠大小;HFA动物模型的PCR-DGGE指纹图谱显示各观察标本均形成复杂而多样的菌属条带。结论本实验成功利用无菌C57BL/6J小鼠建立哈萨克族肥胖儿童HFA动物模型,该动物模型是探索哈萨克族儿童特征性肥胖与肠道菌群关系的新的选择方式。%Objective To establish human flora associated ( HFA) animal models related with Kazakh obese children in Xinjiang based on germ-free ( GF) mice and to provide a new way for the further study of the physiopathologic mechanism of obese children of Kazakh nationality.Methods We collected fresh feces from 20 Xinjiang Kazakh obese children who were 7-13 years old; and each gender 10 cases.We selected 20 three-week-old GF C57BL/6J mice ( half male and half female) and assigned them into two groups and numbered them.The mice received gavage inoculation of bacterium suspension once every two days, given three times totally and each time 0.1 ml; the principle of gender consistency was followed.On the 7th day after inoculation, fresh feces samples were collected, and genome and DNA were extracted; specific primers were employed to conduct PCR