WorldWideScience

Sample records for andrology

  1. Robotic assisted andrological surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekattil, Sijo J; Gudeloglu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the operative microscope for andrological surgery in the 1970s provided enhanced magnification and accuracy, unparalleled to any previous visual loop or magnification techniques. This technology revolutionized techniques for microsurgery in andrology. Today, we may be on the verge of a second such revolution by the incorporation of robotic assisted platforms for microsurgery in andrology. Robotic assisted microsurgery is being utilized to a greater degree in andrology and a number of other microsurgical fields, such as ophthalmology, hand surgery, plastics and reconstructive surgery. The potential advantages of robotic assisted platforms include elimination of tremor, improved stability, surgeon ergonomics, scalability of motion, multi-input visual interphases with up to three simultaneous visual views, enhanced magnification, and the ability to manipulate three surgical instruments and cameras simultaneously. This review paper begins with the historical development of robotic microsurgery. It then provides an in-depth presentation of the technique and outcomes of common robotic microsurgical andrological procedures, such as vasectomy reversal, subinguinal varicocelectomy, targeted spermatic cord denervation (for chronic orchialgia) and robotic assisted microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE). PMID:23241637

  2. [Andrology in Celsus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, I

    2001-01-01

    The article presents the principal topoi of Celsus' De medicina in which andrological problems are discussed. Comparing them with other testimonies of ancient medicine, the author clarifies their peculiarity and explains them in the summary of the cultural and socio-economical conditions of ancient Rome.

  3. [Statistical analysis on andrological patients. I. Frequencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebe, K H; Schirren, C

    1980-01-01

    According a collective of 1619 andrological patients of the year 1975 some statistical data were given: age distribution, frequencies, frequency of sexual intercourse, anticonception and relation to age, coitus frequency and relation to age, impotence and relation to age, previous andrological treatment.

  4. [How to write an andrological paper: standardization, mechanics and techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Feng; Lu, Jin-Chun

    2010-12-01

    Andrological research papers not only reflect the current status and academic level of andrology, but also constitute an important communication platform for researchers and clinicians engaged in this field and contribute significantly to the development of andrology. It would be made easier to write a high-quality andrological paper once the author observes the basic requirements of research papers, adheres to the use of standard scientific terminology, knows the special writing mechanics, and equips himself with some essential writing techniques. Based on the long experience of editorship, we present a detailed introduction of the standardization, mechanics and techniques of writing an andrological paper.

  5. Andrological aspects of physical exercise and sport medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luigi, Luigi; Romanelli, Francesco; Sgrò, Paolo; Lenzi, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Appropriate physical activity is one of the bases of healthy lifestyle. In fact, physical exercise and playing sport may be associated with both improvements and injury to both general and reproductive health. A biologically normal testosterone secretion appears fundamental in males to guarantee both a physiological exercise adaptation and safe sport participation. The reproductive system is highly sensitive to the effects of exercise-related stress and the reproductive hormones may both increase and decrease after different acute or chronic exercises. Exercise and sport participation may positively or negatively influence andrological health status depending on the type, intensity and duration of performed physical activity and on individual health status. In addition, prohibited substances administration (e.g. androgenic-anabolic steroids, and so forth) in competitive and non-competitive athletes represents the main cause of iatrogenic andrological diseases. Preventing and treating andrological problems in active healthy and unhealthy individuals is as important as promoting a correct lifestyle. Physicians need to be educated on the relationships between the male reproductive system and sport participation and on the great role of the pre-participation physical examination in the prevention of andrological diseases.

  6. [Effective English writing for tables and figures in andrological papers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong-He; Lu, Jin-Chun

    2012-08-01

    Tables and figures play a critical role in enhancing the quality of an andrological paper. As visual elements, well-presented tables and figures can reduce the length of the manuscript and meanwhile efficiently capture a large amount of information by clear and concise display of detailed results and complex relationships, patterns and trends, offer explicit statistical or graphical support to important ideas, and add to the value of the whole paper. The effectiveness of a table or figure lies not only in its well-crafted structural design, but even more in its language presentation. This article presents some essential and practical guidelines to effective English writing of the title, body and footnotes of tables and figures in andrological papers.

  7. Andrological and hormonal findings in subjects with ductus deferens agenesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonzo, D; Manenti, M; Varengo, M; Quadri, R; Frea, B; Tizzani, A; Carone, R

    1983-01-01

    The aim of our study has been the complete andrological and endocrinological evaluation of seven cases of bilateral ductus deferens agenesia. In all cases testicular biopsy demonstrated a normal spermatogenesis. Urographic examination showed, in four cases, the existence of congenital anomalies of the urinary tract. The presence of spermioagglutinating and spermimmobilizing antibodies in blood and in seminal plasma was excluded in all cases. Basal and stimulated levels of FSH, LH, PRL and testosterone were within normal limits. Surgical exploration of seminal tracts and bilateral collection of sperm at the caudal portion of the epididymis appear to be mandatory in order to select the cases for surgical therapeutic approach.

  8. [English writing mechanics for andrological papers need standardization among Chinese authors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong-he

    2009-06-01

    Mechanics play as essential a role as language presentation is the English writing of an andrological paper, and directly influence its quality and publication. They, however, frequently fail to receive due attention. In view of the typical problems among Chinese authors in English writing, and with a wide range of SCI included medical journals for reference, the author draws on his experience as an English editor for medical journals and introduces some most important and practical English writing mechanics, aiming to contribute to further standardization and improvement of Chinese authors'English writing of andrological as well as other medical papers.

  9. Recommended practices for the management of embryology, andrology, and endocrinology laboratories: a committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This document provides a general overview for physicians of the qualities and conditions necessary for good management practices within the endocrinology, andrology, and embryology laboratories in the United States. It is intended as an addendum to previously published guidelines that further detail these responsibilities. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Practical recommendations for performing ultrasound scanning in the urological and andrological fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Martino

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: US scanning has been defined as the urologist’s stethoscope. These recommendations have been drawn up with the aim of ensuring minimum standards of excellence for ultrasound imaging in urological and andrological practice. A series of essential recommendations are made, to be followed during ultrasound investigations in kidney, prostate, bladder, scrotal and penile diseases. Methods: Members of the Imaging Working Group of the Italian Society of Urology (SIU in collaboration with the Italian Society of Ultrasound in Urology, Andrology and Nephrology (SIEUN identified expert Urologists, Andrologists, Nephrologists and Radiologists. The recommendations are based on review of the literature, previously published recommendations, books and the opinions of the experts. The final document was reviewed by national experts, including members of the Italian Society of Radiology. Results: Recommendations are listed in 5 chapters, focused on: kidney, bladder, prostate and seminal vesicles, scrotum and testis, penis, including penile echo-doppler. In each chapter clear definitions are made of: indications, technological standards of the devices, the method of performance of the investigation. The findings to be reported are described and discussed, and examples of final reports for each organ are included. In the tables, the ultrasound features of the principal male uro-genital diseases are summarized. Diagnostic accuracy and second level investigations are considered. Conclusions: Ultrasound is an integral part of the diagnosis and follow-up of diseases of the urinary system and male genitals in patients of all ages, in both the hospital and outpatient setting. These recommendations are dedicated to enhancing communication and evidence-based medicine in an inter- and multi-disciplinary approach. The ability to perform and interpret ultrasound imaging correctly has become an integral part of clinical practice in uro-andrology, but intra and inter

  11. Office-based andrology and male infertility procedures—a cost-effective alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alom, Manaf; Ziegelmann, Matthew; Savage, Josh; Miest, Tanner; Köhler, Tobias S.

    2017-01-01

    Background From 2014–2016, our clinical practice progressively incorporated several male infertility and andrology procedures performed under local anesthesia, including circumcision, hydrocelectomy, malleable penile prostheses, orchiectomy, penile plication, spermatocelectomy, testicular prostheses, varicocelectomy, vasectomy reversal (VR), and testicular and microepididymal sperm aspiration (TESE/MESA). Given the observed outcomes and potential financial and logistical benefits of this approach for surgeons and patients, we sought to describe our initial experience. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed of all andrologic office-based (local anesthesia only) and select OR (general or monitored anesthesia care) procedures performed from 2014–2016. Financial and outcomes analyses were performed for infertility cases due to the homogeneity of payment modalities and number of cases available. Demographic, clinicopathologic, and procedural costs (direct and indirect) were reviewed and compared. Results A total of 32 VRs, 24 hydrocelectomies, 24 TESEs, 10 circumcisions, 9 MESA/TESEs, 4 spermatocelectomies, 3 orchiectomies (1 inguinal), 2 microTESEs, 2 testicular prostheses, 1 malleable penile prosthesis, 1 penile plication, and 1 varicocelectomy. Compared to the OR, male infertility procedures performed in the clinic with local anesthesia were performed for a fraction of the cost: MESA/TESE (78% reduction), TESE (89% reduction), and VR (62% reduction). All office-based procedures were completed successfully without significant modifications to technique. Outcomes were similar between the office and OR including operative time (VR: 181 vs. 190 min, P=0.34), rate of vasoepididymostomy (VE) (23% vs. 32%, P=0.56), total sperm counts (72.2 vs. 50.9 million, P=0.56), and successful sperm retrieval (MESA/TESE 100% vs. 100%, P=1.00; TESE 80% vs. 100%, P=0.36). To our knowledge, the current study also represents the first report of office-based VE under local

  12. Office-based andrology and male infertility procedures-a cost-effective alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alom, Manaf; Ziegelmann, Matthew; Savage, Josh; Miest, Tanner; Köhler, Tobias S; Trost, Landon

    2017-08-01

    From 2014-2016, our clinical practice progressively incorporated several male infertility and andrology procedures performed under local anesthesia, including circumcision, hydrocelectomy, malleable penile prostheses, orchiectomy, penile plication, spermatocelectomy, testicular prostheses, varicocelectomy, vasectomy reversal (VR), and testicular and microepididymal sperm aspiration (TESE/MESA). Given the observed outcomes and potential financial and logistical benefits of this approach for surgeons and patients, we sought to describe our initial experience. A retrospective analysis was performed of all andrologic office-based (local anesthesia only) and select OR (general or monitored anesthesia care) procedures performed from 2014-2016. Financial and outcomes analyses were performed for infertility cases due to the homogeneity of payment modalities and number of cases available. Demographic, clinicopathologic, and procedural costs (direct and indirect) were reviewed and compared. A total of 32 VRs, 24 hydrocelectomies, 24 TESEs, 10 circumcisions, 9 MESA/TESEs, 4 spermatocelectomies, 3 orchiectomies (1 inguinal), 2 microTESEs, 2 testicular prostheses, 1 malleable penile prosthesis, 1 penile plication, and 1 varicocelectomy. Compared to the OR, male infertility procedures performed in the clinic with local anesthesia were performed for a fraction of the cost: MESA/TESE (78% reduction), TESE (89% reduction), and VR (62% reduction). All office-based procedures were completed successfully without significant modifications to technique. Outcomes were similar between the office and OR including operative time (VR: 181 vs. 190 min, P=0.34), rate of vasoepididymostomy (VE) (23% vs. 32%, P=0.56), total sperm counts (72.2 vs. 50.9 million, P=0.56), and successful sperm retrieval (MESA/TESE 100% vs. 100%, P=1.00; TESE 80% vs. 100%, P=0.36). To our knowledge, the current study also represents the first report of office-based VE under local anesthesia alone. For hydrocelectomy

  13. Proof of paternity: historical reflections on an andrological-forensic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, K; Schultheiss, D

    2004-02-01

    Throughout the history of medicine, there have been difficulties in forensic proving of unsolved paternities, making this a major andrological-forensic challenge. In the Roman empire, children procreated by incest, called 'incestuosi', had no rights at all and other illegitimates, e.g. children born of prostitutes or as a result of adultery, could not assert rights towards the father. Only through the 'corpus iuris civilis' of the Roman Emperor Justinian I (6th century ad) could claims of alimony be made in some cases. In later times, evidence of presumable impotence of a potential father was determined by the congressus, where defined juristical 'sexual fights' had to be held before official matrons, surgeons and priests. Men had to demonstrate their erectile and ejaculatory function. A special significance must be attributed to the microscopical discovery of spermatozoa by the medical student Johann Ham in 1677 and the further investigation by Antoni van Leeuwenhoek. After centuries of personally biased and scientifically incorrect concepts of paternity determination, the discovery of the blood grouping system by Karl Landsteiner at the beginning of the 20th century paved the way for sophisticated techniques to prove or rather to disprove paternity. In 1921, Reuben Ottenberg from New York was the first to suggest the application of the system to medico-legal questions, but it was not before the 1950s that legal courts accepted this method. A famous example of disregarding clear blood grouping results was the case of the movie star Charles Chaplin in California in 1946. Modern DNA techniques, today the golden standard in forensic medicine, have also been applied recently for historical investigations. One of the very illustrious examples is the dispute about Thomas Jefferson, third President of the US, fathering a child of one of his slaves.

  14. [Analysis of the citation of the articles published in National Journal of Andrology by SCI periodicals from 2002 to 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai

    2009-03-01

    Science Citation Index (SCI) is one of the world's most important and influential information retrieval systems. Today Web of Science covers over 9000 international and regional journals and book series in every field of natural sciences, social sciences, and arts and humanities. More and more Chinese periodicals have been cited by SCI. This paper briefly introduces the SCI database and its selection process and analyzes the citation of the articles published in National Journal of Andrology (NJA) by SCI journals from 2002 to 2008, aiming to provide some information for the internationalization of NJA.

  15. Pattern of semen analysis at andrology lab of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University: Findings and the shortcomings to overcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeela lshrat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Infertility wing dept. of gyne & obst at BSMMU provides services to the infertile couples who are referred from primary care levels and who cannot afford the expensive private facilities. The semen analysis is performed for the male partners of infertile couples at the Andrology Lab of BSMMU for detecting male factor abnormalities. Objectives: The objective of the study is to find out the pattern of semen parameters in our population and to find out the frequency and type of abnormal semen parameters. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study of the semen analysis performed at the Andrology Lab of BSMMU during the year 2011. A total of 200 consecutive samples were analysed. The procedure and reference values were according to the WHO guidelines 1999. Results: Semen parameters were abnormal in 38.5% of semen analysis. Severe male factor abnormality (azospermia and severe oligospermia combined was in 28%. Sperm concentration had the highest variability followed by motility and morphology respectively in the n01moozospermic males. Conclusion: Severe oligospennia and azospermia are the most common abnormali­ties among the infertile men presenting at the Infertility unit ofBSMMU. It is recommended that the service at the Infertility wing of BSMMU should be more focused on these male factor abnormalities.

  16. KAJIAN INFERTIL PRIA Dl LABORATORIUM INFERTIL - ANDROLOGI PUSLITBANG SISTEM DAN KEBIJAKAN KESEHATAN SURABAYA, TAHUN 2005-2008

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    Bambang Wasito Tjipto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Appropriate laboratory testing is an integral component of the proper evaluation of the male with infertility. Semen Analysis was the window to know the quality of a man's semen. In the infertile couples, first it shoud be checked these men of man's caunterpart, because its procedure is relatively easy and cheap. If the result of semen analysis ts normal, then the wife caunterpart was conducted by obsteric. The objective of this study was to evaluate the males' sperm amongin fertile couples, we have done sperm analyses of infertile men in the infertile-andrology laboratory of the center of Health System and Policy Research and Development in Surabaya. Methods: This study was a laboratory research using data of patients who visited our clinic since January 1, 2005 to December 31 2008, the analyses included volume, consistency and PH of semen, as well as concentration, motility and morphology of spermatozoa. Results: Indicated that from 180 male patients, 81 cases (45% had normozoospermia, while 99 cases (55% had abnormal sperm condition. The impression of spermtogram results indicated that normozoospermia was the highest (81 cases followed by oligo asthenoterato (59cases, and the extreme oligo asthenoterato (31 cases. We recommended that sperm analyses has to be the first test form fertile couples, before conducting more complex examinations, which will need high cost and extra effort. The sperm analyses is also used to evaluate pre and post medical and/ or surgical therapy of infertile males. Key words: infertile- spermatozoa

  17. [Reorganizing the management of specialist uro-andrologic ultrasound health-care service: impact on professional quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Atti, Lucio; Russo, Gian Rosario

    2011-01-01

    The process of organizing a ultrasound service nowadays can be improved by properly managing the user's request, the speed of response and safety, the standardization of methods and skills. The outpatients at our uro-andrologic ultrasound clinic (O.U. of Urology in Ferrara) received a questionnaire each; we administered a total of 640 questionnaires. The number of questionnaires collected was 532. Patients were asked to give an assessment of services using a qualitative method according to a 4-parameter response scale: very satisfied, satisfied, dissatisfied, very dissatisfied. The identification of indicators to be monitored by the user's perceived quality was accomplished by establishing the correlation coefficient between different parameters of analysis and an overall rating of the sample. Some of these parameters were: the relationship with the practitioner, the availability of doctors, the ability of doctors for reassurance, the completeness of information and facilities hygiene conditions. When these parameters vary, positively or negatively, also the citizen's overall opinion changes. The customer satisfaction is an important component of the quality of care, it represents both an indicator of the effectiveness of health intervention and the ability to meet quality requirements of the health service organization. The objective of an ultrasound service should be to provide, within a reasonable timeframe, the supply of high quality with qualified personnel, with adequate tools and procedures.

  18. [Study on psychiatric disorders and defensive process assessed by the "defense style questionnaire" in sterile males SAMPLE consulting in andrology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellone, M; Cottencin, O; Rigot, J M; Goudemand, M

    2005-01-01

    The literature about artificial insemination and the associated psychological, psychiatric and sexual disorders is relatively rich. But the majority of these studies is made in gynaecology, with a feminine approach of the disorder. There are very few works led in andrology. This justified the investigation of new trails in order to understand better the clinical context of the sterile man. We undertake a study about the psychiatric disorders among sterile men and about the defense styles. These are a clinical entity recently introduced in the quantitative psychopathology research. The defense style questionnaire (DSQ) is a psychometric scale used in common practice in order to measure the defense styles. We made this study in order to examine the psychiatric state of a sterile males sample consulting in andrology; to assess the defense style by means of the Bond and al DSQ-88 ; to look into a difference between the defensive process according to their clinical situation of azoospermic males or as the oligoazoospermic males and finally, to reveal a correlation between the psychiatric disorders developed in this sample of sterile males and the defensive process they used. There were 42 people (22 azoospermic males and 20 oligoazoospermic males) aged between 23 and 49 years old in the analysed sample. These have been selected at the surgery of andrology at the RUHC of Lille, depending on their arrival order for 6 months. There was no significant difference between the two groups as far as the age and the education standard are concerned. The selection criteria were medical and somatic. Our sample population were divided into two groups: azoospermia (no spermatozoon found in the semen analysis) and oligoasthenospermia (decrease of the number and the mobility of the spermatozoa and an increase of the percentage of atypical forms). The method first consisted in the DSQ, followed by the analysis of the psychiatric state according to the DSM IV, a hetero questionnaire to

  19. Avaliação andrológica por pontos e comportamento sexual em touros da raça Nelore Andrologic evaluation by points and sexual behavior in Nelore bulls

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    Flávio Guiselli Lopes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar a relação entre dois métodos de avaliação do potencial reprodutivo - Classificação Andrológica por Pontos (CAP e comportamento sexual de touros da raça Nelore - e verificar a acurácia desses testes em predizer o potencial reprodutivo dos touros, avaliado pela taxa de gestação ao final da estação de monta, com duração média de 90 dias. Foram utilizados 14 touros, todos classificados como aptos à reprodução, após exame andrológico, CAP e observação do comportamento sexual a campo durante 12 horas. Onze touros foram avaliados em manejo individual, com proporção média touro:vaca de 1:46, e os três restantes, em manejo múltiplo, com proporção média touro:vaca de 1:23. A pontuação média obtida pela CAP foi 78,92 ± 8,92 (muito bom e o escore, 9,85 ± 0,36 (excelente para libido. Quanto maior o tempo de teste, maiores foram os escores da libido. Na primeira hora de observação, os touros foram classificados como de libido questionável e ao final do teste, como de libido excelente. As correlações da libido com circunferência escrotal (CE, características físicas e morfológicas do sêmen e taxa de gestação foram baixas. A pontuação pela CAP correlacionou-se positivamente com circunferência escrotal e características físicas do sêmen, mas não se correlacionou com características morfológicas dos sêmen. Não foi observada correlação entre CAP e taxa de gestação, nem entre libido e CAP. A taxa geral de gestação após o período de estação de monta foi de 74,69%. Os resultados indicam que tanto a CAP como o teste da libido não são eficientes para predizer o potencial reprodutivo de touros da raça Nelore e devem ser utilizados de forma complementar ao exame andrológico.The objective of this work was to study the relation between two reproductive potential evaluation methods - Andrologic Evaluation by Points - CAP and sexual behavior of Nelore bulls, and to verify the

  20. Associação entre o perfil andrológico e a congelação de sêmen de touros da raça Nelore aos dois anos de idade, pré-selecionados pela classificação andrológica por pontos (CAP Relationship between andrologic profile and semen freezing in two-year-old Nelore bulls, pre select by breeding soundness evaluation (BSE

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    D.F. Salvador

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as características andrológicas (n=163 e de congelação do sêmen (n=55 de touros jovens da raça Nelore e estudou-se a associação entre essas avaliações, visando à localização de marcadores para alta fertilidade e congelabilidade do sêmen. Registraram-se diferenças (PAndrologic (n=163 and semen freezing (n=55 parameters from young Nelore bulls were evaluated for two consecutive years, as well as their associations searching for andrologic markers for high fertility and semen freezing. Differences in andrologic profiles (P<0.05 between years were registered, reflecting the success of semen freezing, even after andrologic selection. Percentages of 26.6 and 19.5 of discharged ejaculates, pre and post-freezing, respectively, were recorded, due to physical semen parameters. Overall sperm motility, vigor, and viability means were, respectively, 66.4±5.7%, 4.8±0.4, and 76.3±8.5% pre-freezing; and 29.4±8.5%, 4.6±0.6, and 34.5±11.1% post-freezing. The post-freezing recovery mean was 44.5±13.4%. Significant correlations (P<0.05 between body weight and pre-freezing sperm motility (0.43 and post-freezing sperm recovery standard (-0.50 were estimated. Correlations were also observed (P<0.05 between volume of ejaculate and age (0.50, sperm motility (0.28, total sperm defects (-0.32, and post-freezing sperm recovery standard (-0.37. The correlation between sperm concentration and post-freezing sperm recovery standard was 0.42. Significant correlations (P<0.05 between testes shape and scrotal circumference (0.58, and total sperm defects (0.33 and vesicular gland area (0.43 were also observed.

  1. Clinical Application of Sperm Chromatin Structure Assessment in Andrology Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Smit (Marij)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractInfertility, defined as the inability to conceive spontaneously within one year, is a common medical problem. Traditionally, fertility investigations initially focus on the evaluation of ovulation and tubal patency in females, and on assessment of sperm quantity and quality in males. In

  2. Andrological aspects of the perforative ulcer of the duodenum

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    M. A. Nurtdinov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors on a scale of vector definition of the sexual constitution investigated 115 patients with a perforative ulcer of a duodenum, in three age groups: the 1st from 18 to 28 years, the 2nd from 29 to 56 years and the 3 rd is more senior than 57 years. In this scale the following criteria are defined: the I vector – awakenings a libido; II – age of the first ejaculation; III – a trochanteric index (growth relation to foot length; IV – character of pilosis of a pubis; V – the maximum excess; VI – times of entry into a strip of a conditional and physiological rhythm after a marriage (pays off on time of stabilization of sexual activity; VII – time of entry into a strip of a conditional and physiological rhythm – absolute age. The statistical analysis was carried out in the environment of Statistica 12 Trial, with calculation of criterion of Chi-square with Yates,s amendment and approximation of variables. It is established that at patients with a perforative ulcer various disharmonies of adolescenty development are noted. Aged from 18 till 28 years (before marriage the perforative ulcer meets against a retardation of sexual development, high sexual activity and the periods of abstinency. Aged from 28 till 56 years the perforative ulcer proceeds against the average sexual constitution (breaking the adolescenty of manifestations with high excess practice of sexual intercourses and breaking the adolescenty of manifestations. At patients 57 years are more senior perforation arises against the high sexual constitution and activity. 

  3. Andrological aspects of the perforative ulcer of the duodenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nurtdinov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Authors on a scale of vector definition of the sexual constitution investigated 115 patients with a perforative ulcer of a duodenum, in three age groups: the 1st from 18 to 28 years, the 2nd from 29 to 56 years and the 3 rd is more senior than 57 years. In this scale the following criteria are defined: the I vector – awakenings a libido; II – age of the first ejaculation; III – a trochanteric index (growth relation to foot length; IV – character of pilosis of a pubis; V – the maximum excess; VI – times of entry into a strip of a conditional and physiological rhythm after a marriage (pays off on time of stabilization of sexual activity; VII – time of entry into a strip of a conditional and physiological rhythm – absolute age. The statistical analysis was carried out in the environment of Statistica 12 Trial, with calculation of criterion of Chi-square with Yates,s amendment and approximation of variables. It is established that at patients with a perforative ulcer various disharmonies of adolescenty development are noted. Aged from 18 till 28 years (before marriage the perforative ulcer meets against a retardation of sexual development, high sexual activity and the periods of abstinency. Aged from 28 till 56 years the perforative ulcer proceeds against the average sexual constitution (breaking the adolescenty of manifestations with high excess practice of sexual intercourses and breaking the adolescenty of manifestations. At patients 57 years are more senior perforation arises against the high sexual constitution and activity. 

  4. [Andrologic problems and internal pathology in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, D

    1993-10-01

    Population aging is continuously increasing in Italy and in the World. Individuals aged 60 years or more are currently 10,500,000 and will be 13,000,000 in 2015. Life quality in geriatric ages includes the maintenance of sexual power: according to recent data (Carrol et al., 1992), 80% of impotence cases are due to organic causes. In addition, the use of drugs can cause impotence. Among them tiazidic diuretics may cause an increase of sexual disturbances. Other drugs with this potential are digitalis, antihypertensive drugs (particularly beta blockers), major and minor tranquillizers, antidepressant, H2 receptor antagonists, antiparkinsonian cholinergic drugs and estrogens employed in the treatment of prostate tumors. Diseases of geriatric age that can alter sexual power are diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease for the accompanying depression and for the use of antidepressants; severe hypertension is complicated by impotence in 15% of cases. Among neurological diseases Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis can be causes of sexual dysfunctions. Patients on hemodialysis can be impotent, with recent data (Soloh et al 1992) showing that erythropoietin treatment of anemia also improve sexual dysfunctions. Prevention from a geriatric standpoint should be base on action on known risk factor as smoking, alcohol abuse and dislipidemias and with the activation of a close drug vigilance.

  5. Human testicular insulin-like factor 3: in relation to development, reproductive hormones and andrological disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, K; Andersson, A-M

    2011-01-01

    is produced in human prenatal and neonatal, and in adult Leydig cells to various extents, and is in a developmental context regulated like testosterone, with production during second trimester, an early postnatal peak and increasing secretion during puberty, resulting in high adult serum levels. INSL3...... production is entirely dependent on the state of Leydig cell differentiation, and is stimulated by the long-term trophic effects mediated by luteinizing hormone (LH). Once differentiated, Leydig cells apparently express INSL3 in a constitutive manner, and the hormone is thereby insensitive to the acute...

  6. [Activities and responsibilities of workers in embryologic and andrologic laboratories in assisted reproduction centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záková, J; Trávník, P; Malenovská, A; Hűttelová, R

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the current status and rules for the laboratory staff activities and their competences in the centers of assisted reproduction. The rules were processed by the members of the Association of Reproductive Embryology (ARE) committee under the current legislation. Committee members of the Czech Sterility and Assisted Reproduction Society and Czech Gynecology and Obstetric Society approved these rules as obligatory for assisted reproduction centres in Czech Republic.

  7. Testosterone replacement in 49,XXXXY syndrome: andrological, metabolic and neurological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzilli, Rossella; Delfino, Michele; Elia, Jlenia; Benedetti, Francesco; Alesi, Laura; Chessa, Luciana; Mazzilli, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Summary We report the case of a 19-year-old boy, presenting several congenital malformations (facial dysmorphisms, cardiac and musculoskeletal abnormalities), mental retardation, recurrent respiratory infections during growth and delayed puberty. Although previously hospitalised in other medical centres, only psychological support had been recommended for this patient. In our department, genetic, biochemical/hormonal and ultrasound examinations were undertaken. The karyotype was 49,XXXXY, a r...

  8. Testosterone replacement in 49,XXXXY syndrome: andrological, metabolic and neurological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzilli, Rossella; Delfino, Michele; Elia, Jlenia; Benedetti, Francesco; Alesi, Laura; Chessa, Luciana; Mazzilli, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 19-year-old boy, presenting several congenital malformations (facial dysmorphisms, cardiac and musculoskeletal abnormalities), mental retardation, recurrent respiratory infections during growth and delayed puberty. Although previously hospitalised in other medical centres, only psychological support had been recommended for this patient. In our department, genetic, biochemical/hormonal and ultrasound examinations were undertaken. The karyotype was 49,XXXXY, a rare aneuploidy with an incidence of 1/85 000-100 000, characterised by the presence of three extra X chromosomes in phenotypically male subjects. The hormonal/biochemical profile showed hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, insulin resistance and vitamin D deficiency. The patient was then treated with testosterone replacement therapy. After 12 months of treatment, we observed the normalisation of testosterone levels. There was also an increase in pubic hair growth, testicular volume and penis size, weight loss, homeostatic model assessment index reduction and the normalisation of vitamin D values. Moreover, the patient showed greater interaction with the social environment and context. In cases of plurimalformative syndrome, cognitive impairment, recurrent infections during growth and, primarily, delayed puberty, it is necessary to ascertain as soon as possible whether the patient is suffering from hypogonadism or metabolic disorders due to genetic causes. In our case, the diagnosis of hypogonadism, and then of 49,XXXXY syndrome, was unfortunately made only at the age of 19 years.The testosterone replacement treatment, even though delayed, induced positive effects on: i) development of the reproductive system, ii) regulation of the metabolic profile and iii) interaction with the social environment and context.However, earlier and timely hormonal replacement treatment could probably have improved the quality of life of this subject and his family.

  9. Investigation of psychosomatic aspects of gynecological and andrological diseases and infertility: a review of contemporary international researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantsburg M.E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the increasing worldwide problems in the reproductive sphere of people, the problem of preserving reproductive health of the population has become very topical, it requires joint medical and psychological efforts. This article presents a review of more than 70 modern English-language scientific publications devoted to the study of psychological and psychosomatic peculiarities of men, women and couples with reproductive disorders and psychological predictors and consequences of these problems. The best known and the least explored psychological aspects of reproductive disorders are highlighted, the results of research are described, also R. Linder’s psychotherapeutic method of preventing premature births is outlined. The article has two parts: the first part presents the research of psychosomatic aspects of male and female reproductive diseases, including infertility; the second one is devoted to psychological and psychosomatic disorders of women during pregnancy and childbirth.

  10. Erectile dysfunction, obesity, insulin resistance, and their relationship with testosterone levels in eugonadal patients in an andrology clinic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblovits, Pablo; Costanzo, Pablo R; Valzacchi, Gastón J Rey; Gueglio, Guillermo; Layus, Alberto O; Kozak, Andrea E; Balzaretti, Marta I; Litwak, León E

    2010-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with metabolic and endocrine diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome (MS), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Insulin resistance (IR), present in patients with obesity, MS, and DM2, causes disturbances in the signaling pathways required for nitric oxide production, with subsequent endothelial dysfunction. In addition, IR appears to alter testosterone production. We evaluated in eugonadal patients with ED: 1) the presence of obesity and IR, 2) testosterone levels and their association with obesity and IR, and 3) the degree of ED according to the presence of IR. In a prospective study, 78 eugonadal patients with ED (group P) were recruited and compared with 17 men without ED as a control group (group C). Erectile function was evaluated according to the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF-5). IR was measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). IR was defined as HOMA of 3 or greater. Patients with ED had significantly higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), HOMA values, and prevalence of IR when compared with group C. Total (TT) and bioavailable testosterone (BT) levels were lower in group P compared with group C. There was a significant negative correlation between HOMA and IIEF-5, HOMA and TT, WC and IIEF-5, WC and TT, and WC and BT. Group P patients with IR had higher WCs and lower IIEF-5 scores when compared with patients in group P without IR. In conclusion, patients with ED showed a higher BMI, WC, and HOMA and lower levels of TT and BT. There is a negative correlation between erectile function and IR and abdominal obesity. The TT levels are lower in patients with increased BMI, WC, and IR. However, a negative correlation was shown only between BT (biologically active fraction) and abdominal obesity.

  11. [Henry IV of Castilla (1454-1474). An exceptional urologic patient. An endocrinopathy causing the uro-andrological problems of the Monarch. Chronic renal lithiasis (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganto Pavón, Emilio

    2003-04-01

    To review all known data about the endocrinopathy and renal disease suffered by Henry IV of Castile according to contemporary chronicles and manuscripts, comparing the clinical diagnosis made by Gregorio Marañon 70 years ago in his work "Biological essay about Henry IV and his time" (Madrid 1930) with present concepts, because we consider, as other medical authors, that his endocrinopathy is not well determined. Regarding his chronic renal lithiasis, it could have played an important role as negative factor in the Monarch's quality of life, and have been related to his endocrinopathy, so that it should also be reviewed. We reviewed a total of 10 chronicles and 5 contemporary manuscripts treating the look and diseases of Henry IV to obtain the most important data about both diseases and be able to characterize the kind of endocrine disease suffered by the Monarch, and all aspects regarding his lithiasis, and compare them with our current knowledge. From the review of those chronicles and manuscripts, it is my opinion that Henry IV suffered acromegaly secondary to a GH and prolactine producing hypophyseal tumor from childhood, which might justify the impotence he suffered from his youth and other symptoms clearly referred in the chronicles. Chronic renal lithiasis (flank pain, lumbar illness, and hematuria) finally led to acute obstructive uropathy, main cause of his death. This fact has not been emphasized by historians. The renal lithiasis benign part of a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome (MEN I) can not be ruled out.

  12. Validation of the German version of the 'Hypogonadism Related Symptom Scale' (HRS) in andrological patients with infertility, HIV infection and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidjanov, J; Wolf, J; Schuppe, H-C; Weidner, W; Diemer, T; Linn, T; Halefeldt, I; Wagenlehner, F; Wiltink, J; Pilatz, A

    2014-12-01

    As commonly used self-reported screening instruments for male hypogonadism demonstrated lack of specificity, a Hypogonadism Related Symptom Scale (HRS) was developed in 2009 as a novel self-rating screening tool. As the questionnaire has not been validated, the purpose of our study was to perform a validation in patients presenting with different disorders (e.g. infertility, HIV infection or metabolic syndrome) and disease-related risk to develop hypogonadism. Two hundred and eighteen patients aged 19-71 years (40.1 ± 9.5) who completed the HRS and other common questionnaires [International Index Of Erectile Function (IIEF), National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), short form (SF)-12] were included. In all patients, blood levels of total testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined and free testosterone was calculated. Cronbach's α for the scale was 0.896, split-half 0.871 for the 1st half and 0.807 for the 2nd half. Spearman-Brown coefficient was 0.767, and Guttman split-half coefficient was 0.759. Consistent correlations were found between HRS and IIEF5 (ρ = 0.57, P hypogonadism. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos de características andrológicas de touros jovens da raça Nelore por meio da inferência bayesiana Genetic parameters stimates of young bulls Nelore cattle andrology traits using bayesian inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Benedito de Freitas Trovo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo estimar parâmetros genéticos de características indicadoras da qualidade seminal de machos da raça Nelore, com idade entre 17 e 24 meses, criados na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil, com utilização da inferência bayesiana. O conjunto de dados considerou 1.265 avaliações andrológicas realizadas entre 2001 e 2007, em quatro propriedades diferentes. Obteve-se a medida do perímetro escrotal, realizou-se a avaliação da morfologia espermática e os animais foram classificados em aptos ou sexualmente imaturos. Os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados por meio do pacote computacional THRGIBBS1F90, que aplica a inferência bayesiana sob modelo animal. Dos 1.265 animais avaliados, 880 (69,56% foram considerados aptos à reprodução e 385 (30,43% sexualmente imaturos. As estimativas de herdabilidade obtidas para perímetro escrotal, defeitos maiores, menores e totais foram 0,45; 0,13; 0,06 e 0,14, respectivamente. As estimativas de correlação genética entre o perímetro escrotal e estas mesmas características foram -0,24; -0,04 e -0,18, respectivamente. Os resultados mostraram que, à exceção do perímetro escrotal, todas as outras características estudadas sofreram influência ambiental e o perímetro escrotal não seria a característica mais adequada quando o intuito é obter melhoria dos aspectos qualitativos seminais, sendo recomendável a identificação de outras características que permitam a obtenção de progresso genético por meio da seleção indireta.The aim of this study was to predict genetic parameters of Nelore males reproductive traits, with age between 17 and 24 months, raised in the Middle-west of Brazil, using Bayesian inference. The group of data considered 1.265 breeding soundness evaluations obtained between 2001 and 2007, in four different properties. Records were obtained from the measure of the scrotal circumference and were evaluated the spermatic morphology. Animals were classified in apt to reproduction or sexually immature. The genetic parameters were estimated through the software THRGIBBS1F90, that uses bayesian inference under animal model. Among 1.265 animals evaluated, 880 (69.56% were considered apt to reproduction and 385 (30.43% sexually immature. The heritability estimates for scrotal circumference, larger defects, minor and total were 0.45; 0.13; 0.06 and 0.14, respectively. The estimates of genetic correlation between the scrotal circumference and these same traits were -0.24; -0.04 and -0.18, respectively. The results allowed to conclude that, except the scrotal circumference, all the other traits studied suffer environmental influences and the scrotal circumference would not be the most appropriate trait when the intention is to obtain improvement of the seminal qualitative aspects being advisable the identification of other traits that allow the obtaining genetic through the indirect progress selection.

  14. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen

  15. New therapies for relapsed castration-resistant prostate cancer based on peptide analogs of hypothalamic hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew V Schally

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a pleasure to contribute our presentation at the International Prostate Forum of the Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association (AUA to this special issue of the Asian Journal of Andrology.

  16. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen cryopreservation; evaluation of semen in the andrology laboratory; genetic aspects of male reproduction; emerging techniques and future development of semen evaluation and handling and applied androlo...

  17. Male hormonal contraception: looking back and moving forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, M Y; Page, S T; Bremner, W J

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous contraceptive options available to women, approximately half of all pregnancies in the United States and worldwide are unplanned. Women and men support the development of reversible male contraception strategies, but none have been brought to market. Herein we review the physiologic basis for male hormonal contraception, the history of male hormonal contraception development, currents agents in development as well as the potential risks and benefits of male hormonal contraception for men. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  18. Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of the wall of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N. Sobhy

    2011-09-03

    Sep 3, 2011 ... S. El-Gendi c a Faculty of Medicine, Dermatology and Andrology Department, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt b Faculty of Medicine, General Surgery Department, ... Recently, Tilki et al.13 suggested that an antireflux mechanism ... University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria Univer-.

  19. Localization of the human GAPDHS protein to the postacrosomal sperm head region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dorosh, Andriy; Děd, Lukáš; Jelínková, Jitka; Pěknicová, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 33, Supplement 1 (2010), s. 93-93 ISSN 0105-6263. [6th European Congress of Andrology. 29.09.2010-01.10.2010, Athens] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : human spermatozoa * monoclonal antibody * GAPDHS * postacrosomal region * MALDI-TOF Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  20. Methods of sperm vitality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Librach, Clifford L

    2013-01-01

    Sperm vitality is a reflection of the proportion of live, membrane-intact spermatozoa determined by either dye exclusion or osmoregulatory capacity under hypo-osmotic conditions. In this chapter we address the two most common methods of sperm vitality assessment: eosin-nigrosin staining and the hypo-osmotic swelling test, both utilized in clinical Andrology laboratories.

  1. Coconut milk - citrate as extender for West African dwarf buck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the proportions of coconut milk and sodium citrate buffer suitable for extension of West African dwarf (WAD) buck spermatozoa at room temperature. Semen was collected from clinically healthy buck certified free of obvious andrological defects. Eight trials of semen extension were carried out using 0.1 ml of ...

  2. Oestrogenic activity in drinking waters from a rural area in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-02-27

    Feb 27, 2007 ... Oestrogenic activity in drinking waters from a rural area in the Waterberg District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. NH Aneck-Hahn1*, MS Bornman1 and C de Jager1, 2. 1Andrology, Department of Urology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. 2Environmental Health, School of Health Systems and ...

  3. Expression of LDOC1 mRNA in leucocytes of patients with Down's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4Section of Endocrinology, Andrology and Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Systemic Diseases,. University of Catania ... crucial role in neurodegenerative diseases, indeed apoptotic pathways appear to play a ... lus) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) and identified gene families, including LDOC1, that show ...

  4. Review Article: Practical Aspects of Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome in Clinical Urology

    OpenAIRE

    Hisham A. Mosli

    2012-01-01

    In this review we describe the clinical manifestations associated with testosterone deficiency in aging men, termed the testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS). Since aging men suffer from multiple urological and andrological symptoms, TDS is an important medical condition to be suspected, recognized, clinically and biochemically diagnosed and therefore effectively and successfully treated.

  5. Dorsal Slit‑Sleeve Technique for Male Circumcision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with field block of the penis using plain lignocaine (0.25%). Lignocaine with adrenalin must be avoided owing to its ... The field block with plain lignocaine gives good postoperative analgesia. This is complimented with paracetamol syrup or ... TB, editors. Andrology for the clinician. Springer-Verlag: Berlin; 2006. p. 203-12. 2.

  6. The best stain for morphological study of human seminal fluid's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives:There is a high need for proper evaluation of the morphological features of human sperms. The importance of this lies in the field of andrology, male fertility and in vitro fertilization. The wet smears can give rough clue about the shape of the sperms, but it is neither accurate nor reproducible. This study aimed to ...

  7. Alpha-1 antitrypsin phenotypes in patients with Klinefelter's syndrome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Department of Human Biology and Genetics, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology,. University of Tartu, Ravila Street 19, Tartu 50411, Estonia. 2Centre of Andrology, Tartu University Hospital, Puusepa Street 1a, Tartu 50406, Estonia. Introduction. Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) is the most common human sex.

  8. Study of seasonal sexual activity variations in Algerian rams: Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on the determination of seasonal effect on two main andrological sexual activity parameters within young and adults rams of Rembi breed from Algeria for a period of one year. The experiment involved a weekly evaluation of males' sexual behaviour and a monthly measurement of serum testosterone ...

  9. Review Article: Practical Aspects of Testosterone Deficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this review we describe the clinical manifestations associated with testosterone deficiency in aging men, termed the testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS). Since aging men suffer from multiple urological and andrological symptoms, TDS is an important medical condition to be suspected, recognized, clinically ...

  10. An electronic health record for infertility clinics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A local medical software design company designed an integrated system that will collect clinical, laboratory in vitro fertilisation, andrology and cryopreservation data. Results. Phase 1 allowed the researcher to collect demographic and clinical data via a web-based program as well as entering clinical information. Phase 2 ...

  11. Study of seasonal sexual activity variations in Algerian rams: Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benia

    2013-10-09

    Oct 9, 2013 ... This study focuses on the determination of seasonal effect on two main andrological sexual activity parameters within young and adults rams of Rembi breed from Algeria for a period of one year. The experiment involved a weekly evaluation of males' sexual behaviour and a monthly measurement of.

  12. Clinical efficacy of bromocriptine and the influence of serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nouran Abdelaziz AbouKhedr

    2013-05-18

    May 18, 2013 ... Clinical efficacy of bromocriptine and the influence of serum prolactin levels on disease severity in patients with chronic plaque-type psoriasis. Nouran Abdelaziz AbouKhedr, Amira Abulfotooh Eid *. Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, ...

  13. Testosterone: action, deficiency, substitution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nieschlag, E; Nieschlag, S. (Susan); Behre, H. M. (Hermann M.)

    2004-01-01

    ... reviews applications in male contraception, the role of 5 -reductase inhibitors and the controversial use of DHEA. For this book the editors have assembled the world leaders in testosterone research and clinical andrology and endocrinology. A special feature of the book is the fact that its 24 chapters were submitted simultaneously to ens...

  14. Molecular changes and signaling events occurring in spermatozoa during epididymal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, M G; Visconti, P E

    2017-03-01

    After leaving the testis, spermatozoa have not yet acquired the ability to move progressively and are unable to fertilize oocytes. To become fertilization competent, they must go through an epididymal maturation process in the male, and capacitation in the female tract. Epididymal maturation can be defined as those changes occurring to spermatozoa in the epididymis that render the spermatozoa the ability to capacitate in the female tract. As part of this process, sperm cells undergo a series of biochemical and physiological changes that require incorporation of new molecules derived from the epididymal epithelium, as well as post-translational modifications of endogenous proteins synthesized during spermiogenesis in the testis. This review will focus on epididymal maturation events, with emphasis in recent advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of this process. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  15. Ethical, moral, and theological insights into advances in male pediatric and adolescent fertility preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstein, J J; Halpern, J; Gadzinski, A J; Brannigan, R E; Smith, J F

    2017-07-01

    The successful treatment of boys with cancer has led to increasing attention to preserving their quality of life after completing cancer therapy. One of the top priorities for living a full life is keeping open the opportunity to have children. While sperm banking for males facing sterilizing cancer treatment can be effective, this approach requires subsequent use of reproductive procedures such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intrauterine insemination (IUI) to achieve a pregnancy. Advances in fertility preservation techniques may allow pre-pubertal boys to conceive using advanced stem cell technologies and stem cell transplantation in the future. This review summarizes the ethical positions of leading medical societies and explores the religious and moral stances of major religious institutions regarding these options. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  16. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is present in human spermatozoa and is related with sperm motility. The use of recombinant FGF2 to improve motile sperm recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino Azúa, D J; Saucedo, L; Giordana, S; Magri, M L; Buffone, M G; Neuspiller, F; Vazquez-Levin, M H; Marín-Briggiler, C I

    2017-09-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) regulate several functions of somatic cells. In a previous work, we reported FGFR expression in human spermatozoa and their involvement in motility. This study aimed to evaluate the presence and localization of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) in human spermatozoa, to determine the relationship of FGF2 levels with conventional semen parameters and to assess the effect of recombinant FGF2 (rFGF2) on sperm recovery in a selection procedure. Western immunoblotting analysis using an antibody against FGF2 revealed an 18-kDa band in sperm protein extracts. The protein was immunolocalized in the sperm flagellum and acrosomal region, as well as in all germ cells. Sperm FGF2 levels, assessed by flow cytometry, showed a positive (p recoveries, and increased (p recovery in selection techniques. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  17. Erectile dysfunction in urethral stricture and pelvic fracture urethral injury patients: diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangkum, P; Levy, J; Yafi, F A; Hellstrom, W J G

    2015-05-01

    Urethral stricture disease, pelvic fracture urethral injury (PFUI), and their various treatment options are associated with erectile dysfunction (ED). The etiology of urethral stricture disease is multifactorial and includes trauma, inflammatory, and iatrogenic causes. Posterior urethral injuries are commonly associated with pelvic fractures. There is a spectrum in the severity of both conditions and this directly impacts the treatment options offered by the surgeon. Many published studies focus on the treatment outcomes and the relatively high recurrence rates after surgical repair. This communication reviews the current knowledge of the association between ED and urethral stricture disease, as well as PFUI. The incidence, pathophysiology, and clinical ramifications of both conditions on sexual function are discussed. The treatment options for ED in those patients are reviewed and summarized. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  18. New WHO-reference limits—revolution or storm in a teapot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidl, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Since release of the latest WHO manual with the new lower reference values of semen parameters, a lot of discussion has been raised about their usefulness and appropriateness for assessment of male fertility. As with the previous reference values the new limits do neither allow an andrological diagnosis based on nosological criteria nor clear-cut differentiation between fertility and sub-/infertility. Therefore, considering the fact that fertility is a continuum, the new lower reference limits should not be overestimated. Most probably, more sperm function tests, such as determination of DNA integrity, and—in the future—assessment of biomarkers, such as sperm proteomics will be included into andrological work-up, thus resulting in a more personalized approach of infertility management. On the other hand, the detailed instructions for standard and advanced semen analysis provided in the new manual are very much appreciated and should be adopted by each seriously working laboratory. PMID:21170075

  19. New WHO-reference limits-revolution or storm in a teapot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidl, Gerhard

    2011-03-01

    Since release of the latest WHO manual with the new lower reference values of semen parameters, a lot of discussion has been raised about their usefulness and appropriateness for assessment of male fertility. As with the previous reference values the new limits do neither allow an andrological diagnosis based on nosological criteria nor clear-cut differentiation between fertility and sub-/infertility. Therefore, considering the fact that fertility is a continuum, the new lower reference limits should not be overestimated. Most probably, more sperm function tests, such as determination of DNA integrity, and-in the future-assessment of biomarkers, such as sperm proteomics will be included into andrological work-up, thus resulting in a more personalized approach of infertility management. On the other hand, the detailed instructions for standard and advanced semen analysis provided in the new manual are very much appreciated and should be adopted by each seriously working laboratory.

  20. Reproductive endocrine issues in men with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, A W; Muneyyirci-Delale, O

    2017-07-01

    In patients with sickle cell anemia, the sickling of red blood cells is known to cause end-organ damage by infarction. In some men who are affected by sickle cell anemia, the obstruction of venous outflow of the penis causes priapism, which could lead to erectile dysfunction. There is also evidence that the disease is linked to other reproductive issues in men-specifically delayed puberty, low testosterone, and sperm abnormalities-although the causes of these problems are less clear. Treatment of sickle cell anemia can have effects on the reproductive system as well. This review summarizes the findings from various publications pertaining to reproductive endocrinology, along with their conclusions and discrepancies. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  1. Prevalence of male secondary hypogonadism in moderate to severe obesity and its relationship with insulin resistance and excess body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Berniza; Gómez-Martín, Jesús M; Vega-Piñero, Belén; Martín-Hidalgo, Antonia; Galindo, Julio; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F; Botella-Carretero, José I

    2016-01-01

    To study the prevalence of male obesity-secondary hypogonadism (MOSH) in patients with moderate to severe obesity, we performed a prospective prevalence study including 100 male patients with moderate to severe obesity at a university tertiary hospital. Total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations among others were assayed in all patients. Serum-free testosterone (FT) concentration was calculated from TT and SHBG levels. Semen analysis was conducted in 31 patients. We found a prevalence of 45% (95% CI: 35-55%) when considering decreased TT and/or FT concentrations. Serum concentrations of TT were correlated negatively with glucose (r = -0.328, p obesity is high. Low circulating testosterone is associated with insulin resistance and low ejaculate volume with higher BMI and excess body weight. Semen analysis must be performed in these patients when considering fertility whether or not presenting low circulating testosterone. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  2. Role of the nurse in gynecological endoscopic operations.

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolovski, Zoran; Panova, Gordana; Dimitrov, Gligor

    2017-01-01

    Gynaecology is the branch of medicine that studies the disease and the treatment of the treatment of the female reproductive system (uterus, ovaries and vagina), and is responsible for the overall health of women. Translated from the Latin meaning "the science of women", as opposed to andrology, which deals with health issues specific to the male reproductive system.An important role in the development of this industry has medical prevention and education of women.

  3. AB089. Impaired adenosine signaling influences erectile function in aging rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xingliang; Yuan, Jiuhong

    2017-01-01

    Background As one of the most common disorders in old adult, erectile dysfunction (ED) remains attracting andrological physicians? attention. The aim of this study is to investigate the alterations of adenosine signaling in the penis of aging rats, and the influence to erectile function. Methods According to apomorphine test, the aging rats (18 months) with ED were selected as age-related erectile dysfunction (A-ED) group, and the young rats (2 months) were selected as normal control (NC) gro...

  4. Normal reference ranges for semen quality and their relations to fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that the fecundity of a man decreases progressively with sperm concentrations below 40 million spermatozoa per mL. Therefore, it is unfortunate that the new World Health Organization guidelines for semen analysis recommend lowering the lower cutoff value for normal...... sperm concentration from 20 to 15 million spermatozoa per mL. As a result large groups of subfertile men across the world may not receive appropriate andrological help in the future....

  5. Testing of mitosis and meiosis in female and male gametes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Kurilo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Method of quantitative evaluation of the immature germ cells, their pathology in mitosis and meiosis (in semen, embryo and fetal ovaries, of gonad biopsies or fragments of sectioned material is informative method and should be introduced into the clinical practice in andrology and gynecology and fundamental research. Quantitative analysis of mitosis and female meiosis development was initiated on experimental animals and fetal gonads from spontaneous or therapeutic abortions.

  6. Male Subfertility and Prostate Cancer Risk: Epidemiological and Genetic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhayel, Yasir

    2012-01-01

    Androgen action plays a pivotal role in male reproductive tract physiology and pathology. The androgen receptor (AR) gene harbors two codon repeat tracts: the CAG and GGN repeats, encoding corresponding amino acid sequences of variable length; the polyglutamine and polyglycine stretches, respectively. Variation in CAG repeat length had been associated with a number of andrological disorders, whereas very little was known about the GGN repeat when the work for this thesis was started. We hypot...

  7. Testing of mitosis and meiosis in female and male gametes

    OpenAIRE

    L. F. Kurilo; S. Sh. Khayat

    2016-01-01

    Method of quantitative evaluation of the immature germ cells, their pathology in mitosis and meiosis (in semen, embryo and fetal ovaries, of gonad biopsies or fragments of sectioned material) is informative method and should be introduced into the clinical practice in andrology and gynecology and fundamental research. Quantitative analysis of mitosis and female meiosis development was initiated on experimental animals and fetal gonads from spontaneous or therapeutic abortions.

  8. Surgical management of adolescent varicocele: Systematic review of the world literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer A Raheem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, idiopathic varicocele is the most commonly diagnosed pre-pubertal andrological condition. The clinical presentation of varicocele may vary from dull and dragging unilateral or bilateral testicular pain to visible varicose veins lying over the hemiscrotum. Over the last decade, significant strides were made in managing symptomatic varicoceles, particularly minimal invasive procedures and surgeries. We sought to review the published literature in a systematic manner to gain an overview and streamline the presentations and main treatment modalities.

  9. Calibration of redox potential in sperm wash media and evaluation of oxidation-reduction potential values in various assisted reproductive technology culture media using MiOXSYS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panner Selvam, M K; Henkel, R; Sharma, R; Agarwal, A

    2018-03-01

    Oxidation-reduction potential describes the balance between the oxidants and antioxidants in fluids including semen. Various artificial culture media are used in andrology and IVF laboratories for sperm preparation and to support the development of fertilized oocytes under in vitro conditions. The composition and conditions of these media are vital for optimal functioning of the gametes. Currently, there are no data on the status of redox potential of sperm processing and assisted reproduction media. The purpose of this study was to compare the oxidation-reduction potential values of the different media and to calibrate the oxidation-reduction potential values of the sperm wash medium using oxidative stress inducer cumene hydroperoxide and antioxidant ascorbic acid. Redox potential was measured in 10 different media ranging from sperm wash media, freezing media and assisted reproductive technology one-step medium to sequential media. Oxidation-reduction potential values of the sequential culture medium and one-step culture medium were lower and significantly different (p media. Calibration of the sperm wash media using the oxidant cumene hydroperoxide and antioxidant ascorbic acid demonstrated that oxidation-reduction potential and the concentration of oxidant or antioxidant are logarithmically dependent. This study highlights the importance of calibrating the oxidation-reduction potential levels of the sperm wash media in order to utilize it as a reference value to identify the physiological range of oxidation-reduction potential that does not have any adverse effect on normal physiological sperm function. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  10. Micro-endoscopy of the human vas deferens: a feasibility study of a novel device in several ex vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottmann, M; Sroka, R; Braun, C; Liedl, B; Schaaf, H; Graw, M; Becker, A J; Stief, C G; Khoder, W Y

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show limitation as well as potential of micro-endoscopy techniques as an innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approach in andrology. Two kinds of custom-made micro-endoscopes (ME) were tested in ex vivo vas deferens specimen and in post-mortem whole body. The semi-rigid ME included a micro-optic (0.9 mm outer diameter [OD], 10.000 pixels, 120° vision angle [VE], 3-20 mm field depth [FD]) and an integrated fibre-optic light source. The flexible ME was composed of a micro-optic (OD = 0.6 mm, 6.000 pixels, 120° VE, 3-20 mm FD). The ex vivo study included retrograde investigation of the vas deferens (surgical specimen n = 9, radical prostatectomy n = 3). The post-mortem investigation (n = 4) included the inspection of the vas deferens via both approaches. The results showed that antegrade and retrograde rigid endoscopy of the vas deferens were achieved as a diagnostic tool. The working channel enabled therapeutic use including biopsies or baskets. Using the flexible ME, the orifices of the ejaculatory ducts were identified. In vivo cadaveric retrograde cannulation of the orifices was successful. Post-mortem changes of verumontanum hindered the examinations beyond. Orifices were identified shaded behind a thin transparent membrane. Antegrade vasoscopy using flexible ME was possible up to the internal inguinal ring. Further advancement was impossible because of anatomical angle and lack adequate vision guidance. The vas deferens interior was clearly visible and was documented by pictures and movies. Altogether, the described ME techniques were feasible and effective, offering the potential of innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for use in the genital tract. Several innovative indications could be expected. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  11. Semen leukocytes and oxidative-dependent DNA damage of spermatozoa in male partners of subfertile couples with no symptoms of genital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micillo, A; Vassallo, M R C; Cordeschi, G; D'Andrea, S; Necozione, S; Francavilla, F; Francavilla, S; Barbonetti, A

    2016-09-01

    The influence of seminal leukocytes on generation of oxidative damage to sperm DNA was here investigated on male partners of subfertile couples asymptomatic for a genital tract infection. The study included 111 ejaculates from men attending the Andrology Centre at University of L'Aquila. Semen leukocytes subset included round cells expressing pan-leukocyte CD45 antigen, monocyte/macrophage lineage antigen CD14, and activated macrophages HLA-DR antigen. The 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) expression identified spermatozoa with DNA oxidative adducts while terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated fluorescein-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay detected spermatozoa with DNA fragmentation. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry was used for determinations. Main outcome measure was the association of semen leukocyte subpopulations with spermatozoa showing oxidative-related DNA damage and with routine semen parameters. Leukocyte subpopulations were strictly correlated (p spermatozoa. The percentage of 8-OHdG-positive spermatozoa was positively correlated with the percentage of TUNEL-positive spermatozoa (r = 0.48; p spermatozoa independently contributed (β = -0.25, p = 0.008; β = 0.23, p = 0.05, respectively) to the variation in percentage of 8-OHdG-positive spermatozoa after adjusting for age, abstinence time, and smoking. In conclusion, oxidative-dependent DNA damage in spermatozoa was associated to poor semen quality but not to different leukocyte subpopulations in ejaculates of men asymptomatic for a genital tract infection. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  12. Functional testicular evaluation using PET/CT with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierickx, Lawrence Oliver; Zerdoud, Slimane; Filleron, Thomas; Brillouet, Severine [Institut Claudius Regaud, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Toulouse (France); Huyghe, Eric; Delauney, Boris; Bujan, Louis; Plante, Pierre [CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Nogueira, Daniela; Montagut, Jacques [I.F.R.E.A.R.E.S., Toulouse (France); Courbon, Frederic [Institut Claudius Regaud, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Toulouse (France); CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France)

    2012-01-15

    PET/CT using {sup 18}F-FDG is a well-established diagnostic examination in oncology, cardiology and neurology. The clinical significance of nontumoral testicular uptake of FDG is unknown. Functional testicular imaging may have important clinical applications in the diagnosis and prognosis of male infertility. The aim of this study was to determine the andrological value of a FDG PET/CT in analysing testicular function, by correlating the PET/CT data with the sperm parameters. Retrospective analysis of FDG PET/CT in 20 consecutive cancer patients without testicular pathology in whom two semen samples had been obtained for analysis before any chemotherapy. FDG PET/CT parameters were the mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean), used for measuring the intensity of uptake, and the functional testicular volume (FV). For statistical analysis, a Spearman's rank correlation test and a Mann-Whitney test were used. Of 20 patients (mean age 22 years), 18 had provided two sperm samples for cryopreservation. Sperm concentration was above 20 x 10{sup 6}/ml in 55% of the patients. The intensity of uptake and the FV were correlated with the total sperm count, the sperm concentration and motility (p < 0.05). The difference in SUVmean between the two testes showed an inverse correlation with sperm concentration (p = 0.036). Normospermic and oligospermic men had significant differences in: (1) mean SUVmean, (2) mean FV, and (3) the difference in intensity of uptake between the testes (p < 0.05). This is the first report on the andrological value of FDG PET/CT in analysing nontumoral testicular function. This pilot study showed a significant correlation between intensity of uptake of FDG and testicular FV with the main sperm parameters. PET/CT with FDG could become a useful new tool in assisted reproductive technologies and other andrological or urological applications. (orig.)

  13. Smoking, diabetes, blood hypertension: possible etiologic role for Peyronie’s disease? Analysis in 279 patients with a control group in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Pavone

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the proportion of patients with Peyronie’s Disease (PD and the possible association with its potential risk factors in the general population of the central and western Sicily in our weekly andrological outpatient clinic. Materials and methods: We recruited a sample of 279 consecutive patients consulting our andrological outpatient clinic. Two arms were created: the first one composed by PD patients (men with symptoms suggestive for PD, the second one composed by patients with other andrological diseases (control arm. For each patient we evaluated the age, cigarette smoking, diabetes, blood hypertension and erectile function. In the PD arm we administered validated questionnaires to determine the erectile function status by the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF-5 and the pain status during erection by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. A univariate analysis was conducted using R software. Results: We enrolled 279 consecutive patients. The number of PD patients was 97 (34,7%. The univariate analysis showed a correlation between PD and cigarette smoking (p = 0.0242, blood hypertension (p < 0.001, erectile dysfunction (p < 0.001. No significant association was observed between diabetes and PD (p = 0.358. The median age of PD arm was 60 years and the median age of the control arm was 63,5 years; therefore the median age of PD arm resulted lower than the median age of the control arm (p = 0,031. Conclusions: Peyronie’s disease is more common than we might think; furthermore it can be diagnosed among young patients. According to our results, cigarette smoking and blood hypertension may be considered statically significant risk factors for developing PD. On the contrary diabetes seems not to be a risk factor for PD. According to our results PD should be sought also in young patients. Further studies are necessary to confirm that removing the indicated risk factors may reduce the incidence of PD.

  14. Lactational Lead Exposure Perturbates Androgenesis in Juvenile and Pubertal Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odukoya SOA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: High to low lead (Pb concentrations in breast milk has been found to perturb some biological events in the postnatal life. While postnatal Pb exposure has been reported to impair some andrological parameters in mammals, the age-dependent andrological signature of lactational Pb poisoning is not clear. Aims and Objectives: This study investigated the effects of Pb exposure during lactational period on the testicular andrological profiles of rats at certain postlactational ages using varying doses of Pb. Material and Methods: Lactating mothers and their pups were randomly divided into 4 groups comprising 24 pups each. The treatment groups received 10mg/dL, 30mg/dL, and 70mg/dLof lead acetate in their drinking water from postnatal day one (P1 to P21 of the lactational period. The control rats received distilled water. At P22, P60, P90 and P120, the pups from each group were euthanized, testes were collected, homogenized and the supernatant was used to assay for testosterone and oestrogen using standard methods. Results: Lactational lead poisoning was associated with depressed testicular testosterone productions (P<0.05 compared with controls and abnormally high levels of testicular oestrogen. These statistically significant differences (P<0.05 in androgens levels were corrected to near normal with increasing postnatal ages at low doses. Conclusion: These results show that lactational Pb intoxication causes reversible androgenic perturbations at low doses but irreversible damage at high doses during postnatal life. Conclusively, high lactational Pb is associated with post-lactational irreversible impairment of androgenic profiles.

  15. Rationale of combination therapy with antioxidants in medical management of Peyronie’s disease: results of clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulis G

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Gianni Paulis,1,2 Andrea Paulis,3 Gennaro Romano,4 Davide Barletta,5 Andrea Fabiani6 1Department of Surgical Sciences, Andrology Center, Regina Apostolorum Hospital, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Uro-Andrology, Peyronie’s Disease Care Center, Rome, Italy; 3Section of Psycho-Sexology, Peyronie’s Disease Care Center, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Urologic Oncology, Section of Avellino, Italian League against Cancer, Avellino, Italy; 5Department of Urology, Andrology Center, San Matteo Hospital, Pavia, Italy; 6Department of Surgery, Section of Urology and Andrology, Macerata, Italy Abstract: Peyronie’s disease (PD is a connective tissue disorder involving the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa of the penis. We have published several studies describing a “combined therapy” for PD patients, but the present study aims to clearly demonstrate how the association between various antioxidants in PD treatment can significantly increase the likelihood of therapeutic success. We used the following substances: silymarin, ginkgo biloba, vitamin E, bilberry, topical diclofenac sodium, and pentoxifylline (PTX. We analyzed the therapeutic impact and possible side effects of one or more antioxidants in patients with early-stage PD. To clearly prove that it is possible to achieve better results when combining more than one agent, we designed this study with five treatment groups, corresponding, respectively, to the administration of a single oral antioxidant; two oral antioxidants; three oral antioxidants; five oral antioxidants + local diclofenac; and five oral antioxidants + local diclofenac + PTX by perilesional injection. One hundred and twenty patients were assigned to five groups of treatment designed according to the abovementioned study aim. Outcomes after 6 months of treatment showed that combined antioxidant therapy is effective in treating PD. Statistical analysis showed significant differences between the treatment groups with regard to

  16. PADRÃO ULTRASSONOGRÁFICO DO PARÊNQUIMA, MEDIASTINO E TÚNICAS TESTICULARES EM BOVINOS JOVENS DA RAÇA NELORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo José Cardilli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the ultrasonographic patterns of the testicles parenchyma, mediastinum and tunics in young Nellore bulls with absence of echogenicity and relative density changes. Testes of 111 animals underwent clinical and ultrasonographic evaluation at 9, 13, and 15 months of age. Testicular parenchyma presented uniform pattern at low echogenicity. Positive correlation was found between age and testicular mediastinum. Testicular tunics were distinguished only in presence of fluid. The results of this research contribute with andrologic evaluation, allowing early detection of testicular disorders.

  17. The International Glossary on Infertility and Fertility Care, 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Adamson, G. David; Dyer, Silke

    2017-01-01

    : Twenty-five professionals, from all parts of the world and representing their expertise in a variety of sub-specialties, were organized into five working groups: clinical definitions; outcome measurements; embryology laboratory; clinical and laboratory andrology; and epidemiology and public health...... and representatives of international/regional scientific and patient organizations. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: A consensus-based and evidence-driven set of 283 terminologies used in infertility and fertility care was generated to harmonize communication among health professionals and scientists as well...

  18. Role of sperm surface proteins in reproduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonáková, Věra; Maňásková, Pavla; Davidová, Nina; Tichá, M.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 30, Supplement (2009), s. 63-64 ISSN 0196-3635. [9th International Congress of Andrology. 07.03.2009-10.03.2009, Barcelona] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011; GA ČR(CZ) GA523/08/H064; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/06/0895 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : boar seminal plasma proteins * spermadhesins * proteinase inhibitor * DQH * boar spermatozoa Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  19. Efficacy and safety evaluation of pentoxifylline associated with other antioxidants in medical treatment of Peyronie's disease: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulis G

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gianni Paulis,1,2 Davide Barletta,3 Paolo Turchi,4 Antonio Vitarelli,5 Giuseppe Dachille,6 Andrea Fabiani,7 Romano Gennaro8 1Regina Apostolorum Hospital, Andrology Center, Albano L, 2Castelfidardo Medical Team, Peyronie's Disease Care Center, Rome, 3Department of Urology, Andrology Center, San Matteo Hospital, Pavia, 4Azienda ASL 4 Prato – Andrology Service, Prato, 5Department of Urology, University of Bari, 6Department of Urology, S Giacomo Hospital, Monopoli, Bari, 7Department of Surgery, Section of Urology and Andrology, Macerata, 8Department of Urologic Oncology, Section of Avellino, Italian League Against Cancer, Avellino, Italy Abstract: Peyronie's disease (PD is a chronic disorder involving the tunica albuginea surrounding the corpora cavernosa of the penis. A conservative treatment is indicated in the first stage of disease. The aim of this study was to assess the therapeutic impact and possible side effects of treatment with pentoxifylline (PTX in combination with other antioxidants in 307 patients with early-stage PD. Patients were subdivided into three groups: A, B, and C. Both groups, A and B, comprising of 206 patients, underwent treatment, whereas Group C was the control group (n=101. Treatment lasted 6 months and included the following: Group A: PTX 400 mg twice a day + propolis 600 mg/d + blueberry 160 mg/d + vitamin E 600 mg/d + diclofenac 4% gel twice/a day + PTX 100 mg via perilesional penile injection/every other week (12 injections in all; Group B: the same treatment as Group A except for the penile PTX injections. After the 6-month treatment course, we obtained the following results: actual mean decrease in plaque volume -46.9% and -24.8% in Group A and B, respectively (P<0.0001; mean curvature reduction -10.1° and -4.8°, respectively (P<0.0001; resolution of pain in 67.6% and 67.2% of cases, respectively (P=0.961; recovery of normal penile rigidity in 56.09% and 23.5% of cases, respectively (P=0.005. After 6 months

  20. Introduction: Training in reproductive endocrinology and infertility: meeting worldwide needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ziegler, Dominique; Meldrum, David R

    2015-07-01

    Training in reproductive endocrinology (REI) and its male variant, andrology, has been profoundly influenced by the central role captured by assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The marked differences in financial, regulatory, and societal/ethical restrictions on ART in different countries of the world also prominently influence the clinical management of infertility. Training should strive for comprehensive teaching of all medically indicated procedures, even if only to optimize cross-border care. Better international standardization of infertility practices and training would benefit worldwide infertility care and should be promoted by international societies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Modern views on the epidemiology, etiology and pathogenesis of gynecomastia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Yashina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The review deals with one of the pressing andrological issues – gynecomastia, its etiology and pathogenesis. Based on the current epidemiological and experimental data, most common etiological factors of gynecomastia were investigated. A multiple-valued role of various causes of gynecomastia in several age-groups was revealed. Literature data show that gynecomastia may be a manifestation of various diseases: endocrine, genetic, systematic. As well as that, gynecomastia may occur in patients with oncological diseases. However, gynecomastia can be an iatrogenic complication. Currently, we continue to make insights to the problem of gynecomastia in order to be able to classify its etiological factors and determine its basic pathogenesis pathways.

  2. Gynaecomastia in 786 adult men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Christiansen, Peter; Jensen, Martin Blomberg

    2017-01-01

    develop gynaecomastia. We hypothesise that a thorough work-up is required in adult men with gynaecomastia. DESIGN: All adult men (n = 818) referred to a secondary level andrological department at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, Denmark during a four-year period (2008-2011) under the diagnosis...... with adult onset of gynaecomastia (≥18 years) an underlying, and often treatable, cause could be detected. In men younger at onset an underlying cause for gynaecomastia could be detected in merely 7.7%. The study is limited by the fact that we did not have access to investigate men who were referred directly...... to the development of gynaecomastia in adulthood....

  3. Bone Cutting Forceps: A Safe Approach for Saving Strangulated Penis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Salam, Mohamed Ahmed; Gamal, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Penile strangulation is considered a rare andrological emergency that may lead to a wide range of complications. Penile strangulation may be related to mental retardation in children or hypersexuality, abnormal sexual preferences in adults. This case report shows a 23-year-old male who presented to the emergency room with agonizing pain related to a metallic ring placed at the base of the penis for more than 8 hours during an attempt of masturbation. Removing this metallic ring and saving the patient's penis from gangrene without causing injury were very challenging. Patient was successfully managed and had an uneventful recovery. PMID:27239200

  4. Bone Cutting Forceps: A Safe Approach for Saving Strangulated Penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Abd El Salam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile strangulation is considered a rare andrological emergency that may lead to a wide range of complications. Penile strangulation may be related to mental retardation in children or hypersexuality, abnormal sexual preferences in adults. This case report shows a 23-year-old male who presented to the emergency room with agonizing pain related to a metallic ring placed at the base of the penis for more than 8 hours during an attempt of masturbation. Removing this metallic ring and saving the patient’s penis from gangrene without causing injury were very challenging. Patient was successfully managed and had an uneventful recovery.

  5. Incidentally detection of non-palpable testicular nodules at scrotal ultrasound: What is new?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Valentino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of ultrasound in patients with urological and andrological symptoms has given an higher detection of intra-testicular nodules. Most of these lesions are hypoechoic and their interpretation is often equivocal. Recently, new ultrasound techniques have been developed alongside of B-mode and color-Doppler ultrasound. Although not completely standardized, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS and tissue elastography (TE, added to traditional ultrasonography, can provide useful information about the correct interpretation of incidentally detected non-palpable testicular nodules. The purpose of this review article is to illustrate these new techniques in the patient management.

  6. Patient preference and satisfaction in erectile dysfunction therapy: a comparison of the three phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Abdel Raheem

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Amr Abdel Raheem1, Philip Kell21St. Peter’s Andrology Department, The Institute of Urology, London, and Cairo University, Egypt; 2St. Peter’s Andrology Department, The Institute of Urology, London, UKAbstract: Erectile dysfunction (ED is a problem that may affect up to 52% of men between the ages of 40 and 70. It can be distressing because of its negative effect on self-esteem, quality of life, and interpersonal relationships. Oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5 inhibitors are now the first choice of treatment in ED. The availability of three (sildenafil citrate, tadalafil, and vardenafil well tolerated and effective oral PDE5 inhibitors gives treatment options for men with ED. Although the mechanism of action is the same for the three drugs, they differ in their pharmacokinetics. Several preference studies were conducted between the three PDE5 inhibitors but they were not free from bias. Because of the lack of overwhelming reliable data showing that one PDE5 inhibitor is superior to another, current opinion is that the individual patient should have the opportunity to test all three drugs and then select the one that best suits him and his partner.Keywords: erectile dysfunction, PDE5 inhibitors, patient preference

  7. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) induced antimicrobial gene expression in the male reproductive tract of rat: evaluation of the potential of Defensin 21 to limit infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, B; Bhushan, S; Rajesh, A; Suraj, S K; Lu, Y; Meinhardt, A; Yenugu, S

    2015-03-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a common pathogen in epididymitis, which represents a prevalent entity in male reproductive tract infections (RTI). Although current treatment regimens using antibiotics are satisfactory, development of antimicrobial resistance by the pathogen represents a challenge in the management of RTI. Hence, identification of antimicrobial peptides as alternatives to antibiotics has gained importance. We demonstrate that in a rat epididymo-orchitis model induced with uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strain MTCC 729, the expression of defensins and defensin-like Spag11 genes are induced in the epididymis and testes. The induction of antimicrobial gene expression is paralleled by phosphorylation of the NF-kB subunit p65 and the inhibitor of NFkB (IkB-alpha), decreased levels of histone deacetylase 1 and increased methylation of Histone 3, indicating the role of classical Toll-like receptor mediated signaling and epigenetic regulation. Recombinant Defensin 21, when administered to UPEC-infected rats, substantially reduced the bacterial load in the epididymis and testis and proved to be more effective than gentamycin. The ability of Defensin 21 to limit RTI provides support that antibacterial proteins of the male reproductive tract may be used as potential alternatives to antibiotics in treatment of this disease. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  8. Male infertility: an obstacle to sexuality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechoua, S; Hamamah, S; Scalici, E

    2016-05-01

    Interactions between infertility and sexuality are numerous and complex. Infertile men may suffer from sexual dysfunction (SD) when undergoing an assisted reproductive technology programme. We undertook a review both in French and English of the available data on male SD when being diagnosed with a fertility problem with a specific focus on azoospermic men. The review was performed over a 30-year time period using PubMed/Medline. The sexual concerns and needs of infertile/sterile men for whom potential parenting can be compromised were evaluated. When diagnosed with infertility, men usually go through a crisis that can have a deleterious effect on their sexuality with sometimes a feeling of sexual inadequacy. Infertile men will feel stigmatized because they are perceived as being deficient in a specific component of their masculinity. Hence, subsequent SD may occur that can impact the couple sexuality and the infertility management. However, little is known on how the announcement of azoospermia may affect male on a sexual and psychological point of view. The present review suggests that a global management through a healthcare network (biologist, andrologist, sexologist and psychologist) is required which will allow to consider infertility and its subsequent sexual disorders as a whole and not as dichotomized issues. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  9. Effect of obesity on sperm retrieval outcome and reproductive hormone levels in Japanese azoospermic men with and without Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuki, S; Sasaki, S; Taguchi, K; Hamakawa, T; Mizuno, K; Okada, A; Kubota, Y; Umemoto, Y; Hayashi, Y; Yasui, T

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is reported to have adverse effects on semen quality and the endocrine system. In this study, we evaluated the effect of obesity on sperm retrieval outcome and reproductive hormone levels in Japanese men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). This study is based on the clinical records of 217 men [172 with a 46,XY karyotype, 45 with Klinefelter syndrome (KS)] with NOA who underwent microdissection testicular sperm extraction at Nagoya City University Hospital between January 2004 and December 2014. Body mass index (BMI) and serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and total testosterone (TT) were measured in all patients. In a subset of patients, bioavailable testosterone (cBAT) also was calculated. Values were evaluated separately in patients with and without KS. Sperm retrieval rates (SRRs) in 46,XY men with a BMI men with a BMI men with a BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 was lower than that in men with a BMI men (r = 0.340, p men (r = -0.466, p = 0.001 and r = -0.647, p men. These results suggest that obesity may be irrelevant to sperm retrieval outcome in patients with NOA. The negative correlations between gonadotropins and BMI in patients with KS suggest an underlying suppressive effect on gonadotropin excretion, which is distinctive in obese patients with KS. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  10. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and pubertal development among sons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounsgaard, M L; Håkonsen, L B; Vested, A; Thulstrup, A M; Olsen, J; Bonde, J P; Nohr, E A; Ramlau-Hansen, C H

    2014-03-01

    Maternal overweight and obesity in pregnancy has been associated with earlier age of menarche in daughters as well as reduced semen quality in sons. We aimed at investigating pubertal development in sons born by mothers with a high body mass index (BMI). The study included 2522 sons of mothers that during pregnancy in 1984-1987 were enrolled in a mother-child cohort and gave information on their pre-pregnancy height and weight from which we calculated their BMI. Information on sons' pubertal development, assessed by age when starting regular shaving, voice break, acne and first nocturnal emission, was obtained from web-based questionnaires in 2005, when sons were 18-21 years old. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that sons of obese mothers on average started to shave regularly 8.3 (95% confidence interval: 2.5-14.0) months earlier than sons of normal weight mothers. For the three other indicators of pubertal development, results also indicated earlier pubertal development among sons of obese mothers. After excluding sons of underweight mothers in a subanalysis, we observed an inverse trend between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and age at regular shaving, acne and first nocturnal emission. In conclusion, maternal pre-pregnant obesity may be related to earlier timing of pubertal milestones among sons. More research, preferably based on prospectively collected information about pubertal development, is needed to draw firm conclusions. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  11. Development of a selective androgen receptor modulator for transdermal use in hypogonadal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, V; Patel, N J; Mackrell, J G; Sweetana, S A; Bullock, H; Ma, Y L; Waterhouse, T H; Yaden, B C; Henck, J; Zeng, Q Q; Gavardinas, K; Jadhav, P; Saeed, A; Garcia-Losada, P; Robins, D A; Benson, C T

    2018-03-12

    We have identified a non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM), termed LY305, that is bioavailable through a transdermal route of administration while highly cleared via hepatic metabolism to limit parent compound exposure in the liver. Selection of this compound and its transdermal formulation was based on the optimization of skin absorption properties using both in vitro and in vivo skin models that supported PBPK modeling for human PK predictions. This molecule is an agonist in perineal muscle while being a weak partial agonist in the androgenic tissues such as prostate. When LY305 was tested in animal models of skeletal atrophy it restored the skeletal muscle mass through accelerated repair. In a bone fracture model, LY305 remained osteoprotective in the regenerating tissue and void of deleterious effects. Finally, in a small cohort of healthy volunteers, we assessed the safety and tolerability of LY305 when administered transdermally. LY305 showed a dose-dependent increase in serum exposure and was well tolerated with minimal adverse effects. Notably, there were no statistically significant changes to hematocrit or HDL after 4-week treatment period. Collectively, LY305 represents a first of its kind de novo development of a non-steroidal transdermal SARM with unique properties which could find clinical utility in hypogonadal men. © 2018 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  12. Successful delivery derived from cryopreserved rare human spermatozoa with novel cryopiece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J; Chen, W; Zhou, L; Hu, J; Li, Z; Zhang, Z; Wu, Y

    2017-07-01

    Herein, we report the clinical outcomes following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with cryopiece cryopreserved rare human spermatozoa from severe male factor infertility patients. We established a novel cryopiece system on the basis of previous studies. In this study, 126 spermatozoa from four patients with non-obstructiveazoospermia (NOA) or severe oligozoospermia were stored in cryopiece and then thawed on the day of the oocyte retrieval, 88 (83%) spermatozoa were recovered with a 47.5% (38 of 80) motile rate. Routine ICSI were performed in enrolled 30 MII oocytes from their spouse with their own spermatozoa, respectively. Twenty-two (73%) fertilization and 19 (86%) zygote cleavage were observed. Finally, a total of 11 embryos were achieved and each female patient received a transplantation of two fresh embryos. Four healthy babies were born at term. In conclusion, our novel cryopiece can be applied in assisted reproduction through ICSI with an effective motile spermatozoa recovery rate, high fertilization rate, and successful pregnancy result. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  13. Correlation between sperm DNA fragmentation index and CMA3 positive spermatozoa in globozoospermic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinifar, H; Yazdanikhah, S; Modarresi, T; Totonchi, M; Sadighi Gilani, M A; Sabbaghian, M

    2015-05-01

    The absence of the acrosome causes the situation which is called globozoospermia. There are a few studies, mostly as case reports, about correlation between levels of sperm DNA damage in patients with total round-headed spermatozoa. We investigated this correlation as well as CMA3 positive spermatozoa in 20 globozoospermic men (with more than 90% round-headed spermatozoa) attending to Royan Institute. Semen samples divided into three parts to semen analysis, to measure DNA fragmentation index (DFI) using sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and to detect CMA3(+) sperm cells by chromomycin A3 staining and fluorescent microscopy. Our results showed that there were significant differences in sperm concentration, total sperm motility, and normal morphology between patients and controls group (p spermatozoa in patients group significantly increases compared with control group (p spermatozoa with round head sperm cells in total globozoospermic men. It seems that the increase in DNA damage may be because of defective sperm DNA compaction, as we detected CMA3 positive sperm cells in these patients. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  14. Effect of endocrine disruptors on male reproduction in humans: why the evidence is still lacking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliatka, D; Lymperi, S; Mastorakos, G; Goulis, D G

    2017-05-01

    The so-called "endocrine disruption hypothesis" suggests that exposures to endocrine disruption (EDs) during fetal, neonatal and adult life may interfere with the development of reproductive organs and alter semen quality and reproductive hormone production. Even though animal studies provide substantial evidence of adverse effects of EDs on male reproductive system, epidemiological studies in humans arrive at conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the literature to locate methodological characteristics of the studies that struggle the formation of an association between EDs and human male reproduction. Such characteristics include: (i) definition of the exposed and the non-exposed population, (ii) age, (iii) insufficient control for confounders, (iv) ED assay and threshold, (v) time parameters of ED exposure, and (vi) study outcomes. Additional issues are: (i) the late effect of an early exposure, (ii) the multiple exposure effect, and (iii) the fact the same ED may exhibit different modes of action. Unfortunately, the nature of the field precludes the conduction of randomized-controlled trials, which could result to etiological associations between EDs and human male reproduction. Consequently, there is a great need to conduct well-designed studies of case-control or cohort type to evaluate EDs effects on human male reproductive health, and apply possible measures that could limit dangerous exposures. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  15. [A list and analysis of reproductive medicine periodicals indexed in MEDLINE in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xin-yi; Huang, Yu-feng; Pan, Lian-jun; Shang, Xue-jun

    2006-07-01

    MEDLINE established by National Library of Medicine (NLM), USA, is the most commonly used biomedical literature retrieval system, whose indexed literature generally represents the top of the medical world. Of the total number of 4959 journals listed in the Lists of Journals Indexed in MEDLINE (2006) published by NLM, 46 are periodicals of reproductive medicine, mainly including andrology, fertility, and sterility. Researchers of reproductive medicine should be familiar with the journals indexed in MEDLINE, closely follow their published frontier researches in this field, and consciously contribute to them in English. Editors of reproductive medicine journals should endeavour to have their journals included in such internationally authoritative systems as MEDLINE, SCI, etc by publishing them in English in compliance with international standards. This article presents a list of the reproductive medicine periodicals indexed in MEDLINE (2006) together with a brief analysis, which is meant to help researchers in reproductive medicine, andrology and other relevant fields with their contribution, subscription, reading and retrieving, as well as to share some more knowledge about MEDLINE and its indexed journals with Chinese editors of reproductive medicine journals.

  16. Male caffeine and alcohol intake in relation to semen parameters and in vitro fertilization outcomes among fertility patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmon, A E; Toth, T L; Chiu, Y-H; Gaskins, A J; Tanrikut, C; Wright, D L; Hauser, R; Chavarro, J E

    2017-03-01

    Much of the literature on the impact of male caffeine and alcohol intake on reproductive outcomes has utilized semen quality as a proxy for male fertility, although semen parameters have a limited predictive value for spontaneous pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate whether male caffeine and alcohol intakes are associated with semen parameters and assisted reproductive technology outcome. The Environment and Reproductive Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study, enrolls subfertile couples presenting for treatment at an academic fertility center (2007-2012). A total of 171 men with 338 semen analyses and 205 assisted reproductive technology cycles were included in this analysis. Diet was assessed using a 131-item food frequency questionnaire. Mixed models adjusting for potential confounders were used to evaluate the relationships of male caffeine and alcohol intakes with semen parameters and assisted reproductive technology outcomes. There was no association between male caffeine and alcohol intake and semen quality. Male caffeine intake was negatively related to live birth after assisted reproductive technologies (p-trend caffeine intake (≥272 mg/day) compared to couples with a male partner in the lowest quartile of intake (caffeine and alcohol intakes were associated with live birth after assisted reproductive technologies, but not with semen parameters, among fertility patients. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  17. Phenotype, genotype and gender identity in a large cohort of patients from India with 5α-reductase 2 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabir, I; Khurana, M L; Joseph, A A; Eunice, M; Mehta, M; Ammini, A C

    2015-11-01

    Deficiency of the 5α-reductase 2 enzyme impairs the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and differentiation of external genitalia, seminal vesicles and prostate in males. The present study describes the phenotype, genotype and gender identity in a large cohort of patients with 5αRD2. All patients underwent detailed clinical evaluation, hormonal profile, karyotyping and molecular analysis of the SRD5A2 gene. The molecular analysis of the SRD5A2 gene showed the presence of mutant alleles in 24 patients. We found 6 novel mutations IVS(1-2) T>C, p.A52T, 188-189insTA, 904-905ins A, p.A12T and p.E57X in our patients. All patients had ambiguous genitalia and the degrees of under-virilization ranged from penoscrotal hypospadias and microphallus to clitoromegaly. The position of gonads was variable in patients with same mutation. All the patients with mutations in the SRD5A2 gene had male gender identity. Those reared as female had gender dysphoria and underwent gender reassignment. Though a specific genotype-phenotype correlation could not be established in our patient but confirming the diagnosis of 5αRD2 with assessment of the SRD5A2 gene may help in appropriate gender assignment. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  18. Evaluation of sperm DNA quality in men presenting with testicular cancer and lymphoma using alkaline and neutral Comet assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K; Lewis, S; Vinci, S; Riera-Escamilla, A; Fino, M-G; Tamburrino, L; Muratori, M; Larsen, P; Krausz, C

    2018-01-01

    Despite more cancers in young men over the past two decades, improvements in therapies give a greater chance to live full lives following treatment. Sperm genomic quality is variable following cancer diagnosis, so its assessment is important if sperm cryopreservation is being considered. Here, we evaluated DNA damage using two DNA damage assays: an alkaline and for the first time, a neutral Comet assays in men presenting with testicular cancer (n = 19 for alkaline and 13 for neutral group) and lymphoma (n = 13 for alkaline and 09 for neutral group) compared with fertile donors (n = 20 for alkaline and 14 for neutral group). No significant differences were observed in any semen analysis parameters. In contrast, sperm DNA damage was higher in men with testicular cancer than in donors as assessed by both the alkaline (12.4% vs. 37.4%, p alkaline (35.0% vs. 12.4%) and neutral (10.7% against 7.5% (p alkaline and neutral Comet assays is more sensitive than semen analysis in detecting impaired sperm quality in men presenting with cancer. It may provide a useful adjunct when considering storage prior to cancer investigations and assisted reproductive techniques (ART)-based treatment. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  19. Consultation for Small-Sized Penis in the Egyptian Males: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Nader

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to report penile dimensions in adult Egyptian males consulting for small-sized penis (SSP) and describe their demographics and andrological profile. A case control study was designed through retrospective data analysis of patients (n = 239) seeking advice for SSP and a control group (n = 59). This included sociodemographics, other andrological complaints, and penile dimensions (pendulous length [PL], penopubic or total length [TL], and circumference [CF]) at flaccid and erect states and the size of the prepubic fatty pad. The results reported that most patients were single, students, and smokers and had not completed a university education. Several patients reported falsely premature ejaculation (PE), penile curvature (PC), and small-sized testes. Most penile dimensions of the patients (mean, cm) were significantly lower than those of the controls, whether in flaccid (PL: 7.4 vs. 8.05, p = .008; CF: 8.7 vs. 8.98, p = .026) or erect state (PL: 11.8 vs. 13, p = .000; TL: 14.2 vs. 15, p = .000; CF: 11.3 vs. 11.8, p = .003). However, no patient presented with a pendulous penile length <4 cm in flaccid or <7 cm in erect state. In conclusion, Egyptian men consulting for SSP did not have true small organs, but their penile dimensions were slightly smaller than those of men without such complaint. The proper sexual education program is highly advisable in these situations to avoid the myths and misconceptions about sexuality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Effects of human chorionic gonadotropin on testicular interstitial tissues in men with non-obstructive azoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, S; Shiraishi, K; Matsuyama, H

    2017-03-01

    Non-obstructive azoospermia is a severe condition because spermatogenesis per se is disrupted. Although microdissection testicular sperm extraction is the standard therapy for non-obstructive azoospermia, sperm retrieval is unsuccessful in approximately 50% of patients. For these patients, we conducted human chorionic gonadotropin-based salvage hormonal therapy, and sperm retrieval was possible in 10-20% of patients. The objectives of this study were to assess the changes in interstitial lesions in patients with non-obstructive azoospermia and to evaluate the effects of human chorionic gonadotropin on these tissues. Testicular biopsy specimens were obtained from 10 non-obstructive azoospermia patients who failed to obtain spermatozoa and from 10 obstructive azoospermia patients. All non-obstructive azoospermia patients received salvage hormonal therapy after microdissection testicular sperm extraction. Hematoxylin and eosin (H.E.) staining and immunohistochemical staining for steroidogenic acute regulatory protein antibody, the Leydig cell marker, and TE-7 antibody, the fibroblast marker, as well as picrosirius red staining to detect collagen fibers, were performed. We measured interstitial lesions, as Leydig cell area and the other area, with ImageJ software. Interstitial area, excluding Leydig cells, increased up to 12.5% in non-obstructive azoospermia compared with 1.2% in obstructive azoospermia (p human chorionic gonadotropin and hypertrophic change of Leydig cells after human chorionic gonadotropin administration. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  1. Growth hormone (GH) activity is associated with increased serum oestradiol and reduced anti-Müllerian hormone in healthy male volunteers treated with GH and a GH antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, M; Frystyk, J; Faber, J; Kristensen, L Ø; Juul, A

    2013-07-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptors are present on pituitary gonadotrophs and on testicular Leydig and Sertoli cells. Thus, the GH/IGF-I system may modulate the pituitary-gonadal axis in males. This is a randomized cross-over study. Eight healthy male volunteers (mean age 35, range 29-46 years) were treated with GH for 3 weeks (1st week 0.01, 2nd week 0.02, 3rd week 0.03 mg/day/kg) or a GH receptor antagonist (Pegvisomant) (1st week 10, last 2 weeks 15 mg/day), separated by 8 weeks of washout. Before and after the two treatment periods, concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, inhibin B and Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) were measured. During GH treatment, IGF-I increased [(median (IQR)] 166 (162-235) vs. 702 (572-875) μg/L, p hormones occurred during the two treatment regimens. GH/IGF-I activity was positively associated with serum oestradiol, suggesting that GH/IGF-I stimulates aromatase activity in vivo. As a novel observation, we found that high GH activity was associated with reduced levels of the Sertoli cell marker AMH. Further studies are needed to evaluate possible effects of GH on Sertoli cell function and/or spermatogenesis. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  2. Which are the male factors associated with female sexual dysfunction (FSD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseroli, E; Fanni, E; Mannucci, E; Fambrini, M; Jannini, E A; Maggi, M; Vignozzi, L

    2016-09-01

    It has been generally assumed that partner's erectile dysfunction, premature, and delayed ejaculation play a significant role in determining female sexual dysfunction (FSD). This study aimed to evaluate the role of the male partner's sexual function, as perceived by women, in determining FSD. A consecutive series of 156 heterosexual women consulting our clinic for FSD was retrospectively studied. All patients underwent a structured interview and completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). FSFI total score decreased as a function of partner's age, conflicts within the couple, relationship without cohabitation and the habit of engaging in intercourse to please the partner; FSFI total score increased as a function of frequency of intercourse, attempts to conceive and fertility-focused intercourse. FSFI total score showed a negative, stepwise correlation with partner's perceived hypoactive sexual desire (HSD) (r = -0.327; p libido, FSFI total score was significantly lower when their partner's libido was low (p = 0.041); the correlation disappeared if the patient also experienced HSD. In conclusion, the presence of erectile dysfunction, premature, and delayed ejaculation of the partner may not act as a primary contributing factor to FSD, as determined by FSFI scores; conversely, women's sexuality seems to be mostly impaired by the perceived reduction in their partner's sexual interest. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of testosterone cream applied to scrotal skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, R; Mok, S F; Savkovic, S; Turner, L; Fraser, G; Desai, R; Jayadev, V; Conway, A J; Handelsman, D J

    2017-07-01

    Scrotal skin is thin and has high steroid permeability, but the pharmacokinetics of testosterone via the scrotal skin route has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to define the pharmacokinetics of testosterone delivered via the scrotal skin route. The study was a single-center, three-phase cross-over pharmacokinetic study of three single doses (12.5, 25, 50 mg) of testosterone cream administered in random sequence on different days with at least 2 days between doses to healthy eugonadal volunteers with endogenous testosterone suppressed by administration of nandrolone decanoate. Serum testosterone, DHT and estradiol concentrations were measured by liquid chromatograpy, mass spectrometry in extracts of serum taken before and for 16 h after administration of each of the three doses of testosterone cream to the scrotal skin. Testosterone administration onto the scrotal skin produced a swift (peak 1.9-2.8 h), dose-dependent (p testosterone with the 25 mg dose maintaining physiological levels for 16 h. Serum DHT displayed a time- (p testosterone. There were no significant changes in serum estradiol over time after testosterone administration. We conclude that testosterone administration to scrotal skin is well tolerated and produces dose-dependent peak serum testosterone concentration with a much lower dose relative to the non-scrotal transdermal route. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  4. Reproductive health and HIV awareness among newly married Egyptian couples without formal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Wael F; Gamaleldin, Sameh F; Abdelmoty, Hatem I; Raslan, Ayman N; Fouda, Usama M; Mohesen, Mohamed N; Youssef, Mohamed A F M

    2014-09-01

    To assess awareness of several reproductive health and HIV issues and to determine the sources of reproductive health knowledge. A cross-sectional survey of 150 randomly recruited, newly married couples without formal education attending gynecology or andrology outpatient clinics in Cairo, Egypt, was conducted from January 2012 to January 2013. Participants were interviewed separately and asked to respond to a semi-structured questionnaire on reproductive health and HIV awareness. Most participants had not received premarital counseling or undergone premarital testing. Awareness about HIV was relatively high: 117 (78.0%) women and 128 (85.3%) men had heard of HIV and had some awareness of the modes of HIV transmission. Only 24 (16.0%) women had ever used a condom compared with 36 (24.0%) men. Only two men out of the 150 couples questioned were aware of the free HIV hotline. Television and friends were the main sources of reproductive health knowledge. Routine premarital counseling and testing by reproductive health, gynecology, and andrology specialists need to be enforced. Mass media is an essential source of knowledge about HIV and reproductive health. Premarital, reproductive health, and HIV education programs need to be improved. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Involvement of homocysteine, homocysteine thiolactone, and paraoxonase type 1 (PON-1) in the etiology of defective human sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, R J; Flanagan, H M; Connaughton, H; Whiting, S; Hedges, A; Baker, M A

    2016-03-01

    This study reports, for the first time, the significant (p ≤ 0.01) accumulation of homocysteine residues in low density, defective sperm suspensions isolated from patients attending an infertility clinic. This overabundance of homocysteine was not related to a deficiency in folate availability but may have been a reflection of the oxidative stress that characterizes such defective sperm populations. Direct addition of the homocysteine cyclic congener, homocysteine thiolactone, to human spermatozoa resulted in the rapid induction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation (p homocysteine molecule was less active and took 24 h to stimulate mitochondrial ROS production possibly because of the need to convert this compound to the corresponding thiolactone before it could exert a measureable biological effect. Thiolactone was also effective in suppressing the carboxymethylation of key proteins in the sperm tail, which are thought to be involved in the regulation of sperm movement. The major enzyme responsible for removing thiolactone from proteins, paraoxonase (PON-1), was shown to be a major target for alkylation by lipid aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxynonenal, generated as a consequence of oxidative stress. Exposure of human spermatozoa to such aldehydes resulted in a dose-dependent accumulation of homocysteine in spermatozoa (p homocysteine thiolactone to interact with the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues on sperm proteins, triggering a raft of significant biological changes in these cells that ultimately compromise sperm function. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  6. Survey of patient and partner satisfaction following collagenase Clostridium histolyticum treatment for Peyronie's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaissie, J; Yafi, F A; Traore, E J; Sikka, S C; Hellstrom, W J G

    2017-03-01

    Intralesional injection of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) is a minimally invasive, Food and Drug Administration-approved, effective treatment for Peyronie's disease (PD). To assess the satisfaction of patients and their female sexual partners (FSP) following CCH therapy for PD, we conducted a retrospective review of the records of all patients treated with CCH for PD between 04/2014 and 03/2016. Collected variables included demographics, pre- and post-treatment sexual function, penile curvature, penile vascular findings, and treatment outcomes. Patients and their FSPs were subsequently contacted by telephone and queried regarding their ability to have intercourse and their satisfaction with treatment. A total of 24 couples responded to our questionnaire and constitute the subjects of this analysis. Patient and FSP satisfaction with treatment were 67% and 71%, respectively. Significant predictors of FSP satisfaction with treatment included recall of penile trauma during prior sexual intercourse, improved ability to have sexual intercourse following treatment, and absence of post-procedural glans hypoesthesia. In conclusion, CCH imparts a significant benefit on a couple's sexual health. Partner satisfaction with treatment is correlated with improved ability to have sexual intercourse and absence of patient glans hypoesthesia. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  7. Enhanced fertility prediction of cryopreserved boar spermatozoa using novel sperm function assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, B W; McNamara, K A; Purdy, P H; Krisher, R L; Knox, R V; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Miller, D J

    2015-05-01

    Due to reduced fertility, cryopreserved semen is seldom used for commercial porcine artificial insemination (AI). Predicting the fertility of individual frozen ejaculates for selection of higher quality semen prior to AI would increase overall success. Our objective was to test novel and traditional laboratory analyses to identify characteristics of cryopreserved spermatozoa that are related to boar fertility. Traditional post-thaw analyses of motility, viability, and acrosome integrity were performed on each ejaculate. In vitro fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst development were also determined. Finally, spermatozoa-oviduct binding and competitive zona-binding assays were applied to assess sperm adhesion to these two matrices. Fertility of the same ejaculates subjected to laboratory assays was determined for each boar by multi-sire AI and defined as (i) the mean percentage of the litter sired and (ii) the mean number of piglets sired in each litter. Means of each laboratory evaluation were calculated for each boar and those values were applied to multiple linear regression analyses to determine which sperm traits could collectively estimate fertility in the simplest model. The regression model to predict the percent of litter sired by each boar was highly effective (p functions of spermatozoa. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  8. Conventional progesterone receptors (PR) B and PRA are expressed in human spermatozoa and may be involved in the pathophysiology of varicocoele: a role for progesterone in metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Amicis, F; Guido, C; Perrotta, I; Avena, P; Panza, S; Andò, S; Aquila, S

    2011-10-01

    The physiological roles of intracellular progesterone (PRG) receptors (PRs) have been studied intensively in female mammals, while their functions in male are scarce. Conventional PRs were evidenced in our study by Western blotting, concomitantly in healthy spermatozoa and in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic samples without and with varicocoele. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of the PRs on the membrane as well as in the nucleus, mitochondria and flagellum. A reduced expression of the PRs was observed only in varicocoele spermatozoa. Responses to PRG treatment on cholesterol efflux, tyrosine phosphorylation, src and Akt activities, acrosin activity and acrosome reaction in varicocoele spermatozoa were reduced or absent. To further investigate PRG significance in human male gamete, we focused its action on lipid and glucose metabolism. The evaluation of the triglycerides content, lipase and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities suggests that PRG through the PRs exerts a lipolytic effect on human spermatozoa. An increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was also obtained, evidencing a role for PRG on glucose metabolism. In 'varicocoele' spermatozoa, the PRG did not induce energy consumption. The action of PRs on sperm metabolism is a novel finding that renews the importance of PRG in male fertility. Our results showed that varicocoele may lead to male factor infertility by a mechanism involving a decreased PR expression in human spermatozoa that evidences a detrimental effect on spermatozoa at the molecular level, going beyond the abnormal sperm morphology described to date. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European Academy of Andrology.

  9. Enhanced evaluation of selective androgen receptor modulators in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto-Duessel, M; He, M; Adamson, T W; Jones, J O

    2013-01-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a class of drugs that control the activity of the androgen receptor (AR), which mediates the response to androgens, in a tissue-selective fashion. They are specifically designed to reduce the possible complications that result from the systemic inhibition or activation of AR in patients with diseases that involve androgen signalling. However, there are no ideal in vivo models for evaluating candidate SARMs. Therefore, we created a panel of androgen-responsive genes in clinically relevant AR expressing tissues including prostate, skin, bone, fat, muscle, brain and kidney. We used select genes from this panel to compare transcriptional changes in response to the full agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the SARM bolandiol at 16 h and 6 weeks. We identified several genes in each tissue whose expression at each of these time points correlates with the known tissue-specific effects of these compounds. For example, in the prostate we found four genes whose expression was much lower in animals treated with bolandiol compared with animals treated with DHT for 6 weeks, which correlated well with differences in prostate weight. We demonstrate that adding molecular measurements (androgen-regulated gene expression) to the traditional physiological measurements (tissue weights, etc.) makes the evaluation of potential SARMs more accurate, thorough and perhaps more rapid by allowing measurement of selectivity after only 16 h of drug treatment. © 2012 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  10. Recent scenario of obesity and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, K K; Chambial, S; Dwivedi, S; Misra, S; Sharma, P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this review was to provide current scenario linking obesity and male fertility. Obesity has been linked to male fertility because of lifestyle changes, internal hormonal environment alterations, and sperm genetic factors. A few studies assessing the impact of obesity on sperm genetic factor have been published, but they did not lead to a strong consensus. Our objective was to explore further the relationship between sperm genetic factor and obesity. There are emerging facts that obesity negatively affects male reproductive potential not only by reducing sperm quality, but in particular it alters the physical and molecular structure of germ cells in the testes and ultimately affects the maturity and function of sperm cells. Inhibition of microRNA in the male pronucleus of fertilized zygotes produces offspring of phenotypes of variable severity depending on miRNAs ratios. Hence, these RNAs have a role in the oocyte development during fertilization and in embryo development, fetal survival, and offspring phenotype. It has been reported that the miRNA profile is altered in spermatozoa of obese males, however, the impact of these changes in fertilization and embryo health remains as yet not known. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  11. Pregnancy and live birth after follicle-stimulating hormone treatment for an infertile couple including a male affected by Sertoli cell-only syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulis G

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Gianni Paulis,1,2 Luca Paulis,3 Gennaro Romano,4 Carmen Concas,5 Marika Di Sarno,5 Renata Pagano,5 Antonio Di Filippo,5 Maria Luisa Di Petrillo5 1Andrology Center, Regina Apostolorum Hospital, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Uro-Andrology, Castelfidardo Medical Team, Peyronie’s Disease Care Center, Rome, Italy; 3Section of Pharmacology and Research, Department of Uro-Andrology, Castelfidardo Medical Team, Peyronie’s Disease Care Center, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Urologic Oncology, Italian League Against Cancer, Avellino, Italy; 5Department of Reproductive Medicine and Biology, Caran Center, Caserta, Italy Abstract: In males with nonobstructive azoospermia, one of the main histopathologic patterns of the testis is Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS, in which no germ cells are present and only Sertoli cells are contained in the seminiferous tubules. There is not any formal treatment for this pathological condition. However, several studies reported the possibility to perform testicular sperm extraction in patients with SCOS, although, according to some authors, sperm retrieval is possible only in the presence of focal spermatogenesis. We report the case of an infertile couple in whom the 30-year-old male was azoospermic. After the diagnosis, the patient underwent multiple bilateral testicular biopsies, which showed a histological pattern corresponding to SCOS. We administered a cycle of hormone stimulation followed by medically assisted procreation procedures to the male patient. Therefore, the male patient was treated with follicle-stimulating hormone gonadotropin for a total of 7 months (150 IU recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone three times per week. After carrying out a new multiple testicular sperm extraction, several spermatozoa were microscopically observed, and it was then possible to perform an intracytoplasmic sperm injection with subsequent embryo transfer of the blastocyst into the wife’s uterus, and so pregnancy was

  12. Impact of various progestins with or without transdermal testosterone on gonadotropin levels for non-invasive hormonal male contraception: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzmann, M; Rohayem, J; Raidt, J; Kliesch, S; Kumar, N; Sitruk-Ware, R; Nieschlag, E

    2017-05-01

    Although several progestins have been tested for hormonal male contraception, the effects of dosage and nature of various progestins on gonadotropin suppression combined with and without additional testosterone has not been performed in a comparative trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differential impact of four oral or transdermal progestins on the suppression of gonadotropins in healthy men: oral: cyproterone acetate (CPA), levonorgestrel (LNG), norethisterone acetate (NETA), and transdermal: Nestorone ® (NES), all in combination with transdermal testosterone (T). Randomized clinical trial testing was performed with four progestins at two doses each. After a 2-week progestin-only treatment, transdermal T was added for further 4 weeks and was followed by a 3-week recovery period. Progestin-dose per day: CPA 10 mg/20 mg, NES 2 mg/3 mg/dose e.g. 200/300 μg/day absorbed, NETA 5 mg/10 mg, LNG 120 μg/240 μg. From an andrology outpatient clinic, 56 healthy men aged 18-50 years, with body mass index ≤33 kg × m -2 were included in the study. Serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were studied. Secondary outcome measure included were serum testosterone concentrations, sperm concentrations, and safety parameters. Intergroup comparisons demonstrated that CPA and LNG had the strongest effect on LH/FSH suppression. Nevertheless, every substance showed significant inhibitory effects on gonadotropin secretion, especially in combination with transdermal T. A decrease in hematocrit and insulin sensitivity as well as cholesterol subfractions and triglycerides was uniformly seen for every group. The combination of oral or transdermal progestins with a transdermal testosterone preparation is able to suppress gonadotropins. Further dose titration studies with sperm suppression as an end-point should be conducted to determine the lowest effective dose for hormonal male contraception. © 2017 American

  13. Testicular Growth During Puberty in Boys With and Without a History of Congenital Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadov, Sergey; Koskenniemi, Jaakko J; Virtanen, Helena E

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The pattern of testicular growth during puberty may provide important information about early testicular damage and reproductive potential in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pubertal testicular growth in boys with congenital cryptorchidism and controls. DESIGN: Longitudinal case......-control study. SETTING: Andrological Research Center, University of Turku. PARTICIPANTS: Altogether, 119 boys participated: 51 cases with a history of congenital cryptorchidism and 65 controls fulfilled the inclusion criteria. INTERVENTION: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Testicular volume by an orchidometer (m......L) and ultrasound (mL), testicular length by a ruler (mm), and onset of pubertal testicular growth (y). Longitudinal testicular growth was analyzed with a nonlinear mixed-effect model. RESULTS: The mean age of the onset of pubertal testicular growth (age at the attainment of >3 mL by orchidometer) was 11.7 and 11...

  14. [Automated system for study of mechanical properties of the organs and tissues on the basis of the apparatus for resonance vibrotherapy "Landysh"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumov, A N; Timofeev, A B; Mukhtarov, E I; Korchazhkina, N B; Timofeev, G A

    2005-01-01

    The measuring-calculating system uniting the system for resonant vibrotherapy "Landysh", the analog-digital converter and computer is submitted. The system allows not only to carry out therapeutic action on a body tissues by vibration, but also to register the response of organism to this action, to supervise efficiency depend upon change of parameters of self-oscillations and mechanical characteristics of tissue. Results of study of influence of resonant vibrotherapy on posttraumatic hypostases of soft tissues in patients with consequences adnate fractures are presented. The system can be used in urology and andrology for study of erection function in men, and also for biological tests of various chemical compounds in pharmacology, toxicology, dermatology and cosmetology.

  15. Thermotemporal dynamics of contaminant bacteria and antimicrobials in extended porcine semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althouse, G C; Pierdon, M S; Lu, K G

    2008-11-01

    Bacterial contamination of extended porcine semen has been associated with deleterious effects on both semen quality and sow fertility. Retrospective, prospective and in vitro studies were performed to delineate the prevalence and behavior of certain bacterial contaminants in extended semen, and antimicrobial pharmacodynamics in various semen diluents. Retrospective review of extended semen samples submitted from North American boar studs for microbiological screening at the University of Pennsylvania Reference Andrology Laboratory in 2005 and 2006 yielded bacteriospermia prevalence rates of 17% (144/832) and 26% (256/984), respectively. In a prospective study of regional boar studs, of 91 extended semen samples tested over 1-y, 29% were positive for bacteriospermia. Retrospective and prospective studies both showed that the preponderance of contaminant positive samples occurred during the fall months (Ptylosin, and lincomycin/spectinomycin (single drug or combination) ranged from 75 to over 360min, and was highly dependent (P<0.05) upon both type of bacteria and semen diluent.

  16. 'Man Up': the importance and strategy for placing male reproductive health centre stage in the political and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Christopher L R; De Jonge, Christopher J; Sharpe, Richard M

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 1 in 20 young men today have sperm counts low enough to impair fertility, whereas this may not have been the case historically. The cause(s) of such a decline in male reproductive health is unknown, despite it being a global health issue. Concomitantly, little progress has been made in answering fundamental questions in andrology or in developing new diagnostic tools or alternative management strategies to ICSI in infertile men. We advocate formulation of a detailed roadmap for male reproductive health to facilitate development of a research agenda that highlights the present unmet needs and key unanswered questions, and seeks to deliver effective funding and investment to address them. This vision we term 'a Male Reproductive Health Ecosystem'.

  17. Effect of diets containing whole cottonseed on the quality of sheep semen - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i3.12963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Trindade Soares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the semen quality of Santa Ines sheep fed diets containing different levels of whole cottonseed (WCS. Twenty sheep were distributed into four groups that were given diets with 0; 20; 30; 40% of WCS. For this study the semen was collected by electroejaculation, and a monthly andrological examination was performed during nine months. The analyzed variables were: scrotal circumference (SC, appearance and color of the ejaculate, progressive motility (PM, vigor, mass movement (MM, total sperm concentration (spzX109, sperm morphology (SM and blood hematocrit. The SC had no difference among diets, with mean 31.83 cm. The animals fed diets with WCS, presented mean intake of 9.16 mg gossypol kg BW, and were prone to present greenish semen, and appearance ranging from thin creamy to watery. The PM decreased linearly (p

  18. Seminal plasma lactoferrin concentrations in normal and abnormal semen samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckett, W M; Luckas, M J; Gazvani, M R; Aird, I A; Lewis-Jones, D I

    1997-01-01

    Although the iron-chelating protein lactoferrin is secreted by the seminal vesicles, the precise role of lactoferrin in semen is unclear. This study aimed to determine whether there is any association between seminal lactoferrin concentrations and normal and abnormal semen samples with and without leucocytospermia. Lactoferrin concentrations were measured by radial immunodiffusion of semen samples from 368 men attending a regional andrology referral center. Routine seminal analysis, including the presence of leucocytospermia, was also performed. Results showed increased seminal lactoferrin in samples showing oligospermia (13.3 mg/100 ml) and oligoasthenospermia (13.4 mg/100 ml) compared to normospermic samples (11.2 mg/100 ml). There were no significant differences in seminal lactoferrin between normospermic samples and azoospermic samples or asthenospermic samples with normal sperm density. Although there was a trend toward increased lactoferrin concentration with leucocytospermia, this was not significant. Possible causes for raised lactoferrin in association with oligospermia are discussed.

  19. Novel Uses for the Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Nandrolone and Oxandrolone in the Management of Male Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Christopher; Kovac, Jason R

    2016-10-01

    There has recently been renewed interest in novel clinical applications of the anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) testosterone and its synthetic derivatives, particularly given with the rising popularity of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) for the treatment of male hypogonadism. In this manuscript, we provide a brief review of the history of AAS and discuss clinical applications of two of the more well-known AAS: nandrolone and oxandrolone. Both agents exhibit favorable myotrophic/androgenic ratios and have been investigated for effectiveness in numerous disease states. We also provide a brief synopsis of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) and postulate how these orally active, non-aromatizing, tissue-selective agents might be used in contemporary andrology. Currently, the applications of testosterone alternatives in hypogonadism are limited. However, it is tempting to speculate that these agents may one day become accepted as alternatives, or adjuncts, to the treatment of male hypogonadism.

  20. [The psychosocial background of sterile patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusch, H H; Urdl, W; Walcher, W

    1989-01-01

    The psychosocial background of 300 childless couples from the Infertility Clinic of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Graz, was evaluated by means of a questionnaire and statistical analysis of data from their files. Points of special interest were problems such as interactions of the couple, motivations for the desire of children, psychosomatics, andrological investigation within the gynecological department, sexual habits and motivation and compliance concerning investigations and treatment. 72% of the questionnaires were returned. 50% of the sterile couples preferred to attend the infertility clinic together. 26% felt restrictions in their sexual behaviour due to the unrealized desire of children, 48% expected improvements in their partnership if they could have children. Compliance of male partners concerning the regular intake of prescribed medicaments was 83%, 63% accepted to stop smoking in cases of pathospermia.

  1. Semen quality and reproductive hormones before orchiectomy in men with testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P M; Skakkebaek, N E; Vistisen, K

    1999-01-01

    gonadotropin (hCG), in 71 patients. Hormone levels in patients with elevated hCG (n = 41) were analyzed separately. To discriminate between general cancer effects and specific effects associated with TGCC, the same analyses were carried out in a group of 45 consecutive male patients with malignant lymphoma......PURPOSE: To obtain information about preorchiectomy gonadal function in patients with testicular germ cell cancer to improve the clinical management of fertility and other andrologic aspects in these men. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In group 1, a group of 83 consecutive patients with testicular germ cell...... cancer (TGCC) investigated before orchiectomy, semen analysis was carried out in 63 patients and hormonal investigations, including measurement of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), inhibin B, and human chorionic...

  2. How accurate is sperm morphology as an indicator of sperm function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, D R

    2015-08-01

    Sperm morphology has been consistently correlated with fertilisation success or failure. The clinical relevance of the percentage normal spermatozoa has been a widely discussed topic amongst infertility specialists and scientists. This study aimed to evaluate the role of sperm morphology as an indicator of additional sperm functions among 114 andrology referrals. The sperm functions that were investigated included chromatin packaging quality (CMA3 test (n = 109), zona-induced acrosome reaction (ZIAR test; n = 36), hemizona assay (HZI; n = 36) and progressive motility (n = 47). Chromatin packaging quality had a negative and significant (P = 0.0001, r = -0.74) correlation with the percentage normal spermatozoa, while progressive motility had a significant and positive correlation (P = 0.0001, 0.59). Accurate sperm morphology scoring as described by the WHO 2010 manual can therefore be used as an indicator of specific sperm functions. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Role of Antioxidants in Assisted Reproductive Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Majzoub, Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has been recognized as a significant cause of suboptimal assisted reproductive outcome. Many of the sperm preparation and manipulation procedures that are necessary in the in vitro environment can result in excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) thereby exposing the gametes and growing embryos to significant oxidative damage. Antioxidants have long been utilized in the management of male subfertility as they can counterbalance the elevated levels of ROS inducing a high state of OS. Few studies have looked into the clinical effectiveness of antioxidants in patients undergoing assisted reproduction. While an overall favorable outcome has been perceived, the specific clinical indication and optimal antioxidant regimen remain unknown. The goal of our review is to explore the sources of ROS in the in vitro environment and provide a clinical scenario-based approach to identify the circumstances where antioxidant supplementation is most beneficial to enhance the outcome of assisted reproduction. Copyright © 2017 Korean Society for Sexual Medicine and Andrology.

  4. AZFc deletion detected in a newborn with prenatally diagnosed Yq deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, A; Tardy, E P; Gombos, S; Hajdu, K; Bátorfi, J; Krausz, C

    2001-04-01

    A case of prenatally diagnosed Yq deletion is described. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) was used to identify the abnormal chromosome and to exclude mosaicism. Based on the cytogenetic result and the ultrasound investigation the pregnancy was continued. A newborn with normal male genitalia was delivered. Microdeletion analysis of the Yq showed the absence of the AZFc region. This type of deletion has been described as being associated with azoospermia or oligozoospermia with a progressive decrease of sperm number over time. Long-term andrological follow-up of the newborn will be necessary with eventual cryoconservation of sperm at early adulthood. The present report proposes that AZF analysis combined with FISH has an important role in accurate genetic counselling in sex chromosome anomalies. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Prospective Analysis on the Effect of Botanical Medicine (Tribulus terrestris) on Serum Testosterone Level and Semen Parameters in Males with Unexplained Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaiah, Mohamed Farid; Elkhayat, Yasser Ibrahim; Saleh, Sameh Fayek GamalEl Din; Abd El Salam, Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-06-23

    We evaluated the role of Tribulus terrestris in males with unexplained infertility and its effect on serum testosterone and semen parameters. Thirty randomized male patients presenting to Andrology outpatient clinic complaining of idiopathic infertility were selected. They were given Tribulus terrestris (750 mg) in three divided doses for three months. The effect of Tribulus terrestris on serum testosterone (total and free) and luteinizing hormone (LH), as well as its impact on semen parameters in those patients, was studied. No statistically significant difference was observed in the levels of testosterone (total and free) and LH and semen parameters (sperm concentration or motility, or abnormal forms) before and after the treatment. In addition, no statistically significant correlations were observed between testosterone (free and total) and LH and semen parameters before and after the treatment. Tribulus terrestris was ineffective in the treatment of idiopathic infertility.

  6. Leydig cell clustering and Reinke crystal distribution in relation to hormonal function in adult patients with testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) including cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Rikke R; Johannsen, Trine H; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2016-01-01

    (micronodules) are frequently present. This study aimed to investigate possible associations of LC micronodules with the presence of Reinke crystals and hormonal function of LCs, the latter primarily reflected by serum concentrations of luteinising hormone (LH) and testosterone, in patients with TDS. DESIGN......: A retrospective study of 101 andrological patients with TDS (infertility with and without a history of cryptorchidism or presence of germ cell neoplasia in situ) and 20 controls with normal testis histology and LC-function. Archived testicular biopsies were re-evaluated for the presence of LC micronodules...... and Reinke crystals and the findings were correlated with testis size and serum concentrations of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, inhibin B, estradiol and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). RESULTS: TDS patients with bilateral LC micronodules had significantly lower concentrations...

  7. Ethnic patterns of hypospadias in New Zealand do not resemble those observed for cryptorchidism and testicular cancer: evidence of differential aetiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, J K; Stanley, J; Shaw, C; Sarfati, D

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that hypospadias, cryptorchidism, poor semen quality and testicular cancer might share common prenatal causes. We have previously demonstrated similar ethnic patterns for the incidence of testicular cancer and cryptorchidism - a known risk factor for testicular cancer. If the underlying exposure(s) that cause hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer are shared, then we would expect the incidence relationship between ethnic groups to follow the same pattern across all three conditions. We followed a birth cohort of 318 345 eligible male neonates born in New Zealand between 2000-2010, and linked routinely collected maternity records with inpatient hospitalization and mortality records through to 2011. We searched hospitalization records for diagnoses of hypospadias, and used mortality records for censoring. We used Poisson regression methods to compare the relative risk of hypospadias between ethnic groups, adjusting for perinatal risk factors and total person time. We observed that European/Other children had the highest risk of hypospadias, with Māori, Pacific and Asian boys having around 40% lower risk of disease compared with this group (adjusted relative risk [RR]: Māori 0.62, 95% CI 0.55-0.70; Pacific 0.62, 95% CI 0.53-0.72; Asian 0.57, 95% CI 0.47-0.69). This contrasts substantially with our previous observations for cryptorchidism and testicular cancer, where Māori males have the greatest risk. Our observations suggest that - at least in New Zealand - the exposures that drive the development of hypospadias may differ to those that that drive the development of cryptorchidism and/or testicular cancer. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  8. An investigation of the potential effect of sperm nuclear vacuoles in human spermatozoa on DNA fragmentation using a neutral and alkaline Comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuszek, E; Kiewisz, J; Skowronska, P; Liss, J; Lukaszuk, M; Bruszczynska, A; Jakiel, G; Lukaszuk, K

    2017-03-01

    Presence of vacuoles and degree of sperm DNA damage are considered to be the basic factors used for the assessment of sperm fertilization capacity. We aimed to investigate the link between these two parameters. According to our knowledge, this is the first study where the Comet assay was used to assess the degree of DNA fragmentation of sperm categorized by Motile Sperm Organelle Morphology Examination (MSOME) Grades. Semen samples from 10 patients were assessed. Spermatozoa were graded into four MSOME groups according to the Vanderzwalmen's criteria. A total of 3930 motile spermatozoa were selected one-by-one using an inverted microscope and transferred onto two different slides. The degree of DNA fragmentation was analyzed by alkaline and neutral Comet assay. Results of the neutral Comet assay showed that Grade I spermatozoa (absence of vacuoles) presented significantly lower dsDNA fragmentation level (mean: 3.13 ± 1.17%) than Grade II (maximum of two small vacuoles; mean: 10.34 ± 2.65%), Grade III (more than two small vacuoles or at least one large vacuole; mean: 23.88 ± 8.37%), and Grade IV (large vacuoles associated with abnormal head shapes or other abnormalities; mean: 36.94 ± 7.78%; p  0.05). Probably, the vacuoles may be responsible for double strand DNA breaks rather than single strand DNA breaks (only 2.39% spermatozoa in MSOME Grade II, 1.76% in III, and 3.16% in IV has single strand breaks). The results demonstrate that lower MSOME grading correlates with lower sperm DNA fragmentation. Therefore, the observation of sperm nuclear vacuoles using real-time optical microscopy without precise DNA fragmentation examination is not sufficient for optimal sperm selection for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  9. Catalase can protect spermatozoa of FSH receptor knock-out mice against oxidant-induced DNA damage in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, J; Gabriel, M S; Sairam, M R; Zini, A

    2010-12-01

    The aetiology of sperm DNA damage is likely multi-factorial with abnormal compaction of nuclear DNA, abortive apoptosis and oxidative stress implicated as potential causes of DNA damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate DNA damage in spermatozoa from wild-type (WT) and FSH receptor knock-out (FORKO) mice, compare the relative susceptibility of spermatozoa from these animals to oxidative DNA damage, and examine the protective effect of the antioxidant catalase on sperm DNA damage. Epididymal spermatozoa from FORKO mice (n = 5) and WT controls (n = 5) were extracted and incubated with or without catalase. Sperm DNA damage was assessed immediately after epididymal extraction (time 0 control) and following 2-h incubation at 37 °C. DNA damage was measured by the sperm chromatin structure assay and the results expressed as the %DNA fragmentation index or %DFI. Freshly retrieved epididymal spermatozoa from WT mice had a significantly lower mean (±SD) %DFI than that of FORKO mice (2.7 ± 1.8 vs. 6.4 ± 2.9%, p catalase protected these spermatozoa from DNA damage (9.8 ± 4.1 vs. 17.9 ± 9.2%, respectively, p 0.05) and the addition of catalase (vs. no catalase) did not result in a significant reduction in %DFI (5.8 ± 5.0 vs. 7.7 ± 6.5%, respectively, p > 0.05). These data indicate that catalase may protect sperm nuclear DNA from oxidative stress in vitro. The data also demonstrate the differential susceptibility of WT and FORKO mice spermatozoa to oxidative stress. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2010 European Academy of Andrology.

  10. Obesity and age as dominant correlates of low testosterone in men irrespective of diabetes status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng Tang Fui, M; Hoermann, R; Cheung, A S; Gianatti, E J; Zajac, J D; Grossmann, M

    2013-11-01

    Although men with type 2 diabetes (T2D) frequently have lowered testosterone levels, it is not well established whether this is ascribable to the diabetic state per se, or because of other factors, such as obesity. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and correlates of low testosterone in middle-aged men with diabetes. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 240 men including 80 men with type 1 diabetes (T1D), 80 men with T2D and 80 men without diabetes. Prevalence of a total testosterone ≤8 nmol/L was low, occurring in none of the men with T1D, 6.2% of men with T2D and 2.5% of men without diabetes. Men with T1D had higher testosterone levels compared with men without diabetes (p men with T2D had lower testosterone compared with controls (p = 0.03), this was no longer significant when BMI and age were taken into account (p = 0.16). In the entire cohort, TT remained inversely associated with BMI independent of age, sex hormone-binding globulin and diabetic status (p = 0.01), whereas calculated free testosterone (cFT) was independently and inversely associated with age (p men with diabetes. Increasing BMI and age are dominant drivers of lowered total and cFT, respectively, independent of the presence or absence of diabetes. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  11. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and pubertal development in sons. A follow-up study of a birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkonsen, L B; Olsen, J; Støvring, H; Ernst, A; Thulstrup, A M; Zhu, J L; Shrestha, A; Ramlau-Hansen, C H

    2013-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have raised concern about the reproductive consequences of prenatal cigarette smoking exposure, possibly affecting semen quality and onset of pubertal development of the offspring. The aim of this study was to further investigate pubertal development in young men exposed to cigarette smoking in foetal life. In a Danish pregnancy cohort, information on maternal smoking during pregnancy was available from questionnaires administered in 1984-1987, and information on pubertal development, assessed by age at first nocturnal emission, acne, voice break and regular shaving, was obtained from a follow-up questionnaire administered in 2005 to the young men (age: 18-21). We found no significant association between prenatal cigarette smoking exposure and earlier onset of puberty, but we did observe a tendency towards earlier age of first nocturnal emission, acne and voice break, indicating an accelerated age of pubertal development. Men exposed to ≥15 cigarettes/day had 3.1 months (95% CI: -6.4; 0.2) earlier age at acne and 2.2 months (95% CI: -7.3; 3.0) earlier age at first nocturnal emission, 1.2 months (95% CI: -4.6; 2.2) earlier age at voice break, however, 1.3 months (95% CI: -1.6; 4.3) later age at regular shaving, compared with unexposed men. Prenatal cigarette smoking exposure may induce an earlier age at onset of puberty in young men, but larger studies with prospectively collected data on pubertal development are needed to explore this hypothesis further. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  12. Genital diseases awareness in young male students: Is information necessary to protect them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Mondaini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Few studies on the prevalence of male sexual diseases are currently available due to difficult application of observational studies or andrological disease prevention campaigns on large series of apparently healthy subjects. The medical check-up linked to compulsory military service represented in Italy a valid tool for epidemiological and observational study for 18 year old boys from 1861 to 2004. The stopping of compulsory military service and its related medical check-up could have determined an important social impact in terms of a lower level of attention and care on male genital/sexual diseases. The aim of the present observational study was to check the prevalence of genital/ sexual diseases among young male high-school students and promote an alternative campaign of information among young students. Methods: A prospective observational analytical study on young male students was conducted by 6 urological centres. Genital and sexually transmitted diseases were presented with slides to students in a general assembly. Some students were then counselled and filled out a short questionnaire on their lifestyle. Results: 12,535 students (10,432 males-83.6% followed the presentation. and 4,897 males (46.7% decided to be checked-up by the urologist and out of them 1554 (31.7% presented relevant andrological diseases. Five-hundred students completed the questionnaire concerning their lifestyle. Many of them had not yet experienced condom use during sexual intercourse (27.8%. Drug abuse was reported by 39.6% of subjects and alcohol consumption in 80.8% of them. Conclusions: These data suggest the need for a national information campaign on male sexual disorders to promote sexual health.

  13. Testis-specific isoform of Na/K-ATPase (ATP1A4) regulates sperm function and fertility in dairy bulls through potential mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species, calcium and actin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanickam, G D; Kroetsch, T; Kastelic, J P; Thundathil, J C

    2017-07-01

    Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation (BBSE) eliminates bulls that are grossly abnormal; however, bulls classified as satisfactory potential breeders still vary in field fertility, implying submicroscopic differences in sperm characteristics. The testis-specific isoform of Na/K-ATPase (ATP1A4) is involved in regulation of sperm motility and capacitation in bulls through well-established enzyme activity and signaling functions. The objective was to determine ATP1A4 content, activity and their relationship to post-thaw sperm function and field fertility, using semen samples from low-fertility (LF) and high-fertility (HF) Holstein bulls (n = 20 each) with known FERTSOL rates (measure of field fertility, based on non-return rate). Frozen-thawed sperm from HF bulls had increased ATP1A4 content and activity compared to LF bulls. Furthermore, post-thaw sperm from HF bulls had increased tyrosine phosphorylation, ROS, F-actin content, and low intracellular calcium compared to LF bulls. Subsequent incubation of HF bull sperm with ouabain (a specific ligand of Na/K-ATPase) further augmented the post-thaw increase in tyrosine phosphorylation, ROS production, and F-actin content, whereas the increase in intracellular calcium was still low compared to LF bull sperm. ATP1A4 content and activity, ROS, F-actin and calcium were significantly correlated with fertility. In conclusion, we inferred that ATP1A4 content and activity differed among dairy bulls with satisfactory semen characteristics and that ATP1A4 may regulate sperm function through mechanisms involving ROS, F-actin and calcium in frozen-thawed sperm of HF and LF dairy bulls. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  14. Does using testicular sperm retrieval rather than ejaculated spermatozoa improve reproductive outcomes in couples with previous ART failure and poor ovarian response? A case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, A R; Younes, G; Tannus, S; Son, W Y; Chan, P; Buckett, W

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether testicular-retrieved spermatozoa improve reproductive outcomes compared to fresh ejaculate in women with poor ovarian response and a history of previous ART failure. The study was performed as a retrospective case-control study at a university-based reproductive center in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Eighteen poor-responder patients were matched 3 : 1 with 54 controls. Poor responders were defined as those with ≤3 oocytes retrieved at oocyte pickup. Cases were identified as poor responders, and only those with previous IVF failure(s) as an indication for testicular-retrieved spermatozoa were included. Controls were age and cycle attempt number matched. All patients were included only once. From January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2015, all patients and controls underwent an IVF cycle using ICSI with either testicular spermatozoa or ejaculated spermatozoa, respectively. Outcomes included live birth rate, pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate, oocyte number, and embryo transfer (ET) day. The results showed live birth rates, pregnancy rates, and miscarriage rates were similar. There were fewer day 2 ETs (8.5% vs. 48.6%, p = 0.01) and more day 5 blastocyst transfers (25.0% vs. 5.4%, p = 0.05) in the testicular sperm retrieval group compared to controls and thus an overall suggestion of better embryo quality in the testicular sperm group. Overall, however, the use of testicular sperm retrieval appears to add little. Women with poor ovarian response typically have a poor prognosis with respect to live birth rates, and this is further supported in this study. The suggestion of better embryo quality in the testicular-retrieved sperm group would need to be further assessed in a larger multicentered study. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  15. Spermatozoa with numerical chromosomal abnormalities are more prone to be retained by Annexin V-MACS columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbert, M; Godo, A; Soares, S R; Florensa, M; Amorós, D; Ballesteros, A; Vidal, F

    2017-07-01

    Colloidal super-paramagnetic microbeads conjugated with annexin V are effective for separating apoptotic spermatozoa by MACS as a result of the high affinity of annexin V for externalized PS molecules. The effectiveness of the procedure in reducing the percentage of sperm with fragmented DNA and abnormal morphology has also been reported. However, it is still unknown if it could decrease the percentage of aneuploid spermatozoa. The objective of our prospective study, performed on 16 males with abnormal FISH on spermatozoa, was to assess if MACS columns were useful tools to retain spermatozoa carrying chromosomal abnormalities in semen samples processed after density gradient centrifugation (DGC). The pellet obtained after DGC was subjected to MACS, and sperm FISH analyses were performed both in the eluded fraction and in the fraction retained in the column. The observed frequencies of disomy and nullisomy 13, 18, and 21, X and Y, as well as the diploidy rates in the MACS eluded fraction and the fraction retained in the MACS column were recorded. We observed that the frequencies of aneuploidies in the eluded fraction were lower than in the fraction retained in the MACS column (0.59% vs. 0.75%; p = 0.010). DGC determined a significant reduction in sperm concentration (z-ratio = 2.83; p = 0.005) and a significant increase in sperm progressive motility (z-ratio = -3.5; p spermatozoa carrying chromosomal abnormalities. Furthermore, the performance of DGC and MACS on semen samples leads to an enrichment of progressive motility. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  16. Light and electron microscopic study of mature spermatozoa from White Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos): an ultrastructural and molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhi, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashutosh; Yadav, Manoj; Kumar, Pradeep; Maity, Apratim; Giri, Sunil C; Goswami, Chandan

    2016-03-01

    The morphology, ultrastructure, and functions of mature avian spermatozoa have been of immense commercial and scientific interest for several reasons. This is mainly important in case of birds in poultry production, conservation, and in the use of sperm morphometry as phylogenetic evidence. Avian spermatozoa share complex or no correlation of sperm morphometry with respect to testis and/or body size as described before. In this work, we have isolated mature spermatozoa from White Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos) by non-invasive methods and performed several immunostaining analysis as well as cytochemical analysis using electron and light microscopes. Here, we report the presence of different post-translationally modified tubulin such as tyrosinated-, detyrosinated-, acetylated-, polyglutamylated-, and glycylated-tubulin in specific regions of the mature spermatozoa. By using field-emission scanning electron microscope, we confirm the presence of acrosome-like structure at the tip of the sperm head. However, this structure remains non-reactive to common lectins such as Peanut Agglutinin (PNA) and cholesterol-sensitive dyes such as Filipin. We report that this acrosomal structure is primarily made of lipid-based structures and is resistant to 0.1% Triton X100. Confocal microscopy and super resolution structured illumination microscopy study indicates that the nucleus is bifurcated at the tip region. By using specific markers, we report that the perforatorium structure present at the tip of the spermatozoa head contains specialized organelles that is similar to atypical mitochondria. We propose that these ultrastructural and molecular parameters can be used as species-specific features. The bifurcated nucleus and presence of atypical mitochondria within this structure may be relevant for the complex mitochondrial inheritance and mitochondrial heteroplasmy observed in case of avian population. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  17. Intracellular calcium movements of boar spermatozoa during 'in vitro' capacitation and subsequent acrosome exocytosis follow a multiple-storage place, extracellular calcium-dependent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, M; Fernández-Novell, J M; Ramió-Lluch, L; Estrada, E; Rocha, L G; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Muiño-Blanco, T; Concha, I I; Ramírez, A; Rodríguez-Gil, J E

    2015-07-01

    This work analysed intracellular calcium stores of boar spermatozoa subjected to 'in vitro' capacitation (IVC) and subsequent progesterone-induced acrosome exocytosis (IVAE). Intracellular calcium was analysed through two calcium markers with different physico-chemical properties, Fluo-3 and Rhod-5N. Indicative parameters of IVC and IVAE were also evaluated. Fluo-3 was located at both the midpiece and the whole head. Rhod-5N was present at the sperm head. This distribution did not change in any of the assayed conditions. Induction of IVC was concomitant with an increase in both head and midpiece Ca(2+) signals. Additionally, while IVC induction was concurrent with a significant (p spermatozoa in the absence of calcium showed a loss of both Ca(2+) labellings concomitantly with the sperm's inability to achieve IVC. The absence of extracellular calcium also induced a severe decrease in the percentage of spermatozoa exhibiting high mitochondrial membrane potential (hMMP). The IVAE was accompanied by a fast increase in both Ca(2+) signalling in control spermatozoa. These peaks were either not detected or much lessened in the absence of calcium. Remarkably, Fluo-3 marking at the midpiece increased after progesterone addition to sperm cells incubated in a medium without Ca(2+) . The simultaneous addition of progesterone with the calcium chelant EGTA inhibited IVAE, and this was accompanied by a significant (p spermatozoa present different calcium deposits with a dynamic equilibrium among them and with the extracellular environment. Additionally, the modulation role of the intracellular calcium in spermatozoa function seems to rely on its precise localization in boar spermatozoa. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  18. Lactadherin is a candidate oviduct Lewis X trisaccharide receptor on porcine spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E; Frost, D; Li, L; Bovin, N; Miller, D J

    2017-05-01

    A recent study has demonstrated that porcine spermatozoa recognize with high affinity carbohydrate structures containing Lewis X motifs. Sperm adhesion to Lewis X is proposed to mediate sperm binding to the oviduct epithelium to form a reservoir. The objective of this study was to identify Lewis X-binding proteins from porcine spermatozoa as candidate receptors for oviduct glycans. To identify low-abundance proteins typically masked by proteins originating from seminal fluid, Lewis X candidate receptors were enriched from cauda epididymal boar spermatozoa. Plasma membrane preparations from cauda epididymal spermatozoa were subjected to RP-HPLC and glycan blotting assays to isolate and detect proteins that bind Lewis X. Following bottom-up LC-MS/MS analysis, among the two bands that bound sulfated Lewis X, ADAM5, which spermatozoa, was confidently identified. ADAM family members have been established as contributors to sperm entry into the oviduct. A second sulfated Lewis X-binding protein identified was the peripheral membrane protein lactadherin (also known as P47, SED1 and MFG-E8 in different species). The interaction between Lewis X and lactadherin was functionally important because competitive inhibition by soluble recombinant lactadherin reduced sperm binding to the oviduct epithelium. Furthermore, far-western blotting demonstrated that purified lactadherin could bind oviduct cells. In summary, these findings reveal that, in addition to the previously reported glycan affinity of accessory gland proteins that adhere to spermatozoa, multiple proteins intrinsic to spermatozoa have affinity for a specific oviduct glycan. Further, in addition to binding to the zona pellucida, lactadherin is now implicated in binding to oviduct glycans to promote formation of the sperm reservoir. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  19. Papaverine-sensitive phosphodiesterase activity is measured in bovine spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, A; Hébert, A; Guillemette, C; Laroche, A; Poulin, M-P; Aragon, J P; Leclerc, P; Sullivan, R; Blondin, P; Vigneault, C; Richard, F J

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) plays a crucial role as a signaling molecule for capacitation, motility, and acrosome reaction in mammalian spermatozoa. It is well-known that cAMP degradation by phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzyme has a major impact on sperm functions. This study was undertaken to characterize cAMP-PDE activity in bovine spermatozoa. Total cAMP-PDE activity in cauda epididymal and ejaculated spermatozoa was 543.2 ± 49.5 and 1252.6 ± 86.5 fmoles/min/10 6 spermatozoa, respectively. Using different family-specific PDE inhibitors, we showed that in cauda epididymal and ejaculated spermatozoa, the major cAMP-PDE activity was papaverine-sensitive (44.5% and 57.5%, respectively, at 400 nm, papaverine is a specific inhibitor of the PDE10 family). These data are supporting the functional presence of PDE10 in bovine spermatozoa and were further confirmed by western blot to be PDE10A. Using immunocytochemistry, we showed immunoreactive signal for PDE10A present on the post-acrosomal region of the head and on the flagella of ejaculated spermatozoa. Using papaverine, we showed that it promotes tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm proteins, phosphorylation of Erk1 and Erk2, and Ca 2+ release from Ca 2+ store. These results suggest that PDE10 is functionally present in bovine spermatozoa and is affecting different molecular events involved in capacitation, most probably by cAMP local regulation. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  20. Fatty acid composition of spermatozoa is associated with BMI and with semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, J M; Rønning, P O; Herning, H; Bekken, S D; Haugen, T B; Witczak, O

    2016-09-01

    High body mass index (BMI) is negatively associated with semen quality. In addition, the composition of fatty acids of spermatozoa has been shown to be important for their function. The aim of the study was to examine the association between BMI and the composition of spermatozoa fatty acids in men spanning a broad BMI range. We also analysed the relation between fatty acid composition of spermatozoa and semen characteristics, and the relationship between serum fatty acids and spermatozoa fatty acids. One hundred forty-four men with unknown fertility status were recruited from the general population, from couples with identified female infertility and from morbid obesity centres. Standard semen analysis (WHO) and sperm DNA integrity (DFI) analysis were performed. Fatty acid compositions were assessed by gas chromatography. When adjusted for possible confounders, BMI was negatively associated with levels of sperm docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (p spermatozoa palmitic acid correlated positively with total sperm count (r = 0.227), while levels of linoleic acid correlated negatively (r = -0.254). When adjusted for possible confounders, only the levels of arachidonic acid showed positive correlation between spermatozoa and serum phospholipids (r = 0.262). Changes in the fatty acid composition of spermatozoa could be one of the mechanisms underlying the negative association between BMI and semen quality. The relationship between fatty acids of spermatozoa and serum phospholipids was minor, which indicates that BMI affects fatty acid composition of spermatozoa through regulation of fatty acid metabolism in the testis. The role of dietary intake of fatty acids on the spermatozoa fatty acid composition remains to be elucidated. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  1. Testosterone replacement in transgenic sickle cell mice controls priapic activity and upregulates PDE5 expression and eNOS activity in the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicki, B; Karakus, S; Akakpo, W; Silva, F H; Liu, J; Chen, H; Zirkin, B R; Burnett, A L

    2018-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated priapism is characterized by decreased nitric oxide (NO) signaling and downregulated phosphodiesterase (PDE)5 protein expression and activity in the penis. Priapism is also associated with testosterone deficiency, but molecular mechanisms underlying testosterone effects in the penis in SCD are not known. Given the critical role of androgens in erection physiology and NO synthase (NOS)/PDE5 expression, we hypothesized that testosterone replacement to eugonadal testosterone levels reduces priapism by reversing impaired endothelial (e)NOS activity and molecular abnormalities involving PDE5. Adult male transgenic Berkeley sickle cell (Sickle) and wild-type (WT) mice were implanted with testosterone pellets, which release 1.2 μg testosterone/day for 21 days, or vehicle. After 21 days, animals underwent erectile function assessment followed by collection of blood for serum testosterone measurements, penes for molecular analysis, and seminal vesicles as testosterone-responsive tissue. Serum testosterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay; protein expressions of PDE5, α-smooth muscle actin, eNOS and nNOS, and phosphorylation of PDE5 at Ser-92, eNOS at Ser-1177, neuronal (n) NOS at Ser-1412, and Akt at Ser-473 were measured by Western blot in penile tissue. Testosterone treatment reversed downregulated serum testosterone levels and increased (p testosterone levels in Sickle mice. Testosterone treatment reduced (p penis. Testosterone treatment did not affect P-nNOS (Ser-1412), eNOS, nNOS, or α-smooth muscle actin protein expressions in the Sickle mouse penis. In conclusion, in the mouse model of human SCD, increasing testosterone to eugonadal levels reduced priapic activity and reversed impaired Akt/eNOS activity and PDE5 protein expression in the penis. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  2. Exposure of neonatal rats to anti-androgens induces penile mal-developments and infertility comparable to those induced by oestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, L; Avery, L; Braden, T D; Williams, C S; Okumu, L A; Williams, J W; Goyal, H O

    2012-06-01

    We previously reported that oestrogen exposure in neonatal rats induced permanent infertility and malformed penis characterized by fat accumulation, which replaced most of the smooth muscle cells and cavernous spaces in the body of the penis, structures essential for erection. The objective of this study was to determine if reduced androgen production/action in the neonatal period, in the absence of exogenous oestrogen exposure, induces penile deformities similar to those caused by oestrogen. Male rats were treated from postnatal days 1-6 with GnRH antagonist antide (A, 10 mg/kg) or androgen receptor (AR) antagonist flutamide (F, 50 mg/kg) or F + A, with or without AR agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT, 20 mg/kg). For comparison, pups received diethylstilbestrol (DES, 0.1 mg/kg), with or without DHT. Tissues were collected at ages 7 and 12 days and at adulthood. Flutamide alone decreased penile length and weight significantly (p penis and were infertile. In addition, reductions in penile length and weight were higher than in rats treated with F or A alone. DHT co-administration mitigated penile deformities in the DES group, but did not in the F + A group. Testicular testosterone was reduced by 70-95% at 7 or 12 days of age in all treated groups, except in the F group, which had threefold higher testosterone than controls. Collectively, data unequivocally show that reduced androgen production/action in the neonatal period, in the absence of oestrogen exposure, induces permanent infertility and malformed penis similar to that caused by oestrogen. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European Academy of Andrology.

  3. Dutasteride-mediated morphological changes in the genitourinary tract associated with altered expression patterns of the androgen and estrogen receptors in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enatsu, N; Chiba, K; Sumii, K; Fukuda, T; Okada, K; Matsushita, K; Fujisawa, M

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the effects of dutasteride on the genitourinary tract using fifteen 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were divided into three groups comprising five animals each and treated as follows. Group A was a control group, members of Group B received oral administration of dutasteride 0.1 mg/kg/day from the age of 8 to 16 weeks, and members of Group C were castrated at the age of 8 weeks. All rats were killed at the age of 16 weeks for the sample collection of blood, bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, and penis. Then, we evaluated the pathological examination for evaluating the tissue fibrosis and hormonal receptor expression. The results showed that the mean size of the prostate and seminal vesicles was smaller in Group B and Group C than in Group A. Serum and tissue concentrations of both testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were remarkably reduced in serum and all tissues in Group C compared with Group A. On the other hand, in Group B, only dihydrotestosterone was reduced in serum and penis. Histopathological examination revealed that Group C showed statistically significant histological changes, such as an increase in fibrotic tissue in the bladder, prostate, and penis. Similarly, Group B showed fibrotic changes in the prostate and penis compared with the Group A. Immunofluorescent staining revealed that the androgen receptor was more strongly expressed than the estrogen receptor beta in Group A. On the other hand, in Group C, weak expression of the androgen receptor and strong expression of the estrogen receptor beta was noted. In Group B, these changes were noted in the prostate and penis. These findings suggest that dutasteride cause morphological changes not only in prostate but also in penis. These changes are associated with altered expression patterns of androgen receptor and estrogen receptor. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  4. Peyronie's disease after urethral swab, an unusual complication: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulis G

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gianni Paulis,1,2 Davide Barletta3 1Andrology Center, Regina Apostolorum Hospital, Albano Laziale, Rome, Italy; 2Castelfidardo Medical Team, Peyronie's Disease Care Center, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Urology, Andrology Center, San Matteo Hospital, Pavia, Italy Abstract: Urethral swabs are still currently used as a diagnostic tool when urethritis or prostatitis are suspected. Urologists are certainly aware that Peyronie's disease may occur after traumatic urethral instrumentation (catheterization, urethrocystoscopy, etc, but onset of Peyronie's disease after urethral swab for diagnostic purposes has never been reported in the literature. This paper presents the case of a patient who developed Peyronie's disease after a clumsy urethral swab insertion. It is an unusual, and to date unreported, complication which we would like to call attention to. In the case of our patient, the swab had been inserted to a greater depth than normally required and strong pressure had also been applied. During the procedure, the patient experienced severe urethral and penile pain, which was followed by urethrorrhagia, and later penile curvature. The patient was treated conservatively with good results, partly because the disease was still in its active stage and not yet stable. In the light of what we report, when ordering a urethral swab, physicians should always recommend that it be performed at testing centers that follow accurate, rigorous standards. Patients should also be informed that the test they are to undergo consists of a swab being inserted into the urethra for a short distance, not more than 2–3 cm. Keywords: genitourinary trauma, penile curvature, Peyronie, urethral swab

  5. Tadalafil once daily and extracorporeal shock wave therapy in the management of patients with Peyronie's disease and erectile dysfunction: results from a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, A; Imbimbo, C; Creta, M; Verze, P; Fusco, F; Mirone, V

    2012-04-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy improves erectile function in patients with Peyronie's disease. However, erectile dysfunction still persists in many cases. We aimed to investigate the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy plus tadalafil 5 mg once daily in the management of patients with Peyronie's disease and erectile dysfunction not previously treated. One hundred patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, controlled study. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either extracorporeal shock wave therapy alone for 4 weeks (n = 50) or extracorporeal shock wave therapy plus tadalafil 5 mg once daily for 4 weeks (n = 50). Main outcome measures were: erectile function (evaluated through the shortened version of the International Index of Erectile Function), pain during erection (evaluated through a Visual Analog Scale), plaque size, penile curvature and quality of life (evaluated through an internal questionnaire). Follow-up evaluations were performed after 12 and 24 weeks. In both groups, at 12 weeks follow-up, mean Visual Analog Scale score, mean International Index of Erectile Function score and mean quality of life score ameliorated significantly while mean plaque size and mean curvature degree were unchanged. Intergroup analysis revealed a significantly higher mean International Index of Erectile Function score and quality of life score in patients receiving the combination. After 24 weeks, intergroup analysis revealed a significantly higher mean International Index of Erectile Function score and mean quality of life score in patients that received extracorporeal shock wave therapy plus tadalafil. In conclusion extracorporeal shock wave therapy plus tadalafil 5 mg once daily may represent a valid conservative strategy for the management of patients with Peyronie's disease and erectile dysfunction. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European Academy of Andrology.

  6. Dietary fatty acids influence sperm quality and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, A; Moscatelli, N; Di Giacomo, M; Zara, V

    2017-05-01

    Recently, obesity has been linked to male infertility. In animal models the administration of a high-fat diet caused a reduction in sperm quality, by impairing gamete energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible effect of dietary fatty acids supplementation in the modulation of sperm energy metabolism and, in turn, in the improvement of sperm quality in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed for 4 weeks a standard diet (control group), a high-fat diet (enriched in 35% of fat and 15% sucrose), a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% olive oil (a source of monounsaturated fatty acids) or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids). Liver and adipose tissue weight, plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations were determined. Activities of enzymes involved in sperm energetic metabolism were evaluated by spectrophotometric assays. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency was also assayed. The obtained results suggest that olive oil partially counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on sperm quality, by increasing gamete motility, by reducing oxidative stress and slightly improving mitochondrial respiration efficiency. On the other hand, krill oil determines an increase in sperm concentration and motility, an increase in the activities of lactate dehydrogenase, Krebs cycle enzymes and respiratory chain complexes; a parallel increase in the cellular levels of ATP and a reduction in oxidative damage were also observed. These results suggest that dietary fatty acids are able to positively influence sperm quality and function. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  7. Protective effect of crocetin on bovine spermatozoa against oxidative stress during in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapanidou, V; Taitzoglou, I; Tsakmakidis, I; Kourtzelis, I; Fletouris, D; Theodoridis, A; Lavrentiadou, S; Tsantarliotou, M

    2016-11-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major factors that contribute to poor semen quality and low rates of in vitro fertilization. Crocetin, a main constituent of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) possesses potent antioxidant activity, by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or enhancing the activity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. The aim of this study was to investigate, for the first time, the effect of crocetin on the quality characteristics of bull spermatozoa and fertilization rate. For this reason, frozen/thawed bovine spermatozoa were incubated with crocetin (1, 2.5, and 5 μm), for 120 or 240 min, in the presence of a negative control, and evaluated in terms of motility, viability, acrosomal status, DNA fragmentation index, intracellular ROS, and lipid peroxidation. In order to evaluate the impact of crocetin on cleavage and blastocyst rate, the compound was added in the IVF medium at the previously identified optimal concentration (2.5 μm). The results indicate that incubation of spermatozoa with 2.5 μm of crocetin resulted in a statistically significant lower production of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide, lower lipid peroxidation, and in better maintenance of motility parameters, viability, and acrosomal integrity, with a very small number of cells with DNA fragmentation, compared to the other groups (p fertilization medium also resulted in a significant increase in acrosome-reacted spermatozoa and blastocyst production, compared to the control group (p fertilizing ability, directly and/or indirectly, by regulating ROS concentration and lipid peroxidation. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  8. Mini-incision microdissection testicular sperm extraction: a useful technique for men with cryptozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrabeeah, K; Witmer, J; Ruiz, S; AlMalki, A; Phillips, S; Zini, A

    2016-03-01

    Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) was developed to minimize the testicular injury associated with multiple open TESEs. We sought to evaluate a mini-incision micro-TESE in men with cryptozoospermia and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). We conducted a retrospective study of 26 consecutive men with NOA and cryptozoospermia who underwent a primary (first) micro-TESE between March 2015 and August 2015. Final assessment of sperm recovery (reported on the day of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)) was recorded as (i) successful (available spermatozoa for ICSI) or (ii) unsuccessful (no spermatozoa for ICSI). The decision to perform a mini-incision micro-TESE (with limited unilateral micro-dissection) or standard/extensive (with unilateral or bilateral micro-dissection) was guided by the intra-operative identification of sperm recovery (≥5 spermatozoa) from the first testicle. Overall, sperm recovery was successful in 77% (20/26) of the men. In 37% of the men (8/26), the mini-incision micro-TESE was successful (positive sperm recovery). The remaining 18 men required a standard (extensive) microdissection: 61% (11/18) underwent a unilateral and 39% (7/18) a bilateral micro-TESE. We found that 90% (9/10) of the men with cryptozoospermia and 63% (10/16) of the men with NOA underwent a unilateral (mini or standard micro-TESE). The mini-incision micro-TESE allowed for successful sperm recovery in 60% (6/10) of the men with cryptozoospermia and 13% (2/16) of the men with NOA. The data demonstrate that a mini-incision micro-TESE together with rapid intra-operative assessment and identification of spermatozoa recovery can be useful in men undergoing microTESE, particularly, men with cryptozoospermia. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  9. Sperm retrieval outcomes with microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) in men with cryptozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrabeeah, K; Wachter, A; Phillips, S; Cohen, B; Al-Hathal, N; Zini, A

    2015-05-01

    Several studies support of the use of testicular rather than ejaculated spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in couples with virtual azoospermia or cryptozoospermia, although this approach remains controversial. We sought to evaluate sperm retrieval outcomes with microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) in men with cryptozoospermia. We conducted a retrospective study of 24 consecutive micro-TESEs in men with cryptozoospermia. We also evaluated the outcomes of seven consecutive TESAs (testicular sperm aspiration) in cryptozoospermic men during the same time period (January 2007 and September 2014). Micro-TESE and TESA were performed on the day prior to ICSI. Final assessment of sperm recovery (reported on the day of ICSI) was recorded as (i) successful (available spermatozoa for ICSI) or (ii) unsuccessful (no spermatozoa for ICSI). The decision to perform a unilateral or bilateral micro-TESE was guided by the intra-operative evaluation of sperm recovery from the first testicle. A unilateral procedure was performed in 87.5% (21/24) and 57% (4/7) of the micro-TESE and TESA cohorts, respectively. Sperm recovery was successful in 96% (23/24) of the men who underwent micro-TESE and 43% (3/7) of the men who underwent TESA (p TESE and TESA groups were comparable [33% (6/18) and 50% (1/2), respectively]. The data indicate that micro-TESE is a highly successful sperm retrieval technique for men with cryptozoospermia and few of these men will require a bilateral procedure. Moreover, sperm retrieval rates are higher with micro-TESE than TESA in this group of men. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  10. Adult exposure to tributyltin affects hypothalamic neuropeptide Y, Y1 receptor distribution, and circulating leptin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, E; Farinetti, A; Marraudino, M; Sterchele, D; Eva, C; Gotti, S; Panzica, G

    2016-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a pesticide used in antifouling paints, is toxic for aquatic invertebrates. In vertebrates, TBT may act in obesogen- inducing adipogenetic gene transcription for adipocyte differentiation. In a previous study, we demonstrated that acute administration of TBT induces c-fos expression in the arcuate nucleus. Therefore, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult exposure to TBT may alter a part of the nervous pathways controlling animal food intake. In particular, we investigated the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactivity. This neuropeptide forms neural circuits dedicated to food assumption and its action is mediated by Y1 receptors that are widely expressed in the hypothalamic nuclei responsible for the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. To this purpose, TBT was orally administered at a dose of 0.025 mg/kg/day/body weight to adult animals [male and female C57BL/6 (Y1-LacZ transgenic mice] for 4 weeks. No differences were found in body weight and fat deposition, but we observed a significant increase in feed efficiency in TBT-treated male mice and a significant decrease in circulating leptin in both sexes. Computerized quantitative analysis of NPY immunoreactivity and Y1-related β-galactosidase activity demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in NPY and Y1 transgene expression in the hypothalamic circuit controlling food intake of treated male mice in comparison with controls. In conclusion, the present results indicate that adult exposure to TBT is profoundly interfering with the nervous circuits involved in the stimulation of food intake. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  11. The rs5934505 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is associated with low testosterone and late-onset hypogonadism, but the rs10822184 SNP is associated with overweight and obesity in a Chinese Han population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-P; Nie, L-L; Li, H-G; Liu, T-H; Fang, F; Zhao, K; Yang, R-F; Ma, X-L; Kong, X-B; Zhang, H-P; Guan, H-T; Xia, W; Hong, W-X; Duan, S; Zeng, X-C; Shang, X-J; Zhou, Y-Z; Gu, Y-Q; Wu, W-X; Xiong, C-L

    2016-01-01

    Low testosterone is associated with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) and obesity. Recently, studies have shown that four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs12150660, rs727428, rs5934505, and rs10822184, are associated with testosterone levels in populations of European descent. Therefore, we investigated whether the SNP loci are related to low testosterone, LOH, or obesity in a Chinese Han population. Ruling out co-morbidities, DNA was prepared from 409 men (aged 40-65 years) with low serum testosterone (defined as total testosterone testosterone and calculated free testosterone (CFT) levels (p = 0.045 and p = 0.021). rs5934505 (C>T) was associated with an increased risk of low total testosterone, low CFT, and LOH and adjusted for other factors, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.01 (1.34-3.01), 2.14 (1.42-3.20), and 1.64 (1.04-2.58). rs10822184 was significantly correlated with weight and BMI (p = 0.035 and p = 0.027). rs10822184 (T>C) was associated with an increased risk of overweight and obesity. We adjusted for other factors, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.94 (1.36-2.78) and 1.56 (1.00-2.43). In summary, our study provided convincing evidence that rs5934505 (C>T) was associated with the risk of low testosterone and LOH in Chinese populations. We were the first to find that rs10822184 (T>C) was significantly correlated with the risk of overweight and obesity in Chinese populations. However, further large and functional studies are warranted to confirm our findings. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  12. Endocrine and molecular investigations in a cohort of 25 adolescent males with prominent/persistent pubertal gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, F; Gaspari, L; Mbou, F; Philibert, P; Audran, F; Morel, Y; Biason-Lauber, A; Sultan, C

    2016-03-01

    Pubertal gynecomastia is a common condition observed in up to 65% of adolescent males. It is usually idiopathic and tends to regress within 1-2 years. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we investigated 25 adolescent males with prominent (>B3) and/or persistent (>2 years) pubertal gynecomastia (P/PPG) to determine whether a hormonal/genetic defect might underline this condition. Endocrine investigation revealed the absence of hormonal disturbance for 18 boys (72%). Three patients presented Klinefelter syndrome and three a partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) as a result of p.Ala646Asp and p.Ala45Gly mutations of the androgen receptor gene. The last patient showed a 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency as a result of a compound heterozygous mutation of the CYP17A1 gene leading to p.Pro35Thr(P35T) and p.Arg239Stop(R239X) in the P450c17 protein. Enzymatic activity was analyzed: the mutant protein bearing the premature stop codon R239X showed a complete loss of 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activity. The mutant P35T seemed to retain 15-20% of 17α-hydroxylase and about 8-10% of 17,20-lyase activity. This work demonstrates that P/PPG had an endocrine/genetic cause in 28% of our cases. PAIS may be expressed only by isolated gynecomastia as well as by 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. Isolated P/PPG is not always a 'physiological' condition and should thus be investigated through adequate endocrine and genetic investigations, even though larger studies are needed to better determine the real prevalence of genetic defects in such patients. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  13. Modelling defined mixtures of environmental oestrogens found in domestic animal and sewage treatment effluents using an in vitro oestrogen-mediated transcriptional activation assay (T47D-KBluc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Dieldrich S; Gray, L Earl; Wilson, Vickie S

    2012-06-01

    . International Journal of Andrology © 2012 European Academy of Andrology.

  14. Relative importance of prenatal and postnatal androgen action in determining growth of the penis and anogenital distance in the rat before, during and after puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Driesche, S; Scott, H M; MacLeod, D J; Fisken, M; Walker, M; Sharpe, R M

    2011-12-01

    Experimental animal studies show that measurement of anogenital distance (AGD) and/or penis length may provide lifelong 'read-outs' of foetal androgen exposure during the masculinization programming window (MPW). However, variation in postnatal androgen exposure may complicate interpretation of such measurements. This is important to clarify if such measurements are to be applied to humans. The present aim was to evaluate effects of prenatal and/or postnatal manipulation of androgen production/action on growth of AGD and the penis in rats. Pregnant rats were treated daily before (e13.5-e21.5) and after birth (postnatal days 1-15) with either vehicle, 500 mg/kg di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) or 100 mg/kg flutamide (postnatal only) in prenatal + postnatal treatment combinations (N = 6 treatment combinations); DBP impairs androgen production whereas flutamide impairs androgen action. Male offspring were killed on postnatal day 8 (prepuberty), 25 (early puberty) or 90 (adulthood) when AGD was measured, the penis dissected out and its weight and length measured; plasma testosterone and ventral prostate weight were measured at day 90 to assess endogenous androgen exposure. In controls, penis length, girth and AGD increased 2.2-, 5.3-and 5.9-fold respectively from day 8 to day 90. Significant inhibition of penis growth and final length and girth was induced by treatments that inhibited postnatal androgen action. Conversely, growth and ultimate (adult) AGD was inhibited by prenatal inhibition of androgen production whereas postnatal androgen inhibition had negligible effect. Nevertheless, AGD and penis length were highly correlated at every age (R(2) > 0.33; p penis size reflects both prenatal + postnatal androgen exposure. At the group treatment level, prepubertal measurement of either AGD or penis size accurately predicts their size in adulthood. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European Academy of Andrology.

  15. Correlates and prevalence of hypogonadism in patients with early- and late-onset type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Zhang, M; Liu, X; Cui, W; Rampersad, S; Li, F; Lin, Z; Yang, P; Li, H; Sheng, C; Cheng, X; Qu, S

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to compare the prevalence of hypogonadism between male patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and late-onset type 2 diabetes. A total of 122 male patients with early-onset T2DM (diagnosis age ≤40 years) and 100 male patients with late-onset T2DM (diagnosis age >40 years) were recruited from our in-patient department between 1 January 2013 and 28 December 2015. Serum FSH, LH, testosterone, lipid profile, uric acid, HbA1c, and beta-cell function were determined in blood samples. The diagnosis of hypogonadism was based on the levels of LH, FSH, and total testosterone. The mean onset age was 29.86 ± 6.31 and 54.47 ± 9.97 years old in the early-onset group and late-onset group, respectively. Compared with late-onset T2DM, those with early-onset T2DM had a higher proportion of new-onset diabetes, were more likely to be obese, and had worse glycemic control, lipid control, and lower sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The prevalence of hypogonadism was much higher in the early-onset group than in the late-onset group (48.0% vs. 26.7%, p hypogonadism in the early-onset group and late-onset group were 44.3% and 25.0%, respectively (p hypogonadism was higher in the patients with early-onset T2DM than that of late-onset T2DM. This prevalence might be attributable to greater obesity, worse lipid control, and lower SHBG levels in those patients. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  16. Systematic literature review of the risk factors, comorbidities, and consequences of hypogonadism in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarotsky, V; Huang, M-Y; Carman, W; Morgentaler, A; Singhal, P K; Coffin, D; Jones, T H

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this review was to summarize the literature on the risk factors, comorbidities, and consequences of male hypogonadism, which is defined as a syndrome complex that includes biochemical confirmation of low testosterone (T) and the consistent symptoms and signs associated with low T. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library for articles published in the last 10 years on risk factors, comorbidities, and consequences of male hypogonadism. Of the 53 relevant studies identified, nine examined potential risk factors, 14 examined potential comorbidities, and 30 examined potential consequences of male hypogonadism. Based on studies conducted in Asia, Australia, Europe, and North & South America, the important factors that predicted and correlated with hypogonadism were advanced age, obesity, a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and a poor general health status. Diabetes mellitus was correlated with hypogonadism in most studies, but was not established as a risk factor. Although diseases, such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease did not predict hypogonadism, they did correlate with incident low T. The data reviewed on potential consequences suggest that low T levels may be linked to earlier all-cause and cardiovascular related mortality among men. This literature review suggests that men with certain factors, such as advanced age, obesity, MetS, and poor general health, are more likely to have and develop hypogonadism. Low levels of T may have important long-term negative health consequences. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  17. Serum vitamin D levels and hypogonadism in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchbaum, E; Pilz, S; Trummer, C; Rabe, T; Schenk, M; Heijboer, A C; Obermayer-Pietsch, B

    2014-09-01

    There is inconsistent evidence on a possible association of vitamin D and androgen levels in men. We therefore aim to investigate the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with androgen levels in a cohort of middle-aged men. This cross-sectional study included 225 men with a median (interquartile range) age of 35 (30-41) years. We measured 25(OH)D, total testosterone (TT) and SHBG concentrations. Hypogonadism was defined as TT hypogonadism was 21.5% and lowest in men within 25(OH)D quintile 4 (82-102 nmol/L). We found a significantly increased risk of hypogonadism in men within the highest 25(OH)D quintile (>102 nmol/L) compared to men in quintile 4 (reference) in crude (OR 5.10, 1.51-17.24, p = 0.009) as well as in multivariate adjusted analysis (OR 9.21, 2.27-37.35, p = 0.002). We found a trend towards increased risk of hypogonadism in men within the lowest 25(OH)D quintile (≤43.9 nmol/L). In conclusion, our data suggest that men with very high 25(OH)D levels (>102 nmol/L) might be at an increased risk of hypogonadism. Furthermore, we observed a trend towards increased risk of hypogonadism in men with very low vitamin D levels indicating a U-shaped association of vitamin D levels and hypogonadism. With respect to risk of male hypogonadism, our results suggest optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations of 82-102 nmol/L. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  18. Fragmentasi DNA Spermatozoa: Penyebab, Deteksi, dan Implikasinya pada Infertilitas Laki-Laki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia W. Lestari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prediksi fertilitas laki-laki dapat dilakukan dengan analisis semen. Analisis semen konvensionalmerupakan pemeriksaan sederhana dan tidak mahal, tetapi memiliki variabilitas yang tinggi.Integritas DNA spermatozoa penting untuk transmisi informasi genetik. Fragmentasi DNAspermatozoa sebagai akibat gangguan spermatogenesis, maturasi spermatozoa, stres oksidatifdan infeksi, dapat menyebabkan infertilitas laki-laki, gangguan perkembangan embrio dan abortusberulang. Hubungan fragmentasi DNA spermatozoa dengan luaran teknologi reproduksi berbantu(TRB mengarahkan fragmentasi DNA spermatozoa sebagai pemeriksaan infertilitas laki-laki. Dariberbagai metode fragmentasi DNA spermatozoa yang umum dilakukan, sperm chromatin dispersion(SCD merupakan metode pemeriksaan fragmentasi DNA spermatozoa yang sederhana, akuratdan tidak mahal, sehingga dapat dilaksanakan di laboratorium andrologi. Selain menghasilkandiagnosis yang lebih baik, pemeriksaan fragmentasi DNA spermatozoa juga menggambarkanprognosis infertilitas termasuk luaran program TRB. Kata kunci: infertilitas laki-laki, fragmentasi DNA spermatozoa, SCD   Sperm DNA Fragmentation: Etiology, Detection and Implicationto Male Infertility Abstract The prediction of male fertility is determined by semen analysis. The conventional semenanalysis is simple and inexpensive but prone to variability. The integrity of sperm DNA is essentialfor the transmission of genetic information. Fragmentation of sperm DNA as result of disruptionin spermatogenesis and sperm maturation, oxidative stress, and infection may lead to maleinfertility, abnormal embryonic development and recurrent abortion. The association betweensperm DNA fragmentation and diminished reproductive outcomes has led to the introduction ofsperm DNA fragmentation testing on the clinical assessment of male infertility. Of all the spermDNA fragmentation tests, sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD test is quite simple, accurate, andinexpensive to be conducted on

  19. 5α-Dihydrotestosterone negatively regulates cell proliferation of the periurethral ventral mesenchyme during urethral tube formation in the murine male genital tubercle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Matsushita, S; Suzuki, K; Yamada, G

    2017-01-01

    Androgen is an essential factor involved in masculinization of external genitalia. Failure of the exposure to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) causes a hypoplastic penile size and urethral abnormality. The main pathology of hypospadias is defective urethral closure on the ventral side of the penis. Hormone-dependent genes are suggested as the causative factors. However, the detailed mechanisms of DHT functions on urethral tube formation remain unknown. Androgen is both a positive and negative regulator of cell proliferation. The roles of locally converted DHT in cell proliferation at the periurethral mesenchyme have not been elucidated. We revealed the expression pattern of 5α-reductase type 2 mRNA (Srd5a2) and local DHT distribution by direct measurement in this study. We also analyzed periurethral mesenchymal cell proliferation status using systematic three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction analyses. A prominent Srd5a2 expression and localized DHT distribution on the ventral side of the genital tubercle were detected. Cell proliferation was reduced in this mesenchymal region during urethral formation. The current results suggest the presence of the possible negative regulation of cell proliferation by DHT. Moreover, cell proliferation related to urethral tube formation was revealed to be DHT dose dependent. These data are expected to contribute to the understanding of the mode of regulation of cell proliferation related to urethral tube formation by DHT. These findings may also offer insight into the understanding of human hypospadias and related hormone-dependent factors. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  20. Contribution of testosterone to the clock system in rat prostate mesenchyme cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, M; Tasaki, H; Misawa, I; Chu, G; Yamauchi, N; Hattori, M-A

    2014-03-01

    Circadian rhythms are modulated in a variety of peripheral tissues including the prostate, in which the mesenchyme and epithelium cells are controlled under androgens. Here, we investigated the testosterone regulation of core clock genes such as Bmal1, Clock, Per2 and Nr1d1 under a deficient state of testosterone. In vivo studies showed that the Bmal1 mRNA expression in the prostates displayed a peak at ZT 20 and a trough at ZT 12. Both Bmal1 and Clock transcripts decreased after castration. Conversely, the expression of Per2 that is promoted by binding of Bmal1 and Clock heterodimers to the E-box, enhanced or did not decease at least within 1 week after castration. The clock gene transcripts were recovered to the intact levels, when 1 mg testosterone was administered daily for 5 days. Fluorescent immunohistochemical studies revealed the increased staining of caspase 3 in the epithelium and Per2 in both the mesenchyme and epithelium after 1-week castration. In the mesenchyme cells prepared from castrated rats, the Per2 oscillation was generated in response to dexamethasone. The circadian rhythms of Bmal1 and Nr1d1 transcripts were obviously antiphase in the cells. However, the mesenchyme cells displayed the different profiles in the presence or absence of testosterone; the amplitude of the first phase was significantly decreased by testosterone. Addition of testosterone significantly increased the transcripts of Bmal1, Clock and Casp3 in cultured cells, whereas the Per2 and Nr1d1 transcripts were significantly inhibited. Collectively, the present results demonstrated that Bmal1 and Clock, but not Per2 and Nr1d1, are down-regulated in mesenchyme cells by testosterone deficiency. In addition to the conservative interlocked transcriptional-translational feedback loop, it is strongly suggested that the prostate clock system is controlled under androgen. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  1. Increased risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder associated with exposure to organophosphate pesticide in Taiwanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C-J; Du, J-C; Chiou, H-C; Chung, M-Y; Yang, W; Chen, Y-S; Fuh, M-R; Chien, L-C; Hwang, B; Chen, M-L

    2016-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is male predominated, and the etiology of this disorder remains unclear. Past studies have assessed the association of low-level organophosphate pesticide exposure with childhood ADHD cross-sectionally and prospectively. However, the results have been inconsistent. A first case-control study was performed to investigate the relationship between organophosphate pesticide exposure and ADHD with adjusted covariates. We recruited 97 doctor-diagnosed ADHD cases and 110 non-ADHD controls who were 4-15 years of age. Exposure was assessed using urinary levels of dialkylphosphate metabolites, which are biomarkers of OP pesticide exposure. Blood lead levels and polymorphisms of two commonly verified dopaminergic-related genes (the D4 dopamine receptor gene DRD4 and the dopamine transporter gene DAT1) were also analyzed. The sociodemographics and lifestyles of the children and of the mothers during pregnancy were collected using a questionnaire. The blood lead levels of both groups were similar (1.57 ± 0.73 vs. 1.73 ± 0.77 μg/dL, p = 0.15). Significant urinary concentration differences in one of the six dialkylphosphate metabolites, dimethylphosphate (DMP), were found between ADHD and control subjects (322.92 ± 315.68 vs. 224.37 ± 156.58 nmol/g cr., p Organophosphate pesticide exposure may have deleterious effects on children's neurodevelopment, particularly the development of ADHD. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  2. Constitutive NOS uncoupling and NADPH oxidase upregulation in the penis of type 2 diabetic men with erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicki, B; Burnett, A L

    2017-03-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) involves dysfunctional nitric oxide (NO) signaling and increased oxidative stress in the penis. However, the mechanisms of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) dysregulation, and the sources of oxidative stress, are not well defined, particularly at the human level. The objective of this study was to define whether uncoupled eNOS and nNOS, and NADPH oxidase upregulation, contribute to the pathogenesis of ED in T2DM men. Penile erectile tissue was obtained from 9 T2DM patients with ED who underwent penile prosthesis surgery for ED, and from six control patients without T2DM or ED who underwent penectomy for penile cancer. The dimer-to-monomer protein expression ratio, an indicator of uncoupling for both eNOS and nNOS, total protein expressions of eNOS and nNOS, as well as protein expressions of NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit gp91phox (an enzymatic source of oxidative stress) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [4-HNE] and nitrotyrosine (markers of oxidative stress) were measured by western blot in this tissue. In the erectile tissue of T2DM men, eNOS and nNOS uncoupling and protein expressions of NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox, 4-HNE- and nitrotyrosine-modified proteins were significantly (p penis may involve uncoupled eNOS and nNOS and NADPH oxidase upregulation. Our description of molecular factors contributing to the pathogenesis of T2DM-associated ED at the human level is relevant to advancing clinically therapeutic approaches to restore erectile function in T2DM patients. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  3. Sexuality and fertility in men with hypospadias; improved outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örtqvist, L; Fossum, M; Andersson, M; Nordenström, A; Frisén, L; Holmdahl, G; Nordenskjöld, A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate sexual function and fertility in adult men born with hypospadias. Patients born with hypospadias, age-matched controls, and a group of circumcised men completed a questionnaire constructed to reflect their psychosexual situation and fertility. Core gender identity, sexual orientation, and gender role behavior was also assessed. 167 patients [63% distal, 24% mid shaft and 13% proximal, mean age 34 (19-54) years], 169 controls from the general population [mean age 33 (19-48) years] and 47 controls circumcised because of phimosis (mean age 26 [19-44]) participated and completed the questionnaire. There were no differences in having a partner, reported fertility, age at sexarche (mean age 17.8), number of sex partners or sexual interest between the patients and controls. More patients than controls reported anejaculation. Reported glanular sensitivity was lower in hypospadias patients and circumcised controls compared with non-circumcised controls. The odds of being satisfied with their sexual life increased with a higher penile perception score in patients (OR = 1.54, p = 0.01). There was no association with penile length. Sexual orientation, core gender identity and gender role behavior were sex-typical in both patients and controls. Patients with proximal hypospadias had a lower reported fertility, experienced anejaculation more often, and were less satisfied with their sexual life. Men born with hypospadias have a good long-term outcome concerning sexual function and fertility. Men born with proximal hypospadias have a more impaired outcome concerning both sexual function and fertility. As satisfaction with genital appearance is important for sexual life satisfaction, clinical, and psychological follow-up into adulthood is especially important in boys born with proximal hypospadias. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  4. Sunscreens: are they beneficial for health? An overview of endocrine disrupting properties of UV-filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, M; Klit, A; Blomberg Jensen, M; Søeborg, T; Frederiksen, H; Schlumpf, M; Lichtensteiger, W; Skakkebaek, N E; Drzewiecki, K T

    2012-06-01

    Today, topical application of sunscreens, containing ultraviolet-filters (UV-filters), is preferred protection against adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation. Evidently, use of sunscreens is effective in prevention of sunburns in various models. However, evidence for their protective effects against melanoma skin cancer is less conclusive. Three important observations prompted us to review the animal data and human studies on possible side effects of selected chemical UV-filters in cosmetics. (1) the utilization of sunscreens with UV-filters is increasing worldwide; (2) the incidence of the malignant disorder for which sunscreens should protect, malignant melanoma, is rapidly increasing and (3) an increasing number of experimental studies indicating that several UV-filters might have endocrine disruptive effects. The selected UV-filters we review in this article are benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC), 3-(4-methyl-benzylidene) camphor (4-MBC), 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxy cinnamate (OMC), Homosalate (HMS), 2-ethylhexyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate (OD-PABA) and 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). The potential adverse effects induced by UV-filters in experimental animals include reproductive/developmental toxicity and disturbance of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT). Few human studies have investigated potential side effects of UV-filters, although human exposure is high as UV-filters in sunscreens are rapidly absorbed from the skin. One of the UV-filters, BP-3, has been found in 96% of urine samples in the US and several UV-filters in 85% of Swiss breast milk samples. It seems pertinent to evaluate whether exposure to UV-filters contribute to possible adverse effects on the developing organs of foetuses and children. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2012 European Academy of Andrology.

  5. Neonatal hypothyroidism affects testicular glucose homeostasis through increased oxidative stress in prepubertal mice: effects on GLUT3, GLUT8 and Cx43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, D; Singh, S K

    2017-07-01

    homeostasis via increased oxidative stress in prepubertal mice, thereby affecting germ cell survival and proliferation. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  6. Comparison of the single dose pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of two novel oral formulations of dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU): a potential oral, male contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, R; Page, S T; Swerdloff, R S; Liu, P Y; Amory, J K; Leung, A; Hull, L; Blithe, D; Christy, A; Chao, J H; Bremner, W J; Wang, C

    2017-03-01

    Dimethandrolone (DMA, 7α,11β-dimethyl-19-nortestosterone) has both androgenic and progestational activities, ideal properties for a male hormonal contraceptive. In vivo, dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU) is hydrolyzed to DMA. We showed previously that single oral doses of DMAU powder in capsule taken with food are well tolerated and effective at suppressing both LH and testosterone (T), but absorption was low. We compared the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of two new formulations of DMAU, in castor oil and in self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS), with the previously tested powder formulation. DMAU was dosed orally in healthy adult male volunteers at two academic medical centers. For each formulation tested in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 10 men received single, escalating, oral doses of DMAU (100, 200, and 400 mg) and two subjects received placebo. All doses were evaluated for both fasting and with a high fat meal. All three formulations were well tolerated without clinically significant changes in vital signs, blood counts, or serum chemistries. For all formulations, DMA and DMAU showed higher maximum (p food, but only the SEDDS formulation was effectively suppressed serum T when given fasting. We conclude that while all three formulations of oral DMAU are effective and well tolerated when administered with food, DMAU in oil and SEDDS increased conversion to DMA, and SEDDS may have some effectiveness when given fasting. These properties might be advantageous for the application of DMAU as a male contraceptive. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  7. Neuropsychology and brain morphology in Klinefelter syndrome - the impact of genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakkebaek, A; Bojesen, A; Kristensen, M K; Cohen, A; Hougaard, D M; Hertz, J M; Fedder, J; Laurberg, P; Wallentin, M; Østergaard, J R; Pedersen, A D; Gravholt, C H

    2014-07-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS, 47,XXY) is associated with increased psychiatric morbidity and cognitive disabilities, although the neuropsychological phenotype shows great variability. Androgen receptor polymorphism (CAG repeat length), skewed X-chromosome inactivation and parent-of-origin of the extra X-chromosome have been suggested to influence cognitive function and psychological traits. These issues have not been clarified for KS patients. We studied X-chromosome inactivation pattern, CAG repeat length and parent-of-origin in relation to educational and cohabitation status, personality and autism traits, psychological distress, cognitive function and brain volumes in 73 KS patients and 73 controls. Grey matter (GM) volume of left insula was significantly decreased in KS patients with skewed X-inactivation (z = 5.78) and we observed a borderline significant difference in global brain matter volume where KS patients with skewed X-chromosome inactivation tended to have smaller brains. Skewed X-inactivation, CAG repeat length and parent-of-origin were not correlated with educational and marital status, personality traits, autism traits, and psychological distress, prevalence of depression and anxiety or cognitive function. Interestingly our results regarding brain volumes indicate that X-inactivation has an influence on GM volume in left insula and might also be related to global GM volume, indicating a possible effect of X-linked genes on the development of GM volume in KS patient. Skewed X-inactivation, CAG repeat length and parent-of-origin have no impact on the neuropsychological phenotype in KS (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (Clinical trial NCT00999310)). © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  8. Cross-sectional study of the sperm quality in semen samples from spinal cord injured men after long-term cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, J; Göcking, K; Kissling-Niggli, M; Pannek, J

    2015-03-01

    The deterioration of semen quality occurs very early after spinal cord injury (SCI). Thus, routine cryopreservation of semen early after injury has been recommended. However, there is currently a lack of data concerning the effects of long-term cryopreservation on the quality of spermatozoa from SCI men. We have therefore investigated the quality of spermatozoa from SCI men before and after long-term cryopreservation. The semen cryobank of a SCI rehabilitation center was screened for samples with a storage duration of more than 3 years, to carry out a cross-sectional study regarding the sperm quality of semen samples from SCI men. Semen quality analysis was carried out according to the WHO-Guidelines. The quality of 28 semen samples from 16 SCI men was investigated prior to and a median 11 years (95% CI 7-13 years) after cryopreservation. Prior to cryopreservation, ejaculate volume (median = 1.7 mL, 95% CI 1-3 mL) and sperm concentration (median = 106 × 10(6) /mL, 95% CI 82-132 × 10(6) /mL) were within normal limits, but total sperm motility (median = 19%, 95% CI 13-22%) and viability (median = 27%, 95% CI 19-45%) were reduced. Cryopreservation resulted in a significant (p cryopreservation sperm viability and post-cryopreservation motility. The assisted ejaculation technique had no significant (p > 0.053) effect on semen quality. Long-term cryopreservation of semen from SCI men results in essentially immotile sperm with minimal viability. Thus, routine long-term cryobanking of semen harvested early after SCI cannot be recommended. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  9. The effect of paternal diet-induced obesity on sperm function and fertilization in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, H W; Mitchell, M; Setchell, B P; Lane, M

    2011-10-01

    Although obvious effects of obesity on female reproduction and oocytes are emerging, the effects on male fertility and sperm quality are less clear with studies reporting conflicting results. We hypothesize that male obesity affects sperm function and physiology probably as a result of elevated oxidative stress in spermatozoa and therefore elevated levels of sperm DNA damage and loss of function. Six-week-old C57/Bl6 male mice (n = 36) were randomly allocated to two groups: group 1 (n = 18) received a control diet, whereas group 2 (n = 18) received a high-fat diet (HFD). At the completion of a 9-week period, mice were sacrificed and spermatozoa were obtained. Sperm motility, concentration, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and sperm DNA damage were measured. The ability of the sperm to undergo capacitation, acrosome reaction, sperm binding and ability to fertilize an oocyte were also assessed. The percentage of motile spermatozoa was decreased in the HFD group compared with controls (36 ± 2% vs. 44 ± 4%; p Sperm DNA damage was also increased (1.64 ± 0.6% vs. 0.17 ± 0.06%; p sperm was significantly lower compared with controls (12.34% vs. 21.06%; p sperm bound to each oocyte was significantly lower (41.14 ± 2.5 vs. 58.39 ± 2.4; p sperm DNA damage as well as decreased fertilizing ability. This is important as DNA damage in the sperm as a result of oxidative stress has been linked to poor reproductive outcomes. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European Academy of Andrology.

  10. Microscopic visualization of intravasal spermatozoa is positively associated with patency after bilateral microsurgical vasovasostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, R; Mata, D A; Jain, L; Perkins, A R; Marks, S H; Lipshultz, L I

    2015-05-01

    Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  11. Hypogonadism in testicular cancer patients is associated with risk factors of cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogefors, C; Isaksson, S; Bobjer, J; Kitlinski, M; Leijonhufvud, I; Link, K; Giwercman, A

    2017-07-01

    More than 95% of testicular cancer are cured but they are at increased long-term risk of cardiovascular disease. The risk of cardiovascular disease and treatment intensity was reported, but it is unknown whether this effect of cancer therapy is direct or indirect, mediated through androgen deficiency. Our aim was, therefore, to evaluate whether testicular cancer patients have increased the prevalence of risk factors of cardiovascular disease and if these risk factors are associated with hypogonadism and/or the cancer treatment given. In 92 testicular cancer patients (mean 9.2 years follow-up) and age-matched controls, blood samples were analysed for lipids, total testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), glucose and insulin. An estimate of insulin resistance, HOMAir was calculated. Hypogonadism was defined as total testosterone  10 IU/L and/or androgen replacement. In testicular cancer men with hypogonadism, compared with eugonadal patients, higher insulin (mean difference: 3.10 mIU/L; p = 0.002) and HOMAir (mean difference: 0.792; p = 0.007) were detected. Hypogonadism group presented with increased risk (OR = 4.4; p = 0.01) of metabolic syndrome. Most associations between the treatment given and the metabolic parameters became statistically non-significant after adjustment for hypogonadism. In conclusion, testicular cancer patients with signs of hypogonadism presented with significantly increased risk of metabolic syndrome and investigation of endocrine and metabolic parameters is warranted in these patients. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  12. Genital diseases awareness in young male students: Is information necessary to protect them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondaini, Nicola; Silvani, Mauro; Zenico, Teo; Gallo, Fabrizio; Rosso, Franco; Cai, Tommaso; Ughi, Gianni; Scarano, Pasquale; Orlando, Vincenzo; Bartoletti, Riccardo

    2013-04-19

    Few studies on the prevalence of male sexual diseases are currently available due to difficult application of observational studies or andrological disease prevention campaigns on large series of apparently healthy subjects. The medical check-up linked to compulsory military service represented in Italy a valid tool for epidemiological and observational study for 18 year old boys from 1861 to 2004. The stopping of compulsory military service and its related medical check-up could have determined an important social impact in terms of a lower level of attention and care on male genital/sexual diseases. The aim of the present observational study was to check the prevalence of genital/sexual diseases among young male high-school students and promote an alternative campaign of information among young students. A prospective observational analytical study on young male students was conducted by 6 urological centres. Genital and sexually transmitted diseases were presented with slides to students in a general assembly. Some students were then counselled and filled out a short questionnaire on their lifestyle. 12,535 students (10,432 males-83.6%) followed the presentation. and 4,897 males (46.7%) decided to be checked-up by the urologist and out of them 1554 (31.7%) presented relevant andrological diseases. Five-hundred students completed the questionnaire concerning their lifestyle. Many of them had not yet experienced condom use during sexual intercourse (27.8%). Drug abuse was reported by 39.6% of subjects and alcohol consumption in 80.8% of them. These data suggest the need for a national information campaign on male sexual disorders to promote sexual health.

  13. Centrifugation stress reduces the responsiveness of spermatozoa to a capacitation stimulus in in vitro-aged semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, H; Ngo, T T; Waberski, D

    2015-09-01

    of centrifuged semen in assisted reproductive technologies and confound interpretation of capacitation assays. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  14. Notch signaling in the epididymal epithelium regulates sperm motility and is transferred at a distance within epididymosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murta, D; Batista, M; Silva, E; Trindade, A; Henrique, D; Duarte, A; Lopes-da-Costa, L

    2016-03-01

    Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  15. Epididymal contraction and sperm parameters are affected by clonidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Júnior, E D; de Souza, B P; Vilela, V V; Rodrigues, J Q D; Nichi, M; de Agostini Losano, J D; Dalmazzo, A; Barnabe, V H; Jurkiewicz, A; Jurkiewicz, N H

    2014-11-01

    The use of clonidine, a selective agonist of α2-adrenoceptors, is related to the fertility impairment. Thus, it has been described that changes in the epididymal function are related to the loss of fertility. Therefore, this study was sought to further evaluate the effects of clonidine in the rat distal cauda epididymis contractions and its consequence in the sperm parameters. The in vitro effects of clonidine in the isolated distal cauda epididymis were evaluated by pharmacological experiments. The consecutive contractile responses for clonidine in distal cauda epididymis showed desensitization. The noradrenaline-induced contractions were desensitized after in vitro clonidine pre-treatment (10(-5) M for 10 min). Clonidine was unable to alter the noradrenaline contractions if the in vitro pre-treatment was made in the presence of idazoxan (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), whereas prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) was ineffective. Moreover, the in vitro clonidine pre-treatment increased frequency and amplitude of spontaneous contraction of distal cauda epididymis. In addition, to induce in vivo desensitization of α2-adrenoceptors, male Wistar rats were treated with crescent doses of clonidine and distal cauda of epididymis contraction and sperm parameters were analyzed. The in vivo treatment with clonidine diminished the potency of the contractions induced by adrenergic agonists and augmented the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous contraction of distal cauda epididymis. This treatment also altered the sperm transit time in epididymis, epididymal sperm reserves, sperm lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzymes activity. The results suggest that clonidine was able to affect the sperm quantity and quality by decreasing the transit time related to the increase in the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous contractions in epididymis, although the contractions induced by adrenergic agonists were desensitized. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European

  16. Thiol changes during epididymal maturation: a link to flagellar angulation in mouse spermatozoa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijiri, T W; Vadnais, M L; Huang, A P; Lin, A M; Levin, L R; Buck, J; Gerton, G L

    2014-01-01

    Caput epididymal wild-type spermatozoa and cauda epididymal spermatozoa from mice null for the adenylyl cyclase Adcy10 gene are immotile unless stimulated by a membrane-permeant cyclic AMP analogue. Both types of spermatozoa exhibit flagellar angulation where the head folds back under these conditions. As sperm proteins undergo oxidation of sulfhydryl groups and the flagellum becomes more stable to external forces during epididymal transit, we hypothesized that ADCY10 is involved in a mechanism regulating flagellar stabilization. Although no differences were observed in global sulfhydryl status between caput and cauda epididymal spermatozoa from wild-type or Adcy10-null mice, two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis was performed to identify specific mouse sperm proteins containing sulfhydryl groups that became oxidized during epididymal maturation. A-kinase anchor protein 4, fatty acid-binding protein 9 (FABP9), glutathione S-transferase mu 5 and voltage-dependent anion channel 2 exhibited changes in thiol status between caput and cauda epididymal spermatozoa. The level and thiol status of each of these proteins were quantified in wild-type and Adcy10-null cauda epididymal spermatozoa. No differences in the abundance of any protein were observed; however, FABP9 in Adcy10-null cauda epididymal spermatozoa contained fewer disulfide bonds than wild-type sperm cells. In caput epididymal spermatozoa, FABP9 was detected in the cytoplasmic droplet, principal piece, midpiece, and non-acrosomal area of the head. However, in cauda epididymal spermatozoa, this protein localized to the perforatorium, post-acrosomal region and principal piece. Together, these results suggest that thiol changes during epididymal maturation have a role in the stabilization of the sperm flagellum. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  17. Dose-dependent effects of homologous seminal plasma on motility and kinematic characteristics of post-thaw stallion epididymal spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, S; Dörfel, S; Handler, J

    2015-05-01

    Preservation of epididymal spermatozoa is important to save genetic material of endangered species and breeds, or in case of unexpected injury, which will end the breeding career of valuable sires. Seminal plasma (SP) influences sperm quality in a dose-dependent manner and its addition to preserved semen immediately before insemination may be beneficial for sperm fertility. Increased plasma membrane stability of epididymal spermatozoa reduces freezing injury of cells, and the addition of SP after freezing and thawing might have activating and protecting effects on spermatozoa within the female genital tract. In this study, epididymal spermatozoa were harvested by retrograde flush of the epididymal cauda immediately after routine castration and frozen. Seminal plasma was collected from other six stallions. Homologous SP (SP from the same species, but from a different animal) was added to frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa at concentrations of 0, 5, 20, 50 and 80% SP. Addition of SP increased sperm motility and influenced kinematic values in a dose-dependent manner (p sperm motility among SP from six different donor stallions regardless of the concentrations of SP (p > 0.05). Total and progressive motility of ten frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa samples collected from different stallions after dilution with extender and 5, 20, 50 or 80% SP differed significantly (p epididymal spermatozoa immediately improved motility in a dose-dependent manner regardless of semen quality of SP donor stallions. This might positively influence fertility when SP is added before insemination. Moreover, there seems to be a threshold level of SP concentration for optimal improvement of sperm motility. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  18. Long-term penile morphometric alterations in patients treated with robot-assisted versus open radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capogrosso, P; Ventimiglia, E; Cazzaniga, W; Stabile, A; Pederzoli, F; Boeri, L; Gandaglia, G; Dehò, F; Briganti, A; Montorsi, F; Salonia, A

    2018-01-01

    -operative erectile function recovery, year of surgery and type of surgery (all p robot-assisted radical prostatectomy was independently associated with a lower risk of post-operative penile morphometric alterations (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.16-0.93). Self-perceived penile morphometric alterations were reported in one of two patients after radical prostatectomy at long-term follow-up, with open surgery associated with a potential higher risk of this self-perception. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  19. Detection and quantification of human herpes viruses types 4-6 in sperm samples of patients with fertility disorders and chronic inflammatory urogenital tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, V; Tyulenev, Y; Kurilo, L; Shileiko, L; Sorokina, T; Evdokimov, V; Yakovleva, V; Kovalyk, V; Malolina, E; Kulibin, A; Gomberg, M; Kushch, A

    2014-09-01

    Acute and chronic infections of the seminal tract are among the most common causes of male infertility. As at least half of male infertility cases are classified as idiopathic, some of these cases might be attributed to asymptomatic infection. The detection and quantification of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6) DNA in semen samples were performed. A total of 232 patients were divided into five groups: (i) infertile men with varicocoele; (ii) men with idiopathic infertility; (iii) infertile men with chronic inflammatory urogenital tract diseases (IUTD); (iv) fertile men with IUTD and (v) men whose partners had a history of pregnancy loss. In the study population, the prevalence of viral DNA was 17.7, 3.4% for EBV, 5.2% for CMV, 6.5% for HHV-6, 0.43% for EBV + CMV, 0.87% for EBV + HHV-6 and 1.3% for CMV + HHV-6. The median viral loads for EBV, CMV and HHV-6 were 500, 2250 and 250 copies/mL respectively. Of the sperm cell fractions, derived from infected samples 87.5% contained viral DNA. No association between EBV and fertility disorders or IUTD was found. CMV detection was much higher in the group of patients with infertility and concomitant IUTD compared with the other groups combined (18.5% vs. 5.4%, p = 0.03) and associated with reduced sperm cell count (39.5 × 10(6) /mL vs. 72.5 × 10(6) /mL, p = 0.036). Immunostaining of spermatozoa from infected samples and in vitro-infected cells detected CMV in sperm heads, tails and connecting pieces and revealed attachment to sperm membrane and intracellular localization. HHV-6 was the more common in fertile men with chronic IUTD than in the other groups combined (19% vs. 6.3%, p = 0.018) and had no effect on sperm parameters. The results suggest that both CMV and HHV-6 may contribute to the aetiology of IUTD and, moreover, CMV-associated IUTD can lead to male sterility. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  20. Erectile dysfunction in patients with chronic pain treated with opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajo, Raquel; Segura, Ana; Inda, María-Del-Mar; Margarit, César; Ballester, Pura; Martínez, Emi; Ferrández, Guillermina; Sánchez-Barbie, Ángel; Peiró, Ana M

    2017-07-21

    Chronic pain is associated with comorbidities that have an impact on the quality of life of patients and, among others, affect their sexual functioning. One of the most relevant side effects of opioid analgesics is erectile dysfunction (ED), due in part to the inhibition of the gonadal-pituitary-hypothalamic axis and the decline in testosterone levels. To evaluate ED and effectiveness of treatment in men with chronic pain treated with long-term opioids. Prospective observational study lasting 3 years, where the intensity of pain (visual analogue scale, 0-10cm), erectile function (IIEF-EF, range 1-30 points), quality of life (EQ-VAS, 0-100mm), quality of sexual life (MSLQ-QOL, 0-100 points), anxiety/depression (HAD, 0-21 points) and testosterone levels, was assessed in patients who reported sexual dysfunction (ED or libido modification). A 6-month follow-up was applied to each patient after administering the usual treatment in the Andrology Unit. The study was approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee and data were statistically analyzed with the GraphPad Prism 5 software. ED was observed in 27.6% of patients (n=105, 57±12.2 years, mean dose of morphine equivalent=107.1±107.9mg/day, 84.3% adjuvant analgesics). After 6 months, 42% of patients showed a significant improvement after being treated with iPDE5 (48.5%) and/or testosterone gel (81.8%), with a resolution rate of 31% (p=0.000). A positive correlation was observed between the improvement of IIEF and quality of sexual life (55.5±25.7 points, p=0.000), as well as anxiety (7.4±4.3 points, p=0.048). No significant changes were observed in the levels of testosterone, in the levels of pain nor in the quality of life, which remained moderate. Erectile function and quality of sexual life, as well as anxiety, improved in patients treated chronically with opioids after administering andrological treatment. The management of patients with pain should include a review of their sexual health history given the

  1. 'Carriers of variant luteinizing hormone (V-LH) among 1593 Baltic men have significantly higher serum LH'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punab, A M; Grigorova, M; Punab, M; Adler, M; Kuura, T; Poolamets, O; Vihljajev, V; Žilaitienė, B; Erenpreiss, J; Matulevičius, V; Laan, M

    2015-05-01

    contribution of V-LH to the natural variance in male serum LH levels. Its downstream clinical consequences are still to be learned. © 2015 The Authors. Andrology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of American Society of Andrology.

  2. Differential expression profiles of conserved Snail transcription factors in the mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micati, D J; Hime, G R; McLaughlin, E A; Abud, H E; Loveland, K L

    2018-01-30

    functions during spermatogenesis. © 2018 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  3. Environmental signaling: from environmental estrogens to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, J A

    2016-07-01

    alter cell differentiation. Since 2010, research has shown that trauma and other behavioral inputs can function as 'environmental signals,' can be encoded in gene regulation networks in a variety of cells and organs, and can be passed on to subsequent generations. So now we come full circle: environmental chemicals mimic hormones or other metabolic signaling molecules and now behavioral experience can be transduced into chemical signals that also modify gene expression. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  4. Evaluation of DNA methylation at imprinted DMRs in the spermatozoa of oligozoospermic men in association with MTHFR C677T genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, K; Minor, A; Ng, R; Poon, K; Chow, V; Ma, S

    2016-09-01

    genotypes. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  5. Protective features of resveratrol on human spermatozoa cryopreservation may be mediated through 5' AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani Nashtaei, M; Amidi, F; Sedighi Gilani, M A; Aleyasin, A; Bakhshalizadeh, Sh; Naji, M; Nekoonam, S

    2017-03-01

    motility parameters. These findings, although preliminary, suggest that resveratrol-induced improvement of cryopreserved sperm functions may be mediated through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, indicating the importance of AMP-activated protein kinase activity for human spermatozoa functions. Further investigations are required to elucidate the mechanism by which resveratrol ameliorates oxidative stress-mediated damages in an AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  6. Altered secretion of Sertoli cells hormones in 2-year-old prepubertal cryptorchid boys: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, S M; Almont, T; Galinier, P; Mieusset, R; Thonneau, P

    2017-07-01

    Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  7. Hematopoietic androgen receptor deficiency promotes visceral fat deposition in male mice without impairing glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinow, K B; Wang, S; den Hartigh, L J; Subramanian, S; Morton, G J; Buaas, F W; Lamont, D; Gray, N; Braun, R E; Page, S T

    2015-07-01

    Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  8. Evidence for a role of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in primordial germ cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Torre, A; Díaz-Núñez, M; Eguizábal, C; Silván, U; Aréchaga, J

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that enable migrating cells to reach their targets is of vital importance, as several pathologies, including cardiac defects and some tumours, are consequences of altered cell migration. With a view to evaluating if matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) play a role in the active migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs) from their place of origin in extra-embryonic sites towards their final destination in the developing gonads, we analysed the expression of mRNAs encoding nine MMPs and four TIMPs in migrating (E10.5) and post-migrating (E12.5) PGCs by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the presence of MT1-MMP in the membrane of these cells. Our results show that PGCs express MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-11, MT1-MMP, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 at both migrating and non-migrating stages. Comparing expression levels of MMP genes between E10.5 and E12.5 PGCs revealed higher expression in migrating PGCs of MT1- MMP (10.3-fold), MMP-2 (4.8-fold), MMP-11 (3.2-fold) and MMP-9 (2.1-fold). Similarly, the levels of TIMP gene expression were always higher in E12.5 genital ridge somatic cells: TIMP-3 (3.4-fold), TIMP-1 (2.4-fold) and TIMP-2 (1.8-fold). Moreover, the analysis at protein level showed the presence of MT1-MMP in the membrane of migrating PGCs whereas the expression of these metalloproteinase is not detected once the PGCs have reach the urogenital ridges and stop migrating. These results suggest that the change from the motile to non-motile phenotype that occurs during PGC maturation to gonocytes may be mediated in part by enhanced expression of MMPs in migrating PGCs together with higher expression of TIMPs in E12.5 genital ridges. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  9. Influences of dietary supplementation with Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on stallion sperm production and on preservation of sperm quality during storage at 5 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, C; Tafuri, S; Ciani, F; Pasolini, M P; Ciotola, F; Albarella, S; Carotenuto, D; Peretti, V; Cocchia, N

    2018-03-01

    increased sperm production and stabilized semen quality during chilled storage. © 2018 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  10. Inhibin B, AMH, but not INSL3, IGF1 or DHEAS support differentiation between constitutional delay of growth and puberty and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohayem, J; Nieschlag, E; Kliesch, S; Zitzmann, M

    2015-09-01

    . © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  11. Sexual dysfunction in subjects treated with inhibitors of 5α-reductase for benign prostatic hyperplasia: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, G; Tirabassi, G; Santi, D; Maseroli, E; Gacci, M; Dicuio, M; Sforza, A; Mannucci, E; Maggi, M

    2017-07-01

    Despite their efficacy in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, the popularity of inhibitors of 5α-reductase (5ARIs) is limited by their association with adverse sexual side effects. The aim of this study was to review and meta-analyze currently available randomized clinical trials evaluating the rate of sexual side effects in men treated with 5ARIs. An extensive Medline Embase and Cochrane search was performed including the following words: 'finasteride', 'dutasteride', 'benign prostatic hyperplasia'. Only placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials evaluating the effect of 5ARI in subjects with benign prostatic hyperplasia were considered. Of 383 retrieved articles, 17 were included in this study. Randomized clinical trials enrolled 24,463 in the active and 22,270 patients in the placebo arms, respectively, with a mean follow-up of 99 weeks and mean age of 64.0 years. No difference was observed between trials using finasteride or dutasteride as the active arm considering age, trial duration, prostate volume or International Prostatic Symptoms Score at enrollment. Overall, 5ARIs determined an increased risk of hypoactive sexual desire [OR = 1.54 (1.29; 1.82); p dysfunction [OR = 1.47 (1.29; 1.68); p sexual desire and erectile dysfunction was observed. Meta-regression analysis showed that the risk of hypoactive sexual desire and erectile dysfunction was higher in subjects with lower Q max at enrollment and decreased as a function of trial follow-up. Conversely, no effect of age, low urinary tract symptom or prostate volume at enrollment as well as Q max at end-point was observed. In conclusion, present data show that the use of 5ARI significantly increases the risk of erectile dysfunction and hypoactive sexual desire in subjects with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Patients should be adequately informed before 5ARIs are prescribed. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  12. Adding liraglutide to lifestyle changes, metformin and testosterone therapy boosts erectile function in diabetic obese men with overt hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagulli, V A; Carbone, M D; Ramunni, M I; Licchelli, B; De Pergola, G; Sabbà, C; Guastamacchia, E; Triggiani, V

    2015-11-01

    the addition of L to TRT and Met regimen allows to achieve serum T levels in the range of healthy men, as well as to reach glycaemic target and to lower weight, leading to a considerable improvement of ED. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  13. Intervention improves assisted conception intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes for patients with high levels of sperm DNA fragmentation: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, C K; McArthur, S J; Gee, A J; Weiss, K A; Schmidt, U; Toogood, L

    2016-09-01

    Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  14. A data-driven search for semen-related phenotypes in conception delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C J; Sundaram, R; Buck Louis, G M

    2017-01-01

    modest improvement in prediction of conception delay (16% increase in area under the curve, p < 0.0002). © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  15. Testosterone vs. aromatase inhibitor in older men with low testosterone: effects on cardiometabolic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, J P; Shardell, M D; Carlson, O D; Melvin, D; Caturegli, G; Ferrucci, L; Chia, C W; Egan, J M; Basaria, S

    2017-01-01

    Testosterone (T) replacement is being increasingly offered to older men with age-related decline in testosterone levels. The effects of long-term testosterone replacement and aromatase inhibition (AI) on glucose homeostasis and cardiometabolic markers were determine in older non-diabetic men with low testosterone levels. Men ≥65 years, mean age 71 ± 3 years with serum total T testosterone gel (TT) (n = 10), 1 mg anastrozole (n = 10) or placebo (n = 9) daily for 12 months. Homeostatic Model Assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA IR ) was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included OGIS in response to OGTT, fasting lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), adipokines, and abdominal and mid-thigh fat by computed tomography. All outcomes were assessed at baseline and 12 months. After 12 months, absolute changes in HOMA IR in both treatment arms (TT group: -0.05 ± 0.21); (AI group: 0.15 ± 0.10) were similar to placebo (-0.11 ± 0.26), as were CRP and fasting lipid levels. Adiponectin levels significantly decreased in the TT group (-1.8 ± 0.9 mg/L, p = 0.02) and abdominal subcutaneous fat (-60.34 ± 3.19 cm 2 , p = 0.003) and leptin levels (-1.5 ± 1.2 ng/mL, p = 0.04) were significantly lower with AI. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat was reduced in both treatment arms (TT group: -4.88 ± 1.24 cm 2 , p = 0.008); (AI group: -6.05 ± 0.87 cm 2 , p = 0.0002). In summary, in this proof-of-concept trial, changes in HOMA IR AI were similar in all three groups while the effects of intervention on subcutaneous fat distribution and adipokines were variable. Larger efficacy and safety trials are needed before AI pharmacotherapy can be considered as a treatment option for low T levels in older men. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  16. Evaluation of intralesional injection of hyaluronic acid compared with verapamil in Peyronie's disease: preliminary results from a prospective, double-blinded, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favilla, V; Russo, G I; Zucchi, A; Siracusa, G; Privitera, S; Cimino, S; Madonia, M; Cai, T; Cavallini, G; Liguori, G; D'Achille, G; Silvani, M; Franco, G; Verze, P; Palmieri, A; Torrisi, B; Mirone, V; Morgia, G

    2017-07-01

    Several intralesional therapeutic protocols have been proposed for the treatment of Peyronie's disease. Among all, hyaluronic acid (HA) and verapamil have been differently tested. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intralesional verapamil (ILVI) compared with intralesional HA in patients with early onset of Peyronie's disease (PD). This is a multi-centre prospective double-arm, randomized, double-blinded study comparing ILVI vs. intralesional HA after 12-weeks. Sexually active men, older than 18 years and affected by the acute phase of PD were eligible for this study. Patients have been double-blinded randomly divided into two groups (1 : 1 ratio): Group A received intralesional treatment with Verapamil (10 mg in 5 mL of normal saline water) weekly for 12 weeks, while group B received intralesional treatment with HA (0.8% highly purified sodium salt HA 16 mg/2 mL) weekly for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was the change from the baseline to the endpoint (12 weeks after therapy) for the penile curvature (degree). The secondary outcome was the change in the plaque size and in the International Index of erectile Function (IIEF-5) score. The difference between post- and pre-treatment plaque size was -1.36 mm (SD ± 1.27) for Group A and -1.80 mm (SD ± 2.47) for Group B (p-value = NS). IIEF-5 increased of 1.46 points (SD ± 2.18) in Group A and 1.78 (SD ± 2.48) in Group B (p-value ± NS). No difference in penile curvature was observed in Group A, while in Group B the penile curvature decreased of 4.60° (SD ± 5.63) from the baseline (p < 0.001) and vs. Group A. According to PGI-I results, we found significant difference as concerning patient global impression of improvement (PGI-I) (4.0 vs. 2.0; p < 0.05). This prospective, double-arm, randomized, double-blinded study comparing ILVI vs. HA as intralesional therapy showed greater efficacy of HA in terms of penile curvature and PGI-I. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and

  17. Protective effects of nutritional supplementation with arginine and glutamine on the penis of rats submitted to pelvic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, J L; Costa, W S; Felix-Patricio, B; Sampaio, F J B; Cardoso, L E M

    2014-11-01

    2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  18. The effect of methamphetamine on an animal model of erectile function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tar, M T; Martinez, L R; Nosanchuk, J D; Davies, K P

    2014-07-01

    rationale for treating patients that report ED associated with therapeutics-containing methamphetamine or amphetamine with PDE5i. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  19. The cytoprotective peptide humanin is induced and neutralizes Bax after pro-apoptotic stress in the rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y; Lue, Y-H; Swerdloff, R; Lee, K-W; Cobb, L J; Cohen, P; Wang, C

    2013-07-01

    to govern the fate of germ cell survival or death during pro-apoptotic stress to the testis in rats. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  20. Humanin protects against chemotherapy-induced stage-specific male germ cell apoptosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, P; Chang, I; Lue, Y; Doumit, T; Jia, Y; Atienza, V; Liu, P Y; Swerdloff, R S; Wang, C

    2015-05-01

    Humanin (HN) has cytoprotective action on male germ cells after testicular stress induced by heat and hormonal deprivation. To examine whether HN has protective effects on chemotherapy-induced male germ cell apoptosis, we treated four groups of adult rats with (i) vehicle (control), (ii) HN, (iii) cyclophosphamide (CP); or (iv) HN+CP. To investigate whether the protective effects of HN on germ cells require the presence of Leydig cells, another four groups of rats were pre-treated with ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS), a Leydig cell toxicant, to eliminate Leydig cells. After 3 days, when Leydig cells were depleted by EDS, we administered: (i) vehicle, (ii) HN, (iii) CP; or (iv) HN+CP to rats. All rats were killed 12 h after the injection of HN and/or CP. Germ cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay and quantified by numerical count. Compared with control and HN (alone), CP significantly increased germ cell apoptosis; HN +CP significantly reduced CP-induced apoptosis at early (I-VI) and late stages (IX-XIV) but not at middle stages (VII-VIII) of the seminiferous epithelial cycle. Pre-treatment with EDS markedly suppressed serum and intratesticular testosterone (T) levels, and significantly increased germ cell apoptosis at the middle (VII-VIII) stages. CP did not further increase germ cell apoptosis in the EDS-pre-treated rats. HN significantly attenuated germ cell apoptosis at the middle stages in EDS pre-treated rats. To investigate whether HN has any direct effects on Leydig cell function, adult Leydig cells were isolated and treated with ketoconazole (KTZ) to block testosterone synthesis. HN was not effective in preventing the reduction of T production by KTZ in vitro. We conclude that HN decreases CP and/or EDS-induced germ cell apoptosis in a stage-specific fashion. HN acts directly on germ cells to protect against EDS-induced apoptosis in the absence of Leydig cells and intratesticular testosterone levels are very low. © 2015 American Society of Andrology

  1. Carnitine partially protects the rat testis against the late damage produced by doxorubicin administered during pre-puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, R E L; Okada, F K; Stumpp, T; Vendramini, V; Miraglia, S M

    2014-11-01

    administration to pre-pubertal rats. However, further studies shall be undertaken to investigate the protective mechanisms involved in such germ cell preservation. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  2. Sperm preparation for ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schill Wolf-Bernhard

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The onset of clinical assisted reproduction, a quarter of a century ago, required the isolation of motile spermatozoa. As the indication of assisted reproduction shifted from mere gynaecological indications to andrological indications during the years, this urged andrological research to understand the physiology of male germ cell better and develop more sophisticated techniques to separate functional spermatozoa from those that are immotile, have poor morphology or are not capable to fertilize oocytes. Initially, starting from simple washing of spermatozoa, separation techniques, based on different principles like migration, filtration or density gradient centrifugation evolved. The most simple and cheapest is the conventional swim-up procedure. A more sophisticated and most gentle migration method is migration-sedimentation. However, its yield is relatively small and the technique is therefore normally only limited to ejaculates with a high number of motile spermatozoa. Recently, however, the method was also successfully used to isolate spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Sperm separation methods that yield a higher number of motile spermatozoa are glass wool filtration or density gradient centrifugation with different media. Since Percoll® as a density medium was removed from the market in 1996 for clinical use in the human because of its risk of contamination with endotoxins, other media like IxaPrep®, Nycodenz, SilSelect®, PureSperm® or Isolate® were developed in order to replace Percoll®. Today, an array of different methods is available and the selection depends on the quality of the ejaculates, which also includes production of reactive oxygen species (ROS by spermatozoa and leukocytes. Ejaculates with ROS production should not be separated by means of conventional swim-up, as this can severely damage the spermatozoa. In order to protect the male germ cells from the influence of ROS and to stimulate

  3. The roles of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density, prostate volume, and their zone-adjusted derivatives in predicting prostate cancer in patients with PSA less than 20.0 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, P; Zhao, J; Sun, G; Chen, N; Zhang, X; Gui, H; Yang, Y; Liu, J; Shu, K; Wang, Z; Zeng, H

    2017-05-01

    American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  4. Age and markers of Leydig cell function, but not of Sertoli cell function predict the success of sperm retrieval in adolescents and adults with Klinefelter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohayem, J; Fricke, R; Czeloth, K; Mallidis, C; Wistuba, J; Krallmann, C; Zitzmann, M; Kliesch, S

    2015-09-01

    Microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (mTESE), combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) represents a chance for azoospermic men with Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) to father children. The objective of this study was to identify predictive factors for the success of mTESE from adolescents and adults with KS. The clinical data of 50 late pubertal adolescents (13-19 years) and 85 adult patients (20-61 years) with non-mosaic KS, who underwent mTESE, were analysed with respect to factors, potentially predictive of active spermatogenesis; specifically a history of cryptorchidism, age, testicular volumes, serum levels of LH, FSH, testosterone (T) and estradiol at the time of surgery. Inhibin B, AMH and INSL3 were additionally analysed in the adolescents. A younger age and a near-compensated Leydig cell function were associated with higher success of sperm retrieval via mTESE: In adolescents ≥15-19 years, spermatozoa were retrieved in 45%, compared to 31% in adults; in adolescents aged 13-14 years, spermatozoa were collected in only 10%. Adolescents with an LH ≤17.5 U/L, along with a T level ≥7.5 nmol/L had the best success rate (54%), which fell to 44% with higher LH, whereas those with low T (sperm retrieval. In adults with T levels above and LH below these thresholds, the success rate was 51%, falling to 19%, if LH was higher. When T was lower than threshold, the rate was 17%. No association between testicular volumes, serum levels of FSH, Inhibin B, AMH, estradiol and mTESE success was found. A history of cryptorchidism was associated with lower retrieval rates. A window of opportunity for an approximate 50% chance to retrieve spermatozoa via mTESE exists for young, late pubertal KS patients between age 15 and young adulthood, when Leydig cell function is at its best. In these cases, referral to a centre of expertise should be considered. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  5. Alkaline phosphatase in boar sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, D; Isani, G; Giaretta, E; Spinaci, M; Tamanini, C; Ferlizza, E; Galeati, G

    2014-01-01

    Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  6. Postnatal exposure to flutamide affects CDH1 and CTNNB1 gene expression in adult pig epididymis and prostate and alters metabolism of testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorowska, E; Zarzycka, M; Chojnacka, K; Bilinska, B; Hejmej, A

    2014-03-01

    caused by the alterations in the expression of ST5AR2 and CYP19A1 in both reproductive organs. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  7. Reproductive hormones and metabolic syndrome in 24 testicular cancer survivors and their biological brothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandak, M; Jørgensen, N; Juul, A; Lauritsen, J; Kier, M G G; Mortensen, M S; Oturai, P S; Mortensen, J; Hojman, P; Helge, J W; Daugaard, G

    2017-07-01

    Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  8. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking: Impact of two major lifestyle factors on male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaur Dushyant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lifestyle factors, like alcohol intake and cigarette smoking, have been reported to affect male fertility. Aims: To find out the specific impact of alcohol and smoking on semen quality of male partners of couples seeking treatment for primary infertility. Materials and Methods: From the semen samples analyzed in our andrology laboratory, results of 100 alcoholics and 100 cigarette smoker males were studied following WHO guidelines and compared with 100 strict nonalcoholic and nonsmoker males for presence of asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by F- test using Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Only 12% alcoholics and six per cent smokers showed normozoospermia compared to 37 % nonalcoholic nonsmoker males. Teratozoospermia, followed by oligozoospermia dominated alcoholics. Overall impact of asthenozoospermia and teratozoospermia, but not of oligozoospermia, was observed in smokers. Light smokers predominantly showed asthenozoospermia. Heavy alcoholics and smokers showed asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia as well as oligozoospermia. Conclusions: Asthenozoospermia, the most common semen variable in our study, can be an early indicator of reduction in quality of semen. Alcohol abuse apparently targets sperm morphology and sperm production. Smoke-induced toxins primarily hamper sperm motility and seminal fluid quality. Progressive deterioration in semen quality is related to increasing quantity of alcohol intake and cigarettes smoked.

  9. Sperm toxicity testing: UK best practice guideline from the Association of Biomedical Andrologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S; Woodward, B; Tomlinson, M

    2018-02-09

    In order to ensure the quality and integrity of diagnostic semen analysis results, materials used should be tested to ensure that they do not interfere with sperm function. As a toxicity test, complex sperm function testing may be considered controversial, since the fertilizing capacity of single sperm can never be assured. In preference, sperm motility offers a unique means of assessing the toxicity of reagents and materials before they are used in routine practice. Motility is the semen parameter most likely to be influenced by the external environment. Indeed, it is the main reason that laboratories insist on supplying their own approved specimen containers and ensuring that patients, as far as possible, adhere to strict conditions for sample collection and transport prior to testing. This differs to other indirect tests of toxicity such as the mouse embryo assay, whereby the rate of mouse pre-implantation embryo development to the blastocyst stage is compared. This guideline is aimed at health care scientists who deal with andrology in both general pathology and specialised fertility laboratories, and provides a model approach to sperm toxicity testing. For assisted reproduction clinics, the same methodology can be used to test any consumables that are used for sperm processing, and as an indirect guide for any consumables that come into direct contact with oocytes and pre-implantation embryos.

  10. Human semen assays for workplace monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Gledhill, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    Decades of human semen studies have yielded compelling evidence that sperm can be used to access reproductive potential and diagnose pathology. With these studies as background, the small number of detailed semen studies of men exposed to physical and chemical agents point with optimism to the application of human semen assays as efficient, effective means to monitor for reproductive hazards in the workplace. Sperm are the most accessible of human gonadal tissue and provide a means of monitoring exposure induced changes in the human testes, changes which may result in infertility and increased frequencies of genetically abnormal gametes. The focus on semen has precipitated the development of new sperm bioassays which use older conventional andrological methods (i.e., sperm counts, motility, and morphology) as well as recently developed high speed flow and scanning methods for automated cytological analyses. The status of these sperm assays for workplace surveillance is reviewed, procedures are suggested with examples of use, and their effectiveness is evaluated. The available mouse models of induced semen changes are briefly described and the importance of these models for evaluating the genetic implications of findings in human semen is discussed

  11. Cost-effectiveness of varicocele surgery in the era of assisted reproductive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Chiles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of innovative techniques for addressing infertility has made for exciting times in the arena of andrology. The success of microTESE for retrieving sperm has enabled azoospermic men to have the opportunity to father biological children when it was previously impossible. The ability to offer a variety of assisted reproductive techniques that includes intracytoplasmic sperm injection has opened the door for couples with male factor infertility who were otherwise untreatable. With the multitude of options available to infertile couples, however, comes an unsurprising degree of controversy regarding what treatments should be offered and when. Complicating the picture is the question of if and when varicocele repair should be undertaken, and the financial implications of the treatment decisions that are made. The infertile couple with varicocele warrants careful consideration. The overall efficacy of varicocele repair as well as cost-effectiveness of repair compared to immediate microTESE in azoospermic men and assisted reproductive technology in men with suboptimal semen parameters will be reviewed.

  12. The possibility of hyperbaric oxygenation in the correction of the secretory impaired fertility in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Fesenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The infertility problem during a marriage affects demographic indicators significantly and has not only medical and biological but important social significance as well. In Russia, about 20 % of married couples remain infertile. With that, in half of cases this is caused with pathological changes in male reproductive system. Until now, a comprehensive andrologic examination is not capable of finding out the reason of pathospermia in 40–72 % of cases of male infertility and, as a result, of assigning the appropriate etiotropic treatment. A comparative dynamic study of spermograms of 107 patients with idiopathic pathozoospermia depending on various types of treatment has been held immediately, 1 month, and 2 months after completion of the therapy course. It has been determined that significantly greater and sustained improvement in quality and quantity of ejaculate is achieved in 1 month as compared to monotherapy with L-carnitine in combination with hyperbaric oxygenation by eliminating the effects of hypoxia and oxidativestress, and the effect is maintained during the whole term of observation.

  13. ROLE OF MALE INFERTILITY IN ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS (A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Gamidov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Тhe literature review is devoted to the most important medical and social problem of modern medicine — the male infertility. Nowadays the assessment and treatment of male infertility can identify a number of problems: the lack of standard tests for assessing fertility, incomplete knowledge of the pathophysiology of infertility, a shortage of specialists in the field of andrology and male infertility, as well as a lack of necessary technical resources. The lack of proven methods of pharmacotherapy can be added to this list. In comparison with the successes in the detection and treatment of female infertility, the diagnosis and therapy of male, especially idiopathic, remain ineffective and are largely empirical in nature. It is difficult to identify at what rates of spermogram the most frequent failures of the ART program occur, to compare the indicators of failures of ART with the parameters of pathozoospermia to reveal the regularity. Not all pathological mechanisms of fertility disorders in men have developed correct diagnostic tests at the present time, this significantly reduces the prognostic value of the spermogram and makes the question of assessing the disturbances in the character of the spermogram and its effect on the effectiveness of ART procedures extremely topical. There will be discussed the development and effectiveness of ART in the world and in Russia, the role of unfavorable lifestyle factors in infertile couples, the role of male infertility factors and the dependence of the effects of spermogram indices on the results of ART.

  14. Impact of long-term and short-term therapies on seminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jlenia Elia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was: i to evaluate the prevalence of male partners of subfertile couples being treated with long/short term therapies for non andrological diseases; ii to study their seminal profile for the possible effects of their treatments on spermatogenesis and/or epididymal maturation. Methods: The study group was made up of 723 subjects, aged between 25 and 47 years. Semen analysis was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO guidelines (1999. The Superimposed Image Analysis System (SIAS, which is based on the computerized superimposition of spermatozoa images, was used to assess sperm motility parameters. Results: The prevalence of subjects taking pharmacological treatments was 22.7% (164/723. The prevalence was 3.7% (27/723 for the Short-Term Group and 18.9% (137/723 for the Long-Term Group. The subjects of each group were also subdivided into subgroups according to the treatments being received. Regarding the seminal profile, we did not observe a significant difference between the Long-Term, Short-Term or the Control Group. However, regarding the subgroups, we found a significant decrease in sperm number and progressive motility percentage in the subjects receiving treatment with antihypertensive drugs compared with the other subgroups and the Control Group. Conclusions: In the management of infertile couples, the potential negative impact on seminal parameters of any drugs being taken as Long-Term Therapy should be considered. The pathogenic mechanism needs to be clarified.

  15. The possibility of hyperbaric oxygenation in the correction of the secretory impaired fertility in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Fesenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The infertility problem during a marriage affects demographic indicators significantly and has not only medical and biological but important social significance as well. In Russia, about 20 % of married couples remain infertile. With that, in half of cases this is caused with pathological changes in male reproductive system. Until now, a comprehensive andrologic examination is not capable of finding out the reason of pathospermia in 40–72 % of cases of male infertility and, as a result, of assigning the appropriate etiotropic treatment. A comparative dynamic study of spermograms of 107 patients with idiopathic pathozoospermia depending on various types of treatment has been held immediately, 1 month, and 2 months after completion of the therapy course. It has been determined that significantly greater and sustained improvement in quality and quantity of ejaculate is achieved in 1 month as compared to monotherapy with L-carnitine in combination with hyperbaric oxygenation by eliminating the effects of hypoxia and oxidativestress, and the effect is maintained during the whole term of observation.

  16. Intrauterine pregnancy following low-dose gonadotropin ovulation induction and direct intraperitoneal insemination for severe cervical stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills E Scott

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a case of primary infertility related to extreme cervical stenosis, a subset of cervical factor infertility which accounts for approximately 5% of all clinical infertility referrals. Case presentation A 37 year-old nulligravida was successfully treated with ovulation induction via recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and direct intraperitoneal insemination (IPI. Anticipating controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF, the patient underwent hysteroscopy and cervical recanalization, but safe intrauterine access was not possible due to severe proximal cervical stricture. Hysterosalpingogram established bilateral tubal patency and confirmed an irregular cervical contour. Since the cervical canal could not be traversed, neither standard intrauterine insemination nor transcervical embryo transfer could be offered. Prepared spermatozoa were therefore placed intraperitoneally at both tubal fimbria under real-time transvaginal sonographic guidance using a 17 gage single-lumen IVF needle. Supplementary progesterone was administered as 200 mg/d lozenge (troche plus 200 mg/d rectal suppository, maintained from the day following IPI to the 8th gestational week. A singleton intrauterine pregnancy was achieved after the second ovulation induction attempt. Conclusions In this report, we outline the relevance of cervical factor infertility to reproductive medicine practice. Additionally, our andrology evaluation, ovulation induction approach, spermatozoa preparation, and insemination technique in such cases are described.

  17. Male urogenital infections: impact of infection and inflammation on ejaculate parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, W; Pilatz, A; Diemer, Th; Schuppe, H C; Rusz, A; Wagenlehner, F

    2013-08-01

    Urogenital infections and inflammation may contribute significantly to ejaculate parameters essential for male infertility. For this review, data were acquired by a systematic search of the medical literature of the last 5 years. We address the andrological relevance of male urogenital infections and inflammation on ejaculate parameters. The different classification systems of the WHO and NIH are illustrated. In most cases, a separation of the different areas of the urogenital tract, for example, of the prostate, epididymis and testicles, is not possible. The significance of bacteriospermia with common bacteria is discussed. Furthermore, HIV, ascending chlamydial, mycoplasmal and gonococcal infections are relevant. Especially, the relevance of sexually transmitted microorganisms seems to be underestimated. Leukocytospermia is not well defined in its biological significance. Seminal plasma elastase and the cytokine expression reveal better insights into the inflammatory response of the seminal pathways. Sperm antibodies and reactive oxygen species are not usable as indicators for infection and inflammation. Different aspects for an impairment of ejaculate quality have been demonstrated although a direct ascension of microorganisms to the prostate has not been confirmed. Probably, lesions of the epididymis may sustain an ongoing disturbance of sperm parameters. A potential negative influence of urogenital infections and inflammation on sperm function is under discussion. However, the severity of impairment differs according to the underlying infections and the involved compartments. Signs of infections and inflammation in the ejaculate of infertile men are common, and the relevance is often doubtful in spite of microbiological, spermatological and immunological facilities.

  18. Temperament and character in couples with fertility disorders: a double-blind, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassino, Secondo; Garzaro, Lorenzo; Peris, Clementina; Amianto, Federico; Pierò, Andrea; Abbate Daga, Giovanni

    2002-06-01

    To evaluate the personality features of infertile patients. A double-blind, controlled study. An outpatient facility for diagnosis and care of infertility. We assessed 142 infertile couples with obstetric-gynecologic clinical and instrumental examinations. The couples were divided into three groups: organic infertility, functional infertility, and infertility of uncertain origin. The third group was excluded. Organic infertility and functional infertility were ascertained with gynecologic and andrologic clinical examinations, seminal liquid examination, postcoital testing, progesterone assay, hysterosalpingography, biopsy of endometrium, and laparoscopy. Personality traits were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Results of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Infertile women showed lower Cooperativeness than control women. Women with functional infertility had lower scores in Cooperativeness and Self-Directedness than women with organic infertility. Men belonging to the functional infertility group had a lower Novelty Seeking score than did those of the organic infertility group. Men and women in the functional infertility group showed higher Harm Avoidance than those in the organic infertility and control groups. The results emphasize that the study of personality in the diagnostic and therapeutic assessment of infertility might provide useful predictive elements for functional infertility.

  19. [Prune Belly syndrome: epidemiologic, clinic and therapeutic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, B; Diallo, Y; Fall, P A; Ngom, G; Fall, B; Ndoye, A K; Fall, I; Ba, M; Ndoye, M; Diagne, B A

    2008-07-01

    Prune Belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare complex malformation with male predominance. His pathogeny is not yet completely elucidated. The goal of this work is to analyze the epidemiological, anatomoclinical and treatment aspects of a retrospective trial in Aristide-Le-Dantec Hospital. We carried out a retrospective study about 22 cases collected in the departments of urology-andrology and pediatric surgery in Aristide-Le-Dantec Hospital between April 1995 and November 2004. The mean age of the patients was 15 months with extremes of one day and 10 years. The somatic examination revealed 20 cases of complete abdominal muscle aplasia, one right partial form and the last case had a left partial form. Nineteen patients were managed with conservative treatment and three patients benefited a surgical act for urinary abnormalities. The Montfort intervention was performed in two patients respectively aged eight and 10 years. The orchidopexy, stage 1, by Fowler-Stephens technique was performed in 13 cases. Five cases of death and nine cases of testicular atrophy after orchidopexy occurred. The followings were satisfactory in the three operated patients for urinary abnormalities. The renal failure is the main cause of death. The management of the urinary tract abnormalities must be performed individually. The testis descending should be performed in newborn period to enhance the fertility chances. The abdominoplasty also should be done early for aesthetic reason and to improve pulmonary, defecation, and voiding functions.

  20. Environmental agents and erectile dysfunction: a study in a consulting population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Alejandro; Giami, Alain; Multigner, Luc

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated chemical and physical environmental agents as risk factors for erectile dysfunction among a consulting population. We studied 199 men who sought medical help for erectile disorders between 1996 and 1998 in 3 andrology units in the Litoral Sur region of Argentina. Patients were evaluated by monitoring nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity, and were classified as having normal (n = 26), irregular (dissociation, short episode or low amplitude, n = 146), or flat erectile pattern (n = 26). Exposure to environmental agents was assessed by a detailed interview, and 4 groups were constituted: nonexposed, pesticide-exposed, solvent-exposed, and heat-exposed. A multivariate polytomous logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for association between quality of nocturnal erections and exposure groups adjusted for confounding factors. Exposure to environmental agents was a risk factor for a flat erectile pattern (OR 7.1, 95% CI 1.5-33.0 for pesticides; OR 12.2, 95% CI 1.2-124.8 for solvents; and OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.3-9.4 for heat). Associations were much weaker for an irregular erectile pattern (OR 1.8, 95% CI 0.5-6.7 for pesticides; OR 2.1, 95% CI 0.3-17.9 for solvents; and OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.4-4.0 for heat). Our results suggest that environmental agents constitute a risk factor for erectile dysfunction by interfering with erectile ability.

  1. Pattern of erectile dysfunction in Jeddah city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Helali, N S; Abolfotouh, M A; Ghanem, H M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the demographic features of erectile dysfunction patients attending different specialized clinics in Jeddah city, and to identify possible risk factors associated with erectile dysfunction problem. All newly erectile dysfunction patients (n=388) who attended 6 andrology and urology clinics within a period of 3 months were subjected to a modified structural interview questionnaire to collect demographic data and risk factors for erectile dysfunction. The study revealed the following results among erectile dysfunction patients; Saudi patients constituted (81%). The age ranged from 20-86 years with mean age of 43.23+12.56 years, 73% were married with one wife, 23.5% married with two wives, and 8% were single. About one-half (43%) were less than secondary education level. Retired patients constituted (13%) of all patients. Lack of exercise was the most frequent risk factor among 82% of patients, followed by smoking (56%), use of regular medication (44%), diabetes (30%), hypertension (15%), history of pelvic surgery (14%) alcoholism (13%), and drug addict (8%). Erectile dysfunction is a problem of not only old age but also of middle and young age. This might be attributed to the high frequency of some risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug addiction. This finding may reflect the necessity for construction of prevention strategies.

  2. Efeitos do trimetilaminoetano (TES e ringer lactato em sêmen de macacos-aranha mantidos em cativeiro ( Ateles paniscus e A. marginatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S.M. Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The performances of the diluents TES and CEBRAN II were compared as cryopreservatives of semen from non human primates of the genus Ateles. The experiment was carried out using one Ateles marginatus and two Ateles paniscus specimens, males and adults, maintained in the same captivity conditions at the National Center of Primates (CENP-SVS/MS. The animals were subjected to clinical and andrological examinations - testicular biometry - before the semen collection by eletroejaculation. Evaluations of motility and forward movement in the fresh semen were made. Semen were made dilution was made with the diluents TES and CEBRAN II. The ejaculates were diluted with the diluents (2:1proportion, packed in 0.25mL plastic straws and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. After thawing, the packed ejaculates were appraised in thermo resistance test (TTR. The averages of volume and concentration were, respectively, 1.94mL (0.83 and 3,020,000 sptz/mL (275.97. The pH 8 and seminal coagulation were observed in all samples. The results suggest that the TES diluent presents better efficiency in the preservation of Ateles semen than CEBRAN II.

  3. Long-term health, well-being, life satisfaction, and attitudes toward parenthood in men diagnosed as infertile: challenges to gender stereotypes and implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jane R W; Baker, Gordon H W; Hammarberg, Karin

    2010-07-01

    To investigate attitudes toward parenthood, long-term life satisfaction, and health and well-being in men diagnosed as infertile. A cross-sectional survey of a cohort of men 5 years after diagnosis of infertility. The andrology clinic at the Royal Women's Hospital Reproductive Services, Melbourne Australia. All men diagnosed at this center as infertile in 2001 and 2002. None. Attitudes to parenthood (Meaning of Parenthood), quality of intimate relationship (Intimate Bonds Measure), personality characteristics (Vulnerable Personality Style Questionnaire), life satisfaction (Satisfaction with Life Scale), and self-rated physical health (Physical Component Summary of SF-12 [PCS-12]) and relationship with mental health (Mental Component Summary of SF12 [MCS-12]). A total of 112 (41%) of 276 men completed the survey. Of these, 96% had pursued infertility treatment and 87% had become fathers. Only 10% thought that fertility confirmed by fatherhood reflected masculinity, and 84% desired parenthood as much as their partners did. When all other factors were controlled for, men who had not become fathers had poorer mental health (MCS-12 score = 43.9 +/- 9.9) than those who were fathers (MCS-12 score = 49.25 +/- 8.7). Clinical practice should not presume that infertile men conflate fertility and masculinity, are less distressed than women about the potential loss of parenthood, or adjust more readily to childlessness, which appear to be inaccurate but widespread stereotypes. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of a2 Vacuolar ATPase in Spermatozoa is Associated with Semen Quality and Chemokine-Cytokine Profiles in Infertile Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Kuniaki; Jaiswal, Mukesh Kumar; Ramu, Sivakumar; Jeyendran, Rajasinjham; Kwak-Kim, Joanne; Gilman-Sachs, Alice; Beaman, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of laboratory tests have been developed to determine properties of spermatozoa quality but few have been adopted into routine clinical use in place of the WHO semen analysis. We investigated whether Atp6v0a2 (a2 isoform of vacuolar ATPase) is associated with abnormal semen quality and changes in chemokine-cytokine profiles in infertile men. Patients and Methods Semen samples were collected from 35 healthy donors and 35 infertile men at the Andrology laboratory from August 2011 to June 2012. The levels of Atp6v0a2 mRNA and protein, and its localization in spermatozoa were determined. a2NTD (the N-terminal portion of Atp6v0a2) and secreted chemokine-cytokine profiles in seminal fluid were measured. Results Atp6v0a2 protein (Pspermatozoa from infertile men were significantly lower than those from fertile men. Fluorescent microscopy revealed that Atp6v0a2 is mainly expressed in the acrosomal region. Infertile men’s seminal fluid had significantly lower G-CSF (Pspermatozoa and its decreased level in spermatozoa could be used to predict male infertility. This study provides a possibility that Atp6v0a2 could be potentially used as a diagnostic marker for the evaluation of male infertility. PMID:23936208

  5. Dynamic GnRH and hCG testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, A Kirstine; Nordkap, Loa; Almstrup, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation tests may be used to evaluate the pituitary and testicular capacity. Our aim was to evaluate changes in follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone after Gn......RH and hCG stimulation in healthy men and assess the impact of six single nucleotide polymorphisms on the responses. DESIGN: GnRH and hCG stimulation tests were performed on 77 healthy men, 18-40 years (reference group) at a specialized andrology referral center at a university hospital. The potential......: For the reference group, LH and FSH increased almost 400% and 40% during GnRH testing, stimulated levels varied from 4.4 to 58.8 U/L and 0.2 to 11.8 U/L and FSH decreased in nine men. Testosterone increased approximately 110% (range: 18.7-67.6 nmol/L) during hCG testing. None of the polymorphisms had any major...

  6. Formulation and clinical evaluation of silymarin pluronic-lecithin organogels for treatment of atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mady FM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatma M Mady,1,2 Hanaa Essa,2 Tarek El-Ammawi,3 Hamdy Abdelkader,2 Amal K Hussein2 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, Minia, Egypt; 3Department of Dermatology, STDs, and Andrology, Minia University Hospital, Minia, Egypt Abstract: Silymarin is a naturally occurring flavonoid drug; evidence from recent research has highlighted its use as a potential treatment for atopic dermatitis (AD. Both poor water solubility and drug permeability have hindered the percutaneous absorption of silymarin. Formulation of silymarin into pluronic-lecithin organogel (PLO basis for topical skin delivery is the main aim of this work. Six different PLO formulations were prepared containing various pluronic to lecithin ratios using two cosolvent systems of ethyl alcohol and dimethyl sulfoxide. Formulation 2 (20% pluronic and 3% lecithin was found to be the optimal base for topical delivery of silymarin as it showed optimum pH, viscosity, drug content, and satisfactory in vitro silymarin permeation. The silymarin PLO formulation significantly relieved inflammatory symptoms of AD such as redness, swelling, and inflammation. These findings warrant the ability for application of these novel silymarin PLO formulations as a novel treatment for AD. Keywords: silymarin, pluronic lecithin organogel, atopic dermatitis, skin penetration 

  7. Bibliometrics: tracking research impact by selecting the appropriate metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the success of a researcher is assessed by the number of publications he or she publishes in peer-reviewed, indexed, high impact journals. This essential yardstick, often referred to as the impact of a specific researcher, is assessed through the use of various metrics. While researchers may be acquainted with such matrices, many do not know how to use them to enhance their careers. In addition to these metrics, a number of other factors should be taken into consideration to objectively evaluate a scientist′s profile as a researcher and academician. Moreover, each metric has its own limitations that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate metric for evaluation. This paper provides a broad overview of the wide array of metrics currently in use in academia and research. Popular metrics are discussed and defined, including traditional metrics and article-level metrics, some of which are applied to researchers for a greater understanding of a particular concept, including varicocele that is the thematic area of this Special Issue of Asian Journal of Andrology. We recommend the combined use of quantitative and qualitative evaluation using judiciously selected metrics for a more objective assessment of scholarly output and research impact.

  8. Bibliometrics: tracking research impact by selecting the appropriate metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Tatagari, Sindhuja; Esteves, Sandro C; Harlev, Avi; Henkel, Ralf; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Homa, Sheryl; Puchalt, Nicolás Garrido; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Majzoub, Ahmad; Ly, Kim Dao; Tvrda, Eva; Assidi, Mourad; Kesari, Kavindra; Sharma, Reecha; Banihani, Saleem; Ko, Edmund; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Gosalvez, Jaime; Bashiri, Asher

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the success of a researcher is assessed by the number of publications he or she publishes in peer-reviewed, indexed, high impact journals. This essential yardstick, often referred to as the impact of a specific researcher, is assessed through the use of various metrics. While researchers may be acquainted with such matrices, many do not know how to use them to enhance their careers. In addition to these metrics, a number of other factors should be taken into consideration to objectively evaluate a scientist's profile as a researcher and academician. Moreover, each metric has its own limitations that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate metric for evaluation. This paper provides a broad overview of the wide array of metrics currently in use in academia and research. Popular metrics are discussed and defined, including traditional metrics and article-level metrics, some of which are applied to researchers for a greater understanding of a particular concept, including varicocele that is the thematic area of this Special Issue of Asian Journal of Andrology. We recommend the combined use of quantitative and qualitative evaluation using judiciously selected metrics for a more objective assessment of scholarly output and research impact.

  9. Management of the infertile couple: an evidence-based protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Remah M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility is defined as inability of a couple to conceive naturally after one year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. It remains a major clinical and social problem, affecting perhaps one couple in six. Evaluation usually starts after 12 months; however it may be indicated earlier. The most common causes of infertility are: male factor such as sperm abnormalities, female factor such as ovulation dysfunction and tubal pathology, combined male and female factors and unexplained infertility. Objectives The aim of this study is to provide the healthcare professionals an evidence-based management protocol for infertile couples away from medical information overload. Methods A comprehensive review where the literature was searched for "Management of infertility and/or infertile couples" at library website of University of Bristol (MetaLib by using a cross-search of different medical databases besides the relevant printed medical journals and periodicals. Guidelines and recommendations were retrieved from the best evidence reviews such as that from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (ACOG, American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM, Canadian Fertility and Andrology Society (CFAS, and Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG. Results A simple guide for the clinicians to manage the infertile couples. Conclusions The study deploys a new strategy to translate the research findings and evidence-base recommendations into a simplified focused guide to be applied on routine daily practice. It is an approach to disseminate the recommended medical care for infertile couple to the practicing clinicians.

  10. Semen quality and reproductive hormones before orchiectomy in men with testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P M; Skakkebaek, N E; Vistisen, K

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To obtain information about preorchiectomy gonadal function in patients with testicular germ cell cancer to improve the clinical management of fertility and other andrologic aspects in these men. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In group 1, a group of 83 consecutive patients with testicular germ ce...... in men without measurable serum hCG may play a role by exerting LH-like effects on the Leydig cells, causing increased testosterone and estrogen levels and low LH values in the blood....... cancer (TGCC) investigated before orchiectomy, semen analysis was carried out in 63 patients and hormonal investigations, including measurement of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), inhibin B, and human chorionic...... of men with TGCC (median, 3.6 IU/L; range, 1.12 to 11.9 IU/L) than in healthy men (median, 4.7 IU/L; range, 1.3 to 11.9 IU/L) (P = .01). We could not detect any differences between men with testicular cancer and men with malignant lymphomas and healthy men with regard to serum levels of testosterone...

  11. Personal values that support and counteract utilization of a screening test for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aavik, Toivo; Aavik, Anu; Punab, Margus

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the current research was to discover the personal values that may support men's prostate cancer screening decisions in the future. We asked for participants' past behavior and future behavioral intentions, and also considered their real-life behavior. The sample consisted of 371 men, of which 93 were first-time patients at the Andrology Unit. The results show that Security value was related to past participation, while Achievement, Stimulation, and Traditions counteracted this. Present prostate-testing behavior was related only to higher Security values. Predictors of future behavioral intentions were Security, Self-direction, and Benevolence, which described 21% of the total variability. Considering informed decision-making processes, our results suggest that men who hold Security, Self-direction, and Benevolence values are more likely to participate in office-based initial screening. The study indicates the need to offer office-based initial screening to those age-eligible men whose values do not support participation.

  12. Hormonal Modulation in Aging Patients with Erectile Dysfunction and Metabolic Syndrome

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    Inês Campos Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED, metabolic syndrome (MetS, and hypogonadism are closely related, often coexisting in the aging male. Obesity was shown to raise the risk of ED and hypogonadism, as well as other endocrinological disturbances with impact on erectile function. We selected 179 patients referred for ED to our andrology unit, aiming to evaluate gonadotropins and estradiol interplay in context of ED, MetS, and hypogonadism. Patients were stratified into groups in accordance with the presence (or not of MetS and/or hypogonadism. Noticeable differences in total testosterone (TT and free testosterone (FT levels were found between patients with and without MetS. Men with MetS evidenced lower TT circulating levels with an increasing number of MetS parameters, for which hypertriglyceridemia and waist circumference strongly contributed. Regarding the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, patients with hypogonadism did not exhibit raised LH levels. Interestingly, among those with higher LH levels, estradiol values were also increased. Possible explanations for this unexpected profile of estradiol may be the age-related adiposity, other estrogen-raising pathways, or even unknown mechanisms. Estradiol is possibly a molecule with further interactions beyond the currently described. Our results further enlighten this still unclear multidisciplinary and complex subject, raising new investigational opportunities.

  13. Tales of healthy men: male reproductive bodies in biomedicine from 'Lebensborn' to sperm banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Using the example of 'sperm tales', borne out of the biomedical technologies that went hand in hand with the establishment of the 'science of man' (andrology), the article engages with the epistemic evolution of interrelated biomedical theories and concepts of what constitutes a 'healthy' reproductive male body. The article asks: how has the normative ideal male body been either perpetuated or interrogated through these tales of male reproduction at the interface between scientific and medical technologies? And how were changes to the normalization of male bodies central to clinical practices and cultural understandings of health and illness? With many aspects of the medical history of male reproduction in the 20th century still unexplored, this article will focus on the growing intervention of biomedicine to 'treat' male infertility by way of the classification, standardization and normalization of male corporeality, focusing in particular on the representation and construction of men and the male body, as reflected in medical science and practice from the second half of the 20th century onwards in Germany. The article analyses the rise in importance of sperm in biomedical investigation, including a consideration of the construction of infertility as the defining force behind concepts of 'healthy men', and examines the related conceptualization of male reproductive bodies at the crossroad between 'healthy' and 'normal'. It is argued that the ideal of male reproduction as being inherently healthy has lost ground. By the late 20th century, male bodies have become vulnerable, at least as represented in medical science and technology.

  14. Impact of clinical varicocele and testis size on seminal reactive oxygen species levels in a fertile population: a prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocuzza, Marcello; Athayde, Kelly S; Agarwal, Ashok; Pagani, Rodrigo; Sikka, Suresh C; Lucon, Antonio M; Srougi, Miguel; Hallak, Jorge

    2008-10-01

    To investigate: 1) the impact of clinical varicocele on reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in neat and washed semen in a proven fertile population; and 2) the correlation between ROS levels, testicular volume, and varicocele grade in the same population of fertile men. Prospective controlled clinical study. Andrology laboratory at tertiary-care hospital. One hundred fourteen healthy fertile men (81 normal fertile and 33 fertile with clinical varicocele) and 30 infertile patients (control subjects). Standard semen analysis and measurement of sperm ROS production. Seminal parameters, seminal ROS levels, seminal leukocyte levels, clinical varicocele, and testis size. Thirty-three of the 114 (29%) fertile men had clinical varicocele (grade 1, n = 14; grade 2, n = 11; and grade 3, n = 8), and the remaining 81 (71%) had a normal physical examination. Levels of ROS and semen quality did not differ significantly between the fertile men with or without varicocele. No significant differences in ROS levels in neat and washed semen were observed compared with fertile men with grades 2 and 3 varicocele and with fertile men with varicocele grade 1. The ROS levels in neat and washed semen were not significantly correlated with varicocele grade in fertile men. No significant correlations between ROS levels and testis volume were observed between the fertile groups. The presence of clinical varicocele in fertile men is not associated with higher seminal ROS levels or abnormal semen parameters. Levels of ROS are not correlated with varicocele grade or testis volume in the same population of fertile men.

  15. Sperm DNA: organization, protection and vulnerability: from basic science to clinical applications--a position report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Christopher L R; Aitken, R John; Björndahl, Lars; Carrell, Douglas T; de Boer, Peter; Kvist, Ulrik; Lewis, Sheena E M; Perreault, Sally D; Perry, Melissa J; Ramos, Liliana; Robaire, Bernard; Ward, Steven; Zini, Armand

    2010-04-01

    This article reports the results of the most recent in a series of EHSRE workshops designed to synthesize the current state of the field in Andrology and provide recommendations for future work (for details see Appendix). Its focus is on methods for detecting sperm DNA damage and potential application of new knowledge about sperm chromatin organization, vulnerability and repair to improve the diagnosis and treatment of clinical infertility associated with that damage. Equally important is the use and reliability of these tests to identify the extent to which environmental contaminants or pharmaceutical agents may contribute to the incidence of sperm DNA damage and male fertility problems. A working group (for workshop details, see Appendix) under the auspices of ESHRE met in May 2009 to assess the current knowledgebase and suggest future basic and clinical research directions. This document presents a synthesis of the working group's understanding of the recent literature and collective discussions on the current state of knowledge of sperm chromatin structure and function during fertilization. It highlights the biological, assay and clinical uncertainties that require further research and ends with a series of 5 key recommendations.

  16. 500 penile prostheses implanted by a surgeon in Italy in the last 30 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pozza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of our study was to report our experience with patients affected by Erectile Dysfunction (ED and undergoing penile prosthetic implantation (PPI in a single center by a single surgeon. Material and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the clinical outcome of 500 patients (mean age: 51.5 years, range: 20-86 years affected by ED and referred to our private andrological center from January 1984 to December 2013 who underwent penile prosthesis implantation, including the reported level of patient satisfaction. Results: 182 silicone, 180 malleable, 18 monocomponent hydraulic and 120 multicomponents hydraulic prostheses were implanted by the same experienced surgeon. All patients were hospitalized for the procedure. All patients were evaluated immediately, 1 month (496 patients and, for the great majority, every year after implantation. One hundred twenty five patients were lost to follow-up. Twenty two patients underwent revision surgery for complications in the postoperative period. The most serious postoperative complications were mechanical problems (45 patients, 9.0% and infection (15 patients, 3%. Forty two (8.4% prostheses were explanted. Overall, 80% (400/500 of patients were able to have sexual intercourse and were fully satisfied with the results. Conclusions: In our experience prosthetic surgery should be considered a good solution for men affected by ED and not responsive to other therapeutic solutions. Prosthetic surgery can be performed not only in large public hospitals but also in smaller private facilities.

  17. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: new identification of testicular blood flow and varicocele after treatment with gonadotropins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ur Rehman, Khaleeq; Shahid, Khubaib; Humayun, Hina

    2014-09-01

    To investigate testicular changes in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) after treatment with gonadotropins. Patients with HH were investigated and followed before and after treatment. Urology and andrology clinic of a teaching hospital. Consecutive male patients with diagnosed HH. All patients were treated with gonadotropins during the study period and later. The hormonal status and scrotal color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) of patients was recorded before and after treatment. Twenty-six patients with HH (ages 18-43 years) were followed for 8-29 months. After treatment, serum T and secondary sex characters improved in all and spermatogenesis developed in 61.5% of patients. Before treatment, testicular (intraparenchymal blood flow) was undetectable in all and barely detectable in three patients. This improved significantly to 4.53±5.44 and 4.27±4.97 cm/second, respectively, after treatment. Subcapsular arterial flow and testicular size also improved significantly. Similarly, after treatment, transverse epididymal diameter (TED) increased significantly. At baseline, no patient had detectable varicocele on CDUS. After treatment, varicocele was demonstrable in 23% of patients. This finding was further evaluated retrospectively from our 76 HH patient files. None of them had varicocele before treatment, but after treatment 19.73% were found to have varicocele. Patients with HH responded to gonadotropins by improvement in testicular blood flow and increase in TED. In some patients, varicocele was found to develop after treatment. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mobile phones electromagnetic radiation and NAD+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase as a mitochondrial marker in asthenozoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer M. Hagras

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available NAD+-dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (NAD+-IDH could be one of the cell phone radiation targets. Enzyme activity alteration may lead to decline in sperm motility during radio-frequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW exposure. The current case control study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between mitochondrial NAD+-IDH activity in human seminal plasma and sperm motility among asthenozoospermic cellular phone users. A total number of ninety idiopathic infertile males referred from the Department of Dermatology and Andrology, were enrolled in this study. NAD+-IDH activity was measured in human seminal plasma by spectrophotometer. Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA following WHO criteria has been used for semen analyses. The results showed that IDH activity was increased in patients with prolonged cell phone daily use ≥4 h/day. Its level, correlated negatively with either the motility ratio percentages (r = −0.46, p < 0.001 or the progressive motility percentages (r = −0.50, p < 0.001 in the study groups. The current study suggests that NAD+-IDH in human seminal plasma could be one of seminal plasma biomarkers reflecting the mitochondrial function of spermatozoa. Alteration of its level could reflect the defective motility of sperms among some cases of cellular phone users.

  19. Long-term life and partnership satisfaction in infertile patients: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanz, Stefan; Reimer, Thorisa; Eichner, Martin; Hautzinger, Martin; Häfner, Hans-Martin; Fierlbeck, Gerhard

    2011-08-01

    To describe the long-term effects of infertility on life and partnership satisfaction. Longitudinal cohort study. A university outpatient andrology and gynecology infertility clinic. 275 men and 272 women treated for infertility between August 2000 and December 2001. None. The Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (FLZ), the Partnership Questionnaire (PFB), and sociodemographic items at baseline (T1) and 5 years later (T2). Compared with a representative sample, our male and female participants had higher Finance and Partnership scores and lower Health scores on the FLZ at T1. They also had markedly higher PFB scores, with the exception of Conflict Behavior. After 5 years (T2), 101 men and 113 women rated the Partnership and Sexuality FLZ subscales as well as all the PFB subscales statistically significantly lower than at baseline. Only the women rated the Self-esteem FLZ subscale lower than at baseline (T1). Participants who became parents had lower Leisure and Partnership FLZ subscale scores, and fathers had lower Finance FLZ subscale scores. Satisfaction declined over 5 years for both men and women, but only in the partnership-related domains. Women were more affected than men. The success of infertility treatment had only a minor influence on a couple's future satisfaction. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Impaired Sleep Quality is Associated With More Significant Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Male Shift Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovell, Jason M; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Slawin, Jeremy; Badal, Justin; Link, Richard E; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2017-01-01

    To determine the association between sleep quality and severity of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men working nonstandard shifts, a population at risk of poor sleep quality. Men who presented to a single andrology clinic between July and October 2014 and worked nonstandard shifts completed the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and responded to questions regarding their work habits, sleep quality, and physical or cognitive function. We assessed the relationship between age, sleep quality, physical or cognitive function, and severity of LUTS. A total of 228 men with a mean ± standard deviation age of 41.8 ± 5.7 (range 21-76) years reported working nonstandard shifts, with the majority working these shifts for more than 1 year (81%). Men with difficulties falling asleep reported more severe LUTS than men who did not have difficulty falling asleep (IPSS score 9 vs 6, P cognitive function also reported more severe LUTS (IPSS score 6 vs 9, P sleep difficulties. Men with a decreased sense of well-being or decreased physical or cognitive function also report worse LUTS. These findings implicate sleep quality as a possible risk factor for LUTS symptom severity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Microsurgical tunica albuginea transplantation in an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Sansalone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several andrological diseases require surgical repair or reconstruction of tunica albuginea, which envelops the corpora cavernosa penis. Despite intense research efforts involving a variety of biological materials, such as skin, muscle aponeurosis, human dura mater, tunica vaginalis, and pericardium, engineered tunica albuginea suitable for graft use is yet to be obtained. The study investigates microsurgical tunica albuginea allotransplantation in an animal model with the purpose of creation of an organ-specific tissue bank to store penile tissue, from cadaveric donors and male-to-female trans-sexual surgery, for allogeneic transplantation. Materials were tunica albuginea tissue explanted from 15 donor rats, cryopreserved at −80°C, gamma-irradiated, and implanted in 15 recipient rats, of which three rats were used as controls. Penile grafts were explanted at different time intervals; after macroscopic evaluation of the organ, the grafts were processed to morphological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical examinations by light microscopy. Detection of pro-inflammatory cytokines was also performed. Examination of the tunica albuginea allografts collected 1, 3, or 6 months after surgery and of control tunica albuginea fragments showed that tunica albuginea implants achieved biointegration with adjacent tissue at all-time points. The integration of cryopreserved rat tunica albuginea allografts, documented by our study, encourages the exploration of tunica albuginea allotransplantation in humans. In conclusion, the effectiveness and reliability of the tunica albuginea conditioning protocol described here suggest the feasibility of setting up a tunica albuginea bank as a further tissue bank.

  2. Microsurgical tunica albuginea transplantation in an animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansalone, Salvatore; Loreto, Carla; Leonardi, Rosario; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Lombardo, Claudia; Castorina, Sergio; Cardile, Venera; Caltabiano, Rosario

    2017-01-01

    Several andrological diseases require surgical repair or reconstruction of tunica albuginea, which envelops the corpora cavernosa penis. Despite intense research efforts involving a variety of biological materials, such as skin, muscle aponeurosis, human dura mater, tunica vaginalis, and pericardium, engineered tunica albuginea suitable for graft use is yet to be obtained. The study investigates microsurgical tunica albuginea allotransplantation in an animal model with the purpose of creation of an organ-specific tissue bank to store penile tissue, from cadaveric donors and male-to-female trans-sexual surgery, for allogeneic transplantation. Materials were tunica albuginea tissue explanted from 15 donor rats, cryopreserved at −80°C, gamma-irradiated, and implanted in 15 recipient rats, of which three rats were used as controls. Penile grafts were explanted at different time intervals; after macroscopic evaluation of the organ, the grafts were processed to morphological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical examinations by light microscopy. Detection of pro-inflammatory cytokines was also performed. Examination of the tunica albuginea allografts collected 1, 3, or 6 months after surgery and of control tunica albuginea fragments showed that tunica albuginea implants achieved biointegration with adjacent tissue at all-time points. The integration of cryopreserved rat tunica albuginea allografts, documented by our study, encourages the exploration of tunica albuginea allotransplantation in humans. In conclusion, the effectiveness and reliability of the tunica albuginea conditioning protocol described here suggest the feasibility of setting up a tunica albuginea bank as a further tissue bank. PMID:28139472

  3. Behavioural and seminal characteristics of Santa Ines rams subjected to successive semen collections in the Amazonian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando S. Rodrigues

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of Santa Ines rams subjected to successive semen collections in an Amazonian climate. Four rams were subjected to successive ejaculations during a maximum period of three hours. This procedure was repeated three times at 15-day intervals. Sexual and behavioural (libido and andrological (testicular and seminal assessments were performed. A total of 81 ejaculates were collected. Libido and semen vigour, volume, appearance and concentration decreased as the ejaculation frequency increased (P<0.05 and sperm motility showed a decreasing trend (P=0.06. The seminal pH increased over the sequence of collections (P<0.05. The only significant differences observed between individual rams were the variable scrotal circumference and the percentages of live sperm and sperm abnormalities (P<0.05. All the parameters of the first ejaculation were within the normal range for this species, which suggests that the local climatic conditions (high temperature and humidity did not affect the behavioural, testicular or seminal parameters of experimental rams. Our findings indicate that the reproductive performance of Santa Ines rams could be affected by the intensification of ejaculation frequency; however, individual male variation needs to be taken into consideration.

  4. Role of collagenase clostridium histolyticum in Peyronie's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peak TC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Taylor C Peak,1 Gregory C Mitchell,2 Faysal A Yafi,2 Wayne J Hellstrom2 1Department of Urology, Tulane University School of Medicine, 2Section of Andrology, Department of Urology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: Peyronie's disease is a localized connective tissue disease characterized by an active, inflammatory phase and a stable, quiescent phase, with the eventual development of collagenous plaques within the tunica albuginea of the penis. Risk factors primarily associated with Peyronie's disease include Dupuytren's contracture, penile trauma, and family history. A variety of treatment strategies have been utilized, including oral and topical agents, electromotive drug administration, intralesional injections, extracorporeal shockwave therapy, penile traction, and surgery. However, most of these strategies are ineffective, with surgery being the only definitive treatment. Collagenase clostridium histolyticum is a newly US Food and Drug Administration-approved agent for intralesional injection. It is thought to downregulate many of the disease-related genes, cytokines, and growth factors and degrade collagen fibers. It also suppresses cell attachment, spreading, and proliferation. Collagenase clostridium histolyticum has been clinically proven to be a safe and effective therapeutic option, demonstrating decreases in penile curvature and plaque consistency, as well as increases in patient satisfaction. During clinical evaluation, the Peyronie's Disease Questionnaire was validated as an effective tool for assessing treatment outcomes. Keywords: connective tissue disease, CCH, Xiaflex, Peyronie's Disease Questionnaire

  5. QUALITY OF NATIVE EJACULATE IN DOG OUT AND DURING SEXUAL SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Podžo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal influence, i.e. the influence of climatic changes on the dog semen was investigated. Dog age varied between 2-4. German-shepard-type dog body weight was about 25 kg, and the other mixed breed dogs about 9 kg. All were kept in good zoo-hygienic conditions (sunny, ventilated and dry rooms. Dogs were served ready-made pellet food with the daily meals adjusted to their body mass. Experimental researches were mainly performed before and during the sexual season. Sperm from the dogs was taken manually every 5-6 days. After obtaining the ejaculate, the sperm-sampler was inserted in pre-heated cotton, and brought to the andrologic laboratory. Tools and instruments used for ejaculate sampling were heated to +35°C before use. Quality control was performed with the devices and instruments heated to  +38°C in order to avoid detrimental effect of rapid cooling to sperm movement, metabolism, etc. Sampled native ejaculates were anylized for the volume, motility, concentration, etc.Key words: dog, sperm, sexual season

  6. [NPT: nocturnal penile tumescence test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, F; Fenice, O; Austoni, E

    1994-09-01

    The recording of the variations of penile tumescence and rigidity during nocturnal unconscious erections that usually occur with the REM phases of sleep, has been considered the diagnostic tool of choice in the workup of erectile disturbances for a number of years. Such a success is partly due to its absence of invasiveness. Moreover this test was believed to allow to differentiate between the psychogenic and organic origin of impotence. As some authors have recently reported, anxiety state (common among patients who undergo invasive andrological procedure in the office) can at times influence the content of the dream state, thus negatively affecting the spontaneous nocturnal erections. Besides, sleep disturbances such as apnea and motor agitation can also induce erroneous interpretations of NPT graphs. Further, dysfunctions at the level of the cortex and the spine still allow the occurrence of nocturnal tumescence but determine an erectile deficit in the awake state. Clinically, all this poses new questions about the effectiveness of the NPT test in the study of the origin of impotence. The diagnostic methods, despite its world-wide diffusion, remains, under certain aspects, obscure: the operative details and, above all, its interpretative criteria. All this impedes the achievement of uniformity in the evaluation of the results obtained thanks to this test (e.g. the number and duration of erectile episodes, the interpretation of tumescence on its own, of the basal-apical dissociation, of the erectile episodes occurring immediately before waking, and of those of short duration).

  7. Effect of gyromagnetic fields on human prostatic adenocarcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei H

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hongen Lei,1 Yongde Xu,1 Ruili Guan,1 Meng Li,2 Yu Hui,3 Zhezhu Gao,1 Bicheng Yang,1 Zhongcheng Xin1 1Andrology Center, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, 2Department of Urology, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, 3Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Soochow, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the biological effect of gyromagnetic fields (GMFs on cell proliferation and apoptosis of human prostatic adenocarcinoma cells and explore the underlying mechanisms.Methods: PC-3 cells were grouped into normal control (NC and GMF treatment groups. Cell proliferation was analyzed with kit-8 and Ki67 immunofluorescence staining, while cell apoptosis was analyzed with flow cytometry double staining of Annexin V-PE/7-AAD. The Akt and p38 MAPK/Caspase signaling pathways were analyzed by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining, and cell polarization was analyzed with PARD3.Results: Cell proliferation and activity of the Akt pathway were significantly decreased by the GMF, while cell apoptosis, activity of p38 MAPK, and PARD3-positive cell number were significantly increased in the GMF group compared to the NC group.Conclusion: GMFs inhibit cell proliferation, induce apoptosis, and regulate tumor cell polarity conditions, potentially through down-regulating Akt, activating the p38 MAPK/Caspase pathway, and promoting PARD3 expression in PC-3 cells. Keywords: apoptosis, gyromagnetic fields, PC-3 cells, prostate cancer

  8. Genetic testing and counselling for male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausz, Csilla; Chianese, Chiara

    2014-06-01

    Genetic disorders can be identified in about 15% of cases of male infertility. With the widespread application of assisted reproductive technology, infertile patients are now given the possibility of having their biological children; however, a genetic risk exists for assisted reproductive technology-born offspring, implying the necessity for future parents to be appropriately informed about potential consequences. In this review, we provide current recommendations on clinical genetic testing and genetic counselling. New insights are presented concerning Klinefelter syndrome, X and Y chromosome-linked deletions, monogenic diseases and pharmacogenetics. As for Klinefelter patients, novel preventive measures to preserve fertility have been proposed although they are not yet applicable in the routine setting. Y-chromosome deletions have both diagnostic and prognostic values and their testing is advised to be performed according to the new European Academy of Andrology/European Molecular Genetics Quality Network guidelines. Among monogenic diseases, major advances have been obtained in the identification of novel genes of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Pharmacogenetic approaches of hormonal treatment in infertile men with normal values of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) are promising and based on FSHR and FSHB polymorphisms. X chromosome-linked deletions are relevant for impaired spermatogenesis. In about 40% of male infertility, the cause is unknown and novel genetic factors are expected to be discovered in the near future.

  9. Reactive oxygen species in human semen: validation and qualification of a chemiluminescence assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, Wayne; Perez-Miranda, Ana; Macfarquhar, Rachel; Agarwal, Ashok; Homa, Sheryl

    2014-12-01

    To standardize and validate an assay for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human semen. ROS levels assayed in blanks, negative and positive control samples (30% H2O2), and human semen, with the use of a luminol-based chemiluminescence assay measured in a single tube luminometer. Andrology laboratory. Semen samples from 19 men attending for routine semen analysis. None. ROS levels reported in relative light units (RLU) per second, adjusted for sperm concentration. The ROS assay equipment performed according to expectations, generating a chemiluminescence signal for positive control samples and semen samples that decayed rapidly and was captured within 10 minutes. Blanks and negative control samples gave negligible readings. There was no significant intra- or interassay variation. Interference from extraneous factors was negligible. The assay distinguished changes in ROS over a wide range of concentrations and provided consistent results between reagent batches. Working reagents remained stable for 3 months. Acceptable levels for negative and positive control samples were established to set criteria for the test passing or failing on any given day. The assay was sensitive to ambient temperature >25°C. ROS declined significantly with time after ejaculation. Mechanical agitation doubled ROS production in semen. These results validate the ROS assay and demonstrate that it is a highly reliable and accurate diagnostic test. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparative evaluation of semen parameters in pre- and post-Hurricane Katrina human population

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    Caner Baran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A natural disaster leading to accumulation of environmental contaminants may have substantial effects on the male reproductive system. Our aim was to compare and assess semen parameters in a normospermic population residing in the Southern Louisiana, USA area pre- and post-Hurricane Katrina. We retrospectively evaluated semen analyses data (n = 3452 of 1855 patients who attended the Tulane University Andrology/Fertility Clinic between 1999 and 2013. The study inclusion criteria were men whose semen analyses showed ≥ 1.5 ml volume; ≥15 million ml -1 sperm concentration; ≥39 million total sperm count; ≥40% motility; >30% morphology, with an abstinence interval of 2-7 days. After the inclusion criteria applied to the population, 367 normospermic patients were included in the study. Descriptive statistics and group-based analyses were performed to interpret the differences between the pre-Katrina (Group 1, 1999-2005 and the post-Katrina (Group 2, 2006-2013 populations. There were significant differences in motility, morphology, number of white blood cell, immature germ cell count, pH and presence of sperm agglutination, but surprisingly there were no significant differences in sperm count between the two populations. This long-term comparative analysis further documents that a major natural disaster with its accompanied environmental issues can influence certain semen parameters (e.g., motility and morphology and, by extension, fertility potential of the population of such areas.

  11. Flow cytometry for the assessment of animal sperm integrity and functionality: state of the art

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    Hossain, Md. Sharoare; Johannisson, Anders; Wallgren, Margareta; Nagy, Szabolcs; Siqueira, Amanda Pimenta; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto

    2011-01-01

    Flow cytometry is now a recognized methodology within animal spermatology, and has moved from being a research tool to become routine in the assessment of animal semen destined to breeding. The availability of ‘bench-top' flow cytometers and of newer and versatile markers for cell structure and function had allowed the instrumentation to measure more sperm parameters, from viability to reactiveness when exposed to exogenous stimuli, and to increase our capabilities to sort spermatozoa for potential fertilizing capacity, or chromosomal sex. The present review summarizes the state of the art regarding flow cytometry applied to animal andrology, albeit keeping an open comparative intent. It critically evaluates the present and future capabilities of flow cytometry for the diagnostics of potential fertility and for the development of current reproductive technologies such as sperm freezing, sperm selection and sperm sorting. The flow cytometry methods will probably further revolutionize our understanding of the sperm physiology and their functionality, and will undoubtedly extend its application in isolating many uncharacterized features of spermatozoa. However, continuous follow-up of the methods is a necessity owing to technical developments and the complexity of mapping spermatozoa. PMID:21478895

  12. Semen analysis and sperm function tests: How much to test?

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    S S Vasan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Semen analysis as an integral part of infertility investigations is taken as a surrogate measure for male fecundity in clinical andrology, male fertility, and pregnancy risk assessments. Clearly, laboratory seminology is still very much in its infancy. In as much as the creation of a conventional semen profile will always represent the foundations of male fertility evaluation, the 5th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO manual is a definitive statement on how such assessments should be carried out and how the quality should be controlled. A major advance in this new edition of the WHO manual, resolving the most salient critique of previous editions, is the development of the first well-defined reference ranges for semen analysis based on the analysis of over 1900 recent fathers. The methodology used in the assessment of the usual variables in semen analysis is described, as are many of the less common, but very valuable, sperm function tests. Sperm function testing is used to determine if the sperm have the biologic capacity to perform the tasks necessary to reach and fertilize ova and ultimately result in live births. A variety of tests are available to evaluate different aspects of these functions. To accurately use these functional assays, the clinician must understand what the tests measure, what the indications are for the assays, and how to interpret the results to direct further testing or patient management.

  13. EVALUACIÓN DE LA MOTILIDAD ESPERMÁTICA A TRAVÉS DEL SISTEMA C.A.S.A DE SEMEN CAPRINO CRIOPRESERVADO BAJO DIFERENTES MEDIOS DILUYENTES

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    Leonardo Hernández-Corredor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effect sperm motility and sperm post-thawing in goats, two commercial means (Andromed ® and Two Step ® and different freezing protocols (complete medium with 10% addition of the egg yolk, semen centrifuged supernatant and seminal , we used males of the Alpine race of the University Francisco de Paula Santander Ocaña, semen was collected with electroejaculator once finished media and part of the whole and centrifuged seminal contents mixed, stabilized by two hours, packed in 0.5 cc straws and frozen in nitrogen vapor for 10 min, the straws were taken to the laboratory of Andrology at the University of Zulia and through CASA system (Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis were evaluated motility parameters such as curvilinear velocity (VCL, straight line velocity (VSL, linear velocity (VAP, linearity index (LIN, straightness index (STR Oscillation Index (ALH average amplitude of the lateral displacement of the sperm head (BCF, the data were analyzed by the GLM procedure of SAS version 9.0, the highest rates of motility (VCL, ALH, BCF were expressed in the treatment of seminal content centrifugation Andromed ® medium. (p ≤ 0.001 The best progressive sperm (VSL, LIN, STR will present the full Semen treatment goats, cryopreserved at Two Step ® commercial medium.

  14. Androgen deprivation therapy (castration therapy) and pedophilia: What's new.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvani, Mauro; Mondaini, Nicola; Zucchi, Alessandro

    2015-09-30

    Andrology is a constantly evolving discipline, embracing social problems like pedophilia and its pharmacological treatment. With regard to chemical castration, the andrologist may perform an important role as part of a team of specialists. At present, no knowledge is available regarding hormonal, chromosomal or genetic alterations involved in pedophilia. International legislation primarily aims to defend childhood, but does not provide for compulsory treatment. We reviewed international literature that, at present, only comprises a few reports on research concerning androgen deprivation. Most of these refer to the use of leuprolide acetate, rather than medroxyprogesterone and cyproterone acetate, which present a larger number of side effects. Current opinions on chemical castration for pedophilia are discordant. Some surveys confirm that therapy reduces sexual thoughts and fantasies, especially in recidivism. On the other hand, some authors report that chemical castration does not modify the pedophile's personality. In our opinion, once existing legislation has changed, andrologists could play a significant role in the selection of patients to receive androgen deprivation therapy, due in part to their knowledge about its action and side effects.

  15. Androgen deprivation therapy (castration therapy and pedophilia: What’s new

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Silvani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Andrology is a constantly evolving discipline, embracing social problems like pedophilia and its pharmacological treatment. With regard to chemical castration, the andrologist may perform an important role as part of a team of specialists. At present, no knowledge is available regarding hormonal, chromosomal or genetic alterations involved in pedophilia. International legislation primarily aims to defend childhood, but does not provide for compulsory treatment. We reviewed international literature that, at present, only comprises a few reports on research concerning androgen deprivation. Most of these refer to the use of leuprolide acetate, rather than medroxyprogesterone and cyproterone acetate, which present a larger number of side effects. Current opinions on chemical castration for pedophilia are discordant. Some surveys confirm that therapy reduces sexual thoughts and fantasies, especially in recidivism. On the other hand, some authors report that chemical castration does not modify the pedophile’s personality. In our opinion, once existing legislation has changed, andrologists could play a significant role in the selection of patients to receive androgen deprivation therapy, due in part to their knowledge about its action and side effects.

  16. Feasibility of Polycaprolactone Scaffolds Fabricated by Three-Dimensional Printing for Tissue Engineering of Tunica Albuginea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ho Song; Park, Jinju; Lee, Hyun Suk; Park, Su A; Lee, Dong Weon; Park, Kwangsung

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of a polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold fabricated by three-dimensional (3D) printing for tissue engineering applications for tunica albuginea. PCL scaffolds were fabricated by use of a 3D printing system. Two scaffolds were fabricated that differed in the architecture of the lay-down pattern: a 90°PCL scaffold and a 45°PCL scaffold. Mechanical properties were measured to compare tensile strength between the two scaffold types. The scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The scaffolds were seeded with fibroblast cells, and the ability of these scaffolds to support the cells was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining. The PCL scaffolds had well-structured shapes, regular arrays, and good interconnection in SEM images. The horizontal and vertical Young's modulus coefficients were 13 and 12 MPa for the 90°PCL scaffold and 19 and 21 MPa for the 45°PCL scaffold, respectively. Microscopy images revealed that human fibroblast cells covered the entire scaffold surface. Immunofluorescence staining of ER-TR7 confirmed that the fibroblast cells remained viable and proliferated throughout the time course of the culture. This preliminary study provides experimental evidence for the feasibility of 3D printing of PCL scaffolds for tissue engineering applications of tunica albuginea. Copyright © 2017 Korean Society for Sexual Medicine and Andrology

  17. An evidence-based review of NX1207 and its potential in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

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    Kunit T

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Kunit, Lukas LusuardiDepartment of Urology and Andrology, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Salzburg, AustriaAbstract: In elderly men, benign prostatic hyperplasia is often associated with lower urinary tract symptoms, and its prevalence rises with age. Lower urinary tract symptoms can be very bothersome and lead to a decrease in health-related quality of life. Furthermore, benign prostatic hyperplasia is a progressive disease that can lead to serious complications like acute urinary retention. Medical treatment with α1-blockers or 5α-reductase inhibitors is recommended by the European Association of Urology. On the other hand, there are some new innovations such as NX1207. The aim of this review is to summarize the published data. NX1207 is a new drug that is administered by transrectal intraprostatic injection under ultrasound guidance. The substance leads to prostate volume reduction and symptomatic improvement. However, patient numbers are still low and currently treatment with NX1207 is still experimental.Keywords: BPH, NX 1207, hyperplasia, LUTS, prostate

  18. Pilot Study on the Effect of Botanical Medicine (Tribulus terrestris) on Serum Testosterone Level and Erectile Function in Aging Males With Partial Androgen Deficiency (PADAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaiah, Mohamed Farid; El Khayat, Yasser Ibrahim; GamalEl Din, Sameh Fayek; Abd El Salam, Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-05-18

    This study was conducted on 30 consecutive male patients presenting to Kasr-Al Ainy Andrology outpatient clinic complaining of manifestations of partial androgen deficiency in aging males (PADAM). In this study (750 mg/day) of Tribulus terrestris in 3 divided doses, each of 250 mg, as an endogenous testosterone enhancer had been tried for a duration of 3 months and the evaluation of its effect had been monitored for each patient concerning its effect on serum testosterone (total and free) and luteinizing hormone (LH), as well as its impact on erectile function, which was evaluated by the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire for those patients. Results showed a statistically significant difference in the level of testosterone (total and free) and IIEF-5, but no statistically significant difference in the level of LH before and after treatment. Also, the study showed statistically significant correlation between testosterone (total and free) and IIEF-5, but no statistically significant correlation between the level of LH and the IIEF-5 before and after treatment.

  19. Metabolic syndrome and male infertility (review

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    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The literary review is devoted to one of the most actual problems of modern andrology – pathogenetic communication of metabolic syndrome components and male infertility. Now a steady growth of metabolic syndrome frequency in world men population is observed, and that is accompanied by progressing deterioration of fertility parameters at them. Negative influence of key metabolic syndrome components – obesity and insulin resistance – at male reproductive function is shown on the basis of modern clinical, epidemiological and experimental data, and known pathophysiological mechanisms of this influence are described also. Induced by a metabolic syndrome oxidative stress of spermatozoas, neuropathy and androgen deficiency are the most significant mechanisms of neuro-endocrinological and reproductive consequences realization. The imperative necessity of early revealing and pharmacological correction of obesity and insulin resistance in all infertility men is shown, as well as they are curable reasons of male infertility . However, they seldom come to light and even less often corrected in routine clinical practice owing to insufficient knowledge of urologists and andrologists about these system hormonal-metabolic factors of male infertility, which role in male infertility pathogenesis will increase only in the conditions of world epidemic of a metabolic syndrome.

  20. Metabolic syndrome and male infertility (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The literary review is devoted to one of the most actual problems of modern andrology – pathogenetic communication of metabolic syndrome components and male infertility. Now a steady growth of metabolic syndrome frequency in world men population is observed, and that is accompanied by progressing deterioration of fertility parameters at them. Negative influence of key metabolic syndrome components – obesity and insulin resistance – at male reproductive function is shown on the basis of modern clinical, epidemiological and experimental data, and known pathophysiological mechanisms of this influence are described also. Induced by a metabolic syndrome oxidative stress of spermatozoas, neuropathy and androgen deficiency are the most significant mechanisms of neuro-endocrinological and reproductive consequences realization. The imperative necessity of early revealing and pharmacological correction of obesity and insulin resistance in all infertility men is shown, as well as they are curable reasons of male infertility . However, they seldom come to light and even less often corrected in routine clinical practice owing to insufficient knowledge of urologists and andrologists about these system hormonal-metabolic factors of male infertility, which role in male infertility pathogenesis will increase only in the conditions of world epidemic of a metabolic syndrome.

  1. Effect of testosterone supplementation on nitroso-redox imbalance, cardiac metabolism markers, and S100 proteins expression in the heart of castrated male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regouat, N; Cheboub, A; Benahmed, M; Belarbi, A; Hadj-Bekkouche, F

    2018-01-01

    supplementation. These findings confirm the deleterious effects of testosterone deficiency on cardiac function and highlight the involvement of nitric oxide, metalloproteinases 2 and 9, and S100 proteins. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  2. Is thyroid hormones evaluation of clinical value in the work-up of males of infertile couples?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, F; Maseroli, E; Fralassi, N; Degl'Innocenti, S; Boni, L; Baldi, E; Maggi, M

    2016-03-01

    Is thyroid hormones (TH) evaluation of clinical value in the work-up of males of infertile couples? Our results suggest that TH evaluation is not mandatory in the work-up of male infertility. A few previous studies performed on a limited series of subjects reported a negative impact of hyper- and hypo-thyroidism on semen volume, sperm concentration, progressive motility and normal morphology. No previous study has systematically evaluated associations between TH variation, semen parameters and ultrasound characteristics of the male genital tract. Cross-sectional analysis of a consecutive series of 172 subjects seeking medical care for couple infertility from September 2010 to November 2014. Of the entire cohort, 163 men (age 38.9 ± 8.0 years) free of genetic abnormalities were studied. All subjects underwent a complete andrological and physical examination, biochemical and hormonal assessment, scrotal and transrectal colour-Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) and semen analysis (including seminal interleukin 8 levels, sIL-8) evaluation within the same day. Among the patients studied, 145 (88.9%) showed euthyroidism, 6 (3.7%) subclinical hyper- and 12 (7.4%) subclinical hypo-thyroidism. No subjects showed overt hyper- or hypo-thyroidism. At univariate analysis, no associations among thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or TH levels and sperm parameters were observed. Conversely, we observed positive associations among free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels, ejaculate volume and seminal fructose levels. In a multivariate model, after adjusting for confounders such as age, body mass index, smoking habit, sexual abstinence, calculated free testosterone, prolactin and sIL-8 levels, only the associations found for fT3 levels were confirmed. When CDUS features were investigated, using the same multivariate model, we found positive associations between fT3 levels and seminal vesicles (SV) volume, both before and after ejaculation (adj. r = 0.354 and adj. r = 0

  3. The International Glossary on Infertility and Fertility Care, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Adamson, G David; Dyer, Silke; Racowsky, Catherine; de Mouzon, Jacques; Sokol, Rebecca; Rienzi, Laura; Sunde, Arne; Schmidt, Lone; Cooke, Ian D; Simpson, Joe Leigh; van der Poel, Sheryl

    2017-09-01

    Can a consensus and evidence-driven set of terms and definitions be generated to be used globally in order to ensure consistency when reporting on infertility issues and fertility care interventions, as well as to harmonize communication among the medical and scientific communities, policy-makers, and lay public including individuals and couples experiencing fertility problems? A set of 283 consensus-based and evidence-driven terminologies used in infertility and fertility care has been generated through an inclusive consensus-based process with multiple stakeholders. In 2006 the International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ICMART) published a first glossary of 53 terms and definitions. In 2009 ICMART together with WHO published a revised version expanded to 87 terms, which defined infertility as a disease of the reproductive system, and increased standardization of fertility treatment terminology. Since 2009, limitations were identified in several areas and enhancements were suggested for the glossary, especially concerning male factor, demography, epidemiology and public health issues. Twenty-five professionals, from all parts of the world and representing their expertise in a variety of sub-specialties, were organized into five working groups: clinical definitions; outcome measurements; embryology laboratory; clinical and laboratory andrology; and epidemiology and public health. Assessment for revisions, as well as expansion on topics not covered by the previous glossary, were undertaken. A larger group of independent experts and representatives from collaborating organizations further discussed and assisted in refining all terms and definitions. Members of the working groups and glossary co-ordinators interacted through electronic mail and face-to-face in international/regional conferences. Two formal meetings were held in Geneva, Switzerland, with a final consensus meeting including independent experts as well as observers and

  4. Causes of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism predict response to gonadotropin substitution in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohayem, J; Sinthofen, N; Nieschlag, E; Kliesch, S; Zitzmann, M

    2016-01-01

    . 26 ± 16 mL; p < 0.0001) and higher baseline inhibinB levels (pre- vs. post-pubertal HH: 16.6 vs. 144.5 pg/mL; p = 0.0004). The cause of HH is a valuable predictor of outcome of gonadotropin replacement in adults. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  5. The International Glossary on Infertility and Fertility Care, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Adamson, G David; Dyer, Silke; Racowsky, Catherine; de Mouzon, Jacques; Sokol, Rebecca; Rienzi, Laura; Sunde, Arne; Schmidt, Lone; Cooke, Ian D; Simpson, Joe Leigh; van der Poel, Sheryl

    2017-09-01

    Can a consensus and evidence-driven set of terms and definitions be generated to be used globally in order to ensure consistency when reporting on infertility issues and fertility care interventions, as well as to harmonize communication among the medical and scientific communities, policy-makers, and lay public including individuals and couples experiencing fertility problems? A set of 283 consensus-based and evidence-driven terminologies used in infertility and fertility care has been generated through an inclusive consensus-based process with multiple stakeholders. In 2006 the International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ICMART) published a first glossary of 53 terms and definitions. In 2009 ICMART together with WHO published a revised version expanded to 87 terms, which defined infertility as a disease of the reproductive system, and increased standardization of fertility treatment terminology. Since 2009, limitations were identified in several areas and enhancements were suggested for the glossary, especially concerning male factor, demography, epidemiology and public health issues. Twenty-five professionals, from all parts of the world and representing their expertise in a variety of sub-specialties, were organized into five working groups: clinical definitions; outcome measurements; embryology laboratory; clinical and laboratory andrology; and epidemiology and public health. Assessment for revisions, as well as expansion on topics not covered by the previous glossary, were undertaken. A larger group of independent experts and representatives from collaborating organizations further discussed and assisted in refining all terms and definitions. Members of the working groups and glossary co-ordinators interacted through electronic mail and face-to-face in international/regional conferences. Two formal meetings were held in Geneva, Switzerland, with a final consensus meeting including independent experts as well as observers and

  6. Erectile dysfunction in patients taking psychotropic drugs and treated with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Mazzilli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of patients with Erectile Dysfunction (ED receiving psychotropic drugs, the impact of these drugs on hormonal profile, and the efficacy of PDE5-i in these patients. Materials and methods: We recruited 1872 patients referring for ED to our Andrology Unit. Assessment included serum testosterone, gonadotropins, TSH, prolactin, and PSA, and the IIEF-5 questionnaire for ED diagnosis. Inclusion criteria were age 21-75 years and IIEF-5 total score ≤ 21; exclusion criteria included hypogonadism, diabetes mellitus, previous prostatectomy, other medication intake, and ED diagnosis prior to psychotropic drug treatment. Efficacy was rated with the IIEF-5 (remission: total score ≥ 22. Results: The prevalence of ED patients treated with psychotropic drugs since ≥ 3 months was 9.5% (178/1872, subdivided according to the drugs used into: Group A, 16 patients treated with atypical antipsychotics (9.0%; Group B, 55 patients with benzodiazepines (30.9%; Group C, 33 patients with antidepressant drugs (18.5%; and Group D, 74 patients with multiple psychotropic drugs (41.6%. Patients in Group A were significantly younger than other groups (p < 0.05. The hormonal profile presented only higher prolactin level in patients treated with antipsychotics, alone or in combination (p < 0.05. Overall, 146 patients received PDE5-i. Remission rate, after three months of treatment, was significantly higher in Group B compared to C and D groups (p < 0.05. Conclusions: A substantial portion of patients receiving psychotropic drugs show ED. Sexual performance in these patients benefits from PDE5-i. Age, effects of psychiatric disorders, psychotropic drugs, and PDE5-i treatment modality accounted for variability of response in this sample.

  7. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery: recent advances in urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autorino, Riccardo; Zargar, Homayoun; Kaouk, Jihad H

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarize recent developments in the field of urologic robotic surgery. A nonsystematic literature review was performed to retrieve publications related to robotic surgery in urology and evidence-based critical analysis was conducted by focusing on the literature of the past 5 years. The use of the da Vinci Surgical System, a robotic surgical system, has been implemented for the entire spectrum of extirpative and reconstructive laparoscopic kidney procedures. The robotic approach can be applied for a range of adrenal indications as well as for ureteral diseases, including benign and malignant conditions affecting the proximal, mid, and distal ureter. Current evidence suggests that robotic prostatectomy is associated with less blood loss compared with the open surgery. Besides prostate cancer, robotics has been used for simple prostatectomy in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. Recent studies suggest that minimally invasive radical cystectomy provides encouraging oncologic outcomes mirroring those reported for open surgery. In recent years, the evolution of robotic surgery has enabled urologic surgeons to perform urinary diversions intracorporeally. Robotic vasectomy reversal and several other robotic andrological applications are being explored. In summary, robotic-assisted surgery is an emerging and safe technology for most urologic operations. The acceptance of robotic prostatectomy during the past decade has paved the way for urologists to explore the entire spectrum of extirpative and reconstructive urologic procedures. Cost remains a significant issue that could be solved by wider dissemination of the technology. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Emerging treatments for premature ejaculation: focus on dapoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne JG Hellstrom

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Wayne JG HellstromChief, Section of Andrology, Department of Urology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USAAbstract: Premature ejaculation (PE is a common problem in men worldwide. It has a significant impact on affected men and their partners in terms of self-esteem, dissatisfaction with their sexual relationships, personal distress, and interpersonal difficulty. Psychological therapies may achieve short-term improvements, but there are limited data on the long-term success of these methods. Oral therapy with long-acting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs improves intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT, but these agents are designed to be administered daily and may be associated with unwanted sexual side effects and withdrawal symptoms upon abrupt discontinuation. Dapoxetine is a short-acting SSRI that can be taken as needed (prn by men with PE. It has been studied in five separate multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving more than 6000 men with PE. In four studies that evaluated IELT as an endpoint (N = 4843, dapoxetine 30 and 60 mg prn achieved statistically significant increases in IELT versus placebo. Dapoxetine also showed statistically significant improvements in perceived control over ejaculation, PE-related personal distress, and other patient-reported outcomes in all five trials. Dapoxetine treatment is generally well-tolerated, with low incidences of discontinuation syndrome, sexual dysfunction, and treatment-emergent mood symptoms. The most common adverse events with dapoxetine included nausea, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, and somnolence.Keywords: dapoxetine, discontinuation syndrome, premature ejaculation, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

  9. Assessment of Sexual Dysfunction in Patients with Fibromyalgia Syndrome

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    Rahime Nur Ülker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of our study is to determine the presence, quality of sexual dysfunction in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome and to compare with normal population. Material and Methods: A total of 55 sexually active women who were admitted to Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation of Antalya Research and Training Hospital and diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome according to 1990 and 2010 American College of Rheumatology (ACR criteria. A control group composed of 50 sexually active women who were admitted to our clinic with various musculoskeletal system complaints were also included in the study in order to compare the parameters used for clinical assessment of patients and to determine whether the patients differ from normal population. Patients and controls who met inclusion criteria were applied Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI for assessment of sexual function. This test was developed by Rosen and colleagues in 2000, it is composed of 19 questions and inquires six different dimensions including desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, sexual satisfaction and pain. Turkish validation test was done by Turkish Society Of Andrology in 2003, answers are multiplied with a coefficient and each section is evaluated on six scores. Minimum score is 2.4 and maximum is 36 and standardly used for assessment of female sexual dysfunction in Turkey. Results: Subscale and total score of Female Sexual Function Index of Fibromyalgia syndrome patients were found statistically significantly lower than those of control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Disorders of sexual function or its quality are one of the problems seen in fibromyalgia syndrome patients. It should be noticed that sexual function assessment must be a part of treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome. It is quite difficult to determine the mechanism between sexual dysfunction and fibromyalgia syndrome and new and larger studies are needed to determine this mechanism. (Turkish Journal of

  10. Clinical practice patterns in the assessment and management of low testosterone in men: an international survey of endocrinologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Mathis; Anawalt, Bradley D; Wu, Frederick C W

    2015-02-01

    To document current practices in the approach to low testosterone in older men. Given that recommendations are based on low-level evidence, we hypothesized that there would be a wide variability in clinical practice patterns. Members of all major endocrine and andrological societies were invited to participate in a Web-based survey of the diagnostic work-up and management of a hypothetical index case of a 61-year old overweight man presenting with symptoms suggestive of androgen deficiency, without evidence of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPT) axis disease. Nine hundred and forty-three respondents (91·2% adult endocrinologists) from Northern America (63·7%), Europe (12·7%), Oceania (8·2%), Latin America and Caribbean (7·6%), and the Middle East, Asia, or Africa (7·8%) completed the survey. Response rates among participating societies ranged from 4·1-20·0%. There was a wide variability in clinical practice patterns, especially regarding biochemical diagnosis of androgen deficiency, exclusion of HPT axis pathology, and monitoring for prostate cancer. In a man with suggestive symptoms, 42·4% of participants would offer testosterone treatment below a serum total testosterone of 10·4 nmol/l (300 ng/dl). A total of 46·0% of participants were, over the last five years, 'less inclined' to prescribe testosterone to men with nonspecific symptoms and borderline testosterone levels, compared to 'no change' (29·3%) or 'more inclined' (24·7%), P management of lowered testosterone in older men, with deviations from current clinical practice guidelines, and a temporal trend towards increasing reluctance to prescribe testosterone to men without classical hypogonadism. These findings highlight the need for better evidence to guide clinicians regarding testosterone therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Clinical characteristics of older male military veterans seeking treatment for erectile dysfunction.

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    Beaudreau, Sherry A; Rideaux, Tiffany; Zeiss, Robert A

    2011-02-01

    Male sexual dysfunction is a significant international public health issue affecting both middle-aged and older adults. To date, however, no studies have compared age differences in psychiatric issues, frequency of sexual activity and treatment recommendations between older and middle-aged male military Veterans seeking treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED) in the U.S.A. Data were collected between 1982 and 2003 at the Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Andrology Clinic. The 1,250 participants, aged 22 to 87 years (median = 63), completed a semi-structured interview. Using multiple linear regressions, we examined age differences in five domains: medical and endocrine risk factors; psychiatric and psychosocial risk factors; frequency of sexual behaviors; self-reported and objectively measured erectile function; and treatment recommendations. Compared with middle-aged adults, older adults were more likely to present for ED treatment with medical risk factors and were more often recommended a vacuum pump treatment. Middle-aged male Veterans were more likely to experience psychiatric risk factors for ED and were more sexually active than older Veterans. Despite greater objective erectile ability in middle-aged adults, there were no age differences in maximum self-reported erectile functioning. These results provide some evidence of age-related characteristics and treatment needs of male patients seeking treatment for sexual dysfunction. We encourage health care professionals working with adults across the lifespan to consider ways to individualize psychoeducation and brief psychotherapy for the treatment of ED to the specific needs of the patient, which may vary between middle-aged and older cohorts of patients.

  12. Mapping the landscape of urology: A new media-based cross-sectional analysis of public versus academic interest.

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    Borgmann, Hendrik; Salem, Johannes; Baunacke, Martin; Boehm, Katharina; Groeben, Christer; Schmid, Marianne; Siegel, Fabian P; Huber, Johannes

    2018-03-08

    To quantify public and academic interest in the urological field using a novel new media-based methodology. We systematically measured public and academic interest in 56 urological keywords and combined in nine subspecialties. Public interest was quantified as video views on YouTube. Academic interest was quantified as article citations using Microsoft Academic Search. The public-to-academic interest ratio was calculated for a comparison of subspecialties as well as for diseases and treatments. For the selected 56 urological keywords, we found 226 617 591 video views on YouTube and 2 146 287 citations in the academic literature. The public-to-academic interest ratio was highest for the subspecialties robotic urology (ratio 6.3) and andrological urology (ratio 4.6). Prostate cancer was the central urological disease combining both a high public (20% of all video views) and academic interest (26% of all citations, ratio 0.8). Further diseases/treatments of high public interest were premature ejaculation (ratio 54.4), testicular cancer (ratio 11.4), erectile dysfunction (ratio 5.5) and kidney transplant (ratio 3.7). Urological treatments had a higher public-to-academic interest ratio (median ratio 0.25) than diseases (median ratio 0.05; P = 0.029). A quantification of academic and public interest in the urological field is feasible using a novel new media-based methodology. We found several mismatches in public versus academic interest in urological diseases and treatments, which has implications for research strategies, conference planning and patient information projects. Regular re-assessments of the public and academic interest landscape can contribute to detecting and proving trends in the field of urology. © 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

  13. Retroperitoneoscopic Varicocelectomy in Adolescents: Long-term Follow-up in Two Italian Centres

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    Molinaro Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The varicocele is the most commonly diagnosed pre-pubertal andrological condition with an incidence of 10%–15% between adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of retroperitoneoscopic varicocelectomy (RV in two Italian centres with particular attention to post-operative testicular volume and semen analysis after 18 years of life. Materials and Methods: From 1999 to 2010, 286 adolescents underwent retroperitoneoscopic left varicocelectomy. Of these patients, 67 were evaluated by clinical examination, ultrasound and semen analysis, allowing an adequate long-term follow-up. Results: Surgery was performed at a mean age of 13 years (range 10–17 without intraoperative complications. There were two recurrences (3%, two left testis hypotrophy (3% and four hydroceles (6%, not yet undergone surgery because asymptomatic or without tension. Currently, 44 patients accepted to perform semen analysis which showed a reduction in sperm motility in 12 cases, with associated morphological alterations in 3 and reducing number of spermatozoa in one case. Conclusions: In consideration of morphological and biomolecular spermatic alterations reported in adolescent varicocele that could interfere with cellular migration, differentiation and nutrition, it is fundamental to consider the correction of varicocele, not only for the classical indications, but also as a choice for arresting the progressive damage that inevitably acts for several years on the adolescent testis. The RV in adolescents is a safe and feasible procedure for experienced paediatric laparoscopic surgeons with early good clinical outcomes, but more studies occur to understand the real impact of adolescent varicocelectomy on testicular function.

  14. Prostate cancer: an emerging threat to the health of aging men in Asia.

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    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Bao-Xue; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jin-Guo; Wang, Hong-Liang; Zhao, Xue-Jian

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and examine the possible reasons for the difference in prostate cancer incidence between Asian men and North American men by literature review. Data regarding cancer incidence and mortality were obtained from the database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). A literature review was conducted by studying related articles published in peer-reviewed journals such as the The New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of Clinical Oncology, A Cancer Journal for Clinicians and Asian Journal of Andrology. To evaluate the early diagnosis and survival rates, the mortality-to-incidence rate ratio (MR/IR) was calculated from the IARC data. By comparing prostate cancer data between Asian men and North American men, we found that differences in the incidence rate and MR/IR could be attributed largely to a lack of annual prostate cancer screening with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in most Asian countries. It is likely that PSA screening also contributes significantly to the differences in prostate cancer mortality rates. Prostate cancer has the highest incidence rate among five common malignancies in Asian Americans. However, the MR/IR ratio of prostate cancer is the lowest among cancers. These data seem to further support the usefulness of PSA screening, even though the percentage of low risk cancers is greater in prostate cancer than in other cancers. The low incidence rate of prostate cancer does not reflect the actual statistics of this disease in Asia. The data from limited institutions in many Asian countries seem to bias the true incidence and mortality rates. To improve this situation, incorporating PSA screening for prostate cancer, as well as constructing a nationwide cancer registration system, will be helpful.

  15. A systematic review on sperm DNA fragmentation in male factor infertility: Laboratory assessment

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    Manesh Kumar Panner Selvam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF testing as an important sperm function test in addition to conventional semen analysis. High SDF is negatively associated with semen quality, the fertilisation process, embryo quality, and pregnancy outcome. Over recent decades, different SDF assays have been developed and reviewed extensively to assess their applicability and accuracy as advanced sperm function tests. Amongst them, the standardisation of the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferased UTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL assay with a bench top flow cytometer in clinical practice deserves special mention with a threshold value of 16.8% to differentiate infertile men with DNA damage from fertile men. Materials and methods: A systematic literature search was performed through the PubMed, Medline, and ScienceDirect databases using the keywords ‘sperm DNA fragmentation’ and ‘laboratory assessment’. Non-English articles were excluded and studies related to humans were only included. Results: Of the 618 identified, 87 studies (original research and reviews and in addition eight book chapters meeting the selection criteria were included in this review. In all, 366 articles were rejected in the preliminary screening and a further 165 articles related to non-human subjects were excluded. Conclusion: There are pros and cons to all the available SDF assays. TUNEL is a reliable technique with greater accuracy and as an additional diagnostic test in Andrology laboratories along with basic semen analysis can predict fertility outcome, and thus direct the choice of an assisted reproductive technology procedure for infertile couples. Also, the TUNEL assay can be used as a prognostic test and results are beneficial in deciding personalised treatment for infertile men. Keywords: Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferased UTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL, DNA damage, Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF assay

  16. The use of a single daily dose of tadalafil to treat signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia and erectile dysfunction

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    Gacci M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mauro Gacci,1 Matteo Salvi,1 Arcangelo Sebastianelli,1 Linda Vignozzi,2 Giovanni Corona,3 Kevin T McVary,4 Steven A Kaplan,5 Mario Maggi,2 Marco Carini,1 Matthias Oelke6 1Department of Urology, University of Florence, Florence, 2Sexual Medicine and Andrology Unit, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, 3Endocrinology Unit, Maggiore-Bellaria Hospital, Bologna, Italy; 4Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL, 5Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY, USA; 6Department of Urology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany Abstract: A strong and independent association between lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH and erectile dysfunction (ED has been widely evidenced in several clinical epidemiologic studies. Preclinical animal models have provided a great deal of information on potential common pathogenic mechanisms underlying these two clinical identities. Although the efficacy of the most commonly used treatments for LUTS/BPH is well defined, the negative impact of these treatments on sexual function – in particular, on ED – has triggered the search for new treatment options. In this regard, a new role for phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in the treatment of LUTS/BPH and ED has been claimed. Tadalafil is one of the most extensively investigated phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for this new indication. All evidence reported to date suggests that tadalafil 5 mg once daily is a safe and effective treatment option for both LUTS/BPH and ED. Keywords: phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, LUTS/BPH, ED, sexual function, Cialis

  17. A randomized, controlled, multicenter contraceptive efficacy clinical trial of the intravas device, a nonocclusive surgical male sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Hong; Liang, Xiao-Wei; Gu, Yi-Qun; Wu, Wei-Xiong; Bo, Li-Wei; Zheng, Tian-Gui; Chen, Zhen-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Because of unavoidable complications of vasectomy, this study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of male sterilization with a nonobstructive intravas device (IVD) implanted into the vas lumen by a mini-surgical method compared with no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV). IVDs were categorized into two types: IVD-B has a tail used for fixing to the vas deferens (fixed wing) whereas IVD-A does not. A multicenter prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in China. The study was comprised of 1459 male volunteers seeking vasectomy who were randomly assigned to the IVD-A (n = 487), IVD-B (n = 485) or NSV (n = 487) groups and underwent operation. Follow-up included visits at the 3rd–6th and 12th postoperative months. The assessments of the subjects involved regular physical examinations (including general and andrological examinations) and semen analysis. The subjects’ partners also underwent monitoring for pregnancy by monthly interviews regarding menstruation and if necessary, urine tests. There were no significant differences in pregnancy rates (0.65% for IVD-A, 0 for IVD-B and 0.21% for NSV) among the three groups (P > 0.05). The cumulative rates of complications at the 12th postoperative month were zero, 0.9% and 1.7% in the three groups, respectively. In conclusion, IVD male sterilization exhibits a low risk of long-term adverse events and was found to be effective as a male sterilization method, similar to the NSV technique. IVD male sterilization is expected to be a novel contraceptive method. PMID:24589454

  18. Profile of men's health in Malaysia: problems and challenges.

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    Tong, Seng Fah; Low, Wah Yun; Ng, Chirk Jenn

    2011-07-01

    Men's health concerns have evolved from the traditional andrology and male sexual health to a more holistic approach that encompasses male psychological, social and physical health. The poor state of health in men compared to their female counterparts is well documented. A review of the epidemiological data from Malaysia noted a similar trend in which men die at higher rates in under 1 and above 15 years old groups and most disease categories compared to women. In Malaysia, the main causes of death in men are non-communicable diseases and injuries. Risk factors, such as risk-taking behaviour, smoking and hypertension, are prevalent and amenable to early interventions. Erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and prostate disorders are also prevalent. However, many of these morbidities go unreported and are not diagnosed early; therefore, opportunities for early intervention are missed. This reflects poor health knowledge and inadequate health-care utilisation among Malaysian men. Their health-seeking behaviour has been shown to be strongly influenced by family members and friends. However, more research is needed to identify men's unmet health-care needs and to develop optimal strategies for addressing them. Because the Malaysian population is aging and there is an increase in sedentary lifestyles, optimizing men's health will remain a challenge unless effective measures are implemented. The existing male-unfriendly health-care system and the negative influence of masculinity on men's health behaviour must be addressed. A national men's health policy based on a male-friendly approach to health-care delivery is urgently needed to provide a framework for addressing these challenges.

  19. A randomized, controlled, multicenter contraceptive efficacy clinical trial of the intravas device, a nonocclusive surgical male sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hong Lu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of unavoidable complications of vasectomy, this study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of male sterilization with a nonobstructive intravas device (IVD implanted into the vas lumen by a mini-surgical method compared with no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV. IVDs were categorized into two types: IVD-B has a tail used for fixing to the vas deferens (fixed wing whereas IVD-A does not. A multicenter prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in China. The study was comprised of 1459 male volunteers seeking vasectomy who were randomly assigned to the IVD-A (n = 487, IVD-B (n = 485 or NSV (n = 487 groups and underwent operation. Follow-up included visits at the 3 rd -6 th and 12 th postoperative months. The assessments of the subjects involved regular physical examinations (including general and andrological examinations and semen analysis. The subjects' partners also underwent monitoring for pregnancy by monthly interviews regarding menstruation and if necessary, urine tests. There were no significant differences in pregnancy rates (0.65% for IVD-A, 0 for IVD-B and 0.21% for NSV among the three groups (P > 0.05. The cumulative rates of complications at the 12 th postoperative month were zero, 0.9% and 1.7% in the three groups, respectively. In conclusion, IVD male sterilization exhibits a low risk of long-term adverse events and was found to be effective as a male sterilization method, similar to the NSV technique. IVD male sterilization is expected to be a novel contraceptive method.

  20. Testosterone deficiency in patients with erectile dysfunction: when should a higher cardiovascular risk be considered?

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    Martínez-Jabaloyas, José M

    2014-08-01

    Low testosterone levels (low T) increase the cardiovascular (CV) risk of men with erectile dysfunction (ED). T levels associated with a higher CV risk are unknown. To determine the prevalence of CV risk factors associated with low T as defined by European Guidelines and their contribution to low T, overall and at different ages. Multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study conducted in Spain among men with ED aged ≥ 18 years visiting Urology/Andrology offices for sexual dysfunction. Anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory data, including total T (TT) values, were collected for 1,278 men. Risk factors were assessed in men with TT ≤ 8, 8-12, and ≥ 12 nmol/L, and two-group comparisons were made. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios for low T after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Mean age (standard deviation) was 58.0 (9.2) years. Age and prevalence of CV risk factors was similar in men with TT ≤ 8 nmol/L or 8-12 nmol/L and significantly higher than in men with TT >12 nmol/L. Low T was therefore considered as TT ≤ 12 nmol/L, with a prevalence of 33.3%. Obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and severe ED were the variables most strongly associated with low T: obesity in middle-aged men; hyperlipidemia, and hypertension in older men. Severe ED was a risk factor in both groups. Hypolipidemic therapy had the greater effect in young men. Multivariate analysis showed that severe ED and obesity were the strongest predictors of low T. T levels associated with increased CV risk could go as high as 12 nmol/L in men with ED, with distribution of risk factors showing differences according to age. Obesity and severe ED are the best predictors of low T-related CV risk. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. The relationship between anogenital distance, fatherhood, and fertility in adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michael L; Hsieh, Michael H; Walters, Rustin Chanc; Krasnow, Ross; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2011-05-11

    Anogenital distance (AGD), a sexually dimorphic measure of genital development, is a marker for endocrine disruption in animal studies and may be shorter in infant males with genital anomalies. Given the correlation between anogenital distance and genital development, we sought to determine if anogenital distance varied in fertile compared to infertile adult men. A cross sectional study of consecutive men being evaluated for infertility and men with proven fertility was recruited from an andrology clinic. Anogenital distance (the distance from the posterior aspect of the scrotum to the anal verge) and penile length (PL) were measured using digital calipers. ANOVA and linear regression were used to determine correlations between AGD, fatherhood status, and semen analysis parameters (sperm density, motility, and total motile sperm count). A total of 117 infertile men (mean age: 35.3±17.4) and 56 fertile men (mean age: 44.8±9.7) were recruited. The infertile men possessed significantly shorter mean AGD and PL compared to the fertile controls (AGD: 31.8 vs 44.6 mm, PL: 107.1 vs 119.5 mm, pfatherhood, on both unadjusted and adjusted linear regression, AGD was significantly correlated with sperm density and total motile sperm count. After adjusting for demographic and reproductive variables, for each 1 cm increase in a man's AGD, the sperm density increases by 4.3 million sperm per mL (95% CI 0.53, 8.09, p = 0.03) and the total motile sperm count increases by 6.0 million sperm (95% CI 1.34, 10.58, p = 0.01). On adjusted analyses, no correlation was seen between penile length and semen parameters. A longer anogenital distance is associated with fatherhood and may predict normal male reproductive potential. Thus, AGD may provide a novel metric to assess reproductive potential in men.

  2. Value of counting white blood cells (WBC) in semen samples to predict the presence of bacteria.

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    Lackner, Jakob; Schatzl, Georg; Horvath, Sabine; Kratzik, Christian; Marberger, Michael

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between the presence of white blood cells (WBC) without the use of specific stain to differentiate leukocytes and the presence of bacteria in semen samples of infertile men. A total of 143 semen samples of men who attended an andrologic clinic for the evaluation of fertility were investigated using routine semen analysis (according to WHO laboratory guidelines) and bacterial culture. WBC were found in 43.4% (62/143). There were no WBC in 56.6% (81/143) of the samples (group I) while WBC were found in 43.4% (62/143) of the samples (group II). Pathogenic bacteria were detected in 48.2% (39/81) in group I and in 54.9% (34/62) in group II, all in all Bacteriospermia was present in 51.1% (73/143). The most common bacteria were Ureaplasma urealyticum, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli (23.8%, 16.8%, and 7.0% of samples, respectively). The sensitivity/specificity for detecting bacteria was 0.47/0.60 at a cut-off level of 0.25 Mio/mL WBC and 0.16/0.84 at a cut-off level of WBC 1 Mio/mL, representing likelihood ratios of 1.16 and 1.04, respectively. The greatest ratio between sensitivity and specificity (0.37/0.72) was found at a cut-off level of 0.5 Mio/mL WBC, with a likelihood ratio of 1.29. Counting WBC instead of a specific stain for the detection of leukocytes has only a poor sensitivity/specificity for the detection of bacteria.

  3. The Patient's Comorbidity Burden Correlates with the Erectile Dysfunction Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cruz, E; Carrión, A; Ajami, T; Álvarez, M; Correas, M Á; García, B; García, J V; González, C; Portillo, J A; Romero-Otero, J; Simón, C; Torremadé, J; Vigués, F; Alcaraz, A

    To explore the potential relationship between erectile dysfunction (ED), low testosterone levels, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Cross-sectional study on patients referred to the andrology unit in 7 Spanish centers. The ED was diagnosed and graded using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) score. Total testosterone, the prevalence of each comorbidity, and the CCI were compared between patients with different grades of ED. Besides, the correlation between total testosterone and the CCI score, the influence of each comorbidity, and the ED severity on the CCI was assessed in a multiple linear regression. The study included 430 men with a mean age of 61 years. The mean CCI was 3.5, and mean total testosterone 15.2 nmol/L; 389 (91%) subjects had some grade of ED: 97 (23%) mild, 149 (35%) mild-to-moderate, 86 (20%) moderate, and 57 (13%) severe. The increase in ED severity was significantly associated with a decrease in total testosterone (P=.002), and an increase in the CCI score (P<.001). Testosterone levels were significantly lower in patients with obesity, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia (P<.05). However, only the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension was significantly associated with the severity of ED. The multivariate analysis including variables related to all assessed comorbidities, total testosterone levels, and the DE severity significantly predicted the CCI score (P<.001, R 2 =.426). The severity of ED significantly contributed to this model (P=.011), but total testosterone did not (P=.204). The CCI is significantly associated with the ED severity, but it shows a weak correlation with the testosterone levels. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. The Role of Protamine 2 Gene Expression and Caspase 9 Activity in Male Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalata, Adel A; Mokhtar, Naglaa; Atwa, Amany; Khaled, Mohamed; Shaker, Olfat G

    2016-03-01

    Approximately 15% of couples are affected by infertility with the man responsible in almost half of the cases. PRMs (protamines) confer a higher order of DNA packaging in sperm than that in somatic cells. Because of the critical roles of PRMs in spermatid differentiation, aberrations in PRM expression or changes in protein structure could be causes of certain types of idiopathic human male infertility. The aim of this study was to give insight into the role of PRM2 gene expression and caspase 9 activity in the pathogenesis of male infertility. The current study included 70 men with idiopathic infertility and 64 fertile men who attended the andrology outpatient clinic at Mansoura University Hospital. Semen sample analyses were done according to WHO recommendations. The acrosome reaction of spermatozoa recovered from each sample was assessed. Samples were separated using discontinuous gradient separation. From each semen sample mature sperm were separated from immature sperm. The resulting samples were divided into 2 parts, including one to determine caspase 9 activity and the other for RNA extraction and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of PRM2 gene expression. The polymerase chain reaction product was electrophoresed on 2% agarose gel. PRM2 gene expression was significantly decreased in immature sperm extracted from the fertile and infertile groups. Caspase 9 activity was significantly increased in immature sperm extracted from both groups. Low levels of PRM2 may be associated with morphological abnormalities, initiation of the apoptotic pathway and decreasing sperm motility. PRM2 may be an important marker to better understand the key regulatory pathway of spermatogenesis and it may act as a crucial part of fertilization. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Radium 223 dichloride for prostate cancer treatment

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    Deshayes E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Emmanuel Deshayes,1,2 Mathieu Roumiguie,3 Constance Thibault,4 Philippe Beuzeboc,5 Florent Cachin,6 Christophe Hennequin,7 Damien Huglo,8 François Rozet,9 Diana Kassab-Chahmi,10 Xavier Rebillard,11 Nadine Houédé1,12 1Radiobiology Unit, INSERM U1194, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier (ICM, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier (ICM, Montpellier, 3Urology Department, Andrology and Renal Transplantation, CHU Rangueil, Toulouse, 4Medical Oncology Department, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, 5Oncology Department, Institut Curie, 6Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU, Clermont-Ferrand, 7Radiotherapy Department, Hôpital Saint Louis, Paris, 8Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHRU, Lille, 9Urology Department, Institut Mutualiste Montsouris, 10Intergroupe coopérateur francophone de recherche en onco-urologie, Paris, 11Urology Department, Clinique BeauSoleil, Montpellier, 12Medical Oncology Department, Institut de Cancérologie du Gard – CHU Caremeau, Nîmes, France Abstract: Prostate cancer is the most common malignant disease in men. Several therapeutic agents have been approved during the last 10 years. Among them, radium-223 dichloride (Xofigo® is a radioactive isotope that induces irreversible DNA double-strand breaks and consequently tumor cell death. Radium-223 dichloride is a calcium-mimetic agent that specifically targets bone lesions. Radium-223 dichloride has been approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with symptomatic bone metastases, without known visceral metastases. In this review, first we summarize the interplay between prostate tumor cells and bone microenvironment; then, we discuss radium-223 dichloride mechanism of action and present the results of the available clinical trials and future developments for this new drug. Keywords: bone metastasis, mCRPC, mechanism, drug, agents, development 

  6. Penile prosthesis surgery in out-patient setting: Effectiveness and costs in the “spending review” era

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    Nicola Mondaini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Penile implant patients are required to remain in the hospital after the operation for monitoring, antibiotic and analgesia administration. Cost containment, however, has resulted in the increased use of ambulatory surgery settings for many surgical procedures. Few studies have studied the feasibility of performing penile prosthesis insertion in an outpatient setting. The results are controversial and nowadays, in the most of centers that deal with prosthetic surgery, patients are still hospitalized. Aim: The aim of our investigation was to compare the feasibility of the performance as well as the complication profiles of penile implant surgery performed in an in-patient and an outpatient setting at a single center by a single surgeon. Methods: From January 2009 to June 2014, 50 patients of the same uro-andrological unit underwent penile prosthesis implantation performed by a single surgeon (N.M.. Twenty implantations were performed in an ambulatory day surgery setting. Main outcome measures: Effectiveness and costs of outpatient setting versus the in-patient setting of the penile prosthesis surgery. Results: There were some differences between the two groups in the intra-operative parameters, such as, operating time. Time lost from work was similar in both groups approximating 14 days. The mean number of analgesic pills ingested by the patients post-operatively was similar in both groups, averaging just under 25 pills per patient. There weren’t post-operative complications in the outpatient group. Cost were 17% less in outpatient clinic. Conclusions: The outpatient setting for this surgery is safe and effective even in patients with comorbidities or in case of secondary procedures. Costs are reduced by 17%.

  7. Pleiotropic activities of HGF/c-Met system in testicular physiology: paracrine and endocrine implications

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    Giulia eRicci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades a growing body of evidences has been reported concerning the expression and functional role of Hepathocyte Growth Factor (HGF on different aspects of testicular physiology. This review has the aim to summarize what is currently known regarding this topic. From early embryonic development to adult age, HGF and its receptor c-Met appeared to be clearly detectable in the testis. These molecules acquire different distribution patterns and roles depending on the developmental stage or the post-natal age considered. HGF acts as a paracrine modulator of testicular functions promoting the ephitelium-mesenchyme cross-talk as described even in other organs. Interestingly, it has been reported that testicular HGF acts even as an autocrine factor and that its receptor might be modulated by endocrine signals that change at puberty: HGF receptor expressed by Sertoli cells, in fact, is up-regulated by FSH administration. HGF is in turn able to modify endocrine state of the organism being able to increase testosterone secretion of both fetal and adult Leydig cells. Moreover c-Met is expressed in mitotic and meiotic male germ cells as well as in spermatozoa. The distribution pattern of c-Met on sperm cell membrane changes in the caput and cauda epididymal sperms and HGF is able to maintain epididymal sperm motility in vitro suggesting a physiological role of this growth factor in the acquisition of sperm motility. Noteworthy changes in HGF concentration in seminal plasma have been reported in different andrological diseases. All together these data indicate that HGF has a role in the control of spermatogenesis and sperm quality either directly, acting on male germ cells, or indirectly acting on tubular and interstitial somatic cells of the testis.

  8. Globalization in Urology: A Bibliographical Analysis of Cross-Continent Publication between 2002 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Jens; Juengel, Eva; Bartsch, Georg; Filmann, Natalie; Ackermann, Hanns; Nelson, Karen; Haferkamp, Axel; Engl, Tobias; Blaheta, Roman A

    2015-01-01

    Asian scientists have now increasingly begun to contribute to globalization; yet it is not clear whether publishing in the field of urology is paralleled by elevated cross-continental scientific publishing. An exemplary bibliometric analysis of urologic journals from 3 different continents was conducted between 2002 and 2012. Based on the ISI Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports, 2 urologic journals with similar impact factors (IFs) in 2013 were selected from Europe ('British Journal of Urology International', 'World Journal of Urology'), Asia ('International Journal of Urology', 'Asian Journal of Andrology') and North America ('Urologic Oncology-Seminars and Original Investigations', 'Urology'). The home continent of the journal, the workplace continental affiliation of the last author, article type (clinical, experimental or review) as well as the IF were documented. Most authors published their manuscripts in journals from the same continent in which they worked. However, a significant increase in cross-continental publishing was apparent from 2002 to 2012. Asians publishing in North America increased from 17% in 2002 to 35% in 2012. Europeans also increased the number of articles they published in North American journals, while publications from North American authors were shifted towards both European and Asian journals. Experimental and clinical articles showed significant increases in cross-continental publishing, while review publishing showed no significant change. The average IF for authors from all 3 continents increased from 2002 to 2012 (p < 0.001). The largest increase in the IF was found for Asian authors (0.11 per year). Cross-continental publication significantly increased during the period from 2002 to 2012. The impact that the Asian authors have experienced was found to be gradually impacting the North American and European colleagues. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Profile of men's health in Malaysia: problems and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Seng Fah; Low, Wah Yun; Ng, Chirk Jenn

    2011-01-01

    Men's health concerns have evolved from the traditional andrology and male sexual health to a more holistic approach that encompasses male psychological, social and physical health. The poor state of health in men compared to their female counterparts is well documented. A review of the epidemiological data from Malaysia noted a similar trend in which men die at higher rates in under 1 and above 15 years old groups and most disease categories compared to women. In Malaysia, the main causes of death in men are non-communicable diseases and injuries. Risk factors, such as risk-taking behaviour, smoking and hypertension, are prevalent and amenable to early interventions. Erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and prostate disorders are also prevalent. However, many of these morbidities go unreported and are not diagnosed early; therefore, opportunities for early intervention are missed. This reflects poor health knowledge and inadequate health-care utilisation among Malaysian men. Their health-seeking behaviour has been shown to be strongly influenced by family members and friends. However, more research is needed to identify men's unmet health-care needs and to develop optimal strategies for addressing them. Because the Malaysian population is aging and there is an increase in sedentary lifestyles, optimizing men's health will remain a challenge unless effective measures are implemented. The existing male-unfriendly health-care system and the negative influence of masculinity on men's health behaviour must be addressed. A national men's health policy based on a male-friendly approach to health-care delivery is urgently needed to provide a framework for addressing these challenges. PMID:21358664

  10. SIAMS survey on sexological screening during the assisted reproductive technologies in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, G; Limoncin, E; Mollaioli, D; Gravina, G L; Carosa, E; Di Sante, S; Gianfrilli, D; Lombardo, F; Lenzi, A; Jannini, E A

    2015-09-01

    The assessment of sexual function is fundamental to the Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). Nevertheless, it is still not a common clinical routine among infertility centres. The aim of this survey is to describe the main aspects of sexological screening that are considered in Italian centres of ART. After the consensus of the Italian Society of Andrology and Sexual Medicine (SIAMS), a mailing list of reproductive medicine centres was created. Then, we sent a questionnaire concerning the essential characteristics of sexological screening. The respondents to compilers of the questionnaire sent back the information from their centres, and an analysis of absolute frequencies and percentages was performed. First, 16 centres completed and returned the questionnaire, while 5 ignored the invitation. The main findings concerned the wide use consideration of vardenafil 10 mg (68.7%; 11/16) for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in comorbidity with reproductive problems, the diffuse administration of International Index of Erectile Function (68.2%; 11/16) and Structured Interview for the Erectile Dysfunction (50%; 8/16) as psychometric tools and lesser use of Female Sexual Function Index (31.2%; 5/16) for the evaluation of female sexuality in the infertile couple. To conclude, we noticed a major focus on male sexuality and the eventual treatment or evaluation of sexual dysfunction compared to female sexuality. This aspect highlights an important issue for clinical practice to strongly consider and eventually reinforce. In this regard, improvement of the assessment and treatment of possible female sexual problems in reproductive medicine seems necessary.

  11. A randomized, controlled, multicenter contraceptive efficacy clinical trial of the intravas device, a nonocclusive surgical male sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Hong; Liang, Xiao-Wei; Gu, Yi-Qun; Wu, Wei-Xiong; Bo, Li-Wei; Zheng, Tian-Gui; Chen, Zhen-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Because of unavoidable complications of vasectomy, this study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of male sterilization with a nonobstructive intravas device (IVD) implanted into the vas lumen by a mini-surgical method compared with no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV). IVDs were categorized into two types: IVD-B has a tail used for fixing to the vas deferens (fixed wing) whereas IVD-A does not. A multicenter prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in China. The study was comprised of 1459 male volunteers seeking vasectomy who were randomly assigned to the IVD-A (n = 487), IVD-B (n = 485) or NSV (n = 487) groups and underwent operation. Follow-up included visits at the 3 rd -6 th and 12 th postoperative months. The assessments of the subjects involved regular physical examinations (including general and andrological examinations) and semen analysis. The subjects' partners also underwent monitoring for pregnancy by monthly interviews regarding menstruation and if necessary, urine tests. There were no significant differences in pregnancy rates (0.65% for IVD-A, 0 for IVD-B and 0.21% for NSV) among the three groups (P > 0.05). The cumulative rates of complications at the 12 th postoperative month were zero, 0.9% and 1.7% in the three groups, respectively. In conclusion, IVD male sterilization exhibits a low risk of long-term adverse events and was found to be effective as a male sterilization method, similar to the NSV technique. IVD male sterilization is expected to be a novel contraceptive method.

  12. Pneumoscrotum: report of two different cases and review of the literature

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    Cochetti G

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Cochetti,1 Francesco Barillaro,1 Emanuele Cottini,1 Francesco D’Amico,1 Alberto Pansadoro,1 Solajd Pohja,1 Andrea Boni,1 Roberto Cirocchi,2 Veronica Grassi,2 Rosa Mancuso,1 Elisa Silvi,1 Katifenia Ioannidou,1 Maria Giulia Egidi,1 Giulia Poli,1 Ettore Mearini1 1Department of Surgical and Biomedical Science, Institute of Urological, Andrological Surgery and Minimally Invasive Techniques, University of Perugia, Terni, Italy; 2Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Perugia, Terni, Italy Abstract: Pneumoscrotum is the term used to describe the presence of air within the scrotum and includes scrotal emphysema as well as pneumatocele. The etiology varies; in some cases, pneumoscrotum may be due to life-threatening disease like pneumothorax or Fournier gangrene. Despite this, pneumoscrotum is a rarely debated issue. We present two different cases of pneumoscrotum and a review of the literature. The first case report is about a 29 year old male patient affected by Duchenne syndrome who showed pneumoscrotum after cardiopulmonary resuscitation that was performed for asphyxic crisis and cardiovascular arrest. We carried out local puncture with an 18-gauge needle, and the pneumoscrotum was successfully solved. The second case report is about a 56 year old male with pneumoscrotum due to Fournier gangrene who underwent radical exeresis of all necrotic tissues and drainage. This is why most of the scrotal skin and all of the penis skin were removed; as a result, the testicles, epididymis, and cavernosa corpora were externalized. On postoperative day one, the patient was feverless and underwent hyperbaric chamber therapy. No postoperative complications occurred. Accurate evaluation of the pneumoscrotum is always needed. Despite the benign course of most of the clinically evident pneumoscrotum cases, this condition should never be underestimated. Keywords: cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Fournier gangrene, pneumoscrotum, spontaneous causes

  13. Testicular function in boys previously treated with recombinant-human growth hormone for non-growth hormone-deficient short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicioni, A F; Paris, E; De Marco, E; Anzuini, A; Gandini, L; Lenzi, A

    2007-12-01

    Data on the effects of recombinant human GH (hGH) therapy during male puberty on future testis function are still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of recombinant hGH treatment on reproductive function in non-GH-deficient short stature boys. Eight boys with non-GH-deficient short stature, affected by constitutional delay of puberty or idiopathic short stature, were retrospectively studied after recombinant-hGH treatment to verify gonadal development, hormone production and semen quality. Auxological data, endocrinological/ andrological parameters and laboratory evaluation (GH, IGF-I, FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B) were assessed before treatment; after completion of pubertal development, the same parameters plus SHBG levels were evaluated and a seminal fluid examination was conducted (ejaculate volume, pH, sperm concentration, total sperm count, forward and total motility, morphology). All patients showed normal testicular volume at the final pubertal stage, with regular androgenization. Hormonal levels were within the normal adult range in all boys. Considering the immature reproductive system of these patients in comparison with adults, semen parameters (sperm count, motility, and morphology) were within almost normal limits, except in one patient. Although patients showed the wide fluctuation of semen values frequently observed at the end of puberty, the hypophysis-gonadal axis hormones were in the normal range in all adolescents. Pathological measurements of some seminal parameters were found in one patient only. This study suggests that recombinant hGH treatment has no detrimental effects on the development and maturation of male gonadal function in non- GH deficient short stature young patients.

  14. Preparation and clinical evaluation of nano-transferosomes for treatment of erectile dysfunction

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    Ali MFM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Maha Fadel M Ali,1 Heba F Salem,2 Hany F Abdelmohsen,3 Sameh K Attia4 1Pharmaceutical Technology Unit, Medical Applications of Lasers Department, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 2Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy Department, 3Clinical Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt; 4Dermatology and Andrology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Minia, Egypt Objective: The goal of the present study was to formulate topical nanocarriers of the low-cost vasodilator, papaverine hydrochloride (PH, as an alternative to the painful penile injections. The injections are used for both diagnosis and treatment of erectile dysfunction. Transdermal nano-transferosome (T, the ultraflexible nanoliposome, was used as a nanocarrier to enhance the penetration of the papaverine to the penis. Methods: Different nano formulas were prepared and characterized for their encapsulation efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, and cumulative drug release. The formula acquired the best characteristics was incorporated into 2% (w/v hydroxypropyl methylcellulose hydrogel base. The gel containing transferosomal papaverine hydrochloride (PH and that containing free PH were clinically compared using color flow Doppler measurements. Results: The results revealed that transferosome 3 (T3 had the highest entrapment efficiency approaching 72%, low particle size of 220 nm, and zeta potential of -33.4 mV. The formula released 73% of its initial drug content within 2 hours. The clinical evaluation showed the increase in the cavernous artery diameter from 0.53 mm to 0.78 mm and the increase in the peak systolic flow velocity from 5.95 cm/second to 12.2 cm/second, both of which were found to be significant at P<0.05. Conclusion: It is evident from the study that the transferosomes can be used as a carrier of papaverine hydrochloride for both diagnosis and treatment of the

  15. Puberty and sexual maturity in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system

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    Luiz Eduardo Barreto de Souza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the sexual development in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system. Eight animals were monitored every fifteen days, from the 12th to the 44th week for age at penis detachment, live weight, scrotal circumference, seminal parameters (volume, aspect, concentration, wave motion, progressive individual motility, vigor and spermatic abnormalities and serum testosterone levels. Serum testosterone levels were determined in blood samples collected at the 20th, 28th and 38th weeks of age. Penis detachment occurred at 102.9 ± 15.4 days of age. Live weight and scrotal circumference at 20th and 44th weeks of age ranged from 25.9 ± 3.5 to 44.7 ± 4.7 kg and from 21.2 ± 1.6 cm to 26.0 ± 1.5 cm, respectively. The ejaculate volume ranged from 0.38 ± 0.05 to 0.96 ± 0.04 mL, concentration ranged from 1.33 ± 0.64 to 3.54 ± 0.14.10(9 mL-1 and the progressive individual motility varied from 48.0 ± 10.52% to 82.0 ± 3.74%, at the same age. The number of defective spermatozoa (major and minor was 32.2 ± 5.8% vs. 8.80 ± 2.9% at the 20th and the 44th week of age, respectively. Serum testosterone level was 2.70 ± 1.40 ng.mL-1 at the 20th week, 8.50 ± 4.66 ng.mL-1 at the 28th week and 2.21 ± 2.28 ng.mL-1 at the 38th week of age. Age showed a correlation with live weight, scrotal circumference, and all the qualitative parameters of semen except for volume, with all other qualitative parameters of semen, and the correlation among sperm abnormalities and the other traits was negative. Serum testosterone levels and andrological parameters of Anglo-Nubian goats raised in semi-intensive system are closely related to age. In those animals, puberty is reached at the 20th week and sexual maturity is reached at the 38th week of age.

  16. The relationship between erectile dysfunction severity, mean platelet volume and vitamin D levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culha, Mehmet Gokhan; Atalay, Hasan Anil; Canat, Halil Lutfi; Alkan, Ilter; Ozbir, Sait; Can, Osman; Otunctemur, Alper

    2018-04-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between mean platelet volume (MPV) and vitamin D levels according to ED severity. Between October 2015 and September 2017, patients who applied to the andrology outpatient clinic with an ED complaint were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, malignancy, late-onset hypogonadism and smokers were not included in the study. The International Erectile Function Index-Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) questionnaire was used to assess the levels of erectile function. According to this scoring system, patients were divided into two groups. IIEF score: between 17 and 25 = mild ED (Group 1) and IIEF score between 16 and 0 = moderate-severe ED (Group 2). Blood samples of the patients were taken from antecubital vein and MPV and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were evaluated. Ninety patients were included in the study (Group 1: n = 41, Group 2: n = 49). The mean age of the patients was 41.07 ± 8.56 and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.59 ± 3.91. 25(OH)D levels were found to be statistically lower in Group 2 (18.85 ± 6.09; 13.98 ± 7.10; p = .001). MPV levels were found to be statistically higher in Group 2 (10.05 ± 0.81; 10.78 ± 1.16; p = .001). Correlation between IIEF-EF scores and 25(OH)D levels was positive (p = .03, r = 0.22). There was negative correlation between IIEF-EF scores and MPV and between 25(OH)D levels and MPV levels [p = .003 for IIEF-EF/MPV, p = .04, r = -0.23 for 25(OH)D/MPV]. There is a significant positive correlation between ED severity and 25(OH)D levels and there is a significant negative correlation between ED severity and MPV levels.

  17. Renal malignant solitary fibrous tumor with single lymph node involvement: report of unusual metastasis and review of the literature

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    Mearini E

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ettore Mearini,1 Giovanni Cochetti,1 Francesco Barillaro,1 Sonia Fatigoni,2 Fausto Roila2 1Department of Medical-Surgical Specialties and Public Health, Division of Urological Andrological Surgery and Minimally Invasive Techniques, University of Perugia, Terni, Italy; 2Medical Oncology, S Maria Hospital, Terni, Italy Abstract: Solitary fibrous tumors are rare mesenchymal spindle cell neoplasms that are usually found in the pleura. The kidneys are an uncommon site and only few cases of renal solitary fibrous tumor exhibit malignant behavior metastasizing to the liver, lung, and bone through the hematogenous pathway. Purpose: To describe the first case of lymph node metastasis from renal solitary fibrous tumor in order to increase the knowledge about the malignant behavior of these tumors. Patients and methods: A 19-year-old female patient had intermittent hematuria for several months without flank pain or other symptoms. A chest and abdomen CT scan was performed and showed a multi-lobed bulky solid mass of 170 × 98 × 120 mm in the left kidney. One day before the surgery, the left renal artery was catheterized and the kidney embolization was performed using a Haemostatic Absorbable Gelatin Sponge and polyvinyl alcohol. We then performed a radical nephrectomy with hilar, para-aortic, and inter-aortocaval lymphadenectomy. Results: Estimated intraoperative blood loss was 200 mL and the operative time was 100 minutes. No postoperative complications occurred. The hospital stay was 7 days long. The histological examination was malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the kidney. Cancerous tissue showed cellular atypia, with an increased mitotic index (up to 7 × 10 hpf. Immunohistochemical analysis showed positive results for CD34, BCL2, partial expression of HBME1, and occasionally of synaptophysin. Histological evaluation confirmed the presence of metastasis in one hilar node. The patient did not receive any other therapy. At 30-month follow-up, the

  18. Efficacy and safety of 0.75% ropivacaine instillation into subinguinal wound in patients after bilateral microsurgical varicocelectomy: a bi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Cui WS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wan Shou Cui,1,* Yu Seob Shin,2,3,* Jae Hyung You,3 A Ram Doo,4 Kiran Kumar Soni,3 Jong Kwan Park3 1Andrology Center, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Urology, Armed Forces Capital Hospital, Seongnam, 3Department of Urology, Chonbuk National University and Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute and Medical Device Clinical Trial Center of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, 4Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 0.75% ropivacaine instillation into inguinal wound in patients who have undergone bilateral microsurgical varicocelectomy.Patients and methods: Eighty-five men who were screened for bilateral varicoceles from March 2015 to July 2016 were randomized for the treatment. All patients underwent inguinal varicocelectomy by general anesthesia. After ligation of the internal spermatic veins from the spermatic cord, additional delivery of testis through inguinal incision site was done to ligate external spermatic veins and gubernacular veins. Before repairing external oblique aponeurosis, 6 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine and 6 mL of normal saline were instilled under the fascia and around the funiculus (spermatic cord by a randomized and double-blind method. Visual analog scale (VAS pain score and Prince Henry Pain Score (PHPS were used for evaluating operative sites at 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours and 7 days after surgery. Safety and tolerability were evaluated throughout the course of this study by assessing adverse events.Results: A total of 55 men completed the study. Of these 55 men, 31 received instillation of ropivacaine on the left operative site, while 24 received instillation of ropivacaine on the right operative site. VAS pain scores and PHPS in

  19. Efficacy and safety of tamsulosin hydrochloride 0.2 mg and combination of tamsulosin hydrochloride 0.2 mg plus solifenacin succinate 5 mg after transurethral resection of the prostate: a prospective, randomized controlled trial

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    Shin YS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Yu Seob Shin,1,* Li Tao Zhang,1,* Jae Hyung You,1 In Sung Choi,1 Chen Zhao,2 Jong Kwan Park1 1Department of Urology, Chonbuk National University and Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute and Medical Device Clinical Trial Center of Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Urology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, and Shanghai Institute of Andrology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of tamsulosin hydrochloride 0.2 mg (TAM and its combination with solifenacin succinate 5 mg (SOL after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP.Patients and methods: The patients were randomized into three groups: TURP (group 1, TURP plus TAM (group 2, and TURP plus TAM + SOL (group 3. Patients in group 2 and group 3 received medication for 4 weeks. The primary efficacy end points were the mean change in total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS and IPSS subscores. The secondary end points included quality-of-life score, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score, and short-form voiding and storage score of International Continence Society.Results: In total, 37 men (31.8% in group 1, 37 men (31.8% in group 2, and 42 men (36.2% in group 3 completed the study. In total IPSS, no significant improvement was seen from baseline to the end of treatment in groups 2 and 3 compared with group 1. However, in group 2, the decrement in the IPSS storage score was smaller than group 1 (P=0.02, and in group 3, the decrement in the IPSS voiding score was smaller than group 1 (P=0.05. In groups 2 and 3 compared with group 1, improvements in the quality of life score, total score of Overactive Bladder Symptom Score, and short-form voiding score and storage score of International Continence Society were not statistically

  20. Recent advances in male infertility research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldamone, A A; Cockett, A T

    1981-02-01

    Recent developments in the following areas of andrology are highlighted: varicocele; biochemical markers of epididymal function; genitourinary tract infection; evaluation of sperm motility; capacity for sperm fertilization; and the immunologic consequences of vasectomy. Discussion of the varicocele effect focuses on detection of thesubclinical varicocele, spermatic venography, Leydig cell functon, experimental models, and percutaneous venous treatment modalities. The size of the varicocele bears no relationship to its subsequent effects on spermatogenesis. Consequently, the "subclinical" varicocele, which is not palpable, becomes an important entity in the infertile patient. Use of a Doppler ultrasonic stethoscope for the detection of the nonpalpable varicocele and use of scrotal thermography have been reported although caution is advised with these techniques. The stress pattern is a nonspecific response of the germinal epithelium to a stimulus or the lack of a stimulus. Genitourinary infection or endocrinopathy can also cause an increased number of ejaculated immature sperm. Spermatic vein ligation is not justified in an infertile patient with a seminal stress pattern but without clinial evidence of a varicocele. Varicocelectomy also is unjustified in a patient with a palpable asymptomatic varicocele in the absence of a stress pattern. Venography in patients with varicocele should be reserved for individuals in whom persistence of a palpable or subclinical varicocele and abnormal semen parameters are observed following spermatic vein legation. It is also a research tool and can prove helpful in providing more information about testicular venous drainage. It may provide a vehicle for percutaneous treatment of the varicocele. Recent attention has been directed to a possible correlation between the presence of varicocele, Leydig cell function, and testosterone synthesis. The seminal stress pattern has been successfully produced in monkeys by a 90% constriction of

  1. Revisiting the human seminiferous epithelium cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihi, F; Gomes, M L M; Carvalho, F A R; Reis, A B; Martello, R; Melo, R C N; Almeida, F R C L; Chiarini-Garcia, H

    2017-06-01

    absent in some tubular sections. In this situation, it has to be taken into account the germ cell association proposed in the present study to classify the stages. Our findings bring a new focus on the morphology and development of germ cells during the SEC in human. Application of HRLM may be a valuable tool for research studies and clinical andrology helping to understand some testicular diseases and infertility conditions which remain unsolved. Experiments were partially supported by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq). The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. Not applicable. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. The relationship between anogenital distance, fatherhood, and fertility in adult men.

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    Michael L Eisenberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anogenital distance (AGD, a sexually dimorphic measure of genital development, is a marker for endocrine disruption in animal studies and may be shorter in infant males with genital anomalies. Given the correlation between anogenital distance and genital development, we sought to determine if anogenital distance varied in fertile compared to infertile adult men. METHODS: A cross sectional study of consecutive men being evaluated for infertility and men with proven fertility was recruited from an andrology clinic. Anogenital distance (the distance from the posterior aspect of the scrotum to the anal verge and penile length (PL were measured using digital calipers. ANOVA and linear regression were used to determine correlations between AGD, fatherhood status, and semen analysis parameters (sperm density, motility, and total motile sperm count. FINDINGS: A total of 117 infertile men (mean age: 35.3±17.4 and 56 fertile men (mean age: 44.8±9.7 were recruited. The infertile men possessed significantly shorter mean AGD and PL compared to the fertile controls (AGD: 31.8 vs 44.6 mm, PL: 107.1 vs 119.5 mm, p<0.01. The difference in AGD persisted even after accounting for ethnic and anthropomorphic differences. In addition to fatherhood, on both unadjusted and adjusted linear regression, AGD was significantly correlated with sperm density and total motile sperm count. After adjusting for demographic and reproductive variables, for each 1 cm increase in a man's AGD, the sperm density increases by 4.3 million sperm per mL (95% CI 0.53, 8.09, p = 0.03 and the total motile sperm count increases by 6.0 million sperm (95% CI 1.34, 10.58, p = 0.01. On adjusted analyses, no correlation was seen between penile length and semen parameters. CONCLUSION: A longer anogenital distance is associated with fatherhood and may predict normal male reproductive potential. Thus, AGD may provide a novel metric to assess reproductive potential in men.

  3. Evaluation of outer dense fiber-1 and -2 protein expression in asthenozoospermic infertile men

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    Silvia W. Lestari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most of male infertility are caused by defect in sperm motility (asthenozoospermia. The molecular mechanism of low sperm motility in asthenozoospermic patients has not been fully understood. Sperm motility is strongly related to the axoneme structure which is composed of microtubules and supported by outer dense fiber (ODF and fibrous sheath (FS protein. The objective of this study was to characterize the ODF (ODF1 and ODF2 expression in asthenozoospermic infertile male and control normozoospermic fertile male.Methods: Asthenozoospermic samples (n=18 were collected from infertile patients at Andrology Lab, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital Jakarta and control were taken from normozoospermic fertile donor (n=18. After motility analyses by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA, semen were divided into two parts, for Western blot and for immunocytochemistry analysis. Antibody against ODF1 and ODF2 protein were used in both analyses.Results: Analysis of ODF1 protein expression showed bands with molecular weight of ~30 kDa and ODF2 ~85 kDa. The mean band intensity of ODF1 and ODF2 protein were lower in the asthenozoospermic group (AG compared to normozoospermic group (NG. Moreover, both ODF proteins were less intense and less localized in the AG than NG. Sperm motility was lower in AG, compared to control NG, i.e. average path velocity (VAP = 32.07 ± 7.03 vs 37.58 ± 8.73 µm/s, p = 0.455; straight line velocity (VSL = 24.17 ± 6.90 vs 27.61 ± 4.50 µm/s, p = 0.317 and curvilinear velocity (VCL = 45.68 ± 7.91 vs 55.55 ± 16.40 µm/s, p = 0.099.Conclusion: There is down-regulation of ODF1 and ODF2 protein expression and less-compact localization in AG sperm compared to the NG. These changes might have caused disturbances in the sperm motility as observed in this study.

  4. Congenital anomalies of the mesonephric duct and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzvetkova, P

    2007-01-01

    Agenesia of deferential duct and the others congenital malformations of mesonephronical duct are often encountering condition in andrological practice. This study presents the possibilities of reproductive medicine to restore the male fertility and concentrates on biological and clinical aspects of malformations of mesonephronic duct like factors for excretory male infertility. The investigations including 104 patients (mean age 30.25+/-1.91 years old) with congenital anomalies of mesonephronical duct with: Agenesia of mesonephronical derivates - case with unilateral agenesia of the deferent duct, kidney and left urether (n=1); Dysgenesia of the epididymis (n=5); Cysts of the epididymis (n=47); Agenesia of the deferential duct (n=48); Aplasia of the eja-culatorial duct (n=3). The following methods were used: open testicular biopsy by Vilar; objective findings in situ operation; bilateral epididymo - and deferentovesiculography; morphological specimens of the testicular and epididymal tissues; enzymohistochemical analysis of testicular specimens; the ejaculates and morphological analysis of spermatozoa were assessed for quality parameters by the standard protocol; enzymocytological research of spermatozoa in seminal fluid; biochemical analysis of seminal fluid fructose and citric acid concentrations; radioimmunoassay for measurements of blood FSH and testosterone concentration. Most often observed localization of the malformations of mesonephronic canal is bilateral at 54.81%. The testicular specimens proved preserved testicular architecture and spermatogenesis, and the epididymal slides showed dilatation of the epididymal tubules, which were overfilled with a lot of spermatozoa. The strongest expression of the enzymichistochemical NADH-TR reactions is in the Sertoli cells. We observed spermatozoa with disrup-ted configuration among which the abnormalities in sperm head and acrosome were predominated. The biochemical analysis of seminal fluid proves normal citric

  5. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy of thyroid cancer metastasis: case report and review of the literature

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    Cochetti G, Puxeddu E, Del Zingaro M, D’Amico F, Cottini E, Barillaro F, Mearini E

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Cochetti,1 Efisio Puxeddu,2 Michele Del Zingaro,3 Francesco D’Amico,1 Emanuele Cottini,1 Francesco Barillaro,1 Ettore Mearini11Department of General Surgery and Surgical Specialties, Urological Andrological Surgery and Minimally Invasive Techniques, University of Perugia, Terni, Italy; 2Departmentof Internal Medicine, 3Departmentof Surgical Specialties and PublicHealth, Urological Clinic, Universityof Perugia, Perugia, ItalyBackground: Follicular cell thyroid carcinoma is a quite aggressive form of thyroid cancer. About 10% of follicular thyroid carcinoma shows multiple metastases: lung and bone are the most common sites of metastasis. Renal involvement from thyroid primary cancer is very rare with incidence of 4.5%–5.9%.Purpose: We report the first laparoscopic conservative treatment of renal metastasis from thyroid cancer. This is a new and useful approach in order to delay malignant disease progression and to reduce the surgical discomfort of the patient.Patients and methods: We present the case of a 67-year-old woman, undergoing total thyroidectomy for follicular thyroid cancer with bone and lung metastasis. During adjuvant radiometabolic treatment, renal metastasis was diagnosed. Renal metastasis showed high metabolic activity, reducing the effectiveness of radioiodine therapy for secondary lesions. For this reason, we performed a laparoscopic simple enucleation of the single renal metastasis using extraperitoneal access and a clampless procedure.Results: The excision of the renal lesion improved the effectiveness of adjuvant radioiodine therapy: two months after surgery, the patient underwent adjuvant radiometabolic treatment with iodine-131 (150 mCi and the following whole body scan showed only a small uptaking area at the level of the vertebral metastasis. The lung micrometastases were not detectable. At 36 months follow-up, malignant disease was clinically stable and well controlled.Conclusion: Minimally invasive renal

  6. IMPACT OF BEP OR CARBOPLATIN CHEMOTHERAPY ON TESTICULAR FUNCTION AND SPERM NUCLEUS OF SUBJECTS WITH TESTICULAR GERM CELL TUMOR

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    Marco eGhezzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Young males have testicular germ cells tumours (TGCT as the most common malignancy and its incidence is increasing in several countries. Besides unilateral orchiectomy (UO, the treatment of TGCT may include surveillance, radiotherapy or chemotherapy (CT, basing on tumour histology and stage of disease. It is well known that both radio and CT may have negative effects on testicular function, affecting spermatogenesis and sex hormones. Many reports investigated these aspects in patients treated with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP, after UO. In contrast no data are available on the side effects of carboplatin treatment in these patients. We included in this study 212 consecutive subjects who undergone to sperm banking at our Andrology and Human Reproduction Unit after UO for TGCT. Hundred subjects were further treated with one or more BEP cycles (BEP-group, 54 with carboplatin (Carb group and 58 were just surveilled (S-group. All patients were evaluated for seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidy, sperm DNA, sex hormones, volume of the residual testis at baseline (T0 and after 12 (T1 and 24 months (T2 from UO or end of CT. Seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidies, DNA status, gonadic hormones and testicular volume at baseline were not different between groups. At T1 we observed a significant reduction of sperm concentration and sperm count in the BEP group versus baseline and versus both Carb and S- group. A significant increase of sperm aneuploidies was present at T1 in the BEP group. Similarly, the same group at 1 had altered sperm DNA integrity and fragmentation compared with baseline, S group and Carb group. These alterations were persistent after two years from the end of BEP treatment. Despite a slight improvement at T2, the BEP group had still higher percentages of sperm aneuploidies than other groups. No impairment of sperm aneuploidies and DNA status were observed in the Carb group both after one and two years from the end of treatment

  7. Human sperm bioassay has potential in evaluating the quality of cumulus-oocyte complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, A M; Rizk, B; Huff, C; Helvacioglu, A; Thorneycroft, I H

    1996-01-01

    Human sperm bioassay is routinely used as a quality control check for the culture media. This is one of the three bioassays chosen by the College of American Pathologists (CAP) for interlaboratory proficiency testing to assess the standards of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and andrology laboratories. This study utilized sperm bioassay to assess the quality of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) retrieved in IVF procedures COCs, harvested from the female partner of IVF couples, undergoing identical ovarian stimulation protocols, were individually inseminated with the sperm of the corresponding male partner. Sperm motility in sperm-COC cocultures were compared. Cocultures were established by inseminating the 103 COCs, retrieved from 18 IVF couples with 1 x 10(5) to 2 x 10(5) sperm of the corresponding male partners of the couples. In all 18 cases, the sperm were prepared identically using the Percoll wash method. The cocultures were maintained for 48 h but the oocytes were removed immediately after the fertilization check (approximately 16 h). The motility of sperm in the cocultures and in the insemination stocks were noted and 17 of 18 sperm stocks used for insemination had similar high preinsemination motility (90.2 +/- 5.0%). At 48 h the sperm motility had significantly decreased in the cocultures compared to the insemination stocks; 52.7 +/- 19.9% versus 67.2 +/- 10.4%. There was no difference in the motility among the small, medium, and large COCs (56.4 +/- 24.6%, 52.5 +/- 17.9%, and 50.8 +/- 20.9%, respectively). In 45% of IVF cases, the motility in cocultures varied widely, falling below as well as above that of their corresponding insemination stocks. Furthermore, the sperm motility varied among the cocultures in both pregnant and nonpregnant patients but the extent of variation appears to be greater in the latter. The inter-COC coculture sperm motility variation most likely is due to the differences in the quality of cumulus-oocyte complexes.

  8. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis: A rare intrascrotal lesion managed with limited testicular excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzariti, Francesco; Servi, Lucilla; Fabiani, Andrea; Filosa, Alessandra; Mammana, Gabriele

    2016-10-05

    Testicular cancer is one of the most frequent in young men and its incidence is increasing in recent years because of incidental finding during routine ultrasound exams. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis is one of the benign and rare pathological types incidentally detected and very few cases are described in the literature. A 40 years old man come to our attention for a balanoposthitis without testicular pain. During andrological examination we performed palpation of the testes and we noticed a palpable nodule of hard consistency in the left testicle. We then performed an ultrasound exam of the testis which highlighted the presence of an intra-didymus neoformation with diameters of 1.2 x 1.6 cm and with the presence of cysts inside. We also performed blood tests to check tumor markers alpha fetoprotein, beta hCG and LDH which resulted inside the normal range. We then conducted a chest and abdomen CT scan that showed no pathological elements. Therefore, as we suspected that this tumor was benign, we performed an enucleation of the neoplasm. The definitive histological examination revealed the presence of dilated ducts lined with epithelial cubic-columnar cells with clear cytoplasm rich in glycogen and the pathologist so concluded that the tumor could be classified as adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis. At three months of follow up, the patient doesn't have any recurrent lesion to either testicles. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis is a very rare intrascrotal lesion. This histological type is the most frequent between benign lesion of the ovary, but few works in literature reported this histological type in the male gonad and, in most of these works, authors described these lesion at epididymis. We believe that a conservative approach must be considered mandatory in case of testicular lesions 1.5 cm in diameter. A radical approach might have alterate fertility of the patient and also have caused psychological trauma more than an enucleation

  9. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis: A rare intrascrotal lesion managed with limited testicular excision

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    Francesco Catanzariti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Testicular cancer is one of the most frequent in young men and its incidence is increasing in recent years because of incidental finding during routine ultrasound exams. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis is one of the benign and rare pathological types incidentally detected and very few cases are described in the literature. Case report: A 40 years old man come to our attention for a balanoposthitis without testicular pain. During andrological examination we performed palpation of the testes and we noticed a palpable nodule of hard consistency in the left testicle. We then performed an ultrasound exam of the testis which highlighted the presence of an intra-didymus neoformation with diameters of 1.2 x 1.6 cm and with the presence of cysts inside. We also performed blood tests to check tumor markers alpha fetoprotein, beta hCG and LDH which resulted inside the normal range. We then conducted a chest and abdomen CT scan that showed no pathological elements. Therefore, as we suspected that this tumor was benign, we performed an enucleation of the neoplasm. The definitive histological examination revealed the presence of dilated ducts lined with epithelial cubic-columnar cells with clear cytoplasm rich in glycogen and the pathologist so concluded that the tumor could be classified as adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis. At three months of follow up, the patient doesn’t have any recurrent lesion to either testicles. Discussion: Adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis is a very rare intrascrotal lesion. This histological type is the most frequent between benign lesion of the ovary, but few works in literature reported this histological type in the male gonad and, in most of these works, authors described these lesion at epididymis. Conclusion: We believe that a conservative approach must be considered mandatory in case of testicular lesions 1.5 cm in diameter. A radical approach might have alterate fertility of the

  10. Seasonal aspects of reproductive physiology in captive male maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, L O; Melo-Junior, A A; Spercoski, K M; Morais, R N; Souza, F F

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonality of andrological characteristics and hormonal profile of captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1811). Three adult males were evaluated from the Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineração Scientific Breeding Center in Araxá, MG, Brazil, over 13 months. Semen was collected 2-3 times weekly and analysed. Scrotal circumference, biometrics and testicular volume were measured. Stool samples were collected 2-3 times weekly to analyse corticosteroid and testosterone metabolite concentrations. A success rate of 100% was achieved in the collection attempts during the breeding season (BS) and 77.8% during the non-breeding season (NBS). The interval to achieve penile erection was 1-5 min in the BS and 6-10 in the NBS (p < 0.001). Of the ejaculates collected, 80.0% contained sperm during BS, while 28.6% did during the NBS. The ejaculate had only one fraction, was odourless, predominantly translucent (72.4%), with a watery appearance, pH 6.7 and osmolarity of 352.8 mOsmol. Seasonal influences were seen in ejaculate volume (1.3 ml vs 0.4 ml), number of spermatozoa per ejaculate (73.9 × 10(6) vs 6.1 × 10(6) ) and percentage of live sperm (82.0% vs 66.1%) between the BS and NBS (p < 0.05), respectively. A high percentage of major sperm defects were observed in both seasons (50.1% in BS; 65.7% in NBS). Testicular volume was larger (p < 0.05; right testicles 13.1 cm(3) in BS vs 4.0 cm(3) in NBS, while left testicles 12.9 cm(3) in BS vs 5.3 cm(3) in NBS) and testicular consistency increased in the BS. No difference was seen in the basal faecal metabolite concentrations of testosterone; however, the corticosteroid concentrations were higher in the BS. Based on these results, it is possible to conclude that the collection of semen is feasible in captive maned wolves without compromising libido, seminal characteristics and reproductive behaviour and that sperm production is influenced by seasonality; however, it

  11. Características seminais de touros Curraleiros e Holandeses submetidos à insulação escrotal Seminal characteristics of Curraleiro and Holstein bulls submitted to scrotal insulation

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    Tomaz Gelson Pezzini

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar uma raça naturalizada brasileira com uma raça européia quanto à adaptação às altas temperaturas. Foram avaliados os efeitos da insulação escrotal, por 48 horas, nas características seminais de touros Curraleiros (n = 5 e Holandeses (n = 6. Uma seqüência de coletas de sêmen e avaliação andrológica dos touros foi realizada antes (duas coletas e depois (nove coletas semanais da insulação escrotal. A motilidade espermática progressiva teve queda significativamente menor na raça Curraleira (25% do que na Holandesa (50%, no período pós-insulação, e retornou aos valores pré-insulação mais precocemente nos touros Curraleiros, aos 37 dias após a insulação escrotal. O vigor espermático nos Curraleiros (15,2% teve queda menor do que nos Holandeses (47,8%. O número de espermatozóides por ejaculado caiu de forma similar nos dois grupos depois da insulação, respectivamente 67,9 e 79,4%, para Curraleiros e Holandeses, entre 16 e 23 dias após a insulação. A porcentagem de espermatozóides anormais atingiu valores máximos entre 16 e 30 dias após a insulação e foi maior aos 30 dias nos touros Holandeses (41,3±5,9%. Os touros Curraleiros são mais tolerantes aos efeitos da insulação escrotal nas características seminais do que os Holandeses.The objective of this work was to compare the adaptation to high temperatures of a Brazilian local breed with an European one. The effects of scrotal insulation for 48 hours on seminal characteristics of Curraleiro (n = 5 versus Holstein (n = 6 bulls were evaluated. A sequence of semen collection and andrologic evaluation was performed before (two collections and after (nine weekly collections scrotal insulation. Among the seminal parameters evaluated, the progressive sperm motility had a significantly lower decrease in Curraleiro (25% than in Holstein bulls (50%, during the postinsulation period. Sperm motility of Curraleiro bulls, 37 days

  12. Investigation of the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in reproductive medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottmann, Matthias; Homann, Christian; Leeb, R.; Doering, D.; Kuznetsova, J.; Reese, S.; Stief, C. G.; Koelle, S.; Sroka, R.

    2015-02-01

    Introduction and objective: In Europe, nearly every sixth couple in the reproductive age is involuntarily childless. In about 30%, both male and female reveal fertility problems. In about 10% of infertile men, azoospermia is the underlying cause. As conventional therapeutic options are limited, surgical testicular sperm extraction (TESE) is necessary to obtain sperms for assisted reproductive techniques. Regarding the females, up to 30% of all idiopathic infertilities are due to alterations of the uterine tube So far, no imaging technique, which does not require any labelling, is available to evaluate the male and female genital tract at a microscopic level under in vivo conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in gynaecology and andrology. Material and Methods: Tissues samples from the bovine testis, epididymis, vas deferens, ovary, oviduct (ampulla and isthmus) and uterus were obtained immediately after slaughter (14 cows aged 3 to 8 years and 14 bulls aged 3 to 6 years; breeds: Holstein- Friesian, and Deutsches Fleckvieh). Imaging was done by using the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved probe-based Niris Imaging System (Imalux, Cleveland, Ohio, USA) and the Telesto 1325 nm OCT System and Ganymede 930 nm OCT System (Thorlabs Inc., Dachau, Germany). All images obtained were compared to histological images after paraffin embedding and HE staining. Results: OCT imaging visualized the microarchitecture of the testis, epididymis, spermatic duct and the ovary, oviduct and uterus. Using the Thorlabs systems a axial resolution of approx. 5μm and lateral resolution of 8- 15μm could be achieved. Different optical tissue volumes could be visualized, which depends on the optical penetration depth of the wavelength of the system used. While the tissue volume observed by probe based Imalux-OCT is similar to the used Thorlabs systems, the optical resolution is

  13. [Impact of Spanish-language urological publications in periodicals in the English language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Arbej, J A; Cameo Rico, M I; Arnáiz Esteban, F; Martínez Pérez, E; Nogueras Gimeno, M A; Espuela Orgaz, R; Crespo Mayor, V

    1997-06-01

    have no impact in the English-speaking countries, although the number of Spanish publications has been slowly but steadily growing and currently account for 1.21% of the publications worldwide: 41.5% of these are referenced in the Science Citation Index and the Uro-Andrological publications rank 6th (4.2%). Moreover, when Spanish authors are able to publish articles in the English-language journals, they rarely reference Spanish publications. However, in proportion, these have more impact than the Spanish publications. The current trend in the prevalence of the English language in the scientific field is probably the cause of the nonexistent impact outside Spain, where they are hardly-read by the Spanish-speaking communities. The foregoing situation is further assisted by the fact that indexing is also done in the English language. Spanish authors are encouraged to increase the number of Spanish publications referenced, particularly those publishing articles in the foreign journals.

  14. AVALIAÇÃO ULTRASSONOGRÁFICA DOS TESTÍCULOS E DAS GLÂNDULAS SEXUAIS ANEXAS DE CARNEIROS SANTA INÊS ULTRASONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF TESTICLES AND ANNEXES SEX GLANDS OF SANTA INES RAMS

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    Adriana de Farias Jucá

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, avaliaram-se 49 carneiros da raça Santa Inês por meio de exames andrológicos e de imagens ultrassonográficas dos testículos e das glândulas sexuais anexas, visando à utilização do ultrassom como recurso diagnóstico para avaliação morfofisiológica de reprodutores. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos: G1 com vinte animais de dezoito meses de idade, G2 com quinze animais de trinta meses e G3 com quatorze animais de quarenta e oito meses. Realizaram-se as seguintes mensurações: comprimento, largura, volume e forma testiculares e a circunferência escrotal. O sêmen foi colhido através de eletroejaculação e as avaliações realizadas segundo normas do CBRA (1998. Procedeu-se às análises ultrassonográficas antes e após a ejaculação, iniciando-se pelos testículos (estroma e mediastino. A calcificação testicular do tipo leve foi observada com maior frequência, independentemente, da idade. A ecotextura predominante das glândulas bulbouretrais e vesiculares foi a hipoecoica de baixa intensidade. Concluindo, a ultrassonografia mostrou-se eficiente para visualização e classificação do estroma e mediastino testiculares, assim como das glândulas sexuais anexas de carneiros Santa Inês.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Carneiro, glândulas sexuais anexas, Santa Inês, testículos, ultra-sonografia. In the current study 49 rams of the Santa Ines breed were evaluated through andrologic examinations and ultrasonographic images of the testicles and annexes sexual glands, aiming the ultrasonography utilization as a diagnosis feature, for the morphophysiologic evaluation of future reproducers. The animals were divided into three groups G1 with 20 animals of 18 month-old, G2 with 15 animals of 30 month-old and G3 with 14 animals of 48 month-old. The following measurements were performed: length, width, volume and shape testicle, and also scrotal circumference. The semen was obtained through eletroejaculation

  15. Testosterone replacement alters the cell size in visceral fat but not in subcutaneous fat in hypogonadal aged male rats as a late-onset hypogonadism animal model

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    Abdelhamed A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Amr Abdelhamed,1,2 Shin-ichi Hisasue,1 Masato Shirai,3 Kazuhito Matsushita,1 Yoshiaki Wakumoto,1 Akira Tsujimura,1 Taiji Tsukamoto,4 Shigeo Horie1 1Department of Urology, Juntendo University, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology, Sohag University, Graduate School of Medicine, Sohag, Egypt; 3Department of Urology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu, Japan; 4Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan Background: Patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH benefit from testosterone replacement by improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, but fat cell morphology in these patients is still unclear. This study aims to determine the effect of testosterone replacement on the morphology of fat cells in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and on erectile function in hypogonadal aged male rats as a model of LOH. Methods: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 20–22 months were randomly allocated to two groups, ie, aged male controls (control group, n=5 and aged males treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT group, n=5. Testosterone enanthate 25 mg was injected subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the intracavernous pressure (ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP ratio was assessed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue specimens were collected and analyzed using Image-J software. Results: Body weight at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after TRT was 800.0±35.4 g, 767.5±46.3 g, and 780±40.4 g, respectively (not statistically significant. The ICP/MAP ratio was 0.341±0.015 in the TRT group and 0.274±0.049 in the control group (not statistically significant. The median subcutaneous fat cell size was 4.85×103 (range 0.85–12.53×103 µm2 in the control group and 4.93×103 (range 6.42–19.7×103 µm2 in the TRT group (not statistically significant. In contrast, median visceral fat cell size was significantly

  16. Efficacy of local dexmedetomidine add-on for spermatic cord block anesthesia in patients undergoing intrascrotal surgeries: randomized controlled multicenter clinical trial

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    Hetta DF

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diab Fuad Hetta,1 Emad E Kamal,2 Ali M Mahran,2 Doaa G Ahmed,1 Abdelraheem Elawamy,3 Abdelraouf MS Abdelraouf3 1Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, South Egypt Cancer Institute, 2Department of Dermatology and Andrology, 3Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt Study objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding dexmedetomidine (DEX to bupivacaine on the quality of spermatic cord block anesthesia and postoperative analgesia. Design: This is a randomized, double-blind study. Setting: This study was performed in an educational and research hospital. Patients: One hundred twenty adult males were scheduled for intrascrotal surgeries. Interventions: Patients were divided into two groups: group B received 10 mL of bupivacaine 0.25% for spermatic cord block and intravenous 50 µg of DEX and group BD received 10 mL of bupivacaine 0.25% added to 50 µg of DEX (9.5 mL bupivacaine 0. 25% + 0.5 mL [50 µg] DEX for spermatic cord block, and for masking purposes, the patients received isotonic saline intravenously. Measurements: Time to first analgesic request, analgesic consumption, and visual analog scale (VAS pain score in the first 24 hours postoperatively were assessed. Main results: Time to first rescue analgesic was significantly delayed in group BD in comparison with group B, median (interquartile range, 7 (6–12 hours versus 6 (5–7 hours, (p=0.000, the mean cumulative morphine consumption (mg in the first postoperative 24 hours was significantly lower in group BD compared with group B, 8.13±4.45 versus 12.7±3.79, with a mean difference (95% CI of −4.57 (−6.06 to −3.07 (p=0.000; also, there was a significant reduction of VAS pain score in group BD in comparison with group B at all measured time points, VAS 2 hours (1.28±0.9 vs 1.92±0.8, VAS 6 hours (2.62±1.5 vs 3.93±1.2, VAS 12 hours (2.40±1.1 vs 3.57±0.65, VAS 24 hours (1.90±0

  17. A Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis on the clinical utility of sperm DNA fragmentation testing in specific male infertility scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Cho, Chak-Lam; Majzoub, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Background Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) is recognized as a leading cause of male infertility because it can impair the paternal genome through distinct pathophysiological mechanisms. Current evidence supports SDF as a major factor in the pathophysiology of several conditions, including varicocele, unexplained infertility, assisted reproductive technology failure, and environmental lifestyle factors, although the mechanisms involved have not been fully described yet. Measurement of the levels of DNA fragmentation in semen provides valuable information on the integrity of paternal chromatin and may guide therapeutic strategies. A recently published clinical practice guideline (CPG) highlighted how to use the information provided by SDF testing in daily practice, which triggered a series of commentaries by leading infertility experts. These commentaries contained an abundance of information and conflicting views about the clinical utility of SDF testing, which underline the complex nature of SDF. Methods A search of papers published in response to the CPG entitled “Clinical utility of sperm DNA fragmentation testing: practice recommendations based on clinical scenarios” was performed within the Translational Andrology and Urology (TAU) website (http://tau.amegroups.com/). The start and end dates for the search were May 2017 and August 2017, respectively. Each commentary meeting our inclusion criteria was rated as “supportive without reservation”, “supportive with reservation”, “not supportive” or “neutral”. We recorded whether articles discussed either SDF characteristics as a laboratory test method or clinical scenarios, or both. Subsequently, we extracted the particulars from each commentary and utilized the ‘Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats’ (SWOT) analysis to understand the perceived advantages and drawbacks of SDF as a specialized sperm function method in clinical practice. Results Fifty-eight fertility experts from six

  18. Qualidade seminal e histomorfometria dos órgãos reprodutivos de ovinos tratados com fluoreto de sódio Seminal quality and reproductive histomorphometry of ram lambs treated with sodium fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreane Filappi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar as características espermáticas, os indicadores do metabolismo oxidativo do sêmen, o diâmetro dos túbulos seminíferos e a altura do epitélio testicular, do epididimário e do canal deferente de ovinos tratados com fluoreto de sódio. Foram utilizados 12 ovinos, com idade aproximada de cinco meses. Os animais foram divididos em grupo controle, o qual recebeu diariamente sal iodado (5g de NaCl animal-1 + 0,2mg I kg-1 matéria seca, e tratado, que recebeu sal iodado adicionado de fluoreto de sódio (4,7mg F kg-1 de peso corporal. Aos 150 dias de tratamento, foram realizadas coletas de sêmen e, em seguida, os animais foram eutanasiados. Na comparação entre o grupo controle e o tratado, não foram observadas diferenças no percentual de motilidade, vivos : mortos e morfologia espermática, na concentração da glutationa reduzida seminal, no teor de zinco seminal, no peso testicular, na morfometria e na histologia do testículo, na cauda do epidídimo e no canal deferente. A concentração de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARs e o teor de cobre no sêmen foram menores (PThe objective of the present study was to evaluate different reproductive parameters of ram lambs treated with sodium fluoride. Spermogram, indicators of seminal oxidative profile, seminiferous tubules diameter and cell height of the testicular epithelium, epididimus and vas deferens were analyzed. Twelve 5-month-old ram lambs were used. They were allocated into one of two experimental groups: The control, which received daily iodized salt (5g NaCl animal-1 + 0.2mg I kg-1 DM; and the treated, which received (5g NaCl animal-1 + 0.2mg I kg-1 DM + 4.7mg F kg-1 BW. After 150 days of treatment, animals went through a complete andrological exam, and were euthanized on the next day. No differences were observed in sperm motility, dead: alive ratio and morphology between the control and treated group. Also, seminal

  19. A Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis on the clinical utility of sperm DNA fragmentation testing in specific male infertility scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Sandro C; Agarwal, Ashok; Cho, Chak-Lam; Majzoub, Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) is recognized as a leading cause of male infertility because it can impair the paternal genome through distinct pathophysiological mechanisms. Current evidence supports SDF as a major factor in the pathophysiology of several conditions, including varicocele, unexplained infertility, assisted reproductive technology failure, and environmental lifestyle factors, although the mechanisms involved have not been fully described yet. Measurement of the levels of DNA fragmentation in semen provides valuable information on the integrity of paternal chromatin and may guide therapeutic strategies. A recently published clinical practice guideline (CPG) highlighted how to use the information provided by SDF testing in daily practice, which triggered a series of commentaries by leading infertility experts. These commentaries contained an abundance of information and conflicting views about the clinical utility of SDF testing, which underline the complex nature of SDF. A search of papers published in response to the CPG entitled "Clinical utility of sperm DNA fragmentation testing: practice recommendations based on clinical scenarios" was performed within the Translational Andrology and Urology ( TAU ) website (http://tau.amegroups.com/). The start and end dates for the search were May 2017 and August 2017, respectively. Each commentary meeting our inclusion criteria was rated as "supportive without reservation", "supportive with reservation", "not supportive" or "neutral". We recorded whether articles discussed either SDF characteristics as a laboratory test method or clinical scenarios, or both. Subsequently, we extracted the particulars from each commentary and utilized the 'Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats' (SWOT) analysis to understand the perceived advantages and drawbacks of SDF as a specialized sperm function method in clinical practice. Fifty-eight fertility experts from six continents and twenty-two countries contributed

  20. Anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta is higher in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteo Ciccone

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Marco Matteo Ciccone1, Stefano Favale1, Anish Bhuva4, Pietro Scicchitano1, Vito Caragnano1, Cristina Lavopa2, Giovanni De Pergola3, Giuseppe Loverro21Department of Cardiology; 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics; 3Section of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Andrology, and Metabolic Diseases, University of Bari, DETO, Italy; 4University College of London, London, UKBackground: Women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS are known to be at higher risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify the artery that first is affected by early pre-atherosclerotic changes in PCOS. Methods: Twenty-nine women with PCOS aged 17 to 27 years and 26 healthy nonhyperandrogenic volunteers with regular menses (control women aged 16 to 28 years were enrolled. All PCOS patients were overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25. Diagnosis of PCOS was performed in line with the 2003 Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Accordingly, PCOS was defined when at least two of the following three features were present after exclusion of other etiologies: 1 oligomenorrhea and or anovulation; 2 hyperandrogenism and/or hyperandrogenemia; and 3 polycystic ovaries visible at ultrasound. Androgen excess or related disorders were excluded. The intima-media thickness (IMT of common carotid arteries and common femoral arteries and the anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta were measured by ultrasound. Lutenizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, estradiol, total testosterone, androstenedione, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG serum levels were measured between the 3rd and the 6th day of spontaneous or progestin-induced menstrual cycle. Our study was performed in the absence of any medical treatment. Results: Women with PCOS showed a higher LH to FSH ratio (p < 0.01, increased fasting insulin (p < 0.001, total testosterone (p < 0.001, and androstenedione (p < 0.001 levels, and lower

  1. Specific immune cell and cytokine characteristics of human testicular germ cell neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Britta; Haggeney, Thomas; Fietz, Daniela; Indumathy, Sivanjah; Loveland, Kate L; Hedger, Mark; Kliesch, Sabine; Weidner, Wolfgang; Bergmann, Martin; Schuppe, Hans-Christian

    2016-10-01

    Which immune cells and cytokine profiles are characteristic for testicular germ cell neoplasia and what consequences does this have for the understanding of the related testicular immunopathology? The unique immune environment of testicular germ cell neoplasia comprises B cells and dendritic cells as well as high transcript levels of IL-6 and other B cell supporting or T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-driven cytokines and thus differs profoundly from normal testis or inflammatory lesions associated with hypospermatogenesis. T cells are known to be the major component of inflammatory infiltrates associated with either hypospermatogenesis or testicular cancer. It has previously been reported that B cells are only involved within infiltrates of seminoma samples, but this has not been investigated further. Immunohistochemical characterisation (IHC) of infiltrating immune cells and RT-qPCR-based analysis of corresponding cytokine microenvironments was performed on different testicular pathologies. Testicular biopsies, obtained from men undergoing andrological work-up of infertility or taken during surgery for testicular cancer, were used in this study. Samples were grouped as follows: (i) normal spermatogenesis (n = 18), (ii) hypospermatogenesis associated with lymphocytic infiltrates (n = 10), (iii) samples showing neoplasia [germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS, n = 26) and seminoma, n = 18]. IHC was performed using antibodies against T cells (CD3+), B cells (CD20cy+), dendritic cells (CD11c+), macrophages (CD68+) and mast cells (mast cell tryptase+). Degree and compartmental localisation of immune cells throughout all groups analysed was evaluated semi-quantitatively. RT-qPCR on RNA extracted from cryo-preserved tissue samples was performed to analyse mRNA cytokine expression, specifically levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17a, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α (pro-inflammatory), IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 (anti-inflammatory), IL-2, IL-12a, IL-12b