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Sample records for androgenic anabolic steroid

  1. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS AND DEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IHSAN SARI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic steroids are used for sportive, cosmetic, therapeutic and occupational reasons and there are many side effects reported (George, 2005; Nieminen et al., 1996; O'Sullivan et al., 2000. Prevalence of anabolic steroids’ use also indicates the importance of this topic. Moreover, it is now known that use of anabolic steroids could lead to dependence which could be psychological or/and physiological (Copeland et al., 2000. It isimportant to know about all aspects of anabolic steroids including dependence. Therefore, this study has attempted to give an insight into use of anabolic steroids and dependence. The discussion will focus on prevalence, reasons, and side effects of use and physiological and psychological dependence

  2. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-01-01

    According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS) is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports and widespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem. Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, ...

  3. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  4. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, Andrea; Iaquinto, Gaetano; Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  5. Using Anabolic Androgenic Steroids in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Lök

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that sportsmen especially youngers who engaged in athletism, weight lifting and body building sport have beenusing ‘‘Anabolic Androgenic Steroid’’ (AAS intensively for purpose of doping during world sport history. Used dopingsubstances to increase sport performance differ from sport branches. In some sport branches, it is used to diminish neuralstress while in other sport branches it is used to increase force, endurance and resistance against exhaustion. Today amongsportsmen using ergogenic substances to increase rivalry and physical performance for purpose of doping are increased. Inthis study using anabolic androgenic steroids in sports will be assessed.

  6. Review of Androgenic Anabolic Steroid Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Borges; G. Eisele; C. Byrd

    2001-07-31

    An area that has been overlooked within personnel security evaluations is employee use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). Current drug testing within the federal government does not include testing for anabolic steroids, and the difficulties to implement such testing protocols-not to mention the cost involved-make AAS testing highly improbable. The basis of this report is to bring to the forefront the damage that anabolic steroids can cause from both a physical and a psychological standpoint. Most individuals who use AASs do so to increase their muscle mass because they wish to gain some type of competitive edge during athletic competition or they wish to enhance their physical features for self-satisfaction and self-esteem (i.e., body building). Security officers are one group of men who often take high doses of anabolic steroids, according to the Second Report of the Senate Standing Committee (1990). The negative psychological characteristics for AAS use is extensive and includes prominent hostility, aggressiveness, irritability, euphoria, grandiose beliefs, hyperactivity, reckless behavior, increased sexual appetite, unpredictability, poor impulse control, mood fluctuations, and insomnia. The drug may invoke a sense of power and invincibility (Leckman and Scahill, 1990). Depressive symptoms, such as anhedonia, fatigue, impaired concentration, decreased libido, and even suicidality (Pope and Katz, 1992) have been noted with steroid withdrawal. It appears that long-term users of AAS experience similar characteristics as other substance abusers (i.e., craving, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms).

  7. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  8. Anabolic androgenic steroid-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Peter; Llewellyn, William; Van Mol, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been abused for decades by both professional and amateur athletes in order to improve physical performance or muscle mass. AAS abuse can cause adverse effects, among which are hepatotoxic effects. These effects include cholestatic icterus and possibly peliosis hepatis and hepatocellular carcinoma or adenoma. In particular, 17α-alkylated AAS appear to be hepatotoxic, whereas nonalkylated AAS appear not to be. The 17α-alkyl substitution retards hepatic metabolism of the AAS rendering it orally bioavailable. The mechanism responsible for the hepatotoxicity induced by 17α-alkylated AAS remains poorly understood. However, oxidative stress has been repeatedly shown to be associated with it. In this manuscript we present a hypothesis which describes a potential mechanism responsible for AAS-induced hepatotoxicity, based on several observations from the literature which suggest oxidative stress being a causal factor. PMID:27372877

  9. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Iaquinto, G; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World today. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World today. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  10. Hypercholesterolemia in Male Power Lifters Using Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of serum cholesterol concentrations in male power lifters who used anabolic-androgenic steroids for eight weeks, three years, or eight years indicated that mean serum cholesterol levels increased with drug use, but decreased promptly to near pre-steroid levels after steroid use ended. (Author/CB)

  11. Illicit anabolic-androgenic steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I; Pope, Harrison G

    2010-06-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both "body image" drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

  12. Psychological and Behavioral Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrke, Michael S.

    This review of the literature on the psychological and behavioral effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) first looks at aspects of the history and prevalence of AS use in competitive sports. Research suggests that one-quarter to one-half million adolescents in the United States have used, or are currently using AS. Some effects of androgens…

  13. Echocardiographic Findings in Power Athletes Abusing Anabolic Androgenic Steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Hajimoradi, Behzad; Kazerani, Hashem

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse for improving physical appearance and performance in body builders is common and has been considered responsible for serious cardiovascular effects. Due to disagreement about cardiovascular side effects of these drugs in published articles, this case control study was designed to evaluate the echocardiographic findings in body builder athletes who are current and chronic abusers of these drugs. Methods Body builder athletes with continuous prac...

  14. Anabolic androgenic steroids and violence : a medicolegal and experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Thiblin, Ingemar

    1999-01-01

    Non-medical use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been linked to various psychological and behavioural complications in case and survey reports. Judging from these reports, the symptoms most consistently associated with AAS use are extreme irritability, increased aggressiveness and mood swings. There are also a limited number of reports connecting AAS-associated aggressivity with violent acts including homicide, while reports of self-injurious behaviour associated ...

  15. Anabolic androgenic steroids, an easily forgotten cause of polycythaemia and cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, M S Y; Vilcassim, S; Fedele, P; Grigoriadis, G

    2016-04-01

    Excessive anabolic androgenic steroids (both exogenous and endogenous) are known causes of polycythaemia and ischaemic cardiovascular events. Despite this, they are commonly forgotten in the workup of patients. We report a case of exogenous anabolic androgenic steroid-induced polycythaemia and stroke and explore possible pitfalls for clinicians. PMID:27062206

  16. Advantages and Limitations of Androgen Receptor-Based Methods for Detecting Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Abuse as Performance Enhancing Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Kathy Bailey; Tahmineh Yazdi; Umesh Masharani; Blake Tyrrell; Anthony Butch; Fred Schaufele

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone (T) and related androgens are performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) abused by some athletes to gain competitive advantage. To monitor unauthorized androgen abuse, doping control programs use mass spectrometry (MS) to detect androgens, synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) and their metabolites in an athlete's urine. AASs of unknown composition will not be detected by these procedures. Since AASs achieve their anabolic effects by activating the Androgen Receptor (AR), cell-ba...

  17. Anabolic Androgenic Steroid (AAS) Related Deaths: Autoptic, Histopathological and Toxicological Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Frati, Paola; Busardò, Francesco P.; Cipolloni, Luigi; Dominicis, Enrico De; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) represent a large group of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, produced to maximize anabolic effects and minimize the androgenic ones. AAS can be administered orally, parenterally by intramuscular injection and transdermally. Androgens act by binding to the nuclear androgen receptor (AR) in the cytoplasm and then translocate into the nucleus. This binding results in sequential conformational changes of the receptor affecting the interaction between recep...

  18. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use among Brazilian bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Fabiana Ranielle de Siqueira; Brito, Aline de Freitas; Oliveira, Caio Victor Coutinho de; Vieira, Thaiza Isidro; Gouveia, Rachel Linka Beniz

    2014-07-01

    This cross-sectional, quantitative, exploratory study investigated the prevalence and profile of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users amongst a convenience sample of 510 bodybuilders from 52 gyms, in João Pessoa, Brazil, with a structured questionnaire containing selected questions about socioeconomic and training variables on the use of AAS. Data were analyzed using frequency and chi-square tests. AAS prevalence use was 20.6%; mostly young men (98.1%), of a low education level (46.7%), who trained for more than 4 years (49.5%). The use of AAS was related to the use of dietary supplements. About 81% of consumed AAS consisted of Deca-Durabolin, Winstrol, and Sustanon. Study's limitations are noted. PMID:24832911

  19. Characteristics and outcome of patients with heart failure due to anabolic-androgenic steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Eva Bjerre; Thune, Jens Jakob; Gustafsson, Finn

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to analyse the outcome of patients with advanced heart failure due to abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids. DESIGN: A retrospective chart review of patients admitted or referred for advanced heart failure, due to anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse...... with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers. The remaining 3 patients required implantation of a LV assist device (LVAD) and were listed for heart transplantation. No recovery of LV function in the patients treated with assist device was seen. CONCLUSION: Anabolic-androgenic steroid...

  20. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use Among 1,010 College Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Harrison G., Jr.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two percent of 1,010 male college students responding to a questionnaire about anabolic-androgenic steroid use reported using steroids; most of the users were competitive athletes, although some used steroids to improve their physical appearance. Users were not distinguished from non-users in terms of academic achievement or use of other illicit…

  1. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: Prevalence, Knowledge, and Attitudes in Junior and Senior High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeier, Maurie J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports a survey of junior and senior high school students that investigated the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and examined gender, sports participation, and illicit drug use. Results indicated the prevalence of steroid use was 3.3%. Steroid use was greater for males, users of other drugs, and strength trainers. (SM)

  2. Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

  3. Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... from some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

  4. [Recent aspects of therapy with androgenic and anabolic steroids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schambach, H; Nitschke, U; Kröhne, H J

    1983-11-15

    From the pharmacology of the therapeutically available androgen preparations and the clinical experience results that a highly dosed androgen long-term therapy is effectively possible only by testosterone esters which are to be injected intramuscularly (e.g. testosterone oenanthate). It is indicated in all forms of endocrine hypogonadism, certain aplastic anaemias and if necessary in extreme male high growth. In partial androgen deficiency (pubertas tarda, Klinefelter's syndrome, climacterium virile and others) orally applicable androgens such as testosterone-undecanoate (Andriol) and mesterolone (Vistimon) can be used. The latter is to be preferred when a hyperoestrogenism is present, e.g. in liver cirrhosis. When 17-alpha-alkylated oral androgens are used, their often not sufficiently confirmed anabolic effect and their potential liver toxicity should more be taken into consideration. PMID:6666179

  5. Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartgens, Fred; Kuipers, Harm

    2004-01-01

    Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone. They can exert strong effects on the human body that may be beneficial for athletic performance. A review of the literature revealed that most laboratory studies did not investigate the actual doses of AAS currently abused in the field. Therefore, those studies may not reflect the actual (adverse) effects of steroids. The available scientific literature describes that short-term administration of these drugs by athletes can increase strength and bodyweight. Strength gains of about 5-20% of the initial strength and increments of 2-5 kg bodyweight, that may be attributed to an increase of the lean body mass, have been observed. A reduction of fat mass does not seem to occur. Although AAS administration may affect erythropoiesis and blood haemoglobin concentrations, no effect on endurance performance was observed. Little data about the effects of AAS on metabolic responses during exercise training and recovery are available and, therefore, do not allow firm conclusions. The main untoward effects of short- and long-term AAS abuse that male athletes most often self-report are an increase in sexual drive, the occurrence of acne vulgaris, increased body hair and increment of aggressive behaviour. AAS administration will disturb the regular endogenous production of testosterone and gonadotrophins that may persist for months after drug withdrawal. Cardiovascular risk factors may undergo deleterious alterations, including elevation of blood pressure and depression of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-, HDL2- and HDL3-cholesterol levels. In echocardiographic studies in male athletes, AAS did not seem to affect cardiac structure and function, although in animal studies these drugs have been observed to exert hazardous effects on heart structure and function. In studies of athletes, AAS were not found to damage the liver. Psyche and behaviour seem to be strongly affected by AAS

  6. Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Use in Teens: Prevalence, Demographics, and Perception of Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa; Callahan, Bryan; Cummins, Kevin M.; Achar, Suraj; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple risks are associated with early use of anabolic androgenic steroids, yet public understanding is limited and teen use not uncommon. The present study surveyed 4,231 high school students to understand prevalence of use, association with athletics and other substance use and expectations of drug effects. While overall rates of steroid use…

  7. Short QT interval is unreliable marker of anabolic androgenic steroid abuse in competitive athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Vitomir; Stanković Ivan; Stipac Vlahović Alja; Putniković Biljana; Nešković Aleksandar N.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Previous animal and human studies provided the evidence that testosterone may affect ventricular repolarization by shortening of the QT interval. Synthetic derivatives of testosterone, modified to enhance its anabolic properties, are occasionally abused by some competitive athletes. Objective. We assessed whether the QT interval duration could discriminate androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS)-using strength athletes (SA) from drug-free endurance athletes (EA), by comparing 2...

  8. Endothelial function in male body builders taking anabolic androgenic steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hashemi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse cardiovascular events have been reported in body builders taking anabolic steroids. Adverse effects of AAS on endothelial function can initiate atherosclerosis. This study evaluates endothelial function in body builders using AAS, compared with non-steroids using athletes as controls. Methods: We recruited 30 nonsmoking male body builders taking AAS, 14 in build up phase, 8 in work out phase, and 8 in post steroid phase, and 30 nonsmoking male athletes who denied ever using steroids. Serum lipids and fasting plasma glucose were measured to exclude dyslipidemia and diabetes. Brachial artery diameter was measured by ultrasound at rest, after cuff inflation, and after sublingual glyceriltrinitrate (GTN to determine flow mediated dilation (FMD, nitro mediated dilation (NMD and ratio of FMD to NMD (index of endothelial function. Result: Use of AAS was associated with higher body mass index (BMI and low density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-C. Mean ratio of flow mediated dilatation after cuff deflation to post GTN dilatation of brachial artery (index of endothelial function in body builders taking AAS was significantly lower than control group (0.96(0.05 versus 1(0.08; p=0.03. After adjusting BMI, age and weight, no significant difference was seen in index of endothelial function between two groups (p=0 .21. Conclusion: Our study indicates that taking AAS in body builders doesn’t have direct effect on endothelial function. Future study with bigger sample size and measurement of AAS metabolites is recommended. Key words: endothelium, lipids, anabolic steroids, body builders

  9. Androgenic anabolic steroid use and severe hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breda, E.; Keizer, H.A.; Kuipers, H.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.

    2003-01-01

    The data of the present case demonstrate that the abuse of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) may lead to serious health effects. Although most clinical attention is usually directed towards peripheral side effects, the most serious central side effect, hypothalamic-pituitary-dysfunction, is often o

  10. Liver pathology associated with the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Katrine; Søe, Martin Jensen; Gluud, C

    1992-01-01

    This review examines the liver-damaging side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). It seems that AAS can cause development of peliosis hepatis, subcellular changes of hepatocytes, hepatocellular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas. On the other hand, it has not been convincingly proved...

  11. Determinants of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Risk Perceptions in Youth Populations: A Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Bryan E.

    2009-01-01

    Grounded conceptually in social cognitive theory, this research examines how personal, behavioral, and environmental factors are associated with risk perceptions of anabolic-androgenic steroids. Ordinal logistic regression and logit log-linear models applied to data gathered from high-school seniors (N = 2,160) in the 2005 Monitoring the Future…

  12. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids: Use and Perceived Use in Nonathlete College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berning, Joseph M.; Adams, Kent J.; Debeliso, Mark; Stamford, Bryant A.; Newman, Ian M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated the use and perceived use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) among nonathlete college students. Participants: The authors surveyed a sample of 485 nonathlete college students at a major metropolitan university. Methods: They administered a survey on use and perceived use of AAS to the students. Results:…

  13. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: Knowledge about, Attitude toward, and Extent of Use by High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, R. J.; And Others

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) are pharmacologic derivatives of the hormone testosterone. They have therapeutic merit when used under a physician's prescription to treat certain hormonal imbalances and some forms of anemia; however, when taken in high doses they have a number of virilizing, feminizing, toxic, and psychological effects. This…

  14. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Print Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Anabolic Steroids DrugFacts: Anabolic Steroids Email Facebook Twitter Revised March 2016 What are anabolic steroids? Anabolic steroids are synthetic variations of the male ...

  15. Short QT interval is unreliable marker of anabolic androgenic steroid abuse in competitive athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Vitomir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Previous animal and human studies provided the evidence that testosterone may affect ventricular repolarization by shortening of the QT interval. Synthetic derivatives of testosterone, modified to enhance its anabolic properties, are occasionally abused by some competitive athletes. Objective. We assessed whether the QT interval duration could discriminate androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS-using strength athletes (SA from drug-free endurance athletes (EA, by comparing 25 formulas for QT interval correction. Methods. We recruited 22 elite male athletes involved in long-term strength or endurance training and 20 sedentary controls. All elite

  16. A high prevalence of abnormal personality traits in chronic users of anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, C. J.; Noakes, T.D.; Dunne, T; M.I. Lambert; Rochford, K

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: (1) To assess the personality profiles of the anabolic androgenic steroid users (AAS) and (2) to determine whether valid premorbid personality traits could be obtained from cross sectional assessment using multisource data. METHODS: The first author became a participant-observer in a group of body builders. An experimental group of body builders who had been using AAS for no more than 18 months (n = 12) was identified. A group of control subjects, each of whom claimed that he did n...

  17. Anabolic/Androgenic Steroid Administration During Adolescence and Adulthood Differentially Modulates Aggression and Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Thomas R.; Ricci, Lesley A.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS) use remains high in both teens and adults in the U.S. and worldwide despite studies showing that AAS use is associated with a higher incidence of aggression and anxiety. Recently we showed that chronic exposure to AAS through adolescence increases aggression and decreases anxious behaviors, while during AAS-withdrawal aggression is lowered to species-normative levels and anxiety increases. AAS exposure is known to differentially alter behaviors and their unde...

  18. The development of multiple drug use among anabolic-androgenic steroid users: six subjective case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg Fred; Skårberg Kurt; Engström Ingemar

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The inappropriate use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) was originally a problem among athletes but AAS are now often used in nonsport situations and by patients attending regular addiction clinics. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of the development of multiple drug use in patients seeking treatment at an addiction clinic for AAS-related problems. Methods We interviewed six patients (four men and two women) with experience of AAS use who were attendi...

  19. Characteristics and Consequences of Use of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids in Poly Substance Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been associated with use of illegal or unprescribed prescription drugs, as well as different adverse psychiatric effects, such as ma-nia, psychosis and hostility. Further, there is an association between use of AAS and other different risk behaviours, including carrying guns and reckless driving. Taken together, these data suggest that there is a group of AAS users that are not elite athletes, but rather young men at risk for psychiatric illne...

  20. Anabolic androgenic steroids and central monoaminergic systems : Supratherapeutic doses of nandrolone decanoate affect dopamine and serotonin

    OpenAIRE

    Birgner, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    Supratherapeutic doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) are administered, not only as performance-enhancing drugs in the world of sports, but also in order to modify behaviour. AAS abusers are at risk of developing serious physical and psychological side effects such as dependence and aggressive behaviour. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the impact of supratherapeutic doses of nandrolone decanoate after subchronic administration on dopamine and serotonin pathways involved in d...

  1. Anabolic-androgenic Steroid use and Psychopathology in Athletes. A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Piacentino, Daria; Georgios D. Kotzalidis; Del Casale, Antonio; Aromatario, Maria Rosaria; Pomara, Cristoforo; Girardi, Paolo; Sani, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) by professional and recreational athletes is increasing worldwide. The underlying motivations are mainly performance enhancement and body image improvement. AAS abuse and dependence, which are specifically classified and coded by the DSM-5, are not uncommon. AAS-using athletes are frequently present with psychiatric symptoms and disorders, mainly somatoform and eating, but also mood, and schizophrenia-related disorders. Some psychiatric disorders...

  2. Epidemiological and neurobiological evidence for misuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Kindlundh, Anna MS

    2002-01-01

    Misuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), is attributed to elite athletes and body builders. The attentive involvement of AAS in acts of violence seen in society has raised interest to evaluate the importance of social, psychological and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the psychiatric states associated with onset of controlled misuse, its maintenance, and via abuse its transition to addiction. The objective of this thesis is to examine whether misuse of AAS shares mechanisms with...

  3. Iatrogenic dependence of anabolic-androgenic steroid in an Indian non-athletic woman

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Adarsh; Tekkalaki, Bheemsain; Saxena, Shashwat; Dandu, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are increasingly being used by athletes and youngsters to become masculine and to loose body fat. Long-term consumption of AAS causes multiple physical and psychological morbidities. Research has also concluded that AAS have addictive potential and AAS abuse is commonly found with other substance abuse. Abuse of AAS is rare in eastern countries. Abuse among women is even rarer. Here is a case report of an Indian woman, who was prescribed nandrolone decanoate...

  4. Application of the theory of planned behaviour to explain adult male anabolic androgenic steroid use among gym users

    OpenAIRE

    Ager, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims: In the UK, the illegal use of anabolic androgenic steroids (steroids) among recreational gym-users has been increasing alongside a growth in the number of steroid-users accessing harm reduction services. Steroid-misuse has therefore become a public health concern. This study explored first-hand experiences of steroid-users’ attitudes towards and motivations for using steroids. It also explored whether and how societal and individual pressures as well as barriers and facil...

  5. Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids masking the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Larrea Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Tuberculous pleural effusions are not always easy to diagnose but the presence of a lymphocyte-rich exudate associated with an increased adenosine deaminase level and a positive skin test result are highly sensitive diagnostic signs. Case presentation We report a case of pleural tuberculosis in a 31-year-old white male patient from Caracas, Venezuela who was negative for human immunodeficiency virus and presented 2 weeks after injecting the anabolic-androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate, in whom all the tests for tuberculosis were initially negative; an eosinophilic pleural effusion with a low adenosine deaminase level, a negative tuberculin skin test and negative for acid-fast bacilli staining and culture of the pleural fluid. After excluding other causes of eosinophilic pleural effusion malignant pleural effusion was suspected. The patient did not return until 4 months later. The second thoracentesis obtained a pleural fluid suggestive for tuberculosis, with a predominance of lymphocytes, an elevated adenosine deaminase level (51 U/l and a positive tuberculin skin test. Culture of pleural fragments confirmed pleural tuberculosis. Conclusion This case suggests that the use of an anabolic-androgenic steroid masks the definitive diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis by changing the key diagnostic parameters of the pleural fluid, a finding not previously reported. Available evidence of the effects of anabolic steroids on the immune system also suggests that patients using anabolic-androgenic steroids might be susceptible to developing tuberculosis in either reactivating a latent infection or facilitating development of the disease after a recent infection.

  6. Advantages and Limitations of Androgen Receptor-Based Methods for Detecting Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Abuse as Performance Enhancing Drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Bailey

    Full Text Available Testosterone (T and related androgens are performance enhancing drugs (PEDs abused by some athletes to gain competitive advantage. To monitor unauthorized androgen abuse, doping control programs use mass spectrometry (MS to detect androgens, synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs and their metabolites in an athlete's urine. AASs of unknown composition will not be detected by these procedures. Since AASs achieve their anabolic effects by activating the Androgen Receptor (AR, cell-based bioassays that measure the effect of a urine sample on AR activity are under investigation as complementary, pan-androgen detection methods. We evaluated an AR BioAssay as a monitor for androgen activity in urine pre-treated with glucuronidase, which releases T from the inactive T-glucuronide that predominates in urine. AR BioAssay activity levels were expressed as 'T-equivalent' concentrations by comparison to a T dose response curve. The T-equivalent concentrations of androgens in the urine of hypogonadal participants supplemented with T (in whom all androgenic activity should arise from T were quantitatively identical to the T measurements conducted by MS at the UCLA Olympic Analytical Laboratory (0.96 ± 0.22. All 17 AASs studied were active in the AR BioAssay; other steroids were inactive. 12 metabolites of 10 commonly abused AASs, which are used for MS monitoring of AAS doping because of their prolonged presence in urine, had reduced or no AR BioAssay activity. Thus, the AR BioAssay can accurately and inexpensively monitor T, but its ability to monitor urinary AASs will be limited to a period immediately following doping in which the active AASs remain intact.

  7. Advantages and Limitations of Androgen Receptor-Based Methods for Detecting Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Abuse as Performance Enhancing Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kathy; Yazdi, Tahmineh; Masharani, Umesh; Tyrrell, Blake; Butch, Anthony; Schaufele, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone (T) and related androgens are performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) abused by some athletes to gain competitive advantage. To monitor unauthorized androgen abuse, doping control programs use mass spectrometry (MS) to detect androgens, synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) and their metabolites in an athlete's urine. AASs of unknown composition will not be detected by these procedures. Since AASs achieve their anabolic effects by activating the Androgen Receptor (AR), cell-based bioassays that measure the effect of a urine sample on AR activity are under investigation as complementary, pan-androgen detection methods. We evaluated an AR BioAssay as a monitor for androgen activity in urine pre-treated with glucuronidase, which releases T from the inactive T-glucuronide that predominates in urine. AR BioAssay activity levels were expressed as 'T-equivalent' concentrations by comparison to a T dose response curve. The T-equivalent concentrations of androgens in the urine of hypogonadal participants supplemented with T (in whom all androgenic activity should arise from T) were quantitatively identical to the T measurements conducted by MS at the UCLA Olympic Analytical Laboratory (0.96 ± 0.22). All 17 AASs studied were active in the AR BioAssay; other steroids were inactive. 12 metabolites of 10 commonly abused AASs, which are used for MS monitoring of AAS doping because of their prolonged presence in urine, had reduced or no AR BioAssay activity. Thus, the AR BioAssay can accurately and inexpensively monitor T, but its ability to monitor urinary AASs will be limited to a period immediately following doping in which the active AASs remain intact. PMID:26998755

  8. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p267

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urival Magno Gomes Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are evidences of the increase in the consumption of anabolic steroids and the damages to health caused by their indiscriminate use, mainly among children and youngsters. The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS consist in testosterone and its derivatives. They are produced endogenously in the testicles and adrenal cortex and are responsible for the secondary sexual characteristics associated to masculinity. Although the results of the exogenous use of AAS are still controversial, they have been used for the increase of physical strength and muscle mass. These substances are directly related to different clinical conditions such as: bladder cancer, coronary disease, gynecomastia, hepatic disorders and cancer, and sterility. This study aimed at approaching relevant topics related to the drugs action mechanisms, ways of use and metabolism, and side effects, besides the importance of the prevention in the use of those drugs in most diverse age groups. The abusive use of anabolic-androgenic steroids consists in a problem that has gradually occurred, which has given rise to laws, rules and support groups turned to the prevention, education and restriction of their use.

  9. Novel Uses for the Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Nandrolone and Oxandrolone in the Management of Male Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Christopher; Kovac, Jason R

    2016-10-01

    There has recently been renewed interest in novel clinical applications of the anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) testosterone and its synthetic derivatives, particularly given with the rising popularity of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) for the treatment of male hypogonadism. In this manuscript, we provide a brief review of the history of AAS and discuss clinical applications of two of the more well-known AAS: nandrolone and oxandrolone. Both agents exhibit favorable myotrophic/androgenic ratios and have been investigated for effectiveness in numerous disease states. We also provide a brief synopsis of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) and postulate how these orally active, non-aromatizing, tissue-selective agents might be used in contemporary andrology. Currently, the applications of testosterone alternatives in hypogonadism are limited. However, it is tempting to speculate that these agents may one day become accepted as alternatives, or adjuncts, to the treatment of male hypogonadism. PMID:27535042

  10. Multidetection Of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Using Immunoarrays and Pattern Recognition Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, D.; Salvador, J. P.; Tort, N.; Centi, F.; Marco, M. P.; Marco, S.

    2009-05-01

    A first step towards the multidetection of anabolic androgenic steroids by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) has been performed in this study. This proposal combines an array of classical ELISA assays with different selectivities and multivariate data analysis techniques. Data has been analyzed by principal component analysis in conjunction with a k-nearest line classifier has been used. This proposal allows to detect simultaneously four different compounds in the range of concentration from 10-1.5 to 103 mM with a total rate of 90.6% of correct detection.

  11. CHAMP Symposium on Androgens, Anabolic Steroids, and Related Substances: What We Know and What We Need to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Melissa L; Deuster, Patricia A; Kupchak, Brian R

    2016-07-01

    The Consortium of Health and Military Performance hosted a symposium in April 2015 entitled "Androgens, Anabolic Steroids, and Related Substances: What We Know and What We Need to Know" in response to concerns from the field regarding Anabolic Androgenic Steroids use by U.S. service members. The symposium was attended by military and civilian subject-matter experts in sports medicine and anabolic steroids and was held at the United Service Organizations (Naval Support Activity Bethesda) in Bethesda, Maryland. The expert panel was charged to define the way ahead in terms of androgen use, education, research, relevant policies and guidelines, and other concerns with particular relevancy to Special Operations Forces. The conference concluded with the following recommendations on these several key issues (1) connecting with users, (2) education and intervention, (3) knowledge and research gaps, and (4) establishing an information clearinghouse and clinical repository. PMID:27391622

  12. Outline of a typology of men’s use of anabolic androgenic steroids in fitness and strength training environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest; Vinther, Anders Schmidt; Liokaftos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Recent research into the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in fitness and strength training environments have revealed great variance in users’ approach to AAS use and more specifically their approach to health risks and desired objectives. However, there have only been few attempts to de...

  13. Adolescent Self-Perceptions and Attitudes toward School as Determinants of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Risk Estimates and Normative Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Bryan E.

    2011-01-01

    Grounded in symbolic interactionism and drawing on data gathered in the 2007 Monitoring the Future Study (n = 2,201), this research examines how self-esteem and perceived intelligence, as well as attitudes and behaviors related to school environments, associate with perceptions of anabolic-androgenic steroids. With perceived risk and…

  14. Anabolic Androgenic Steroid (AAS) related deaths: autoptic, histopathological and toxicological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Paola; Busardò, Francesco P; Cipolloni, Luigi; Dominicis, Enrico De; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) represent a large group of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, produced to maximize anabolic effects and minimize the androgenic ones. AAS can be administered orally, parenterally by intramuscular injection and transdermally. Androgens act by binding to the nuclear androgen receptor (AR) in the cytoplasm and then translocate into the nucleus. This binding results in sequential conformational changes of the receptor affecting the interaction between receptor and protein, and receptor and DNA. Skeletal muscle can be considered as the main target tissue for the anabolic effects of AAS, which are mediated by ARs which after exposure to AASs are up-regulated and their number increases with body building. Therefore, AASs determine an increase in muscle size as a consequence of a dose-dependent hypertrophy resulting in an increase of the cross-sectional areas of both type I and type II muscle fibers and myonuclear domains. Moreover, it has been reported that AASs can increase tolerance to exercise by making the muscles more capable to overload therefore shielding them from muscle fiber damage and improving the level of protein synthesis during recovery. Despite some therapeutic use of AASs, there is also wide abuse among athletes especially bodybuilders in order to improve their performances and to increase muscle growth and lean body mass, taking into account the significant anabolic effects of these drugs. The prolonged misuse and abuse of AASs can determine several adverse effects, some of which may be even fatal especially on the cardiovascular system because they may increase the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), myocardial infarction, altered serum lipoproteins, and cardiac hypertrophy. The aim of this review is to focus on deaths related to AAS abuse, trying to evaluate the autoptic, histopathological and toxicological findings in order to investigate the pathophysiological mechanism that underlines this type of death, which

  15. Healthcare professionals' stigmatization of men with anabolic androgenic steroid use and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jessica; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Lanzieri, Nicholas

    2015-09-01

    Building upon previous research on the stigmatization of individuals with eating disorders (EDs), the present study sought to evaluate healthcare providers' attitudes toward male anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) users. Healthcare providers (N=148) were first randomly assigned to read one of four vignettes describing a male AAS user, ED patient, cocaine user, or healthy control. Each provider then rated, on a scale of -3 to +3, how strongly either word in one of 22 word-pairs described his or her feelings toward the person described in the vignette. Results indicated that providers perceived the ED and AAS use patients less favorably than the cocaine user or healthy adult, suggesting that the two groups may be stigmatized by health providers. Given the psychiatric and medical risks associated with AAS use and EDs, reducing bias may help reduce the personal suffering and public health burden related to these behaviors. PMID:26125091

  16. Mouldy feed: A possible explanation for the excretion of anabolic-androgenic steroids in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, A I; Bailly-Chouriberry, L; Vanden Bussche, J; Garcia, P; Popot, M-A; Bonnaire, Y; Vanhaecke, L

    2016-05-01

    To ensure fair competition and to protect the horse's welfare, horses have to compete on their own merits, without any unfair advantage that might follow the use of drugs. Therefore, regulatory authorities list all substances that are not allowed in competition, including most anabolic-androgenic steroids. As zero-tolerance is retained, the question arose whether the consumption of mouldy feed could lead to the excretion of steroids, due to the biotransformation of plant phytosterols to steroids. A rapid ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analytical method, previously validated according to AORC (Association of Official Racing Chemists) and EC (European Commission) guidelines, was used to measure steroids in different sample types. Multiple mouldy feed samples were tested for the presence of steroids. The effect of digestion was tested by in vitro simulation of the horse's hindgut in batch incubations. In most feed samples no steroids were detected, even when the products were mouldy. Mouldy corn however showed to contain up to 3.0 ± 0.4 µg/kg AED (4-androstenedione), the main testosterone precursor. This concentration increased when mouldy corn (with added phytosterols) was digested in vitro. An herbal phytosupplement also showed to contain α-testosterone. These results demonstrate that it is important to caution against the consumption of any feed or (herbal) supplement of which the detailed ingredients and quantitative analysis are unknown. The consumption of mouldy corn should especially be avoided, not only from a horse health and welfare point of view, but also to avoid possible inadvertent positive doping results. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27443207

  17. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Medical consequences of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids: effects on reproductive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Vorona, Elena

    2015-08-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) are appearance and performance-enhancing drugs (APEDs) used in competitive athletics, in recreational sports, and by body-builders. The global lifetime prevalence of AASs abuse is 6.4% for males and 1.6% for women. Many AASs, often obtained from the internet and dubious sources, have not undergone proper testing and are consumed at extremely high doses and in irrational combinations, also along with other drugs. Controlled clinical trials investigating undesired side effects are lacking because ethical restrictions prevent exposing volunteers to potentially toxic regimens, obscuring a causal relationship between AASs abuse and possible sequelae. Because of the negative feedback in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, in men AASs cause reversible suppression of spermatogenesis, testicular atrophy, infertility, and erectile dysfunction (anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism). Should spermatogenesis not recover after AASs abuse, a pre-existing fertility disorder may have resurfaced. AASs frequently cause gynecomastia and acne. In women, AASs may disrupt ovarian function. Chronic strenuous physical activity leads to menstrual irregularities and, in severe cases, to the female athlete triad (low energy intake, menstrual disorders and low bone mass), making it difficult to disentangle the effects of sports and AASs. Acne, hirsutism and (irreversible) deepening of the voice are further consequences of AASs misuse. There is no evidence that AASs cause breast carcinoma. Detecting AASs misuse through the control network of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) not only aims to guarantee fair conditions for athletes, but also to protect them from medical sequelae of AASs abuse. PMID:25805894

  18. Treadmill exercise training prevents myocardial mechanical dysfunction induced by androgenic-anabolic steroid treatment in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo S Bocalini

    Full Text Available Elevated concentrations of testosterone and its synthetic analogs may induce changes in cardiovascular function. However, the effects of the combination of anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS treatment and exercise training on systolic and diastolic cardiac function are poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of low-dose steroid treatment (stanozolol on cardiac contractile parameters when this steroid treatment was combined with exercise training in rats and the effects of chronic steroid treatment on the Frank-Starling (length-tension curves relationship. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: U (untrained, US (untrained and treated with stanozolol 5 mg/kg/week, T (trained, 16 m/min/1 h and TS (trained and treated with stanozolol 5 mg/kg/week. Continuous exercise training was conducted 5 days/week for 8 consecutive weeks. The speed of the treadmill was gradually increased to a final setting of 16 m/min/1 h. Experiments were divided into two independent series: 1 central hemodynamic analysis for mean arterial blood pressure (MAP and cardiac output (CO measurements and 2 isolated papillary muscle preparation in Krebs solution. Stanozolol treatment significantly increased the MAP and the heart size in untrained and trained rats (U 113±2; T 106±2; US 138±8 and TS 130±7 mmHg. Furthermore, stanozolol significantly decreased developed tension and dT/dt (maximal and minimal in U rats. However, the developed tension was completely restored by training. The Frank/Starling relationship was impaired in rats treated with stanozolol; however, again, training completely restored diastolic function. Taken together, the present data suggest that AAS treatment is able to decrease cardiac performance (systolic and diastolic functions. The combination of stanozolol and physical training improved cardiac performance, including diastolic and systolic functions, independent of changes in central

  19. Treadmill exercise training prevents myocardial mechanical dysfunction induced by androgenic-anabolic steroid treatment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocalini, Danilo S; Beutel, Abram; Bergamaschi, Cássia T; Tucci, Paulo J; Campos, Ruy R

    2014-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of testosterone and its synthetic analogs may induce changes in cardiovascular function. However, the effects of the combination of anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS) treatment and exercise training on systolic and diastolic cardiac function are poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of low-dose steroid treatment (stanozolol) on cardiac contractile parameters when this steroid treatment was combined with exercise training in rats and the effects of chronic steroid treatment on the Frank-Starling (length-tension curves) relationship. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: U (untrained), US (untrained and treated with stanozolol 5 mg/kg/week), T (trained, 16 m/min/1 h) and TS (trained and treated with stanozolol 5 mg/kg/week). Continuous exercise training was conducted 5 days/week for 8 consecutive weeks. The speed of the treadmill was gradually increased to a final setting of 16 m/min/1 h. Experiments were divided into two independent series: 1) central hemodynamic analysis for mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and cardiac output (CO) measurements and 2) isolated papillary muscle preparation in Krebs solution. Stanozolol treatment significantly increased the MAP and the heart size in untrained and trained rats (U 113±2; T 106±2; US 138±8 and TS 130±7 mmHg). Furthermore, stanozolol significantly decreased developed tension and dT/dt (maximal and minimal) in U rats. However, the developed tension was completely restored by training. The Frank/Starling relationship was impaired in rats treated with stanozolol; however, again, training completely restored diastolic function. Taken together, the present data suggest that AAS treatment is able to decrease cardiac performance (systolic and diastolic functions). The combination of stanozolol and physical training improved cardiac performance, including diastolic and systolic functions, independent of changes in central hemodynamic

  20. Sport, and use of anabolic androgenic steroids among Icelandic high school students: a critical test of three perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Halldorsson Vidar; Thorlindsson Thorolfur

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background This study investigates the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) among a national representative sample of high school students in Iceland. We test several hypotheses drawn from three perspectives. The first perspective focuses on the use of AAS as an individual phenomenon motivated by the desire to succeed in sport. The second perspective views the use of AAS as shaped by norms and values embedded in social relationships of formally organized sport. The third perspec...

  1. Usage and perceptions of anabolic-androgenic steroids among male fitness centre attendees in Kuwait - a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Alsaeed, Ibrahim; Alabkal, Jarrah R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Considering the recent popularity of bodybuilding and the apparent spread of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use amongst bodybuilding enthusiasts in Kuwait, there is a relative lack of scientific investigation into the use, knowledge and attitudes towards AAS amongst the population at risk of abusing it. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the frequency, knowledge, attitudes and practice of AAS use amongst male fitness centre attendees in Kuwait. Methods A cross sectional s...

  2. The aetiology and trajectory of anabolic-androgenic steroid use initiation: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Sagoe, Dominic; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Background: To our knowledge, there has never been a systematic review and synthesis of the qualitative literature on the trajectory and aetiology of nonmedical anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use. Methods: We systematically reviewed and synthesized qualitative literature gathered from searches in PsycINFO, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, and reference lists of relevant literature to investigate AAS users’ ages of first use and source(s), history prior to use, and motiv...

  3. The aetiology and trajectory of anabolic-androgenic steroid use initiation: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Sagoe, Dominic; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Background. To our knowledge, there has never been a systematic review and synthesis of the qualitative literature on the trajectory and aetiology of nonmedical anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use. Methods. We systematically reviewed and synthesized qualitative literature gathered from searches in PsycINFO, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, and reference lists of relevant literature to investigate AAS users’ ages of first use and source(s), history prior to use, and motives/dr...

  4. Eating disorders and anabolic androgenic steroids in males - similarities and differences in self-image and psychiatric symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Björk, Tabita; Skårberg, Kurt; Engström, Ingemar

    2013-01-01

    Background Body dissatisfaction is common among both females and males. Dissatisfaction with the body is a risk factor both for onset of eating disorders and for abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Few studies have however investigated if there are other similarities in respect to self-image or psychiatric symptoms between clinical samples of eating disordered males and males in treatment for negative effects of AAS use. Aim The aim of this study was to compare two clinical samples, ...

  5. The Cutaneous Bacterial Microflora of the Bodybuilders Using Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Taheri, Mohammad; Ghanbari Asad, Ali; Khani, Soghra; Ahrari, Iman; Pakshir, Keyvan; Khashei, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse by the athletes has dramatically increased during the recent decades. These substances might increase the skin lipids and enhance the cutaneous microbial proliferation. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the potential side effects of AAS on the bacterial microflora colonization of the bodybuilders` skin. Patients and Methods: The skin samples of 94 male bodybuilders (71 AAS users, 23 non-AAS users) and 46 subjects of the control group, with similar gender and age, were cultured and incubated in both aerobic condition to isolate Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic condition for Propionibacterium acnes. The isolated bacteria were identified by standard microbiological techniques. Results: The skin lesions were more frequent in the body builders than the controls. Moreover, statistically significant differences were also observed in skin lesions among the AAS users and the non-AAS user athletes. The prevalence of S. aureus and P. acnes in the athletes was higher than that of the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference in distribution of P. acnes between the bodybuilders who used AAS and those who did not. Conclusions: A higher number of bacterial flora was found in the bodybuilders particularly those using AAS in comparison to the controls, which might be due to the influence of these AAS on the skin microflora and transmission of the bacteria through the direct contact of the naked skin with the exercise instruments. PMID:25789120

  6. Doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS): Adverse effects on non-reproductive organs and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Vorona, Elena

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1970s anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been abused at ever increasing rates in competitive athletics, in recreational sports and in bodybuilding. Exceedingly high doses are often consumed over long periods, in particular by bodybuilders, causing acute or chronic adverse side effects frequently complicated by additional polypharmacy. This review summarizes side effects on non-reproductive organs and functions; effects on male and female reproduction have been recently reviewed in a parallel paper. Among the most striking AAS side effects are increases in haematocrit and coagulation causing thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke as well as other cardiac disturbances including arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies and possibly sudden death. 17α-alkylated AAS are liver toxic leading to cholestasis, peliosis, adenomas and carcinomas. Hyperbilirubinaemia can cause cholemic nephrosis and kidney failure. AAS abuse may induce exaggerated self-confidence, reckless behavior, aggressiveness and psychotic symptoms. AAS withdrawal may be accompanied by depression and suicidal intentions. Since AAS abuse is not or only reluctantly admitted physicians should be aware of the multitude of serious side effects when confronted with unclear symptoms. PMID:26373946

  7. Recovery of spermatogenesis following testosterone replacement therapy or anabolic-androgenic steroid use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Abram McBride

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT for hypogonadism continues to rise, particularly in younger men who may wish to remain fertile. Concurrently, awareness of a more pervasive use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS within the general population has been appreciated. Both TRT and AAS can suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis resulting in diminution of spermatogenesis. Therefore, it is important that clinicians recognize previous TRT or AAS use in patients presenting for infertility treatment. Cessation of TRT or AAS use may result in spontaneous recovery of normal spermatogenesis in a reasonable number of patients if allowed sufficient time for recovery. However, some patients may not recover normal spermatogenesis or tolerate waiting for spontaneous recovery. In such cases, clinicians must be aware of the pathophysiologic derangements of the HPG axis related to TRT or AAS use and the pharmacologic agents available to reverse them. The available agents include injectable gonadotropins, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and aromatase inhibitors, but their off-label use is poorly described in the literature, potentially creating a knowledge gap for the clinician. Reviewing their use clinically for the treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and other HPG axis abnormalities can familiarize the clinician with the manner in which they can be used to recover spermatogenesis after TRT or AAS use.

  8. What can allostasis tell us about anabolic-androgenic steroid addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Yehuda, Rachel; Alfano, Lauren

    2011-08-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) are synthetic hormones used by individuals who want to look better or perform better in athletics and at the gym. Their use raises an interesting paradox in which drug use is associated with a number of health benefits, but also the possibility of negative health consequences. Existing models of AAS addiction follow the traditional framework of drug abuse and dependence, which suggest that harmful use occurs as a result of the drug's ability to hijack the motivation-reward system. However, AASs, unlike typical drugs of abuse, are not used for acute intoxication effects or euphoria. Rather, AASs are used to affect the body through changes to the musculoskeletal system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis as opposed to stimulating the reward system. We offer an allostatic model of AAS addiction to resolve this inconsistency between traditional drug addiction and AAS addiction. This allostatic framework provides a way to (a) incorporate exercise into AAS misuse, (b) identify where AAS use transitions from recreational use into a drug problem, and (c) describe individual differences in vulnerability or resilience to AASs. Implications for this model of AAS addiction are discussed. PMID:21756441

  9. Troubled social background of male anabolic-androgenic steroid abusers in treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skarberg Kurt

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the social background and current social situation of male abusers of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS. Methods We compared thirty-four AAS-abusing patients from an Addiction Centre (AC with two groups, 18 users and 259 non-users of AAS from a public gym in Orebro, Sweden. The study is based on semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. Results Histories of a troubled childhood as well as current social disadvantage were both more frequent among the AAS users. Users also reported poor relationships with their parents and almost half of them had experienced physical or mental abuse. The AC group's experiences from school were mostly negative, and included concentration problems, boredom and learning difficulties. Their current circumstance included abuse of other drugs, battering of spouses and other criminality such as assault, illegal possession of weapons and theft. Conclusion In conclusion, this study shows that abusers of AAS often have a troubled social background. This underlines the importance of making a thorough social assessment as a part of the treatment programme. The results of the study may help in directing appropriate questions relevant to the abuse of AAS.

  10. Aggression Is Associated With Increased Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use Contemplation Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoe, Dominic; Mentzoni, Rune A; Hanss, Daniel; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-09-18

    We investigated the relationship between aggression and anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use intent among adolescents. A nationally representative sample of Norwegian 18-year-olds (N = 1,334, females = 58.7%) took part in a survey in 2013 (response rate = 64.9%). Participants completed the physical and verbal subscales of the Short-Form Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Intent to use AAS Scale, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. They also provided demographic information and answered questions about AAS use, gambling participation, as well as cigarette and snus use. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Lifetime and past year prevalence of AAS use was 0.1%. Between 0.4% and 1.7% of participants disclosed intent to use while between 1.1% and 2.5% expressed neutral intent to initiate AAS use. Compared to persons low on aggression, individuals high on aggression were more likely to report intent and curiosity towards initiating AAS use. Our findings indicate that aggression is a risk factor for AAS use contemplation among adolescents. PMID:27356242

  11. Recovery of spermatogenesis following testosterone replacement therapy or anabolic-androgenic steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, J Abram; Coward, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    The use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for hypogonadism continues to rise, particularly in younger men who may wish to remain fertile. Concurrently, awareness of a more pervasive use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) within the general population has been appreciated. Both TRT and AAS can suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis resulting in diminution of spermatogenesis. Therefore, it is important that clinicians recognize previous TRT or AAS use in patients presenting for infertility treatment. Cessation of TRT or AAS use may result in spontaneous recovery of normal spermatogenesis in a reasonable number of patients if allowed sufficient time for recovery. However, some patients may not recover normal spermatogenesis or tolerate waiting for spontaneous recovery. In such cases, clinicians must be aware of the pathophysiologic derangements of the HPG axis related to TRT or AAS use and the pharmacologic agents available to reverse them. The available agents include injectable gonadotropins, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and aromatase inhibitors, but their off-label use is poorly described in the literature, potentially creating a knowledge gap for the clinician. Reviewing their use clinically for the treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and other HPG axis abnormalities can familiarize the clinician with the manner in which they can be used to recover spermatogenesis after TRT or AAS use. PMID:26908067

  12. Anabolic-androgenic steroids decrease dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin-Miller, Kathryn; Li, Grace; Kelishani, Diana; Wood, Ruth I

    2016-08-25

    Recent studies have demonstrated that anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) modify cognitive processes such as decision making and behavioral flexibility. However, the neural mechanisms underlying these AAS-induced cognitive changes remain poorly understood. The mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system, particularly the nucleus accumbens (Acb), is important for reward, motivated behavior, and higher cognitive processes such as decision making. Therefore, AAS-induced plasticity in the DA system is a potential structural substrate for the observed cognitive alterations. High doses of testosterone (the most commonly-used AAS) increase dendritic spine density in limbic regions including the amygdala and hippocampus. However, effects on Acb are unknown. This was the focus of the present study. Adolescent male Long-Evans rats were treated chronically for 8weeks with high-dose testosterone (7.5mg/kg in water with 13% cyclodextrin) or vehicle sc. Brains were stained by Golgi-Cox to analyze neuronal morphology in medium spiny neurons of the shell region of Acb (AcbSh). Eightweeks of testosterone treatment significantly decreased spine density in AcbSh compared to brains of vehicle-treated rats (F1,14=5.455, p<0.05). Testosterone did not significantly affect total spine number, dendritic length, or arborization measured by Sholl analysis. These results show that AAS alter neuronal morphology in AcbSh by decreasing spine density throughout the dendritic tree, and provides a potential mechanism for AAS to modify cognition and decision-making behavior. PMID:27238893

  13. Commentary: Synthetic Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: A Plea for Controlled Substance Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William N.

    1987-01-01

    The widespread abuse of synthetic anabolic-androgenic steriods, their habit-forming properties, and their other adverse effects are good reasons for reclassification of steriods as controlled substances under federal law, a step which may combat their abuse. (Author/CB)

  14. The prostate after administration of anabolic androgenic steroids: a morphometrical study in rats

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    Rafael Areas Vargas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Many adverse effects have been associated with abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS, including disorders of the urogenital tract. The objective of this study is to analyze the morphological modifications in the prostate ventral lobe of pubertal and adult rats chronically treated with AAS, using morphometric methods. Materials and Methods: We studied 39 male Wistar rats weighing between 400 g and 550 g. The rats were divided into four groups: (a control rats, with 105 days of age (C105 (n = 7; (b control rats with 65 days of age (C65 (n = 9, injected only with the vehicle (peanut oil; (c treated rats, with 105 days of age (T105 (n = 10 and (d treated rats with 65 days of age (T65 (n = 13. The treated rats were injected with nandrolone decanoate at a dose of 10 mg.Kg-1 body weight. The steroid hormone and the vehicle were administered by intramuscular injection once a week for eight weeks. The rats were killed at 161 days of age (C105 and T105 and 121 days of age (C65 and T65 and the ventral prostate lobe was dissected and processed for histology. The height of the acinar epithelium, the surface densities of the lumen, epithelium and stroma were observed with X400 magnification using an Olympus light microscope coupled to a Sony CCD video camera, and the images transferred to a Sony monitor KX14-CP1. The selected histological areas were then quantified using the M42 test-grid system on the digitized fields. The data were analyzed with the Graphpad software. To compare the quantitative data in both groups (controls and treated and the outcomes, Student's t-test was used (p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The weight (p < 0.001 and volume (p = 0.004 of the prostate ventral lobe showed differences between C65 and T65 groups and between C105 and T105 groups. The epithelium height showed no difference between groups C65 and T65 (p = 0.8509, but the T105 group showed an increase of 32% compared to C105 (p = 0.0089. Concerning

  15. Impact of chronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids and taurine on blood pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roşca, A E; Stoian, I; Badiu, C; Gaman, L; Popescu, B O; Iosif, L; Mirica, R; Tivig, I C; Stancu, C S; Căruntu, C; Voiculescu, S E; Zăgrean, L

    2016-01-01

    Supraphysiological administration of anabolic androgenic steroids has been linked to increased blood pressure. The widely distributed amino acid taurine seems to be an effective depressor agent in drug-induced hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of chronic high dose administration of nandrolone decanoate (DECA) and taurine on blood pressure in rats and to verify the potentially involved mechanisms. The study was conducted in 4 groups of 8 adult male Wistar rats, aged 14 weeks, treated for 12 weeks with: DECA (A group); vehicle (C group); taurine (T group), or with both drugs (AT group). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at the beginning of the study (SBP1), 2 (SBP2) and 3 months (SBP3) later. Plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and plasma end products of nitric oxide metabolism (NOx) were also determined. SBP3 and SBP2 were significantly increased compared to SBP1 only in the A group (P<0.002 for both). SBP2, SBP3 and ACE activity showed a statistically significant increase in the A vs C (P<0.005), andvs AT groups (P<0.05), while NOx was significantly decreased in the A and AT groups vs controls (P=0.01). ACE activity was strongly correlated with SBP3 in the A group (r=0.71, P=0.04). These findings suggest that oral supplementation of taurine may prevent the increase in SBP induced by DECA, an effect potentially mediated by angiotensin-converting enzyme. PMID:27254659

  16. The development of multiple drug use among anabolic-androgenic steroid users: six subjective case reports

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    Nyberg Fred

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inappropriate use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS was originally a problem among athletes but AAS are now often used in nonsport situations and by patients attending regular addiction clinics. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of the development of multiple drug use in patients seeking treatment at an addiction clinic for AAS-related problems. Methods We interviewed six patients (four men and two women with experience of AAS use who were attending an addiction clinic for what they believed were AAS-related problems. The patients were interviewed in-depth about their life stories, with special emphasis on social background, substance use, the development of total drug use and subjective experienced psychological and physical side effects. Results There was significant variation in the development of drug use in relation to social background, onset of drug use, relationship to AAS use and experience of AAS effects. All patients had initially experienced positive effects from AAS but, over time, the negative experiences had outweighed the positive effects. All patients were dedicated to excess training and took AAS in combination with gym training, indicating that the use of these drugs is closely related to this form of training. Use of multiple drugs was common either in parallel with AAS use or serially. Conclusion The study shows the importance of understanding how AAS use can develop either with or without the concomitant use of other drugs of abuse. The use of AAS can, however, progress to the use of other drugs. The study also indicates the importance of obtaining accurate, comprehensive information about the development of AAS use in designing treatment programmes and prevention strategies in this area.

  17. Assessment of attentional bias and mood in users and non-users of anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, A J; Choi, P Y; Pope, H G

    1995-03-01

    Forty-six male strength athletes took part in a study to measure the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids on attentional bias to aggressive cues. They were 16 current users of anabolic steroids, 16 former users and 14 non-users. Testosterone, deca-durabolin and anadrol were the three most commonly taken steroids during the last cycle. Users generally took 2-3 drugs during each cycle; the average cycle lasted 8-11 weeks and they had completed 3-4 cycles. The subjects completed visual analogue scales of current feelings and were presented with a modified Stroop Colour Word Conflict Task containing sets of neutral, verbally aggressive and physically aggressive words. Current users tended to rate themselves more negatively. Users took longer than former users to name the colours of all word sets but there were no significant differences between word sets. Therefore, attentional bias did not differ between groups but current steroid use produced subtle mood changes and slowed performance compared to users not currently taking steroids. PMID:7796718

  18. Statistical analysis of fragmentation patterns of electron ionization mass spectra of enolized-trimethylsilylated anabolic androgenic steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, A. G.; Angelis, Y. S.; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, A.; Koupparis, M.; Georgakopoulos, C.

    2009-08-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are included in the List of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as substances abused to enhance athletic performance. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) plays an important role in doping control analyses identifying AAS as their enolized-trimethylsilyl (TMS)-derivatives using the electron ionization (EI) mode. This paper explores the suitability of complementary GC-MS mass spectra and statistical analysis (principal component analysis, PCA and partial least squares-discriminant analysis, PLS-DA) to differentiate AAS as a function of their structural and conformational features expressed by their fragment ions. The results obtained showed that the application of PCA yielded a classification among the AAS molecules which became more apparent after applying PLS-DA to the dataset. The application of PLS-DA yielded a clear separation among the AAS molecules which were, thus, classified as: 1-ene-3-keto, 3-hydroxyl with saturated A-ring, 1-ene-3-hydroxyl, 4-ene-3-keto, 1,4-diene-3-keto and 3-keto with saturated A-ring anabolic steroids. The study of this paper also presents structurally diagnostic fragment ions and dissociation routes providing evidence for the presence of unknown AAS or chemically modified molecules known as designer steroids.

  19. Supraphysiological Doses of Performance Enhancing Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids Exert Direct Toxic Effects on Neuron-like Cells

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    John Robert Basile

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS are lipophilic hormones often taken in excessive quantities by athletes and bodybuilders to enhance performance and increase muscle mass. AAS exert well known toxic effects on specific cell and tissue types and organ systems. The attention that androgen abuse has received lately should be used as an opportunity to educate both athletes and the general population regarding their adverse effects. Among numerous commercially available steroid hormones, very few have been specifically tested for direct neurotoxicity. We evaluated the effects of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone on sympathetic-like neuron cells. Vitality and apoptotic effects were analyzed, and immunofluorescence staining and western blot performed. In this study, we demonstrate that exposure of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone are toxic to the neuron-like differentiated pheochromocytoma cell line PC12, as confirmed by toxicity on neurite networks responding to nerve growth factor and the modulation of the survival and apoptosis-related proteins ERK, caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase and heat-shock protein 90. We observe, in contrast to some previous reports but in accordance with others, expression of the androgen receptor (AR in neuron-like cells, which when inhibited mitigated the toxic effects of AAS tested, suggesting that the AR could be binding these steroid hormones to induce genomic effects. We also note elevated transcription of neuritin in treated cells, a neurotropic factor likely expressed in an attempt to resist neurotoxicity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that supraphysiological exposure to the AAS methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone exert neurotoxic effects by an increase in the activity of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and alterations in neurite networks.

  20. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Anabolic Steroids Print Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids Order Free Publication in: ... how drugs affect the brain and nervous system. Mind Over Matter is produced by the National Institute ...

  1. Influence of high-intensity exercise training and anabolic androgenic steroid treatment on rat tissue glycogen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Tatiana Sousa; Tanno, Ana Paula; Costa Sampaio Moura, Maria José; Marcondes, Fernanda Klein

    2005-07-15

    To increase tissue glycogen content many athletes use anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). However, the literature concerning the effects of androgens on glycogen metabolism is conflicting. This study aimed to determine the influence of training and AAS on body weight (bw), triglycerides, glucose, tissue glycogen and transaminases levels. Male Wistar rats, randomized into four groups (sedentary vehicle (SV), sedentary AAS (SA), trained vehicle (TV) and trained AAS (TA)), were treated with nadrolone (5 mg/Kg, 2x/week, i.m.) or vehicle. Trained rats performed jumps into water (4 sets, 10 repetitions, 30 sec rest) carrying a 50-70% body wt-load strapped to the chest (5 days/week,6 weeks). Two days after the last session, the animals were killed (bifatorial ANOVA+Tukey test; P SV:0.13+/-0.01=TV:0.13+/-0.01=SA:0.14+/-0.01 mg/100 mg). In the soleus AAS increased glycogen (SA:0.53+/-0.03 vs. SV:0.43+/-0.01 and TA:0.58+/-0.02 vs. TV:0.48+/-0.01 mg/100 mg). Exercise training and AAS had no effect on blood glucose and transaminases levels. Training and AAS effects on glycogen supercompensation are tissue-dependent and the effects of association between them were only observed in the cardiac muscle. These data emphasize the necessity of more studies to confirm greater effects of AAS than those promoted by physical exercise. PMID:15904936

  2. Acute aortic dissection in a young healthy athlete with androgenic anabolic steroid use: A case report

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    Barman M, Djamel B, Mathews J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute aortic dissection can occur at the time of intense physical exertion in strength-trained athletes like weight lifters, bodybuilders, throwers, and wrestlers. Rapid rise in blood pressure and history of hypertension are the most common causes of aortic dissection in athletes. It is a very tragic event because of its high mortality rate of about 32% in young patients. We report a case of aortic dissection in a young weightlifter with a history of anabolic steroid usage with an extensive intimal tear of the aorta at Sino tubular junction and arch. All athletes must be assessed for predisposing factors for aortic dissection, and all patients should be encouraged to undergo appropriate diagnostic studies, like echocardiography and blood pressure monitoring while weightlifting to recognize possible predisposing factors for aortic dissection. Athletes who do have a problem should be encouraged to avoid or limit their exercise or activity by their cardiologist. It is vital that this disastrous event be prevented in young people. In conclusion, although a rare occurrence, AD should be considered in symptomatic patients with any family history of early cardiac deaths, a history suggestive of a connective tissue disorder (that is, multiple joint surgeries or who practice weightlifting.

  3. Sex and Exercise Interact to Alter the Expression of Anabolic Androgenic Steroid-Induced Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Onakomaiya, Marie M.; Porter, Donna M.; Oberlander, Joseph G.; Henderson, Leslie P.

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are taken by both sexes to enhance athletic performance and body image, nearly always in conjunction with an exercise regime. Although taken to improve physical attributes, chronic AAS use can promote negative behavior, including anxiety. Few studies have directly compared the impact of AAS use in males versus females or assessed the interaction of exercise and AAS. We show that AAS increase anxiety-like behaviors in female but not male mice and that volunta...

  4. The Misuse of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids among Iranian Re-crea¬tional Male Body-Builders and Their Related Psycho-So¬cio-Demographic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Angoorani, Hooman; Halabchi, Farzin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The high prevalence and potential side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse by athletes has made it a major public health concern. Epidemiological studies on the abuse of such drugs are mandatory for developing effective preventive drug control programs in sports community. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of AAS abuse and their association with some psycho-socio-demographic factors in Iranian male recreational body-builders.Methods: Between March and...

  5. Presence and metabolism of endogenous androgenic-anabolic steroid hormones in meat-producing animals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarth, J; Akre, C; van Ginkel, L; Le Bizec, B; De Brabander, H; Korth, W; Points, J; Teale, P; Kay, J

    2009-05-01

    The presence and metabolism of endogenous steroid hormones in meat-producing animals has been the subject of much research over the past 40 years. While significant data are available, no comprehensive review has yet been performed. Species considered in this review are bovine, porcine, ovine, equine, caprine and cervine, while steroid hormones include the androgenic-anabolic steroids testosterone, nandrolone and boldenone, as well as their precursors and metabolites. Information on endogenous steroid hormone concentrations is primarily useful in two ways: (1) in relation to pathological versus 'normal' physiology and (2) in relation to the detection of the illegal abuse of these hormones in residue surveillance programmes. Since the major focus of this review is on the detection of steroids abuse in animal production, the information gathered to date is used to guide future research. A major deficiency in much of the existing published literature is the lack of standardization and formal validation of experimental approach. Key articles are cited that highlight the huge variation in reported steroid concentrations that can result when samples are analysed by different laboratories under different conditions. These deficiencies are in most cases so fundamental that it is difficult to make reliable comparisons between data sets and hence it is currently impossible to recommend definitive detection strategies. Standardization of the experimental approach would need to involve common experimental protocols and collaboratively validated analytical methods. In particular, standardization would need to cover everything from the demographic of the animal population studied, the method of sample collection and storage (especially the need to sample live versus slaughter sampling since the two methods of surveillance have very different requirements, particularly temporally), sample preparation technique (including mode of extraction, hydrolysis and derivatization), the end

  6. Anabolic steroid boosts weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    A randomized study of nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) showed that the anabolic steroid can increase weight in people with HIV infections. The group receiving nandrolone experienced a greater increase both in fat-free mass and body cell mass (although the latter measure did not reach statistical significance) than those on placebo. Deca-Durabolin had little to do with two occurrences of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the study group, but until further studies are completed, caution is advised when using this steroid in patients with KS. A new study comparing nandrolone to growth hormone in patients with wasting is slated to begin in the next 3 or 4 months. PMID:11363845

  7. The anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate disrupts redox homeostasis in liver, heart and kidney of male Wistar rats.

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    Stephan P Frankenfeld

    Full Text Available The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS may cause side effects in several tissues. Oxidative stress is linked to the pathophysiology of most of these alterations, being involved in fibrosis, cellular proliferation, tumorigenesis, amongst others. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of supraphysiological doses of nandrolone decanoate (DECA on the redox balance of liver, heart and kidney. Wistar male rats were treated with intramuscular injections of vehicle or DECA (1 mg.100 g(-1 body weight once a week for 8 weeks. The activity and mRNA levels of NADPH Oxidase (NOX, and the activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and total superoxide dismutase (SOD, as well as the reduced thiol and carbonyl residue proteins, were measured in liver, heart and kidney. DECA treatment increased NOX activity in heart and liver, but NOX2 mRNA levels were only increased in heart. Liver catalase and SOD activities were decreased in the DECA-treated group, but only catalase activity was decreased in the kidney. No differences were detected in GPx activity. Thiol residues were decreased in the liver and kidney of treated animals in comparison to the control group, while carbonyl residues were increased in the kidney after the treatment. Taken together, our results show that chronically administered DECA is able to disrupt the cellular redox balance, leading to an oxidative stress state.

  8. Self-Reported Use of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids by Elite Power Lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesalis III, Charles E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-three percent of a sample of 45 power lifters surveyed by questionnaire admitted to using steroids, while 55 percent of 20 lifters surveyed by phone admitted steroid use. The researchers suggest that there was significant underreporting by these athletes, who consider steroids primarily as a means to improve athletic performance. (IAH)

  9. Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

  10. Cardiomyopathy and Cerebrovascular Accident Associated with Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Ronald M.; Richter, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    A case report is presented of a 32 year-old male bodybuilder who sustained an ischemic cerebrovascular accident and showed signs of cardiomyopathy. Although no cause was found, the man had been taking steroids for 16 years. Harmful effects of steroid use are discussed. (IAH)

  11. Chronic Exposure to Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids Exacerbates Axonal Injury and Microgliosis in the CHIMERA Mouse Model of Repetitive Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namjoshi, Dhananjay R; Cheng, Wai Hang; Carr, Michael; Martens, Kris M; Zareyan, Shahab; Wilkinson, Anna; McInnes, Kurt A; Cripton, Peter A; Wellington, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Concussion is a serious health concern. Concussion in athletes is of particular interest with respect to the relationship of concussion exposure to risk of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a neurodegenerative condition associated with altered cognitive and psychiatric functions and profound tauopathy. However, much remains to be learned about factors other than cumulative exposure that could influence concussion pathogenesis. Approximately 20% of CTE cases report a history of substance use including androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). How acute, chronic, or historical AAS use may affect the vulnerability of the brain to concussion is unknown. We therefore tested whether antecedent AAS exposure in young, male C57Bl/6 mice affects acute behavioral and neuropathological responses to mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced with the CHIMERA (Closed Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration) platform. Male C57Bl/6 mice received either vehicle or a cocktail of three AAS (testosterone, nandrolone and 17α-methyltestosterone) from 8-16 weeks of age. At the end of the 7th week of treatment, mice underwent two closed-head TBI or sham procedures spaced 24 h apart using CHIMERA. Post-repetitive TBI (rTBI) behavior was assessed for 7 d followed by tissue collection. AAS treatment induced the expected physiological changes including increased body weight, testicular atrophy, aggression and downregulation of brain 5-HT1B receptor expression. rTBI induced behavioral deficits, widespread axonal injury and white matter microgliosis. While AAS treatment did not worsen post-rTBI behavioral changes, AAS-treated mice exhibited significantly exacerbated axonal injury and microgliosis, indicating that AAS exposure can alter neuronal and innate immune responses to concussive TBI. PMID:26784694

  12. Characteristics of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid-Free Competitive Male and Female Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Diane L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of steroid-free male and female bodybuilders with sedentary controls and runners revealed that the bodybuilders had lower percentages of body fat. One-third of the female bodybuilders reported menstrual abnormalities. Lipid values of bodybuilders were comparable to a group of lean, aerobically trained athletes. (Author/CB)

  13. Frequency of use, awareness, and attitudes toward side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids consumption among male medical students in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyazi Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Abdollahian, Ebrahim; Samadi, Roya; Dolatabadi, Hamid

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the frequency of anabolic-androgenic steroids consumption in male students studying at the university and their awareness, attitude, and role of sports activities; the present descriptive study was conducted on 271 volunteers in 2008. The data collected by self-report questionnaires was analyzed by descriptive inferential statistics. The prevalence of consumption was 3.3%, and it was significantly higher in those with a history of bodybuilding or athletic performance. The overall awareness rate was low, and the attitude was too optimistic. It seems that unawareness, incorrect attitude, and history of athletic performance increases the risk of consumption. PMID:25026387

  14. Sudden cardiac arrest following ventricular fibrillation attributed to anabolic steroid use in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenfeld, Jana; Deal, Barbara J; Crawford, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone that promote the growth of skeletal muscles and have many recognised cardiovascular effects. We report the clinical presentation and pathological findings of an adolescent male whose sudden cardiac arrest following ventricular fibrillation was attributed to anabolic androgenic steroid use. The age of our patient reflects the usage of anabolic androgenic steroids among younger athletes and highlights the need for increased awareness among practitioners. PMID:26980272

  15. Sport, and use of anabolic androgenic steroids among Icelandic high school students: a critical test of three perspectives

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    Halldorsson Vidar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS among a national representative sample of high school students in Iceland. We test several hypotheses drawn from three perspectives. The first perspective focuses on the use of AAS as an individual phenomenon motivated by the desire to succeed in sport. The second perspective views the use of AAS as shaped by norms and values embedded in social relationships of formally organized sport. The third perspective suggests that factors outside sport, which have been shown to correlate with the use of other substances, predict the use of AAS. Method We use logistic regression and predicted probabilities to analyze data from a national representative survey of 11031 Icelandic high school students. Results Our results indicated that the use of AAS is not significantly related to participation in formally organized sports. However, it positively relates to fitness and physical training in informal contexts. We found a relatively strong relationship between the use of AAS and the use of illicit substances and a moderate relationship between AAS use and alcohol and tobacco consumption. We also found a significant negative relationship between AAS use and school integration and school achievement, and a significant positive relationship between AAS use and school anomie. The relation between AAS use and family-related variables was weaker. Finally, we found that the relationship between sport participation, physical exercise, and AAS use varies across levels of anomie and integration. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the use of AAS and especially illegal substances should be considered more as a social and a health problem rather than a sport specific issue. We found that high school students participating in fitness and informal training outside of formally organized sport clubs are the main risk group and should be the target of prevention efforts. However, this

  16. Resistance training associated with the administration of anabolic-androgenic steroids improves insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urtado CB

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Christiano Bertoldo Urtado1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira3, Marilia Bertoldo Urtado4, Érica Blascovi de Carvalho2, Gerson dos Santos Leite1, Felipe Fedrizzi Donatto1, Claudio de Oliveira Assumpção1, Richard Diego Leite3, Carlos Alberto da Silva1, Marcelo Magalhães de Sales5, Ramires Alsamir Tibana5, Silvia Cristina Crepaldi Alves1, Jonato Prestes51Health Sciences, Methodist University of Piracicaba, Piracicaba, SP, 2Center for Investigation in Pediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, 3Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, 4Laboratory of Orofacial Pain, Division of Oral Physiology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, 5Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, BrazilAbstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids and resistance training (RT on insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized rats. Adult female Wistar rats were divided into ten experimental groups (n = 5 animals per group: (1 sedentary (Sed-Intact; (2 sedentary ovariectomized (Sed-Ovx; (3 sedentary nandrolone (Sed-Intact-ND; (4 sedentary ovariectomized plus nandrolone (Sed-Ovx-ND; (5 trained (TR-Intact; (6 trained nandrolone (TR-Intact-ND; (7 trained ovariectomized (TR-Ovx; (8 trained ovariectomized plus nandrolone; (9 trained sham; and (10 trained ovariectomized plus sham. Four sessions of RT were used, during which the animals climbed a 1.1 m vertical ladder with weights attached to their tails. The sessions were performed once every 3 days, with between four and nine climbs and with eight to twelve dynamic movements per climb. To test the sensitivity of insulin in the pancreas, glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. For insulin sensitivity, there was a statistically significant interaction for the TR-Ovx group, which presented higher sensitivity

  17. Potentially harmful advantage to athletes: a putative connection between UGT2B17 gene deletion polymorphism and renal disorders with prolonged use of anabolic androgenic steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker James

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective With prolonged use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS, occasional incidents of renal disorders have been observed. Independently, it has also been established that there are considerable inter-individual and inter-ethnic differences, in particular with reference to the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 (UGT2B17 gene, in metabolising these compounds. This report postulates the association of deletion polymorphism in the UGT2B17 gene with the occurrence of renal disorders on chronic exposure to AAS. Presentation of the hypothesis The major deactivation and elimination pathway of AASs is through glucuronide conjugation, chiefly catalyzed by the UGT2B17 enzyme, followed by excretion in urine. Excretion of steroids is affected in individuals with a deletion mutation in the UGT2B17 gene. We hypothesize that UGT2B17 deficient individuals are more vulnerable to developing renal disorders with prolonged use of AAS owing to increases in body mass index and possible direct toxic effects of steroids on the kidneys. Elevated serum levels of biologically active steroids due to inadequate elimination can lead to prolonged muscle build up. An increase in body mass index may cause renal injuries due to sustained elevated glomerular pressure and flow rate. Testing the hypothesis In the absence of controlled clinical trials in humans, observational studies can be carried out. Real time PCR with allelic discrimination should be employed to examine the prevalence of different UGT2B17 genotypes in patients with impaired renal function and AAS abuse. In individuals with the UGT2B17 deletion polymorphism, blood tests, biofluid analyses, urinalysis, and hair analyses following the administration of an anabolic steroid can be used to determine the fate of the substance once in the body. Implications of the hypothesis If the hypothesis is upheld, anabolic steroid users with a deletion mutation in the UGT2B17 gene may be

  18. A validated UHPLC-MS/MS method to quantify low levels of anabolic-androgenic steroids naturally present in urine of untreated horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, Anneleen; Bailly-Chouriberry, Ludovic; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Garcia, Patrice; Popot, Marie-Agnes; Bonnaire, Yves; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Doping control is a main priority for regulatory bodies of both the horse racing industry and the equestrian sports. Urine and blood samples are screened for the presence of hundreds of forbidden substances including anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs). Based on the suspected endogenous origin of some AASs, with β-boldenone as the most illicit candidate, this study aimed to improve the knowledge of the naturally present AAS in horse urine. To this extent, a novel ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated according to the Association of Official Racing Chemists (AORC) and European Commission (EC) guidelines, proving the power of this new method. Low limits of detection (0.2 ng/mL), good reproducibility (percentage of standard deviation (%RSD)  0.99 and lack-of-fit analysis) were obtained for all included AASs. With this method, urine samples of 105 guaranteed untreated horses (47 geldings, 53 mares, and 5 stallions serving as a control) were screened for β-boldenone and five related natural steroids: androstadienedione (ADD), androstenedione (AED), alpha-testosterone (αT), beta-testosterone (βT), and progesterone (P). Progesterone, β-testosterone, and α-testosterone were detected in more than half of the horses at low concentrations (<2 ng/mL). Occasionally, not only testosterone and progesterone but also low concentrations of AED, ADD, and boldenone (Bol) were found (0.5-5 ng/mL). Graphical Abstract A sensitive, new and fully validated UHPLC-MS/MS method has been developed that is able to quantify low levels of anabolic-androgenic steroids naturally present in urine of untreated horses (mares and geldings). PMID:25595834

  19. Screening for exogenous androgen anabolic steroids in human hair by liquid chromatography/orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •LC–HRMS screening method for the detection of a variety of anabolics in hair. •Detection of unmetabolized anabolic steroids and their esters in hair matrix by simple keratin pretreatment. •Identification of target compounds by retention time, accurate mass and isotopic cluster. •Quantitative determination of detected compounds. •Possibility to a retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte is to be screened. -- Abstract: A method for the screening of various anabolic steroids and their esters in human hair, based on liquid-chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry using an Exactive benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer, has been set up and validated. This method involved methanolic incubation of 30 mg of hair and analysis of the relevant extract in HPLC using a C18 column. The mass detector, with nominal resolving power of 100,000, operated in full scan mode in APCI under positive ionization mode. Analytes were identified by exact mass, correspondence of isotopic cluster and retention times. The limits of detection obtained varied from 10 to 50 pg mg−1, and limits of quantitation were 0.5 ng mg−1 for all compounds. The method was linear for all analytes in the ranges from the LOQ to 6 ng mg−1, giving correlation coefficients >0.99 for all analytes. Also accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Specificity was assessed by analysing ten blank samples and fifteen samples from polidrug abusers. This method was applied to a real-life case, resulting in the identification of testosterone undecanoate in the hair of a suspect. The analyte identity was confirmed by the analysis of its in-source fragmentation and comparison to a certified standard. Thanks to the scan acquisition, this method also enables retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte needs to be screened

  20. Screening for exogenous androgen anabolic steroids in human hair by liquid chromatography/orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.stranorossi@rm.unicatt.it [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Castrignanò, Erika; Anzillotti, Luca; Odoardi, Sara; De-Giorgio, Fabio [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Bermejo, Ana [Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, Av S. Francisco s/n, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pascali, Vincenzo L. [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)

    2013-09-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •LC–HRMS screening method for the detection of a variety of anabolics in hair. •Detection of unmetabolized anabolic steroids and their esters in hair matrix by simple keratin pretreatment. •Identification of target compounds by retention time, accurate mass and isotopic cluster. •Quantitative determination of detected compounds. •Possibility to a retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte is to be screened. -- Abstract: A method for the screening of various anabolic steroids and their esters in human hair, based on liquid-chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry using an Exactive benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer, has been set up and validated. This method involved methanolic incubation of 30 mg of hair and analysis of the relevant extract in HPLC using a C18 column. The mass detector, with nominal resolving power of 100,000, operated in full scan mode in APCI under positive ionization mode. Analytes were identified by exact mass, correspondence of isotopic cluster and retention times. The limits of detection obtained varied from 10 to 50 pg mg{sup −1}, and limits of quantitation were 0.5 ng mg{sup −1} for all compounds. The method was linear for all analytes in the ranges from the LOQ to 6 ng mg{sup −1}, giving correlation coefficients >0.99 for all analytes. Also accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Specificity was assessed by analysing ten blank samples and fifteen samples from polidrug abusers. This method was applied to a real-life case, resulting in the identification of testosterone undecanoate in the hair of a suspect. The analyte identity was confirmed by the analysis of its in-source fragmentation and comparison to a certified standard. Thanks to the scan acquisition, this method also enables retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte needs to be screened.

  1. Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Osta, Rabih; Almont, Thierry; Diligent, Catherine; Hubert, Nicolas; Eschwège, Pascal; Hubert, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. These substances were first restricted to professional bodybuilders, but become more and more popular among recreational athletes. Up to date, 3,000,000 anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States with an increasing prevalence, making AAS consumption a major public health growing concern. Infertility is defined by the WHO as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse and a male factor is present in up to 50 % of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism (ASIH), and the more recent experimental reports on structural and genetic sperm damage. PMID:26855782

  2. Leverpatologi associeret med anaboliske-androgene steroider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Katrine; Søe, Martin Jensen; Gluud, C N

    1994-01-01

    This review regards the liver damaging side-effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). It seems that AAS can cause development of peliosis hepatis, subcellular changes of hepatocytes, hepatocellular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas. On the other hand, it has not been convincingly proved...

  3. Screening for exogenous androgen anabolic steroids in human hair by liquid chromatography/orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina; Castrignanò, Erika; Anzillotti, Luca; Odoardi, Sara; De-Giorgio, Fabio; Bermejo, Ana; Pascali, Vincenzo L

    2013-09-01

    A method for the screening of various anabolic steroids and their esters in human hair, based on liquid-chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry using an Exactive benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer, has been set up and validated. This method involved methanolic incubation of 30 mg of hair and analysis of the relevant extract in HPLC using a C18 column. The mass detector, with nominal resolving power of 100,000, operated in full scan mode in APCI under positive ionization mode. Analytes were identified by exact mass, correspondence of isotopic cluster and retention times. The limits of detection obtained varied from 10 to 50 pg mg(-1), and limits of quantitation were 0.5 ng mg(-1) for all compounds. The method was linear for all analytes in the ranges from the LOQ to 6 ng mg(-1), giving correlation coefficients >0.99 for all analytes. Also accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Specificity was assessed by analysing ten blank samples and fifteen samples from polidrug abusers. This method was applied to a real-life case, resulting in the identification of testosterone undecanoate in the hair of a suspect. The analyte identity was confirmed by the analysis of its in-source fragmentation and comparison to a certified standard. Thanks to the scan acquisition, this method also enables retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte needs to be screened. PMID:23953207

  4. Adverse cardiovascular effects of anabolic steroids : pathophysiology imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golestani, Reza; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Tio, Rene A.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.

    2012-01-01

    Eur J Clin Invest 2012; 42 (7): 795803 Abstract Background Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are widely abused for enhancing muscle mass, strength, growth and improving athletic performance. Materials and methods In recent years, many observational and interventional studies have shown important ad

  5. The Misuse of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids among Iranian Re-crea¬tional Male Body-Builders and Their Related Psycho-So¬cio-Demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman ANGOORANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence and potential side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS misuse by athletes has made it a major public health concern. Epidemiological studies on the abuse of such drugs are mandatory for developing effective preventive drug control programs in sports community. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of AAS abuse and their association with some psycho-socio-demographic factors in Iranian male recreational body-builders.Methods: Between March and October 2011; 906 recreational male body-builders from 103 randomly selected bodybuilding clubs in Tehran, Iran were participated in this study. Some psycho-socio- demographic factors including age, job, average family income, family size, sport experience (months, weekly duration of the sporting activity (h, purpose of participation in sporting activity, mental health as well as body image (via General Health Questionnaire and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, respectively, and history of AAS use were obtained by interviews using questionnaires.Results: Participants were all recreational male body-builders [mean age (SD: 25.7 (7.1, ranging 14-56 yr]. Self-report of AAS abuse was registered in 150 body-builders (16.6%. Among different psycho-socio-demographic factors, only family income and sport experience were inversely associated with AAS abuse.Conclusion: Lifetime prevalence of AAS abuse is relatively high among recreational body-builders based on their self-report. Some psycho-socio-demographic factors including family income and sport experience may influence the prevalence of AAS abuse. Keywords: Anabolic agents, Ergogenic, Doping, Iran, Body-building, Sports, Athlete

  6. Anabolic Steroids: A Threat to Body and Mind. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report, based on findings of recent studies on the use of anabolic steroids in the United States, was written to educate the public about these drugs and the dangers of misusing them. It notes that the nonmedical use of anabolic/androgenic steroids among adolescents and young adults is of growing concern, with possibly as many as half a…

  7. Effective separation and simultaneous analysis of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS in their pharmaceutical formulations by a validated TLC-densitometry method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musharraf Syed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS are widely misused for the enhancement of performance in sports. Several drugs are available that contain different combinations or individual steroids in different dosage form. This paper describes a TLC densitometric method for simultaneous determination of four AAS of testosterone derivatives including testosterone propionate (TP, testosterone phenyl propionate (TPP, testosterone isocaproate (TI and testosterone deaconate (TD in their pharmaceutical products. Results Separation was carried out on Al based TLC plates, pre-coated with silica gel 60F-254 using hexane and ethyl acetate (8.5:1.5, v/v. Spots at Rf 0.31 ± 0.01, 0.34 ± 0.01, 0.40 ± 0.01 and 0.45 ± 0.02 were recognized as TPP, TP, TI and TD, respectively. Quantitative analysis was done by densitometric measurements at λmax 251 nm for all derivatives. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Method was found linear over the concentration range of 200–1200 ng/spot with the correlation coefficient of 0.995, 0.993, 0.995 and 0.996 for TP, TPP, TI, TD, respectively. Limit of detection for all derivatives were in the range of 16.7-22.3 ng/spot while limit of quantitation were found to be in the range of 55.7-70.9 ng/spot. Conclusions The developed TLC method can be applied for the simultaneous routine analysis of testosterone derivatives in their individual and combined pharmaceutical formulations.

  8. MEDICAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH ANABOLIC STEROID USE: ARE THEY EXAGGERATED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Hoffman

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes

  9. Potential of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source in gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the screening of urinary exogenous androgenic anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raro, M; Portolés, T; Pitarch, E; Sancho, J V; Hernández, F; Garrostas, L; Marcos, J; Ventura, R; Segura, J; Pozo, O J

    2016-02-01

    The atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis has been evaluated for the screening of 16 exogenous androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) in urine. The sample treatment is based on the strategy currently applied in doping control laboratories i.e. enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and derivatization to form the trimethylsilyl ether-trimethylsilyl enol ether (TMS) derivatives. These TMS derivatives are then analyzed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using a triple quadrupole instrument (GC-QqQ MS/MS) under selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The APCI promotes soft ionization with very little fragmentation resulting, in most cases, in abundant [M + H](+) or [M + H-2TMSOH](+) ions, which can be chosen as precursor ions for the SRM transitions, improving in this way the selectivity and sensitivity of the method. Specificity of the transitions is also of great relevance, as the presence of endogenous compounds can affect the measurements when using the most abundant ions. The method has been qualitatively validated by spiking six different urine samples at two concentration levels each. Precision was generally satisfactory with RSD values below 25 and 15% at the low and high concentration level, respectively. Most the limits of detection (LOD) were below 0.5 ng mL(-1). Validation results were compared with the commonly used method based on the electron ionization (EI) source. EI analysis was found to be slightly more repeatable whereas lower LODs were found for APCI. In addition, the applicability of the developed method has been tested in samples collected after the administration of 4-chloromethandienone. The highest sensitivity of the APCI method for this compound, allowed to increase the period in which its administration can be detected. PMID:26772132

  10. 76 FR 72355 - Classification of Two Steroids, Prostanozol and Methasterone, as Schedule III Anabolic Steroids...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... aggression, increased feelings of hostility, and psychological dependence and addiction (Brower, 2002... are described below. Ventral Prostate Assay, Seminal Vesicle Assay, and Levator Ani Assay: The classic... as a feature of addiction to anabolic-androgenic steroids. European Addiction Research, 15:...

  11. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the...

  12. Androgenic-anabolic steroids and the Olympic Games%雄激素类固醇激素与奥运会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth D. Fitch

    2008-01-01

    Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) have been misused by athletes at the Olympic Games, both before and after they were prohibited in sport in 1974. Systematic doping with AAS occurred in the German Democratic Republic(GDR) from 1965 to 1989 which assisted that country to win many medals at Olympic Games, especially in female events. Currently, AAS are the most frequent category of prohibited substances detected in the urine of athletes both globally and at the last two Summer Olympic Games. Scientific confirmation that AAS are effective in enhancing sports performance was difficult because ethical approval was difficult for research involving male subjects taking massive doses of androgens as some athletes and bodybuilders did. Methods to detect AAS have evolved gradually over the past three decades and currently, despite an impressive array of sophisticated analytical equipment and methods, anti-doping authorities and analytical scientists continue to face challenges as have occurred from the use by athletes of designer AAS during the past few years. The future development and use of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) can be anticipated to pose problems in the years ahead. Endocrinologists should be aware that on occasions, replacement testosterone (T) therapy may be authorized in sport as a therapeutic use exemption (TUE)and these circumstances are discussed.%即使在1974年被禁用后,雄激素类固醇激素(AAS)仍然一直被参加奥运会的运动员滥用.掺杂有AAS的药物于1965年到1989年之间出现在德意志民主共和国(GDR),这些药物帮助GDR在奥运会上赢得了许多奖牌,尤其在女子项目上.AAS是目前在全世界和近两届夏季奥运会上在运动员尿检中检测到的最常见的违禁药物.获得科学证据证实AAS提高运动成绩的有效性是十分困难的,因为在研究工作中让男性实验者服用某些运动员和健美人士服用的大剂量的雄激素是很难获得伦理学批准

  13. Effects of anabolic-androgens on brain reward function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela eMhillaj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Androgens are mainly prescribed to treat several diseases caused by testosterone deficiency. However, athletes try to promote muscle growth by manipulating testosterone levels or assuming the so called androgen anabolic steroids (AAS. These substances were originally synthesized to obtain anabolic effects greater than testosterone. Although AAS are rarely prescribed compared to testosterone, the off-label utilization is very wide. Furthermore, combination of different steroids, and doses largely higher than those used in therapy are common. Symptoms of the chronic use of supra-therapeutic doses of AAS include anxiety, depression, aggression, paranoia, distractibility, confusion, amnesia. Interestingly, some studies have shown that AAS elicited electroencephalographic changes similar to those observed with amphetamine abuse. Among the AAS abusers, the frequency of side effects is higher, with psychiatric complications such as labile mood, lack of impulse control and high violence. On the other hand, AAS addiction studies are complex because the collection of data is very difficult due to reticent subjects and can be biased by many variables, including physical exercise, that alter the reward system. Moreover, it has been reported that AAS may imbalance neurotransmitter systems involved in reward process, leading to an increased sensitivity toward opioid narcotics and central stimulants. The aim of this review is to discuss what is present in literature in regard to steroid abuse and alteration of reward system in preclinical and clinical studies.

  14. Effectiveness of Anabolic Steroid Preventative Intervention among Gym Users: Applying Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Moghimbeigi; Babak Moeini; Hamid Allahverdipour; Farzad Jalilian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been associated with adversephysical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. Thisstudy was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency amonggym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework.Methods: Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and controlgroup. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest ...

  15. Preventing Anabolic Steroid Use: Guidelines and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June; Rauhe, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Information about anabolic steroids should be included in the school health curriculum as early as possible. The paper presents suggestions for planning education programs and offers a variety of activities and strategies appropriate for many age groups, including case studies, story completion, posters, demonstrations, projects, creative writing,…

  16. Hypochlorite Oxidation of Select Androgenic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steroid hormones are vital for regulation of various biological functions including sexual development. Elevated concentrations of natural and synthetic androgenic steroids have been shown to adversely affect normal development in indigenous aqueous species. Androgens and their s...

  17. In vitro simulation of the equine hindgut as a tool to study the influence of phytosterol consumption on the excretion of anabolic-androgenic steroids in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, A I; Bailly-Chouriberry, L; Vanden Bussche, J; Garcia, P; Popot, M-A; Bonnaire, Y; Vanhaecke, L

    2015-08-01

    Traditionally, steroids other than testosterone are considered to be synthetic, anabolic steroids. Nevertheless, in stallions, it has been shown that β-Bol can originate from naturally present testosterone. Other precursors, including phytosterols from feed, have been put forward to explain the prevalence of low levels of steroids (including β-Bol and ADD) in urine of mares and geldings. However, the possible biotransformation and identification of the precursors has thus far not been investigated in horses. To study the possible endogenous digestive transformation, in vitro simulations of the horse hindgut were set up, using fecal inocula obtained from eight different horses. The functionality of the in vitro model was confirmed by monitoring the formation of short-chain fatty acids and the consumption of amino acids and carbohydrates throughout the digestion process. In vitro digestion samples were analyzed with a validated UHPLC-MS/MS method. The addition of β-Bol gave rise to the formation of ADD (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione) or αT. Upon addition of ADD to the in vitro digestions, the transformation of ADD to β-Bol was observed and this for all eight horses' inocula, in line with previously obtained in vivo results, again confirming the functionality of the in vitro model. The transformation ratio proved to be inoculum and thus horse dependent. The addition of pure phytosterols (50% β-sitosterol) or phytosterol-rich herbal supplements on the other hand, did not induce the detection of β-Bol, only low concentrations of AED, a testosterone precursor, could be found (0.1 ng/mL). As such, the digestive transformation of ADD could be linked to the detection of β-Bol, and the consumption of phytosterols to low concentrations of AED, but there is no direct link between phytosterols and β-Bol. PMID:26094581

  18. Acute bile nephropathy secondary to anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhunaizi, Ahmed M; ElTigani, Mohamed A; Rabah, Rola S; Nasr, Samih H

    2016-02-01

    Renal dysfunction in cholestatic liver disease is multifactorial. Acute kidney injury may develop secondary to renal vasoconstriction in the setting of peripheral vasodilation and relative hypovolemia, tubular obstruction by bile casts, and direct tubular toxicity from bile. Anabolic steroids are frequently used by athletes to boost endurance and increase muscle mass. These agents are a recently recognized cause of hepatotoxicity and jaundice and may lead to acute kidney injury. To increase awareness about this growing problem and to characterize the pathology of acute kidney injury in this setting, we report on a young male who developed acute kidney injury in the setting of severe cholestatic jaundice related to ingestion of anabolic steroids used for bodybuilding. Kidney biopsy showed bile casts within distal tubular lumina, filamentous bile inclusions within tubular cells, and signs of acute tubular injury. This report supports the recently re-emerged concept of bile nephropathy cholemic nephrosis. PMID:26587777

  19. Echocardiographic Finding in Anabolic Steroids Abuser Athletics

    OpenAIRE

    B. Haji Moradi; K. Fatahi

    2006-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Abuse of anabolic steroids in body builders and competitive sports (doping) is common and prevalent in our country. Due to disagreement about cardiovascular side effects of these drugs and existing controversy in published articles, this study was designed to evaluate the echocardiographic finding in athletics who are current user of these drugs. Materials & Methods: Body builders with continues sport for preceding year and at least twice weekly selected and divided ...

  20. Esteróides anabólicos androgênicos e sua relação com a prática desportiva Anabolic androgenic steroids and the relation to the sportive practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Sousa Cunha

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Os esteróides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA são um grupo de compostos naturais e sintéticos formados a partir da testosterona ou um de seus derivados, cuja indicação terapêutica clássica está associada a situações de hipogonadismo e quadros de deficiência do metabolismo protéico. Atuando sobre os receptores androgênicos, modulam de forma indissociável tanto os efeitos androgênicos como os anabólicos. Tais substâncias variam na relação entre a atividade anabólica: androgênica, mas nenhum fármaco atualmente disponível é capaz de desencadear somente efeitos anabólicos. O primeiro relato da utilização dos EAA com o objetivo de melhorar o desempenho atlético ocorreu em 1954, na Áustria, e, desde então, esta prática tornou-se amplamente difundida. Obviamente, o uso de EAA está fora dos limites competitivos e foi declarado ilegal pelos setores governamentais desportivos nacionais e internacionais. Entretanto, segundo estatísticas do Comitê Olímpico Internacional, realizadas em 2000, os EAA são o grupo de substâncias ergogênicas mais comumente utilizadas no processo de doping. Estudos mostram que altas doses de EAA podem acarretar vários efeitos adversos como atrofia do tecido testicular, tumores hepáticos e de próstata, alterações hepatocelulares, no metabolismo lipídico, de humor e de comportamento. O objetivo do presente trabalho será compilar os dados a respeito dos EAA, envolvendo as perspectivas históricas acerca do tema, a fisiologia e os tipos de EAA atualmente existentes, suas indicações terapêuticas e efeitos adversos resultantes do uso indiscriminado bem como a relação entre o uso de EAA e melhora da performance atlética.Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS are a group of natural and synthetic agents formed from testosterone or one of its derivatives, whose classical therapeutic indications are associated to hipogonadism and deficiency of proteic metabolism. Acting on androgenic receptors

  1. Side Effects Exhibited by Athletes Using Anabolic Steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid S. Khodasevich; Tat'yana V. Voskoboinikova

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the general problems of the use of anabolic steroids by athletes. The main reason they are banned in sports is because they artificially increase human performance by stimulating various metabolisms, as well as stimulating the constructive and energetic metabolism processes. The prohibited anabolic steroids are not only harmful to the athletes’ health but they also pose a very real threat to their life. Information regarding the side effects of anabolic steroids can be ef...

  2. ANABOLIC STEROIDS HAVE LONG-LASTING EFFECTS ON MALE SOCIAL BEHAVIORS

    OpenAIRE

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y.; Montalto, Pamela R.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2009-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) use by adolescents is steadily increasing. Adolescence involves remodeling of steroid-sensitive neural circuits that mediate social behaviors, and previous studies using animal models document effects of AAS on male social behaviors. The present experiments tested whether AAS have persistent and more pronounced behavioral consequences when drug exposure occurs during adolescence as compared to exposure in adulthood. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily f...

  3. Echocardiographic Finding in Anabolic Steroids Abuser Athletics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Haji Moradi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Abuse of anabolic steroids in body builders and competitive sports (doping is common and prevalent in our country. Due to disagreement about cardiovascular side effects of these drugs and existing controversy in published articles, this study was designed to evaluate the echocardiographic finding in athletics who are current user of these drugs. Materials & Methods: Body builders with continues sport for preceding year and at least twice weekly selected and divided into steroid abuser and not abuser and compared with age and BMI matched non athletic healthy volunteers .Results: There was not significant difference in age, body mass index, ejection fraction, ventricular compliance and valve function between three groups. But diastolic size of septum and free wall is significantly thicker in both of athletics in comparison with non athletic volunteer but observed differences were only significant (Pvalue = 0.05 between first and third group. The difference between the above mentioned index was not significant between two groups of athleticConclusion: Observed differences in diastolic size of septum and free wall between first and third group and also absence of difference between two athletic groups is in favor of that long term abuse of anabolic steroid (more than one year results in augmentation of physiologic hypertrophy due to isometric exercise. Furthermore long term abuse and supra pharmacologic dose does not have significant effect in size and left ventricular function.

  4. [Effect of anabolic steroid on immune response].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, H; Kobayashi, M; Konosu, H; Kurioka, H; Naito, K; Sonoyama, T; Nishimoto, T; Hashimoto, I

    1984-03-01

    Using lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts of the peripheral blood, PHA-blastoid transformation, immunoglobulin and beta 2-microglobulin, the influence of anabolic steroid on the immune reactivity of the host was dissected by administration of Deca-Durabolin ( nandrolone decanoate) to both tumor-bearing host and tumor-free host after operation for alimentary tract. The number of peripheral lymphocytes and monocytes, the PHA-blastoid transformation of peripheral lymphocytes and the IgG level were increased, and the beta 2-microglobulin level showed the tendency of decrease after the administration of Deca-Durabolin. PMID:6367663

  5. Anabolic steroids and male infertility: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Guilherme Leme; Hallak, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The negative impact of AAS abuse on male fertility is well known by urologists. The secondary hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is often highlighted when AAS and fertility are being discussed. On the other hand, the patterns of use, mechanisms of action and direct effects over the testicle are usually overseen. The present study reviews the vast formal and "underground" culture of AAS, as well as their overall implications. Specific considerations about their impact on the male reproductive system are made, with special attention to the recent data on direct damage to the testicle. To our knowledge this kind of overview is absolutely unique, offering a distinguished set of information to the day-by-day urologists. For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. Initially, these substances were restricted to professional bodybuilders, becoming gradually more popular among recreational power athletes. Currently, as many as 3 million anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States, and considering its increasing prevalence, it has become an issue of major concern. Infertility is defined as the failure to achieve a successful pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected intercourse, with male factor being present in up to 50% of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS, specially oriented to urologists, is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient axial inhibition, and the more recent experimental reports

  6. Morbidade hospitalar por ingestão de esteroides anabólico-androgênicos (EAA no Brasil Hospital morbidity due to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS consumption in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Almeida da Silva Junior

    2013-04-01

    ária de 15-29 anos possuíram as maiores taxas no período estudado.INTRODUCTION: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS are male sex hormones, developers and maintainers of sexual characteristics associated with masculinity and the anabolic status of somatic tissues. The physical and mental effects of AAS abuse are rare and it is almost impossible to say with certainty what adverse effects may become evident after their self-administration; however, they constitute risk of death for the individuals. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the main characteristics of morbidity by AAS ingestion in Brazil in the 2000/2010 period. METHODS: Information on hospitalizations was obtained from computerized databases of the Ministry of Health. In the analysis of AAS consumption as primary or secondary diagnosis for hospital admission, the E28.1 (androgen excess, E34.5 (androgen insensitivity syndrome, T38.7 (adverse effect of and underdosing of androgens and anabolic congeners and Y42.7 (adverse effects in the therapeutic use of androgens and anabolic congeners codes of the ICD-10 were used. RESULTS: Hospitalizations by AAS were responsible for 0.001% of total admissions in the country. 1,319 admissions (mean = 119.9, SD = 99.01 were accounted. The Androgen insensitivity syndrome was the primary cause, corresponding to 55.8% of total admissions. Of of all hospitalizations, 1% of patients died and the maximum stay was of 47 days (mean = 3.8, SD = 4.7. Minas Gerais, Maranhão and Espírito Santo presented the highest rates of hospital admissions per 1,000,000 inhabitants from 2002 to 2007. Women and people aged 15-29 presented the highest hospitalization rate 82.5% and 37.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that the hospitalization rate was relatively low for AAS intake; women and individuals aged 15-29 years possessed the highest rates in the period studied.

  7. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are...

  8. Side Effects Exhibited by Athletes Using Anabolic Steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid S. Khodasevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the general problems of the use of anabolic steroids by athletes. The main reason they are banned in sports is because they artificially increase human performance by stimulating various metabolisms, as well as stimulating the constructive and energetic metabolism processes. The prohibited anabolic steroids are not only harmful to the athletes’ health but they also pose a very real threat to their life. Information regarding the side effects of anabolic steroids can be effectively used while working with athletes, their parents, the coaching staff and sports doctors to keep athletes healthy and to promote the goal of “winning without doping”.

  9. The Incidence of Anabolic Steroid Use among Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Ray; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated incidence of anabolic steroid use among 380 competitive male and female bodybuilders in Kansas and Missouri. Results indicated more than half (54 percent) of the male bodybuilders were using steroids on a regular basis compared to 10 percent of the female competitors. Found main reason for use of steroids was desire to win. (Author/TE)

  10. Effects of Anabolic Steroids and High-Intensity Aerobic Exercise on Skeletal Muscle of Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Karina; Campos, Gerson E. R.; Staron, Robert S.; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to shorten recovery time and improve performance, strength and endurance athletes occasionally turn to the illicit use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). This study evaluated the effects of AAS treatment on the muscle mass and phenotypic characteristics of transgenic mice subjected to a high-intensity, aerobic training program (5d/wk for 6 weeks). The transgenic mice (CETP+/-LDLr-/+) were engineered to exhibit a lipid profile closer to humans. Animals were divided into group...

  11. Severe Cholestasis and Bile Acid Nephropathy From Anabolic Steroids Successfully Treated With Plasmapheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Avegail; Nustas, Rosemary; Nguyen, Hoang-Lan; Rahimi, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Severe cholestasis with anabolic androgenic steroids is well-known to cause acute liver injury. Treatment is usually supportive after withdrawal of the offending agent. Acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently occurs in acute liver injury and may complicate management and prognosis. We highlight the use of plasmapheresis resulting in rapid improvement in cholestatic jaundice with resolution of AKI. Plasmapheresis should be considered in special cases in which there is progressive clinical decline despite supportive care. PMID:26958570

  12. [Ingestion of anabolic steroids and ischaemic stroke. A clinical case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Esperón, Carlos; Hervás-García, José Vicente; Jiménez-González, Marta; Pérez de la Ossa-Herrero, Natalia; Gomis-Cortina, Meritxell; Dorado-Bouix, Laura; López-Cancio Martinez, Elena; Castaño-Duque, Carlos H; Millán-Torné, Mónica; Dávalos, Antonio

    2013-03-16

    INTRODUCTION. Anabolic-androgenic steroids are synthetic substances derived from testosterone that are employed for their trophic effect on muscle tissue, among other uses. Their consumption can give trigger a series of adverse side effects on the body, including the suppression of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis as well as liver, psychiatric and cardiovascular disorders. The most common effects are altered fat profiles and blood pressure values, cardiac remodelling, arrhythmias or myocardial infarcts. CASE REPORT. We report the case of a young male, with a background of anabolic-androgenic steroids abuse, who visited because of an acute neurological focus in the right hemisphere related with an ischaemic stroke. The aetiological study, including cardiac monitoring, echocardiograph and imaging studies (magnetic resonance and arteriography) and lab findings (thrombophilia, serology, autoimmunity, tumour markers) showed no alterations. CONCLUSIONS. The association between consumption of anabolic-androgenic steroids and cardiovascular pathologies is known, but its relation with cerebrovascular disease has not received so much attention from researchers. PMID:23483467

  13. Medical Issues Associated with Anabolic Steroid Use: Are They Exaggerated?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Jay R; Ratamess, Nicholas A

    2006-01-01

    For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and elimin...

  14. 21 CFR 1308.33 - Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.33 Exemption of certain anabolic... compound, mixture, or preparation containing an anabolic steroid as defined in part 1300 of this...

  15. Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of glucuronide-conjugated anabolic steroid metabolites: method validation and interlaboratory comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintikka, L.; Kuuranne, T.; Leinonen, A.; Thevis, M.; Schanzer, W.; Halket, J.; Cowan, D.; Grosse, J.; Hemmersbach, P.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Kostiainen, R.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous and direct detection of 12 glucuronide-conjugated anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) metabolites in human urine is described. The compounds selected were the main metabolites detected in huma

  16. Anaboliske-androgene steroiders effekt på muskelstyrke, kropsvaegt og fedtfri legemsmasse hos styrketraenende maend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Jensen, K L; Gluud, C

    1989-01-01

    A review of the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) on muscle strength, body weight and lean body mass in body-building men is presented. In about half of the placebo-controlled studies, a significant effect on the above mentioned response variables is found. In all cases where an effect...

  17. Anabolic steroid abuse causing recurrent hepatic adenomas and hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nlicole M Martin; Barham K Abu Dayyeh; Raymond T Chung

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse is common among athletes and is associated with a number of medical complications. We describe a case of a 27-year-old male bodybuilder with multiple hepatic adenomas induced by anabolic steroids. He initially presented with tumor hemorrhage and was treated with left lateral hepatic segmentectomy. Regression of the remaining tumors was observed with cessation of steroid use. However, 3 years and a half alter his initial hepatic segmentectomy, he presented with recurrent tumor enlargement and intraperitoneal hemorrhage in the setting of steroid abuse relapse. Given his limited hepatic reserve, he was conservatively managed with embolization of the right accessory hepatic artery.This is the first reported case of hepatic adenoma re-growth with recidivistic steroid abuse, complicated by life-threatening hemorrhage. While athletes and bodybuilders are often aware of the legal and social ramifications of steroid abuse, they should continue to be counseled about its serious medical risks.

  18. Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... steroids (say: STARE-oydz), they often mean illegal anabolic steroids. Anabolic steroids are artificially produced hormones that are the same ... these is testosterone (say: tes-TOSS-tuh-rone). Anabolic steroids can be taken in the form of pills, ...

  19. Steroid Androgen Exposure during Development Has No Effect on Reproductive Physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyer, Anne E.; Routledge, Edwin J.; Jones, Catherine S.; Noble, Leslie R.; Jobling, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Gastropod mollusks have been proposed as alternative models for male reproductive toxicity testing, due to similarities in their reproductive anatomy compared to mammals, together with evidence that endocrine disrupting chemicals can cause effects in some mollusks analogous to those seen in mammals. To test this hypothesis, we used the freshwater pulmonate snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, for which various genetic tools and a draft genome have recently become available, to investigate the effects of two steroid androgens on the development of mollusk secondary sexual organs. Here we present the results of exposures to two potent androgens, the vertebrate steroid; 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the pharmaceutical anabolic steroid; 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), under continuous flow-through conditions throughout embryonic development and up to sexual maturity. Secondary sexual gland morphology, histopathology and differential gene expression analysis were used to determine whether steroid androgens stimulated or inhibited organ development. No significant differences between tissues from control and exposed snails were identified, suggesting that these androgens elicited no biologically detectable response normally associated with exposure to androgens in vertebrate model systems. Identifying no effect of androgens in this mollusk is significant, not only in the context of the suitability of mollusks as alternative model organisms for testing vertebrate androgen receptor agonists but also, if applicable to other similar mollusks, in terms of the likely impacts of androgens and anti-androgenic pollutants present in the aquatic environment. PMID:27448327

  20. An inside perspective on anabolic steroid abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaive, Chad; Kohler, Tobias S

    2016-04-01

    Steroid abuse is common across gyms across the world. This unique article features an inside perspective/opinion in a question and answer format from a former steroid user/high level body builder. PMID:27141450

  1. Knowledge about Anabolic Steroids of Rhode Island Adolescents: Implications for Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June

    Although anabolic steroids are associated with short term behavior and long term health problems, few schools address this issue. Adolescents were surveyed to determine their general knowledge of anabolic steroids, attitudes related to fair play, and interest in limiting anabolic steroid use. Data from 322 boys and 331 girls in grades 7-12 were…

  2. The Effect of Anabolic Steroid Education on Knowledge and Attitudes of At-Risk Preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenhaile, Jay; Choi, Hee-Sook; Proctor, Theron B.; Work, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effect of anabolic steroid education on preadolescents' knowledge of and attitudes toward anabolic steroids with 35 male athletes. Information on psychological and physiological aspects of anabolic steroid use, weight training techniques, nutrition, social decision making, and self-esteem training were provided. Participants…

  3. 21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant... OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application. (a) Any person...

  4. Anabolic Steroid Use: Indications of Habituation among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesalis, Charles E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Identified characteristics of adolescent male anabolic steroid (AS) user and addictive potential. Found AS user population different from nonuser in self-perceptions of health and strength, interest in controlling AS use, and perception of peer AS use. Found subgroups with significantly different attitudes and/or behaviors. Suggests prevention…

  5. Project Right Way: An Anabolic Steroid Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June

    There is increasing concern by medical experts in this country about the use of anabolic steroids by teenagers. Over one million Americans are believed to be currently using or have used the synthetic hormones in the past. While drug testing and a reduction in the supply of the drugs appear to be reducing the number of adult users, use by…

  6. Psychological Predictors of Anabolic Steroid Use: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerin, Michael J.; Corcoran, Kevin J.; LaFleur, Bonnie J.; Fisher, Leslee; Patterson, David; Olrich, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    Examined social physique anxiety, upper body esteem, social anxiety, and body dissatisfaction as possible predictors of anabolic steroid (AS) use. Results based on 185 AS-using bodybuilders and various control groups indicated that the upper body strength subscale of two measures, along with age, were significant predictors of AS use. (RJM)

  7. Multi-organ damage induced by anabolic steroid supplements: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaha Ali A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The use of anabolic supplements and other related drugs for body building and to enhance athletic performance is nowadays widespread and acutely pervasive all around the world. This alarming increase in the use of anabolic and amino acid supplements has been linked to a diverse array of pathologies. As previously reported, the abuse of androgenic steroids is not without severe physiological, psychiatric and physical costs. The case we report here describes multi-organ damage resulting from the abuse and uncontrolled use of anabolic steroid supplements, mainly testosterone. Case presentation A 24-year-old white man presented with abdominal pain concomitant with nausea and vomiting. Laboratory analysis revealed hypercalcemia, elevated liver enzymes and high levels of amylase, lipase and creatine protein kinase. Conclusion Amino acid as well as anabolic supplements may lead to abnormal functioning of many organs, which could be fatal in some instances. This mandates worldwide and concerted efforts to educate the public, especially the youth, about the dangers of these increasingly abused drugs.

  8. The Influence of Age of Onset and Acute Anabolic Steroid Exposure on Cognitive Performance, Impulsivity, and Aggression in Men

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Langenbucher, James W.; Flores, Adrianne; Harty, Seth; Berlin, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    A growing translational literature suggests that adolescent exposure to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) leads to increased aggression and impulsivity. However, little is known about the cognitive effects of AASs among AAS users or the differences between adolescent and adult onset users. This study provides a test of the effects of acute naturalistic AAS use and age of onset (adolescent vs. adult) on measures of inhibitory control, planning and attention, and decision makin...

  9. Efeitos dos esteroides anabólicos androgênicos sobre o útero e parâmetros reprodutivos de ratas adultas Effects of androgenic anabolic steroids on the uterus and reproductive parameters of adult female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Cherici Camargo

    2009-09-01

    normal male rats for reproductive parameters evaluation, composing the groups treated during the pre-gestational period. Another group of 20 female rats were treated during the gestational period (7th-14th days. For data analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric variance analysis was used, followed by the test of Dunn or of Student-Newman-Keus (5% significance level. RESULTS: there was a significant body weight increase in the androgenized females (ND: 305±50; T: 280±35; ND+T: 275±30 versus C: 255±22 g; p<0.05. Uterine weight was not affected by the steroidal treatment (ND: 0.6±0.2; T: 0.4±0.04; ND+T: 0.7±0.1 versus C: 0.4±0.09 g. All the androgenized females presented estral acyclicity and endometrium characterized by papilliferous luminal lining, oedematous stroma with hemorrhagic areas and secretory activity. There were changes in the morphometrical thickness parameters of the luminal epithelium, myometrium and perimetrium in the androgenized groups. None of the female rats got pregnant when treated with steroids in the pre-gestational period and the treatment during organogenesis affected negatively the reproductive parameters. CONCLUSIONS: steroidal agents alter the uterine structure and impair fertility and gestational outcome in female rats.

  10. Designer steroids - over-the-counter supplements and their androgenic component: review of an increasing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnema, C D; Crosnoe, L E; Kim, E D

    2015-03-01

    Colloquially referred to by various misleading monikers ('pro-hormones', 'natural steroids', 'testosterone boosters', etc.) designer anabolic steroids have been popular now for over a decade as a way to achieve classic anabolic steroid-like results from products sold in the legal marketplace. Recent evidence suggests that anabolic steroid use may be the most common cause of hypogonadism in men of reproductive age. Despite recent regulatory efforts that have banned specific compounds, many anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) remain available in over-the-counter dietary supplements that are legally sold in the United States. Severe side effects including hepatotoxicity, cholestasis, renal failure, hypogonadism, gynecomastia, and infertility have been reported secondary to the use of these products. While some of these side effects may be reversible, more aggressive use may result in more permanent end-organ damage as has been previously described for the case of aggressive AAS users (Rahnema et al., Fertil Steril, 2014). Designer AAS remain easily available for purchase in over-the-counter bodybuilding supplements and these products appear to be increasingly popular, despite the known health risks associated with their use. We conducted a systematic search to identify the designer steroids that are most commonly sold in dietary supplements as of April 2014 and review what is known regarding their potency and toxicity. We propose that the impact of AAS use on the reproductive and hormonal health of men is underestimated in the literature owing to previous studies' failure to account for designer steroid use. Lastly, we make clinical recommendations to help physicians steer patients away from potentially harmful supplements, and summarize key regulatory obstacles that have allowed potent androgens to remain unregulated in the legal marketplace. PMID:25684733

  11. Effectiveness of Anabolic Steroid Preventative Intervention among Gym Users: Applying Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Moghimbeigi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS has been associated with adversephysical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. Thisstudy was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency amonggym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework.Methods: Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and controlgroup. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest - posttest series control group design panelstudy to implement a behaviour modification based intervention to prevent AAS use. Cross -tabulation and t-test by using SPSS statistical package, version 13 was used for the statisticalanalysis.Results: It was found significant improvements in average response for knowledge about sideeffects of AAS (P<0.001, attitude toward, and intention not to use AAS. Additionally afterintervention, the rate of AAS and supplements use was decreased among intervention group.Conclusion: Comprehensive implementation against AAS abuse among gym users and adolescenceswould be effective to improve adolescents’ healthy behaviors and intend them notto use AAS.

  12. The action of trenbolone acetate, a synthetic anabolic steroid, on ovarian function in the Guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The action of trenbolone acetate, a synthetic anabolic steroid, on ovarian function was investigated in the Guinea pig. Certain comparisons were made with testosterone, the naturally occurring androgen, administered as the phenylpropionate ester. Progesterone was analysed using radioimmunoassay. two milligrams trenbolone acetate per Kg given subcutaneously on alternate days for 20 days blocked oestrous cyclicity and ovulation in 9 of 10 animals. A similar effect was shown by 2.2 mg of testosterone phenylpropionate. Treatment of trenbolone acetate-treated animals with exogenous gonadotropins suggested that the production of follicle stimulating hormone had been suppressed. Signs of abnormality were seen in the livers of animals receiving 2 mg trenbolone acetate and 2.2 mg testosterone phenylpropionate. (author). 17 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Beneficial effects of an anabolic steroid during cytotoxic chemotherapy for metastatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, A S; DeVita, S F; Allar, M J; Richards, S; Sedransk, N

    1981-01-01

    To investigate the effects of concurrent administration of an anabolic steroid upon hematopoiesis and metabolism in patients with cancer who were receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy, a randomized trial was conducted. Thirty-three evaluable patients received intensive multiple-agent chemotherapy: 17 received in addition nandrolone decanoate ("Deca-Durabolin"), 200 mg intramuscularly each week. The nandrolone-treated patients showed significantly better maintenance of hemoglobin concentrations and body weight, and a highly significant reduction in number of blood transfusions. Improved survival in the androgen-treated patients did not achieve significance. There were no differences in neutrophil or platelet counts or in tolerance of cytotoxic drugs. Toxicity from nandrolone therapy was minimal. PMID:7033426

  14. Effects of anabolic steroid treatment associated with physical training in adipose tissue of male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela de Paiva Foletto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic-steroids (AAS include a broad class of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, being nandrolone decanoate the most widely used in sports environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of nandrolone decanoate in sedentary and trained adult male rats. We established four experimental groups: sedentary control, sedentary treated, trained control and trained treated. The training had consisted of running on a treadmill for nine weeks. Treated animals received intramuscular injections of nandrolone decanoate (0.5 mg kg-1 during the last four weeks of physical training. The training time as the drug used were not sufficient to significantly reduce body weight gain, but caused a significative decrease on diameter of adipocytes and in the amount of adipose tissue stored, as well as decreased the plasma levels of glucose and total cholesterol.

  15. Synchronous quadriceps tendon rupture and unilateral ACL tear in a weightlifter, associated with anabolic steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, Christopher; Dalton, David M; Galbraith, John G; Masterson, Eric L

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous quadriceps tendon rupture is rare. A 29-year-old man, an amateur weight lifter, taking androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS), developed sudden onset bilateral pain and swelling of his anterior thighs when attempting to squat 280 kg (620 lb). Examination revealed gross swelling superior to the patella and palpable gaps in both quadriceps tendons. He underwent successful operative repair. MRI revealed a partial tear of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the right knee. This was not reconstructed. Only a few case reports of the association between AAS and quadriceps rupture exist in the literature, with none to the best of our knowledge in the past 10 years. ACL rupture coexisting is very rare, with only two reported cases. PMID:27154985

  16. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids—Use and Correlates among Gym Users—An Assessment Study Using Questionnaires and Observations at Gyms in the Stockholm Region

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotta Rehnman; Erika Sjöblom; Stefan Holgersson; Håkan Leifman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use and offers to use among gym users in Stockholm County (Sweden), and to conduct a comparison of concordance in estimates of AAS and supplements at gyms between two data collection methods. A questionnaire was distributed to members at 36 training facilities and 1,752 gym users participated in the study. An observation study was conducted as covert participant observations at 64 gyms. According to ...

  17. Inherited antithrombin deficiency and anabolic steroids: a risky combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Hannah; Elfil, Mohamed; DeSancho, Maria T

    2016-09-01

    A 20-year-old male with asymptomatic inherited type 1 antithrombin deficiency and a family history of thrombosis started injecting himself with testosterone 250 mg intramuscularly twice weekly for 5 weeks. He presented to the hospital with progressive dyspnea on exertion, chest pain and hemoptysis. Workup revealed bilateral submassive pulmonary embolism and proximal right lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. He was treated with intravenous (IV) unfractionated heparin and underwent catheter-directed thrombolysis with alteplase to the main pulmonary arteries. Postprocedure, he remained on IV alteplase infusion for 24 h and unfractionated heparin in the intensive care unit. Concomitantly he received plasma-derived antithrombin concentrate. He was transitioned to subcutaneous enoxaparin twice daily and discharged from the hospital on oral rivaroxaban 15 mg twice a day. This case highlights the heightened thrombogenic effect of anabolic steroids in the setting of underlying thrombophilia especially in younger subjects. PMID:26588446

  18. Myeloid regeneration after whole body irradiation, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and treatment with an anabolic steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, C M; Ambrus, J L

    1975-01-01

    Stumptail monkeys (Macaca speciosa) received lethal whole body radiation. Autologous bone marrow injection resulted in survival of the majority of the animals. Treatment with Deca-Durabolin, an anabolic steroid, caused more rapid recovery of colony-forming cell numbers in the bone marrow than in control animals. Both the Deca-Durabolin-treated and control groups were given autologous bone marrow transplantation. Anabolic steroid effect on transplanted bone marrow colonyforming cells may explain the increased rate of leukopoietic regeneration in anabolic steroid-treated animals as compared to controls. PMID:124758

  19. Myeloid regeneration after whole body irradiation, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and treatment with an anabolic steroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumptail monkeys (Macaca speciosa) received lethal whole-body radiation. Autologous bone marrow injection resulted in survival of the majority of the animals. Treatment with Deca-Durabolin, an anabolic steroid, caused more rapid recovery of colony-forming cell numbers in the bone marrow than in control animals. Both the Deca-Durabolin-treated and control groups were given autologous bone marrow transplantation. Anabolic steroid effect on transplanted bone marrow colony-forming cells may explain the increased rate of leukopoietic regeneration in anabolic steroid-treated animals as compared to controls

  20. The use and abuse of anabolic steroids in Olympic-caliber athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R; Leach, R E

    1985-09-01

    Self-medication with anabolic steroids by athletes, particularly in the sports of weight lifting and track and field, has become increasingly popular. In the 1983 Pan American Games, 15 athletes were disqualified for taking anabolic steroids. Athletes take steroids believing the steroids will allow increased periods of intensive training and will increase muscle strength with proper weight training. The athletes assume this increased strength and training will translate into better athletic performance. Most athletes taking anabolic steroids are taking very large doses with no thought as to the potential adverse side effects. They ignore the possibility of long-term problems relating to hypertension, liver dysfunction, and atherosclerosis for what they see as the immediate performance benefits. In an attempt to keep sports competition "clean" and to help protect athletes from harmful drugs, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the United States Olympic Committee have rules stating that the use of anabolic steroids is illegal. Drug testing is performed in Olympic and in many international competitions. Those people found using anabolic steroids are disqualified. This use of anabolic steroids indicates that for some athletes the need to win or to maximize performance supersedes any worries about future health. PMID:4028547

  1. Examining Athletes' Attitudes toward Using Anabolic Steroids and Their Knowledge of the Possible Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshel, Mark H.; Russell, Kenneth G.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationships between athletes' (N=291) knowledge about the long-term effects of anabolic steroids and their attitudes toward this type of drug. Results show low correlation between greater knowledge and attitudes about the use of steroids in sports, suggesting that drug education programs regarding steroids may have limited value.…

  2. Altered Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Male and Female Power Lifters Ingesting Anabolic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Serum lipoprotein profiles were measured in nine male and three female weightlifters who were taking anabolic steroids. The profiles suggest that steriod users may face an increased risk of coronary artery disease. (Author/MT)

  3. The Use and Abuse of Anabolic Steroids: A Discussion for Health and Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This article reviews research on anabolic steroids, indicating that athletes are mistaken in believing that taking them will improve their physical performance. Dangerous side-effects are also discussed. (JA)

  4. Anabolic Steroids: Metabolism, Doping and Detection in Human and Equestrian Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicman, A. T.; Houghton, E.; Gower, D. B.

    This chapter highlights the important aspects of detection of doping with synthetic anabolic steroids and discusses some of the problems with, and solutions to, the detection of misuse of the naturally occurring ones.

  5. Uso de esteróides anabólicos androgênicos por praticantes de musculação de grandes academias da cidade de São Paulo Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids among body builders in major gym centers in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Silvia Maria Franco Silva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estimar o consumo e traçar o perfil dos usuários de esteróides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA entre praticantes de musculação em três grandes academias de ginástica na cidade de São Paulo. Foi utilizado um questionário estruturado para ser respondido voluntária e anonimamente, com garantia explícita de confidencialidade para os mesmos. Os questionários ficaram disponíveis em três academias por uma semana, após ter sido feita ampla divulgação dos objetivos e importância do projeto. Responderam o questionário 209 praticantes de musculação (cerca de 3% do total. A incidência de uso de EAA foi de 19%, sendo que, destes, 8% declararam que fazem uso atualmente e 11%, que já haviam feito uso anteriormente; considerando apenas o sexo masculino, a incidência do uso foi de 24%. Os compostos mais utilizados foram estanozolol e decanoato de nandrolona. O perfil dos usuários pôde ser delineado: idade média de 27 anos (de 25 a 29 anos, predominantemente homens, motivação pela melhora na estética corporal e treinamento muscular intenso. Os EAA foram adquiridos, em sua maioria, em farmácias, sem receita médica e foram feitos uso de suplemento alimentar e outros fármacos em associação. Acreditam que os efeitos tóxicos/adversos podem ser controlados e/ou evitados com o uso de outros medicamentos e/ou acompanhamento médico. O presente trabalho mostra a necessidade de investigações mais abrangentes e aprofundadas, bem como a adoção de ações preventivas e educativas junto à população exposta aos EAA.To estimate the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS among body builders of three - professionally equipped private gym in São Paulo, Brazil, body builders answered voluntary and anonimously a structured multiple itens questionnaire which was available for a week in these gym centers. The participants were informed in advance of the aim of the study. Of the 209 body builders attending (3% of

  6. The effect of anabolic steroids on mandibular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Alexander; Pancherz, Hans

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nandrolone (Deca-Durabolin, AKZO Nobel, Cambridge, United Kingdom) on mandibular growth in juvenile and adult rats with radiographic cephalometry and immunoradiology. Juvenile (n = 16) and adult (n = 16) inbred female Wistar-Kyoto rats were compared. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups with 8 experimental (E) and 8 control (C) animals in each subgroup. Lateral headfilms taken before and after the 70-day study period were analyzed. Body weight and blood serum IGF-I levels were monitored weekly. The results showed marked mandibular growth changes in both the juvenile and the adult E rats. Body weight increase was larger in the E than in the C animals. The IGF-I blood serum levels were similar in the juvenile E and C rats but higher in the adult E animals than in the adult C animals. It was found that the anabolic steroid (Deca-Durabolin) had a significant effect on mandibular growth in both juvenile and adult rats. PMID:12695771

  7. Metabolomics Approach to Anabolic Steroid Urine Profiling of Bovines Treated with Prohormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, J.C.W.; Lommen, A.; Essers, M.L.; Groot, M.J.; Hende, van J.; Doeswijk, T.G.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    In livestock production, illegal use of natural steroids is hard to prove because metabolites are either unknown or not significantly above highly fluctuating endogenous levels. In this work we outlined for the first time a metabolomics based strategy for anabolic steroid urine profiling. Urine prof

  8. Anabolic Steroid Abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    The use of anabolic steroids is on the increase among athletes as well as other segments of the population. Data from the "Monitoring the Future" study showed a significant increase from 1998 to 1999 in steroid abuse among middle school students. During the same year, there was a decline in the percentage of 12th graders who believed that taking…

  9. Effects of Anabolic Steroids on Lipoprotein Profiles of Female Weight Lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Robert J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the effects of resistance exercise and anabolic steroids on lipoprotein profiles of female weightlifters. The study found that women who participate in resistance training have better lipoprotein profiles than their sedentary counterparts, but these changes do not offset the deleterious effects of steroid use. (SM)

  10. Associations between academic performance of division 1 college athletes and their perceptions of the effects of anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, M A; Cowdery, J; Wang, M Q; Yesalis, C S

    1995-02-01

    Data on the relationship between academic performance (grade point average) of college athletes and their perceptions of the effects of anabolic steroids on their sport and their performance were collected from Division 1 athletes (N = 1,638) representing 12 varsity sports chosen from five universities nationwide. The response rate was 74%. Analysis yielded differences between athletes with high and low GPAs in perceptions of the effects of anabolic steroids. The lower the GPA, the less likely the athletes were to believe that anabolic steroids are a threat to health, are a problem in their sport, and are addictive. Also, they were more likely to believe that anabolic steroids enhance performance. PMID:7624207

  11. Infectious disease, injection practices, and risky sexual behavior among anabolic steroid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Eric J; Yadao, Michael A; Shah, Bijal M; Lau, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) are commonly misused to increase muscle size and strength, as well as improve physical appearance. Many AAS and certain PEDs are administered via injection and therefore pose a risk for transmission of infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Further, AAS users may be more likely to take part in high-risk sexual behaviors than non-AAS users. This review explores the prevalence of infectious diseases as well as risky injection practices and sexual behaviors of AAS users in the current literature. A comprehensive MEDLINE search (1984-17 April 2015) for English language reports was performed on AAS users. Ten studies analyzed the prevalence of HIV infection, 6 studies analyzed HBV infection, and 6 studies analyzed HCV infection; 20 studies analyzed injection practices and 7 studies analyzed high-risk sexual behaviors of AAS users. HIV, HBV, HCV, and SSTIs have been associated with AAS users. In particular, HIV infection seems much higher among homosexual male AAS users. AAS users also take part in high-risk injection practices but to a much lower extent than intravenous drug users. AAS users are also more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors than the general population. Clinicians and health-policy leaders may utilize these findings to implement strategies to decrease the spread of infectious diseases. PMID:26422090

  12. Anabolic Steroid Use: Federal Efforts to Prevent and Reduce Anabolic Steroid Abuse among Teenagers. Report to the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-08-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Government Accountability Office, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The abuse of anabolic steroids by teenagers--that is, their use without a prescription--is a health concern. Anabolic steroids are synthetic forms of the hormone testosterone that can be taken orally, injected, or rubbed on the skin. Although a 2006 survey funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) found that less than 3 percent of 12th…

  13. Anabolic steroid-induced cardiomyopathy underlying acute liver failure in a young bodybuilder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel Bispo; Ana Valente; Rosário Maldonado; Rui Palma; Helena Glória; Jo(a)o Nóbrega; Paula Alexandrino

    2009-01-01

    Heart failure may lead to subclinical circulatory disturbances and remain an unrecognized cause of ischemic liver injury. We present the case of a previously healthy 40-year-old bodybuilder, referred to our Intensive-Care Unit of Hepatology for treatment of severe acute liver failure, with the suspicion of toxic hepatitis associated with anabolic steroid abuse. Despite the absence of symptoms and signs of congestive heart failure at admission, an anabolic steroid-induced dilated cardiomyopathy with a large thrombus in both ventricles was found to be the underlying cause of the liver injury. Treatment for the initially unrecognized heart failure rapidly restored liver function to normal. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of severe acute liver failure due to an unrecognized anabolic steroid-induced cardiomyopathy. Awareness of this unique presentation will allow for prompt treatment of this potentially fatal cause of liver failure.

  14. Cardiovascular manifestations of anabolic steroids in association with demographic variables in body building athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Gheshlaghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common drug abuse among athletes is anabolic steroids which lead to the development of cardiovascular diseases and sudden death. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular outcomes of anabolic consumption in body building athletes. Materials and Methods: Totally, 267 male athletes at the range of 20-45 years old with the regular consumption of anabolic steroids for >2 months with at least once weekly. High-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride (TG, and hematocrit (Hct levels were measured after 10 h of fasting. Data analysis was performed using K2, t-test, ANOVA and correlation coefficient through SPSS 17. Results: There was a nonsignificant difference between groups regarding HDL, TG, and total cholesterol. There was a significant decrease in the total and categorized LDL and Hct levels in consumers of anabolic steroid versus nonusers (P = 0.01 and P = 0.041, respectively. Results showed a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP in anabolic steroid users which associates with duration of abuse (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively. No significant electrocardiography changes were found within the follow-up period. Conclusion: Increase in SBP or DBP is a common complication of these drugs which can lead serious vascular disorders. The lower LDL cholesterol level might be due to the higher amounts of lipid consumption in these athletes.

  15. Perturbation of the Hematopoietic Profile by Anabolic Androgenic Steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Erkander Mullen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the hematopoietic profile in AAS abusers, during or short after their last abuse and approximately six months later. Moreover, we studied if supraphysiological doses of testosterone influence the concentration of hemoglobin and erythropoietin in healthy volunteers. Design and Methods. Subjects (N=31 were recruited through an antidoping hotline. The hematological profile was measured when the subjects entered the study and approximately 6 months later. Testosterone enanthate (500 mg was administered to healthy volunteers (N=24. Gene expression was studied in human hek293 cells exposed to 1 μM testosterone. Results. Decreased levels of hemoglobin, erythrocyte volume fraction, and erythrocyte counts were observed after 6 months without the use of AAS. Results in volunteers show that hemoglobin increased 3% four and 15 days after testosterone administration, whereas EPO was significantly increased by 38% four days after dose. Agreeingly, in vitro study shows that testosterone induces the mRNA level of EPO with 65% after 24-hour exposure. Conclusion. These results indicate that supraphysiological doses of testosterone may cause a perturbation in the hematopoietic profile. This is of interest in relation to the adverse cardiovascular effects observed in AAS abusers.

  16. Presence and metabolism of the anabolic steroid boldenone in various animal species: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabander, H.F. de; Poelmans, S.; Schilt, R.; Stephany, R.W.; Bizec, B. le; Draisci, R.; Sterk, S.S.; Ginkel, L.A. van; Courtheyn, D.; Hoof, N. van; Macrì, A.; Wasch, K. de

    2004-01-01

    The review summarizes current knowledge on the possible illegal use of the anabolic steroid boldenone. The presence of boldenone and metabolites in different animal species and the possibility of the occurrence of endogenous boldenone and metabolites is assessed, as are the methods of analysis used

  17. Psychomotor and Motor Speed in Power Athletes Self-Administering Testosterone and Anabolic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Era, Pertti; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Self-administered testosterone and anabolic steroids resulted in insignificant improvement in psychomotor and motor speed tests of power athletes. This study is part of a larger study on the effects of such drugs on endocrinology, metabolism and neuromuscular functions. Methodolgy and results are discussed. (Author/JL)

  18. Self-Treatment of Gynecomastia in Bodybuilders Who Use Anabolic Steroids. Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Karl E.; Yesalis, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    Presents four case reports of bodybuilders whose self-administered anabolic steroid programs resulted in gynecomastia, and discusses treatment strategies advocated by some bodybuilders. The actual recommended treatment is complete cessation of drugs. By dispelling unfounded treatment methods, physicians might help discourage such drug use. (SM)

  19. Anabolic steroids alter the physiological activity of aggression circuits in the lateral anterior hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, T R; Sikes, R W; Melloni, R H

    2016-02-19

    Syrian hamsters exposed to anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) during adolescence consistently show increased aggressive behavior across studies. Although the behavioral and anatomical profiles of AAS-induced alterations have been well characterized, there is a lack of data describing physiological changes that accompany these alterations. For instance, behavioral pharmacology and neuroanatomical studies show that AAS-induced changes in the vasopressin (AVP) neural system within the latero-anterior hypothalamus (LAH) interact with the serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) systems to modulate aggression. To characterize the electrophysiological profile of the AAS aggression circuit, we recorded LAH neurons in adolescent male hamsters in vivo and microiontophoretically applied agonists and antagonists of aggressive behavior. The interspike interval (ISI) of neurons from AAS-treated animals correlated positively with aggressive behaviors, and adolescent AAS exposure altered parameters of activity in regular firing neurons while also changing the proportion of neuron types (i.e., bursting, regular, irregular). AAS-treated animals had more responsive neurons that were excited by AVP application, while cells from control animals showed the opposite effect and were predominantly inhibited by AVP. Both DA D2 antagonists and 5HT increased the firing frequency of AVP-responsive cells from AAS animals and dual application of AVP and D2 antagonists doubled the excitatory effect of AVP or D2 antagonist administration alone. These data suggest that multiple DA circuits in the LAH modulate AAS-induced aggressive responding. More broadly, these data show that multiple neurochemical interactions at the neurophysiological level are altered by adolescent AAS exposure. PMID:26691962

  20. Effect of anabolic steroids on overloaded and overloaded suspended skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsika, R W; Herrick, R E; Baldwin, K M

    1987-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether anabolic steroids act synergistically with functional overload in terms of increasing muscle weight and subcellular protein content of normal overloaded and suspended overloaded rodent plantaris muscle. Female rats were randomly assigned to six groups (7 rats/group) for 6 wk: 1) normal control (NC), 2) overload (OV), 3) overload steroid (OV-S), 4) normal suspended (N-SUS), 5) overload suspended (OV-SUS), and 6) overload suspended steroid (OV-SUS-S). Rats receiving anabolic steroid were administered 0.3 mg nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) per day. Relative to control values, overload induced 1) sparing of muscle weight of the OV-SUS group as well as larger absolute and normalized (mg muscle/g body wt) muscle weight of the OV group (P less than 0.05), 2) greater protein content (mg/muscle, P less than 0.05), and 3) an increased relative expression of slow myosin in both the OV and OV-SUS groups (P less than 0.05). Although anabolic steroid treatment of overload animals (OV-S) did not alter further the pattern of response of any parameter analyzed for the OV group, it did induce larger absolute and normalized muscle weight (P less than 0.05) as well as a greater protein content (mg/muscle, P less than 0.05) of the OV-SUS-S group compared with control values. However, anabolic steroid treatment did not alter the pattern of isomyosin expression observed in the overload (OV-S vs. OV) or overload suspended (OV-SUS-S vs. OV-SUS) groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3693242

  1. Collapsing glomerulopathy following anabolic steroid use in a 16-year-old boy with IgA nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Matthai, S. M.; Basu, G.; Varughese, S.; Pulimood, A. B.; Veerasamy, T.; Korula, A.

    2015-01-01

    Collapsing glomerulopathy (CG) is a proliferative podocytopathy, increasingly recognized in a variety of disease conditions. We report a case of CG in a 16-year-old boy with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) who presented with acute kidney injury, marked proteinuria and hypertension following a short period of anabolic steroid use. Although CG has been associated with long-term anabolic steroid use among body builders, there is no data on the effect of anabolic steroid use in persons with underlying ren...

  2. Anabolic Androgen-induced Intrahepatic Cholestasis Presented With Normal AND#947;-Glutamyl-Transpeptidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savvoula Savvidou

    2014-04-01

    A case report of a young male with remarkable jaundice due to acute anabolic androgen-induced cholestasis is presented. Interestingly, and #947;-glutamyl transpeptidase remained normal throughout the patient's diagnostic workup. Histopathology was indicative of pure, and ldquo;bland and rdquo; intrahepatic cholestasis with minimal inflammation but significant fibrosis. The patient was successfully treated with ursodeoxycholic acid and glucocorticosteroids. The significance of normal and #947;-glutamyl transpeptidase along with the histopathological findings and the possible pathophysiological mechanisms are finally discussed. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(2.000: 98-103

  3. Prevalência do uso e conhecimento de esteroides anabolizantes androgênicos por estudantes e professores de educação física que atuam em academias de ginástica Prevalence of the use of anabolic androgenic steroids by physical education students and teachers who work in health clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Salim Costa Abrahin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os esteroides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA são substâncias, quimicamente semelhantes à testosterona, utilizadas para o tratamento/controle de diversas doenças. Contudo, tais substâncias estão sendo empregadas de forma não terapêutica e indiscriminada com finalidades de melhora da performance esportiva e principalmente estética. OBJETIVO: analisar a prevalência do uso e o conhecimento de EAA por estudantes e professores de educação física que atuam em academias de ginástica de Belém, PA. Utilizou-se para a coleta de dados um questionário fechado e anônimo, aplicado a 117 pesquisados. A comparação da prevalência do uso e o grau de conhecimento dos pesquisados sobre EAA foi realizada através de estatística não paramétrica, prova de X² (Qui-quadrado, considerando o intervalo de confiança de 95% e p Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS are chemically similar to testosterone, used for the treatment/control of various diseases. However, these substances are being used in non-therapeutic and indiscriminate purposes to improve sports performance and mainly esthetics. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of AAS use and information of undergraduates and physical education teachers working in fitness centers in Belém-PA. A closed anonymous questionnaire was applied to 117 volunteers as an instrument. Comparison of the prevalence of use and degree of information of the respondents about AAS was performed using statistical non-parametric test X² (chi-square, considering the range of 95%, significant when p<0.05. The average age of the participants was 28.0 ± 6.3 years and the prevalence of AAS use was of 31.6%. The highest prevalence found was among specialist professionals (39.3%, the main motivation for the use of AAS was 75.6% to esthetics. Regarding the information, it was found that the drugs were classified as AAS: Durateston, Deca-Durabolin, Oxandrolona/Winstrol. However, these professionals took other

  4. Body water, extracellular water, body potassium, and exchangeable sodium in body builders using anabolic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine competitive male body builders aged 21 to 34 who were determined to take anabolic steroids were studied before and 6 to 10 weeks after a training cycle which included steroid administration. A control group of nine subjects matched in age and duration of competitive career, but using only natural training methods were studied on a single occasion while in training. Total body potassium (TBK) by 40K, total body water (TBW) by 3H2O dilution, extracellular water (ECW) by 35SO4 dilution and zero time extrapolation, and exchangeable sodium by 24Na dilution were measured before and after training. Intracellular water (ICW) was calculated from TBW - ECW. Initially steroid users had a greater skeletal muscle mass than control subjects, and obtained a further weight gain on steroids, all in skeletal muscle, based on parallel increases in TBK and ICW. Other body composition measurements did not change significantly. A single steroid user became ill taking steroids, decreased potassium by 5%, and increased extracellular water, changes which may represent the effects of hepatic dysfunction which occurred while on anabolic steroids

  5. Anabolic Steroids and Strength and Power Related Athletic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, David R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficacy of steroids in development of muscular strength in athletes is not proven. Their long-term use is increasingly being associated with liver disorders, including liver cancer, and other health problems. (JD)

  6. Effect of anabolic steroids on skeletal muscle mass during hindlimb suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsika, R. W.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) on the muscle mass of plantaris and soleus of a rats in hindlimb suspension, and on the isomyosin expression in these muscles, was investigated in young female rats divided into four groups: normal control (NC), normal steroid (NS), normal suspension (N-sus), and suspension steroid (sus-S). Steroid treatment of suspended animals (sus-S vs N-sus) was found to partially spare body weight and muscle weight, as well as myofibril content of plantaris (but not soleus), but did not modify the isomyosin pattern induced by suspension. In normal rats (NS vs NC), steroid treatment did enhance body weight and plantaris muscle weight; the treatment did not alter isomyosin expression in either muscle type.

  7. Anabolic steroids detected in bodybuilding dietary supplements - a significant risk to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, V; Kicman, A T; Evans-Brown, M; McVeigh, J; Cowan, D A; Wilson, C; Coles, S J; Walker, C J

    2015-07-01

    Twenty-four products suspected of containing anabolic steroids and sold in fitness equipment shops in the United Kingdom (UK) were analyzed for their qualitative and semi-quantitative content using full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), accurate mass liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), UV-Vis, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, X-ray crystallography enabled the identification of one of the compounds, where reference standard was not available. Of the 24 products tested, 23 contained steroids including known anabolic agents; 16 of these contained steroids that were different to those indicated on the packaging and one product contained no steroid at all. Overall, 13 different steroids were identified; 12 of these are controlled in the UK under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. Several of the products contained steroids that may be considered to have considerable pharmacological activity, based on their chemical structures and the amounts present. This could unwittingly expose users to a significant risk to their health, which is of particular concern for naïve users. PMID:25284752

  8. Anabolic steroid- and exercise-induced cardio-depressant cytokines and myocardial β1 receptor expression in CD1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineschi, Vittorio; Di Paolo, Marco; Neri, Margherita; Bello, Stefania; D'Errico, Stefano; Dinucci, Dinuccio; Parente, Ruggero; Pomara, Cristoforo; Rabozzi, Roberto; Riezzo, Irene; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2011-02-01

    Few animal model studies have been conducted in order to evaluate the impact of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) supraphysiological doses on the cardiovascular system and myocardial injury. Twenty-five male CD1 mice (8-10 weeks old; 35g initial body weight) were randomized into three AAS treated groups and two control groups. The AAS mice received intramuscular Nandrolone Decanoate (DECA-DURABOLIN), vehicled in arachidis oil, for 42 days, twice per week, with different dosages, studying plasma lipid analysis, cardiac histopathological features, cardiac β (1) adrenergic receptor expression, and the effects of the myocardial expression of inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, TNF-α) on the induction of cardiomyocytes apoptosis (HSP 70, TUNEL), using proteomic and immunohistochemical analysis. The mice had free movements in their animal rooms (two groups) or exercised by running on a motor-driven treadmill the others three groups. Recurring high dose AAS administration and physical training in mice produce significant increase in body weight and for total cholesterol. A moderate increase of the heart weight, cardiac hypertrophy and wide colliquative myocytolysis, were observed in high dose AAS administration and physical training group. The expression of HSP70 and inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, increased in the three AAS-treated groups. TNF- α showed a more extensive expression in the AAS-high dose group. A significant apoptotic process randomly sparse in the myocardium was described. Our data support the hypothesis that the combined effects of vigorous training, anabolic steroid abuse and stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, may predispose to myocardial injury. PMID:21050164

  9. UNTERSUCHUNGEN ZUM NACHWEIS UND ZUR BIOTRANSFORMATION EINIGER ORAL WIRKSAMER 17α-ALKYL-STEROIDE MIT ANABOLER WIRKUNG BEIM PFERD

    OpenAIRE

    Schoene, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This study tried to investigate the metabolism of the anabolic steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA), methandriol (MAD) and 17α-methyltestosterone (17α-MT) in the Equine and to subsequently develop a gas-chromatographic / mass-spectrometric (gc/ms) screening method for the detection of the two latter orally-active anabolic agents. For each experiment 200 mg of the respective steroid were administered to two thoroughbred horses in training. The administered substances contained a ...

  10. Effects of anabolic steroids on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anabolic steroids are known to improve body composition and muscle strength in healthy people. However, whether anabolic steroids improve the physical condition and function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD remains undetermined. A meta-analysis was conducted to review the current evidence regarding the effects of anabolic steroids on COPD patients. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of PubMed and EMBASE was performed to identify randomised controlled trials that examine the effects of anabolic steroids on COPD patients. Weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine differences between anabolic steroid administration and control conditions. RESULTS: Eight eligible studies involving 273 COPD patients were identified in this meta-analysis. Significant improvements were found in body weight (0.956 kg, fat-free mass (1.606 kg, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score (-6.336 and symptom score (-12.148. The apparent improvements in maximal inspiratory pressure (2.740 cmH2O and maximal expiratory pressure (12.679 cmH2O were not significant. The effects on handgrip strength, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, predicted FEV1 percent, PaO2, PaCO2 and six-min walk distance were negative, with WMDs of -0.245 kg, -0.096 L/sec, -1.996% of predicted, -1.648 cmHg, -0.039 cmHg and -16.102 meters, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Limited evidence available from the published literature suggests that the benefit of anabolic steroids on COPD patients cannot be denied. However, further studies are needed to identify the specific benefits and adverse effects of anabolic steroids on COPD patients and to determine the optimal populations and regimes of anabolic steroids in COPD patients.

  11. Delayed diagnosis of a cerebrovascular accident associated with anabolic steroid use

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Isabelle; Reeve, Nina; Doherty, Warren

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of atherosclerotic stroke in a 46-year-old recreational bodybuilder with a 20 year history of anabolic-adrenergic steroid (AAS) abuse. Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurred during his third week of hospital admission for an acute abdomen and on day 8, postemergency laparotomy. CVA presented with collapse, generalised seizures, reduced Glasgow Coma Score and severe hypertension. He was subsequently admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), where initial investigati...

  12. Prevalence of Use of Anabolic Steroids by Bodybuilders Using Three Methods in a City of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Nakhaee, Mohammad Reza; Pakravan, Faezeh; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of substance use among bodybuilding athletes has been poorly studied in Iran. This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of drug use, especially anabolic steroids, among bodybuilding athletes. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in the first half of 2013 among body building athletes referring to gyms located in Kerman, Iran. Five gyms were selected randomly and 380 athletes were invited to complete a self-administered anonymous questionnaire, con...

  13. Gluteal mass in a bodybuilder: radiological depiction of a complication of anabolic steroid use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of anabolic steroids by bodybuilders is relatively common and associated with many side effects. Local side effects include tissue necrosis and soft tissue infection at the injection site. Systemic effects may be early epiphyseal closure in the immature skeleton, testicular atrophy, sterility, acne, gynaecomastia and liver disorders such as hepatitis. We report an unusual case of a bodybuilder who developed a large painful inflammatory soft tissue mass in his gluteal area. Multi-modality imaging showed direct evidence revealing the underlying cause of the mass being depot steroid injections. (orig.)

  14. Gluteal mass in a bodybuilder: radiological depiction of a complication of anabolic steroid use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ismail, Khalid; Torreggiani, William C.; Munk, Peter L.; Nicolaou, Savvas [Department of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital and the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    The use of anabolic steroids by bodybuilders is relatively common and associated with many side effects. Local side effects include tissue necrosis and soft tissue infection at the injection site. Systemic effects may be early epiphyseal closure in the immature skeleton, testicular atrophy, sterility, acne, gynaecomastia and liver disorders such as hepatitis. We report an unusual case of a bodybuilder who developed a large painful inflammatory soft tissue mass in his gluteal area. Multi-modality imaging showed direct evidence revealing the underlying cause of the mass being depot steroid injections. (orig.)

  15. Anabolic steroids, acute myocardial infarction and polycythemia: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Stergiopoulos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen Stergiopoulos1, Joseph J Brennan2, Robin Mathews1, John F Setaro2, Smadar Kort11Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY, USA; 2Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USAAbstract: The association between testosterone-replacement therapy and cardiovascular risk remains unclear with most reports suggesting a neutral or possibly beneficial effect of the hormone in men and women. However, several cardiovascular complications including hypertension, cardiomyopathy, stroke, pulmonary embolism, fatal and nonfatal arrhythmias, and myocardial infarction have been reported with supraphysiologic doses of anabolic steroids. We report a case of an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in a patient with traditional cardiac risk factors using supraphysiologic doses of supplemental, intramuscular testosterone. In addition, this patient also had polycythemia, likely secondary to high-dose testosterone. The patient underwent successful percutaneous intervention of the right coronary artery. Phlebotomy was used to treat the polycythemia acutely. We suggest that the chronic and recent “stacked” use of intramuscular testosterone as well as the resultant polycythemia and likely increased plasma viscosity may have been contributing factors to this cardiovascular event, in addition to traditional coronary risk factors. Physicians and patients should be aware of the clinical consequences of anabolic steroid abuse.Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, anabolic steroid use, polycythemia

  16. Steroid profiling and confirmation of the T/E - ratio in doping control

    OpenAIRE

    Hanssen, Kine Østnes

    2010-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are naturally occurring or synthetic derivates of male sex hormones. All anabolic-androgenic steroids are prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency because of their muscle growth stimulating effect. At the Seibersdorf Doping-Control Laboratory, urine samples from athletes are first screened with a screen testing procedure to obtain an endogenous steroid profile, in order to identify samples suspected of containing endogenous steroids of exogenous origin. Thi...

  17. Esteróides anabolizantes no esporte Anabolic steroids in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rodrigo Pedroso da Silva

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Os hormônios esteróides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA compreendem a testosterona e seus derivados. Eles são produzidos nos testículos e no córtex adrenal, e promovem as características sexuais secundárias associadas à masculinidade. Na medicina, os EAA são utilizados geralmente no tratamento de sarcopenias, do hipogonadismo, do câncer de mama e da osteoporose. Nos esportes, são utilizados para o aumento da força física e da massa muscular; entretanto, os efeitos sobre o desempenho atlético permanecem, ainda, controversos. Os EAA podem causar diversos efeitos colaterais, como psicopatologias, câncer de próstata, doença coronariana e esterilidade. Estudos epidemiológicos apontam a problemática acerca do uso de EAA, nos esportes; todavia, no Brasil não existem publicações substanciais sobre esse tema. Esta revisão analisa esse assunto, procurando despertar a curiosidade e o interesse dos leitores para a produção científica de novos trabalhos relacionados ao tema.Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS are hormones that include or are derivatives of testosterone. They are produced in the testicles and in the adrenal cortex. AAS promote development of sexual characteristics associated with the male sex. They are applied as a general rule in the treatment of sarcopenia, hypogonadism, breast cancer, and osteoporosis. In relation to sports, they are used to increase strength and muscle mass. Their effects on athletics performance are still controversial. AAS can cause several side-effects, such as mental disease, prostate cancer, coronary disease, and sterility. There are no epidemiologic studies regarding the use of AAS in Brazil . This review intends to deal with this matter widely and aims at stimulating curiosity and interest in order to provide new publications about this issue.

  18. Effects of anabolic steroids and high-intensity aerobic exercise on skeletal muscle of transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Fontana

    Full Text Available In an attempt to shorten recovery time and improve performance, strength and endurance athletes occasionally turn to the illicit use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS. This study evaluated the effects of AAS treatment on the muscle mass and phenotypic characteristics of transgenic mice subjected to a high-intensity, aerobic training program (5d/wk for 6 weeks. The transgenic mice (CETP(+/-LDLr(-/+ were engineered to exhibit a lipid profile closer to humans. Animals were divided into groups of sedentary (Sed and/or training (Ex mice (each treated orally with AAS or gum arabic/vehicle: Sed-C, Sed-M, ex-C, ex-M. The effects of AAS (mesterolone: M on specific phenotypic adaptations (muscle wet weight, cross-sectional area, and fiber type composition in three hindlimb muscles (soleus:SOL, tibialis anterior:TA and gastrocnemius:GAS were assessed. In order to detect subtle changes in fiber type profile, the entire range of fiber types (I, IC, IIAC, IIA, IIAD, IID, IIDB, IIB was delineated using mATPase histochemistry. Body weight gain occurred throughout the study for all groups. However, the body weight gain was significantly minimized with exercise. This effect was blunted with mesterolone treatment. Both AAS treatment (Sed-M and high-intensity, aerobic training (ex-C increased the wet weights of all three muscles and induced differential hypertrophy of pure and hybrid fibers. Combination of AAS and training (ex-M resulted in enhanced hypertrophy. In the SOL, mesterolone treatment (Sed-M and ex-M caused dramatic increases in the percentages of fiber types IC, IIAC, IIAD, IID, with concomitant decrease in IIA, but had minimal impact on fiber type percentages in the predominantly fast muscles. Overall, the AAS-induced differential adaptive changes amounted to significant fiber type transformations in the fast-to-slow direction in SOL. AAS treatment had a significant effect on muscle weights and fiber type composition in SOL, TA and GAS which was

  19. Screening for Anabolic Steroids in Urine of Forensic Cases Using Fully Automated Solid Phase Extraction and LC–MS-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, David Wederkinck; Linnet, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A screening method for 18 frequently measured exogenous anabolic steroids and the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio in forensic cases has been developed and validated. The method involves a fully automated sample preparation including enzyme treatment, addition of internal standards...... and solid phase extraction followed by analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) using electrospray ionization with adduct formation for two compounds. Urine samples from 580 forensic cases were analyzed to determine the T/E ratio and occurrence of exogenous anabolic steroids...... steroids. Only seven different steroids including testosterone were found in the material, suggesting that only a small number of common steroids are likely to occur in a forensic context. The steroids were often in high concentrations (>100 ng/mL), and a combination of steroids and/or other drugs of abuse...

  20. Effect of anabolic steroids on skeletal muscle mass during hindlimb suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsika, R W; Herrick, R E; Baldwin, K M

    1987-11-01

    The efficacy of anabolic steroid treatment [0.3 or 0.9 mg nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) per day] was examined in the context of sparing rodent fast-twitch plantaris and slow-twitch soleus muscle weight, sparing subcellular protein, and altering isomyosin expression in response to hindlimb suspension. Female rats were assigned to four groups (7 rats/group for 6 wk): 1) normal control (NC), 2) normal steroid (NS), 3) normal suspension (N-SUS), and 4) suspension steroid (SUS-S). Compared with control values for the plantaris and soleus muscles, suspension induced 1) smaller body and muscle weight (P less than 0.05), 2) losses in myofibril content (mg/muscle, P less than 0.05), and 3) shifts in the relative expression (expressed as %of total isomyosin) of isomyosins which favored lesser slow myosin and greater fast myosin isotypes (P less than 0.05). Steroid treatment of suspended animals (SUS-S vs. N-SUS) partially spared body and muscle weight (P less than 0.05) and spared plantaris but not soleus myofibril content (mg/muscle, P less than 0.05). However, steroid treatment did not modify the isomyosin pattern induced by suspension. In normal rats (NS vs. NC), steroid treatment enhanced body and plantaris muscle weight but not soleus weight (P less than 0.05) and did not alter isomyosin expression in either muscle type. Collectively these data suggest that in young female rats anabolic steroids 1) enhance the body weight and the weight of a fast-twitch ankle extensor in normal rats, 2) ameliorate the loss in body weight, fast-twitch muscle weight and protein content and slow-twitch muscle weight associated with hindlimb suspension.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2961725

  1. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in high-throughput confirmation and quantification of 34 anabolic steroids in bovine muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaecke, Lynn; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Wille, Klaas; Bekaert, Karen; De Brabander, Hubert F

    2011-08-26

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry multi-residue method for the determination of 34 anabolic steroids (10 estrogens including stilbenes, 14 androgens and 10 gestagens) in meat of bovine origin is reported. The extraction and clean-up procedure involved homogenization with methanol, defatting with hexane, liquid/liquid extraction with diethylether and finally SPE clean-up with coupled Si and NH(2) cartridges. The analytes were separated on a 1.9 μm Hypersil Gold column (100×2.1 mm) and quantified on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TSQ Vantage) operating simultaneously in both positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) modes. This analytical procedure was subsequently validated according to EU criteria (CD 2002/657/EC), resulting in decision limits and detection capabilities ranging between 0.04 and 0.88 μg kg(-1) and 0.12 and 1.9 μg kg(-1), respectively. The method obtained for all, natural and synthetic steroids, adequate precisions and intra-laboratory reproducibilities (relative standard deviation below 20%), and the linearity ranged between 0.991 and 0.999. The performance characteristics fulfill the recommended concentrations fixed by the Community Reference Laboratories. The developed analysis is sensitive, and robust and therefore useful for confirmation and quantification of anabolic steroids for research purposes and residue control programs. PMID:21742119

  2. Effect of anabolic steroids on overloaded and overloaded suspended skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsika, R. W.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) on the muscle mass, the subcellular protein content, and the myosin patterns of normal overloaded and suspended overloaded plantaris muscle in female rat was investigated, dividing rats into six groups: normal control (NC), overload (OV), OV steroid (OV-S), normal suspended (N-sus), OV suspended (OV-sus), and OV suspended steroid (OV-sus-S). Relative to control values, overload produced a sparing effect on the muscle weight of the OV-sus group as well as increases of muscle weight of the OV group; increased protein content; and an increased expression of slow myosin in both OV and OV-sus groups. Steroid treatment of OV animals did not after the response of any parameter analyzed for the OV group, but in the OV-sus group steroid treatment induced increases in muscle weight and in protein content of the OV-sus-S group. The treatment did not alter the pattern of isomyosin expression observed in the OV or the OV-sus groups. These result suggest that the steroid acts synergistically with functional overload only under conditions in which the effect of overload is minimized by suspension.

  3. Adolescents and Steroids: A User Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids ("steroids") are synthetic derivatives of the natural male hormone testosterone. They were first used non-medically by elite athletes seeking to improve performance. More recently, however, steroid use has filtered down to high school and junior high school levels. The purpose of this study was to describe adolescent…

  4. Use of dried blood spots in doping control analysis of anabolic steroid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretzel, Laura; Thomas, Andreas; Geyer, Hans; Gmeiner, Günter; Forsdahl, Guro; Pop, Valentin; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-08-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling, a technique for whole blood sampling on a piece of filter paper, has more than 50-years tradition, particularly in the diagnostic analysis of metabolic disorders in neonatal screening. Due to the minimal invasiveness, straightforwardness, robustness against manipulation and fastness DBS sampling recommends itself as an advantageous technique in doping control analysis. The present approach highlights the development of a screening assay for the analysis of eight anabolic steroid esters (nandrolone phenylpropionate, trenbolone enanthate, testosterone acetate, testosterone cypionate, testosterone isocaproate, testosterone phenylpropionate, testosterone decanoate and testosterone undecanoate) and nandrolone in DBS. The detection of the intact esters allows an unequivocal proof of the administration of conjugates of exogenous testosterone and its derivatives. Precise, specific and linear conditions were obtained by means of liquid chromatography high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry. Sensitivity in the low ppb range was accomplished by the preparation of the methyloxime derivatives of the target compounds. Labeled internal standards (d3-nandrolone, d3-nandrolone caproate and d3-nandrolone undecanoate) were applied to compensate for the broad range in chain length of the esters. The assay presented here outlines the application of DBS for the analysis of anabolic steroid esters in doping controls for the first time providing great potential to simplify the proof of exogenous administration of testosterone. PMID:24713476

  5. MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM--role of satellite cells in anabolic steroid-induced muscle growth in feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, W R; White, M E

    2014-01-01

    Both androgenic and estrogenic steroids are widely used as growth promoters in feedlot steers because they significantly enhance feed efficiency, rate of gain, and muscle growth. However, despite their widespread use relatively little is known about the biological mechanism by which androgenic and estrogenic steroids enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth in cattle. Treatment of feedlot steers with a combined estradiol (E2) and trenbolone acetate (TBA) implant results in an increased number of muscle satellite cells, increased expression of IGF-1 mRNA in muscle tissue, and increased levels of circulating IGF-1. Similarly, treatment of bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures with either TBA or E2 results in increased expression of IGF-1 mRNA, increased rates of proliferation and protein synthesis, and decreased rates of protein degradation. Effects of E2 on BSC are mediated at least in part through the classical E2 receptor, estrogen receptor-α (ESR1), the IGF-1 receptor (IGFR1), and the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER-1), formerly known as G protein-coupled receptor-30 (GPR30). The effects of TBA appear to be primarily mediated through the androgen receptor. Based on current research results, it is becoming clear that anabolic steroid-enhanced bovine muscle growth involves a complex interaction of numerous pathways and receptors. Consequently, additional in vivo and in vitro studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms involved in this complex process. The fundamental information generated by this research will help in developing future, safe, and effective strategies to increase rate and efficiency of muscle growth in beef cattle. PMID:24166993

  6. Identification of selected in vitro generated phase-I metabolites of the steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator MK-0773 for doping control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagojda, Andreas; Kuehne, Dirk; Krug, Oliver; Thomas, Andreas; Wigger, Tina; Karst, Uwe; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Research into developing anabolic agents for various therapeutic purposes has been pursued for decades. As the clinical utility of anabolic-androgenic steroids has been found to be limited because of their lack of tissue selectivity and associated off-target effects, alternative drug entities have been designed and are commonly referred to as selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). While most of these SARMs are of nonsteroidal structure, the drug candidate MK-0773 comprises a 4-aza-steroidal nucleus. Besides the intended therapeutic use, SARMs have been found to be illicitly distributed and misused as doping agents in sport, necessitating frequently updated doping control analytical assays. As steroidal compounds reportedly undergo considerable metabolic transformations, the phase-I metabolism of MK-0773 was simulated using human liver microsomal (HLM) preparations and electrochemical conversion. Subsequently, major metabolic products were identified and characterized employing liquid chromatography-high-resolution/high- accuracy tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. MK-0773 produced numerous phase-I metabolites under the chosen in vitro incubation reactions, mostly resulting from mono- and bisoxygenation of the steroid. HLM yielded at least 10 monooxygenated species, while electrochemistry-based experiments resulted predominantly in three monohydroxylated metabolites. Elemental composition data and product ion mass spectra were generated for these analytes, ESI/APCI measurements corroborated the formation of at least two N-oxygenated metabolites, and NMR data obtained from electrochemistry-derived products supported structures suggested for three monohydroxylated compounds. Hereby, the hydroxylation of the A-ring located N- bound methyl group was found to be of particular intensity. In the absence of controlled elimination studies, the

  7. Confirmation and 3D profiling of anabolic steroid esters in injection sites using imaging desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijke, de E.; Hooijerink, H.; Sterk, S.S.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) was applied for the confirmation and 3D profiling of anabolic steroid esters in an injection site of bovine muscle. The spatial resolution of the DESI-MSn was demonstrated by scanning hormone este

  8. Anabolic Steroid Misuse among Minors. Report to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia. House Document No. 58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia State Health Professions Dept., Richmond.

    This document comprises the final report of the Virginia Department of Health Professions' Task Force on anabolic steroid misuse among minors. As such, it summarizes the activities of the department and of the boards within the department, the Offices of the Secretary of Health and Education, and other organizations including the Virginia High…

  9. Effects of anabolic steroids on acute phase responses in intra-abdominal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mealy

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute phase response is an important adaptive response to sepsis and injury. As anabolic steroids increase protein synthesis we postulated that these agents might also increase hepatic acute phase protein synthesis. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with testosterone or danazol for 48 h prior to caecal ligation and puncture (CLP. Thirty-six h following surgery the animals were killed and blood taken for full blood count, total protein, albumin, α, β and γ globulin fractions on serum electrophoresis, complement C3 and transferrin levels. Danazol increased the α1, α2 and β1 globulin serum protein fractions in comparison with no surgery and CLP alone groups. These results indicate that danazol increases plasma acute phase proteins, as measured by electrophoresis, in this model of intra-abdominal sepsis.

  10. Neurotoxicity by synthetic androgen steroids: oxidative stress, apoptosis, and neuropathology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Cristoforo; Neri, Margherita; Bello, Stefania; Fiore, Carmela; Riezzo, Irene; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic substances derived from testosterone that are largely employed due to their trophic effect on muscle tissue of athletes at all levels. Since a great number of organs and systems are a target of AAS, their adverse effects are primarily on the following systems: reproductive, hepatic, musculoskeletal, endocrine, renal, immunological, infectious, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and hematological. Neuropsychiatric and behavioral effects as a result of AAS abuse are well known and described in the literature. Mounting evidence exists suggesting that in addition to psychiatric and behavioral effects, non-medical use of AAS carries neurodegenerative potential. Although, the nature of this association remains largely unexplored, recent animal studies have shown the recurrence of this AAS effect, ranging from neurotrophin unbalance to increased neuronal susceptibility to apoptotic stimuli. Experimental and animal studies strongly suggest that apoptotic mechanisms are at least in part involved in AAS-induced neurotoxicity. Furthermore, a great body of evidence is emerging suggesting that increased susceptibility to cellular oxidative stress could play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders and cognitive impairment. As in other drug-evoked encephalopathies, the key mechanisms involved in AAS - induced neuropathology could represent a target for future neuroprotective strategies. Progress in the understanding of these mechanisms will provide important insights into the complex pathophysiology of AAS-induced neurodegeneration, and will pave the way for forthcoming studies. Supplementary to abandoning the drug abuse that represents the first step in reducing the possibility of irreversible brain damage in AAS abusers, neuroprotective strategies have to be developed and implemented in future. PMID:26074748

  11. Analysis of meat samples for anabolic steroids residues by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Cristina; Van Poucke, Christof; Van Peteghem, Carlos

    2007-06-22

    A rapid, specific and highly sensitive multi-residue method for the determination of anabolic steroid residues in bovine, pork and poultry muscle tissues was developed. The sample preparation involves enzymatic digestion followed by extraction with methanol. The crude extract was cleaned up by solid-phase extraction (SPE) combining C18 and NH2 columns. The detection was carried out by a highly sensitive liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method using both positive and negative ionization modes. Natural and synthetic steroids covering different polarities could be extracted, concentrated and purified using one single method. Mobile phase composition and additives were optimized to achieve the highest sensitivity. The linearity was not good enough for quantitative analysis but the method was well-suited for qualitative confirmation. The method was validated according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Decision limits (CCalpha) and detection capabilities (CCbeta) were below 0.5 ng g(-1) for all the compounds in the three types of meat studied. The developed method is suitable for routine analysis in our laboratories. PMID:17459396

  12. Modulation of the cytosolic androgen receptor in striated muscle by sex steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, N. E.; Max, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of orchiectomy (GDX) and steroid administration on the level of the cytosolic androgen receptor in the rat levator ani muscle and in rat skeletal muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus) was studied. Androgen receptor binding to muscle cytosol was measured using H-3 methyltrienolone (R1881) as ligand, 100 fold molar excess unlabeled R1881 to assess nonspecific binding, and 500 fold molar excess of triamcinolone acetonide to prevent binding to glucocorticoid and progestin receptors. Results demonstrate that modification of the levels of sex steroids can alter the content of androgen receptors of rat striated muscle. Data suggest that: (1) cytosolic androgen receptor levels increase after orchiectomy in both levator ani muscle and skeletal muscle; (2) the acute increase in receptor levels is blocked by an inhibitor of protein synthesis; and (3) administration of estradiol-17 beta to castrated animals increases receptor binding in levator ani muscle but not in skeletal muscle.

  13. Determinação de esteróides androgênicos anabólicos em urina por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas Detection of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS in urine samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rossi de Campos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Esteróides androgênicos anabólicos (EAA são substâncias naturais, sintéticas ou semi-sintéticas derivadas da testosterona, utilizadas em atividades esportivas com o objetivo de melhorar o desempenho físico pelo aumento de massa e força muscular. Apesar de causarem efeitos tóxicos graves, principalmente sobre os sistemas cardiovascular, hepático e neuro-endócrino, os EAA têm sido amplamente utilizados no âmbito esportivo. Desta forma, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo a validação de um método para a determinação de esteróides e/ou seus produtos de biotransformação em amostras de urina por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG-EM. O método baseou-se na hidrólise enzimática de esteróides conjugados, no emprego da extração líquido-líquido e na derivação do extrato para posterior análise por CG-EM, no modo de monitoramento seletivo de íons (SIM. O método validado cumpriu com os princípios de confiança necessários para a determinação de EAA em amostras de urina com a finalidade de controle de dopagem no esporte. Os limites de detecção dos esteróides analizados variaram de 0,5 a 15 ng/mL. Bons valores de precisão (intra e interensaio também foram obtidos (CVAndrogenic anabolic steroids (AAS are defined as natural, synthetic or semi-synthetic drugs chemically derived from testosterone, used with the aim to improve physical performance by increasing both muscle strength and mass. Despite their reported toxicological effects on the cardiovascular, hepatic and neuro-endocrine systems, the AAS have been extensively used in sports activities. The objective of this study was to validate an analytical method for the detection of AAS and/or their metabolites in urine samples. The method was based on enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, derivatization and further analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS operated in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM. The

  14. Pathological effects of the anabolic steroid sustanon on the rat testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Al-Kennany

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed to investigate the pathological effects of sustanon which is a type of anabolic androgens in different doses on testes of rats. The experiment included 100 rats randomly divided into five groups 20 rats to each group. The first group is considered as a negative control given diet and water only. The second group is considered a positive control treated weekly for 60 days with sesame oil intramuscularly, while groups III, IV and V treated with diluted sustanon in 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly weekly for 60 days respectively. The animals were euthanized on the periods 15, 30 and 60 day then samples of testes were taken and put in Bouin's solution and then placed in buffered neutral formalin 10% for histopathological section. Pathologically all treated groups showed gross and histopathological changes. Grossly Testis, showed bilateral atrophy. Histopathologically there was testicular degeneration with loss of normal architecture,presence of dead sperm in lumen of tubules and there were inflammatory cells and edema especially in a day 60 after treatment and these changes continued even after stopping treatment for 30 days. It has been concluded from this study that sustanon at the doses 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of body weight for periods of 15, 30 and 60 days had side effects on testes and these effects were progressive and were observed even after 30 days of stopping the drug administration.

  15. Nonprescription Steroids on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Christen L.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Patapis, Nicholas S.; Festinger, David S.; Forman, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular websites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March and June, 2006 revealed that approximately half of the websites advocated their “safe” use, and roughly one-third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The websites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less th...

  16. Examining a negative halo effect to anabolic steroids users through perceived achievement goals, sportspersonship orientations, and aggressive tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantal, Yves; Bernache-Assollant, Iouri; Schiano-Lomoriello, Sandrine

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the social image of anabolic steroids (AS) users grounding our analysis on the achievement goal theory of Nicholls. Our main goal was to explore how an athlete's acceptance of AS use would impact on the way that athlete will be perceived by others. Non-AS-using participants reacted to one of two scenarios portraying a male athlete either accepting or refusing to engage in drug use behavior. The results suggested that the acceptance of anabolic steroids yielded an unfavorable social image--perceivers inferred a predominant ego orientation to characterize the AS-user's motivation as well as weaker sportspersonship and a stronger proclivity for reactive aggression than instrumental aggression. Moreover, the analyses did not yield significant gender or interaction effects. Finally, those findings are commented in view of methodological shortcomings and of the perspectives that they may offer for future research concerning the motivational aspects of the social perceptions of drug use in sport. PMID:23301931

  17. The Effect of Anabolic Steroid Administration on Passive Stretching-Induced Expression of Mechano-Growth Factor in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ikeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Stretching of skeletal muscle induces expression of the genes which encode myogenic transcription factors or muscle contractile proteins and results in muscle growth. Anabolic steroids are reported to strengthen muscles. We have previously studied the effects of muscle stretching on gene expression. Here, we studied the effect of a combination of passive stretching and the administration of an anabolic steroid on mRNA expression of a muscle growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I autocrine variant, or mechano-growth factor (MGF. Methods. Twelve 8-week-old male Wistar rats were used. Metenolone was administered and passive repetitive dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the ankle joint performed under deep anesthesia. After 24 h, the gastrocnemius muscles were removed and the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-I autocrine variant was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. Repetitive stretching in combination with metenolone, but not stretching alone, significantly increased MGF mRNA expression. Conclusion. Anabolic steroids enhance the effect of passive stretching on MGF expression in skeletal muscle.

  18. A novel approach to the quantitative detection of anabolic steroids in bovine muscle tissue by means of a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussche, Julie Vanden; Decloedt, Anneleen; Van Meulebroek, Lieven; De Clercq, Nathalie; Lock, Stephen; Stahl-Zeng, Jianru; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2014-09-19

    In recent years, the analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents has shifted from target-oriented procedures, mainly based on liquid chromatography coupled to triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS), towards accurate mass full scan MS (such as Time-of-Flight (ToF) and Fourier Transform (FT)-MS). In this study, the performance of a hybrid analysis instrument (i.e. UHPLC-QuadrupoleTime-of-Flight-MS (QqToF-MS)), able to exploit both full scan HR and MS/MS capabilities within a single analytical platform, was evaluated for confirmatory analysis of anabolic steroids (gestagens, estrogens including stilbenes and androgens) in meat. The validation data was compared to previously obtained results (CD 2002/657/EC) for QqQ-MS and single stage Orbitrap-MS. Additionally, a fractional factorial design was used to shorten and optimize the sample extraction. Validation according to CD 2002/657/EC demonstrated that steroid analysis using QqToF has a higher competing value towards QqQ-MS in terms of selectivity/specificity, compared to single stage Orbitrap-MS. While providing excellent linearity, based on lack-of-fit calculations (F-test, α=0.05 for all steroids except 17β-ethinylestradiol: α=0.01), the sensitivity of QqToF-MS proved for 61.8% and 85.3% of the compounds more sensitive compared to QqQ-MS and Orbitrap-MS, respectively. Indeed, the CCα values, obtained upon ToF-MS/MS detection, ranged from 0.02 to 1.74μgkg(-1) for the 34 anabolic steroids, while for QqQ-MS and Orbitrap-MS values ranged from 0.04 to 0.88μgkg(-1) and from 0.07 to 2.50μgkg(-1), respectively. Using QqToF-MS and QqQ-MS, adequate precision was obtained as relative standard deviations for repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility, were below 20%. In case of Orbitrap-MS, some compounds (i.e. some estrogens) displayed poor precision, which was possibly caused by some lack of sensitivity at lower concentrations and the absence of MRM-like experiments. Overall, it can be

  19. Acute myocardial infarction and renal infarction in a bodybuilder using anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Erkan; Demirci, Deniz; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Calık, Ali Nazmi

    2010-06-01

    A 41-year-old male bodybuilder was admitted with acute inferior myocardial infarction. The patient had been using oxymetholone and methenolone to increase his performance for 15 years and quitted smoking three years before. He underwent successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and bare metal stenting for total occlusion of the proximal right coronary artery. Angiography also showed a critical lesion in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Five hours after primary PCI, the patient had severe right flank pain. Abdominal computed tomography showed a large renal infarction in the right kidney. Subcutaneous enoxaparin was added to dual antiplatelet treatment. Doppler renal ultrasound performed on the eighth day showed findings of reperfusion in the right kidney and normal-size kidneys. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated disappearance of previously detected thrombus remnant in the left ventricle and only mild hypokinesia around the apical and middle segments of the inferior and inferoseptal walls. The patient was discharged on the 10th day. Renal arteriography during elective LAD intervention 18 days after discharge showed complete revascularization, stent patency, and improved blood flow. This is the first case of renal infarction that developed in the early hours of primary PCI, despite effective anticoagulant and antiplatelet treatment. Intensive coronary artery and left ventricular thrombi may be explained by the use of anabolic steroids. PMID:20935436

  20. Acute kidney injury associated with androgenic steroids and nutritional supplements in bodybuilders†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almukhtar, Safa E.; Abbas, Alaa A.; Muhealdeen, Dana N.; Hughson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Four bodybuilders who injected anabolic steroids and ingested commercial protein (78–104 g/day) and creatine (15 g/day) products presented with serum creatinine levels between 229.84 and 335.92 µmol/L (2.6–3.8 mg/dL). Renal biopsies revealed acute tubular necrosis. Four weeks after discontinuing injections and supplements, serum creatinine was in the normal range and estimated glomerular filtration rate > 1.00 mL/s (60 mL/min), including two patients with biopsies showing >30% interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. The findings highlight a risk for acute and potentially chronic kidney injury among young men abusing anabolic steroids and using excessive amounts of nutritional supplements. PMID:26251708

  1. Synthetic Androgens as Designer Supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Jan Felix; Parr, Maria Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are some of the most common performance enhancing drugs (PED) among society. Despite the broad spectrum of adverse effects and legal consequences, AAS are illicitly marketed and distributed in many countries. To circumvent existing laws, the chemical structure of AAS is modified and these designer steroids are sold as nutritional supplements mainly over the Internet. Several side effects are linked with AAS abuse. Only little is known about the pharmacologic...

  2. Sundhedspolitik på steroider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2012-01-01

    Danmark er det land i verden der har valgt den måske mest drastiske metode til bekæmpelse af brug af anabole androgene steroider (AAS) i fitness- og styrketræningsmiljøerne. Ikke pga. oplysningskampagnerne, samarbejdet med SKAT eller at AAS er ulovlige. Der hvor Danmark skiller sig ud er ved brugen...

  3. Nonprescription steroids on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Christen L; Marlowe, Douglas B; Patapis, Nicholas S; Festinger, David S; Forman, Robert F

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular Web sites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March 2006 and June 2006 revealed that approximately half of the Web sites advocated their "safe" use, and roughly one third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The Web sites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less than 5% of the Web sites presented accurate health risk information about steroids or provided information to abusers seeking to discontinue their steroid use. Implications for education, prevention, treatment, and policy are discussed. PMID:22080724

  4. Androgen - secreting steroid cell tumor of the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paras Ratilal Udhreja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroid cell tumors (SCTs, not otherwise specified of the ovary are rare subgroup of sex cord tumors, which account for less than 0.1% of all ovarian tumors and also that will present at any age. The majority of these tumors produce steroids with testosterone being the most common. A case of a 28-year-old woman who presented with symptoms of virilization is reported. Although SCTs are generally benign, there is a risk for malignant transformation. Surgery is the most important and hallmark treatment.

  5. High-throughput bioaffinity mass spectrometry for screening and identification of designer anabolic steroids in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqai, Payam; Cevik, Ebru; Gerssen, Arjen; Haasnoot, Willem; Nielen, Michel W F

    2013-03-19

    A generic high-throughput bioaffinity liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (BioMS) approach was developed and applied for the screening and identification of known and unknown recombinant human sex hormone-binding globulin (rhSHBG)-binding designer steroids in dietary supplements. For screening, a semi-automated competitive inhibition binding assay was combined with fast ultrahigh-performance-LC-electrospray ionization-triple-quadrupole-MS (UPLC-QqQ-MS). 17β-Testosterone-D3 was used as the stable isotope label of which the binding to rhSHBG-coated paramagnetic microbeads was inhibited by any other binding (designer) steroid. The assay was performed in a 96-well plate and combined with the fast LC-MS, 96 measurements could be performed within 4 h. The concentration-dependent inhibition of the label by steroids in buffer and dietary supplements was demonstrated. Following an adjusted bioaffinity isolation procedure, suspect extracts were injected into a chip-UPLC(NanoTile)-Q-time-of-flight-MS system for full-scan accurate mass identification. Next to known steroids, 1-testosterone was identified in three of the supplements studied and the designer steroid tetrahydrogestrinone was identified in a spiked supplement. The generic steroid-binding assay can be used for high-throughput screening of androgens, estrogens, and gestagens in dietary supplements to fight doping. When combined with chip-UPLC-MS, it is a powerful tool for early warning of unknown emerging rhSHBG bioactive designer steroids in dietary supplements. PMID:23419079

  6. Detection of hormonal anabolic compounds in calf urine and unverified growth-promoting preparations : application of the AR-LUX bioassay for screening and determination of androgenic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankvoort, B.M.G.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Schilt, R.; Geerdink, P.; Spenkelink, B.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Despite a ban by the European Union, the use of anabolic steroids and repartitioning agents in cattle is still occasionally observed. Due to continuing improvements in analytical techniques, very low detection limits for individual compounds have been achieved. In response to these developments, coc

  7. Detection of hormonal anabolic compounds in calf urine and unverified growth-promoting preparations: application of the AR-LUX bioassay for screening and determination of androgenic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankvoort, B.M.G.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Schilt, R.; Geerdink, P.; Spenkelink, A.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Despite a ban by the European Union, the use of anabolic steroids and repartitioning agents in cattle is still occasionally observed. Due to continuing improvements in analytical techniques, very low detection limits for individual compounds have been achieved. In response to these developments, coc

  8. Steroid induced central serous retinopathy following follicular unit extraction in androgenic alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Tilak Raj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologists for various conditions and procedures commonly use corticosteroids worldwide. The development of central serous retinopathy is a lesser known complication occurring in <10% of the cases with steroid use. This case report highlights the development of central serous retinopathy after prescribing low dose of prednisolone 20 mg per day for androgenic alopecia during post-surgical follicular unit extraction (FUE surgery follow-up that recovered spontaneously after gradual withdrawal of steroids. Therefore, awareness is required for its early detection and management as it has a potential of causing irreversible visual impairment. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 1152-1155

  9. Frequency of Anabolic Steroids Abuse in Bodybuilder Athletes in Kerman City † This article has been published in the Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences in Persian language.

    OpenAIRE

    Sepehri, Gholamreza; Mousavi Fard, Majid; Sepehri, Ehsan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Athletes, especially bodybuilders, abuse anabolic steroid drugs to improve their strength and enhance their muscle growth and appearance. This study was conducted to determine the type and frequency of anabolic steroids abuse in bodybuilder athletes in Kerman City. Methods: A confidential questionnaire which included demographic data (age, education), name of abused anabolic drug and duration of drug abuse was completed by 202 bodybuilder athletes, and the collected data were anal...

  10. Solid phase extraction for multiresidue analysis of anabolic steroids and related substances from calf urine using C18 and alumina columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, A; Franke, JP; de Zeeuw, RA

    1999-01-01

    A solid phase extraction method for anabolic steroids and related substances in calf urine is reported, that is suitable as a screening method for illegal growth promoters. Two types of sorbent were used: a reversed phase C18 material and a polar alumina material. After overnight enzymatic deconjuga

  11. Use of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate associated to strength training in Wistar rats - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i2.15513

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Marta Franzói de Moraes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic steroids have been constantly used among athletes and physically active individuals. Adverse effects of such use are reported in the literature. However, little is known about the effects of anabolic steroid use associated with strength training. Thus, this research aimed to identify possible morphophysiological alterations in Wistar rats treated with the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate and submitted to strength training. Twenty Wistar rats were divided in four groups: sedentary control (SC, sedentary hormone (SH, trained control (TC and trained hormone (TH. After the experimental protocol period, animals were killed and body weight, adiposity, renal and hepatic injury markers, plasmatic lipid profile, glycemia, and insulinemia were determined. The experimental conditions strength training and nandrolone decanoate (isolated or associated were positively correlated to a reduction on visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The association of strength training with nandrolone decanoate was the most effective condition to increase muscle mass. Heart and kidneys weights, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and high density lipoprotein (HDL concentration were also negatively modified. The data demonstrated effects of anabolic steroids in body composition, with better results when associated with strength training, but collateral effects were observed.

  12. Analysis of illegally distributed anabolic steroid products by liquid chromatography with identity confirmation by mass spectrometry or infrared spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, M J; Ayers, R J; Brown, D J

    1990-01-01

    Anabolic steroid products found in the illegal market are primarily oil-based injectables or tablets and often do not contain the ingredients declared on the label. An analytical scheme based on a reverse-phase liquid chromatographic (LC) system for screening, tentative identification, and quantitation is presented. Methanolic sample extracts are chromatographed on an octadecyl column using 2 mobile phases (methanol and (75 + 25) methanol-water) and tracked at 3 wavelengths (240, 210, and 280 nm) or with a photodiode array UV detector. Retention time ratios (RR) relative to testosterone and UV data are used for tentative identification. The same LC system serves as a cleanup and isolation step for identity confirmation by direct insertion probe mass spectrometry (MS) or Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR). Recoveries range from 96.2 to 100.2% for 11 different steroids extracted from sesame oil. LC RR values for over 40 steroids, analytical results for typical products, and MS and FTIR spectra for selected compounds are presented. PMID:2289923

  13. A league of their own: demographics, motivations and patterns of use of 1,955 male adult non-medical anabolic steroid users in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darkes Jack

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rule violations among elite-level sports competitors and tragedies among adolescents have largely defined the issue of non-medical anabolic-androgenic steroid (NMAAS use for the public and policy makers. However, the predominant and oft-ignored segment of the NMAAS community exists in the general population that is neither participating in competitive sports nor adolescent. A clearer profile of NMAAS users within the general population is an initial step in developing a full understanding of NMAAS use and devising appropriate policy and interventions. This survey sought to provide a more comprehensive profile of NMAAS users by accessing a large sample of user respondents from around the United States. Methods U.S.-based male NMAAS users (n = 1955 were recruited from various Internet websites dedicated to resistance training activities and use of ergogenic substances, mass emails, and print media to participate in a 291-item web-based survey. The Internet was utilized to provide a large and geographically diverse sample with the greatest degree of anonymity to facilitate participation. Results The majority of respondents did not initiate AAS use during adolescence and their NMAAS use was not motivated by athletics. The typical user was a Caucasian, highly-educated, gainfully employed professional approximately 30 years of age, who was earning an above-average income, was not active in organized sports, and whose use was motivated by increases in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and physical attractiveness. These findings question commonly held views of the typical NMAAS user and the associated underlying motivations. Conclusion The focus on "cheating" athletes and at risk youth has led to ineffective policy as it relates to the predominant group of NMAAS users. Effective policy, prevention or intervention should address the target population(s and their reasons for use while utilizing their desire for responsible use and

  14. Wernicke's encephalopathy and anabolic steroid drug abuse. Is there any possible relation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, P; Katsanoulas, C; Timplalexi, G; Lathyris, D; Vasiliagkou, S; Antoniadou, E

    2012-10-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy is a reversible, neurologic disorder due to thiamine deficiency which is mainly related to chronic alcohol abuse. We report a case of a young male patient, who was bodybuilder and anabolic drug user, in whom encephalopathy was diagnosed after a short medical course in the ICU after a major upper gastrointestinal bleeding (Mallory-Weiss syndrome) and hypovolemic shock. His clinical condition was typical for Wernicke's encephalopathy and although neuroimaging tests were not indicative, the patient received thiamine supplement therapy, which resulted in rapid clinical improvement. The diagnosis was based only on clinical sings and anabolic drug abuse was considered as a possible predisposing factor for the manifestation of the syndrome. PMID:23935320

  15. The role of androgenic steroids in shaping social phenotypes across the lifespan in male marmosets (Callithrix spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeffrey A

    2013-03-01

    Steroid hormones, particularly androgens and their metabolic derivatives, play a prominent role in shaping morphological, behavioral, and social phenotypes in many organisms, including primates. This paper reviews the endocrine correlates of development in male marmoset monkeys of the genus Callithrix (C. kuhlii and C. geoffroyi). A lifespan developmental perspective is adopted, in which our knowledge of hormone effects and profiles from prenatal periods through old age is described. Prenatal steroid hormones appear to play a prominent role in shaping behavioral and morphological phenotypes both the prepartum and in the early postpartum periods of life, with exposure to high gestational androgen associated with reduced fetal growth and lower levels of juvenile play. Early postnatal elevations in androgen levels in males are ubiquitous in Callithrix, and play a role in the further differentiation of male genital morphology and behavior. Changes in androgens as males approach puberty are similar to the conventional primate pattern, and unlike in female marmosets, gonadal steroidogenesis appears to be independent of social context. In adults, androgens appear to be an important modulator of paternal responsiveness to infants, since androgens are low at times when males typically engage in maximal levels of care, and fathers that care for offspring extensively appear to have lower androgen levels than fathers that are less involved in offspring care. Finally, aging in male marmosets is associated with reduced androgen levels. This reduction appears to be attributable to deficits in central mechanisms, since experimental induction and inhibition of gonadal steroid synthesis and release appears to be normal in older males. Together, these results suggest a complex picture of lifetime involvement of androgens in shaping marmoset phenotypes. PMID:23335110

  16. Cosmetic doping--when anabolic-androgenic steroids are not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Vandré Casagrande; Silva, Paulo Rodrigo Pedroso da

    2014-07-01

    Doping is considered to be a major sports problem. This article describes a new threat and challenge to the sport of bodybuilding; the nonmedical use of a chemical in order to mimic muscle hypertrophy. Although muscle fillers are not new, being used for cosmetic purposes in medicine for a long time, the illegal use of muscle fillers has been increasing during the last few years and decades. The history of cosmetic doping, with particular attention to the Brazilian case, is discussed. Limitations are noted and future needed research is suggested. PMID:24915171

  17. BINDING OF STEROIDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS TO THE RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA EXPRESSED IN COS CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binding of Steroids and Environmental Chemicals to the Rainbow Trout Androgen Receptor Alpha Expressed in COS Cells. Mary C. Cardon, L. Earl Gray. Jr., Phillip C. Hartig and Vickie S. Wilson U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology...

  18. Relação entre a administração de esteróide anabólico androgênico, treinamento físico aeróbio e supercompensação do glicogênio Relación entre la administración de un esteroide anabólico androgénico, el tratamiento físico aeróbico y la supercompensación del glucógeno Relation between anabolic androgenic steroid administration, aerobic physical training and glycogen supercompensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana S Cunha

    2005-06-01

    : 0,21 ± 0,02mg/100mg]. La glucemia y las reservas de glucógeno del sóleo permanecieron inalteradas. El uso de dosis superfisiológicas de nandrona no potencializaron ninguno de los efectos obtenidos en respuesta al entrenamiento aeróbico.Glycogen supercompensation is one of the adaptations induced by physical training. To potentiate this phenomenon, many athletes use supraphysiological doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of nandrolone and aerobic physical exercise in rats, on body weight, plasmatic triglycerides levels, blood glucose and glycogen content. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Sedentary + vehicle (SV, Trained + vehicle (TV, Sedentary + AAS (SAAS and Trained + AAS (TAAS (n = 7-14/group. They received i.m. injections of nandrolone or vehicle for 9 weeks, and during the same period trained rats were submitted to aerobic exercise. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p (SV: 0,2 ± 0,02 = SAAS: 0,21 ± 0,02 mg/100 mg]. Blood glucose and soleus glycogen reserves remained unaltered. The use of supraphysiological doses of nandrolone did not potentiate any of the effects obtained in response to aerobic physical training.

  19. Strenght training and anabolic steroids : a comparative study of the trapezius, a shoulder muscle and the vastus lateralis, a thigh muscle, of strength trained athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Strength training is widely used to increase performance in sports with high physical demands. The use of drugs such as anabolic steroids among athletes is a wellknown phenomenon, and the effects of these drugs on physical performance documented. The studies presented in this thesis focused on the mechanisms of muscle fiber hypertrophy in the vastus lateralis and the trapezius muscles of strength trained elite athletes. The main hypothesis was that the muscle adaptations to strength training ...

  20. Urine testing for designing steroids by liquid chromatography and androgen bioaasay detection and electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Engelen, M.C.; Rutgers, P.; Hamers, A.R.M.; Rhijn, van J.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    New anabolic steroids show up occasionally in sports doping and in veterinary control. The discovery of these designer steroids is facilitated by findings of illicit preparations, thus allowing bioactivity testing, structure elucidation using NMR and mass spectrometry, and final incorporation in uri

  1. High resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry in comparison with tandem mass spectrometry for confirmation of anabolic steroids in meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaecke, Lynn; Van Meulebroek, Lieven; De Clercq, Nathalie; Vanden Bussche, Julie

    2013-03-12

    A prominent trend which has been observed in recent years in the analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents is the shift from target-oriented procedures, mainly based on liquid chromatography coupled to triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS), towards accurate mass full scan MS (such as time of flight (ToF) and Fourier Transform (FT) Orbitrap MS). In this study the applicability of high resolution single-stage-Orbitrap-MS for confirmatory analysis of growth-promoting agents in meat was compared to that of a QqQ-MS. Validation according to CD 2002/657/EC demonstrated that steroid analysis based on Orbitrap MS, operating at a resolution of 50,000 FWHM, is indeed capable to compete with QqQ-MS in terms of selectivity/specificity, while providing excellent linearity (for most compounds >0.99) but somewhat inferior sensitivity. Indeed, CCαs reached from 0.04-0.88μgkg(-1) for the 34 anabolic steroids upon MS/MS detection, while upon Orbitrap MS detection a range of 0.07-2.50μgkg(-1) was observed. Using QqQ-MS adequate precision was obtained since relative standard deviations, associated with the repeatability and intra-laboratory reproducibility, were below 20%. In the case of Orbitrap MS, for some compounds (i.e. some estrogens) this threshold was exceeded and thus poor precision was observed, which is possibly caused by the lack in sensitivity. Overall, it may be concluded that Orbitrap-MS offers an adequate performance in terms of linearity and precision but lacks in sensitivity for some of the compounds. PMID:23452795

  2. Impact of androgenic/antiandrogenic compounds (AAC) on human sex steroid metabolizing key enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various pesticides, industrial pollutants and synthetic compounds, to which human populations are exposed, are known or suspected to interfere with endogenous sex hormone functions. Such interference potentially affect the development and expression of the male and female reproductive system or both. Chemicals in this class are thus referred to as endocrine disruptors (ED). This emphazises on the relevance of screening ED for a wide range of sex hormone-mimicking effects. These compounds are believed to exert influence on hormonal actions predominantly by (i) interfering with endogenous steroids in that they functionally interact with plasma membrane-located receptors as well as with nuclear receptors both for estrogens and androgens or (ii) affecting the levels of sex hormones as a result of their impact on steroid metabolizing key enzymes. Essential sex hormone-related enzymes within the endocrine system of humans are aromatase, 5α-reductase 2 as well as specific sulfotransferases and sulfatases (so-called phase I and phase II enzymes, respectively). Using suitable human tissues and human cancer cell lines (placenta, prostate, liver and JEG-3, lymph node carcinoma of prostate (LnCaP) cells) we investigated the impact of 10 widely used chemicals suspected of acting as ED with androgenic or antiandrogenic activity (so-called AAC) on the activity of these sex hormone metabolizing key enzymes in humans. In addition, the respective effects of six substances were also studied as positive controls due to their well-known specific hormonal agonistic/antagonistic activities. The aim of this report and subsequent investigations is to improve human health risk assessment for AAC and other ED

  3. Steroid-induced androgen receptor-oestradiol receptor beta-Src complex triggers prostate cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, A; Castoria, G; Di Domenico, M; de Falco, A; Bilancio, A; Lombardi, M; Barone, M V; Ametrano, D; Zannini, M S; Abbondanza, C; Auricchio, F

    2000-10-16

    Treatment of human prostate carcinoma-derived LNCaP cells with androgen or oestradiol triggers simultaneous association of androgen receptor and oestradiol receptor beta with Src, activates the Src/Raf-1/Erk-2 pathway and stimulates cell proliferation. Surprisingly, either androgen or oestradiol action on each of these steps is inhibited by both anti-androgens and anti-oestrogens. Similar findings for oestradiol receptor alpha were observed in MCF-7 or T47D cells stimulated by either oestradiol or androgens. Microinjection of LNCaP, MCF-7 and T47D cells with SrcK(-) abolishes steroid-stimulated S-phase entry. Data from transfected Cos cells confirm and extend the findings from these cells. Hormone-stimulated Src interaction with the androgen receptor and oestradiol receptor alpha or beta is detected using glutathione S:-transferase fusion constructs. Src SH2 interacts with phosphotyrosine 537 of oestradiol receptor alpha and the Src SH3 domain with a proline-rich stretch of the androgen receptor. The role of this phosphotyrosine is stressed by its requirement for association of oestradiol receptor alpha with Src and consequent activation of Src in intact Cos cells. PMID:11032808

  4. Steroid-induced androgen receptor–oestradiol receptor β–Src complex triggers prostate cancer cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Antimo; Castoria, Gabriella; Di Domenico, Marina; de Falco, Antonietta; Bilancio, Antonio; Lombardi, Maria; Barone, Maria Vittoria; Ametrano, Donatella; Zannini, Maria Stella; Abbondanza, Ciro; Auricchio, Ferdinando

    2000-01-01

    Treatment of human prostate carcinoma-derived LNCaP cells with androgen or oestradiol triggers simultaneous association of androgen receptor and oestradiol receptor β with Src, activates the Src/Raf-1/Erk-2 pathway and stimulates cell proliferation. Surprisingly, either androgen or oestradiol action on each of these steps is inhibited by both anti-androgens and anti-oestrogens. Similar findings for oestradiol receptor α were observed in MCF-7 or T47D cells stimulated by either oestradiol or androgens. Microinjection of LNCaP, MCF-7 and T47D cells with SrcK– abolishes steroid-stimulated S-phase entry. Data from transfected Cos cells confirm and extend the findings from these cells. Hormone-stimulated Src interaction with the androgen receptor and oestradiol receptor α or β is detected using glutathione S-transferase fusion constructs. Src SH2 interacts with phosphotyrosine 537 of oestradiol receptor α and the Src SH3 domain with a proline-rich stretch of the androgen receptor. The role of this phosphotyrosine is stressed by its requirement for association of oestradiol receptor α with Src and consequent activation of Src in intact Cos cells. PMID:11032808

  5. Bodybuilders who consume anabolic steroids and its relationship with their physical self description and their physical social anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Arbinaga Ibarzábal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of physical and social anxiety and the physical self description in 55 male bodybuilders who use anabolic steroids and 95 non users are determined, the consumption is being valued through the Fat Free Body Mass (Kouri, Pope and Katz, 1995. On the SPAS scale (Hart, Leary and Rejeski, 1989 the consumers give higher values to the non consumers in the total score (t=2,721 p=0,008 and in the “expectation towards a negative assessment” (t=2,710 p=0,008 and very slight differences in the “comfort with their physical presence” (t=1,939 p=0,054. In self description, valued through the PSDQ (Marsh and Sutherland, 1994, it is shown that non users get a higher score in self description (t=2,431 p=0,016. Nevertheless, there are no differences given in the global scores in self description of the physical form (t=1,542 p=0,125. Inverse and significant correlations are observed between the two scales; with the dimension “physical self description” (r=-0,583 p=0,000 and with “self description of the physical form” (r=-0,337 p=0,000.

  6. Relationships between structure, ionization profile and sensitivity of exogenous anabolic steroids under electrospray ionization and analysis in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eunju; Kim, Sohee; Kim, Hee Won; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, Ho Jun; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Lee, Jaeick

    2016-04-01

    The relationships between the ionization profile, sensitivity, and structures of 64 exogenous anabolic steroids (groups I-IV) was investigated under electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions. The target analytes were ionized as [M + H](+) or [M + H-nH2 O](+) in the positive mode, and these ions were used as precursor ions for selected reaction monitoring analysis. The collision energy and Q3 ions were optimized based on the sensitivity and selectivity. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.05-20 ng/mL for the 64 steroids. The LODs for 38 compounds, 14 compounds and 12 compounds were in the range of 0.05-1, 2-5 and 10-20 ng/mL, respectively. Steroids including the conjugated keto-functional group at C3 showed good proton affinity and stability, and generated the [M + H](+) ion as the most abundant precursor ion. In addition, the LODs of steroids using the [M + H](+) ion as the precursor ion were mostly distributed at low concentrations. In contrast, steroids containing conjugated/unconjugated hydroxyl functional groups at C3 generated [M + H - H2 O](+) or [M + H - 2H2 O](+) ions, and these steroids showed relatively high LODs owing to poor stability and multiple ion formation. An LC-MS/MS method based on the present ionization profile was developed and validated for the determination of 78 steroids (groups I-V) in human urine. PMID:26268571

  7. Lacunar Infarction Associated with Anabolic Steroids and Polycythemia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W.J. Harston

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lacunar infarction is traditionally ascribed to lipohyalinosis or microatheroma. We report the case of 40-year-old man, without traditional risk factors for ischemic stroke, who presented to the Emergency Department with recurrent episodes of transient right-sided weakness and paresthesia. Lacunar infarction was confirmed on diffusion-weighted MRI and blood tests showed a marked polycythemia. Quantitative magnetic resonance perfusion imaging demonstrated dramatically abnormal perfusion throughout both cerebral hemispheres, and transcranial Doppler revealed reduced cerebral artery velocities, both consistent with the proposed mechanism of hyperviscosity. His symptoms settled with treatment of the polycythemia and workup did not find another cause of ischemic stroke. We propose that hyperviscosity secondary to steroid-induced polycythemia caused ischemia in this case and not lipohyalinosis or microatheroma, to which lacunar disease is commonly attributed.

  8. Screening for anabolic steroids and related compounds in illegal cocktails by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry with accurate mass measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Vissers, J.P.C.; Fuchs, R.E.M.; Velde, van J.W.; Lommen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Findings of illegal hormone preparations such as syringes, bottles, cocktails, and so on, are an important information source for the nature of the current abuse of anabolic steroids and related compounds as growth-promoting agents in cattle. A new screening method for steroids in cocktails is prese

  9. Development, validation and application to real samples of a multiresidue LC-MS/MS method for determination of β2 -agonists and anabolic steroids in bovine hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporati, M; Bergoglio, M; Capra, P; Bozzetta, E; Abete, M C; Vincenti, M

    2014-09-01

    β(2) -agonists are often abused in cattle breeding because of their effects on animal growth and meat properties. The use of β(2) -agonists as growth promoters is forbidden in the European Union (Council Directive 96/23/EC classifies them into group A of Annex I), due to their toxicity and carcinogenic properties, as for anabolic steroids, which are often administered in combination with β(2) -agonists, to promote the storage of proteins and increase muscle size. A unique confirmatory liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantitative detection of 13 β(2) -agonists and anabolic steroids plus the qualitative identification of other three analytes in bovine hair was developed and validated, according to Decision 2002/657/CE. Hair samples were washed with dichloromethane, digested within a NaOH solution and subjected to liquid-liquid extraction. The analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The absence of matrix interferents, together with good repeatability of both retention times and relative abundances of diagnostic transitions, allowed the correct identification of all analytes. The quantitative calibrations obtained from spiked blank hair samples proved linear in the range tested. CCα and CCβ ranged from 0.5 ng/g to 30 ng/g. Intralaboratory reproducibility (CV%) ranged between 5.0 and 17.7 and trueness between 96% ± 7% and 105% ± 8%. The applicability of the method to real positive samples was demonstrated for both β(2) -agonists and anabolic steroids. 17α-boldenone was found in most (70%) hair samples obtained from untreated animals, supporting the hypothesis of endogenous production of this steroid. PMID:25230191

  10. The Physiological Effects on Hormones levels and Kidneys Functions Induced by The Anabolic Androgenic Drug (Sustanon in Male Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameen S.A.B. Bisher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In recent years, the intentional abuse of anabolic androgenic drugs by athletes has increased rapidly in many countries to become a serious negative phenomenon. Athletes, specially in power sports, abuse these drugs such as Sustanon in high doses to obtain a rapid and huge increasing in the muscles mass and to improve their performance during the sport competitions. This abuse causes severe adverse effects among the abusers. Approach: The present physiological study was performed to answer the following question: could Sustanon abuse induce marked abnormal alterations in some hormones levels and in the kidneys functions?. The current study was needed due to the lack of sufficient information about the hormonal and nephritic adverse effects caused by Sustanon abuse in particular. This study on male Guinea pigs aimed to investigate the potential abnormal alterations in the levels of some hormones and in the kidney functions induced by repeated administration of two Sustanon doses. The treated animals were injected intramuscularly (i.m. once a week with Sustanon doses as follow (15 mg Kg-1 in group G II and 30 mg Kg-1 in group G III for a continuous treatment period of 6 weeks. Results: The results of the blood biochemical measurements showed statistical significant decreases in means of the serum levels of: Triiodothyronine (TT3, Thyroxine (TT4 and Insulin specially in the treated group (G III (0.42±0.38 ng mL-1, 3.79±0.15 µg dL-1, 0.62±0.43 µl.U mL-1, respectively compared to the control group according to (t-test. This was accompanied by significant increase in mean of cortisol serum levels in the treated group (G III (63.44±4.90 µg L-1. At the same time, marked significant increases were recorded in the means of the serum levels of the blood compounds related to the kidney functions (Blood urea, Uric acid, Creatinine, Albumin and Na+ and K+ in the treated group (G III (53.9±2.70, 4.76±0.62, 1.63±0.24 µg dL-1, 3.38

  11. Analysis of Androgenic Steroids in Environmental Waters by Large-volume Injection Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Backe, Will J.; Ort, Christoph; Brewer, Alex J.; Field, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    A new method was developed for the analysis of natural and synthetic androgenic steroids and their selected metabolites in aquatic environmental matrices using direct large-volume injection (LVI) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Method accuracy ranged from 88 to 108% for analytes with well-matched internal standards. Precision, quantified by relative standard deviation (RSD), was less than 12%. Detection limits for the method ranged from 1.2 to 3...

  12. The Role of Androgenic Steroids in Shaping Social Phenotypes Across the Lifespan in Male Marmosets (Callithrix spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    FRENCH, JEFFREY A.

    2012-01-01

    Steroid hormones, particularly androgens and their metabolic derivatives, play a prominent role in shaping morphological, behavioral, and social phenotypes in many organisms, including primates. This paper reviews the endocrine correlates of development in male marmoset monkeys of the genus Callithrix (C. kuhlii and C. geoffroyi). A lifespan developmental perspective is adopted, in which our knowledge of hormone effects and profiles from prenatal periods through old age are described. Prenata...

  13. Androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rakesh; Handelsman, David J

    2016-01-01

    Androgen abuse is the most potent and prevalent form of sports doping detected. It originated from the early years of the Cold War as an epidemic confined to drug cheating within elite power sports. In the decades following the end of the Cold War, it has become disseminated into an endemic based within the illicit drug subcultures serving recreational abusers seeking cosmetic body sculpting effects. Within sports, both direct androgen abuse (administration of androgens), as well as indirect androgen abuse (administration of nonandrogenic drugs to increase endogenous testosterone), is mostly readily detectable with mass spectrometry-based anti-doping urine tests. The ongoing temptation of fame and fortune and the effectiveness of androgen abuse in power sports continue to entice cheating via renewed approaches aiming to exploit androgens. These require ongoing vigilance, inventiveness in anti-doping science, and targeting coaches as well as athletes in order to build resilience against doping and maintain fairness in elite sport. The challenge of androgen abuse in the community among recreational abusers has barely been recognized and effective approaches remain to be developed. PMID:27347677

  14. Anabolic agents: recent strategies for their detection and protection from inadvertent doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-05-01

    According to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List, anabolic agents consist of exogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), endogenous AAS and other anabolic agents such as clenbuterol and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Currently employed strategies for their improved detection include the prolongation of the detection windows for exogenous AAS, non-targeted and indirect analytical approaches for the detection of modified steroids (designer steroids), the athlete's biological passport and isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the detection of the misuse of endogenous AAS, as well as preventive doping research for the detection of SARMs. The recent use of these strategies led to 4-80-fold increases of adverse analytical findings for exogenous AAS, to the detection of the misuse of new designer steroids, to adverse analytical findings of different endogenous AAS and to the first adverse analytical findings of SARMs. The strategies of the antidoping research are not only focused on the development of methods to catch the cheating athlete but also to protect the clean athlete from inadvertent doping. Within the past few years several sources of inadvertent doping with anabolic agents have been identified. Among these are nutritional supplements adulterated with AAS, meat products contaminated with clenbuterol, mycotoxin (zearalenone) contamination leading to zeranol findings, and natural products containing endogenous AAS. The protection strategy consists of further investigations in case of reasonable suspicion of inadvertent doping, publication of the results, education of athletes and development of methods to differentiate between intentional and unintentional doping. PMID:24632537

  15. Assessment of two complementary liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry metabolomics strategies for the screening of anabolic steroid treatment in calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud, E-mail: laberca@oniris-nantes.fr [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France); Weigel, Stefan; Lommen, Arjen [RIKILT - Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Chereau, Sylvain; Rambaud, Lauriane [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France); Essers, Martien [RIKILT - Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Antignac, Jean-Philippe [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France); Nielen, Michel W.F. [RIKILT - Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Wageningen (Netherlands); Le Bizec, Bruno [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France)

    2011-08-26

    Anabolic steroids are banned in food producing livestock in Europe. Efficient methods based on mass spectrometry detection have been developed to ensure the control of such veterinary drug residues. Nevertheless, the use of 'cocktails' composed of mixtures of low amounts of several substances as well as the synthesis of new compounds of unknown structure prevent efficient prevention. New analytical tools able to detect such abuse are today mandatory. In this context, metabolomics may represent new emerging strategies for investigating the global physiological effects associated to a family of substances and therefore, to suspect the administration of steroids. The purpose of the present study was to set up, assess and compare two complementary mass spectrometry-based metabolomic strategies as new tools to screen for steroid abuse in cattle and demonstrate the feasibility of such approaches. The protocols were developed in two European laboratories in charge of residues analysis in the field of food safety. Apart from sample preparation, the global process was different in both laboratories from LC-HRMS fingerprinting to multivariate data analysis through data processing and involved both LC-Orbitrap-XCMS and UPLC-ToF-MS-MetAlign strategies. The reproducibility of both sample preparation and MS measurements were assessed in order to guarantee that any differences in the acquired fingerprints were not caused by analytical variability but reflect metabolome modifications upon steroids administration. The protocols were then applied to urine samples collected on a large group of animals consisting of 12 control calves and 12 calves administrated with a mixture of 17{beta}-estradiol 3-benzoate and 17{beta}-nandrolone laureate esters according to a protocol reflecting likely illegal practices. The modifications in urine profiles as indicators of steroid administration have been evaluated in this context and proved the suitability of the approach for

  16. Assessment of two complementary liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry metabolomics strategies for the screening of anabolic steroid treatment in calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anabolic steroids are banned in food producing livestock in Europe. Efficient methods based on mass spectrometry detection have been developed to ensure the control of such veterinary drug residues. Nevertheless, the use of 'cocktails' composed of mixtures of low amounts of several substances as well as the synthesis of new compounds of unknown structure prevent efficient prevention. New analytical tools able to detect such abuse are today mandatory. In this context, metabolomics may represent new emerging strategies for investigating the global physiological effects associated to a family of substances and therefore, to suspect the administration of steroids. The purpose of the present study was to set up, assess and compare two complementary mass spectrometry-based metabolomic strategies as new tools to screen for steroid abuse in cattle and demonstrate the feasibility of such approaches. The protocols were developed in two European laboratories in charge of residues analysis in the field of food safety. Apart from sample preparation, the global process was different in both laboratories from LC-HRMS fingerprinting to multivariate data analysis through data processing and involved both LC-Orbitrap-XCMS and UPLC-ToF-MS-MetAlign strategies. The reproducibility of both sample preparation and MS measurements were assessed in order to guarantee that any differences in the acquired fingerprints were not caused by analytical variability but reflect metabolome modifications upon steroids administration. The protocols were then applied to urine samples collected on a large group of animals consisting of 12 control calves and 12 calves administrated with a mixture of 17β-estradiol 3-benzoate and 17β-nandrolone laureate esters according to a protocol reflecting likely illegal practices. The modifications in urine profiles as indicators of steroid administration have been evaluated in this context and proved the suitability of the approach for discriminating anabolic

  17. Identification of Novel Steroidal Androgen Receptor Degrading Agents Inspired by Galeterone 3β-Imidazole Carbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushottamachar, Puranik; Kwegyir-Afful, Andrew K; Martin, Marlena S; Ramamurthy, Vidya P; Ramalingam, Senthilmurugan; Njar, Vincent C O

    2016-07-14

    Degradation of all forms of androgen receptors (ARs) is emerging as an advantageous therapeutic paradigm for the effective treatment of prostate cancer. In continuation of our program to identify and develop improved efficacious novel small-molecule agents designed to disrupt AR signaling through enhanced AR degradation, we have designed, synthesized, and evaluated novel C-3 modified analogues of our phase 3 clinical agent, galeterone (5). Concerns of potential in vivo stability of our recently discovered more efficacious galeterone 3β-imidazole carbamate (6) led to the design and synthesis of new steroidal compounds. Two of the 11 compounds, 3β-pyridyl ether (8) and 3β-imidazole (17) with antiproliferative GI50 values of 3.24 and 2.54 μM against CWR22Rv1 prostate cancer cell, are 2.75- and 3.5-fold superior to 5. In addition, compounds 8 and 17 possess improved (∼4-fold) AR-V7 degrading activities. Importantly, these two compounds are expected to be metabolically stable, making them suitable for further development as new therapeutics against all forms of prostate cancer. PMID:27437082

  18. Novel approach to the preparation of hemisuccinates of steroids bearing tertiary alcohol group

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Longin, O.; Černý, Ivan; Drašar, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 97, SI (2015), s. 67-71. ISSN 0039-128X Grant ostatní: GA MV(CZ) VG20112015045 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : anabolic-androgenic steroid * ester formation * hemisuccinate * tertiary alcohol Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.639, year: 2014

  19. Anabolic Steroids (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... habla acerca del peligro y los efectos del abuso de los esteroides. Blog Posts How Does Pro ... variety of drugs including, illicit and prescription drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. Download PDF 3.79 MB Chat ...

  20. A preliminary MTD-PLS study for androgen receptor binding of steroid compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Alina; Seclaman, E.; Kurunczi, L.; Funar-Timofei, Simona

    The relative binding affinities (RBA) of a series of 30 steroids for Human Androgen Receptor (AR) were used to initiate a MTD-PLS study. The 3D structures of all the compounds were obtained through geometry optimization in the framework of AM1 semiempirical quantum chemical method. The MTD hypermolecule (HM) was constructed, superposing these structures on the AR-bonded dihydrotestosterone (DHT) skeleton obtained from PDB (AR complex, ID 1I37). The parameters characterizing the HM vertices were collected using: AM1 charges, XlogP fragmental values, calculated fragmental polarizabilities (from refractivities), volumes, and H-bond parameters (Raevsky's thermodynamic originated scale). The resulted QSAR data matrix was submitted to PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and PLS (Projections in Latent Structures) procedure (SIMCA P 9.0); five compounds were selected as test set, and the remaining 25 molecules were used as training set. In the PLS procedure supplementary chemical information was introduced, i.e. the steric effect was always considered detrimental, and the hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions were imposed to be beneficial. The initial PLS model using the entire training set has the following characteristics: R2Y = 0.584, Q2 = 0.344. Based on distances to the model criterions (DMODX and DMODY), five compounds were eliminated and the obtained final model had the following characteristics: R2Y D 0.891, Q2 D 0.591. For this the external predictivity on the test set was unsatisfactory. A tentative explanation for these behaviors is the weak information content of the input QSAR matrix for the present series comparatively with other successful MTD-PLS modeling published elsewhere.

  1. Prohibited anabolic substances, dangerous to human consumers, in accordance of E.U. regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia A. Hanganu,; Voicu, V.,; Cristina, T.Romeo

    2009-01-01

    Substances with anabolic effects are used to enhance feed conversion, growth rate or muscle tissue deposition in stock farming for several decades. The majority of these compounds have biochemical effects similar to sex steroids (androgens, estrogens, gestagens). However, in the E.U., the use of hormones for growth – promotion or fattening is prohibited. Monitoring of residues of hormonal growth-promotion in meat or milk, is essential for implementing such bans and to protect public health ag...

  2. Sarcopenia and Androgens: A Link between Pathology and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Basualto-Alarcón, Carla; Varela, Diego; Duran, Javier; Maass, Rodrigo; Estrada, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, is becoming more prevalent as the lifespan continues to increase in most populations. As sarcopenia is highly disabling, being associated with increased risk of dependence, falls, fractures, weakness, disability, and death, development of approaches to its prevention and treatment are required. Androgens are the main physiologic anabolic steroid hormones and normal testosterone levels are necessary for a range of developme...

  3. High-throughput analysis of 19 endogenous androgenic steroids by ultra-performance convergence chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanson, Jonathan L; Stander, Marietjie A; Pretorius, Elzette; Jenkinson, Carl; Taylor, Angela E; Storbeck, Karl-Heinz

    2016-09-15

    11-Oxygenated steroids such as 11-ketotestosterone and 11-ketodihydrotestosterone have recently been shown to play a putative role in the development and progression of castration resistant prostate cancer. In this study we report on the development of a high throughput ultra-performance convergence chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPC(2)-MS/MS) method for the analysis of thirteen 11-oxygenated and six canonical C19 steroids isolated from a cell culture matrix. Using an Acquity UPC(2) BEH 2-EP column we found that UPC(2) resulted in superior selectivity, increased chromatographic efficiency and a scattered elution order when compared to conventional reverse phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in sensitivity (5-50 times). The lower limits of quantification ranged between 0.01-10ngmL(-1), while the upper limit of quantification was 100ngmL(-1) for all steroids. Accuracy, precision, intra-day variation, recovery, matrix effects and process efficiency were all evaluated and found to be within acceptable limits. Taken together we show that the increased power of UPC(2)-MS/MS allows the analyst to complete in vitro assays at biologically relevant concentrations for the first time and in so doing determine the routes of steroid metabolism which is vital for studies of androgen responsive cancers, such as prostate cancer, and could highlight new mechanisms of disease progression and new targets for cancer therapy. PMID:27479683

  4. A mutation in the ligand binding domain of the androgen receptor of human LNCaP cells affects steroid binding characteristics and response to anti-androgens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Veldscholte (Jos); C. Ris-Stalpers (Carolyn); G.G.J.M. Kuiper (George); G.W. Jenster (Guido); C.A. Berrevoets (Cor); H.J.H.M. Claassen (Eric); H.C.J. van Rooij (Henri); J. Trapman (Jan); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert); E. Mulder (Eppo)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract INCaP prostate tumor cells contain an abnormal androgen receptor system. Progestagens, estradiol and anti-androgens can compete with androgens for binding to the androgen receptor and can stimulate both cell growth and excretion of prostate specific acid phosphatase. We ha

  5. CDNA CLONING OF FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) ESTROGEN AND ANDROGEN RECEPTORS FOR USE IN STEROID RECEPTOR EXTRAPOLATION STUDIES FOR ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    cDNA Cloning of Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) Estrogen and Androgen Receptors for Use in Steroid Receptor Extrapolation Studies for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals. Wilson, V.S.1,, Korte, J.2, Hartig P. 1, Ankley, G.T.2, Gray, L.E., Jr 1, , and Welch, J.E.1. 1U.S...

  6. His Biceps become Him: A Test of Objectification Theory's Application to Drive for Muscularity and Propensity for Steroid Use in College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Mike C.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Men's body image problems may manifest as an unhealthy drive for muscularity and propensity to use anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). Aspects of objectification theory were integrated with literature on men's drive for muscularity and AAS use to identify correlates of these problems. The resultant model was tested with path analyses of data from…

  7. Culto ao corpo e uso de anabolizantes entre praticantes de musculação Body cult and use of anabolic steroids by bodybuilders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Bernstein Iriart

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi investigar as motivações para a prática da musculação e uso de anabolizantes, assim como as representações e usos sociais do corpo entre usuários de anabolizantes praticantes de musculação. Foi realizado um estudo etnográfico com observação participante em academias de musculação de bairros de classe média e classes populares de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, e realização de 43 entrevistas em profundidade com usuários de anabolizantes. A prática da musculação e o uso de anabolizantes, tanto entre usuários de classe média quanto populares, são motivados sobretudo por razões estéticas. A insatisfação com corpo real em comparação ao padrão ideal disseminado pela mídia, o receio de ser desvalorizado ou excluído do grupo de pares, o capital simbólico associado ao corpo "trabalhado" e o imediatismo na obtenção dos resultados favorecem o uso de anabolizantes. Faz-se necessária a realização de campanhas de prevenção voltadas para os jovens que aliem a visão crítica na desconstrução dos valores associados ao corpo na sociedade de consumo à veiculação de informação de qualidade sobre os riscos à saúde no consumo de anabolizantes.This study focused on the reasons for practicing bodybuilding and the use of anabolic steroids, as well as the social representations and uses of the body among bodybuilding steroid users. This ethnographic study involved participant observation in middle and lower-class bodybuilding gyms in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, and 43 in-depth interviews with steroid users. Aesthetic reasons are the main motivation for bodybuilding and steroid use in both middle and lower-class users. Dissatisfaction with one's real body as compared to the ideal standard flaunted by the mass media, fear of being devalued or shunned by one's peer groups, the symbolic capital associated with a "pumped-up" body, and the sense of immediacy in obtaining results all contributed to steroid

  8. Gene expression in distinct regions of rat tendons in response to jump training combined with anabolic androgenic steroid administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marqueti, Rita Cássia; Marqueti, Rita de Cássia; Heinemeier, Katja Maria;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of key genes responsible for tendon remodeling of the proximal and distal regions of calcaneal tendon (CT), intermediate and distal region of superficial flexor tendon (SFT) and proximal, intermediate and distal region of deep flexor tendon (DF...

  9. Androgen Secreting Steroid Cell Tumor of the Ovary Represented with Postmenopasal Bleeding and Extensive Hirsutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Georgievska

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: In adult patients with hirsutism and elevated serum testosterone a possibility of a presence of an ovarian steroid cell tumor should be considered. Surgery is the main treatment of such patients.

  10. Piomiosite em atletas após o uso de esteroides anabolizantes: relato de casos Pyomyositis in athletes after the use of anabolic steroids: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Souza Cardozo Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Relato da conduta de cinco casos de piomiosite em atletas após o uso de esteroides anabolizantes. Nos últimos 10 anos foram avaliados cinco atendimentos a atletas no Centro de Traumatologia do Esporte (CETE - EPM - Unifesp que desenvolveram piomiosite após o uso de esteroides anabolizantes. Todos os pacientes foram diagnosticados clínica e laboratorialmente e por exames de imagem, sendo realizado tratamento cirúrgico (com coleta de material para cultura e antibioticoterapia. Em quatro casos, os locais de administração foram nos membros superiores e, em um dos casos, nos glúteos bilaterais, além dos membros superiores. Nos cinco casos, houve a ocorrência de leucocitose com neutrofilia no hemograma e, após a limpeza cirúrgica, os germes habituais da pele (S. aureus e S. viridans foram encontrados na cultura das secreções. A delimitação do abscesso, assim como o estudo do plano muscular em que se encontrava, foi realizada por meio do estudo de imagem com ultrassonografia e ressonância magnética. Todos responderam à antibioticoterapia de amplo espectro e, em dois casos, foi necessário mais de um procedimento cirúrgico devido ao surgimento de mais de um ponto de abscesso com tempo de evolução diferente. O uso de esteroides anabolizantes por alguns atletas pode trazer consequências graves; a intervenção rápida, enérgica e multidisciplinar se faz necessária nesses casos para se evitar resultados não desejáveis. O tratamento adequado curou os atletas completamente, com retorno ao esporte no mesmo nível.OBJECTIVE: To report on the management of five cases of pyomyositis in athletes after the use of anabolic steroids. METHOD: Over the past 10 years, five cases of athletes who developed pyomyositis after using anabolic steroids were attended at the Sports Trauma Center (CETE, EPM-UNIFESP. RESULTS: All the patients were diagnosed clinically and through laboratory and imaging tests. Surgical treatment was carried out (with

  11. 17β-trenbolone, an anabolic–androgenic steroid as well as an environmental hormone, contributes to neurodegeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to neurodegenerative disorders. In a large number of neurodegenerative diseases (for example, Alzheimer's disease (AD)), patients do not carry the mutant genes. Other risk factors, for example the environmental factors, should be evaluated. 17β-trenbolone is a kind of environmental hormone as well as an anabolic–androgenic steroid. 17β-trenbolone is used as a growth promoter for livestock in the USA. Also, a large portion of recreational exercisers inject 17β-trenbolone in large doses and for very long time to increase muscle and strength. 17β-trenbolone is stable in the environment after being excreted. In the present study, 17β-trenbolone was administered to adult and pregnant rats and the primary hippocampal neurons. 17β-trenbolone's distribution and its effects on serum hormone levels and Aβ42 accumulation in vivo and its effects on AD related parameters in vitro were assessed. 17β-trenbolone accumulated in adult rat brain, especially in the hippocampus, and in the fetus brain. It altered Aβ42 accumulation. 17β-trenbolone induced apoptosis of primary hippocampal neurons in vitro and resisted neuroprotective function of testosterone. Presenilin-1 protein expression was down-regulated while β-amyloid peptide 42 (Aβ42) production and caspase-3 activities were increased. Both androgen and estrogen receptors mediated the processes. 17β-trenbolone played critical roles in neurodegeneration. Exercisers who inject large doses of trenbolone and common people who are exposed to 17β-trenbolone by various ways are all influenced chronically and continually. Identification of such environmental risk factors will help us take early prevention measure to slow down the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. - Highlights: • The widely used anabolic–androgenic steroid 17β-trenbolone has neurotoxicity. • 17β-trenbolone crosses the blood brain barrier and placental barrier. • Rat has high level of

  12. 17β-trenbolone, an anabolic–androgenic steroid as well as an environmental hormone, contributes to neurodegeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Fucui, E-mail: mafucui@hotmail.com [Wenzhou Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering, No. 16 Xinshan Road, Hi-tech Industry Park, Wenzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Resistance, College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, 88 East Wenhua Road, Jinan 250014 (China); Liu, Daicheng, E-mail: liudch@sdnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Animal Resistance, College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, 88 East Wenhua Road, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to neurodegenerative disorders. In a large number of neurodegenerative diseases (for example, Alzheimer's disease (AD)), patients do not carry the mutant genes. Other risk factors, for example the environmental factors, should be evaluated. 17β-trenbolone is a kind of environmental hormone as well as an anabolic–androgenic steroid. 17β-trenbolone is used as a growth promoter for livestock in the USA. Also, a large portion of recreational exercisers inject 17β-trenbolone in large doses and for very long time to increase muscle and strength. 17β-trenbolone is stable in the environment after being excreted. In the present study, 17β-trenbolone was administered to adult and pregnant rats and the primary hippocampal neurons. 17β-trenbolone's distribution and its effects on serum hormone levels and Aβ42 accumulation in vivo and its effects on AD related parameters in vitro were assessed. 17β-trenbolone accumulated in adult rat brain, especially in the hippocampus, and in the fetus brain. It altered Aβ42 accumulation. 17β-trenbolone induced apoptosis of primary hippocampal neurons in vitro and resisted neuroprotective function of testosterone. Presenilin-1 protein expression was down-regulated while β-amyloid peptide 42 (Aβ42) production and caspase-3 activities were increased. Both androgen and estrogen receptors mediated the processes. 17β-trenbolone played critical roles in neurodegeneration. Exercisers who inject large doses of trenbolone and common people who are exposed to 17β-trenbolone by various ways are all influenced chronically and continually. Identification of such environmental risk factors will help us take early prevention measure to slow down the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. - Highlights: • The widely used anabolic–androgenic steroid 17β-trenbolone has neurotoxicity. • 17β-trenbolone crosses the blood brain barrier and placental barrier. • Rat has high level of

  13. Marked elevation of adrenal steroids, especially androgens, in saliva of prepubertal autistic children

    OpenAIRE

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Hill, Martin; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Bieńkowski, Przemysław; Namysłowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Autism is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral manifestations, but its biomarkers are not well defined. A strong gender bias typifying autism (it is 4–5 times more prevalent in males) suggests involvement of steroid hormones in autism pathobiology. In order to evaluate the potential roles of such hormones in autism, we compared the salivary levels of 22 steroids in prepubertal autistic male and female children from two age groups (3–4 and 7–9 years old) with those in healthy controls. The ste...

  14. Deletion of the steroid-binding domain of the human androgen receptor gene in one family with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome: Evidence for further genetic heterogeneity in this syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cloning of a cDNA for the human androgen receptor gene has resulted in the availability for cDNA probes that span various parts of the gene, including the entire steroid-binding domain and part of the DNA-binding domain, as well as part of the 5' region of the gene. The radiolabeled probes were used to screen for androgen receptor mutations on Southern blots prepared by restriction endonuclease digestion of genomic DNA from human subjects with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). In this investigation, the authors considered only patients presenting complete AIS and with the androgen receptor (-) form as the most probably subjects to show a gene deletion. One subject from each of six unrelated families with the receptor (-) form of complete AIS and 10 normal subjects were studied. In the 10 normal subjects and in 5 of the 6 patients, identical DNA restriction fragment patterns were observed with EcoRI and BamHI. Analysis of other members of this family confirmed the apparent gene deletion. The data provide direct proof that complete AIS in some families can result from a deletion of the androgen receptor structural gene. However, other families do not demonstrate such a deletion, suggesting that point mutations may also result in the receptor (-) form of complete AIS, adding further to the genetic heterogeneity of this syndrome

  15. Modulation of the cytosolic androgen receptor in striated muscle by sex steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, N. E.; Max, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of orchiectomy (GDX) and of subsequent administration of testosterone propionate (TP) or 17(beta)-estradiol (E2) on the maximum binding (Bmax) and apparent Kd of the cytosolic androgen receptor in levator ani (LA) and skeletal muscles of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats are investigated experimentally. The results are presented in graphs and discussed. In LA, BMAX is found to rise from a control level of 2.5 fmol/mg protein to 280, 600, 478, and 133 percent of control at 12 h, 14 d, 30 d, and 44 d after GDX, respectively, while Kd increased only insignificantly (from 680 to 960 fM); Bmax is held at control levels for 6 h by cycloheximide given at GDX, is unaffected by TP given at 30 d, and is further increased (by 480 percent at 44 d) by administration of E2 at 30 d. Bmax in skeletal muscles is found to increase to 139, 212, 220, and 158 percent of control at 12 h, 14 d, 30 d, and 44 d, respectively; Bmax is returned to control at 44 d by TP at 30 d but is not affected by E2. The effect of E2 in LA is attributed to either induction of the cytosolic receptor or a decreased rate of receptor degradation.

  16. Steroid androgen 17α-methyltestosterone induces malformations and biochemical alterations in zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Wendt, Carla Letícia Gediel; Oliveira, Rhaul; Monteiro, Marta Sofia; Domingues, Inês; Soares, Amadeu Mortágua Velho Maia; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2016-06-01

    The synthetic androgen 17α-methyltestosterone is widely used in fish aquaculture for sex reversion of female individuals. Little is known about the amount of MT residues reaching the aquatic environment and further impacts in non-target organisms, including fish early-life stages. Thus, in this work, zebrafish embryos were exposed to two forms of 17α-methyltestosterone: the pure compound (MT) and a formulation commonly used in Brazil (cMT). For MT, a 96h-LC50 of 10.09mg/l was calculated. MT also affected embryo development inducing tail malformations, edemas, abnormal development of the head, and hatching delay. At biochemical level MT inhibited vitellogenin (VTG) and inhibited cholinesterase and lactate dehydrogenase. cMT elicited similar patterns of toxicity as the pure compound (MT). Effects reported in this study suggest a potential environmental risk of MT, especially since the VTG effects occurred at environmental relevant concentrations (0.004mg/l). PMID:27137108

  17. Prohibited anabolic substances, dangerous to human consumers, in accordance of E.U. regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia A. Hanganu,

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Substances with anabolic effects are used to enhance feed conversion, growth rate or muscle tissue deposition in stock farming for several decades. The majority of these compounds have biochemical effects similar to sex steroids (androgens, estrogens, gestagens. However, in the E.U., the use of hormones for growth – promotion or fattening is prohibited. Monitoring of residues of hormonal growth-promotion in meat or milk, is essential for implementing such bans and to protect public health against the harmful effects of these substances, which incidentally is found in products of animal origin.

  18. A proposal to study the adrenal cortex in maintaining the androgenic-anabolic status in humans under normal and stressful experimental conditions. Final scientific report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldzieher, J.W.

    1975-09-30

    Advances in separation, isolation and measurement of submicrogram quantities of steroids in complex biological materials occurred in the three-year period of this investigation, including the measurement of three C(19) steroids. In addition, radioimmunoassays for testosterone and total estrogens in some 300 blood samples from Air Force Academy cadets were obtained to supplement blood lipid measurements from the School of Aerospace Medicine study. The analytical procedures developed and tested can constitute significant contributions to steroid methodology. (GRA)

  19. Steroid-induced androgen receptor–oestradiol receptor β–Src complex triggers prostate cancer cell proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Migliaccio, Antimo; Castoria, Gabriella; Di Domenico, Marina; de Falco, Antonietta; Bilancio, Antonio; Lombardi, Maria; Barone, Maria Vittoria; Ametrano, Donatella; Zannini, Maria Stella; Abbondanza, Ciro; Auricchio, Ferdinando

    2000-01-01

    Treatment of human prostate carcinoma-derived LNCaP cells with androgen or oestradiol triggers simultaneous association of androgen receptor and oestradiol receptor β with Src, activates the Src/Raf-1/Erk-2 pathway and stimulates cell proliferation. Surprisingly, either androgen or oestradiol action on each of these steps is inhibited by both anti-androgens and anti-oestrogens. Similar findings for oestradiol receptor α were observed in MCF-7 or T47D cells stimulated by either oestradiol or a...

  20. Teens and Steroids: A Dangerous Combo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... warns teens and parents about the dangers of steroid use. Q: What are anabolic steroids and how many ... but the truth is that the frequency of steroid use in this age group is far greater than ...

  1. Impaired Physical Performance and Clinical Responses after a Recreational Bodybuilder's Self-Administration of Steroids: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Veras, Katherine; Silva-Junior, Fernando Lopes; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo; De-Oliveira, Fernando Roberto; Pires, Flávio de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    We reported clinical and physical responses to 7 weeks of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) self-administration in a male recreational bodybuilder. He was self-administrating a total of 3,250 mg of testosterone when his previous and current clinical and physical trials records were revisited. Body shape, performance, and biochemistry results were clustered into three phases labeled PRE (before the self-use), POST I (immediately at the cessation of the 7-week administration), and POST II (12 w...

  2. Seasonal variation in specific plasma- and target-tissue binding of androgens, relative to plasma steroid levels, in the brown trout, Salmo trutta L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottinger, T G

    1988-05-01

    The circulating levels of the plasma androgens, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, and their specific binding to skin cytosol, skin nuclear extract, and plasma were determined in mature male and immature male and female brown trout during a single spawning cycle. 11-Ketotestosterone was not bound by any of the fractions examined whereas testosterone was bound with high affinity to plasma (kD = 32.6 nM), skin cytosol (kD = 16.9 nM), and skin nuclear extract (kD = 2.6 nM). The binding capacity of each fraction varied independently with time. In mature male fish an increase in specific binding of testosterone to nuclear extract, from 77 to 269 fmol mg-1 protein, occurred between September and November, coincident with peak androgen levels. Following the spawning period and the decline in androgen levels, nuclear-binding capacity in mature fish dropped to a level similar to that of immature fish by June. Nuclear binding in immature fish remained in the range 25-75 fmol mg-1 protein throughout. Plasma-binding capacity of both mature and immature fish declined during the spawning period, from 190 to 125 nM in mature fish and from 360 to 125 nM in immature fish. Plasma-binding capacity in both mature and immature fish increased following spawning to reach levels of 340 nM (mature) and 250 nM (immature). Little change was observed in cytosol-binding capacity of either mature or immature fish. The results suggest that androgen-induced structural changes in the integument are predominantly testosterone stimulated, are initiated by an increase in the concentration of a specific testosterone-binding protein within the nucleus, may be potentiated by a drop in plasma testosterone-binding capacity, and that a cytosol-binding protein of intermediate affinity for testosterone may maintain a high intracellular concentration of steroid. PMID:3384312

  3. Anabolizantes: conceitos segundo praticantes de musculação em Aracaju (SE Anabolizantes: conceptos según practicantes de musculación en Aracaju (SE Anabolic steroids: concepts according to muscular activity practisers in Aracaju (SE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Faro Santos

    2006-08-01

    observada relación estadística significativa entre el uso de los anabolizantes en la actualidad y en el pasado (pThe objective of this research/study was to delineate the main concepts about anabolic steroids used among men that practice muscular activity in the academies of Aracaju (SE. A secondary aim was to know the prevalence of the use of such substances in a selected sample, which was constituted by men between 18 and 35 years old, with predominantly medium and superior school level. Results detected that the prevalent conception about anabolic steroids and its misdeeds, correspond to what is shown when it is used without medical prescription: the risk of abuse. Regarding benefits, it was observed the perception that such steroids can generate immediate results. It was noticed a large consumption in the researched population, who buy the drugs at pharmacies; and ingest doses above the ones recommended. Significant statistical relation was observed between the use of the anabolic steroids at the present time and in the past (p<0,05, suggesting that, people who used anabolic steroids in the past tend to maintain the use.

  4. Steroids (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by some athletes and bodybuilders. Anabolic steroids are synthetic hormones that can boost the body's ability to ... doses every day can significantly increase levels of testosterone, which can lead to a number of health ...

  5. "Will steroids kill me if I use them once?" A qualitative analysis of inquiries submitted to the Danish anti-doping authorities

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Ask Vest; Bojsen-Møller, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Danish strategy for fighting the use of anabolic androgenic steroids in fitness centres is likely the most comprehensive of its sort in the world. It is instituted in the national anti doping organisation, Anti Doping Denmark (ADD), and consists of doping controls, educational campaigns, and anonymous counselling through a web-based email service. Aim and method: Inquiries that were submitted to ADD's web-based counselling service over an 18 month period were explored with the...

  6. Cortical venous thrombosis following exogenous androgen use for bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsson, Olafur; Herrman, Lars

    2013-01-01

    There are only a few reports of patients developing cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after androgen therapy. We present a young man who developed cortical venous thrombosis after using androgens to increase muscle mass. He was hospitalised for parasthesia and dyspraxia in the left hand followed by a generalised tonic-clonic seizure. At admission, he was drowsy, not fully orientated, had sensory inattention, pronation drift and a positive extensor response, all on the left side. The patient had been using anabolic steroids (dainabol 20 mg/day) for the last month for bodybuilding. CT angiography showed a right cortical venous thrombosis. Anticoagulation therapy was started with intravenous heparin for 11 days and oral anticoagulation (warfarin) thereafter. A control CT angiography 4 months later showed resolution of the thrombosis. He recovered fully. PMID:23389726

  7. Synthesis of novel C17 steroidal carbamates. Studies on CYP17 action, androgen receptor binding and function, and prostate cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Vânia M A; Vasaitis, Tadas S; Guo, Zhiyong; Njar, Vincent C O; Salvador, Jorge A R

    2008-11-01

    We have exploited the reaction of 1,1'-carbonylbis(2-methylimidazole) (CBMI) with several 17beta-hydroxy androstanes to synthesize a series of novel C17 steroidal carbamates. Structural elucidation features have been provided for the final compounds based on 1D and 2D NMR techniques, IR spectroscopy, and related literature. The new compounds were tested for inhibition of human cytochrome 17alpha-hydroxylase-C17,20-lyase (CYP17) and androgen receptor (AR) binding and function effects. Their inhibitory potential against PC-3 cell proliferation was also evaluated. Compounds 11 and 23 were found to inhibit CYP17 with IC50 values of 17.1 and 11.5 microM, respectively. The carbamate moiety at C17 allowed tight binding of the synthesized compounds to both wild-type (wt-) and mutated AR. When bound to the mutated AR, the compounds were found to have a dual effect, stimulating transcription at low concentrations while almost fully blocking it at the higher concentrations tested, in the presence of the natural androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Compounds 8 and 12 were the most active against PC-3 cell proliferation with EC50 values of 2.2 and 0.2 microM, respectively. PMID:18582482

  8. Sex steroids do not affect muscle weight, oxidative metabolism or cytosolic androgen reception binding of functionally overloaded rat Plantaris muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, S. R.; Rance, N.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of sex steroids on muscle weight and oxidative capacity of rat planaris muscles subjected to functional overload by removal of synergistic muscles were investigated. Ten weeks after bilateral synergist removal, plantaris muscles were significantly hypertrophic compared with unoperated controls. After this period, the ability of the muscles to oxide three substrates of oxidative metabolism was assessed. Experimental procedures are discussed and results are presented herein. Results suggest a lack of beneficial effect of sex hormone status on the process of hypertrophy and on biochemical changes in overloaded muscle. Such findings are not consistent with the idea of synergistic effects of sex steroids and muscle usage.

  9. Examination of illegal, non declared injection preparations on anabolic hormones and development of a radioimmunoassay for 19-nortestosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, M.; Meyer, H.H.D.

    Procedures are described for the identification and quantification of anabolic hormones in preparations for injection. To perform radioreceptorassays for the most important groups of anabolics, estrogens and androgens, hydrolysis of esters is absolutely necessary in order to release the active substances from depot preparations. After moderate hydrolysis (30 min; 45/sup 0/C) it was possible to identify 19-nortestosterone-17..beta.. as active substance in three various illegal solutions for injection and one of them contained in addition estradiol-17..beta... After more drastic hydrolysis (2 h; 70/sup 0/C) there was a strong disintegration of 19-nortestosterone-17..beta.. and new more polar compounds were found, e.g. in small amounts 6-ketoestradiol, with estrogenic activity. Among the anabolic steroids only trenbolone-17..beta.. behaved in similar manner, and the disintegration during drastic hydrolytic conditions gave an indication for the existence of 19-norsteroids. Specific radioimmunoassays and GC/MS were used for final identification of the anabolic agents. Quantitation was carried out with HPLC/UV and radioimmunoassays after moderate hydrolysis. Since 19-nortestosterone-17..beta.. was identified a specific radioimmunoassay for this hormone was developed. Antibodies were raised against 19-nortestosterone-17..beta..-HS-BSA in order to be able to measure 19-nortestosterone-17..cap alpha.., 19-nortestosterone-17..beta.., and 19-norandrostenedione which were expected as the main bovine metabolites.

  10. Accurate quantification of endogenous androgenic steroids in cattle's meat by gas chromatography mass spectrometry using a surrogate analyte approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of endogenous steroids in complex matrices such as cattle's meat is a challenging task. Since endogenous steroids always exist in animal tissues, no analyte-free matrices for constructing the standard calibration line will be available, which is crucial for accurate quantification specially at trace level. Although some methods have been proposed to solve the problem, none has offered a complete solution. To this aim, a new quantification strategy was developed in this study, which is named 'surrogate analyte approach' and is based on using isotope-labeled standards instead of natural form of endogenous steroids for preparing the calibration line. In comparison with the other methods, which are currently in use for the quantitation of endogenous steroids, this approach provides improved simplicity and speed for analysis on a routine basis. The accuracy of this method is better than other methods at low concentration and comparable to the standard addition at medium and high concentrations. The method was also found to be valid according to the ICH criteria for bioanalytical methods. The developed method could be a promising approach in the field of compounds residue analysis

  11. The Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Drugs Consumption on Blood Factors in Bodybuilder’s Athletes in Jahrom,Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Dorry K; Nedaeinia R; Hemayatkhah JahromieV; NaderianM

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Mass media and the press present documentaryreports of taking illegal energetic drugs by athletes who are tempted toenhance their performance. The present study aims at determinrg the effect oftwo illegal drugs on the athletes, blood factors.Material and Methods: The participants are 20 volunteer athletes selectedunrandomly, 10 as a control and 10 as an experimental group. First, theirblood samples were obtained from the medial cubital vein of left hand andthen they...

  12. Sex steroids and bone: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasch, Juan

    2003-01-01

    Although the process of bone remodelling or its control has not yet been fully elucidated there is, at present, sufficient information available to conclude that ovarian steroids (estrogens, androgens, progesterone) play an essential role in skeletal homeostasis. The mechanism of action of sex steroids on the skeleton is still not entirely clear, but it has traditionally included indirect effects on systemic hormones that regulate calcium balance and a direct receptor-mediated action. More recently, changes in cytokine production within the bone marrow, as well as pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic effects in the osteoblastic cells, have been proposed as new perspectives on the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which sex steroids influence adult bone homeostasis. Mechanical loading, when combined with estrogens or androgens, results in a greater osteogenic response than either condition separately. Women are especially at risk for osteoporosis if they have had a premature or surgical menopause and have not received hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Other reproductive factors that can help to identify women with osteopenia and emphasize the role of sex steroids in preserving bone mass in premenopausal women include: age at menarche, menstrual history and irregularities (including those associated with excessive exercise), age at menopause, previous hysterectomy, hyperprolactinaemia, anorexia nervosa, scoliosis, ovarian dysgenesis, pregnancy and lactation, and pharmacological ovarian suppression. The prevention of osteoporosis starts with the onset of the menarche. A combination of exercise, appropriate nutrition and a healthy lifestyle all maximize bone mineral accrual and result in optimal peak bone mass; normal ovarian function is essential to this process. Unfortunately, many women actually become aware of the need for osteoporosis prevention much later in life, usually after they have already become menopausal. HRT, however, has important limitations for

  13. 77 FR 44456 - Classification of Two Steroids, Prostanozol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... are approved for either human or veterinary use. Approved medical uses for anabolic steroids include... Act This rule regulates two anabolic steroids, which are neither approved for medical use in humans... the use of the designer steroid superdrol (methasteron): a case report and literature...

  14. Sarcopenia and androgens: A link between pathology and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eBasualto-Alarcón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, is becoming more prevalent as the lifespan continues to increase in most populations. As sarcopenia is highly disabling, being associated with increased risk of dependence, falls, fractures, weakness, disability, and death, development of approaches to its prevention and treatment are required. Androgens are the main physiologic anabolic steroid hormones and normal testosterone levels are necessary for a range of developmental and biological processes, including maintenance of muscle mass. Testosterone concentrations decline as age increase, suggesting that low plasma testosterone levels can cause or accelerate muscle- and age-related diseases, as sarcopenia. Currently, there is increasing interest on the anabolic properties of testosterone for therapeutic use in muscle diseases including sarcopenia. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this muscle syndrome and its relationship with plasma level of androgens are not completely understood. This review discusses the recent findings regarding sarcopenia, the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms involved in the onset and progression of this disease and the treatment approaches that have been developed based on testosterone deficiency and their implications.

  15. Sexual Dimorphism in the Regulation of Estrogen, Progesterone, and Androgen Receptors by Sex Steroids in the Rat Airway Smooth Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarazúa, Abraham; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Ramírez-Vélez, Gabriela; Bazán-Perkins, Blanca; Guerra-Araiza, Christian; Campos-Lara, María G.

    2016-01-01

    The role of sex hormones in lung is known. The three main sex steroid receptors, estrogen, progesterone, and androgen, have not been sufficiently studied in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC), and the sex hormone regulation on these receptors is unknown. We examined the presence and regulation of sex hormone receptors in female and male rat ASMC by Western blotting and flow cytometry. Gonadectomized rats were treated with 17β-estradiol, progesterone, 17β-estradiol + progesterone, or testosterone. ASMC were enzymatically isolated from tracheas and bronchi. The experiments were performed with double staining flow cytometry (anti-α-actin smooth muscle and antibodies to each hormone receptor). ERα, ERβ, tPR, and AR were detected in females or males. ERα was upregulated by E2 and T and downregulated by P4 in females; in males, ERα was downregulated by P4, E + P, and T. ERβ was downregulated by each treatment in females, and only by E + P and T in males. tPR was downregulated by P4, E + P, and T in females. No hormonal regulation was observed in male receptors. AR was downregulated in males treated with E + P and T. We have shown the occurrence of sex hormone receptors in ASMC and their regulation by the sex hormones in female and male rats. PMID:27110242

  16. Esteróide anabolizante inibe a angiogênese induzida pelo treinamento físico de natação em músculo sóleo de ratos normotensos Anabolic steroid impairs the angiogenesis induced by swimming training in soleus muscle of normotensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Paula Reno Soci

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os esteróides anabolizantes androgênicos (EAA são sintéticos de testosterona desenvolvidos para fins terapêuticos. São também utilizados por populações fisicamente ativas, que normalmente excedem nas doses, o que potencializa danos à saúde. Para estudar alguns dos efeitos de EAA sobre o sistema cardiovascular, ratos "Wistar" foram divididos em quatro grupos: sedentário controle (SC, sedentário anabolizado (SA, treinado controle (TC e treinado anabolizado (TA. Foram avaliados os efeitos da associação do uso de EAA (Decanoato de nandrolona - 5 mg/kg sc, 2x/sem e do treinamento físico de natação (TFN - 60 min/dia, 5x/sem, durante 10 sem sobre o débito cardíaco (DC e fluxo sanguíneo basal (DCbasal, Qbasal e após infusão do vasodilatador acetilcolina (DC Ach, Q Ach para observar a vasodilatação endotélio dependente (QAch, razão capilar/fibra (rc/f e expressão do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular (VEGF em músculo sóleo (predominância de fibras oxidativas. A testosterona plasmática aumentou nos grupos com uso de EAA e foi observada bradicardia de repouso como efeito do TFN. O DC foi menor para o Grupo TA, tanto na condição basal quanto sob infusão de Ach. O Qbasal não foi diferente entre os grupos no músculo estudado. O QAch foi maior no grupo TC, entretanto, no grupo TA este efeito benéfico do TFN foi prejudicado pela associação com o EAA. Aumento da rc/f e VEGF foi observado somente no grupo TC. Estes resultados sugerem que a associação do EAA ao TFN atenua a angiogênese e arteriogênese observadas como efeito do treinamento físico aeróbio e causa prejuízo ao fluxo sanguíneo muscular, o que poderia predispor o praticante de esportes e atividades físicas e usuário destas substâncias a problemas vasculares.Androgenic anabolic steroids (EAA are synthetic derivatives of testosterone, used in therapeutic dosages in medical practice and in high doses by physically active people that could be health

  17. Androgens and Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Bart L.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2008-01-01

    Testosterone is the major gonadal sex steroid produced by the testes in men. Testosterone is also produced in smaller amounts by the ovaries in women. The adrenal glands produce the weaker androgens dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and androstenedione. These androgens collectively affect skeletal homeostasis throughout life in both men and women, particularly at puberty and during adult life. Because testosterone can be metabolized to estradiol by the aromatase enzyme, ...

  18. Determination of anabolic agents in dietary supplements by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoardi, Sara; Castrignanò, Erika; Martello, Simona; Chiarotti, Marcello; Strano-Rossi, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive method for the identification and quantification of anabolic steroids and clenbuterol at trace levels in dietary supplements by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) in atmospheric pressure ionisation (APCI) mode using a single-stage Orbitrap analyser operating at a resolution power of 100 000 full width at half maximum (FWHM) was developed and validated. A total of 1 g of dietary supplement was added with testosterone-d3 as internal standard, dissolved in methanol, evaporated to dryness, diluted in sodium hydroxide solution and extracted with a mixture of pentane/ethyl ether 9:1. The extract was directly injected into the LC-HRMS system. The method was fully validated. Limits of detection (LODs) obtained for anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) varied from 1 to 25 ng g(-1) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 50 ng g(-1) for all analytes. The calibration was linear for all compounds in the range from the LOQ to 2000 ng g(-1), with correlation coefficients always higher than 0.99. Accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Good values of matrix effect and recovery were achieved. The ease of the sample preparation together with a fast run time of only 16 min permitted rapid identification of the analytes. The method was applied to the analysis of 30 dietary supplements in order to check for the presence of anabolic agents not labelled as being present in these supplements. Many AASs were often detected in the same sample: indeed, androstenedione was detected in nine supplements, 5-androsten-3β-ol-17-one (DHEA) in 12, methandienone in three, stanozolol in one, testosterone in seven and testosterone esters in four of them. A retrospective analysis of suspected compounds not included at the beginning of the method development was also possible by means of the full acquisition spectra obtained with the HRMS technique. PMID:25719897

  19. Development and validation of a multi-residue method for the detection of a wide range of hormonal anabolic compounds in hair using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monitoring of anabolic steroid residues in hair is undoubtedly one of the most efficient strategies to demonstrate the long-term administration of these molecules in meat production animals. A multi-residue sample preparation procedure was developed and validated for 28 steroids. A 100 mg hair sample was grinded into powder and extracted at 50 deg. C with methanol. After acidic hydrolysis and extraction with ethyl acetate, phenolsteroids, such as estrogens, resorcyclic acid lactones and stilbens in one hand, are separated from androgens and progestagens in the other hand. Solid phase extractions were performed before applying a specific derivatisation for each compound sub-group. Detection and identification were achieved using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with acquisition in the selected reaction monitoring mode after electron ionisation. The method was validated according to the 2002/657/EC guideline. Decision limits (CCα) for main steroids were in the 0.1-10 μg kg-1 range

  20. Development and validation of a multi-residue method for the detection of a wide range of hormonal anabolic compounds in hair using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambaud, Lauriane; Monteau, Fabrice; Deceuninck, Yoann; Bichon, Emmanuelle; André, François; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2007-03-14

    The monitoring of anabolic steroid residues in hair is undoubtedly one of the most efficient strategies to demonstrate the long-term administration of these molecules in meat production animals. A multi-residue sample preparation procedure was developed and validated for 28 steroids. A 100 mg hair sample was grinded into powder and extracted at 50 degrees C with methanol. After acidic hydrolysis and extraction with ethyl acetate, phenolsteroids, such as estrogens, resorcyclic acid lactones and stilbens in one hand, are separated from androgens and progestagens in the other hand. Solid phase extractions were performed before applying a specific derivatisation for each compound sub-group. Detection and identification were achieved using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with acquisition in the selected reaction monitoring mode after electron ionisation. The method was validated according to the 2002/657/EC guideline. Decision limits (CCalpha) for main steroids were in the 0.1-10 microg kg(-1) range. PMID:17386700

  1. Avaliação descritiva sobre o uso de esteroides anabolizantes e seu efeito sobre as variáveis bioquímicas e neuroendócrinas em indivíduos que praticam exercício resistido Descriptive assessment on the use of anabolic steroids and their effect on the biochemical and neuroendocrine variables in practitioners of resisted exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paulino Venâncio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O uso dos esteroides anabolizantes vem se tornando um problema de saúde pública ao longo dos últimos anos. No bojo do uso abusivo, muitos efeitos deletérios são observados, na sua totalidade por disfunções dos vários sistemas fisiológicos. Sendo assim, o objetivo do estudo foi o de avaliar o eixo hipófise-gonadal, a função hormonal, as transaminases hepáticas e o perfil de hemograma de 61 voluntários distribuídos em três grupos: 20 usuários de esteroides anabolizantes praticantes de exercício físico resistido, 21 praticantes de exercício resistido sem uso de esteroides anabolizantes e 20 sedentários. Foi observada elevação do nível de creatina quinase nos dois grupos de indivíduos que se exercitavam de maneira resistida, em relação ao grupo de sedentários (p The use of anabolic asteroids has become a public health problem over the last years. Concerning their abusive use, many deleterious effects caused in their totality by dysfunction of the various physiological systems can be observed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the hypophyseal-gonadal axis, hormone function, hepatic transaminases and hemogram profile of 61 volunteers distributed in three groups: 20 anabolic steroid users, practitioners of resisted physical exercise; 21 practitioners of resisted physical exercise with no use of anabolic steroids and 20 sedentary subjects. Increase of the creatine kinase level was observed in the two exercised groups in comparison to the sedentary group (p < 0.001. Reduction of the LH and FSH gonadotrpins of the steroid users group and increase in the estradiol level were observed in comparison to the sedentary and with no steroid use groups (p < 0.001. Moreover, reduction of the HDL cholesterol fraction was observed in comparison to the two studied groups (p < 0.001. Thus, the use of anabolic steroids causes biochemical alterations which can lead to the installation of collateral effects.

  2. Upplevelse av kroppsbild hos personer med ätstörning samt personer med ett missbruk av anabola androgena steroider

    OpenAIRE

    Kjerstad, Sidsel; Ranung, Milja

    2015-01-01

    Background: In our society there is a tremedous focus on body ideal and appearence among Young adults. Patient´s with eating disorders and patients with an abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) both have the displeasure of their own bodies and a wrong body-image in common. Method: The study contained semi-structured interviews with patients that were diagnosed with eating disorders and patients with an abuse of AAS. The result was analyzed with a latency containment analysis and was dis...

  3. Aspectos analíticos do controle da dopagem de agentes anabolizantes em urina de atletas: avaliação de critérios de positividade Positiviness criteria for analysis of anabolic steroids by GC/MS in the urine of athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Granuzzio Castilho

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available O abuso dos esteróides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA está em constante ascensão, tanto nos esportes profissionais como nos esportes praticados nas academias. Essas substâncias são banidas pelo Comitê Olímpico Internacional (COI, sendo que este comitê recomenda que a metodologia usada na detecção e quantificação desses compostos em amostras biológicas dos atletas seja a cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massa (GC/MS. Nesse trabalho foram avaliados, por técnica de extração líquido/líquido e posterior identificação em GC/MS-SIM, 15 EAA, dos quais três foram quantificados. Os critérios de correlação entre os íons mais característicos dos EAA analisados foram definidos como segue: os de intensidade relativa maior que 20% podem apresentar uma variação de até 30%; os de intensidade relativa entre 10 e 20% podem apresentar uma variação de até 50% e os de intensidade relativa menor que 10% podem apresentar uma variação de até 90%. Com a aplicação dos critérios anteriores, foi possível confirmar os resultados obtidos em oito amostras de urina de atletas, nos quais foi constatado o uso dos EAA, ficando evidenciada a importância da aplicação desses critérios de positividade na comprovação inequívoca da presença de tais substâncias em amostras biológicas.The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS in sports is in a constant increase among professionals athlets and amateurs. These substances were banned by the International Olimpic Committee and the doping control of this steroids are to be performed analysing biological samples taken from this athletes using gas cromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. This paper evaluates 15 AAS by means of liquid extration and subsequent GC/MS identification. Three of these AAS were also quantified. Correlation criteria among the AAS most characteristic ions were stablished for the evidence of positive samples: when comparing these ions

  4. Vocational Steroid Use: Reconsidering the Effectiveness of a Prohibition Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fogel, Curtis A.

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of literature on the topic of anabolic steroid use pertains to use by athletes and/or bodybuilders. Recent evidence suggests that performance-enhancing drugs, and anabolic steroids in particular, are used widely outside the realm of sport. In this paper, the term “vocational steroid use” is further developed and explored, referring to any form of steroid use for the purposes of enhanced performance in the workplace; a type of use uncharacteristic of most illicit substances. ...

  5. New steroidal 17β-carboxy derivatives present anti-5α-reductase activity and anti-proliferative effects in a human androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Cristina; Varela, Carla; Correia-da-Silva, Georgina; Tavares da Silva, Elisiário; Carvalho, Rui A; Costa, Saul C P; Cunha, Sara C; Fernandes, José O; Teixeira, Natércia; Roleira, Fernanda M F

    2013-11-01

    The androgens testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), besides playing an important role in prostate development and growth, are also responsible for the development and progression of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. Therefore, the actions of these hormones can be antagonized by preventing the irreversible conversion of T into DHT by inhibiting 5α-reductase (5α-R). This has been a useful therapeutic approach for the referred diseases and can be achieved by using 5α-reductase inhibitors (RIs). Steroidal RIs, finasteride and dutasteride, are used in clinic for BPH treatment and were also proposed for chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Nevertheless, due to the increase in bone and muscle loss, impotency and occurrence of high-grade prostate tumours, it is important to seek for other potent and specific molecules with lower side effects. In the present work, we designed and synthesized steroids with the 3-keto-Δ(4) moiety in the A-ring, as in the 5α-R substrate T, and with carboxamide, carboxyester or carboxylic acid functions at the C-17β position. The inhibitory 5α-R activity, in human prostate microsomes, as well as the anti-proliferative effects of the most potent compounds, in a human androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP cells), were investigated. Our results showed that steroids 3, 4 and 5 are good RIs, which suggest that C-17β lipophylic amides favour 5α-R inhibition. Moreover, these steroids induce a decrease in cell viability of stimulated LNCaP cells, in a 5α-R dependent-manner, similarly to finasteride. PMID:23933094

  6. Masculinization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by immersion in androgens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, W.L.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Lucero, M.; Contreras-Sanchez, W.M.; Schreck, C. B.

    1999-01-01

    The use of all-male populations increases the efficiency and feasibility of tilapia aquaculture. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a short-term immersion procedure for masculinizing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Two synthetic androgens were evaluated: 17α-methyldihydrotestosterone (MDHT) and 17α-methyltestosterone (MT). Exposure (3 h) on 10 and again on 13 days post-fertilization to MDHT at 500 μg/1 successfully masculinized fry in all experiments, resulting in 100, 94 and 83 ± 2% males in Experiments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Immersions in MDHT or MT at 100 μg/1 resulted in significantly skewed sex ratios in Experiments 1 and 3 (MT resulted in 73 and 83 ± 3% males; and MDHT resulted in 72 and 91 ± 1% males) but not in Experiment 2. Immersion in MT at 500 μg/1 only caused masculinization in Experiment 3. Although further research and refinement is needed, immersion of Nile tilapia in MDHT may provide a practical alternative to the use of steroid-treated feed. Furthermore, when compared with current techniques for steroid-induced sex inversion of tilapia, short-term immersion reduces the period of time that workers are exposed to anabolic steroids.

  7. In Vitro Androgen Bioassays as a Detection Method for Designer Androgens

    OpenAIRE

    Heather, Alison K.; Cooper, Elliot R.; McGrath, Kristine C. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Androgens are the class of sex steroids responsible for male sexual characteristics, including increased muscle mass and decreased fat mass. Illicit use of androgen doping can be an attractive option for those looking to enhance sporting performance and/or physical appearance. The use of in vitro bioassays to detect androgens, especially designer or proandrogens, is becoming increasingly important in combating androgen doping associated with nutritional supplements. The nutritional sports sup...

  8. Abuse of Anabolic Steroids and Their Precursors by Adolescent Amateur Athletes. Hearing before the Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Second Session (July 13, 2004). Senate Hearing 108-814

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Senate, 2005

    2005-01-01

    For more than two decades, the use of steroids by professional athletes has been widely reported. Indictments against executive officers of a San Francisco area nutritional supplements lab--and these indictments were Federal steroid distribution charges--have brought even more attention to the use of steroids. Recently, accusations of world-class…

  9. Position stand on androgen and human growth hormone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jay R; Kraemer, William J; Bhasin, Shalender; Storer, Thomas; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Haff, G Gregory; Willoughby, Darryn S; Rogol, Alan D

    2009-08-01

    the NSCA that through education and research we can mitigate the abuse of androgens and hGH by athletes. Due to the diversity of testosterone-related drugs and molecules, the term androgens is believed to be a more appropriate term for anabolic steroids. PMID:19620932

  10. Molecular mechanisms of androgen receptor functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Steketee (Karine)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe androgens testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) are steroid hormones, which are necessary for development and maintenance of the functions of the male sex organs, including the prostate. Androgens also play an important role in benign abnormalities of the prostate and in the

  11. Inhaled Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications > Long-Term Control Medications > Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids What are some common inhaled steroids? How are ... more about steroids? What are some common inhaled steroids? Common inhaled steroids include: Asmanex ® (mometasone) Alvesco ® (ciclesonide) ...

  12. Steroids/Nutritional Supplements/Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physicians, the hardest decision is when to begin steroid use. Another major dispute involves the dosage regimen. A ... weeks may provide the same benefits as constant use. Medical studies of creatine and Duchenne continue. back to top Anabolic steroids These, which act to build tissues in the ...

  13. Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza

    Full Text Available Regucalcin (RGN is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle.

  14. Androgens and erythropoiesis: past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahani, S; Braga-Basaria, M; Maggio, M; Basaria, S

    2009-09-01

    Association between androgens and erythropoiesis has been known for more than seven decades. Androgens stimulate hematopoietic system by various mechanisms. These include stimulation of erythropoietin release, increasing bone marrow activity and iron incorporation into the red cells. Before the discovery of recombinant erythropoietin (rhEpo), androgens were used in the treatment of anemia associated with renal disease, bone marrow suppression, and hypopituitarism. Anabolism is an additional advantage of androgen therapy. Furthermore, in light of recent reports regarding adverse effects of rhEpo, the role of androgen therapy in various types of anemias should be readdressed. Polycythemia remains a known side effect of androgen therapy. In this review, we will briefly discuss the initial animal and human studies which demonstrated the role of androgens in the treatment of anemia, their mechanism of action, a detailed account of the efficacy of androgens in the treatment of various anemias, the erythropoietic side effects of androgens and finally, the relationship between hematocrit levels and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19494706

  15. School Sports and Adolescent Steroid Use: National Trends and Race-Ethnic Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lv; Braddock, Jomills Henry, II

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, it has been reported that 4% to 12% of male adolescents and 0.5% to 2.9% of female adolescents have used anabolic steroids to enhance sports performance or favorably alter body size. Although medical, legal, and ethical issues related to the nonmedical use of anabolic steroids have been widely publicized, a growing number of…

  16. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry-based metabolomic to screen for anabolic practices in cattle: identification of 5α-androst-2-en-17-one as new biomarker of 4-androstenedione misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anizan, Sebastien; Bichon, Emmanuelle; Duval, Thibault; Monteau, Fabrice; Cesbron, Nora; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    The use of anabolic steroids as growth promoters for meat-producing animals is banned within the European Union. However, screening for the illegal use of natural steroid hormones still represents a difficult challenge because of the high interindividual and physiological variability of the endogenous concentration levels in animals. In this context, the development of untargeted profiling approaches for identifying new relevant biomarkers of exposure and/or effect has been emerging for a couple of years. The present study deals with an untargeted metabolomics approach on the basis of GC-MS aiming to reveal potential biomarkers signing a fraudulent administration of 4-androstenedione (AED), an anabolic androgenic steroid chosen as template. After a sample preparation based on microextraction by packed sorbent, urinary profiles of the free and deglucurono-conjugates urinary metabolites were acquired by GC-MS in the full-scan acquisition mode. Data processing and chemometric procedures highlighted 125 ions, allowing discrimination between samples collected before and after an administration of 4-AED. After a first evaluation of the signal robustness using additional and independent non-compliant samples, 17 steroid-like metabolites were pointed out as relevant candidate biomarkers. All these metabolites were then monitored using a targeted GC-MS/MS method for an additional assessment of their capacity to be used as biomarkers. Finally, two steroids, namely 5α-androstane-3β,17α-diol and 5α-androst-2-en-17-one, were concluded to be compatible with such a definition and which could be finally usable for screening purpose of AED abuse in cattle. PMID:22282099

  17. Environmental concentrations of anti-androgenic pharmaceuticals do not impact sexual disruption in fish alone or in combination with steroid oestrogens

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Christopher; Brian, Jayne; Kanda, Rakesh; Scholze, Martin; Williams, Richard; Jobling, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This article has been made available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund. Sexual disruption in wild fish has been linked to the contamination of river systems with steroid oestrogens, including the pharmaceutical 17α-ethinylestradiol, originating from domestic wastewaters. As analytical chemistry has advanced, more compounds derived from the human usage of pharmaceuticals have been identified in the environment and questions have arisen as to whether these additional pharmaceuti...

  18. Nandrolone androgenic hormone presents genotoxic effects in different cells of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Carolina Almeida; Gonçalves, Álvaro Luiz Martini; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero; Maistro, Edson Luis

    2012-10-01

    Nandrolone is an androgenic-anabolic steroid (AAS) with diverse medical applications but taken indiscriminately by some to rapidly increase muscle mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of nandrolone (deca-durabolin®) in vivo in different cells of mice, using the comet assay and micronucleus test, respectively. The animals received subcutaneous injection of the three doses of the steroid (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg kg⁻¹ body weight). Cytotoxicity was assessed by scoring 200 consecutive total polychromatic (PCE) and normochromatic (NCE) erythrocytes (PCE-NCE ratio). The results showed a significant dose-related increase in the frequency of DNA damage in leukocytes, liver, bone marrow, brain and testicle cells at the three tested doses and a significant increase of the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes at all tested doses. Under our experimental conditions, the nandrolone steroid hormone showed genotoxic and clastogenic effects when administered subcutaneously to mice. PMID:21717486

  19. Anabolické steroidy

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTINDL, Přemysl

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic steroids, also known as anabolic-androgenic steroids or AAS, are a class of steroid hormones related to the hormone testosterone. They increase protein synthesis within cells, which results in the buildup of cellular tissue (anabolism), especially in muscles. Anabolic steroids also have androgenic and virilizing properties, including the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics such as the growth of the vocal cords and body hair. Non medical uses for anabolic steroids...

  20. [Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with low doses of calcitonin and a calcitonin-anabolic combination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szücs, J; Horváth, C; Kollin, E; Szathmári, M; Holló, I

    1992-06-01

    Menopausal osteoporotic women (age: 49-69, mean: 59.5 years) with crush fractures of the spine were treated with low doses of calcitonin (Miacalcic, 350 U/month), or with calcitonin + anabolic steroid (Retabolil, 50 mg/month). Efficacy of the therapy was controlled by single foton absorptiometry of midshaft and distal radius, by X-ray morphometry and by registering new crush fractures of the spine. Calcitonin monotherapy stopped further bone loss for two years, but at the end of the third year both absorptiometric values, as well as the radiomorphometrical index of the lumbar spine decreased significantly. In patients on calcitonin+anabolic steroid the decrease was just significant and only at radius midshaft, while at the other measured sites it was not. Two new crush fractures per 1396 patient-months occurred. Intermittent administration of low-dose calcitonin, especially together with an anabolic steroid seems to be a safe and effective therapy in established osteoporosis. PMID:1603585

  1. Isotope-ratio Mass Spectrometry Analysis for Detection of Endogenous Anabolic Androgenic Steroids-Androstenedione%同位素比质谱方法检测内源性类固醇雄烯二酮

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静竹

    2007-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱(HPLC)方法对尿样中内源性类固醇激素进行分离,收集的流出组分时间段为:睾酮和5β雄烷-3α,17β—二醇(11.3~11.8 min);5α-雄烷-3α,17β-二醇(11.8~12.4 min);本胆烷醇酮和雄酮(13.0~14.0 min);孕二醇(14.5~15.0 min).分离后的组分再经气相色谱/燃烧炉/同位素比质谱(GC/C/IRMS)方法检测其中类固醇及其代谢物的同位素比(δ值).结果表明,阴性样品中的类固醇激素δ值为:-19.2‰~-21.5‰,服用雄烯二酮的阳性尿样中的睾酮及代谢物δ值为:-29.7‰~-32.7‰.提示,所建立的同位素比质谱方法可用于检测尿中类固醇兴奋剂的来源,适用于常规检测.

  2. Functional analysis of androgen receptor mutations that confer anti-androgen resistance identified in circulating cell-free DNA from prostate cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lallous, Nada; Volik, Stanislav V.; Awrey, Shannon; LeBlanc, Eric; Tse, Ronnie; Murillo, Josef; Singh, Kriti; Azad, Arun A.; Wyatt, Alexander W.; LeBihan, Stephane; Chi, Kim N.; Gleave, Martin E.; Paul S. Rennie; Collins, Colin C; Cherkasov, Artem

    2016-01-01

    Background The androgen receptor (AR) is a pivotal drug target for the treatment of prostate cancer, including its lethal castration-resistant (CRPC) form. All current non-steroidal AR antagonists, such as hydroxyflutamide, bicalutamide, and enzalutamide, target the androgen binding site of the receptor, competing with endogenous androgenic steroids. Several AR mutations in this binding site have been associated with poor prognosis and resistance to conventional prostate cancer drugs. In orde...

  3. Naturally occurring steroids in Xenopus oocyte during meiotic maturation. Unexpected presence and role of steroid sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haccard, Olivier; Dupré, Aude; Liere, Philippe; Pianos, Antoine; Eychenne, Bernard; Jessus, Catherine; Ozon, René

    2012-10-15

    In the ovary, oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and arrested in prophase of meiosis I. Although steroidogenic activity of follicle cells is involved in oogenesis regulation, clear qualitative and quantitative data about the steroid content of follicles are missing. We measured steroid levels of Xenopus oocytes and follicles by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We show that dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate is the main steroid present in oocytes. Lower levels of free steroids are also detected, e.g., androgens, whereas progesterone is almost undetectable. We propose that sulfatation is a protective mechanism against local variations of active steroids that could be deleterious for follicle-enclosed oocytes. Steroid levels were measured after LH stimulation, responsible for the release by follicle cells of a steroid signal triggering oocyte meiosis resumption. Oocyte levels of androgens rise slowly during meiosis re-entry whereas progesterone increases abruptly to micromolar concentration, therefore representing the main physiological mediator of meiosis resumption in Xenopus oocyte. PMID:22687883

  4. Androgen and bone mass in men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AnnieW.C.Kung

    2003-01-01

    Androgens have multiple actions on the skeleton throughout life. Androgens promote skeletal growth and accumulation of minerals during puberty and adolescence and stimulate osteoblast but suppress osteoclast function,activity and lifespan through complex mechanisms. Also androgens increase periosteal bone apposition, resulting in larger bone size and thicker cortical bone in men. There is convincing evidence to show that aromatization to estrogens was an important pathway for mediating the action of testosterone on bone physiology. Estrogen is probably the dominant sex steroid regulating bone resorption in men, but both testosterone and estrogen are important in maintaining bone formation. ( Asian J Androl 2003 Jun; 5: 148-154)

  5. Steroid profiling in doping analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Daniël Henri van de

    2002-01-01

    Profiling androgens in urine samples is used in doping analysis for the detection of abused steroids of endogenous origin. These profiling techniques were originally developed for the analysis of testosterone, mostly by means of the ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio). A study was p

  6. Social modulation of androgen levels in male teleost fish

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, R. F.; Hirschenhauser, K.; Carneiro, L. A.; Canario, Adelino V. M.

    2002-01-01

    Androgens are classically thought of as the sex steroids controlling male reproduction. However, in recent years evidence has accumulated showing that androgens can also be affected by the interactions between conspecifics, suggesting reciprocal interactions between androgens and behaviour. These results have been interpreted as an adaptation for individuals to adjust their agonistic motivation and to cope with changes in their social environment. Thus, male–male interactions would stimulate ...

  7. [Naming and classification of steroids and human stress ulcers. Articles of historic significance published by Hans Selye 70 years ago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Sándor; Gyires, Klára

    2015-08-30

    The name of Hans Selye is mostly known worldwide as the discoverer of stress reaction. Yet, he made numerous other seminal and clinically relevant discoveries. Namely, since he had a focused research on steroid hormones originating from the adrenal cortex that play a crucial role in stress response, he was the first who introduced about 70 years ago the first classification of steroids that is still valid nowadays. This is based on three objective facts: (a) the names of steroid groups are identical with their organ of origin (e.g., corticoids from the adrenal cortex, testoids/androgens from the testis); (b) chemical structures of the steroids are identical within a group (e.g., all corticoids have pregnane nucleus with 21 carbon atoms); and (c) the biological effects are homogenous within a group (e.g., all glucocorticoids exert catabolic effect, while androgens are anabolic). It should be emphasized that Selye also discovered in animal models the pro-inflammmatory effect of mineralocorticoids and the anti-inflammatory properties of glucocorticoids, about 8-10 years before Nobel Prize was awarded to a physician for the first clinical use of adrenocorticotrop hormone and cortisone. Last, but not least, Selye was the first who recognized about 70 years ago the occurence of stress ulcers in humans, based on clinical reports on the huge increase in the number of perforated gastric anti-duodenal ulcers during bombings of London in World War II. The subsequent ulcer research by Selye`s former students and their contemporaries resulted in the recognition of anti-duodenal ulcer effect of dopamine, and the central gastroprotective actions of thyreotrop releasing hormone and endogenous opioids. Thus, Hans Selye made much more contributions to medical science and clinical practice than 'just' the discoverer of biologic stress response. PMID:26299832

  8. In Vitro Androgen Bioassays as a Detection Method for Designer Androgens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison K. Heather

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Androgens are the class of sex steroids responsible for male sexual characteristics, including increased muscle mass and decreased fat mass. Illicit use of androgen doping can be an attractive option for those looking to enhance sporting performance and/or physical appearance. The use of in vitro bioassays to detect androgens, especially designer or proandrogens, is becoming increasingly important in combating androgen doping associated with nutritional supplements. The nutritional sports supplement market has grown rapidly throughout the past decade. Many of these supplements contain androgens, designer androgens or proandrogens. Many designer or proandrogens cannot be detected by the standard highly-sensitive screening methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry because their chemical structure is unknown. However, in vitro androgen bioassays can detect designer and proandrogens as these assays are not reliant on knowing the chemical structure but instead are based on androgen receptor activation. For these reasons, it may be advantageous to use routine androgen bioassay screening of nutraceutical samples to help curb the increasing problem of androgen doping.

  9. The potential of bovine vaginal smear for biomarker development to trace the misuse of anabolic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedmaier, I; Reiter, M; Tichopad, A; Pfaffl, M W; Meyer, H H D

    2011-02-01

    In the European Union the use of anabolic hormones in meat production is forbidden since 1988 and this ban of anabolic agents in animal production is strictly controlled. New hormone cocktails passing the detection systems are attractive for the practice and so new approaches to discover their illegal use have to be developed steadily. Verifying physiological effects caused by anabolic steroids will be a new way to develop potential monitoring systems. One promising matrix in female animals will be vaginal smear containing vaginal epithelial cells, because the vaginal epithelium is a primary steroid hormone responsive organ. In this study we quantified the gene expression in vaginal smear of sexually mature cattle in order to observe physiological effects. Further we aimed to establish a new screening method by testing the effect of a combination of certain anabolic steroid hormones on physiological regulations of mRNA expression of selected genes. In an animal trial Nguni heifers were treated with the anabolic combination trenbolone acetate plus estradiol. Vaginal smear samples were taken at 4 different time points. Gene expression of 27 candidate genes, selected by screening the actual literature for steroidal effects on vaginal epithelial cells, were estimated using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. There were different expression changes observed at different time points. It could be shown that the applied anabolic combination significantly influenced the expression of the steroid receptor ERα, the keratinization factor CK8, the proinflammatory interleukins IL-1α and IL-1β, the growth factors FGF7, EGF, EGFR, IGF-1R, TGFα and LTF, the oncogen c-jun and other factors like actinβ and ubiquitin 3. Using biostatistical tools like principal components analysis or hierarchical cluster analysis, the potential to develop a gene expression pattern for targeting the illegal use of growth promoters could be demonstrated. PMID:21031338

  10. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Medications > Quick-Relief Medications > Oral Steroids Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups) How are steroid pills and ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...

  11. Development and validation of a multi-residue method for the detection of a wide range of hormonal anabolic compounds in hair using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambaud, Lauriane [LABERCA, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes, Route de Gachet, BP50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Monteau, Fabrice [LABERCA, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes, Route de Gachet, BP50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Deceuninck, Yoann [LABERCA, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes, Route de Gachet, BP50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Bichon, Emmanuelle [LABERCA, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes, Route de Gachet, BP50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Andre, Francois [LABERCA, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes, Route de Gachet, BP50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Le Bizec, Bruno [LABERCA, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes, Route de Gachet, BP50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)]. E-mail: lebizec@vet-nantes.fr

    2007-03-14

    The monitoring of anabolic steroid residues in hair is undoubtedly one of the most efficient strategies to demonstrate the long-term administration of these molecules in meat production animals. A multi-residue sample preparation procedure was developed and validated for 28 steroids. A 100 mg hair sample was grinded into powder and extracted at 50 deg. C with methanol. After acidic hydrolysis and extraction with ethyl acetate, phenolsteroids, such as estrogens, resorcyclic acid lactones and stilbens in one hand, are separated from androgens and progestagens in the other hand. Solid phase extractions were performed before applying a specific derivatisation for each compound sub-group. Detection and identification were achieved using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with acquisition in the selected reaction monitoring mode after electron ionisation. The method was validated according to the 2002/657/EC guideline. Decision limits (CC{alpha}) for main steroids were in the 0.1-10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} range.

  12. Effects of steroids and sex reversal on intestinal absorption of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine in vivo, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habibi, H.R.; Ince, B.W.

    1983-12-01

    The effects of steroids (17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), 17 beta-oestradiol (E2)), and of sex reversal (XX male) on intestinal absorption and accumulation of L-(/sup 14/C)leucine (5 mM), were investigated in unanaesthetized rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), using an in vivo gut perfusion technique. Each steroid was luminally perfused through the gut at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml perfusate, during five separate perfusions carried out on the same fish at 30-min intervals (perfusion periods 1 to 5), for a total of 120 min at 14 degrees. Experiments were also conducted on masculinized, genetically female trout (XX male) with steroid-free perfusate. MT treatment significantly increased the intestinal absorption of radioleucine during periods 1 and 2, whilst E2 was without effect. Neither MT nor E2 influenced intestinal accumulation (mid- and hindgut) of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. Sex reversal, however, whilst having no effect on leucine absorption, nevertheless significantly increased intestinal accumulation of radioleucine, and accumulation of /sup 14/C-solutes in skeletal muscle. The effects observed in the present study are in agreement with previous work in trout using everted gut sac preparations. It is suggested that the growth-promoting effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in fish may be partly explained by their action on gastrointestinal function.

  13. Computational Investigation on the Allosteric Modulation of Androgen Receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Min-Rui; LI Jun-Qian

    2012-01-01

    Androgens have similar structures with different biological activities. To identify molecular determinants responsible for the activity difference, we have docked six steroidal androgens to the binding site or the surface of androgen receptor by using molecular docking with computational investigation. The energy was calculated respectively based on the QM (quantum mechanics) and MM (molecular mechanics) methods. The result shows that the allosteric modulation of androgen receptor plays an important role in the binding process between androgens and receptor. The open state receptor is less stable than the close state one, but the latter is more favorable for binding with androgens. It is worthy of note that when the androgen receptors binding or without binding with androgen are in close state, they are difficult to return to their open state. This phenomenon is an exception of the well known two-state model theory in which the two states are reversible. Whether the internal of close state androgen receptor has a combination of androgen or not, the androgen receptor surface can be combined with another androgen, and their surface binding energies could be very close. The result is consistent with the experimental observations, but this phenomenon of continuous combination from open state is also an exception of the two-state model theory.

  14. Histopathologycal findings in the ovaries and uterus of albino female rats promoted by co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici; Leite, Gabriel Adan Araújo; Pinto, Tiago; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

    2014-07-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids is often associated with the use of other substances, licit or not, such as nicotine present in the tobacco. The present study investigated for the first time the effects of co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine on the ovarian and uterine tissue and fertility of adult female rats. Animals were submitted to treatment groups (n=16/group): nandrolone decanoate (ND; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); testosterone mixture (T; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); nicotine (N; 2.0mg/kg BW/day), and co-administration of ND/N, T/N and ND/T/N. The control group received saline solution daily. The injections were administered subcutaneously for 30 consecutive days. Results demonstrated that all androgenized rats exhibited estral acyclicity and there was suppression of reproductive capacity due to notable ovarian and uterine histological changes. Treatments promoted decrease (p<0.05) in the ovarian weight. Uterine weight increased (p<0.05) in the T and T/N groups, in comparison to control group. ND or T co-administered or not to nicotine promoted intense follicular degeneration, with formation of cysts in the ovaries. High levels of circulating androgens in the ND/T/N group induced the presence of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors of Sertoli cell pattern. Androgenized females presented endometrial changes characterized by papilliferous or pleated luminal epithelium, oedematous and hemorrhagic stroma and presence of gland cysts. In conclusion, the co-administration of three drugs promoted atypical morphological pattern on the ovaries and uterus of female rats. PMID:24556002

  15. Prevalence and Perceptions Toward Anabolicandrogenic Steroid Use Amongst University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kargarfard M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs are highly sought-after in order to achieve muscle growth and better physical attributes. The study was conducted to measure the prevalence and attitudes towards the use of AASs among university students. 1008 male students from Isfahan University, Iran, between the ages of 18 and 25 years (23.3 ± 1.2 years completed a questionnaire that investigated participation in bodybuilding, level of sport competition, participation in sports and recreational activities, AASs use, prevalence, knowledge among users, attitudes, as well as intent to continue using AASs in the future. 8% of respondents had used AASs and 6% currently use AASs. 71% of users believed using only a small amount of AASs or using AASs with anti-toxic drugs would not result in any harm, 10% indicated that AASs were harmless and 19% admitted to taking AASs despite knowing the adverse effects. 33% of respondents believed that they needed to use AASs to ensure athletic success and 26% believed that athletes should be allowed to use AASs without consequence. The prevalent use of AASs is a public health concern which implies that educational programmes at university level are needed to educate students about the adverse effects of AASs use

  16. ANDROGEN LEVELS IN PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valadan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. Several independent investigators have demonstrated the association of androgens with hypertension. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether maternal levels of sex hormones, especially testosterone, are higher in patients with preeclampsia than in matched normotensive control subjects. Serum levels of testosterone, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S and estradiol were measured in 60 subjects in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy with documented preeclampsia (including 30 cases of mild and 30 cases of severe preeclampsia and 60 healthy normotensive women with similar maternal and gestational ages and body mass index (BMI and neonatal sex. All subjects were primigravid with singleton pregnancies. Cases of polycystic ovary (PCO, diabetes, chronic hypertension and chronic systemic diseases such as lupus and patients using steroid hormones and anti-hypertensive drugs were excluded. Levels of testosterone, DHEA-S and estradiol were not higher in primigravid women with preeclampsia than in normotensive women with similar gestational and maternal ages, BMI and neonatal sex. There were no significant differences in sex hormones measured between groups of mild and severe preeclampsia and normotensive women. There were also no significant differences in sex hormone levels according to neonatal sex. These findings are against the hypothesis of mediating or amplifying role of high androgen levels in pathophysiology of preeclampsia.

  17. Vocational Steroid Use: Reconsidering the Effectiveness of a Prohibition Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis A. Fogel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of literature on the topic of anabolic steroid use pertains to use by athletes and/or bodybuilders. Recent evidence suggests that performance-enhancing drugs, and anabolic steroids in particular, are used widely outside the realm of sport. In this paper, the term “vocational steroid use” is further developed and explored, referring to any form of steroid use for the purposes of enhanced performance in the workplace; a type of use uncharacteristic of most illicit substances. Vocational steroid users do not use steroids because of addictions or for recreation; they do so to increase their workplace abilities and productivity. Seven forms of documented vocational steroid use are described including use by: athletes, bodybuilders, police, actors, strength coaches, firefighters, and soldiers. While little research has examined the idea of vocational steroid use, even less attention has been given to issues related to examining the effectiveness of steroid prohibition strategies. This paper concludes with a discussion on the dangers of continued prohibition strategies on steroids, particularly in light of vocational steroid use. This study utilized an unobtrusive methodological approach. The unobtrusive data in this study involved media file collection, indexing, and analysis derived from online archives of newspapers throughout Canada and the United States.

  18. Steroid metabolism in the mouse placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study described in this thesis was to investigate the capacity for steroid synthesis of the mouse placenta - especially the production of progesterone, androgens and estrogens - and to determine, if possible, the relation of steroid synthesis to special cell types. In an introductory chapter the androgen production in the mouse placenta is surveyed by means of a histochemical and bioindicator study of different stages of development of the placenta. The metabolism of [3H]-dehydroepiandrosterone and [3H]-progesterone by mouse placental tissue in vitro is studied. The metabolism of [3H]-progesterone by the mouse fetal adrenal in vitro is also studied

  19. Androgen receptor mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkmann, Albert; Jenster, Guido; Ris-Stalpers, Carolyn; Korput, J. A G M; Brüggenwirth, Hennie; Boehmer, A.L.; Trapman, Jan

    1995-01-01

    textabstractMale sexual differentiation and development proceed under direct control of androgens. Androgen action is mediated by the intracellular androgen receptor, which belongs to the superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors. At least three pathological situations are associated with abnormal androgen receptor structure and function: androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) and prostate cancer. In the X-linked androgen insensitivity syn...

  20. Simultaneous identification and detection of 16 anabolic steroid hormones in muscle using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry%液相色谱-四极杆/离子阱质谱同时确证和测定肌肉中16种同化甾体激素残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿伟; 蔡雪; 林黎明; 陈亮珍; 梁成珠; 鲍蕾; 汤志旭; 牛增元; 王凤美

    2012-01-01

    采用液相色谱-四极杆/离子阱质谱(LC-Q/Trap-MS)建立了肌肉中16种同化甾体激素类物质(ASs)残留的同时确证及测定方法.肌肉中的ASs采用乙腈超声辅助提取,正己烷脱脂,氨基固相萃取柱净化,CAPCELL PAKC18 MGⅢ柱(150 mm×2.0 mm,5.0μm)分离,0.1% (v/v)甲酸-乙腈溶液和0.1% (v/v)甲酸-5 mmol/L甲酸铵水溶液为流动相梯度洗脱;预设定多反应监测( sMRM)-信息依赖性采集(IDA)-增强子离子扫描(EPI)模式检测,在线EPI谱库确证,内标法定量.结果表明,16种ASs在线性范围内线性关系良好(r≥0.999);定量限(LOQ,S/N≥10)为0.029~ 0.36 μg/kg;3个添加水平(0.5、2.0和20 μg/kg)下的回收率为89.9% ~ 118%;相对标准偏差(RSD)为6.3%~16.2%.该方法准确灵敏,一次性完成16种ASs的确证和测定,可有效用于肌肉组织中ASs残留的监测分析.%A comprehensive method for simultaneous identification and detection of 16 anabolic steroid hormones (ASs, including andorgens, gestagens and their esters) in muscle samples was developed with liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-Q/Trap-MS). The ASs in muscle samples were extracted with acetonitrile under ultrasonic assistance. The extract was defatted by n-hexane with liquid-liquid partitioning and followed by clean-up with NH2 solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The separation of ana-lytes was carried out on a CAPCELL PAK C18 MG Ⅲ column (150 mm ×2.0 mm, 5. 0 μm) using mobile phases of 0.1 % ( v/v) formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% ( v/v) formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium formate aqueous solution with gradient elution. A scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) in positive mode as survey scan and an enhanced product ion (EPI) scan as dependent scan in an information-dependent acquisition (IDA) experiment was adopted in mass spectrometry acquisition. On-line lab-built MS/MS library and internal standards were employed for the

  1. Study on two steroidal sex hormones in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAOYoubuo

    1998-01-01

    Steroidal sex hormones including androgens and estrogens are important in the reproductive development of mammals. A number of studies suggested that these steroids might have similar functions in plants, A latest research on Nongken 58s, a photoperiod-sensitive genie male sterile rice (PGMR),

  2. Aberrant splicing of androgenic receptor mRNA results in synthesis of a nonfunctional receptor protein in a patient with androgen insensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androgen insensitivity is a disorder in which the correct androgen response in an androgen target cell is impaired. The clinical symtpoms of this X chromosome-linked syndrome are presumed to be caused by mutations in the androgen receptor gene. The authors report a G → T mutation in the splice donor site of intron 4 of the androgen receptor gene of a 46, XY subject lacking detectable androgen binding to the receptor and with the complete form of androgen insensitivity. This point mutation completely abolishes normal RNA splicing at the exon 4/intron 4 boundary and results in the activation of a cryptic splice donor site in exon 4, which leads to the deletion of 123 nucleotides from the mRNA. Translation of the mutant mRNA results in an androgen receptor protein ∼5 kDa smaller than the wild type. This mutated androgen receptor protein was unable to bind androgens and unable to activate transcription of an androgen-regulated reporter gene construct. This mutation in the human androgen receptor gene demonstrates the importance of an intact steroid-binding domain for proper androgen receptor functioning in vivo

  3. Smart drugs and synthetic androgens for cognitive and physical enhancement: revolving doors of cosmetic neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Paola; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Del Rio, Alessandro; Marinelli, Enrico; Vergallo, Gianluca Montanari; Zaami, Simona; Busardò, Francesco P

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive enhancement can be defined as the use of drugs and/or other means with the aim to improve the cognitive functions of healthy subjects in particular memory, attention, creativity and intelligence in the absence of any medical indication. Currently, it represents one of the most debated topics in the neuroscience community. Human beings always wanted to use substances to improve their cognitive functions, from the use of hallucinogens in ancient civilizations in an attempt to allow them to better communicate with their gods, to the widespread use of caffeine under various forms (energy drinks, tablets, etc.), to the more recent development of drugs such as stimulants and glutamate activators. In the last ten years, increasing attention has been given to the use of cognitive enhancers, but up to now there is still only a limited amount of information concerning the use, effect and functioning of cognitive enhancement in daily life on healthy subjects. The first aim of this paper was to review current trends in the misuse of smart drugs (also known as Nootropics) presently available on the market focusing in detail on methylphenidate, trying to evaluate the potential risk in healthy individuals, especially teenagers and young adults. Moreover, the authors have explored the issue of cognitive enhancement compared to the use of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) in sports. Finally, a brief overview of the ethical considerations surrounding human enhancement has been examined. PMID:26074739

  4. Steroidal Saponins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

    The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

  5. Social modulation of androgen levels in male teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui F; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Carneiro, Luis A; Canario, Adelino V M

    2002-05-01

    Androgens are classically thought of as the sex steroids controlling male reproduction. However, in recent years evidence has accumulated showing that androgens can also be affected by the interactions between conspecifics, suggesting reciprocal interactions between androgens and behaviour. These results have been interpreted as an adaptation for individuals to adjust their agonistic motivation and to cope with changes in their social environment. Thus, male-male interactions would stimulate the production of androgens, and the levels of androgens would be a function of the stability of its social environment ['challenge hypothesis', Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 56 (1984) 417]. Here the available data on social modulation of androgen levels in male teleosts are reviewed and some predictions of the challenge hypothesis are addressed using teleosts as a study model. We investigate the causal link between social status, territoriality and elevated androgen levels and the available evidence suggests that the social environment indeed modulates the endocrine axis of teleosts. The association between higher androgen levels and social rank emerges mainly in periods of social instability. As reported in the avian literature, in teleosts the trade-off between androgens and parental care is indicated by the fact that during the parental phase breeding males decreased their androgen levels. A comparison of androgen responsiveness between teleost species with different mating and parenting systems also reveals that parenting explains the variation observed in androgen responsiveness to a higher degree than the mating strategy. Finally, the adaptive value of social modulation of androgens and some of its evolutionary consequences are discussed. PMID:11997222

  6. Application of multivariate statistics to the Steroidal Module of the Athlete Biological Passport: A proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alladio, Eugenio; Caruso, Roberto; Gerace, Enrico; Amante, Eleonora; Salomone, Alberto; Vincenti, Marco

    2016-05-30

    The Technical Document TD2014EAAS was drafted by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in order to fight the spread of endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (EAAS) misuse in several sport disciplines. In particular, adoption of the so-called Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) - Steroidal Module allowed control laboratories to identify anomalous EAAS concentrations within the athletes' physiological urinary steroidal profile. Gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometry (MS), indicated by WADA as an appropriate technique to detect urinary EAAS, was utilized in the present study to develop and fully-validate an analytical method for the determination of all EAAS markers specified in TD2014EAAS, plus two further markers hypothetically useful to reveal microbial degradation of the sample. In particular, testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol, 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, were included in the analytical method. Afterwards, the multi-parametric feature of ABP profile was exploited to develop a robust approach for the detection of EAAS misuse, based on multivariate statistical analysis. In particular, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was combined with Hotelling T(2) tests to explore the EAAS data obtained from 60 sequential urine samples collected from six volunteers, in comparison with a reference population of single urine samples collected from 96 volunteers. The new approach proved capable of identifying anomalous results, including (i) the recognition of samples extraneous to each of the individual urine series and (ii) the discrimination of the urine samples collected from individuals to whom "endogenous" steroids had been administrated with respect to the rest of the samples population. The proof-of-concept results presented in this study will need further extension and validation on a population of sport professionals. PMID:27154828

  7. SOCS2 mediates the cross talk between androgen and growth hormone signaling in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Gato, Diego; Chuan, Yin Choy; Wikström, Pernilla;

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic signals such as androgens and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF-1) axis play an essential role in the normal development of the prostate but also in its malignant transformation. In this study, we investigated the role of suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) a...

  8. Female adipocyte androgen synthesis and the effects of insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cadagan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders characterized by insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia, and its presence can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease significantly. The metabolic syndrome is associated with increased circulating androgen levels in women, which may originate from the ovaries and adrenal glands. Adipocytes are also able to synthesise steroid hormones, and this output has been hypothesised to increase with elevated insulin plasma concentrations. However, the contribution of the adipocytes to the circulating androgen levels in women with metabolic syndrome is limited and the effects of insulin are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of steroid precursors and synthetic enzymes in human adipocyte biopsies as markers of possible adipocyte androgen synthesis. We examined pre and mature adipocytes taken from tissue biopsies of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of participating women from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, of the Royal Derby Hospital. The results showed the potential for localised adipocyte androgen synthesis through the presence of the androgen precursor progesterone, as well as the steroid-converting enzyme 17α-hydroxylase. Furthermore, we found the controlled secretion of androstenedione in vitro and that insulin treatment caused levels to increase. Continued examination of a localised source of androgen production is therefore of clinical relevance due to its influence on adipocyte metabolism, its negative impact on female steroidogenic homeostasis, and the possible aggravation this may have when associated to obesity and obesity related metabolic abnormalities such as hyperinsulinaemia.

  9. Actions of steroids in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilova-Jordan, Larisa P; Price, Thomas M

    2007-05-01

    Investigations of indirect and direct actions of steroids on the mitochondria are relatively new areas of research. In this review we provide brief background information regarding mitochondrial structure and function and then focus upon interactions of glucocorticoid, estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors with mitochondria. We evaluate the current evidence for steroid receptor localization in the mitochondria based on techniques of Western blot analysis, immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy, and mass spectrometry. Steroid receptor-dependent interactions with mitochondria may include transcriptional regulation of nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial proteins, transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial DNA-encoded proteins, or indirect effects on mitochondria due to interactions with cytoplasmic signaling peptides and non-genomic control of cation fluxes. These interactions may play a role in mitochondrial-dependent processes of oxidative phosphorylation and apoptosis. Physiological examples of these interactions are discussed. PMID:17447205

  10. Steroid hormone synthetic pathways in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaghel, Elahe A

    2013-09-01

    While androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the primary treatment for metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) since the seminal recognition of the disease as androgen-dependent by Huggins and Hodges in 1941, therapy is uniformly marked by progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) over a period of about 18 months, with an ensuing median survival of 1 to 2 years. Importantly, castration does not eliminate androgens from the prostate tumor microenvironment. Castration resistant tumors are characterized by elevated tumor androgens that are well within the range capable of activating the AR and AR-mediated gene expression, and by steroid enzyme alterations which may potentiate de novo androgen synthesis or utilization of circulating adrenal androgens. The dependence of CRPC on intratumoral androgen metabolism has been modeled in vitro and in vivo, and residual intratumoral androgens are implicated in nearly every mechanism by which AR-mediated signaling promotes castration-resistant disease. These observations suggest that tissue based alterations in steroid metabolism contribute to the development of CRPC and underscore these metabolic pathways as critical targets of therapy. Herein, we review the accumulated body of evidence which strongly supports intracrine (tumoral) androgen synthesis as an important mechanism underlying PCa progression. We first discuss the presence and significance of residual prostate tumor androgens in the progression of CRPC. We review the classical and non-classical pathways of androgen metabolism, and how dysregulated expression of these enzymes is likely to potentiate tumor androgen production in the progression to CRPC. Next we review the in vitro and in vivo data in human tumors, xenografts, and cell line models which demonstrate the capacity of prostate tumors to utilize cholesterol and adrenal androgens in the production of testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and briefly review the potential role of exogenous

  11. Longitudinal monitoring of endogenous steroids in human serum by UHPLC-MS/MS as a tool to detect testosterone abuse in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzetto, Federico; Mehl, Florence; Boccard, Julien; Baume, Norbert; Rudaz, Serge; Saugy, Martial; Nicoli, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The detection of testosterone abuse in sports is routinely achieved through the 'steroidal module' of the Athlete Biological Passport by GC-MS(/MS) quantification of selected endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (EAAS) from athletes' urines. To overcome some limitations of the "urinary steroid profile" such as the presence of confounding factors (ethnicity, enzyme polymorphism, bacterial contamination, and ethanol), ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) measurements of blood concentrations of testosterone, its major metabolites, and precursors could represent an interesting and complementary strategy. In this work, two UHPLC-MS/MS methods were developed for the quantification of testosterone and related compounds in human serum, including major progestogens, corticoids, and estrogens. The validated methods were then used for the analyses of serum samples collected from 19 healthy male volunteers after oral and transdermal testosterone administration. Results from unsupervised multiway analysis allowed variations of target analytes to be assessed simultaneously over a 96-h time period. Except for alteration of concentration values due to the circadian rhythm, which concerns mainly corticosteroids, DHEA, and progesterone, significant variations linked to the oral and transdermal testosterone administration were observed for testosterone, DHT, and androstenedione. As a second step of analysis, the longitudinal monitoring of these biomarkers using intra-individual thresholds showed, in comparison to urine, significant improvements in the detection of testosterone administration, especially for volunteers with del/del genotype for phase II UGT2B17 enzyme, not sensitive to the main urinary marker, T/E ratio. A substantial extension of the detection window after transdermal testosterone administration was also observed in serum matrix. The longitudinal follow-up proposed in this study represents a first example of 'blood steroid profile' in doping control

  12. The androgen receptor and estrogen receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterkamp, H.M.; Bernards, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) and the estrogen receptors (ER) are members of the nuclear receptor (NR) family. These NRs are distinguished from the other transcription factors by their ability to control gene expression upon ligand binding (steroids, retinoids, thyroid hormone, vitamin D, fatty acids, and other small hydrophobic molecules). Their combined effects are vast, influencing virtually every fundamental biological process, from development and homeostasis, to proliferation and different...

  13. Protein-protein Interactions of the Androgen Receptor in Living Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Royen, Martin

    2008-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Natural androgens, testosterone (T) and its derivative dihydrotestosterone (DHT) play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of the male phenotype. Androgens are steroids that exert their function via the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand dependent transcription factor. The human AR gene, is located on the X chromosome, and contains 8 exons, coding for a 110 kDa, 919 amino acids protein (Brinkmann et al., 1989; Hughes and Deeb, 2006). In the classical mo...

  14. Androgen insensitivity syndrome: gonadal androgen receptor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether abnormalities of the androgen receptor previously observed in skin fibroblasts from patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome also occur in the gonads of affected individuals, androgen receptor activity in the gonads of a patient with testicular feminization syndrome was investigated. Using conditions for optimal recovery of androgen receptor from human testes established by previous studies, we detected the presence of a high-affinity (dissociation constant . 3.2 X 10(-10) mol/L), low-capacity (4.2 X 10(-12) mol/mg DNA), androgen-binding protein when tritium-labeled R1881 was incubated at 4 degrees C with nuclear extracts from the gonads of control patients or from a patient with testicular feminization syndrome but not when incubated at 37 degrees C. Thus this patient has an androgen receptor with a temperature lability similar to that of receptors from normal persons

  15. Steroid osteopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible

  16. Steroid osteopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible.

  17. Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of conjugated steroids in urine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jong Man Yoon; Kyung Ho Lee

    2001-12-01

    This study was carried out qualitatively and quantitatively to investigate the presence and the concentrations of anabolic steroids in urine collected from orally administered humans. Microanalysis of conjugated steroids by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been carried out. Following oral administration three major metabolites of anabolic steroid drugs have been detected and partially characterized. The six steroids can be analysed at the same time in 17 min. The lower detection limit was 10 ng/ml in 5 ml of urine. The conjugated steroids from urine were centrifuged to 2,430 for 10 min, the supernatant solution passed through Amberlite XAD-2 column and the steroids eluted fraction esterified by using MSTFA and TMSI. The rate of metabolism and urinary excretion seem to be reasonably fast.

  18. Androgen insensitivity syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001180.htm Androgen insensitivity syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is when a person who ...

  19. A case of postmenopausal androgen excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Dafnios, Nikos; Kondi-Pafiti, Agathi; Triantafyllou, Nikos; Karopoulou, Evangelia; Papageorgiou, Anastasia; Augoulea, Areti; Armeni, Eleni; Creatsa, Maria; Vlahos, Nikolaos

    2015-10-01

    Ovarian steroid cell tumors are very rare but potentially life-threatening neoplasms. They represent less than 0.1% of all ovarian tumors, typically present in premenopausal women and frequently manifest with virilization. Signs of hyperandrogenism may appear in postmenopausal women due to tumorοus and non-tumorοus adrenal and ovarian causes as well due to the normal aging process. In any case, steroid cell tumor should be suspected in postmenopausal women who present with rapid progressive androgen excess symptoms. This report describes a case of a 67-year-old postmenopausal woman with signs of hyperandrogenism, where an ovarian steroid cell tumor was diagnosed and treated by laparoscopic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and synchronous hysterectomy. PMID:26287476

  20. Variations in urine excretion of steroid hormones after an acute session and after a 4-week programme of strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timón Andrada, Rafael; Maynar Mariño, M; Muñoz Marín, D; Olcina Camacho, G J; Caballero, M J; Maynar Mariño, J I

    2007-01-01

    Performing strength exercise, whether acutely or in a training programme, leads to alterations at the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes. One way to evaluate these changes is by analysis of the excretion of steroid hormones in the urine. The present study determined the variations in the urine profile of glucuroconjugated steroids after a single session of strength exercise and after a 4-week programme of strength training. The subjects were a group (n = 20) of non-sportsman male university students who worked out 3 days a week [Monday (M), Wednesday (W) and Friday (F)], performing the exercises at 70-75% of one repetition maximum strength (1-RM). Four urine samples were collected per subject: (A) before and (B) after a standard session prior to initiating the training programme, and (C) before and (D) after the same standard session at the end of the study, and they were assayed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The concentrations of the different hormones were determined relatively to the urine creatinine level (ng steroid/mg creatinine) to correct for diuresis. After the exercise sessions, both before and after the training programme, there was a fall in the urine excretion of androgens and estrogens, but no statistically significant changes in the excretion of tetrahydrocortisol (THF) and tetrahydrocortisone (THE). The anabolic/catabolic hormones ratio also decreased after the acute session, although only androstenodione + dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)/THE + THF ratio had a significant decrease (P < 0.05). After the training programme, there was a significant (P < 0.01) improvement in the strength of the muscle groups studied, and an increased urinary excretion of all the androgens with respect to the initial state of repose, with the difference being significant in the case of epitestosterone (Epit) (P < 0.05). The androsterone (A) + etiocholanolone (E)/THE + THF ratio increased significantly (P < 0

  1. The liver X receptor agonist T0901317 acts as androgen receptor antagonist in human prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T0901317 is a potent non-steroidal synthetic liver X receptor (LXR) agonist. T0901317 blocked androgenic stimulation of the proliferation of androgen-dependent LNCaP 104-S cells and androgenic suppression of the proliferation of androgen-independent LNCaP 104-R2 cells, inhibited the transcriptional activation of an androgen-dependent reporter gene by androgen, and suppressed gene and protein expression of prostate specific antigen (PSA), a target gene of androgen receptor (AR) without affecting gene and protein expression of AR. T0901317 also inhibited binding of a radiolabeled androgen to AR, but inhibition was much weaker compared to the effect of the antiandrogens, bicalutamide and hydroxyflutamide. The LXR agonist T0901317, therefore, acts as an antiandrogen in human prostate cancer cells

  2. Identification of potential gene expression biomarkers for the surveillance of anabolic agents in bovine blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedmaier, Irmgard; Tichopad, Ales; Reiter, Martina; Pfaffl, Michael W; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2009-04-01

    In the EU, the use of anabolic steroids in food producing animals has been forbidden since 1988. The routine methods used in practice are based on the detection of hormonal residues. To overcome these routine methods, growth-promoting agents are sometimes administered at concentrations below the detection limit and new anabolic substances are designed. Therefore, new monitoring systems are needed to overcome the misuse of anabolic agents in meat production. In this study, a new monitoring system was applied: the quantification of mRNA gene expression changes by quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Blood was selected as ideal tissue for biomarker screening. From the literature, it is known that steroid hormones affect mRNA gene expression of the different blood cells, which can easily be taken from the living animal. In an animal trial, 18 Nguni heifers were separated to two groups of nine animals. One group served as untreated control and the other group was treated with a combination of trenbolone acetate plus estradiol for 39 days in order to allow the detection of the effect on mRNA expression in blood at three time points. Candidate genes used for developing a biomarker pattern were chosen by screening the actual literature for anabolic effects on blood cells. It could be demonstrated that the combination of trenbolone acetate plus estradiol significantly influences mRNA expression of the steroid receptors (ER-alpha and GR-alpha), the apoptosis regulator Fas, the proinflammatory interleukins IL-1alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 and of MHCII, CK, MTPN, RBM5 and Actin-beta. Advanced statistical analysis by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) indicated that these genes represent potential biomarkers for this hormone combination in whole blood. PMID:19298887

  3. Anabolic effect of plant brassinosteroid

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, Debora; KOMARNYTSKY, SLAVKO; Shapses, Sue; Raskin, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    Brassinosteroids are plant-derived polyhydroxylated derivatives of 5a-cholestane, structurally similar to cholesterol-derived animal steroid hormones and insect ecdysteroids, with no known function in mammals. 28-Homobrassinolide (HB), a steroidal lactone with potent plant growth-promoting property, stimulated protein synthesis and inhibited protein degradation in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells (EC50 4 μM) mediated in part by PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Oral administration of HB (20 or 60 mg/kg...

  4. Effects of antiandrogens on transformation and transcription activation of wild-type and mutated (LNCaP) androgen receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Berrevoets (Cor); J. Veldscholte (Jos); E. Mulder (Eppo)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractLNCaP cells contain androgen receptors with a mutation in the steroid binding domain (Thr 868 changed to Ala) resulting in a changed hormone specificity. Both the wild-type and mutated androgen receptors were transfected into COS cells. Transcription activation was studied in cells co-tr

  5. Anabolic implant effects on visceral organ mass, chemical body composition, and estimated energetic efficiency in cloned (genetically identical) beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, J P; Johnson, D E; Gerken, C L; Morgan, J B; Tatum, J D

    1997-10-01

    Six sets of four genetically identical Brangus steers (n = 24; X BW 409 kg) were used to determine the effect of different anabolic implants on visceral organ mass, chemical body composition, estimated tissue deposition, and energetic efficiency. Steers within a clone set were randomly assigned to one of the following implant treatments: C, no implant; E, estrogenic; A, androgenic, or AE, androgenic + estrogenic. Steers were slaughtered 112 d after implanting; visceral organs were weighed and final body composition determined by mechanical grinding and chemical analysis of the empty body. Mass of the empty gastrointestinal tract (GIT) was reduced approximately 9% (P .10) the efficiency of ME utilization. In general, estrogenic implants decreased GIT, androgenic implants increased liver, and all implants increased hide mass. Steers implanted with an AE combination had additive effects on protein deposition compared with either implant alone. The NEg requirements for body gain are estimated to be reduced 19% by estrogenic or combination implants. PMID:9331863

  6. New method for labeling and autoradiographic localization of androgen receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, C.A.; Barrack, E.R.

    1987-07-01

    We have used a novel receptor labeling and autoradiographic technique to localize androgen receptors in the intact rat ventral prostate at the morphological level. Frozen slide-mounted prostate tissue sections (10 micron thick) were incubated with increasing concentrations of (/sup 3/H)-R1881 in the absence and presence of excess unlabeled R1881. Tissue sections labeled in this way were subjected to concurrent biochemical and autoradiographic analysis. After incubation and washing to remove free (/sup 3/H)-steroid, some of the sections were wiped from the slides for scintillation counting in order to characterize and quantitate (/sup 3/H)-R1881 binding. Androgen receptors could indeed be labeled in slide-mounted tissue sections, and specific (/sup 3/H)-R1881 binding to these receptors was high-affinity (Kd = 1 nM), saturable, and androgen-specific. All cellular androgen receptors appear to be retained, because receptor content in sections was comparable to the sum of receptors in subcellular fractions of homogenized tissue. Replicate labeled slide-mounted tissue sections were dried rapidly, apposed to dry emulsion-coated coverslips, and exposed in the dark for autoradiography. Silver grains were counted over nuclei or cytoplasm of epithelium or stroma to evaluate specific androgen receptor location. Autoradiographic analysis demonstrated androgen receptor localization almost exclusively in the epithelial nuclei, with little or none in the stroma. We discuss here the unique features and advantages of labeling androgen receptors in slide-mounted frozen tissue sections for autoradiographic localization.

  7. New method for labeling and autoradiographic localization of androgen receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used a novel receptor labeling and autoradiographic technique to localize androgen receptors in the intact rat ventral prostate at the morphological level. Frozen slide-mounted prostate tissue sections (10 micron thick) were incubated with increasing concentrations of [3H]-R1881 in the absence and presence of excess unlabeled R1881. Tissue sections labeled in this way were subjected to concurrent biochemical and autoradiographic analysis. After incubation and washing to remove free [3H]-steroid, some of the sections were wiped from the slides for scintillation counting in order to characterize and quantitate [3H]-R1881 binding. Androgen receptors could indeed be labeled in slide-mounted tissue sections, and specific [3H]-R1881 binding to these receptors was high-affinity (Kd = 1 nM), saturable, and androgen-specific. All cellular androgen receptors appear to be retained, because receptor content in sections was comparable to the sum of receptors in subcellular fractions of homogenized tissue. Replicate labeled slide-mounted tissue sections were dried rapidly, apposed to dry emulsion-coated coverslips, and exposed in the dark for autoradiography. Silver grains were counted over nuclei or cytoplasm of epithelium or stroma to evaluate specific androgen receptor location. Autoradiographic analysis demonstrated androgen receptor localization almost exclusively in the epithelial nuclei, with little or none in the stroma. We discuss here the unique features and advantages of labeling androgen receptors in slide-mounted frozen tissue sections for autoradiographic localization

  8. Magnesium and anabolic hormones in older men

    OpenAIRE

    Maggio, M.; Ceda, G.P.; F. Lauretani; Cattabiani, C.; Avantaggiato, E.; Morganti, S.; Ablondi, F.; Bandinelli, S.; Dominguez, L. J.; M. Barbagallo; Paolisso, G.; Semba, R D; Ferrucci, L.

    2011-01-01

    Optimal nutritional and hormonal statuses are determinants of successful ageing. The age associated decline in anabolic hormones such as testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a strong predictor of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and mortality in older men. Studies have shown that magnesium intake affects the secretion of total IGF-1 and increase testosterone bioactivity. This observation suggests that magnesium can be a modulator of the anabolic/catabolic equilibrium disrupted...

  9. Impaired Physical Performance and Clinical Responses after a Recreational Bodybuilder's Self-Administration of Steroids: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Katherine; Silva-Junior, Fernando Lopes; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo; De-Oliveira, Fernando Roberto; Pires, Flávio Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    We reported clinical and physical responses to 7 weeks of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) self-administration in a male recreational bodybuilder. He was self-administrating a total of 3,250 mg of testosterone when his previous and current clinical and physical trials records were revisited. Body shape, performance, and biochemistry results were clustered into three phases labeled PRE (before the self-use), POST I (immediately at the cessation of the 7-week administration), and POST II (12 weeks after the cessation). Elevated testosterone and estradiol levels were observed in the POST I phase, while hepatic and renal functions remained altered in the POST II phase. Body mass and body fat percentages increased throughout the three phases. When adjusted according to body mass, drops in aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity (2.1% to 12.9%) were observed across the phases. This case report shows that overall performance decreased when a bodybuilding practitioner self-administered AAS. PMID:26770942

  10. Targeted Metabolomics Approach To Detect the Misuse of Steroidal Aromatase Inhibitors in Equine Sports by Biomarker Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, George Ho Man; Ho, Emmie Ngai Man; Leung, David Kwan Kon; Wong, Kin Sing; Wan, Terence See Ming

    2016-01-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prohibited in both human and equine sports. The conventional approach in doping control testing for AAS (as well as other prohibited substances) is accomplished by the direct detection of target AAS or their characteristic metabolites in biological samples using hyphenated techniques such as gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Such an approach, however, falls short when dealing with unknown designer steroids where reference materials and their pharmacokinetics are not available. In addition, AASs with fast elimination times render the direct detection approach ineffective as the detection window is short. A targeted metabolomics approach is a plausible alternative to the conventional direct detection approach for controlling the misuse of AAS in sports. Because the administration of AAS of the same class may trigger similar physiological responses or effects in the body, it may be possible to detect such administrations by monitoring changes in the endogenous steroidal expression profile. This study attempts to evaluate the viability of using the targeted metabolomics approach to detect the administration of steroidal aromatase inhibitors, namely androst-4-ene-3,6,17-trione (6-OXO) and androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione (ATD), in horses. Total (free and conjugated) urinary concentrations of 31 endogenous steroids were determined by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for a group of 2 resting and 2 in-training thoroughbred geldings treated with either 6-OXO or ATD. Similar data were also obtained from a control (untreated) group of in-training thoroughbred geldings (n = 28). Statistical processing and chemometric procedures using principle component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) have highlighted 7 potential biomarkers that could be used to differentiate urine samples obtained from the control and the treated groups

  11. Steroid-bismetalloporphyrin as enzyme model of cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN, Shu-Hua; LI, Shang-Jun; WANG, Yu-Liang

    2000-01-01

    The model compounds of androgenic steroid-bismetalloporphyrins 3a-3d and androgenic monometalloporphyrins 2a2d have been synthesized. Catalytic study in two-phase condition on epoxidation of styrene under the catalysis of model catalysts shows that the catalytic performances of steriod-bismetalloporphyrin is superior to steroid-metalloporphyrin and the corresponding simple metalloporphyrin. The excellent catalytic property of steriod-bismetalloporphyrin can be rationalized as the hydrophobic action of steroid framework and the cooperative action of two metalloporphyrins in catalysis.

  12. Controlled Cohort Study of Serum Gonadal and Adrenocortical Steroid Levels in Males Prior to Onset of Rheumatoid Arthritis (pre-RA: A Comparison to pre-RA Females and Sex Differences among the Study Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonse T. Masi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum testosterone levels are generally reported to be lower in male rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients, but it is not determined if a deficiency may occur before clinical onset of disease (pre-RA. Lower testosterone levels were recently reported in males many years before RA onset but were predictive only of rheumatoid factor (RF—negative disease. A preceding prospective study did not reveal androgenic-anabolic hormone association with risk of RA in men or women. This cohort study of males analyzed baseline serum levels of gonadal and adrenocortical steroids, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin in 18 pre-RA versus 72 matched non-RA control (CN subjects. Findings in males were compared to those in female pre-RA and CN subjects in the same cohort, and sex differences were analyzed. Steroidal and hormonal levels, including total testosterone, were similar between male study groups. In females, mean (±SE serum androstenedione (nmol/L was slightly (P=0.048 lower in 36 pre-RA (6.7 ± 0.36 than 144 CN (7.6 ± 0.22. With the exception of 3 partial correlations of hormonal variables observed to differ between pre-RA versus CN subjects, the patterns were similar overall. However, partial correlations of hormonal variables differed frequently by sex, both within and between study groups.

  13. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Skovbjerg Arildsen, Nicolai; Malander, Susanne;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival in...

  14. Feed-forward control of prostate growth: dihydrotestosterone induces expression of its own biosynthetic enzyme, steroid 5 alpha-reductase.

    OpenAIRE

    George, F W; Russell, D.W.; Wilson, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    Dihydrotestosterone, the primary mediator of prostate growth, is synthesized in target tissues from the circulating androgen testosterone through the action of steroid 5 alpha-reductase (EC 1.3.99.5). The expression of 5 alpha-reductase and the level of 5 alpha-reductase messenger RNA in rat ventral prostate are regulated by androgens. To determine whether this control is mediated by dihydrotestosterone or testosterone, we investigated the effect of finasteride, a potent inhibitor of steroid ...

  15. Androgen effects on skeletal muscle: implications for the development and management of frailty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew DL O'Connell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Androgens have potent anabolic effects on skeletal muscle and decline with age in parallel to losses in muscle mass and strength. This loss of muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia, is the central event in development of frailty, the vulnerable health status that presages adverse outcomes and rapid functional decline in older adults. The potential role of falling androgen levels in the development of frailty and their utility as function promoting therapies in older men has therefore attracted considerable attention. This review summarizes current concepts and definitions in muscle ageing, sarcopenia and frailty, and evaluates recent developments in the study of androgens and frailty. Current evidence from observational and interventional studies strongly supports an effect of androgens on muscle mass in ageing men, but effects on muscle strength and particularly physical function have been less clear. Androgen treatment has been generally well-tolerated in studies of older men, but concerns remain over higher dose treatments and use in populations with high cardiovascular risk. The first trials of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs suggest similar effects on muscle mass and function to traditional androgen therapies in older adults. Important future directions include the use of these agents in combination with exercise training to promote functional ability across different populations of older adults, as well as more focus on the relationships between concurrent changes in hormone levels, body composition and physical function in observational studies.

  16. Expression of androgen receptor target genes in skeletal muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kesha Rana; Nicole KL Lee; Jeffrey D Zajac; Helen E MacLean

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the mechanisms of the anabolic actions of androgens in skeletal muscle by investigating potential androgen receptor(AR)‑regulated genes ininvitroandinvivomodels. The expression of the myogenic regulatory factormyogenin was signiifcantly decreased in skeletal muscle from testosterone‑treated orchidectomized male mice compared to control orchidectomized males, and was increased in muscle from male AR knockout mice that lacked DNA binding activity(ARΔZF2) versus wildtype mice, demonstrating thatmyogenin is repressed by the androgen/AR pathway. The ubiquitin ligaseFbxo32 was repressed by 12h dihydrotestosterone treatment in human skeletal muscle cell myoblasts, andc‑Myc expression was decreased in testosterone‑treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle, and increased in AR∆ZF2 muscle. The expression of a group of genes that regulate the transition from myoblast proliferation to differentiation, Tceal7, p57Kip2, Igf2 andcalcineurin Aa, was increased in AR∆ZF2 muscle, and the expression of all butp57Kip2was also decreased in testosterone‑treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle. We conclude that in males, androgens act via the AR in part to promote peak muscle mass by maintaining myoblasts in the proliferative state and delaying the transition to differentiation during muscle growth and development, and by suppressing ubiquitin ligase‑mediated atrophy pathways to preserve muscle mass in adult muscle.

  17. Expression of androgen receptor target genes in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesha Rana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the mechanisms of the anabolic actions of androgens in skeletal muscle by investigating potential androgen receptor (AR-regulated genes in in vitro and in vivo models. The expression of the myogenic regulatory factor myogenin was significantly decreased in skeletal muscle from testosterone-treated orchidectomized male mice compared to control orchidectomized males, and was increased in muscle from male AR knockout mice that lacked DNA binding activity (ARΔZF2 versus wildtype mice, demonstrating that myogenin is repressed by the androgen/AR pathway. The ubiquitin ligase Fbxo32 was repressed by 12 h dihydrotestosterone treatment in human skeletal muscle cell myoblasts, and c-Myc expression was decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle, and increased in AR∆ZF2 muscle. The expression of a group of genes that regulate the transition from myoblast proliferation to differentiation, Tceal7 , p57 Kip2, Igf2 and calcineurin Aa, was increased in AR∆ZF2 muscle, and the expression of all but p57 Kip2 was also decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle. We conclude that in males, androgens act via the AR in part to promote peak muscle mass by maintaining myoblasts in the proliferative state and delaying the transition to differentiation during muscle growth and development, and by suppressing ubiquitin ligase-mediated atrophy pathways to preserve muscle mass in adult muscle.

  18. Short Anabolic Peptides for Bone Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amso, Zaid; Cornish, Jillian; Brimble, Margaret A

    2016-07-01

    Loss of bone occurs in the age-related skeletal disorder, osteoporosis, leading to bone fragility and increased incidence of fractures, which are associated with enormous costs and substantial morbidity and mortality. Recent data indicate that osteoporotic fractures are more common than other diseases, which usually attract public attention (e.g., heart attack and breast cancer). The prevention and treatment of this skeletal disorder are therefore of paramount importance. Majority of osteoporosis medications restore skeletal balance by reducing osteoclastic activity, thereby reducing bone resorption. These agents, however, do not regenerate damaged bone tissue, leaving limited options for patients once bone loss has occurred. Recently, attention has turned to bone-anabolic agents. Such agents have the ability to increase bone mass and strength, potentially reversing structural damage. To date, only one bone-anabolic drug is available in the market. The discovery of more novel, cost-effective bone anabolic agents is therefore a priority to treat those suffering from this disabling condition. Short peptides offer an important alternative for the development of novel bone-anabolic agents given their high target binding specificity, which translates into potent activity with limited side effects. This review summarizes attempts in the identification of bone-anabolic peptides, and their development for promoting bone growth. PMID:27297498

  19. Hedgehog/Gli supports androgen signaling in androgen deprived and androgen independent prostate cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shtutman Michael; Tanner Matthew J; Carkner Richard D; Baghel Prateek S; Levina Elina; Feuerstein Michael A; Chen Mengqian; Vacherot Francis; Terry Stéphane; de la Taille Alexandre; Buttyan Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) develops as a consequence of hormone therapies used to deplete androgens in advanced prostate cancer patients. CRPC cells are able to grow in a low androgen environment and this is associated with anomalous activity of their endogenous androgen receptor (AR) despite the low systemic androgen levels in the patients. Therefore, the reactivated tumor cell androgen signaling pathway is thought to provide a target for control of CRPC....

  20. Anabolic hormone profiles in elite military men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marcus K; Kviatkovsky, Shiloah A; Hernández, Lisa M; Sargent, Paul; Segal, Sabrina; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-06-01

    We recently characterized the awakening responses and daily profiles of the catabolic stress hormone cortisol in elite military men. Anabolic hormones follow a similar daily pattern and may counteract the catabolic effects of cortisol. This companion report is the first to characterize daily profiles of anabolic hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone in this population. Overall, the men in this study displayed anabolic hormone profiles comparable to that of healthy, athletic populations. Consistent with the cortisol findings in our prior report, summary parameters of magnitude (hormone output) within the first hour after awakening displayed superior stability versus summary parameters of pattern for both DHEA (r range: 0.77-0.82) and testosterone (r range: 0.62-0.69). Summary parameters of evening function were stable for the two hormones (both panabolic balance and resultant effects upon health and human performance in this highly resilient yet chronically stressed population. PMID:27083310

  1. Androgen receptor and histone lysine demethylases in ovine placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleys, Ellane R; Halleran, Jennifer L; Enriquez, Vanessa A; da Silveira, Juliano C; West, Rachel C; Winger, Quinton A; Anthony, Russell V; Bruemmer, Jason E; Clay, Colin M; Bouma, Gerrit J

    2015-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones regulate developmental programming in many tissues, including programming gene expression during prenatal development. While estradiol is known to regulate placentation, little is known about the role of testosterone and androgen signaling in placental development despite the fact that testosterone rises in maternal circulation during pregnancy and in placenta-induced pregnancy disorders. We investigated the role of testosterone in placental gene expression, and focused on androgen receptor (AR). Prenatal androgenization decreased global DNA methylation in gestational day 90 placentomes, and increased placental expression of AR as well as genes involved in epigenetic regulation, angiogenesis, and growth. As AR complexes with histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) to regulate AR target genes in human cancers, we also investigated if the same mechanism is present in the ovine placenta. AR co-immunoprecipitated with KDM1A and KDM4D in sheep placentomes, and AR-KDM1A complexes were recruited to a half-site for androgen response element (ARE) in the promoter region of VEGFA. Androgenized ewes also had increased cotyledonary VEGFA. Finally, in human first trimester placental samples KDM1A and KDM4D immunolocalized to the syncytiotrophoblast, with nuclear KDM1A and KDM4D immunostaining also present in the villous stroma. In conclusion, placental androgen signaling, possibly through AR-KDM complex recruitment to AREs, regulates placental VEGFA expression. AR and KDMs are also present in first trimester human placenta. Androgens appear to be an important regulator of trophoblast differentiation and placental development, and aberrant androgen signaling may contribute to the development of placental disorders. PMID:25675430

  2. Prevalent flucocorticoid and androgen activity in US water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavreva, Diana A.; George, Anuja A.; Klausmeyer, Paul; Varticovski, Lyuba; Sack, Daniel; Voss, Ty C.; Schiltz, R. Louis; Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowiczl, Luke R.; Hager, Gordon L.

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a major health concern. The presence of estrogenic compounds in water and their deleterious effect are well documented. However, detection and monitoring of other classes of EDCs is limited. Here we utilize a high-throughput live cell assay based on sub-cellular relocalization of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid and androgen receptors (GFP-GR and GFP-AR), in combination with gene transcription analysis, to screen for glucocorticoid and androgen activity in water samples. We report previously unrecognized glucocorticoid activity in 27%, and androgen activity in 35% of tested water sources from 14 states in the US. Steroids of both classes impact body development, metabolism, and interfere with reproductive, endocrine, and immune systems. This prevalent contamination could negatively affect wildlife and human populations.

  3. Prostate diseases--role of sex steroids and their inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welén, Karin; Damber, Jan-Erik

    2011-04-01

    The normal prostate as well as prostatic diseases are influenced by androgens. The exact reason for an altered and uncontrolled response to androgens, whether benign as in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) or malignant as in the case of prostate cancer (PC), is not known in detail. Nevertheless, restriction of androgen receptor activation by reduction of available androgens is of great clinical value in both diseases. In BPH the inhibition of the conversion of testosterone into 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5α-reductase (5AR) is highly efficient and used in general practice, while the situation in PC is more complex. Specific inhibition of 5AR does not provide as efficient relief of symptoms as general androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), and the use of 5ARI for PC prevention is still under debate. Further, the altered steroid metabolism in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) together with the complex paracrine signalling between different androgen responsive cell types, make the development of more specific drugs targeting androgen receptor signalling both more relevant and challenging. PMID:21397203

  4. Androgen regulation of the androgen receptor coregulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The critical role of the androgen receptor (AR) in the development of prostate cancer is well recognized. The transcriptional activity of AR is partly regulated by coregulatory proteins. It has been suggested that these coregulators could also be important in the progression of prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to identify coregulators whose expression is regulated by either the androgens and/or by the expression level of AR. We used empty vector and AR cDNA-transfected LNCaP cells (LNCaP-pcDNA3.1, and LNCaP-ARhi, respectively), and grew them for 4 and 24 hours in the presence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) at various concentrations. The expression of 25 AR coregulators (SRC1, TIF2, PIAS1, PIASx, ARIP4, BRCA1, β-catenin, AIB3, AIB1, CBP, STAT1, NCoR1, AES, cyclin D1, p300, ARA24, LSD1, BAG1L, gelsolin, prohibitin, JMJD2C, JMJD1A, MAK, PAK6 and MAGE11) was then measured by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (Q-RT-PCR). Five of the coregulators (AIB1, CBP, MAK, BRCA1 and β-catenin) showed more than 2-fold induction and 5 others (cyclin D1, gelsolin, prohibitin, JMJD1A, and JMJD2C) less than 2-fold induction. Overexpression of AR did not affect the expression of the coregulators alone. However, overexpression of AR enhanced the DHT-stimulated expression of MAK, BRCA1, AIB1 and CBP and reduced the level of expression of β-catenin, cyclinD1 and gelsolin. In conclusion, we identified 5 coactivators whose expression was induced by androgens suggesting that they could potentiate AR signaling. Overexpression of AR seems to sensitize cells for low levels of androgens

  5. Androgen regulation of the androgen receptor coregulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenius Merja A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The critical role of the androgen receptor (AR in the development of prostate cancer is well recognized. The transcriptional activity of AR is partly regulated by coregulatory proteins. It has been suggested that these coregulators could also be important in the progression of prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to identify coregulators whose expression is regulated by either the androgens and/or by the expression level of AR. Methods We used empty vector and AR cDNA-transfected LNCaP cells (LNCaP-pcDNA3.1, and LNCaP-ARhi, respectively, and grew them for 4 and 24 hours in the presence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT at various concentrations. The expression of 25 AR coregulators (SRC1, TIF2, PIAS1, PIASx, ARIP4, BRCA1, β-catenin, AIB3, AIB1, CBP, STAT1, NCoR1, AES, cyclin D1, p300, ARA24, LSD1, BAG1L, gelsolin, prohibitin, JMJD2C, JMJD1A, MAK, PAK6 and MAGE11 was then measured by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (Q-RT-PCR. Results Five of the coregulators (AIB1, CBP, MAK, BRCA1 and β-catenin showed more than 2-fold induction and 5 others (cyclin D1, gelsolin, prohibitin, JMJD1A, and JMJD2C less than 2-fold induction. Overexpression of AR did not affect the expression of the coregulators alone. However, overexpression of AR enhanced the DHT-stimulated expression of MAK, BRCA1, AIB1 and CBP and reduced the level of expression of β-catenin, cyclinD1 and gelsolin. Conclusion In conclusion, we identified 5 coactivators whose expression was induced by androgens suggesting that they could potentiate AR signaling. Overexpression of AR seems to sensitize cells for low levels of androgens.

  6. Structure of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of human androgen receptor in complex with a selective modulator LGD2226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal structure of the ligand-binding domain of androgen receptor in complex with LGD2226. The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-inducible steroid hormone receptor that mediates androgen action, determining male sexual phenotypes and promoting spermatogenesis. As the androgens play a dominant role in male sexual development and function, steroidal androgen agonists have been used clinically for some years. However, there is a risk of potential side effects and most steroidal androgens cannot be dosed orally, which limits the use of these substances. 1,2-Dihydro-6-N,N-bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) amino-4-trifluoromethyl-2-quinolinone (LGD2226) is a synthetic nonsteroidal ligand and a novel selective AR modulator. The crystal structure of the complex of LGD2226 with the androgen receptor ligand-binding domain (AR LBD) at 2.1 Å was solved and compared with the structure of the AR LBD–R1881 complex. It is hoped that this will aid in further explaining the selectivity of LGD2226 observed in in vitro and in vivo assays and in developing more selective and effective therapeutic agents

  7. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. → Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. → Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor α, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

  8. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Okinaga, Hiroko [Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Okazaki, Tomoki, E-mail: okbgeni@med.teikyo-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: {yields} Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. {yields} Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. {yields} Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor {alpha}, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

  9. Multiresidue analysis of anabolic agents in muscle tissues and urines of cattle by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeseleire, E A; De Guesquière, A; Van Peteghem, C H

    1992-10-01

    The illegal use of anabolic steroids in livestock breeding has taken enormous proportions the last few decades. To protect the consumer against possible harmful effects due to the consumption of contaminated meat or meat products, a multiresidue analysis of anabolic steroids has been developed for muscle tissues and urine. The pretreatment of the meat and urine samples consists of an enzymatic digestion, liquid or solid-phase extraction, and finally high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation. Five fractions or windows are collected, each containing a number of analytes. The residues are derivatized prior to the detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both gas chromatographic retention data and mass spectral data are used for identification of nortestosterone, testosterone, estradiol, ethynylestradiol, trenbolone, zeranol, diethylstilbestrol, boldenone, methandienone, methyltestosterone, megestrol acetate, chlormadinone acetate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, chlorotestosterone, progesterone, and chlorotestosterone acetate. The limit of detection varies from matrix to matrix and from analyte to analyte but is, in the most favorable case, on the order of 0.3 ppb (micrograms/kg). PMID:1430050

  10. Overexpression of Androgen Receptors in Target Musculature Confers Androgen Sensitivity to Motoneuron Dendrites

    OpenAIRE

    Huguenard, Anna L.; Fernando, Shannon M.; Monks, D. Ashley; Sengelaub, Dale R.

    2010-01-01

    Androgen sensitivity of motoneuron dendrites is conferred indirectly via the enrichment of androgen receptors in the musculature in transgenic rats overexpressing androgen receptors in skeletal muscle.

  11. Adolescent Steroid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

  12. Steroid hormone receptors in prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, B A; Nurshireen, A; Rashidah, M; Zainal, B Y; Roslan, B A; Mahamooth, Z

    1990-06-01

    One hundred and six prostatic tissue samples obtained from transurethral resection were analysed for androgen and estrogen receptors. In 62 of these, progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors were also assayed. Steroid receptors were assayed using single saturation dose 3H-labelled ligand assays. Ninety percent of the 97 prostatic hyperplasia tissues and six of the nine prostatic carcinoma tissues were positive for androgen receptors. Estrogen receptors were only present in 19% and 33% respectively. Progesterone receptors were present in 70% of the tissues, but glucocorticoid receptors were present in only 16% of prostatic hyperplasia and none in prostatic carcinoma. PMID:1725553

  13. Identification and Characterization of the Androgen Receptor From the American Alligator, Alligator mississippiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Shinichi; Yatsu, Ryohei; Kohno, Satomi; Doheny, Brenna M; Ogino, Yukiko; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Guillette, Louis J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-08-01

    Androgens are essential for the development, reproduction, and health throughout the life span of vertebrates, particularly during the initiation and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. Androgen signaling is mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a member of the steroid nuclear receptor superfamily. Mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors, such as exogenous hormones or contaminants that mimic hormones, can disrupt endocrine signaling and function. The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), a unique model for ecological research in that it exhibits environment-dependent sex determination, is oviparous and long lived. Alligators from a contaminated environment exhibit low reproductive success and morphological disorders of the testis and phallus in neonates and juveniles, both associated with androgen signaling; thus, the alterations are hypothesized to be related to disrupted androgen signaling. However, this line of research has been limited because of a lack of information on the alligator AR gene. Here, we isolated A mississippiensis AR homologs (AmAR) and evaluated receptor-hormone/chemical interactions using a transactivation assay. We showed that AmAR responded to all natural androgens and their effects were inhibited by cotreatment with antiandrogens, such as flutamide, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, and vinclozolin. Intriguingly, we found a spliced form of the AR from alligator cDNA, which lacks seven amino acids within the ligand-binding domain that shows no response to androgens. Finally, we have initial data on a possible dominant-negative function of the spliced form of the AR against androgen-induced AmAR. PMID:25974402

  14. Identification of androgen receptors in normal human osteoblast-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sex steroids, androgens and estrogens, are major regulators of bone metabolism. However, whether these hormones act on bone cells through direct or indirect mechanisms has remained unclear. A nuclear binding assay recently used to demonstrate estrogen receptors in bone was used to identify specific nuclear binding of a tritiated synthetic androgen, [3H]R1881 (methyltrienolone), in 21 of 25 (84%) human osteoblast-like cell strains and a concentration of bound steroid receptors of 821 ± 140 molecules per cell nucleus. Binding was saturable and steroid-specific. Androgen receptor gene expression in osteoblasts was confirmed by RNA blot analysis. Relative concentrations of androgen and estrogen receptors were compared by measuring specific nuclear estrogen binding. Nuclear binding of [3H]estradiol was observed in 27 of 30 (90%) cell strains; the concentration of bound estradiol receptor was 1537 ± 221 molecules per cell nucleus. The concentrations of nuclear binding sites were similar in males and females for both [3H]R1881 and [3H]estradiol. The authors conclude that both androgens and estrogens act directly on human bone cells through their respective receptor-mediated mechanisms

  15. Refinement of the androgen response element based on ChIP-Seq in androgen-insensitive and androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen; Qi, Jianfei; Filipp, Fabian V

    2016-01-01

    Sequence motifs are short, recurring patterns in DNA that can mediate sequence-specific binding for proteins such as transcription factors or DNA modifying enzymes. The androgen response element (ARE) is a palindromic, dihexameric motif present in promoters or enhancers of genes targeted by the androgen receptor (AR). Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) we refined AR-binding and AREs at a genome-scale in androgen-insensitive and androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell lines. Model-based searches identified more than 120,000 ChIP-Seq motifs allowing for expansion and refinement of the ARE. We classified AREs according to their degeneracy and their transcriptional involvement. Additionally, we quantified ARE utilization in response to somatic copy number amplifications, AR splice-variants, and steroid treatment. Although imperfect AREs make up 99.9% of the motifs, the degree of degeneracy correlates negatively with validated transcriptional outcome. Weaker AREs, particularly ARE half sites, benefit from neighboring motifs or cooperating transcription factors in regulating gene expression. Taken together, ARE full sites generate a reliable transcriptional outcome in AR positive cells, despite their low genome-wide abundance. In contrast, the transcriptional influence of ARE half sites can be modulated by cooperating factors. PMID:27623747

  16. Steroid receptors and their ligands: Effects on male gamete functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.deamicis@unical.it

    2014-11-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. - Highlights: • One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. • Pg/PR co-work to stimulate enzymatic activities to sustain a capacitation process. • E2/ERs regulate sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction and act as survival factors. • Androgens

  17. Steroid receptors and their ligands: Effects on male gamete functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. - Highlights: • One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. • Pg/PR co-work to stimulate enzymatic activities to sustain a capacitation process. • E2/ERs regulate sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction and act as survival factors. • Androgens

  18. Determination of anabolic esters in oily formulations and plasma in husbandry using high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass selective detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooijerink, D; Schilt, R; van Bennekom, E; Brouwer, B

    1994-12-01

    Two different analytical methods are described for the analysis of anabolic steroid esters in oily formulations for veterinary use and animal plasma samples, respectively. For the determination of anabolic steroid esters in oily formulations (at mg kg-1 levels) a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with gradient elution is described. Gradient elution is performed owing to the relatively large variations in polarity of the investigated anabolic steroid esters. For the analysis of anabolic steroid esters in plasma (at ng ml-1 levels) two different strategies are applied. After solid-phase extraction, the plasma samples are introduced into the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system where the obtained fractions are then analysed by using gas chromatography-mass selective detection (GC-MSD). An alternative method is direct analysis of plasma samples after solid-phase extraction by using GC-MSD without any further clean-up procedure. Prior to GC-MSD the samples are derivatized to corresponding trifluoroacyl (TFA) derivatives. The calibration graph for HPLC is rectilinear over the range 25-150 ng ml-1 plasma and the analytical recoveries for medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and testosterone propionate (TP) are more than 95%. The detection limits for both analytes in GC-MS are 2.5 ng ml-1 plasma for MPA and 0.5 ng ml-1 plasma for TP with an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio (calculated for the derivatized relative molecular mass). In the analysis of plasma obtained from animal experiments concentrations of 6.5 ng ml-1 are found for MPA by using GC-MSD and 5.0 ng ml-1 are found for nortestosterone laurate (NL) by using HPLC. PMID:7879863

  19. Integrated multi-omics analyses reveal the biochemical mechanisms and phylogenetic relevance of anaerobic androgen biodegradation in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fu-Chun; Chen, Yi-Lung; Tang, Sen-Lin; Yu, Chang-Ping; Wang, Po-Hsiang; Ismail, Wael; Wang, Chia-Hsiang; Ding, Jiun-Yan; Yang, Cheng-Yu; Yang, Chia-Ying; Chiang, Yin-Ru

    2016-08-01

    Steroid hormones, such as androgens, are common surface-water contaminants. However, literature on the ecophysiological relevance of steroid-degrading organisms in the environment, particularly in anoxic ecosystems, is extremely limited. We previously reported that Steroidobacter denitrificans anaerobically degrades androgens through the 2,3-seco pathway. In this study, the genome of Sdo. denitrificans was completely sequenced. Transcriptomic data revealed gene clusters that were distinctly expressed during anaerobic growth on testosterone. We isolated and characterized the bifunctional 1-testosterone hydratase/dehydrogenase, which is essential for anaerobic degradation of steroid A-ring. Because of apparent substrate preference of this molybdoenzyme, corresponding genes, along with the signature metabolites of the 2,3-seco pathway, were used as biomarkers to investigate androgen biodegradation in the largest sewage treatment plant in Taipei, Taiwan. Androgen metabolite analysis indicated that denitrifying bacteria in anoxic sewage use the 2,3-seco pathway to degrade androgens. Metagenomic analysis and PCR-based functional assays showed androgen degradation in anoxic sewage by Thauera spp. through the action of 1-testosterone hydratase/dehydrogenase. Our integrative 'omics' approach can be used for culture-independent investigations of the microbial degradation of structurally complex compounds where isotope-labeled substrates are not easily available. PMID:26872041

  20. Androgen receptor polymorphism (CAG repeats) and androgenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, D; Caglieresi, C; Moschini, C; Liberati, C D; Macchia, E; Pinchera, A; Martino, E

    2005-09-01

    Objective Polymorphism of the androgen receptor (AR) has been related to various pathophysiological conditions, such as osteoporosis and infertility. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the frequency of distribution in a normal Italian population and to assess CAG repeats (CAGr) in other conditions, such as hypoandrogenism, potentially influenced by AR polymorphism. Patients and measurements CAGr polymorphism was determined in a group of 91 healthy normoandrogenized subjects, 29 hypoandrogenized patients (hypoplasia of prostate and seminal vesicles, reduced beard or body hair, etc.) and 29 infertile patients by direct sequencing. Results The mean (+/- SD) number of CAG repeats [(CAGr)n] was 21.5 (+/- 1.7) in the control group, 21.4 (+/- 2.0) in the infertile patients and 24.0 (+/- 2.9) in the hypoandrogenic males. The difference was statistically significant between this last group and the other two (P CAGr repeats was 38% among hypoandrogenized patients, 7% among infertile patients and 5% among the control group. In hypoandrogenized subjects (CAGr)n correlated slightly with testis and prostate volume. The number of CAG repeats was not associated with any of the hormonal parameters, including testosterone, evaluated in the three groups. Conclusions Our normal population, representing subjects from Central Italy, is superimposable on other European populations with regard to (CAGr)n distribution. Hypoandrogenic males have a shift in the frequency distribution towards longer (CAGr)n. Infertile patients are not statistically different from the control group. These findings suggest that, given the same amount of circulating testosterone, as in our hypoandrogenized and control group, the final net androgenic phenotypical effect is due to AR polymorphism. PMID:16117826

  1. Stress and Androgen Activity During Fetal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Emily S; Swan, Shanna H

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal stress is known to alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, and more recent evidence suggests that it may also affect androgen activity. In animal models, prenatal stress disrupts the normal surge of testosterone in the developing male, whereas in females, associations differ by species. In humans, studies show that (1) associations between prenatal stress and child outcomes are often sex-dependent, (2) prenatal stress predicts several disorders with notable sex differences in prevalence, and (3) prenatal exposure to stressful life events may be associated with masculinized reproductive tract development and play behavior in girls. In this minireview, we examine the existing literature on prenatal stress and androgenic activity and present new, preliminary data indicating that prenatal stress may also modify associations between prenatal exposure to diethylhexyl phthalate, (a synthetic, antiandrogenic chemical) and reproductive development in infant boys. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to both chemical and nonchemical stressors may alter sex steroid pathways in the maternal-placental-fetal unit and ultimately alter hormone-dependent developmental endpoints. PMID:26241065

  2. One and the same androgen for all? towards designer androgens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LouisJGGooren; NhuThanhNguyen

    1999-01-01

    The introduction of designer oestrogens as a treatment medality in hormone replacement in women has invited to consider the concept of compounds with selective androgenic effects for male honnone replacement therapy. The full spectrum of the actions of testosterone may not be necessary of even undesired for certain indications for testosterone treatment, To define for what indications certain androgenic properties are desired and undesired more insight in basic androgen (patho)physiology is required. There is convincing evidence that aromatization of androgenic compounds to nestrogens might be an advantage for maintenance of bone mass and it might also mitigate negative effects of androgens on bichemical parameters of cardiovascular risks: the potentially negative effects of oestmgens on prostate pathology in ageing men needs further elucidation. While the role of dihydro-testosterone (DHT) for the male sexual differentiation and for pubertal sexual maturation is evident, its role in mature and ageing males seems less significant or may even be harmful. It is, however, of note that a negative effect of DHT on prostate pathophysiolog~ is certainly not proven.For male contraception a progestational agent with strong androgenic properties might be an asset. For most of the androgenic actions the critical levels of androgens are not well established. The latter is relevant since the large amount of androgen molecules required for its biological actions (as compared to oestrogens) is an impediment in androgen replacement medalities. There may be room for more biopotent androgens since delivery of large amounts of androgen molecules to the circulation poses problems fur treatment modalities. ( Asian J Andro11999 Jun; 1:21 -28)

  3. Polymorphic variation in the androgen receptor gene: association with risk of testicular germ cell cancer and metastatic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Västermark, Åke; Giwercman, Yvonne Lundberg; Hagströmer, Oskar; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Eberhard, Jakob; Ståhl, Olof; Cedermark, Gabriella Cohn; Rastkhani, Hamideh; Daugaard, Gedske; Arver, Stefan; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2011-01-01

    Increasing incidence of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) is most probably related to environment and lifestyle. However, an underlying genetic predisposition may play a role and since sex steroids are assumed to be important for the rise and progression of TGCC, a study of androgen receptor (AR...... endocrine disruptors. From a biological point of view, our findings strengthen the hypothesis of the importance of androgen action in the aetiology and pathogenesis of testicular malignancy. Future studies should focus on the impact of sex hormones on foetal germ cell development and the interaction between...... environmental factors and androgen receptor variants in relation to the risk of testicular malignancy....

  4. Development, validation and application of a stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography electrospray ionization/selected reaction monitoring/mass spectrometry (SID-LC/ESI/SRM/MS) method for quantification of keto-androgens in human serum✩, ✩✩

    OpenAIRE

    Tamae, Daniel; Byrns, Michael; Marck, Brett; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Peter S Nelson; de Lange, Paul; Lin, Daniel; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Balk, Steven; Ellis, William; True, Larry; Vessella, Robert; Montgomery, Bruce; Blair, Ian A.; Penning, Trevor M.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed form of cancer in males in the United States. The disease is androgen driven and the use of orchiectomy or chemical castration, known as androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been employed for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer for over 70 years. Agents such as GnRH agonists and non-steroidal androgen receptor antagonists are routinely used in the clinic, but eventually relapse occurs due to the emergence of castration-resistant prostat...

  5. Substitution of Ala564 in the first zinc cluster of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-binding domain of the androgen receptor by Asp, Asn, or Leu exerts differential effects on DNA binding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.T. Brüggenwirth (Hennie); A.L.M. Boehmer (Annemie); J.M. Lobaccaro; L. Chiche; C. Sultan; J. Trapman (Jan); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn the androgen receptor of a patient with androgen insensitivity, the alanine residue at position 564 in the first zinc cluster of the DNA-binding domain was substituted by aspartic acid. In other members of the steroid receptor family, either valine or ala

  6. ANDROGEN INSENSITIVITY SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Kanan; Sonali

    2014-01-01

    The condition is inherited as X - linked recessive gene 1 . The underlying pathology is the inability of end organs to respond to androgens. These cases are phenotypically and psychologically female with adequate breast development , normal external genitalia , a vagina with variable depth , absent /sparse pubic hair and axillary hair. The exact incidence in India is not known but the reported incidence is 1 in 2 , 000 to 1 in 62 ,400 worldwi...

  7. Metabolic syndrome in androgenic alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Hima Gopinath; Gatha M Upadya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Androgenic alopecia has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease in various studies. The relationship between androgenic alopecia and metabolic syndrome, a known risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is still poorly understood. Aim: To study the association between metabolic syndrome and early-onset androgenic alopecia. Methods: A hospital-based analytical cross-sectional study was done on men in the age group of 18–55 years. Eighty five c...

  8. Control of adrenal androgen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, W D; Parker, L N

    The major adrenal androgens are dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (delta 4). Studies by Cutler et al in 1978 demonstrated that these androgens are detectable in blood of all domestic and laboratory animals studied, but that only 4 species show increase in one or more with sexual maturation: rabbit, dog, chimpanzee and man. Studies by Grover and Odell in 1975 show these androgens do not bind to the androgen receptor obtained from rat prostate and thus probably are androgens only by conversion to an active androgen in vivo. Thomas and Oake in 1974 showed human skin converted DHEA to testosterone. The control of adrenal androgen secretion is in part modulated by ACTH. However, other factors or hormones must exist also, for a variety of clinical observations show dissociation in adrenal androgen versus cortisol secretion. Other substances that have been said to be controllers of adrenal androgen secretion include estrogens, prolactin, growth hormone, gonadotropins and lipotropin. None of these appear to be the usual physiological modulator, although under some circumstances each may increase androgen production. Studies from our laboratory using in vivo experiments in the castrate dog and published in 1979 indicated that crude extracts of bovine pituitary contained a substance that either modified ACTH stimulation of adrenal androgen secretion, or stimulated secretion itself - Cortisol Androgen Stimulating Hormone. Parker et al in 1983 showed a 60,000 MW glycoprotein was extractable from human pituitaries, which stimulated DHA secretion by dispersed canine adrenal cells in vitro, but did not stimulate cortisol secretion. This material contained no ACTH by radioimmunoassay. In 1982 Brubaker et al reported a substance was also present in human fetal pituitaries, which stimulated DHA secretion, but did not effect cortisol. PMID:6100259

  9. The androgen receptor in hormone-refractory prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Lei Mao; Zhi-Qi Zhu; Charlie Degui Chen

    2009-01-01

    Advanced prostate cancer is responsive to hormone therapy that interferes with androgen receptor (AR) signalling.However,the effect is short-lived,as nearly all tumours progress to a hormone-refractory (HR) state,a lethal stage of the disease.Intuitively,the AR should not be involved because hormone therapy that blocks or reduces AR activity is not effective in treating HR turnouts.However,there is still a consensus that AR plays an essential role in HR prostate cancer (HRPC) because AR signalling is still functional in HR tumours.AR signalling can be activated in HR turnouts through several mechanisms.First,activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways can sensitize the AR to castrate levels of androgens.Also,mutations in the AR can change AR ligand specificity,thereby allowing it to be activated by non-steroids or anti-androgens.Finally,overexpression of the wild-type AR sensitizes itself to low concentrations of androgens.Therefore,drugs targeting AR signalling could still be effective in treating HRPC.

  10. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tančić-Gajić Milina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS belongs to disorders of sex development, resulting from complete or partial resistance to the biological actions of androgens in persons who are genetically males (XY with normally developed testes and age-appropriate for males of serum testosterone concentration. Case Outline. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted at our Clinic further evaluation and treatment of testicular feminization syndrome, which was diagnosed at the age of 16 years. The patient had never menstruated. On physical examination, her external genitalia and breast development appeared as completely normal feminine structures but pubic and axillary hair was absent. Cytogenetic analysis showed a 46 XY karyotype. The values of sex hormones were as in adult males. The multisliced computed tomography (MSCT showed structures on both sides of the pelvic region, suggestive of testes. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed. Hormone replacement therapy was prescribed after gonadectomy. Vaginal dilatation was advised to avoid dyspareunia. Conclusion. The diagnosis of complete androgen insensitivity is based on clinical findigs, hormonal analysis karyotype, visualization methods and genetic analysis. Bilateral gonadectomy is generally recommended in early adulthood to avoid the risk of testicular malignancy. Vaginal length may be short requiring dilatation in an effort to avoid dyspareunia. Vaginal surgery is rarely indicated for the creation of a functional vagina. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175067

  11. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe;

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids ha...

  12. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe;

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids have...... important biological roles in prepubertal children....

  13. Sphingosine kinase-1 mediates androgen-induced osteoblast cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Claire; Lafosse, Jean-Michel; Malavaud, Bernard; Cuvillier, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Herein we report that the lipid kinase sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1) is instrumental in mediating androgen-induced cell proliferation in osteoblasts. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) triggered cell growth in steroid-deprived MC3T3 cells, which was associated with a rapid stimulation of SphK1 and activation of both Akt and ERK signaling pathways. This mechanism relied on functional androgen receptor/PI3K/Akt nongenotropic signaling as pharmacological antagonists could block SphK1 stimulation by DHT and its consequences. Finally, SphK1 inhibition not only abrogated DHT-induced ERK activation but also blocked cell proliferation, while ERK inhibition had no impact, suggesting that SphK1 was critical for DHT signaling yet independently of the ERK. PMID:19932089

  14. Sphingosine kinase-1 mediates androgen-induced osteoblast cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herein we report that the lipid kinase sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1) is instrumental in mediating androgen-induced cell proliferation in osteoblasts. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) triggered cell growth in steroid-deprived MC3T3 cells, which was associated with a rapid stimulation of SphK1 and activation of both Akt and ERK signaling pathways. This mechanism relied on functional androgen receptor/PI3K/Akt nongenotropic signaling as pharmacological antagonists could block SphK1 stimulation by DHT and its consequences. Finally, SphK1 inhibition not only abrogated DHT-induced ERK activation but also blocked cell proliferation, while ERK inhibition had no impact, suggesting that SphK1 was critical for DHT signaling yet independently of the ERK.

  15. Sphingosine kinase-1 mediates androgen-induced osteoblast cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Claire [CNRS, Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale, Toulouse F-31000 (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, IPBS, Toulouse F-31000 (France); Lafosse, Jean-Michel [CHU Toulouse, Hopital Rangueil, Service d' orthopedie et Traumatologie, Toulouse F-31000 (France); Malavaud, Bernard [CNRS, Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale, Toulouse F-31000 (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, IPBS, Toulouse F-31000 (France); CHU Toulouse, Hopital Rangueil, Service d' Urologie et de Transplantation Renale, Toulouse F-31000 (France); Cuvillier, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.cuvillier@ipbs.fr [CNRS, Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale, Toulouse F-31000 (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, IPBS, Toulouse F-31000 (France)

    2010-01-01

    Herein we report that the lipid kinase sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1) is instrumental in mediating androgen-induced cell proliferation in osteoblasts. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) triggered cell growth in steroid-deprived MC3T3 cells, which was associated with a rapid stimulation of SphK1 and activation of both Akt and ERK signaling pathways. This mechanism relied on functional androgen receptor/PI3K/Akt nongenotropic signaling as pharmacological antagonists could block SphK1 stimulation by DHT and its consequences. Finally, SphK1 inhibition not only abrogated DHT-induced ERK activation but also blocked cell proliferation, while ERK inhibition had no impact, suggesting that SphK1 was critical for DHT signaling yet independently of the ERK.

  16. Identification of the molecular switch that regulates access of 5α-DHT to the androgen receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Penning, Trevor M.; Bauman, David R.; Jin, Yi; Rizner, Tea Lanisik

    2007-01-01

    Pairs of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) govern ligand access to steroid receptors in target tissues and act as molecular switches. By acting as reductases or oxidases, HSDs convert potent ligands into their cognate inactive metabolites or vice-versa. This pre-receptor regulation of steroid hormone action may have profound effects on hormonal response. We have identified the HSDs responsible for regulating ligand access to the androgen receptor (AR) in human prostate. Type 3 3α-hydroxyst...

  17. On the potential of a chemical Bonds: Possible effects of steroids on home run production in baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, R. G.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years several baseball players have hit a remarkable number of home runs, and there has been speculation that their achievements were enhanced by the use of anabolic steroids. Basic mechanics and physiology, combined with simple but reasonable models, show that steroid use by a player who is already highly skilled could produce such dramatic increases in home run production. Because home runs are relatively rare events on the tail of a batter's range distribution, even modest changes in bat speed can increase the proportion of batted balls that result in home runs by 50-100%. The possible effect of steroid use by pitchers is briefly considered.

  18. The genomic transcriptional response of female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to an acute exposure to the androgen, 17β-trenbolone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorts, Jennifer; Richter, Catherine A.; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Carter, Barbara J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the genomic transcriptional response of female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to an acute (4 days) exposure to 0.1 or 1.0 ??g/L of 17??-trenbolone (TB), the active metabolite of an anabolic androgenic steroid used as a growth promoter in cattle and a contaminant of concern in aquatic systems. Our objectives were to investigate the gene expression profile induced by TB, define biomarkers of exposure to TB, and increase our understanding of the mechanisms of adverse effects of TB on fish reproduction. In female gonad tissue, microarray analysis using a 22 K oligonucleotide microarray (EcoArray Inc., Gainesville, FL) showed 99 significantly upregulated genes and 741 significantly downregulated genes in response to 1 ??g TB/L. In particular, hydroxysteroid (17??) dehydrogenase 12a (hsd17b12a), zona pellucida glycoprotein 2.2 (zp2.2), and protein inhibitor of activated STAT, 2 (pias2) were all downregulated in gonad. Q-PCR measurements in a larger sample set were consistent with the microarray results in the direction and magnitude of these changes in gene expression. However, several novel potential biomarkers were verified by Q-PCR in the same samples, but could not be validated in independent samples. In liver, Q-PCR measurements showed a significant decrease in vitellogenin 1 (vtg1) mRNA expression. In brain, cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1b (cyp19a1b, previously known as aromatase B) transcript levels were significantly reduced following TB exposure. Our study provides a candidate gene involved in mediating the action of TB, hsd17b12a, and two potential biomarkers sensitive to acute TB exposure, hepatic vtg1 and brain cyp19a1b.

  19. Efficient approach for the detection and identification of new androgenic metabolites by applying SRM GC-CI-MS/MS: a methandienone case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polet, Michael; Van Gansbeke, Wim; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen

    2016-07-01

    Identification of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is a vital issue in doping control and toxicology, and searching for metabolites with longer detection times remains an important task. Recently, a gas chromatography chemical ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-CI-MS/MS) method was introduced, and CI, in comparison with electron ionization (EI), proved to be capable of increasing the sensitivity significantly. In addition, correlations between AAS structure and fragmentation behavior could be revealed. This enables the search for previously unknown but expected metabolites by selection of their predicted transitions. The combination of both factors allows the setup of an efficient approach to search for new metabolites. The approach uses selected reaction monitoring which is inherently more sensitive than full scan or precursor ion scan. Additionally, structural information obtained from the structure specific CI fragmentation pattern facilitates metabolite identification. The procedure was demonstrated by a methandienone case study. Its metabolites have been studied extensively in the past, and this allowed an adequate evaluation of the efficiency of the approach. Thirty three metabolites were detected, including all relevant previously discovered metabolites. In our study, the previously reported long-term metabolite (18-nor-17β-hydroxymethyl,17α-methyl-androst-1,4,13-trien-3-one) could be detected up to 26 days by using GC-CI-MS/MS. The study proves the validity of the approach to search for metabolites of new synthetic AAS and new long-term metabolites of less studied AAS and illustrates the increase in sensitivity by using CI. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27434811

  20. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Katsuji; Miyawaki, Toshio; Hitaka, Takenori; Imai, Yumi N; Hara, Takahito; Miyazaki, Junichi; Yamaoka, Masuo; Kusaka, Masami; Kanzaki, Naoyuki; Tasaka, Akihiro; Shiraishi, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-05-15

    To develop effective drugs for hypogonadism, sarcopenia, and cachexia, we designed, synthesized, and evaluated selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) that exhibit not only anabolic effects on organs such as muscles and the central nervous system (CNS) but also neutral or antagonistic effects on the prostate. Based on the information obtained from a docking model with androgen receptor (AR), we modified a hit compound A identified through high-throughput screening. Among the prepared compounds, 1-(4-cyano-1-naphthyl)-2,3-disubstituted pyrrolidine derivatives 17h, 17m, and 17j had highly potent AR agonistic activities in vitro and good tissue selectivity in vivo. These derivatives increased the weight of the levator ani muscle without influencing the prostate and seminal vesicle. In addition, these compounds induced sexual behavior in castrated rats, indicating that the compounds could also act as agonists on the CNS. PMID:25862209

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the human androgen receptor ligand-binding domain with a coactivator-like peptide and selective androgen receptor modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human androgen receptor ligand-binding domain has been crystallized as a ternary complex with a coactivator-like undecapeptide and two different synthetic ligands. The ligand-binding domain of the human androgen receptor has been cloned, overproduced and crystallized in the presence of a coactivator-like 11-mer peptide and two different nonsteroidal ligands. The crystals of the two ternary complexes were isomorphous and belonged to space group P212121, with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. They diffracted to 1.7 and 1.95 Å resolution, respectively. Structure determination of these two complexes will help in understanding the mode of binding of selective nonsteroidal androgens versus endogenous steroidal ligands and possibly the origin of their tissue selectivity

  2. Metabolic syndrome in androgenic alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hima Gopinath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Androgenic alopecia has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease in various studies. The relationship between androgenic alopecia and metabolic syndrome, a known risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is still poorly understood. Aim: To study the association between metabolic syndrome and early-onset androgenic alopecia. Methods: A hospital-based analytical cross-sectional study was done on men in the age group of 18–55 years. Eighty five clinically diagnosed cases with early-onset (<35 years androgenic alopecia of Norwood grade III or above, and 85 controls without androgenic alopecia were included. Data collected included anthropometric measurements, arterial blood pressure and history of chronic diseases. Fasting blood and lipid profile were determined. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed as per the new International Diabetes Federation criteria. Chi-square and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 17.00. Results: Metabolic syndrome was seen in 19 (22.4% patients with androgenic alopecia and 8 (9.4% controls (P = 0.021. Abdominal obesity, hypertension and lowered high-density lipoprotein were significantly higher in patients with androgenic alopecia versus their respective controls. Limitations: The limitations of our study include small sample size in subgroups and the lack of evidence of a temporal relationship between metabolic syndrome and androgenic alopecia. Conclusion: A higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome is seen in men with early-onset androgenic alopecia. Early screening for metabolic syndrome and its components is beneficial in patients with early-onset androgenic alopecia.

  3. Acute Respiratory Distress following Intravenous Injection of an Oil-Steroid Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Russell; Aric Storck; Martha Ainslie

    2011-01-01

    Several case reports have described acute lung injury and respiratory distress following the intravascular injection of oil. Although biochemical and mechanical theories explaining the pathological mechanism of pulmonary oil embolism have been proposed, the phenomenon is not completely understood. This report describes a case of acute respiratory distress and hypoxemia involving a 21-year-old bodybuilder who self-administered an injection of anabolic steroids suspended in oil. The ensuing bri...

  4. Androgens and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, K A

    1995-01-16

    A review of the literature reveals that the endocrine determinants of female sexuality are complex and difficult to characterize. In adolescent males, free testosterone directly affects sexual motivation, with social factors exerting little or no effect. In adolescent girls, by contrast, societal and peer pressure play a pivotal role in the appearance of certain sexual behaviors. Throughout a woman's life, hormonal and psychosocial factors are critical influences. It is possible that cyclic patterns of testosterone are less important for female sexual behavior than the "tonic" effect of overall testosterone levels. Although the estrogen dependence of the vaginal epithelium--important for postmenopausal women--has been clearly established, the role of other hormonal factors and treatments, particularly those involving androgens, in human female sexual behavior remains enigmatic. The search for an understanding of these relationships is not merely an interesting academic exercise but is necessary to determine what role, if any, androgens may play in the treatment of sexual dysfunction during the female reproductive years. PMID:7825630

  5. Specific interaction of radioactive anti-androgen TSAA-291 with androgen receptor in rat prostates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A steroidal anti-androgen TSSA-291 (16β-ethyl-17β-hydroxy-4-oestren-3-one) bound to a macromolecular component in the cytosol of rat ventral prostates with high affinity (Kdsub(d) = 5.0 x 10-9M) and in a saturable manner. The number of binding sites was comparable to that for 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT). [3H]TSAA-291 binding was effectively displaced by unlabelled 5α-DHT, 19-nortestosterone and cyproterone acetate but to a lesser degree by corticosterone. Glycerol density-gradient centrifugation analysis revealed that the sedimentation coefficient of the [3H]-TSAA-291-macromolecule complex was 3-4.5 S. However, when the unlabelled cytosol was fractionated by glycerol density-gradient centrifugation before the binding of [3H]TSAA-291 was examined, specific binding of [3H]TSAA-291 was observed in fractions corresponding to 8-10 S. Binding of the [3H]TSAA-291-macromolecules comples to prostatic nuclei and DNA-cellulose was considerably less than binding by the [3H]5α-DHT-macromolecule complex. Instability of the TSAA-291 binding coponent on heat treatment before and after complex formation was also revealed and the results are discussed in terms of the anti-androgenic activity of TSAA-291. (author)

  6. Structural and biochemical properties of cloned and expressed human and rat steroid 5α-reductases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microsomal enzyme steroid 5α-reductase is responsible for the conversion of testosterone into the more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone. In man, this steroid acts on a variety of androgen-responsive target tissues to mediate such diverse endocrine processes as male sexual differentiation in the fetus and prostatic growth in men. Here we describe the isolation, structure, and expression of a cDNA encoding the human steroid 5α-reductase. A rat cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to screen a human prostate cDNA library. A 2.1-kilobase cDNA was identified and DNA sequence analysis indicated that the human steroid 5α-reductase was a hydrophobic protein of 259 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 29,462. A comparison of the human and rat protein sequences revealed a 60% identity. Transfection of expression vectors containing the human and rat cDNAs into simian COS cells resulted in the synthesis of high levels of steroid 5α-reductase enzyme activity. Both enzymes expressed in COS cells showed similar substrate specificities for naturally occurring steroid hormones. However, synthetic 4-azasteroids demonstrated marked differences in their abilities to inhibit the human and rat steroid 5α-reductases

  7. [7α-18F]fluoro-17α-methyl-5α-dihydrotestosterone: a ligand for androgen receptor-mediated imaging of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have synthesized a 18F-labeled androgen, [7α-18F]fluoro-17α-methyl-5α-dihydrotestosterone, in a no-carrier-added radiosynthesis by exchange of 18F- (tetrabutylammonium fluoride) with the 7β-tosyloxy of 17α-methyl-5α-dihydrotestosterone. The nonradioactive steroid binds with high affinity and specificity to the androgen receptor and binds poorly, if at all, to other steroid receptors and plasma sex hormone binding globulin. The 7α-18F-androgen concentrates markedly in the prostate of rats by an androgen receptor-dependent mechanism. It is likely that [7α-18F]fluoro-17α-methyl-5α-dihydrotestosterone will be an excellent positron emission tomography imaging agent for prostate cancer

  8. Update of monotherapy trials with the new anti-androgen, Casodex (ICI 176,334). International Casodex Investigators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1994-01-01

    Casodex (ICI 176,334) is a non-steroidal anti-androgen, which has a half-life compatible with once-daily oral dosing. In an open, phase II study on 267 patients given Casodex, 50 mg/day, an overall objective response (i.e. partial regression) was seen in 55.5% of patients (146 of 263) with a...... open dose-ranging study. As no significant tolerability issues were reported, further investigation of Casodex at these higher doses is in progress. All studies in which Casodex has been investigated have shown it to be a well-tolerated anti-androgen with a good side-effect profile compared with those...... reported for other available non-steroidal anti-androgens....

  9. Anti-Inflammatories and Corticosteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with anabolic steroids and have often feared their use. Anabolic steroids are testosterone, or the male sex hormone. This hormone is also secreted by the adrenal cortex. This hormone is androgenic, ... mass. The medical use of this hormone includes stimulation of red blood ...

  10. Contributions of androgen and estrogen to fetal programming of ovarian dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumesic Daniel A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In female mammals, including humans, deviations from normal androgenic or estrogenic exposure during fetal development are detrimental to subsequent adult ovarian function. Androgen deficiency, without accompanying estrogen deficit, has little apparent impact on ovarian development. Fetal estrogen deficiency, on the other hand, results in impaired oocyte and follicle development, immature and abnormal adult ovaries, and excessive ovarian stimulation from endogenous gonadotropins ultimately generating hemorrhagic follicles. Complete estrogen deficiency lasting into adulthood results in partial ovarian masculinization. Fetal androgen excess, on the other hand, mediated either by direct androgen action or following androgen aromatization to estrogen, reprograms ovarian development and reproductive neuroendocrinology to mimic that found in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: enlarged, polyfollicular, hyperandrogenic, anovulatory ovaries with accompanying LH hypersecretion. Oocyte developmental competence is also compromised. Insulin is implicated in the mechanism of both anovulation and deficient oocyte development. Fetal estrogen excess induces somewhat similar disruption of adult ovarian function to fetal androgen excess. Understanding the quality of the fetal female sex steroid hormone environment is thus becoming increasingly important in improving our knowledge of mechanisms underlying a variety of female reproductive pathologies.

  11. Androgens and estrogens modulate the immune and inflammatory responses in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Seriolo, Bruno; Villaggio, Barbara; Pizzorni, Carmen; Craviotto, Chiara; Sulli, Alberto

    2002-06-01

    Generally, androgens exert suppressive effects on both humoral and cellular immune responses and seem to represent natural anti-inflammatory hormones; in contrast, estrogens exert immunoenhancing activities, at least on humoral immune response. Low levels of gonadal androgens (testosterone/dihydrotestosterone) and adrenal androgens (dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate), as well as lower androgen/estrogen ratios, have been detected in body fluids (that is, blood, synovial fluid, smears, salivary) of both male and female rheumatoid arthritis patients, supporting the possibility of a pathogenic role for the decreased levels of the immune-suppressive androgens. Several physiological, pathological, and therapeutic conditions may change the sex hormone milieu and/or peripheral conversion, including the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, the postpartum period, menopause, chronic stress, and inflammatory cytokines, as well as use of corticosteroids, oral contraceptives, and steroid hormonal replacements, inducing altered androgen/estrogen ratios and related effects. Therefore, sex hormone balance is still a crucial factor in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses, and the therapeutical modulation of this balance should represent part of advanced biological treatments for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune rheumatic diseases. PMID:12114267

  12. TAp73 promotes anti-senescence-anabolism not proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Massimiliano; Niklison-Chirou, Maria Victoria; Catani, Maria Valeria; Knight, Richard A.; Melino, Gerry; Rufini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    TAp73, a member of the p53 family, has been traditionally considered a tumor suppressor gene, but a recent report has claimed that it can promote cellular proliferation. This assumption is based on biochemical evidence of activation of anabolic metabolism, with enhanced pentose phosphate shunt (PPP) and nucleotide biosynthesis. Here, while we confirm that TAp73 expression enhances anabolism, we also substantiate its role in inhibiting proliferation and promoting cell death. Hence, we would like to propose an alternative interpretation of the accumulating data linking p73 to cellular metabolism: we suggest that TAp73 promotes anabolism to counteract cellular senescence rather than to support proliferation. PMID:25554796

  13. [Osteoporosis in men and androgen replacement therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Akira; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2003-11-01

    Androgen plays an important role in bone maturation and maintenance of bone mass. Androgen deficiency associated with aging causes osteoporosis for men. With respect to this disease, androgen replacement treatment has been performed for aging male. However, available preparations of androgen are limited in Japan and each of them has both merit and demerit. Establishment of guideline for androgen replacement treatment including criteria of serum testosterone concentration is the problem, which now confronts us. PMID:15775234

  14. Synthesis and chemical reactions of the steroidal hormone 17α-methyltestosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Desoky, El-Sayed Ibrahim; Reyad, Mahmoud; Afsah, Elsayed Mohammed; Dawidar, Abdel-Aziz Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Structural modifications of natural products with complex structures like steroids require great synthetic effort. A review of literature is presented on the chemistry of the steroidal hormone 17α-methyltestosterone that is approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States as an androgen for estrogen-androgen hormone replacement therapy treatment. The analog also offers special possibilities for the prevention/treatment of hormone-sensitive cancers. The testosterone skeleton has important functionalities in the molecule that can act as a carbonyl component, an active methylene compound, α,β-unsaturated enone and tertiary hydroxyl group in various chemical reactions to access stereoisomeric steroidal compounds with potent activity. In addition, microbiological methods of synthesis and transformation of this hormone are presented. PMID:26639430

  15. Regucalcin Expression as a Diagnostic Tool for the Illicit Use of Steroids in Veal Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Sereno, Alessandra; Cannizzo, Francesca T

    2015-06-17

    It has been previously demonstrated that sex steroid hormone treatment down-regulates regucalcin gene expression in the accessory sex glands and testis of prepubertal and adult male bovines. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low doses of sex steroid hormones combined with other drugs significantly affect regucalcin gene expression in the accessory sex glands and testis of veal calves. The regucalcin expression was down-regulated in the bulbo-urethral glands of estrogen-treated calves, whereas it was up-regulated in the prostate of estrogen-treated calves. Only the testis of androgen-treated calves showed a down-regulation of the regucalcin expression. Thus, the administration of sex steroid hormones, even in low doses and combined with other molecules, could affect regucalcin expression in target organs. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests regucalcin expression in this organ as a first molecular biomarker of illicit androgen administration in bovine husbandry. PMID:26016660

  16. Differentiation of endogenous and exogenous steroids by gas chromatography-combustion-mass spectrometry isotope ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urinary steroids profiles are used to control the misuse of endogenous steroids such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. The testosterone/epistestosterone ratio, measured by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, is used to control testosterone administration. When T/E ratio is higher than 4, consumption of testosterone or its precursors is suspected. Recent researches have demonstrated the effectiveness of Carbon Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry to detect and confirm endogenous steroids administration. The ratio of the two stable carbon isotopes 13C and 12C allows the differentiation of natural and synthetic steroids because synthetic steroids have lower 13C abundance. In fact, the carbon isotope ratios can be used to determine endogenous steroids administration even when testosterone/epistestosterone ratio is at its normal value. In the current work, some of the most important aspects related to differentiation of endogenous and exogenous steroids by means of Gas Chromatography-Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry are discussed. Also, this article provides a review about the purification and sample preparation previous to the analysis, and diet effects on carbon isotope ratio of endogenous anabolics steroids is presented too

  17. Oral contraceptives as anti-androgenic treatment of acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, André; Poulin, Yves

    2002-07-01

    Although acne is seldom associated with high serum levels of androgens, it has been shown that female acne patients have definite increases in ovarian and adrenal androgen levels when compared to appropriate controls. As shown in several pilot and in multiple open and comparative studies, oral contraceptives (OCs) are effective in causing a significant regression of mild to moderate acne. These results have been confirmed by multicentre randomized trials where low-dose OCs did not cause side effects different from those of the placebo-controlled group. The beneficial effect of OCs is related to a decrease in ovarian and adrenal androgen precursors; to an increase in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), which limits free testosterone; and to a decrease in 3a-androstenediol glucuronide conjugate, the catabolite of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) formed in peripheral tissues. The estrogen-progestin combination containing cyproterone acetate (CPA) is particularly effective in treating acne, since this progestin also has a direct peripheral anti-androgenic action in blocking the androgen receptor. Only two open studies and one randomized study on small numbers of patients have reported some efficacy of spironolactone used alone or in combination with an OC in the treatment of acne. The new non-steroidal anti-androgens flutamide and finasteride are being evaluated for the treatment of hirsutism. Oral antibiotics are prescribed to patients with inflammatory lesions, where they are effective in decreasing the activity of microbes, the activity of microbial enzymes, and leukocyte chemotaxis. Concomitant intake of an OC and an antibiotic usually prescribed for acne does not impair the contraceptive efficacy of the OC. A second effective contraceptive method should be used whenever there would be decreased absorption or efficacy of the OC (digestive problems, breakthrough bleeding), lack of compliance and use of a type or dose of antibiotic different from that usually prescribed

  18. In vivo modulation of androgen receptor by androgens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V·L·Kumar; V·Kumar

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To study the effect of androgen and antiandrogen on the level of androgen receptor(AR)mRNA.Methods:The totalRNA was extracted from the prostate and analyzed by slot blot analysis,The blots were hybrid-ized with ARcDNA probe and 1Aprobe(internal control)and autoradionraphy was performed.The intensity of signal was measured with a densitometer and the ratio of AR RNAand1ARNAwas calculated.Results:Androgenic deprivation produced by castration decreased the weight of the prostate and increased the levels of ARmRNA.Treatment of the castrated rats with testostrone increased the weight of prostate and decreased the levels of ARmRNA.Treatment of normal rats with flutamide decreased the weight of the gland and increased the levels of AR mRNA.Conclusion:Androgens produce proliferative effect on the prostate and negatively regulate the AR transcription.

  19. Effect of maternal steroid on developing diaphragm integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Song

    Full Text Available Antenatal steroids reduce the severity of initial respiratory distress of premature newborn babies but may have an adverse impact on other body organs. The study aimed to examine the effect of maternal steroids on postnatal respiratory muscle function during development and elucidate the mechanisms underlying the potential myopathy in newborn rats. Pregnant rats were treated with intramuscular injections of 0.5 mg/kg betamethasone 7 d and 3 d before birth. Newborn diaphragms were dissected for assessment of contractile function at 2 d, 7 d or 21 d postnatal age (PNA, compared with age-matched controls. The expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC isoforms and atrophy-related genes and activity of intracellular molecular signalling were measured using quantitative PCR and/or Western blot. With advancing PNA, neonatal MHC gene expression decreased progressively while MHC IIb and IIx isoforms increased. Protein metabolic signalling showed high baseline activity at 2 d PNA, and significantly declined at 7 d and 21 d. Antenatal administration of betamethasone significantly decreased diaphragm force production, fatigue resistance, total fast fibre content and anabolic signalling activity (Akt and 4E-BP1 in 21 d diaphragm. These responses were not observed in 2 d or 7 d postnatal diaphragm. Results demonstrate that maternal betamethasone treatment causes postnatal diaphragmatic dysfunction at 21 d PNA, which is attributed to MHC II protein loss and impairment of the anabolic signalling pathway. Developmental modifications in MHC fibre composition and protein signalling account for the age-specific diaphragm dysfunction.

  20. Common molecular weight of the androgen receptor monomer in different target tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously reported molecular weights for the monomeric steroid binding subunit of the androgen receptor protein have ranged from 25,000 to 167,000. The molecular weight appeared to vary among different species and target organs, as well as between different investigators. This study has examined androgen receptors from a diverse group of organs and species to determine whether these tissues share a common monomeric form. Gel filtration revealed peaks of specific [3H]dihydrotestosterone binding activity corresponding to Stokes radii of 54, 33, and 20 A in cytosols from several tissues. Phosphocellulose chromatography diminished the appearance of the smaller androgen receptor forms and facilitated the appearance of the larger 54-A form. Mixing experiments suggested that phosphocellulose was stabilizing the 54-A form by binding putative proteases which cleave this larger form. Methods were developed to generate homogeneous preparations of a given androgen receptor size for comparative study. Sucrose density gradient analysis showed sedimentation coefficients of 4.5-5.0, 3.5-4.0, and 2.5-3.0 S, respectively. The corresponding calculated molecular weights were 109,000-121,000, 52,000-59,000, and 22,000-27,000. Scatchard analysis of each of these androgen receptor forms demonstrated very similar affinity for [3H]dihydrotestosterone. Extensively purified preparations of androgen receptor from R3327 tumor contained varying amounts of the three receptor forms even though molybdate and phosphocellulose were used to stabilize the androgen receptor protein during purification. It is concluded that androgen receptors from a variety of tissues share a common monomeric subunit and that stabilization is necessary during analytical and purification procedures to prevent cleavage of the monomer by endogenous proteases

  1. Bioanalytical LC-MS Method for the Quantification of Plasma Androgens and Androgen Glucuronides in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogera, Eleni; Pistos, Constantinos; Provatopoulou, Xeni; Christophi, Costas A; Zografos, George C; Stefanidou, Maria; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Gounaris, Antonia

    2016-04-01

    The physiological and pathological development of the breast is strongly affected by the hormonal milieu consisting of steroid hormones. Mass spectrometry (MS) technologies of high sensitivity and specificity enable the quantification of androgens and consequently the characterization of the hormonal status. The aim of this study is the assessment of plasma androgens and androgen glucuronides, in the par excellence hormone-sensitive tissue of the breast, through the application of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). A simple and efficient fit-for-purpose method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione (A4), androsterone glucuronide (ADTG) and androstane-3α, 17β-diol-17-glucuronide (3α-diol-17G) in human plasma was developed and validated. The presented method permits omission of derivatization, requires a single solid-phase extraction procedure and the chromatographic separation can be achieved on a single C18 analytical column, for all four analytes. The validated method was successfully applied for the analysis of 191 human plasma samples from postmenopausal women with benign breast disease (BBD), lobular neoplasia (LN), ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). DHEAS plasma levels exhibited significant differences between LN, IDC and BBD patients (P < 0.05). Additionally, ADTG levels were significantly higher in patients with LN compared with those with BBD (P < 0.05). PMID:26762957

  2. Steroidogenic pathways involved in androgen biosynthesis in eumenorrheic women and patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuki; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Iwasa, Takeshi; Miyado, Mami; Saito, Hidekazu; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Homma, Keiko; Inoue, Eisuke; Miyashiro, Yoshimichi; Kubota, Toshiro; Irahara, Minoru; Ogata, Tsutomu; Fukami, Maki

    2016-04-01

    The conventional Δ5 and Δ4 steroidogenic pathways mediate androgen production in females. While multiple non-conventional pathways to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) have recently been postulated in humans, the functional significance of these pathways remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to clarify the origin of androgens in healthy women and in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a multifactorial disorder characterized by androgen overproduction. We measured 13 steroids in blood samples of 31 eumenorrheic females and 28 PCOS patients using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. We found that 17-hydroxy (17-OH) progesterone (17-OHP), androstenedione (Δ4A), testosterone, androstanedione, androsterone, and androstanediol levels were higher in the patient group than in the eumenorrheic group, while levels of other steroids were comparable between the two groups. In the eumenorrheic group, DHT levels were correlated with testosterone, androstanedione, and androstanediol. Quantitative correlations were also observed among 17-OH allopregnanolone, androsterone, androstanediol, and DHT, and among Δ4A, androstanedione, androsterone, and androstanediol. In the patient group, DHT levels were correlated with testosterone levels, but not with androstanedione or androstanediol levels. Δ4A and testosterone paralleled 17-OHP. Androstanedione, androsterone, androstanediol, and 17-OH allopregnanolone were quantitatively correlated. In both groups, multivariable linear regression analyses suggested relationships between androsterone and androstanedione, as well as between androsterone and 17-OH allopregnanolone. These results indicate that multiple androgen biosynthesis pathways are operating in eumenorrheic females and PCOS patients. In PCOS patients, excessive androgens are produced primarily via the conventional pathways, while two alternative pathways; i.e., an androstanedione-mediated pathway and a so

  3. Role of androgen receptor in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HiroyoshiSuzuki; HaruoIto

    1999-01-01

    The growth of prostate cancer is sensitive to androgen, and hormonal therapy has been used for treatment of ad-vanced cancer. About 80 % of prostate cancers initially respond to hormonal therapy, howcrver, more than half of the re-sponders gradtmlly become resistant to this therapy. Changes in tumors from an androgen-responsive to an androgen-unre-sponsive state have been widely discussed. Since androgen action is mediated by androgen receptor (AR), abnonnalitiesof AR is believed to play an important role of the loss of androgen responsiveness in prostate cancer. "Ilais article focusedon the role of AR in the progression of prostate cancer.

  4. In vitro liver models are important tools to monitor the abuse of anabolic steroids in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puymbroeck, M. van; Kuilman, M.E.M.; Maas, R.F.M.; Witkamp, R.F.; Leyssens, T.; Zande, D.J.M. van der; Gelan, J.; Raus, J.

    1998-01-01

    Current veterinary residue analysis mainly focuses on the monitoring of residues of the administered parent compound. However, it is possible that larger amounts of metabolites are excreted and that they can have a prolonged excretion period. In order to unravel specific metabolic steps and to ident

  5. Pathological effects of anabolic steroid (Sustanon® on liver of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Al-Kennany

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present pathological study on the male rats aims to investigate the effects on liver tissue induced by repeated administration of three doses of sustanon for four periods. The experiment was done on the 100 adult male rats randomly divided into five groups 20 rats in each group. The first group is considered as a negative control treated with diet and water only. The second group is considered a positive control treated weekly for 60 days with sesame oil intramuscularly while groups III, IV and V treated with diluted sustanon in 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly weekly for 60 days respectively. Blood was collected in a period 15, 30 and 60 days after treatment for measurements liver function tests ALT (alanine aminotransferase and AST (aspartate aminotransferas enzymes. Then the animals were dissected to take samples in a period 15, 30 and 60 days after treatment for histopathological examination, then 5 rats were lefted in each group in the diet and water for 30 days after last treatment for examination the above mentioned parameters. The results revealed the presence of significantly increasing of liver enzyme activation represented by ALT and AST at level P<0.05 compared with control groups. The value of these levels were higher in group V in a day 60 after treatment and its continue to increase even after stopping treatment and remained on diet and water only for 30 days. Pathologically, all treated groups with sustanon revealed gross and histopathological changes in liver tissue, there were enlargement and congestion gross. Histopathologically, the liver sections elucidate cellular swelling, vacuolar degeneration in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes in addition to fatty change and programmed cell death in all groups during a period 15, 30 and 60 days these changes continue even after stopping the treatment for 30 days but portal fibrosis has been observed.It has been concluded from this study that sustanon in concentration 5, 10, 20 mg /kg of body weight in aperiods 15, 30 and 60 have ability to induce hepatotoxic effect on liver of male rat and these effects irreversible and progressive for 30 days after stopping the drug administration.

  6. Three cases of nalbuphine hydrochloride dependence associated with anabolic steroid use.

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, A. J.; Williamson, K.; Petersen, T.

    1996-01-01

    Three case reports are presented of nalbuphine hydrochloride dependence meeting DSM IIIR and ICD10 criteria for opioid dependence. Nalbuphine hydrochloride is being obtained from illicit sources and used by those using performance enhancing drugs. In some cases this leads to opioid dependence. There is a potential risks of crossover between the misuse of drugs of performance and the misuse of psychoactive drugs by injection. Further research into the dependence potential of nalbuphine and the...

  7. Supercritical Fluid Extraction ; its application to the extraction of anabolic steroids from biological matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker AAM; ARO

    1995-01-01

    Het gebruik van superkritische vloeistof extractie (SFE) als alternatief voor de conventionle, op organische oplosmiddelen gebaseerde, extractie technieken begint langzamerhand steeds belangrijker te worden. Het probleem van het gebruik van superkritsche vloeistoffen voor de extractie van residu

  8. In vitro steroid-induced meiosis in Rhinella arenarum oocytes: role of pre-MPF activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Torres, Ana Josefina; Bühler, Marta Inés; Zelarayán, Liliana Isabel

    2016-04-01

    In this work we showed the relationship between seasonal periods and the response of R. arenarum follicles and oocytes to different steroids. Using in vitro germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) assays, we demonstrated that P4 is the main steroid capable of inducing maturation in R. arenarum oocytes and follicles. In the second part of this work we showed that androgens can activate pre-maturation promoting factors (pre-MPFs) such as P4, by cytoplasm microinjection experiments. The results indicated that the steroids assayed induced oocyte and follicle maturation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In oocytes, P4 was the most efficient steroid as a maturation inducer (EC50 of the reproductive period, 6 nM, EC50 of the non-reproductive period ≅ 30 nM). Androgens (DHEA, dehydroepiandrosterone; T, testosterone; and AD, androstenedione) were less efficient maturation inducers than P4 (EC50 reproductive period ≅ 50, 120 and 600 nM respectively). Similar results were obtained with intact follicles in both seasonal periods. Although the response of follicles to the different androgens was variable, in no case was it above the above the response induced by P4. Independently of the season, oocytes and follicles incubated in P4, P5 and T underwent GVBD after 6-10 h while oocytes and follicles incubated in DHEA and AD matured more slowly. Furthermore, we demonstrated that microinjection of mature cytoplasm from androgen-treated oocytes is sufficient to promote GVBD in immature recipient oocytes (DHEA, 57 ± 12%; AD, 60 ± 8%; T, 56 ± 13%). Thus, androgens such as DHEA, T and AD are as competent as P4 to activate pre-MPF. PMID:26006336

  9. Improved Steroids Detection and Evidence for Their Regiospecific Decompositions Using Anion Attachment Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Quentin; Bárcenas, Mariana; Dossmann, Héloïse; Bailloux, Isabelle; Buisson, Corinne; Mechin, Nathalie; Molina, Adeline; Lasne, Françoise; Rannulu, Nalaka S; Cole, Richard B

    2016-04-01

    Nonpolar anabolic steroids are doping agents that typically do not provide strong signals by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) owing especially to the low polarity of the functional groups present. We have investigated the addition of anions, in ammonium salt form, to anabolic steroid samples as ionization enhancers and have confirmed that lower instrumental limits of detection (as low as 10 ng/mL for fluoxymesterone-M) are obtained by fluoride anion attachment mass spectrometry, as compared to ESI(+)/(-) or atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI)(+). Moreover, collision-induced decomposition (CID) spectra of precursor fluoride adducts of the bifunctional steroid "reduced pregnenolone" (containing two hydroxyl groups) and its d4-analogue provide evidence of regiospecific decompositions after attachment of fluoride anion to a specific hydroxyl group of the steroid. This type of charting of specific CID reaction pathways can offer value to selected reaction monitoring experiments (SRM) as it may result in a gain in selectivity in detection as well as in improvements in quantification. PMID:26926765

  10. Multi-analyte approach for the determination of ng.l-1 amounts of steroid hormones in unidentified aqueous samples

    OpenAIRE

    Noppe, H.; VERHEYDEN, K; Gillis, W.; Courtheyn, D.; Vanthemsche, P.; De Brabander, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    Since the 70s, many analytical methods for the detection of illegal growth promotors, such as thyreostats, anabolics, ß-agonists and corticosteroids have been developed for a wide range of matrices of animal origin, including meat, fat, organ tissue, urine and faeces. The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for the determination of ng.l-1 levels of estrogens, gestagens, androgens (EGAs) and corticosteroids in aqueous preparations (i.e. drinking water, drinking water suppleme...

  11. Metabolic effects of contraceptive steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Nath, Anita

    2011-06-01

    Estrogen and progestins have been used by millions of women as effective combined contraceptives. The safety of hormonal contraceptives has been documented by years of follow-up and serious adverse events that may be related to their use are rare in the young population exposed to these agents. The balance between the benefits and the risks of contraceptive steroids is generally positive in particular when comparing to the risks of pregnancy and especially in women with risk factors. The metabolic changes induced by the synthetic steroids used in contraception, such as lipoprotein changes, insulin response to glucose, and coagulation factors have been considered as potential markers of cardiovascular and venous risk. Observations of these effects have led to modifications of the composition of hormonal contraceptive in order to minimize these changes and hence potentially decrease the risks. The synthetic estrogen Ethinyl-Estradiol (EE) exerts a stronger effect that natural estradiol (E2) on hepatic metabolism including estrogen-dependent markers such as liver proteins. This stronger hepatic impact of EE has been related to its 17α-ethinyl group which prevents the inactivation of the molecule and results in a more pronounced hepatic effect of EE as compared to estradiol. Due to its strong activity, administering EE via a non-oral route does not prevent its impact on liver proteins. In order to circumvent the metabolic changes induced by EE, newer products using more natural compounds such as estradiol (E2) and estradiol valerate (E2V) have been introduced. The synthetic progestins used for contraception are structurally related either to testosterone (T) (estranes and gonanes) or to progesterone (pregnanes and 19-norpregnanes). Several new progestins have been designed to bind more specifically to the progesterone receptor and to minimize side-effects related to androgenic, estrogenic or glucocorticoid receptor interactions. Dienogest (DNG), and drospirenone (DRSP

  12. ANDROGEN INSENSITIVITY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The condition is inherited as X - linked recessive gene 1 . The underlying pathology is the inability of end organs to respond to androgens. These cases are phenotypically and psychologically female with adequate breast development , normal external genitalia , a vagina with variable depth , absent /sparse pubic hair and axillary hair. The exact incidence in India is not known but the reported incidence is 1 in 2 , 000 to 1 in 62 ,400 worldwide . These patients have male karyotyping (XY wi th negative sex chromatin with undescended gonads. These cases are rarely diagnosed before puberty. Though rare , these are extremely distressing to the concerned individuals requiring expert handling. Management should include psychological counseling not only to determine the sexual mentation but also to help those individuals to cope with their problems. The chance of malignancy developing in the gonad with Y chromosome are about 20%.Surgical removal of the gonad is mandatory but can be delayed till 18 ye ars to permit breast development and epiphyseal closure. The aim of presenting this case is to develop awareness regarding this rare syndrome X - linked genetic disorder which runs in families

  13. Anti-androgen treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelot, Anne; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Salenave, Sylvie; Kerlan, Véronique; Galand-Portier, Marie-Béatrice

    2010-02-01

    1. Estrogen plus progestin contraceptives (EPP) are the first-line treatment of moderate hirsutism and acne in women of child bearing age (grade C). 2. CPA, 50mg/day, 20 days out of 28, associated with estrogen is the first-line treatment of "moderate to severe hirsutism" in women of childbearing age (grade C). 3. Spironolactone, given as a contraceptive, can be proposed as a second-line treatment in case of side effects or counter-indications to CPA in moderate to severe hirsutism (grade C) in women of childbearing age. No market authorization in this indication. 4. Flutamide or Finasteride are "only" to be used under the guise of contraception as a "thirdline therapy" in cases of severe hirsutism, the presence of side effects or counter-indications to EPP, CPA 50mg/day or spironolactone (grade C). No market authorization in this indication 5. There is no indication for GnRH analogs as an anti-androgen treatment in women of childbearing age given the current therapeutic alternatives (grade C) 6. Only long-term hair removal treatments can be proposed (grade C): electrolysis or laser hair removal. PMID:20096826

  14. Male patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmann, Philip; Christiansen, Peter; Johannsen, Trine Holm;

    2012-01-01

    To describe the natural history of phenotype, growth and gonadal function in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.......To describe the natural history of phenotype, growth and gonadal function in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome....

  15. Androgen deficiency and aging in men.

    OpenAIRE

    Swerdloff, R S; Wang, C

    1993-01-01

    Androgen levels decrease with age in men. Androgen deficiency in men older than 65 years leads to asthenia, a decrease in muscle mass, osteoporosis, and a decrease in sexual activity. Androgen deficiency has been reported to cause changes in mood and cognitive function. The combination of these factors results in impaired quality of life in older men. Androgen replacement therapy in hypogonadal men increases bone and muscle mass, enhances muscle and cardiovascular function, and improves sexua...

  16. Androgens and the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    Hypogonadal men share a variety of signs and symptoms such as decreased muscle mass, osteopoenia, increased fat mass, fatigue, decreased libido and cognitive dysfunctions. Controlled trials have demonstrated favourable effects of androgen substitution therapy on these signs and symptoms in men with...... severe primary or secondary hypogonadism. Thus, androgen substitution therapy is warranted in men with true hypogonadism at all ages. Symptoms experienced by otherwise healthy ageing males are non-specific and vague, although some may be similar to symptoms of hypogonadism. Therefore, the term...... have an andropause. As large placebo-controlled studies of androgen treatment in elderly males are lacking, proper risk assessment of adverse effects such as prostate cancer following testosterone treatment in elderly males is completely lacking. In the future, testosterone therapy may prove beneficial...

  17. Steroid Hormone Receptor Signals as Prognosticators for Urothelial Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Ide

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of preclinical or clinical evidence suggesting that steroid hormone receptor-mediated signals play a critical role in urothelial tumorigenesis and tumor progression. These receptors include androgen receptor, estrogen receptors, glucocorticoid receptor, progesterone receptor, vitamin D receptor, retinoid receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, and others including orphan receptors. In particular, studies using urothelial cancer tissue specimens have demonstrated that elevated or reduced expression of these receptors as well as alterations of their upstream or downstream pathways correlates with patient outcomes. This review summarizes and discusses available data suggesting that steroid hormone receptors and related signals serve as biomarkers for urothelial carcinoma and are able to predict tumor recurrence or progression.

  18. Muscle Wasting and Resistance of Muscle Anabolism: The “Anabolic Threshold Concept” for Adapted Nutritional Strategies during Sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Dardevet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle loss is observed in several physiopathological situations. Strategies to prevent, slow down, or increase recovery of muscle have already been tested. Besides exercise, nutrition, and more particularly protein nutrition based on increased amino acid, leucine or the quality of protein intake has generated positive acute postprandial effect on muscle protein anabolism. However, on the long term, these nutritional strategies have often failed in improving muscle mass even if given for long periods of time in both humans and rodent models. Muscle mass loss situations have been often correlated to a resistance of muscle protein anabolism to food intake which may be explained by an increase of the anabolic threshold toward the stimulatory effect of amino acids. In this paper, we will emphasize how this anabolic resistance may affect the intensity and the duration of the muscle anabolic response at the postprandial state and how it may explain the negative results obtained on the long term in the prevention of muscle mass. Sarcopenia, the muscle mass loss observed during aging, has been chosen to illustrate this concept but it may be kept in mind that it could be extended to any other catabolic states or recovery situations.

  19. Developmental programming of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): prenatal androgens establish pancreatic islet α/β cell ratio and subsequent insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, S; Grace, C; Mattei, A A; Siemienowicz, K; Brownlee, W; MacCallum, J; McNeilly, A S; Duncan, W C; Rae, M T

    2016-01-01

    Exogenous androgenic steroids applied to pregnant sheep programmes a PCOS-like phenotype in female offspring. Via ultrasound guidance we applied steroids directly to ovine fetuses at d62 and d82 of gestation, and examined fetal (day 90 gestation) and postnatal (11 months old) pancreatic structure and function. Of three classes of steroid agonists applied (androgen - Testosterone propionate (TP), estrogen - Diethystilbesterol (DES) and glucocorticoid - Dexamethasone (DEX)), only androgens (TP) caused altered pancreatic development. Beta cell numbers were significantly elevated in prenatally androgenised female fetuses (P = 0.03) (to approximately the higher numbers found in male fetuses), whereas alpha cell counts were unaffected, precipitating decreased alpha:beta cell ratios in the developing fetal pancreas (P = 0.001), sustained into adolescence (P = 0.0004). In adolescence basal insulin secretion was significantly higher in female offspring from androgen-excess pregnancies (P = 0.045), and an exaggerated, hyperinsulinaemic response to glucose challenge (P = 0.0007) observed, whereas prenatal DES or DEX treatment had no effects upon insulin secretion. Postnatal insulin secretion correlated with beta cell numbers (P = 0.03). We conclude that the pancreas is a primary locus of androgenic stimulation during development, giving rise to postnatal offspring whose pancreas secreted excess insulin due to excess beta cells in the presence of a normal number of alpha cells. PMID:27265420

  20. Developmental programming of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): prenatal androgens establish pancreatic islet α/β cell ratio and subsequent insulin secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, S.; Grace, C.; Mattei, A. A.; Siemienowicz, K.; Brownlee, W.; MacCallum, J.; McNeilly, A. S.; Duncan, W. C.; Rae, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Exogenous androgenic steroids applied to pregnant sheep programmes a PCOS-like phenotype in female offspring. Via ultrasound guidance we applied steroids directly to ovine fetuses at d62 and d82 of gestation, and examined fetal (day 90 gestation) and postnatal (11 months old) pancreatic structure and function. Of three classes of steroid agonists applied (androgen - Testosterone propionate (TP), estrogen - Diethystilbesterol (DES) and glucocorticoid - Dexamethasone (DEX)), only androgens (TP) caused altered pancreatic development. Beta cell numbers were significantly elevated in prenatally androgenised female fetuses (P = 0.03) (to approximately the higher numbers found in male fetuses), whereas alpha cell counts were unaffected, precipitating decreased alpha:beta cell ratios in the developing fetal pancreas (P = 0.001), sustained into adolescence (P = 0.0004). In adolescence basal insulin secretion was significantly higher in female offspring from androgen-excess pregnancies (P = 0.045), and an exaggerated, hyperinsulinaemic response to glucose challenge (P = 0.0007) observed, whereas prenatal DES or DEX treatment had no effects upon insulin secretion. Postnatal insulin secretion correlated with beta cell numbers (P = 0.03). We conclude that the pancreas is a primary locus of androgenic stimulation during development, giving rise to postnatal offspring whose pancreas secreted excess insulin due to excess beta cells in the presence of a normal number of alpha cells. PMID:27265420

  1. Laparoscopic gonedectomy in a case of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskararao, G.; Himabindu, Y.; Samir Ranjan Nayak; Sriharibabu, M.

    2014-01-01

    Complete Androgen insensitivity syndrome is a disorder of hormone resistance characterized by a female phenotype in an individual with an XY karyotype. The pathogenesis of CAIS involves a defective androgen receptor gene located on X-chromosome at Xq11-12and end organ insensitivity to androgens, although androgen concentrations are appropriate for the age of the patient. There are three major types of androgen insensitivity syndrome: Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, minimal androgen ...

  2. Androgen-Responsive MicroRNAs in Mouse Sertoli Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Subbarayalu Panneerdoss; Yao-Fu Chang; Kalyan C Buddavarapu; Hung-I Harry Chen; Gunapala Shetty; Huizhen Wang; Yidong Chen; T Rajendra Kumar; Rao, Manjeet K.

    2012-01-01

    Although decades of research have established that androgen is essential for spermatogenesis, androgen's mechanism of action remains elusive. This is in part because only a few androgen-responsive genes have been definitively identified in the testis. Here, we propose that microRNAs – small, non-coding RNAs – are one class of androgen-regulated trans-acting factors in the testis. Specifically, by using androgen suppression and androgen replacement in mice, we show that androgen regulates the ...

  3. Establishment of a novel immortalized human prostatic epithelial cell line stably expressing androgen receptor and its application for the functional screening of androgen receptor modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we developed a human prostatic epithelial cell line BPH-1-AR stably expressing AR by lentiviral transduction. Characterization by immunoblot and RT-PCR showed that AR was stably expressed in all representative BPH-1-AR clones. Androgen treatment induced a secretory differentiation phenotype in BPH-1-AR cells but suppressed their cell proliferation. Treatments with AR agonists induced transactivation of a transfected PSA-gene promoter reporter in BPH-1-AR cells, whereas this transactivation was suppressed by an AR antagonist flutamide, indicating that the transduced AR in BPH-1-AR cells was functional. Finally, we utilized BPH-1-AR cells to evaluate the androgenic activities and growth effects of five newly developed non-steroidal compounds. Results showed that these compounds showed androgenic activities and growth-inhibitory effects on BPH-1-AR cells. Our results showed that BPH-1-AR cell line would be a valuable in vitro model for the study of androgen-regulated processes in prostatic epithelial cells and identification of compounds with AR-modulating activities.

  4. CLONING AND IN VITRO EXPRESSION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ANDROGEN RECEPTOR AND ISOLATION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR α FROM THE FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro screening assays designed to identify hormone mimics or antagonists typically use mammalian (rat, human) estrogen (ER) and androgen receptors (AR). Although we know that the amino acid sequences of steroid receptors in nonmammalian vertebrates are not identical to the ma...

  5. The Use of Anabolic Agents in Catabolic States

    OpenAIRE

    Demling, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We plan to review the current problem of lean mass erosion in catabolic states, caused by injury and critical illness. This protein loss is driven by the hormonal imbalance and excess inflammation referred to as the “stress response to injury.” We then plan to provide the current concepts on the use of available anabolic agents to attenuate the excess catabolism. Data Source: The available published literature on the pathogenesis of acute catabolic states and the use of anabolic an...

  6. Exuberant local tissue reaction to intramuscular injection of nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin)--a steroid compound in a sesame seed oil base--mimicking soft tissue malignant tumors: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankhanian, N K; Hammers, Y A; Kowalski, P

    1992-12-01

    We present an unusual pseudotumor that formed in reaction to self-administered intramuscular injections of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) in a young soldier. The histopathologic features which closely mimicked several malignant neoplasms could have led to an incorrect diagnosis of malignancy and unnecessary extensive surgery. To our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been previously reported. PMID:1470383

  7. High abundance androgen receptor in goldfish brain: characteristics and seasonal changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testosterone (T) exerts its actions in brain directly via androgen receptors or, after aromatization to estradiol, via estrogen receptors. Brain aromatase activity in teleost fish is 100-1000 times greater than in mammals and would be expected to significantly reduce the quantity of androgen available for receptor binding. Experiments were carried out on the goldfish Carassius auratus to determine if androgen receptors are present in teleost brain and whether their physicochemical properties reflect elevated aromatase. Cytosolic and nuclear extracts were assayed with the use of [3H]T and charcoal, Sephadex LH-20, or DNA-cellulose chromatography to separate bound and free steroids. Binding activity was saturable and had an equally high affinity for T and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Although mibolerone was a relatively weak competitor, the putative teleost androgen 11-ketotestosterone, methyltrienolone (R1881), estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were poor ligands. Characteristics that distinguish this receptor from a steroid-binding protein in goldfish serum are the presence of binding activity in both nuclear and cytosolic extracts, a low rate of ligand-receptor dissociation, electrophoretic mobility, sedimentation properties in low vs. high salt, and tissue distribution. DNA cellulose-adhering and nonadhering forms were detected, but these did not differ in other variables measured. Although goldfish androgen receptors resembled those of mammals in all important physicochemical characteristics, they were unusually abundant compared to levels in rat brain, but comparable to levels in prostate and other male sex hormone target organs. Moreover, there were seasonal variations in total receptors, with a peak at spawning (April) 4- to 5-fold higher than values in reproductively inactive fish

  8. Ca(2+)-Calmodulin regulation of testicular androgen production in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Rute S T; Fuentes, Juan; Almeida, Olinda; Power, Deborah M; Canario, Adelino V M

    2009-06-01

    The Ca(2+)-Calmodulin (CaM) signaling pathway has previously been shown to be involved in the regulation of teleost fish ovarian steroidogenesis. However, a putative role of CaM in testicular steroidogenesis and potential targets has not been examined. To examine whether basal steroidogenesis is modulated by Ca(2+) and CaM levels in the testis of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) we have incubated testicular fragments in vitro under different conditions and analyzed steroid output. Calcium-free medium with or without EGTA did not affect testicular basal 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and testosterone (T) secretion. However, addition of 80microM the CaM inhibitor W7 significantly reduced basal 11-KT, T and androstenedione secretion. Interestingly, the decreased androgen production by 80microM of W7 was accompanied by increased 11-desoxicortisol output and by the activation of cortisol synthesis in the testis, the latter undetected in untreated tissues. However, production of 17,20alpha-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one was unaltered by W7. This suggests that C17,20 desmolase, 21-hydroxylase and possibly 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase are targets for CaM. In addition, androgen production was also found to be regulated by the level of cAMP since incubations with forskolin (FK) significantly increased 11-KT and T output. A cross-talk between the cAMP and Ca(2+)-CaM signaling pathways was detected since W7 administration also decreased FK stimulated androgen production. Altogether, these data show that both basal and cAMP stimulated androgen levels were modulated by intracellular Ca(2+)-dependent CaM and that possibly Ca(2+)-CaM determines the shift in steroidogenesis from C21 steroids to androgens. PMID:19341736

  9. Esterification of vertebrate like steroids in molluscs: a target of endocrine disruptors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Arnaud; Joaquim-Justo, Célia

    2013-11-01

    Alterations of the reproductive organs of gastropod molluscs exposed to pollutants have been reported in natural populations for more than 40 years. In some cases, these impacts have been linked to exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which are known to induce adverse impacts on vertebrates, mainly by direct binding to steroid receptors or by altering hormone synthesis. Investigations on the mechanisms of action of endocrine disruptors in molluscs show that EDCs induce modifications of endogenous titres of androgens (e.g., testosterone, androstenedione) and oestrogens (e.g., 17ß-oestradiol). Alterations of the activity of enzymes related to steroid metabolism (i.e., cytochrome P-450 aromatase, acyltransferases) are also often observed. In bivalves and gastropods, fatty acid esterification of steroids might constitute the major regulation of androgen and oestrogen homeostasis. The present review indicates that metabolism of steroid hormones to fatty acid esters might be a target of synthetic EDCs. Alterations of this process would impact the concentrations of free, potentially bioactive, form of steroids. PMID:24004916

  10. Intra-follicular and peripheral steroid characteristics during vernal transition in the pony mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S D; Sharp, D C

    1991-01-01

    This experiment investigated steroid production by ovarian tissues, in vitro, of pony mares during vernal transition from anoestrus to the breeding season. Follicular dynamics were monitored to detect the first, second, third or fourth transition follicle, greater than or equal to 30 mm diameter or the first large post luteal follicle of the breeding season. Twenty-four hours after a large follicle was detected, theca (T) and granulosa (G) tissues were harvested. Separate and co-incubations of these tissues were conducted to determine steroid production in early transition (ET), late transition (LT) and pre-ovulatory (OV) follicles. Peripheral plasma and follicular fluid steroids and gonadotrophins also were assayed. Peripheral plasma oestradiol concentrations increased from ET to LT and again from LT to OV in parallel with tissue production and follicular fluid content. Androgen production increased from LT to OV whereas progesterone production showed no change, thereby indicating a possible failure of 17-alpha steroid hydroxylase in ET follicles. Examination of tissue steroid secretion rates revealed that granulosa was the major site of oestrogen production, whereas theca secreted greater amounts of androgen. PMID:1795276

  11. Dairy Wastewater, Aquaculture, and Spawning Fish as Sources of Steroid Hormones in the Aquatic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, E. P.; Harter, T.; Sedlak, D. L.

    2004-12-01

    A suite of androgens, estrogens, and progestins were measured in samples from dairy farms, aquaculture facilities, and surface waters with actively spawning fish using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) to assess the potential importance of these sources of steroid hormones to surface waters. In a dairy waste lagoon, the endogenous estrogens 17beta-estradiol and estrone, and the androgens testosterone and androstenedione were detected at concentrations as high as 650 ng/L. Samples from nearby groundwater monitoring wells demonstrated removal of steroid hormones in the subsurface. Samples from nearby surface waters and tile drains likely impacted by animal wastes demonstrated the sporadic presence of the steroids 17beta-estradiol, estrone, testosterone, and medroxyprogesterone, usually at concentrations near or below 1 ng/L. The endogenous steroids estrone, testosterone, and androstenedione were detected in the raceways and effluents of three fish hatcheries at concentrations near 1 ng/L. Similar concentrations were detected in a river containing spawning adult Chinook salmon. These results indicate that dairy wastewater, aquaculture effluents, and even spawning fish are sources that can lead to detectable concentrations of steroid hormones in surface waters and that the concentrations of these compounds exhibit considerable temporal and spatial variation.

  12. Targeting intratumoral androgens: statins and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Michael T; Yu, Evan Y

    2016-09-01

    While initially effective, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is not curative, and nearly all men with advanced prostate cancer will eventually progress to the more resistant, and ultimately lethal form of the disease, so called castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The maintenance of androgens within the prostate cancer microenvironment likely represents one of the key mechanisms by which this transition from hormone-sensitive to CRPC occurs. This can be accomplished either through intratumoral androgen biosynthesis or the active transport of androgens and androgenic precursors into the tumor microenvironment. More recently, preclinical and clinical data supported therapeutic strategies that seek to target these two mechanisms, either through the use of drugs that impair androgen biosynthesis (e.g. inhibiting the steroidogenic enzymes CYP17 and AKR1C3 with abiraterone and indomethacin, respectively) or drugs that inhibit the SLCO transporters responsible for importing androgens (e.g. statins). PMID:27583031

  13. β-Catenin Binds to the Activation Function 2 Region of the Androgen Receptor and Modulates the Effects of the N-Terminal Domain and TIF2 on Ligand-Dependent Transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Liang-Nian; Herrell, Roger; Byers, Stephen; Shah, Salimuddin; Wilson, Elizabeth M.; Gelmann, Edward P.

    2003-01-01

    β-Catenin is a multifunctional molecule that is activated by signaling through WNT receptors. β-Catenin can also enhance the transcriptional activity of some steroid hormone receptors such as the androgen receptor and retinoic acid receptor α. Androgens can affect nuclear translocation of β-catenin and influence its subcellular distribution. Using mammalian two-hybrid binding assays, analysis of reporter gene transcription, and coimmunoprecipitation, we now show that β-catenin binds to the an...

  14. Virilizing ovarian steroid cell tumor in a 40 year old South Indian female: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Salim, Shihas; Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash; Patel, Amish Dilip; Kumar, Anita A; Ganeshram, Prasanthi; Mehra, Nikita; Rajan, Anish George; Joseph, Tarun; Sudhakar, Lavangi

    2009-01-01

    Virilism is the masculinization and enhancement of male secondary sexual characteristics in females. The etiology is usually of adrenal or ovarian origin. Here we report a case of virilizing Leydig cell type, steroid cell tumor of the left ovary, in a 40 year old female who presented with clinical signs and symptoms of virilization: deepening of voice, hirsutism (Ferriman-Gallwey score 26), clitoromegaly, and androgenic alopecia. On further evaluation, laboratory investigations revealed hyper...

  15. High-Mobility Group Chromatin Proteins 1 and 2 Functionally Interact with Steroid Hormone Receptors To Enhance Their DNA Binding In Vitro and Transcriptional Activity in Mammalian Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Boonyaratanakornkit, Viroj; Melvin, Vida; Prendergast, Paul; Altmann, Magda; Ronfani, Lorenza; Marco E. Bianchi; Taraseviciene, Laima; Nordeen, Steven K.; Allegretto, Elizabeth A.; Edwards, Dean P.

    1998-01-01

    We previously reported that the chromatin high-mobility group protein 1 (HMG-1) enhances the sequence-specific DNA binding activity of progesterone receptor (PR) in vitro, thus providing the first evidence that HMG-1 may have a coregulatory role in steroid receptor-mediated gene transcription. Here we show that HMG-1 and the highly related HMG-2 stimulate DNA binding by other steroid receptors, including estrogen, androgen, and glucocorticoid receptors, but have no effect on DNA binding by se...

  16. A Novel Mutation in the CYP11B1 Gene Causes Steroid 11β-Hydroxylase Deficient Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia with Reversible Cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Alqahtani, Mohammad A.; Ayed A. Shati; Minjing Zou; Alsuheel, Ali M.; Alhayani, Abdullah A.; Al-Qahtani, Saleh M.; Gilban, Hessa M.; Meyer, Brain F.; Yufei Shi

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is the second most common form of CAH, resulting from a mutation in the CYP11B1 gene. Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency results in excessive mineralcorticoids and androgen production leading to hypertension, precocious puberty with acne, enlarged penis, and hyperpigmentation of scrotum of genetically male infants. In the present study, we reported 3 male cases from a Saudi family who presented with penile enlargem...

  17. Azido analogs of neuroactive steroids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Ivan; Vidrna, Lukáš; Pouzar, Vladimír; Borovská, Jiřina; Vyklický, Vojtěch; Chodounská, Hana; Vyklický ml., Ladislav

    Chicago : -, 2011. P2.28-P2.28. [Congress on Steroid Research. 27.03.2011-29.03.2011, Chicago] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NS10365 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neuroactive steroids * NMDA receptor * steroid azide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  18. Hippocampal synthesis of sex steroids and corticosteroids: essential for modulation of synaptic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SuguruKawato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex steroids play essential roles in the modulation of synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection in the hippocampus. Accumulating evidence shows that hippocampal neurons synthesize both estrogen and androgen. Recently, we also revealed the hippocampal synthesis of corticosteroids. The accurate concentrations of these hippocampus-synthesized steroids are determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in combination with novel derivatization. The hippocampal levels of 17β-estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT and corticosterone (CORT, are 5-15 nM, and these levels are sufficient to modulate synaptic plasticity. Hippocampal E2 modulates memory-related synaptic plasticity not only slowly/genomicaly but also rapidly/nongenomically. Slow actions of E2 occur via classical nuclear receptors (ERα or ERβ, while rapid E2 actions occur via synapse-localized or extranuclear ERα or ERβ. Nanomolar concentrations of E2 changes rapidly the density and morphology of spines in hippocampal neurons. ERα, but not ERβ, drives this enhancement/suppression of spinogenesis in adult animals. Nanomolar concentrations of androgens (T and DHT and CORT also increase in the spine density. Kinase networks are involved downstream of ERα and androgen receptor (AR. Newly developed Spiso-3D mathematical analysis is useful to distinguish these complex effects by sex steroids and kinases. Significant advance has been achieved in investigations of rapid modulation by E2 of the long-term depression or the long-term potentiation.

  19. Epidural Steroid Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the spinal sac and provides cushioning for the nerves and spinal cord. Steroids (‘cortisone’) placed into the epidural space ... spinal segments and cover both sides of the spinal canal. With a transforaminal ESI, often referred to as a ‘nerve block’, the needle is placed alongside the nerve ...

  20. Steroids facing emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, P.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis have been performed to gain a better understanding about motivational mediators of selective attention and memory for emotionally relevant stimuli, and about the roles that some steroid hormones play in regulation of human motivation and emotion. The stimuli used

  1. Steroids. A Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of School Health Education and Services.

    This guide provides information on steroid use as well as prevention and intervention strategies. It is intended to serve as a supplement to drug abuse education and prevention programs in elementary and secondary schools and as the basis for local curriculum development and instructional activities. The following topics are covered: (1) history…

  2. HPLC of Steroids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dinan, L.; Harmatha, Juraj; Lafont, R.

    Boca Raton : CRC Press, 2010, s. 679-708 ISBN 9781420092608. - (Chromatographic Science Series. 102) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : HPLC * sterols * ecdysteroids * steroidal saponins Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry http://www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/9781420092608

  3. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

  4. Immunocharacteristics of oestrogen and androgen target cells in the anterior pituitary gland of the chick as embryo demonstrated by a combined method of autoradiography and immunohistochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of oestrogen and androgen target cells in the anterior pituitary gland of the chick embryo on days 10, 12 and 15 of incubation was studied 1 h after the injection of tritium-labelled steroid hormone using the thaw-mount autoradiographic technique. Oestradiol target cells were localized in the caudal zone that corresponds to the so-called 'caudal lobe', while androgen target cells were found throughout the rostral and caudal lobes of the anterior gland. With a combined autoradiography and immunohistochemistry technique, most of the oestrogen target cells showed immunoreactivity to turkey LH antiserum but not to adrenocorticotrophin (1-24) and β-thyrotrophin antisera. In contrast, androgen target cells did not show positive immunoreactivity to the three antisera used. The results suggested a direct and early involvement of oestrogens but not of androgens in the feedback regulation of pituitary gonadotrophin secretion in the chick embryo. (U.K.)

  5. G Protein-Coupled Receptors: Extranuclear Mediators for the Non-Genomic Actions of Steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Steroids hormones possess two distinct actions, a delayed genomic effect and a rapid non-genomic effect. Rapid steroid-triggered signaling is mediated by specific receptors localized most often to the plasma membrane. The nature of these receptors is of great interest and accumulated data suggest that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are appealing candidates. Increasing evidence regarding the interaction between steroids and specific membrane proteins, as well as the involvement of G protein and corresponding downstream signaling, have led to identification of physiologically relevant GPCRs as steroid extranuclear receptors. Examples include G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30 for estrogen, membrane progestin receptor for progesterone, G protein-coupled receptor family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A and zinc transporter member 9 (ZIP9 for androgen, and trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1 for thyroid hormone. These receptor-mediated biological effects have been extended to reproductive development, cardiovascular function, neuroendocrinology and cancer pathophysiology. However, although great progress have been achieved, there are still important questions that need to be answered, including the identities of GPCRs responsible for the remaining steroids (e.g., glucocorticoid, the structural basis of steroids and GPCRs’ interaction and the integration of extranuclear and nuclear signaling to the final physiological function. Here, we reviewed the several significant developments in this field and highlighted a hypothesis that attempts to explain the general interaction between steroids and GPCRs.

  6. Androgens upregulate Cdc25C protein by inhibiting its proteasomal and lysosomal degradation pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wei Chou

    Full Text Available Cdc25C is a cell cycle protein of the dual specificity phosphatase family essential for activating the cdk1/Cyclin B1 complex in cells entering into mitosis. Since altered cell cycle is a hallmark of human cancers, we investigated androgen regulation of Cdc25C protein in human prostate cancer (PCa cells, including androgen-sensitive (AS LNCaP C-33 cells and androgen-independent (AI LNCaP C-81 as well as PC-3 cells. In the regular culture condition containing fetal bovine serum (FBS, Cdc25C protein levels were similar in these PCa cells. In a steroid-reduced condition, Cdc25C protein was greatly decreased in AS C-33 cells but not AI C-81 or PC-3 cells. In androgen-treated C-33 cells, the Cdc25C protein level was greatly elevated, following a dose- and a time-dependent manner, correlating with increased cell proliferation. This androgen effect was blocked by Casodex, an androgen receptor blocker. Nevertheless, epidermal growth factor (EGF, a growth stimulator of PCa cells, could only increase Cdc25C protein level by about 1.5-fold. Altered expression of Cdc25C in C-33 cells and PC-3 cells by cDNA and/or shRNA transfection is associated with the corresponding changes of cell growth and Cyclin B1 protein level. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide could only partially block androgen-induced Cdc25C protein level. Treatments with both proteasomal and lysosomal inhibitors resulted in elevated Cdc25C protein levels. Immunoprecipitation revealed that androgens reduced the ubiquitination of Cdc25C proteins. These results show for the first time that Cdc25C protein plays a role in regulating PCa cell growth, and androgen treatments, but not EGF, greatly increase Cdc25C protein levels in AS PCa cells, which is in part by decreasing its degradation. These results can lead to advanced PCa therapy via up-regulating the degradation pathways of Cdc25C protein.

  7. Analytical approach for the determination of steroid profile of humans by gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry aimed at distinguishing between endogenous and exogenous steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulska, Ewa; Gorczyca, Damian; Zalewska, Izabela; Pokrywka, Andrzej; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

    2015-03-15

    The contamination of commonly used supplements by unknown steroids as well as their metabolites (parent compounds) become a challenge for the analytical laboratories. Although the determination of steroids profile is not trivial because of the complex matrix and low concentration of single compound, one of the most difficult current problem is to distinguish, during analytical procedure, endogenous androgens such as testosterone, dehydrotestosterone or dehydroepiandrosterone from their synthetic equivalents. The aim of this work was to develop and validate an analytical procedure for determination of the steroid profile in human urine by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) toward distinguishing between endogenous and exogenous steroids. Beside the optimization of the experimental parameters for gas chromatography separation and mass spectrometry, attention was focused on urine sample preparation. Using an optimized sample preparation protocol it was possible to achieve better chromatographic resolutions and better sensitivity enabling the determination of 5 steroids, androsterone, etiocholanolone, testosterone, 5-androstandiol, 11-hydroxyandrdostane, pregnandiol, with the expanded uncertainty (k=2) below 1‰. This enable to evaluate the significant shift of the δ(13)C/(12)C [‰] values for each of examined steroids (excluding ERC). The analytical protocol described in this work was successfully used for the confirmation of positive founding urine by evaluation T/E ratio after GC/C/IRMS analysis. PMID:25498150

  8. Transcriptional regulation of myotrophic actions by testosterone and trenbolone on androgen-responsive muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fan; McCoy, Sean C; Ross, Heather H; Bernardo, Joseph A; Beharry, Adam W; Senf, Sarah M; Judge, Andrew R; Beck, Darren T; Conover, Christine F; Cannady, Darryl F; Smith, Barbara K; Yarrow, Joshua F; Borst, Stephen E

    2014-09-01

    Androgens regulate body composition and skeletal muscle mass in males, but the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Recently, we demonstrated that trenbolone (a potent synthetic testosterone analogue that is not a substrate for 5-alpha reductase or for aromatase) induces myotrophic effects in skeletal muscle without causing prostate enlargement, which is in contrast to the known prostate enlarging effects of testosterone. These previous results suggest that the 5α-reduction of testosterone is not required for myotrophic action. We now report differential gene expression in response to testosterone versus trenbolone in the highly androgen-sensitive levator ani/bulbocavernosus (LABC) muscle complex of the adult rat after 6weeks of orchiectomy (ORX), using real time PCR. The ORX-induced expression of atrogenes (Muscle RING-finger protein-1 [MuRF1] and atrogin-1) was suppressed by both androgens, with trenbolone producing a greater suppression of atrogin-1 mRNA compared to testosterone. Both androgens elevated expression of anabolic genes (insulin-like growth factor-1 and mechano-growth factor) after ORX. ORX-induced increases in expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA were suppressed by trenbolone treatment, but not testosterone. In ORX animals, testosterone promoted WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 2 (WISP-2) gene expression while trenbolone did not. Testosterone and trenbolone equally enhanced muscle regeneration as shown by increases in LABC mass and in protein expression of embryonic myosin by western blotting. In addition, testosterone increased WISP-2 protein levels. Together, these findings identify specific mechanisms by which testosterone and trenbolone may regulate skeletal muscle maintenance and growth. PMID:24928725

  9. [Tumors of the liver secondary to androgen therapy. Apropos of 2 cases in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémond, B; Jouan, H; Sameh, A H; Le Gall, E; Bergeron, C; Manac'h, A; Gruel, Y; Babut, J M

    1987-01-01

    The authors report 2 cases of hepatocellular tumour in children treated with anabolic androgens for aplastic anemia. In both cases, the presentation was by a picture of acute abdomen due to hemoperitoneum caused by tumour rupture. In the first case, there was multiple hepatic adenomas necessitating right hepatic lobectomy. The second infant had a single tumour of segment IV treated by simple excision of the tumour. It was a hepatocellular-carcinoma. Follow-up for one year after the initial operation showed no signs of recurrence in both infants. The review of the literature permitted us to find 48 other cases of hepatocellular tumour secondary to androgen therapy. In order of frequency, the hepatocellular-carcinoma is the most frequent and it is usually single; followed by the adenoma which is usually multiple. The other types of tumours are rare: focal nodular hyperplasia, angiosarcoma and cholangiocarcinoma. The hepatocellular-carcinoma and adenoma have some characteristic features: spontaneous regression may occur after withdrawing of androgens; the risk of rupture is important; their evolution is almost always favorable despite of a severe histopathological picture; the alpha-foeto-protein is nearly always negative; and the metastasis are exceptional. The hepatocellular-carcinomas associated with androgen therapy are probably just adenomas with marked dysplasia, but their long term malignant potential remain unknown. Except in case of rupture, surgical intervention should be postponed until the effect of discontinuing the hormonal therapy is assessed, because of the potential for spontaneous regression. The administration of antineoplastic chemotherapeutic agents should be reserved for the tumours showing evidence of malignancy. PMID:3040281

  10. Steroid receptor profiling of vinclozolin and its primary metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several pesticides and fungicides commonly used to control agricultural and indoor pests are highly suspected to display endocrine-disrupting effects in animals and humans. Endocrine disruption is mainly caused by the interference of chemicals at the level of steroid receptors: it is now well known that many of these chemicals can display estrogenic effects and/or anti-androgenic effects, but much less is known about the interaction of these compounds with other steroid receptors. Vinclozolin, a dicarboximide fungicide, like its primary metabolites 2-[[(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-carbamoyl]oxy]-2-methyl-3-butenoic acid (M1), and 3',5'-dichloro-2-hydroxy-2-methylbut-3-enanilide (M2), is known to bind androgen receptor (AR). Although vinclozolin and its metabolites were characterized as anti-androgens, relatively little is known about their effects on the function of the progesterone (PR), glucocorticoid (GR), mineralocorticoid (MR) or estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ). Objectives of the study were to determine the ability of vinclozolin and its two primary metabolites to activate AR, PR, GR, MR and ER. For this purpose, we used reporter cell lines bearing luciferase gene under the control of wild type or chimeric Gal4 fusion AR, PR, GR, MR or ERs. We confirmed that all three were antagonists for AR, whereas only M2 was found a partial agonist. Interestingly, M2 was also a PR, GR and MR antagonist (MR >> PR > GR) while vinclozolin was an MR and PR antagonist. Vinclozolin, M1 and M2 were agonists for both ERs with a lower affinity for ERβ. Although the potencies of the fungicide and its metabolites are low when compared to natural ligands, their ability to act via more than one mechanism and the potential for additive or synergistic effect must be taken into consideration in the risk assessment process

  11. Androgen Deprivation-Induced Senescence Promotes Outgrowth of Androgen-Refractory Prostate Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Dominick G. A.; Giribaldi, Maria G.; Anisleidys Munoz; Katherine Halvorsen; Asmita Patel; Merce Jorda; Carlos Perez-Stable; Priyamvada Rai

    2013-01-01

    Androgen deprivation (AD) is an effective method for initially suppressing prostate cancer (PC) progression. However, androgen-refractory PC cells inevitably emerge from the androgen-responsive tumor, leading to incurable disease. Recent studies have shown AD induces cellular senescence, a phenomenon that is cell-autonomously tumor-suppressive but which confers tumor-promoting adaptations that can facilitate the advent of senescence-resistant malignant cell populations. Because androgen-refra...

  12. Androgen deprivation therapy: progress in understanding mechanisms of resistance and optimizing androgen depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, William P.; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Peter S Nelson; Montgomery, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy remains a critical component of treatment for men with advanced prostate cancer, and data supports its use in metastatic disease and in conjunction with surgery or radiation in specific settings. Alternatives to standard androgen deprivation therapy, such as intermittent androgen suppression and estrogen therapy, hold the potential to improve toxicity profiles while maintaining clinical benefit. Current androgen deprivation strategies seem to incompletely suppress...

  13. A promoting role of androgen receptor in androgen-sensitive and -insensitive prostate cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tzu-Huey; Zhao, Hongjuan; Peng, Yue; Beliakoff, Jason; James D Brooks; Sun, Zijie

    2007-01-01

    Although the vital role of the androgen receptor (AR) has been well demonstrated in primary prostate cancers, its role in the androgen-insensitive prostate cancers still remains unclear. Here, we used a small hairpin RNA approach to directly assess AR activity in prostate cancer cells. Reduction of AR expression in the two androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and LAPC4, significantly decreased AR-mediated transcription and cell growth. Intriguingly, in two androgen-insensitive...

  14. Human androgen deficiency: insights gained from androgen receptor knockout mouse models

    OpenAIRE

    Kesha Rana; Davey, Rachel A; Zajac, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of androgen action is complex. Recently, significant advances have been made into our understanding of how androgens act via the androgen receptor (AR) through the use of genetically modified mouse models. A number of global and tissue-specific AR knockout (ARKO) models have been generated using the Cre-loxP system which allows tissue- and/or cell-specific deletion. These ARKO models have examined a number of sites of androgen action including the cardiovascular system, the immu...

  15. Androgens and the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    severe primary or secondary hypogonadism. Thus, androgen substitution therapy is warranted in men with true hypogonadism at all ages. Symptoms experienced by otherwise healthy ageing males are non-specific and vague, although some may be similar to symptoms of hypogonadism. Therefore, the term...... have an andropause. As large placebo-controlled studies of androgen treatment in elderly males are lacking, proper risk assessment of adverse effects such as prostate cancer following testosterone treatment in elderly males is completely lacking. In the future, testosterone therapy may prove beneficial...... in some elderly males with low-normal testosterone levels. However, at this point in time, widespread use of testosterone in an elderly male population outside controlled clinical trials seems inappropriate....

  16. Divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to population differences in sexual dimorphism of electrocommunication behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Winnie W; Rack, Jessie M; Smith, G Troy

    2013-01-01

    Weakly-electric fish (Apteronotidae) produce highly diverse electrocommunication signals. Electric organ discharges (EODs) vary across species, sexes, and in the magnitude and direction of their sexual dimorphism. Gonadal steroid hormones can modulate EODs, and differences in androgen sensitivity are hypothesized to underlie variation in the degree of sexual dimorphism across species. In this study, we asked whether variation in androgen sensitivity explained variation in sexual dimorphism of EODs within species, at the population level. We examined two populations of black ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons), one from the Orinoco and the other from the Amazon River Basin. EOD frequency (EODf) and chirp rates were measured to characterize diversity in sexual dimorphism across populations. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in EODf differed significantly across populations, and was more pronounced in the Orinoco population than in the Amazon population. Chirp rates were sexually monomorphic in both populations. 11-Ketotestosterone (11-kT) was administered over a two-week period to assess population differences in sensitivity to androgens. 11-kT masculinized EODf significantly more in the population with the greater degree of sexual dimorphism. 11-kT had no effect on the sexually monomorphic chirping rates. We conclude that population divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to variation in sexual dimorphism of EODf in A. albifrons. PMID:23142327

  17. Androgen Receptor in Macrophages of Male Rat is Greater Than in Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Ahmadi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available he presence and possible sex differences of androgen receptor in peritoneal macrophages was investigated using immunomagnetic beads. Macrophages were incubated with different concentrations of [3H]-5αDHT in the presence or absence of a 100 fold excess of unlabelled 5α-DHT. Labelled cells were separated from unbound steroid by immunomagnetic beads coated with anti-rat macrophage antibody. The binding identified in the rat macrophages was highly selective towards androgenic compounds. The dissociation constant (kd value for the receptor was calculated to be 3.3X10-9M and 5X10-9M for macrophages of male and female rat respectively. The number of receptors in each cell was 792±3 and 120±1 for male and female respectively. Indicating a sex differences in androgen receptor (p<0.001. Taken together it can be concluded that part of sex differences in immune responses and also auto-immune disease could be related to sex differences in androgen receptor in macrophages.

  18. Cloning and expression analysis of androgen receptor gene in chicken embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hironori; Ogino, Yukiko; Yamada, Gen

    2006-03-01

    We cloned a full-length androgen receptor (AR) cDNA from chicken (Gallus gallus) gonads. The cDNA sequence has an open reading frame of 2109 bp encoding 703 amino acids. The chicken AR (cAR) shares high homology with ARs from other species in its amino acid sequences, in particular DNA binding domain (DBD) and ligand binding domain (LBD). RT-PCR analysis revealed that cAR mRNA is expressed in several embryonic tissues of both sexes, and relatively higher expression was observed in left ovary compared with testis. The immunoreactive signal of AR was co-localized within the ovarian cell nucleus, while such nuclear localization was not detected in those of testis. To get insight on the possible role of androgen-AR signaling during gonadal development, non-steroidal AR antagonist, flutamide, was administrated in ovo. The treatment induced the disorganization of sex cords in ovarian cortex at day 12 of incubation. The effect was restored by testosterone co-treatment, implying the possibility that AR mediated signaling may be involved in ovarian morphogenesis. Furthermore, co-treatment of flutamide with estradiol-17beta (E2) also restored the phenotype, suggesting androgen-AR signaling might activate aromatase expression that is necessary for estrogen synthesis. These findings suggest androgen-AR signaling might contribute to chicken embryonic ovarian development. PMID:16480982

  19. Expression and function of androgen receptor coactivator p44/Mep50/WDR77 in ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ligr

    Full Text Available Hormones, including estrogen and progesterone, and their receptors play an important role in the development and progression of ovarian carcinoma. Androgen, its receptor and coactivators have also been implicated in these processes. p44/Mep50/WDR77 was identified as a subunit of the methylosome complex and lately characterized as a steroid receptor coactivator that enhances androgen receptor as well as estrogen receptor-mediated transcriptional activity in a ligand-dependent manner. We previously described distinct expression and function of p44 in prostate, testis, and breast cancers. In this report, we examined the expression and function of p44 in ovarian cancer. In contrast to findings in prostate and testicular cancer and similar to breast cancer, p44 shows strong cytoplasmic localization in morphologically normal ovarian surface and fallopian tube epithelia, while nuclear p44 is observed in invasive ovarian carcinoma. We observed that p44 can serve as a coactivator of both androgen receptor (AR and estrogen receptor (ER in ovarian cells. Further, overexpression of nuclear-localized p44 stimulates proliferation and invasion in ovarian cancer cells in the presence of estrogen or androgen. These findings strongly suggest that p44 plays a role in mediating the effects of hormones during ovarian tumorigenesis.

  20. Development of a combined method to assess the complex effect of atrazine on sex steroid synthesis in H295R cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Háhn, Judit; Szoboszlay, Sándor; Krifaton, Csilla; Kovács, Krisztina J; Ferenczi, Szilamér; Kriszt, Balázs

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a rapid, cost-effective combined testing method to assess the indirect effect of compounds interfering with sex steroid synthesis and to determine complex effects of atrazine on estrogen and androgen synthesis in vitro on H295R human cell line. Steroidogenic assay was performed on H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line. Instead of standard analytical methods, bioluminescence bioreporter assays (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYES and BLYAS) were used to measure estrogenic and androgenic effects of sex steroid hormones released by human cells in response to atrazine. Atrazine resulted in elevated estrogen production presumably due to its well documented inductive effect on aromatase on H295R cell line, detected by BLYES. Interestingly, results of BLYAS test showed concentration-dependent increase of androgen production in H295R cells. That indicates that atrazine can not only increase estrogen level via aromatase induction, but may interfere in androgen synthesis as well. The combined method allows us to assess the androgenic and estrogenic effect of sex steroids produced by human cells in increased or decreased quantity as a result of the different chemicals, without determining specific analytical measurement endpoints, by using the yeast based bioluminescent bioreporter test. PMID:27085065