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Sample records for andre sao paulo

  1. Analysis of lichen species for atmospheric pollution biomonitoring in the Santo Andre municipality, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied for the determination of trace elements in Canoparmelia texana species collected in nonpolluted areas of Atlantic Forest and in six sites of Santo Andre Municipality, SP, Brazil. Concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cs, Co, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, and Zn were determined and comparisons were made between the results obtained in lichens from different sites

  2. Estimate the potential production of electricity: a case study of the sanitary landfill of Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Estimativa do potencial de producao de eletricidade: estudo de caso do aterro sanitario de Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Elissando Rocha da; Moreira, Joao M. L.; Candiani, Giovano [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The recovery of the biogas generated from sanitary landfills, associated to its energetic use has been widely discussed. Thus, this paper aims to estimate the potential production of electric energy from sanitary landfill Santo Andre-SP. The biogas production was estimated using the rate of deposition of solid wastes in the landfill, using some mathematical models with parameters suggested by two models: LanGEM-USEPA (conventional landfill) and Word Bank. These results indicate that the potential of biogas production will be approximately 11 x 10{sup 6} Kg of methane/year in 2017 and production of electric energy in that year will be approximately 32,000 MWh, considering an of 75% over collection of biogas. (author)

  3. Evaluation of underground water contamination of tubular wells, by fuels oil in Santo Andre City, Sao Paulo state: a contribution to the environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contamination of underground waters by hydrocarbons originated from gas stations has been object of increasing preoccupation in environmental organization all over the world. The organic compounds Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX), present in these fuels, are extremely toxic to human health and could make impracticable the exploration of these contaminated waters by these kinds of pollutants and consequently the gasoline wells used for this purpose. In this work, it was carried out a diagnosis of the water quality with information and analyses, with the goals to snap shot the situation of the wells destined to domestic and commercial supply of water in the urban area of Santo Andre city, Sao Paulo state. There have been evaluated the presence of micron pollutants BTEX, after contamination due to leaks in fuel storage tanks close to the wells, in different places of the city. The physical chemistry parameters like color, turbidity and residual chlorine were also evaluated as well as trace elements, metals, anions like fluorine, sulphates, chlorine, nitrates and phosphates and bacteriological (total coliforms, thermo stable coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria). On definition of the sampling area, it was sought, at first, the evaluation of environmental contaminations historical series by gas stations, evaluating the set of information available at government environmental organizations and spatial representatively of the problem. For administration of the underground water quality it was adopted the methodology used by Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), being accomplished a previous identification of contaminated potential areas and organizing a data base on landfills disposal and neglected places; registration of gas station services and, wells used by the population, industrial inventory with active and neglected maps taking into consideration the size and residues generation (such as SEMASA), prioritizing in this way the

  4. Evaluation of underground water contamination of tubular wells, by fuels oil in Santo Andre City, Sao Paulo state: a contribution to the environmental management; Avaliacao da contaminacao da agua subterranea de pocos tubulares, por combustiveis fosseis, no municipio de Santo Andre, Sao Paulo: uma contribuicao a gestao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindrisz, Ana Copat

    2006-07-01

    The contamination of underground waters by hydrocarbons originated from gas stations has been object of increasing preoccupation in environmental organization all over the world. The organic compounds Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX), present in these fuels, are extremely toxic to human health and could make impracticable the exploration of these contaminated waters by these kinds of pollutants and consequently the gasoline wells used for this purpose. In this work, it was carried out a diagnosis of the water quality with information and analyses, with the goals to snap shot the situation of the wells destined to domestic and commercial supply of water in the urban area of Santo Andre city, Sao Paulo state. There have been evaluated the presence of micron pollutants BTEX, after contamination due to leaks in fuel storage tanks close to the wells, in different places of the city. The physical chemistry parameters like color, turbidity and residual chlorine were also evaluated as well as trace elements, metals, anions like fluorine, sulphates, chlorine, nitrates and phosphates and bacteriological (total coliforms, thermo stable coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria). On definition of the sampling area, it was sought, at first, the evaluation of environmental contaminations historical series by gas stations, evaluating the set of information available at government environmental organizations and spatial representatively of the problem. For administration of the underground water quality it was adopted the methodology used by Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), being accomplished a previous identification of contaminated potential areas and organizing a data base on landfills disposal and neglected places; registration of gas station services and, wells used by the population, industrial inventory with active and neglected maps taking into consideration the size and residues generation (such as SEMASA), prioritizing in this way the

  5. Environmental radiation monitoring in Sao Paulo state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of environmental radiation monitoring that CETESB (Technological Company of Environmental Sanitation of Sao Paulo) does in influence areas of radioactive materials store of Nuclemon Minero-Quimica S.A. in the municipality of Itu, Sao Paulo State, are presented. The data comprises the period of 1983-1990 with information about concentration levels of radium-225 in underground and superficial waters of the region. On March, 1989, was detected contamination in a well near of the stores. The levels observed, its implications in terms of health risks and possible causes of event are discussed too. The goals that CETESB intends to reach in terms of monitoring of environmental radiation in Sao Paulo State are also presented. (C.M.)

  6. La experiencia del partido dos trabalhadores en la alcadía de Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio KOWARICK

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo, Lucio Kowarick y André Singer analizan la gestión del Partido dos Trabalhadores en la Alcaldía de Sao Paulo encabezada por Luiza Erundina. Con esta evaluación pretenden conocer la acción del PT a través de uno de sus principales elementos de construcción del PT, el gobierno de las ciudades, que complementa a los otros dos, la vinculación con los movimientos sindicales y populares y la acción parlamentaria.ABSTRACT: In this article, Lucio Kowarick and Andre Singer analyses the government of Sao Paulo by Partido dos Trabalhadores, with Luiza Erundina. With this evaluation, they try to know the action of PT through one of the main elements of contruction of PT, the government of cities. The other are links with trade unions and popular movements and parliamentarian action.

  7. Characteristics of Contraceptive Use in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elisabeth Meloni Vieira; Rita Badiani; Amaury Léis Dal Fabbro; Antonio Luiz Rodrigues Junior

    2006-01-01

    Objective To know the characteristics of contraceptive use in Sao Paulo State collected by the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in 1996.Methods Data of Sao Paulo in 1996 were analyzed compared with the previous DHS carried on in 1986focusing on Sao Paulo State. Contraceptive use among married or cohabiting women by age, number of children and schooling was closely examined.Age and timing of female sterilization were also analyzed.Results The results showed that unlike Brazil there was a stability of female sterilization in Sao Paulo State during 1986 and 1996. There was a pattern in Sao Paulo: up to 30years old the pill was the most used contraceptive, after 30 there was a predominance of female sterilization, which increased with the number of children and decreased with schooling. The use of male methods had also increased in the 1986 and 1996period, being greater in Sao Paulo than in Brazil. Sao Paulo also presented more diversity in the use of reversible contraceptives.Conclusions The predominant two contraceptive methods in Brazil and Sao Paulo changed from 1986 to 1996, I.e. From pill to female sterilization.

  8. Energy balance of the Sao Paulo State - 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work informs the energetic balance of Sao Paulo State - 1995, with information referring to the year 1994, containing the energy fluxes from primary and secondary energy sources in the main sectors of Sao Paulo economy. An electronic version for windows environment is also available. 81 figs., 179 tabs

  9. Uranium and thorium in urban park soils of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) has reported the Quality Reference Value (VRQ) for soils in Sao Paulo, which is the concentration of a substance in the soil or groundwater which defines groundwater quality and clean soil, for several elements. Nevertheless, there is no information about U and Th concentrations. In the present paper, which is part of a main project that assesses metals in urban park soils of Sao Paulo city, the concentration of U and Th were determined in surface soil samples of fourteen city public parks. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for analysis. The U and Th range concentrations obtained were: 1.9 to 8.6 mg kg-1 for U and 8.4 to 38.0 mg kg-1 for Th. The U and Th range concentrations obtained are significantly higher compared to NASC values (2.7 mg kg-1 for U and 12 mg kg-1 for Th), but they are in the same order of magnitude of other studies reported in the literature. The uranium and thorium concentrations in Sao Paulo park soils may be attributed to lithology of Sao Paulo. On the other hand, high uranium concentrations (up to hundreds of ppm) have been reported in the literature in fertilizers containing phosphate, which may have contributed to the uranium levels in the park soils, due to the park garden maintenance. (author)

  10. Sao Paulo jätkab biennaali / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2001-01-01

    Sao Paulo biennaal sai 50aastaseks. Kuni 29. VII toimunud juubelinäitusest. 2002. a. leiab aset XXV Sao Paulo biennaal "Metropoliikonograafiad", kus esinevad kunstnikud kaheksast maailma suurlinnast.

  11. Biological effects of air pollution in Sao Paulo and Cubatao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, G.M.S.; Saldiva, P.H.; Pasqualucci, C.A.; Massad, E.; Martins M de, E.; Zin, W.A.; Cardoso, W.V.; Criado, P.M.; Komatsuzaki, M.; Sakae, R.S. (Instituto do Coracao, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    1989-08-01

    Rats were used as biological indicators of air quality in two heavily polluted Brazilian towns: Sao Paulo and Cubatao. They were exposed for 6 months to ambient air in areas where the pollution was known to be severe. The following parameters were studied and compared to those of control animals: respiratory mechanics, mucociliary transport, morphometry of respiratory epithelium and distal air spaces, and general morphological alterations. The results showed lesions of the distal and upper airways in rats exposed in Cubatao, whereas the animals from Sao Paulo showed only alterations of the upper airways but of greater intensity than those observed in the Cubatao group. There are both qualitative and quantitative differences in the pollutants of these places: in Sao Paulo automobile exhaust gases dominate and in Cubatao the pollution is due mainly to particulates of industrial sources. The correlation of the pathological findings with the pollutants is discussed and it is concluded that biological indicators are useful to monitor air pollutions which reached dangerous levels in Sao Paulo and Cubatao.

  12. Energy balance of Sao Paulo State, Brazil - 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sao Paulo State total consumption in 1986 is presented, including information of production consumption of energy in the main economics sectors. Some historical aspects, resources, reserves and considerations about equipment and electricity gas and petroleum distribution are also shown. (C.G.C.)

  13. SEGMENTATION IN TOURISTIC SECTOR: LGBT TOURISTS OF SAO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Sanitá Azevedo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present the tourism segment LGBT (Lesbian, Gays, Bisexual and Transgender of Sao Paulo city and gather information about his profile as important support for the tourism sector in defining their marketing strategies. It was carried out an exploratory and statistical data from government and representatives of this public for a description and analysis of data on the composition and profile of this segment, as well as the strategies being used by companies to captivate it and loyalty it. It also composes a Descriptive Study carried out by the Tourism Observatory of São Paulo next to the participants of the Sao Paulo Gay Parade in 2011. As results, it appears that LGBT public presents behavioral particularities as buyers of tourist products, providing during their stay, higher investments than others tourism segments, because it comes as a tourist for a longer period of stay in Sao Paulo, thus leaving more financial resources in the city. It also presents as results, examples of effective use of differentiation strategies by organizations, attraction, service and loyalty in this segment.

  14. Natural radionuclides in soils from Sao Paulo State cerrado forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Marcia V.F.E.S.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Franca, Elvis J. de, E-mail: mvaleria@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Considering the long life history, forests should be preferentially evaluated for the monitoring of radionuclides, mainly artificial radioisotopes. However, little is known about nuclides from Uranium and Thorium series, as well as, K-40, in soils from the Sao Paulo State forests. Soils are the main reservoir of natural radionuclides for vegetation, thereby deserving attention. Taking into account the advantages of High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS), diverse radionuclides can be quantified simultaneously. In this work natural radionuclides in soils from the Estacao Ecologica de Assis were evaluated by HRGS. Samples of 0-10 cm depth were collected under crown projection of most abundant tree species of long-term plots installed within the Estacao Ecologica de Assis, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. After drying and milling until 0.5 mm particle size, test portions of 30 g were transferred to polypropylene vials, sealed with silicone and kept under controlled conditions until 30 days to achieve secular equilibrium. A group of gamma-ray spectrometers was used to analyze about 27 samples by 80,000 seconds. Activity concentrations of Pb-214, Ac-228 and K-40 and their respective expanded analytical uncertainties at the 95% confidence level were calculated by Genie software from Canberra. Abnormal values were not detected for radionuclides in soils samples, however K-40 activity concentrations changed considerably due to the mineral cycling, in which K and, consequently K-40, is mainly stocked in vegetation in spite of soils. (author)

  15. Natural radionuclides in soils from Sao Paulo State cerrado forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the long life history, forests should be preferentially evaluated for the monitoring of radionuclides, mainly artificial radioisotopes. However, little is known about nuclides from Uranium and Thorium series, as well as, K-40, in soils from the Sao Paulo State forests. Soils are the main reservoir of natural radionuclides for vegetation, thereby deserving attention. Taking into account the advantages of High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS), diverse radionuclides can be quantified simultaneously. In this work natural radionuclides in soils from the Estacao Ecologica de Assis were evaluated by HRGS. Samples of 0-10 cm depth were collected under crown projection of most abundant tree species of long-term plots installed within the Estacao Ecologica de Assis, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. After drying and milling until 0.5 mm particle size, test portions of 30 g were transferred to polypropylene vials, sealed with silicone and kept under controlled conditions until 30 days to achieve secular equilibrium. A group of gamma-ray spectrometers was used to analyze about 27 samples by 80,000 seconds. Activity concentrations of Pb-214, Ac-228 and K-40 and their respective expanded analytical uncertainties at the 95% confidence level were calculated by Genie software from Canberra. Abnormal values were not detected for radionuclides in soils samples, however K-40 activity concentrations changed considerably due to the mineral cycling, in which K and, consequently K-40, is mainly stocked in vegetation in spite of soils. (author)

  16. Physicochemical characterization of ceramics from Sao Paulo II archaeological site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeometry is a consolidated field with a wide application of nuclear analytical techniques for the characterization, protection, and restoration of archaeological pieces. This project aimed at studying the elementary chemical composition of 70 ceramic fragments samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site, located along the Solimoes River channel, next to Coari city, in Brazilian Amazon. The characterization of samples was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). By the determination of 24 elements in the ceramic fragments ( Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm. Rb, Se, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn), it was possible to define groups of samples regarding the similarity/dissimilarity in elementary chemical composition. For such a task, the multivariate statistical methods employed were cluster analysis (C A), principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Afterwards, seven ceramic fragments were selected based on the groups previously established, for the characterization of the site temporal horizon. Those ceramic fragments were analyzed by thermoluminescence (TL) and EPR for dating purposes. The firing temperatures were determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique, in order to infer about some aspects of the ceramic manufacture employed by the ancient peoples that lived in Sao Paulo 11. By the results obtained in this study, it was possible to identify the quantity of clay sources employed by the ceramists and the age of the ceramic pieces. Therefore, the results of this research may contribute to the study on the occupation dynamics in the pre-colonial Brazilian Amazon. (author)

  17. Calibration of surface contamination monitors at IPEN/Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for effective monitoring of surface contamination is quantified in terms of activity per unit area; this quantity is used to specify the derived limits that are incorporated in the national regulations of radiation protection. These regulation recommend the calibration of all health physics instruments every 12 months. In the case of surface contamination monitors, a special set-up and a method were developed at the Calibration Laboratory of Sao Paulo, using standard alpha and beta radioactive sources. The monitors are being calibrated in the standard radioactive fields of Americium 241, Carbon 14, Chlorine 36, and Strontium 90 and Yttrium 90 sources, and the instrument efficiency is determined for each case in the range of 0.5 to 1.5 cm (alpha radiation) and 0.5 to 5.0 cm (beta radiation). Moreover, all instruments are being normally tested with Americium 241 sources of different activities. Instruments of different manufacturers and types were used for this study

  18. Distribution of Th-232 and Th-228 in Santos and Sao Vicente Estuary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.S.C.; Mazzilli, B.P.; Favaro, D.I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Caixa Postal 05508-000, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: Pscsilva@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    In the last decades considerable attention has been given to technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry. Santos Basin, located in Southwest Brazil, Sao Paulo State, comprising Santos and Sao Vicente estuarine system, is considered the most important industrial region of the country. Among the industrial activities present, phosphate fertilizer plants are responsible for the production of 69 millions tons of phosphogypsum waste, which is stockpiled in the surrounding environment. This waste concentrates radionuclides of the natural series originally present in the phosphate rock used as raw material. This study aims to evaluate the environmental impact of such activities in the sediments of the estuarine system. {sup 232} Th and {sup 228} Th concentrations in Santos and San Vicente estuary sediments were determined by Neutron activation analysis and Gamma spectrometry, respectively. {sup 232} Th concentration ranged from 6.5 to 198 Bq kg{sup -1} with mean value of 57 {+-} 39 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 42 samples. {sup 228} Th content varied from 12 to 110 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 74 {+-} 23 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 18 samples. It can be seen that the amount of {sup 232} Th is higher in the rivers close to the phosphogypsum piles, at least five points were identified as being affected by anthropogenic factor. (Author)

  19. Annual report 2006 - CPFL Energy - Light and Power Company from Sao Paulo, SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the activities during 2006 of the Sao Paulo Light and Power (CPFL) as follows: society evolution, corporative and ethic management; economic and financial performance; operational performance, sustainability management and corporative responsibility

  20. Results of Occupational Monitoring Program in Technologic Navy Center in Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CTMSP, Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, is a nuclear research Center located in the State of Sao Paulo. CTMSP headquarters is placed at the Campus of the University of Sao Paulo. Most of CTMSP nuclear facilities are at the Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA), located 120 km northwest from the Capital city of Sao Paulo. CTMSP has two major nuclear programs. One is the development of a PWR reactor for naval propulsion, and the other is associated with the front end fuel cycle technology comprising enrichment, conversion and reconversion. These activities require an extensive area monitoring program. This paper presents the results of this program covering the years of 2003 to 2011. The results include surface monitoring, dose rates and uranium concentrations in the air. (author)

  1. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  2. Challenges for energy efficiency in the buildings sector in the Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Desafios para eficiencia energetica no setor de edificios no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Maria Ines; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], email: vparente@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The consumption of energy in the building sector accounts for more than one third of the total final electricity consumption in Sao Paulo State. Considering that, the development of policy measures aiming at the promotion of energy efficiency in the sector should be encouraged. Analysed data reveals the continuing rise of energy consumption resulting form the high number of new buildings and the rising standards of the population in consequence of economic development. Besides this, the retrofit of old buildings presents a huge potential for energy savings. The article analyses and suggests the use of Building Codes as a suitable policy instrument for the Sao Paulo Sate reality. (author)

  3. Energy statistical yearbook by municipalities of Sao Paulo state - 2015: calendar year 2014; Anuario estatistico de energeticos por municipio no estado de Sao Paulo - 2015: ano base 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Government of the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, presents the {sup S}tatistical Yearbook of Energy by Municipality in the State of Sao Paulo in 2015 {sup -} calendar year 2014, prepared by Power State Department. The report provides consolidated data on the primary energy consumed by 645 municipalities - electricity, ethanol, petroleum products and natural gas, as well as their carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). It is about the production of strategic information to the municipalities together with the State Government to plan its priorities in energy and services.

  4. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, B. S.; Andrade, M. F.; Herckes, P.; Dusek, U.; Röckmann, T.; Holzinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV) and Heavy (HDV) duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol), hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel). The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ) where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA) where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS), and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT). The organic aerosol (OA) desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF) organic aerosol (OA) and organic carbon (OC) were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the aerosol

  5. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Oyama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV and Heavy (HDV duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol, hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel. The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5 in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS, and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT. The organic aerosol (OA desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF organic aerosol (OA and organic carbon (OC were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the

  6. Determination of metals in water from Billings dam, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Talita; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Ulrich, Joao C.; Yamaguishi, Renata Bazante, E-mail: taoliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: jesarkis@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Menezes, Luciana Carvalho Bezerra de; Castro, Paula Maria Genova de; Monteiro Junior, Adalberto Jose; Maruyama, Lidia Sumile, E-mail: lcbm@usp.br [Instituto de Pesca, (IP/SAA-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secretaria da Agricultura e Abastecimento do Estado de Sao Paulo

    2013-07-01

    The Billings reservoir, located in Sao Paulo, Brazil, is used for several purposes such as: water supply, electric generation, fishing and leisure. Although considered an area of environmental protection, in recent years the dam has suffered diverse environmental aggressions including the release of toxic metals. This study presents a recent evaluation of metal contents along the Dam. Samples were collected every three months during the period of winter 2009 to summer 2010. Samples were collected in thirteen points along of the dam, as follows: Rio dos Porcos (Point 1), Summit Control (Point 2), Ilha do Bigua (Point 3), Casa Caida (Point 4), Barragem (Point 5), Foz de Taquacetuba (Point 6), Braco Borore (Point 7), Foz de Borore (Point 8), Alvarenga (Point 9), Pedreira (Point 10), Borore's Margin (Point 11), Capivari I's Margin (Point 12) and Capivari II's Margin (Point 13). The determination of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was performed by using high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICPMS). The methodology has been validated using certified reference material Riverine Water Reference Material for Trace Metals provided by National Research Council Canada (NRCC). The sampling points located in the Pedreira, Borore's Margin, Alvarenga, Barragem Taquacetuba, Casa Caida e Ilha do Bigua presented the highest concentrations. The level for Fe, Cu and Ni were higher than the ones reported in the literature and above the limit set by CONAMA 2914/201. (author)

  7. Determination of metals in water from Billings dam, Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Billings reservoir, located in Sao Paulo, Brazil, is used for several purposes such as: water supply, electric generation, fishing and leisure. Although considered an area of environmental protection, in recent years the dam has suffered diverse environmental aggressions including the release of toxic metals. This study presents a recent evaluation of metal contents along the Dam. Samples were collected every three months during the period of winter 2009 to summer 2010. Samples were collected in thirteen points along of the dam, as follows: Rio dos Porcos (Point 1), Summit Control (Point 2), Ilha do Bigua (Point 3), Casa Caida (Point 4), Barragem (Point 5), Foz de Taquacetuba (Point 6), Braco Borore (Point 7), Foz de Borore (Point 8), Alvarenga (Point 9), Pedreira (Point 10), Borore's Margin (Point 11), Capivari I's Margin (Point 12) and Capivari II's Margin (Point 13). The determination of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was performed by using high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICPMS). The methodology has been validated using certified reference material Riverine Water Reference Material for Trace Metals provided by National Research Council Canada (NRCC). The sampling points located in the Pedreira, Borore's Margin, Alvarenga, Barragem Taquacetuba, Casa Caida e Ilha do Bigua presented the highest concentrations. The level for Fe, Cu and Ni were higher than the ones reported in the literature and above the limit set by CONAMA 2914/201. (author)

  8. Energy Balance of the Sao Paulo State -1998 Base year 1997; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo - 1998. Ano base 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This energy balance of the Sao Paulo State presents the following main topics that can be outstanding: panorama of the energy matrix; supply and demand of energy by source 1983-1997; energy consumption by sector 1983/1997; economic aspects; resources and reserves energy; and balance of the transformation centers 1983/1997.

  9. Atmospheric element pollutant evaluation at the Sao Paulo University campus, Sao Paulo using Canoparmelia texana Lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rosiana R.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: rosianarocha@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollutants has been considered as a very suitable tool when compared to conventional methods of direct measurements. Lichens in particular are widely used as biomonitors due to its easy sampling, low cost and resistance to environmental stresses. In this study, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied for element determinations in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi species. The samples were collected from tree barks in different sites at the Sao Paulo University Campus and in sites of areas considered non-polluted. Comparisons were made between the element concentration obtained in lichen from the study area and those from non-polluted sites. Results indicated that lichens from study area presented higher concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sb, Se and U than clean areas. The principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the results obtained and five principal components were found as being responsible for almost 77 % of the variance. These findings suggest that element pollutants found may be associated with vehicular emissions, construction of buildings and metallurgical activities. (author)

  10. Radioactivity in soils of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For proper management of soil and groundwater quality, background levels of toxic elements in a given ecosystem must be known. The main aim of the present study is to perform a radioactive characterization of representative soils from the Sao Paulo State, in order to determine background levels for some selected radionuclides, which could be used as a quality reference value. Soil types and sampling places were chosen according to their representativeness and spatial distribution in the State geological formations, taking also into account their nearness to large urban areas. Thirty samples were collected in areas presenting low antrophic perturbation - native vegetation or ancient reforestation -, minimizing the chances that selected areas could have sustained antrophic effects in recent past. Activity concentration of U-nat, Th-nat, 228Th, 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb, 137Cs and 40K were evaluated and correlated with soil mineralogical characteristics. The samples were measured by means of passive gamma spectrometry and spectrophotometry, employing Arsenazo III. Results showed a wide variation on background levels for natural radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series, and very low concentration of 137Cs from radioactive fallout, ranging from -1 for U-nat, 8 to 82 Bq.kg-1 for Th-nat, 4.8 to 120 Bq.kg-1 for 228Th, 3.3 to 97.6 Bq.kg-1 for 228Ra, 1.0 to 61.8 Bq.kg-1 for 226Ra, -1 for 210Pb, 0.8 to 4.1 Bq.kg-1 for 137Cs and 15.3 to 516 Bq.kg-1 for 40 K. No significant correlation could be observed between the clay, silt and sand content in the samples and the respective activity concentration of the radionuclides. (author)

  11. Household dust metal levels in The Sao Paulo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study about household dust is being conducted to determine the level of metal contamination in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). The SPMA, with 18 million inhabitants, is one of the largest urban areas of the world, with serious environmental problems, due to the great amount of industries, heavy traffic and the disordered growth of population. The pollutants originate from a multiplicity of indoor and outdoor sources. Indoor sources are originated from residual (hair, skin scales), pets, human activities, construction materials, and furnishings as well as biological material (pollen, insect parts).and outdoor pollution, usually from the urban traffic. The pollutant mixture involved in numerous physical and chemical processes and changes its characteristics with time. Its composition and concentration depend on the strengths of indoor sources, the concentration of pollutants outside and the properties of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. It is well recognized that many metals have chronic effects on humans, in particular toddlers, who are at an higher risk compared to adults because they engage in greater hand to-mouth activity and their neurological systems are still developing. The household dust samples were collected from different localities, using vacuum cleaner, and sieved up to particle size -1; Mn, 119-369 μg g-1; Fe, 372-1464 μg g-1; Ni, 33-85 μg g-1; Cu, 42-303 μg g-1; Zn, 156-1369 μg g-1 and Pb, 26-160 μg g-1. (author)

  12. Metals and semi-metals in street soils of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sao Paulo is the largest city in Brazil and South America with about 20 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area, more than nine million motor vehicles and intense industrial activity, which are responsible for increasing pollution in the region. Nevertheless, little is known concerning metal and semi-metal content in the soils of this metropolitan region. This type of information could be extremely useful as a fingerprint of environmental pollution. The present study determined the elements As, Ba, Co, Cr, Sb, and Zn concentrations in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic in Sao Paulo city to assess their levels and possible sources. The analytical technique employed was Instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results showed, except for Co, concentration levels higher than the reference values for soils of Sao Paulo, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo guidelines. When compared to similar studies in other cities around the world, Sao Paulo soils presented higher levels, probably due to its high density traffic and industrial activity. The concentrations obtained for As and Cr indicate anthropogenic origin. The high levels of the traffic-related elements Ba, Sb, and Zn in soils nearby high density traffic avenues indicate they may originate from vehicular exhausts. (author)

  13. The expansion of sugar cane cultivation in the Sao Paulo state, Brazil; A expansao da cultura canavieira no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lora, Beatriz Acquaro; Monteiro, Maria Beatriz C.A.

    2008-07-01

    The present work aimed at analyze the sugar cane culture expansion in substitution to the other cultures in the Sao Paulo state from available georeferred and statistical data. The results had evidenced clear expansion of the sugar cane culture in the state, having totalized a growth of 26.04% in the period from 2003 to 2006, with expressive increase in the regions of President Prudente, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Barretos and Marilia that had, each one, more than 40% of increase in the period. Concomitantly it had reduction of the maize areas in the studied region and pasture areas stability, followed of a small increase of the cattle heads number. (author)

  14. Energy balance of Sao Paulo State, Brazil 2012. Calendar year 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents the consolidated annual energy balances, which encompasses: Executive Summary; Participation of the Sao Paulo's Electric Energy in the National Context; Overview Energy Mix of the State of Sao Paulo; Final Consumption by Source; Final Consumption by Sectors in 2011; Contents of the Energy Balance for the State of Sao Paulo; Methodology; Summary of the period in analysis; Supply and Demand of energy by source; External trade of energy; Energy imports and export; Transformation center balances; Energy and Economy and Resources and energy Reserves. In this 2012 edition, we highlight the growth of gasoline consumption at the expense of ethanol, compared with previous years. The fall harvest of cane sugar and federal policies aimed at artificially support the price of gasoline are some of the factors that led to the fall in competitiveness of ethanol. Nowadays, it is up to the government to create policies to stimulate the supply of renewable fuels to replace fossil fuels. (author)

  15. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2008. Calendar year 2007; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo 2008. Ano base 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regionalized and environmental information. It covers the period of 1994 to 2007 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy.

  16. The basic and ultrabasic dikes from the coast region between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities, Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coastline between Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities and the shores of Sao Sebastiao, Anchieta and Mar Virado islands (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) are crosscut by several small swarms and isolated dykes trending N55E. The main rock types range from basic to intermediate, but also a conspicuous variety of alkaline lamprophyres occur side by side with the main group. The thickness of the basic to intermediate dykes vary widely, from a few centimeters to several metres, while the lamprophyres are a few tens of centimeters thick. The objective of this thesis is the petrographic, mineralogic, petrochemical and isotopic characterization of the basic and ultrabasic dykes that occur between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities (State of Sao Paulo), also including some occurrences from the Sao Sebastiao, Mar Virado and Anchieta islands and from the Bairro Alto region (Folha de Natividade da Serra). The petrogenetic model presented is based in the national and international bibliography. (author)

  17. Vanglaülestõus vallandas Sao Paulos kaose / Erik Henno

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Henno, Erik

    2006-01-01

    11. mail vallandus Sao Paulo vanglates konflikt, mis laienes üle osariigi ning mille käigus süüdati kümneid busse, rünnati politseiautosid ja pangakontoreid, pantvangi võeti ligi 200 inimest. Kaubanduskeskused ja koolid jäid suletuks, ühistransport oli halvatud. Kaart: Vägivallalaine Brasiilias. Lisa: Maffia

  18. Metals in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sao Paulo is the largest city in Brazil with about 19 millions of inhabitants in the metropolitan area, more than 8 million motor vehicles and strong industrial activity at the metropolitan region, which are responsible for increasing pollution in the region. Nevertheless, there is little information on metal contents in the metropolitan region soils, which would be very useful as a fingerprint of the environmental pollution. The present study aimed to determine As, Ba, Co, Cr, Sb and Zn concentrations in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic downtown Sao Paulo city: Consolacao/Reboucas Avenues; 23 de Maio Avenue and Tiradentes Avenue, to assess their possible sources and potential environmental impact. The analytical technique employed was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The results show metal concentration levels higher than the values reference values for soils of Sao Paulo, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State Sao Paulo (CETESB) guidelines. As, Ba and Zn showed concentration levels above the Intervention Values in some points, indicating direct or indirect potential risks to human health. The traffic related element Ba, Sb and Zn presented concentrations above the Prevention Values in points with high density traffic and may be associated to vehicular emissions. (author)

  19. Annual report 2007 - CPFL Energy - Light and Power Company from Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the balance of the economic, social, environmental performance of the Sao Paulo Light and Power Company (CPFL), during the year of 2007 as follows: highlights of 2007; profile of the CPFL Energy group; corporative performance; strategy of the company; performance in 2007 (the best year of the company); social responsibility

  20. "Conscientizacao" through Graffiti Literacies in the Streets of a Sao Paulo Neighborhood: An Ecosocial Semiotic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddings, Ana Christina DaSilva; McCafferty, Steven G.; da Silva, Maria Lucia Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we applied an ecosocial semiotic theoretical framework to the analysis of graffiti literacies in the Vila Madalena neighborhood of Sao Paulo, Brazil, to inquire about the nature and processes of "conscientizacao" (critical awareness) for adult street dwellers who had no or little ability to read and write (as traditionally defined).…

  1. Statistical annual by energy in the municipalities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document has as objective the compilation and dissemination of the consumption data corresponding of the main energetics used in the municipalities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil in the year of 2006. The considered energetics are: electric energy, natural gas, petroleum derivatives; hydrated alcohol and biodiesel

  2. Energy Balance of the Sao Paulo State -1998 Base year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This energy balance of the Sao Paulo State presents the following main topics that can be outstanding: panorama of the energy matrix; supply and demand of energy by source 1983-1997; energy consumption by sector 1983/1997; economic aspects; resources and reserves energy; and balance of the transformation centers 1983/1997

  3. Geological and technological characteristics of the Ball Clay of the Sao Paulo state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows preliminary geological and technological results of studies about ball clay in Sao Paulo State. The works had been carried out by the Institute of Research and technology (IPT) and sponsored by Prominerio, during 88. Ball clay is a special clay utilised in the whiteware industry, mainly in the body preparation of sanitaryware products. This raw material come from two sites in Brazil: Sao Simao and Oeiras. Samples from these two deposits had been studied and classified acording to their adequately in the ceramic process. On the other hand, more than 100 samples from several geological sites of the Sao Paulo State were studied in laboratories. Acording to preliminary tests some of them revealed similar characteristics as brazilian ball clays. These clays were characterized by granulometry analysis, X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis. (author)

  4. Energy balance of the state of Sao Paulo - 2015: calendar year 2014; Balanco energetico do estado de Sao Paulo - 2015: ano base 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The State Energy Report 2015 prepared by the Secretariat of Energy, is the publication of the State Government that shows the supply and demand of energy used by the state economy, with the corresponding participation of the sectors involved. The energy policy of the State of Sao Paulo's strategic objective of expanding the energy supply from the load centers, energy security and expanding the share of renewable sources in the matrix. In order to achieve these objectives it is essential that count on complete and reliable information on the supply and demand of energy. This information is needed not only to the Secretary of Energy, in the formulation and implementation of state programs, but the municipalities and regions of the state so that they can formulate and present their demands as clearly as possible. It is therefore the production of strategic information to the counties together with the State Government to plan its priorities in energy and services. The publication is essential reading for all who work with energy planning studies, feasibility of innovative technologies, search for energy efficiency and environmental protection. The evolution of the energy matrix of the State of Sao Paulo is one of the Balance sheet highlights, showing a greater share of biomass and natural gas since the mid- 90s . This issue also reports on CO{sub 2} emissions in the state, historical data vintages of the Sao Paulo sugarcane sector and a breakdown of electricity and derived from oil and gas. Thus, the State Energy Balance 2015 becomes an important tool aimed at implementation of public policies relevant to the infrastructure sector. (author)

  5. Hydro geochemistry of uranium in Aguas de Lindoia (Sao Paulo State)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary investigation concerning to the geochemical behaviour of uranium isotopes (233 U and 238 U) was performed on spring waters for Aguas de Lindoia city, Sao Paulo State. The reason for this study is because the natural radioactivity of these waters is poorly known, and no uranium content data have been published. Measurements of Uranium-238 contents and 234 U/238 U activity ratios in groundwaters were performed on the following springs issuing in the urban area from Aguas de Lindoia: Levissima I, Levissima II, Beleza, Sao Roque, Lindalia and Santa Izabel. (author)

  6. Radiogeologic reconnaissance in Perus region, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of the means and the identification of the radiometric anomalies, and the classification of this anomalies orgin, and it probable correlation with uraniferous secundary minerals from Perus and Taipas were studied. Petrological, stratigraphic, tectonic and geochronological studies in this region were done. The radiometric anomalies was observed in granitic-pegmatic massifs, later Sao Roque group. The radiocitivity of this area was affected by litology, being the pegmatite more radiogenic than granite. The topography is also a influent factor to detected radioactivity. The cinthylometry was efficient to U an Th anomalies detection. Three kinds of radioctive focus were detected by microautoradiography method

  7. The basic and ultrabasic dikes from the coast region between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities, Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil; Os diques basicos e ultrabasicos da regiao costeira entre as cidades de Sao Sebastiao e Ubatuba, estado de Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garda, Gianna Maria

    1995-12-31

    The coastline between Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities and the shores of Sao Sebastiao, Anchieta and Mar Virado islands (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) are crosscut by several small swarms and isolated dykes trending N55E. The main rock types range from basic to intermediate, but also a conspicuous variety of alkaline lamprophyres occur side by side with the main group. The thickness of the basic to intermediate dykes vary widely, from a few centimeters to several metres, while the lamprophyres are a few tens of centimeters thick. The objective of this thesis is the petrographic, mineralogic, petrochemical and isotopic characterization of the basic and ultrabasic dykes that occur between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities (State of Sao Paulo), also including some occurrences from the Sao Sebastiao, Mar Virado and Anchieta islands and from the Bairro Alto region (Folha de Natividade da Serra). The petrogenetic model presented is based in the national and international bibliography. (author) 146 refs., 44 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. Geochronological study of the metaconglomerates of the Sao Roque Group, Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the geochronological study of the metaconglomerates of the Sao Roque Group by Rb-Sr whole rock measurements and K-Ar method in minerals concentrate. The granite-gneissic pebbles from the metaconglomerates have been analysed by Rb-Sr isochronic method and yelded an age of 1200+100 Ma. with a 87Sr/86Sr intercept of 0.737+- 0.003. In our view this age might be associated to the metamorphic episode affecting the pre-existent granitic rocks before the epoch of the Sao Roque group sedimentation, or to the original age of the pebbles. The analytical points from the conglomerate matrix seem to define a linear array with 800Ma. This age, probably, represents the epoch of the main metamorphic event on the Sao Roque Group. The K-Ar micas determinations on rocks of the unit in study are concordant in ages, with values around 620.. These ages represent the tectonic estabilization epoch of the Pico de Jaragua region. (Author)

  9. Neutron activation analysis of soil samples collected at different points of the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Analise por ativacao com neutrons de amostras de solo coletadas em diferentes pontos da regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunevich, Rodrigo Brandao [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: rbunevich@gmail.com; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    This article analyses samples from the soil of Sao Paulo metropolitan region (SPMR) aiming posterior study on the influence of his elementary composition in the elements accumulated by the lichen. The article analyses soils samples from various points at SPMR) and at the clean region of Parque Intervales, Mata Atlantica, SP by using the neutron activation analysis. The concentration of the elements As, Br, Co, Fe, Hf, K, Nd, Rb, Sb, Th, U, Zn and rare earths were determined, and comparative studies were also performed between the concentrations obtained for the samples collected at different sampling points. The samples collected at IPEN and Congonhas presented high La and Nd concentrations when compared with the other ones. The high Ce, Th and U concentrations were obtained for the IPEN soil samples. Besides, the As and Br presented the highest values at the Santo Andre, Capuava and Cerqueira Cesar. The clean region samples of Parque Intervales presented lower concentrations related to most of collected points at the SPMR, excepted the elements Sc and Rb. The quality control were evaluated by analysing the reference certificated materials Soil 7 and Buffalo River Sediment. (author)

  10. Biomonitoring of the atmospheric pollution using lichens in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric pollution of Sao Paulo city is a serious problem due to the expansion of industrial area, increasing number of vehicles and population density. This work presents results obtained in the analysis of lichens collected in different sites of Sao Paulo city and in non-polluted areas of Atlantic Forest. Concentrations of twenty elements were determined in Canoparmelia texanaspecies and comparisons were made between the results obtained in lichens from different sites. High concentrations of the elements As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Mn, Sb and Zn were found for samples collected in sites located near industries and petrochemical plant. Br and Sb concentrations were also high in lichens from sites affected by vehicular emissions. (author)

  11. Studies of osteoporosis in urban residents of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using isotope related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is aimed at defining the peak of bone mass in an urban population chosen randomly on account of the great miscegenation in Sao Paulo. It is quite important to know the peak of bone mass and the factors that would interfere in the amount of bone formed as they are valuable guides for future plans of osteoporosis prevention. In our previous meeting it was decided to increase the number of individuals studied from 210 to 350 and proceed with the evaluation of patient information according with the questionnaire proposed. In this report it is presented the results on bone mineral density of lumbar L1-L4 and neck of femur in the total of 350 patients (175 women and 175 men). The complete data, as well as the information obtained from the questionnaire will be sent in the future reports as programed in the meeting of Sao Paulo

  12. Physicochemical characterization of ceramics from Sao Paulo II archaeological site; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica da ceramica do sitio arqueologico Sao Paulo II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio Baria

    2013-08-01

    Archaeometry is a consolidated field with a wide application of nuclear analytical techniques for the characterization, protection, and restoration of archaeological pieces. This project aimed at studying the elementary chemical composition of 70 ceramic fragments samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site, located along the Solimoes River channel, next to Coari city, in Brazilian Amazon. The characterization of samples was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). By the determination of 24 elements in the ceramic fragments ( Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm. Rb, Se, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn), it was possible to define groups of samples regarding the similarity/dissimilarity in elementary chemical composition. For such a task, the multivariate statistical methods employed were cluster analysis (C A), principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Afterwards, seven ceramic fragments were selected based on the groups previously established, for the characterization of the site temporal horizon. Those ceramic fragments were analyzed by thermoluminescence (TL) and EPR for dating purposes. The firing temperatures were determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique, in order to infer about some aspects of the ceramic manufacture employed by the ancient peoples that lived in Sao Paulo 11. By the results obtained in this study, it was possible to identify the quantity of clay sources employed by the ceramists and the age of the ceramic pieces. Therefore, the results of this research may contribute to the study on the occupation dynamics in the pre-colonial Brazilian Amazon. (author)

  13. Legal protection of the Guarani aquifer in Ribeirao Preto (Sao Paulo State, Brasil); Tutela juridica do Aquifero Guarani em Ribeirao Preto (Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroso Goulart, M.; Cavalheiro Navajas Sampaio Campos, H.; Nepomuceno, O.

    2012-11-01

    The Guarani aquifer is one of the largest reservoirs of groundwater in the world and represents a strategic reserve for the four countries of South America where it occurs: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The municipality of Ribeirao Preto, located in the north-east region of Sao Paulo, with a population of over 600,000 inhabitants, is supplied entirely by water from this aquifer. Hydrogeological studies reveal the existence of a large cone of drawdown in the centre of the city due to the intensive and indiscriminate use of water pumped out by wells for decades. In rural areas, where many of the rocky outcrops of the aquifer occur and which affords direct recharge by rain water, the risk of contamination by pesticides is of some concern. Over the years the Public Ministry of Sao Paulo in Ribeirao Preto has provided guidelines for actions and initiatives in environmental protection, especially with regard to the Guarani aquifer. These actions and initiatives are based mainly on the principle of the supremacy of public interest over private interest and the principle of caution. On the basis of these premises the prosecutor works with the government and the private sector to monitor and readmitted environmental liabilities that threaten the aquifer (landfills, diffuse contamination etc.) and to maintain due discipline within the activities that take place within the recharge zone (agriculture, industry and urbanization) including those of regulation and territorial planning. (Author)

  14. Benefit-cost analysis of Huanglongbing management in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Adami, A. C.O.; Miranda, S. H.G.; Bassanezi, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian citrus history is marked by several phytosanitary outbreaks due to entry of new pests, frequently with high potential to generate economic losses. Some of these pests have threatened even the viability of citrus in Sao Paulo State, like Huanglongbing (HLB) that was responsible for eradicating 18 million plants between January 2005 and July 2012. This requires development of new methods to control the disease and ensure the economic viability of the activity. This study aimed to ...

  15. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2009. Calendar year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regional and environmental information. It covers the period of 1995 to 2008 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy

  16. Geology and petrology of alkaline Massif from Ilha de Vitoria, Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological and petrological studies of the Vitoria Island Alkaline Complex, State of Sao Paulo, have been carried out by means of photo interpretation; field work, thin section studies, whole-rock chemical analysis, x-ray diffractometry, EPMA mineral analysis, and K-Ar and Rb-Sr dating. Radiometric dating indicates a late Cretaceous age for the Vitoria Island Alkaline Complex, which is concordant with the ages of other neighbouring alkaline bodies. (author)

  17. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2008. Calendar year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regionalized and environmental information. It covers the period of 1994 to 2007 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy

  18. Atmospheric pollution biomonitoring of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region using epiphytic lichens; Uso de liquens epifiticos no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica da regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuga, Alessandra

    2006-07-01

    Due to the increasing problems of atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region that affect the environment and human health the application of biomonitoring methodologies using cosmopolite organisms has now become relevant. Biomonitoring is a method to evaluate the response of live organisms to pollution. This method offers advantages such as reduced costs, efficient monitoring of large geographic areas and accumulated pollutants over a large period in which low concentrations of chemicals elements in the environment can be evaluated. In the present study, neutron activation analysis method was applied to determine elements accumulated in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi. Samples were collected in two distinct areas: Carlos Botelho (PECB) and Intervales (PEI) State Parks that are considered as non-polluted areas and that belong to the Atlantic Forest - SP ecosystem; and Sao Paulo city metropolitan region in sites near automatic monitoring stations of the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). The lichens collected from the bark of the trees were properly treated, and irradiated with neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear reactor along with synthetic standards of elements. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of IAEA-336 LICHEN and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT -MPH-2) certified reference materials. The results obtained for these materials were in accordance with the certified values and presented good precision with variation coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 14.6%. Results obtained for lichens showed that elements As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se and U are present at ng g{sup -1} levels, Ba, Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn at {mu}g g{sup -1} and Ca at mg g{sup -1}. By applying cluster and discriminant analyses to the results for the lichen samples from areas with different levels of pollution, the sampling sites were grouped according to their chemical similarities and their elemental

  19. U, TH and lanthanides in street soils of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of lanthanide distribution in urban environments has become of interest over the last years, due to the increased industrial use of these elements. Sao Paulo is the 6th largest metropolitan region of the world, with about 20 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, more than 9 million motor vehicles and intense industrial activity. There is little information on U, Th, and lanthanide contents in urban soils, and there are as of yet no reference values for these elements in soils of Sao Paulo city. The present study aimed to determine U, Th and lanthanide concentrations in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic downtown in Sao Paulo city, to assess their possible sources and potential environmental impacts. The analytical technique employed was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Th and U levels ranged from 4.0 to 37.0 mg kg-1 and from 1.6 to 18.7 mg kg-1, respectively. These values are higher than literature values for U and Th in Brazilian superficial soils. The results obtained for the lanthanides indicate enrichment in La and Ce. However, a possible anthropogenic source should be investigated since high background values of these elements may be associated to the natural geological composition of the soils. (author)

  20. Moradia e segregacao na cidade de Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Pasternak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to show striking aspects of the socio- spatial inequalities in the city of São Paulo: at one extreme, the favelas and at the other extreme, the gated condominiums. It shows the evolution of the population of greater São Paulo and that of the city itself and its pattern of spatial growth, namely the spread of the poor peripheral population. The population of the city is aging, although the spatialization of the age structure shows that all the population of the periphery is still younger. The association between income, education and place of living is clear: lower incomes and less education in the peripheral ring. The article also describes the formation of the city, its huge expansion in the 40s and its impoverishment at the turn of the century. The social segregation, previously confined to the periphery, is spreading to other parts of the city. The favelas are increasing, more gated condominiums are being built even in poor neighborhoods. A remarkable characteristic of housig in São Paulo at the end of last century is the growth of favelas and that of gated condominiums. The population of favelas represents more than 10% of the total population of the municipality and there were 2,500 new condominium units launched in 2000. The article solves Tha article belies some myths about favelas and condominiums. The favela space is very similar to the urban space and its units are also in the housing market. Nevertheless, there are some peculiarities in the favela fabric. The proportion of formal employment in favelas is the same as that in the municipality. Favelas are rather different one from the other, be it in what concerns physical space or in the type of population. In what regards gated condominiums, they also house social groups of lower income Gated condominiums also house social groups of lower income, being found in the poor and polluted periphery. The absence of city authorities makes this urban space prone to

  1. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Deployment, Operation and Initial Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R.; Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Rudlosky, S.; Goodman, S. J.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anseimo, E. M.; Pinto, O.

    2012-01-01

    An 8-10 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network is being deployed in the vicinity of Sao Paulo to create the SP-LMA for total lightning measurements in association with the international CHUVA [Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribution to cloud resolving modeling and to the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)] field campaign. Besides supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives and the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga intensive operation period (IOP) in November-December 2011, the SP-LMA will support the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), both sensors on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), presently under development and scheduled for a 2015 launch. The proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready for use on "day1" following the launch of GOES-R. A preliminary survey of potential sites in the vicinity of Sao Paulo was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010, followed up by a detailed survey in July 2010, with initial network deployment scheduled for October 2010. However, due to a delay in the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga IOP, the SP-LMA will now be installed in July 2011 and operated for one year. Spacing between stations is on the order of 15-30 km, with the network "diameter" being on the order of 30-40 km, which provides good 3-D lightning mapping 150 km from the network center. Optionally, 1-3 additional stations may be deployed in the vicinity of Sao Jos dos Campos.

  2. Scenario of distributed energetic resources in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil; O cenario dos recursos energeticos distribuidos no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burani, Geraldo Francisco; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Fujii, Ricardo Junqueira; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia], e-mail: udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper aims to assess the viability of the use of distributed resources for power production inside the state of Sao Paulo, taking into account its different forms, advantages and drawbacks. To accomplish the assessment and using de integrated energy resources planning, the full cost accounting for energy resources was applied to each administrative region of the state, which allowed a greater focus without jeopardizing the final results. The analysis were performed considering the usage of the most prospective energy sources such as wind, solar, natural gas, hydro and biomass generation; the results show that when the different aspects of each type of distributed generation are taken into account the renewable forms of energy generation are likely to be more competitive, when compared to traditional forms of generation. (author)

  3. Geology and geochronology of Cardoso Island, in the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State; Geologia e geocronologia da Ilha de Cardoso, sudeste do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Werner

    1998-07-01

    This aim of work is the geological and geochronological study of rocks cropping out on Cardoso Island, on the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo States, close to be boundary with Parana State. The Island with an area of about 151 km{sup 2} is a protected area administered by the Forest Institute of Environment Secretariat of the State of Sao Paulo. It is mountanious, with a peak at 814 m, and is covered by dense Mata Atlantica vegetation. The terrains which compose the island are mainly an igneous complex with light grey leucocratic, inequigranular, medium - to coarse-grained syenites. The predominant Tres Irmaos Syenite (STI), composed of pyroxene, hornblende, and perthitic to mesoperthitic microcline, has a magmatic flow structures, and is cut by the Cambriu alkali-feldspar Granites (GC), which is pinkish grey, leucocratic and medium-grained. Geochemical analysis of STI and GC demonstrate their meta luminous alkaline nature and late-orogenic to an orogenic character. The geochronological results suggest that the bodies were formed between 620 and 570 My according to the U-Pb method in zircons, with cooling between 597 and 531 My (K-Ar in amphiboles). Whole rock Sm-Nd analysis yield T{sub DM} ages in the Meso and Paleoproterozoic (1.200 - 2.200 My). belt of low grade meta sedimentary rocks occurs in the northern part of the island. Quartz schist, quartz-mica schist and mica-quartz schist, often containing andaluzite and cordierite, predominate. The geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the sources of the metasediments were andesites of continental arc whose protolities separated from the mantle during the Paleoproterozoic, between 1.800 and 2.200 My. These metasediments probably continue on the continent in the Taquari region and extend southwards in narrow strips between the granitoids of the Paranagua Domain. Although quaternary deposits are expressive, they were not studied in details since they were not the objectives of this study. (author)

  4. Energy balance of the state of Sao Paulo - 2015: calendar year 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The State Energy Report 2015 prepared by the Secretariat of Energy, is the publication of the State Government that shows the supply and demand of energy used by the state economy, with the corresponding participation of the sectors involved. The energy policy of the State of Sao Paulo's strategic objective of expanding the energy supply from the load centers, energy security and expanding the share of renewable sources in the matrix. In order to achieve these objectives it is essential that count on complete and reliable information on the supply and demand of energy. This information is needed not only to the Secretary of Energy, in the formulation and implementation of state programs, but the municipalities and regions of the state so that they can formulate and present their demands as clearly as possible. It is therefore the production of strategic information to the counties together with the State Government to plan its priorities in energy and services. The publication is essential reading for all who work with energy planning studies, feasibility of innovative technologies, search for energy efficiency and environmental protection. The evolution of the energy matrix of the State of Sao Paulo is one of the Balance sheet highlights, showing a greater share of biomass and natural gas since the mid- 90s . This issue also reports on CO2 emissions in the state, historical data vintages of the Sao Paulo sugarcane sector and a breakdown of electricity and derived from oil and gas. Thus, the State Energy Balance 2015 becomes an important tool aimed at implementation of public policies relevant to the infrastructure sector. (author)

  5. Environmental quality of agricultural soils within the Jaguari River Basin - Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental impacts have occurred in various forms and intensities on soil, water and air media. Consequently, several countries have used legal criteria for soil protection, either by means of generic guiding values or through case-by-case risk assessment. The Sao Paulo Environmental Agency (CETESB) pioneered the publication of guiding values for soils and groundwater in 2001. The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental quality of agricultural soils in comparison to pristine soils (control areas) within the Jaguari river basin, Sao Paulo. The evaluation was carried out through multielement determination by Neutron Activation Analysis Instrumental (INAA) technique. The analyses were also complemented by Optical Emission Spectrometry Coupled Plasma (ICP OES), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Graphite Furnace (GFAAS) techniques. The results obtained in the analyzed soil samples were compared to the guiding values established by the Sao Paulo State environmental legislation and revealed that there were no median concentrations above the prevention values. The median concentrations for the elements Sb, As, Cd, Pb, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, V and Zn were below the reference values, except for Pb. Taking into account the 34 elements determined, there were statistically significant differences (p <0.05) between agricultural and pristine soils only for the elements Ba, As, U and V. Among these elements, Ba presented the highest concentrations in pristine soils. It was concluded, that the environmental quality of agricultural soils within the Jaguari river basin - SP was slightly changed for the given parameters. The results also pointed out for the utilization of U and As as indicators of potential contamination in soils. (author)

  6. Methodology for correlations between doses and detectability in standard mammographic images: application in Sao Paulo state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements using mammography units were performed in loco in 50 health establishments, randomly sampled from an equipment list of the Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saude (Health Establishments Brazilian Catalog). For the measurements six phantoms were utilized to establish different quality criteria and to evaluate doses in different breast thicknesses. Two different methods of measuring average glandular doses (AGD) were applied, and measurements of entrance surface doses (ESD) were also realized, in order to obtain mean values to Sao Paulo State. A study relating distribution and properties of different mammography trademarks with doses was performed. The sensitometry of processors allowed a quantification of the film-processing contrast index, Ag, establishing a state mean value. The phantom images allowed the evaluation of detection limits of structures as microcalcifications, fibers, and masses, and state mean values were established for: spatial resolution (on surface and glandular breast position); image contrast; and detection expert ability from phantom images in two situations: before knowing the image targets and after viewing of a target map. Then, the results were compared to target detections in laboratory environment. Based on dose results, Ag, image contrast, maximum contrast, and detection ratio, a relationship between them was determined. The results show that, in Sao Paulo State, mean glandular doses were lower than reference levels considering the Wu method, and close to or above reference levels for ail phantoms considering the Dance method. The ESD was always close to or above reference levels. The Ag presented a mean value of (10,42 ± 0,20) for Sao Paulo State, and the image contrast was lower than the required limits established by the phantom manufacturers. The high contrast resolution showed that mammography units presented the expected values of line pair per mm in the State. The detectability evaluation of local experts was

  7. Demand of radiopharmaceutical Fluoride 18-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) in the Sao Paulo State metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research presents partial results from the development of a Masters Dissertation for the Post-Graduation in Nuclear Technology Program - IPEN/USP, aiming to study the demand of radiopharmaceutical Fluoride 18-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) in the Sao Paulo State metropolitan area, as a subsidiary for the establishment of distribution strategy within the State. This study presented the results of a bibliographic review as well as the market evolution for FDG in Sao Paulo. Studies pointed to a tendency of an increase in the international and national nuclear medicine market; while the United States of America participate in 47% of the world profit, South America shares only 2.5% of the global market. This market will tend to grow in 2006 to 2020 up to 776% for diagnosis and 760% for therapy. Partial results are presented in this study from researching medical centers that use PET in the city of Sao Paulo, as well as companies that commercialize the equipment and the manufacturer center. There is an increase of sales for IPEN's Fluoride 18-FDG and its representation on the total radiopharmaceutical profit surpassed 5.3% in 2003 to 8.2% in 2004. The dissemination of this technology in Brazil is lately being discussed especially due to the acquisition price of the equipment as well as the viability of the resources (Fluoride 18- FDG; implementation strategies of regional cyclotron accelerators) and the question of remuneration of the PET produced exams for health care plans and national health care system (SUS). IPEN is developing yet another study to grasp possible demand for this product in the Southern and Southeastern regions, allowing better view of the necessity of the supplement, and in study the implementation of a new cyclotron in the institute dedicated for the production of Fluoride 18-FDG. (author)

  8. Sanitary surveillance of ionizing radiations use in health services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of the Sanitarian Surveillance actions developed at Sao Paulo State, Brazil, concerning the control of ionizing radiation is presented. Aspects such as technical standards, inspection forms, assessment and quality assurance programs, in the fields of medical and dental radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine are discussed. A program is also introduced for sample monitoring of these instruments. A set of protocol with criteria to be used in quality assurance programs, including equipment and procedures is presented. Participation of several societies of specialists and consumer defense organizations in the elaboration of technical regulations has contributed to concrete adoption by health care services

  9. Elevation of a cane-growing area of the state of Sao Paulo using LANDSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Tardin, A. T.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Chen, S. C.; Lucht, L. A. M.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.; Maia, F. C. S.

    1981-01-01

    Images at a scale of 1:250.000 were visually interpreted for identification and area estimates of sugar cane plantations in Sao Paulo. The basic criteria for crop identification were the spectral characteristics of channels 5 and 7 and their temporal variations observed from different LANDSAT passes. Using this technique, it was possible to map the sugar cane areas as well as the sugar cane already harvested. An area of 801,950 hectares was estimated within the study area. The confidence interval of correct classification ranged from 87.11% to 94.71%.

  10. Ionizing radiation population doses at Sao Paulo city, Brazil: open-pit gamma dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ionizing radiation to the human beings are well known for high and intermediate doses. As far as low level) radiation doses are concerned, there is no consensus. In order to get a better understanding of such effects it is necessary to assess the low doses with better accuracy. In this work, it was made an estimate of the annual ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) to which the people are exposed in the city of Sao Paulo. Until now there are no data about it available in the literature. For the purpose of this evaluation, a map with various routes covering the largest and more representative area of the city was designed. The choice of points for data collection was made taking into account mainly the occupancy of the region. A portable gamma spectrometry system was used. It furnishes the rate of H*(10) and the measured gamma spectrum (in the range from 50 to 1670 keV) in the place of interest. The measurements were performed in a short time interval, since the gamma radiation arrives from a great extent of soil. Each measurement was done 1 m above the soil during 300 s. The rates of H*(10) varied from 33.1 to 152.3 nSv.h-1, net values, obtained after subtraction of the cosmic rays contribution. The standard deviation was 22 n Sv.h-1 for an average for the city of Sao Paulo of 96.1(24) nSv.h-1. In addition, average values of H*(10) rates for the city Health Divisions were calculated. Those values are not statistically equivalent and the whole set of data could not be treated as one, as the statistical Student test indicated a non homogeneity of the group of data. Hence it is necessary the accomplishment of a more detailed survey in order to verify the origin of the discrepancy. The mean value of H*(10) rate obtained for the city of Sao Paulo as converted to effective dose. in order to be compared with other places results It could be noticed that the annual average of effective dose for the city of Sao Paulo, 0.522(13) mSv, is superior to the world

  11. Environmental impact from pollutant action in the Billings Reservoir in Sao Paulo metropolitan area - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ELETROPAULO Electricity from Sao Paulo S/A covers 74 municipal district of the State with electric power, signifying 26% of the energy consumed in Brazil. This paper presents problems with the aquatic plants proliferation and the methods used for their control in the ELETROPAULO hydraulic system, compound by generators plants, channels and reservoirs. The main consequences of their evolution and the advantage and disadvantage of the used methods are mentioned. These plant proliferation cause damages for the neighbour population, with some social and sanitary re flexion, and for the Company operation. Considerations for an improvement of the control methods are also cited. (C.G.C.). 1 fig

  12. Shield calculation of project for instrument calibration integrated laboratory of IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work performed the shield calculation of the future rooms walls of the five X-ray equipment of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, which will be constructed in project of laboratory enlargement. The obtained results by application of a calculation methodology from an international regulation have shown that the largest thickness of shielding (25.7 cm of concrete or 7.1 mm of lead) will be of the wall which will receive the primary beam of the equipment with a 320 kV voltage. The cost/benefit analysis indicated the concrete as the best material option for the shielding

  13. Finding Aedes aegypti in a natural breeding site in an urban zone, Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This is the description of how nine Aedes aegypti larvae were found in a natural breeding site in the Pinheiros neighborhood, city of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. The record was conducted in December 2014, during an entomological surveillance program of dengue virus vectors, with an active search of potential breeding sites, either artificial or natural. Finding Ae. aegypti larvae in a tree hole shows this species’ ability to use both artificial and natural environments as breeding sites and habitats, which points towards the importance of maintaining continuous surveillance on this mosquito in all kinds of water-holding containers. PMID:26982959

  14. Archaeometric studies of ceramics from the Sao Paulo II archaeological site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims at studying the elementary chemical composition of 70 ceramic fragments from the Sao Paulo II archaeological site by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentration data was studied next using multivariate statistical methods, such as cluster analysis, principal component analysis and discriminant analysis. The results showed three different chemical groups of samples regarding the similarity/dissimilarity between the samples. Ceramics from each group have been selected and dated using thermoluminescence. The firing temperature of the ceramics was determined by electron paramagnetic resonance. (author)

  15. Quantifying impacts on air quality of vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Godoy, José Marcus; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Junior, Djacinto

    2016-04-01

    Vehicular emissions in megacities such as Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are increasingly becoming a global issue. The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in Southeast of Brazil, is a megacity with a population of 18 million people, with 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. Rio de Janeiro is also a large city with different meteorology than São Paulo. All cars in Brazil runs gasohol, with 23% ethanol in gasoline, and for the last 10 years, flex cars that can run on gasohol, ethanol or any mixture dominate the market. Overall ethanol accounts for about 30-40% of fuel burned in both cities. To improve the understanding of vehicular emission impacts on aerosol composition and life cycle in these two large megacities a source apportionment study, combining online and offline measurements, was performed. Aerosols were collected for one year to capture seasonal variability at 4 sites in each city, with inorganic and organic aerosol component being sampled. Organic and elemental carbon were measured using a Sunset Laboratory Dual Optics (transmission and reflectance) Carbon Analyzer and about 22 trace elements has been measured using polarized X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Aerosol mass and black carbon were also measured, as well as trace gases to help in aerosol source apportionment. In Sao Paulo, the average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained varied from 9.6 to 12.2 μg m-3 for the several sites, and similar concentrations were measured in Rio de Janeiro. At all sites, organic matter (OM) has dominated fine mode aerosol concentration with 42 to 60% of the aerosol mass. EC accounted for 21 to 31% of fine mode aerosol mass concentration. Sulfate accounted for 21 to 26% of PM2.5 for the sites. Aerosol source apportionment was done with receptor analysis and integration with online data such as PTR-MS, Aethalometers, Nephelometers and ACSM helped to apportion vehicular emissions. For the 8 sites operated in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, vehicular

  16. The Prince, the Captain and "The State": An Examination of the Mesquita Family Ownership of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" to 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etsinger, Jean

    Julio Mesquita joined the staff of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" in 1885 and became a director in 1891, when he also began his first term as a deputy of the Sao Paulo state assembly. Until his death in 1927, Mesquita guided the newspaper's growth in all respects--editorial, political, technological, and economic. Julio de Mesquita Filho assumed…

  17. Improvement of rice through somaculture and induced mutations in Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important crops in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, from both the production and mainly the consumption standpoint. It is cultivated predominantly under upland conditions in areas that have high temperature and humidity, excellent environment for rapid spreading of the blast disease (Pyricularia grisea). The objective of this research was to induce mutations in connection with somaculture, for resistance to blast and a high yield potential, retaining the other qualities of IAC 201, a commercial upland variety. Seeds were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays at 300, 350 and 400 Gy, and boots and seeds from M1 plants in the 300 Gy treatments were harvested for mutation in vitro and in vivo techniques. Selection was not done in M2 generation; panicles were harvested and the offsprings were evaluated in the M3 generation for blast reaction. From 10340 panicles screened, 267 lines were selected with a possible blast tolerance. In the M4 generation these populations were again evaluated for blast reaction and for agronomic traits. Fifty-three possible mutant lines with tolerance to blast were selected, with more than 15% increments in yield potential. From these lines it is expected that at least one will be released in the near future as a new, resistant upland rice cultivar for Sao Paulo State, Brazil. (author)

  18. Atmospheric pollution biomonitoring of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region using epiphytic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the increasing problems of atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region that affect the environment and human health the application of biomonitoring methodologies using cosmopolite organisms has now become relevant. Biomonitoring is a method to evaluate the response of live organisms to pollution. This method offers advantages such as reduced costs, efficient monitoring of large geographic areas and accumulated pollutants over a large period in which low concentrations of chemicals elements in the environment can be evaluated. In the present study, neutron activation analysis method was applied to determine elements accumulated in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi. Samples were collected in two distinct areas: Carlos Botelho (PECB) and Intervales (PEI) State Parks that are considered as non-polluted areas and that belong to the Atlantic Forest - SP ecosystem; and Sao Paulo city metropolitan region in sites near automatic monitoring stations of the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). The lichens collected from the bark of the trees were properly treated, and irradiated with neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear reactor along with synthetic standards of elements. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of IAEA-336 LICHEN and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT -MPH-2) certified reference materials. The results obtained for these materials were in accordance with the certified values and presented good precision with variation coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 14.6%. Results obtained for lichens showed that elements As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se and U are present at ng g-1 levels, Ba, Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn at μg g-1 and Ca at mg g-1. By applying cluster and discriminant analyses to the results for the lichen samples from areas with different levels of pollution, the sampling sites were grouped according to their chemical similarities and their elemental composition. It was also

  19. Perspectives for distributed generation of electricity in the States of Sao Paulo, Bahia and Mato Grosso; Perspectivas da geracao distribuida de eletricidade nos estados de Sao Paulo, Bahia e Mato Grosso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Leite, Alvaro Afonso Furtado [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Email: bajay@fem.unicamp.br; Carvalho, Claudio Bezerra de [Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB), Alagoinhas, BA (Brazil); Dorileo, Ivo Leandro [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico

    2006-07-01

    This paper addresses the concept of distributed generation of electricity and the current support policies for such kind of generation in the country. Their diffusion perspectives in the States of Sao Paulo, Bahia and Mato Grosso are discussed. The more promising technologies and new policies for them are pointed out. (author)

  20. Sustainable Campus Program: University of Sao Paulo and its contribution to the reduction of environmental and economic impacts; Programa Campus Sutentavel: a Universidade de Sao Paulo e sua contribuicao a reducao dos impactos ambientais e economicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, M.M.; Grimoni, J.A.B.; Burani, G.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia; Massola, A.M.A.; Barbosa, E.J.S.; Hamzo, S.T.; Guarnieri, M.C.; Prist, R.; Sonnewend, J.E.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (COSESP/USP), SP (Brazil). Coordenadoria do Campus da Capital

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the actions and the results obtained by the action of the University of Sao Paulo (USP) in reduction of environmental impacts caused by its activities, the creation of standards and indicators to monitor the results, the training of personnel and development models of public administration that can be adopted by other universities and city, state and federal administration. (author)

  1. Conception of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Measurement (LACIMRI) of CTMSP - Sao Paulo, SP; Concepcao do Laboratorio de Calibracao de Instrumentos de Medicao de Radiacao Ionizante (LACIMRI) do CTMSP, Sao Paulo, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Raimundo Dias da; Kibrit, Eduardo, E-mail: raimundo@ctmsp.mar.mil.b, E-mail: kibrit@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present work describes the phases of implantation of calibration laboratory of ionizing radiation measurement instruments at the CTMSP, Sao Paulo, in a priory approved by CNEN, Brazil. That laboratory will allow and enhance the present metrological capacity for the attendance to the growing demand for calibration services of the instruments

  2. Vertical distribution of minor and trace elements by neutron activation instrumental analysis in estuary sediments of Santos e Sao Vicente, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos and Sao Vicente estuaries, located in Sao Paulo State, Southeast Brazil, comprises one of the most important industrial regions of the country. Such activities contribute for the enhancement of pollutants in the environment. The impact arising form the transport and accumulation of chemical substances, e.g. heavy metals, as well as the mechanisms of these processes are not fully understood. In this sense, much attention has been paid for the effluent discharges enriched by chemical elements in the near shore environment. The elements As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta and Zr were analyzed in 27 sediment sample from Santos and Sao Vicente Estuary and from Santos Bay, aiming to determine the horizontal distribution of these elements. The obtained results was analyzed by means of Pearson correlation coefficient and cluster analyses. The utilization of a normalizer element is also discussed. (author)

  3. Radiation protection in radiology services in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Protecao radiologica nos servicos de radiologia do Municipio de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senise, Paulo H.; Silva, Ezequiel; Ruzene, Anderson A.; Braga, Adriano C.; Spirgatis, Armim, E-mail: paulo.senise@fidi.org.br, E-mail: ezequieI.siIva@fidi.org.br, E-mail: anderson.ruzene@fidi.org.br, E-mail: adriano.braga@fidi.org.br, E-mail: armim.spirgatis@fidi.org.br [Fundacao lnstituto de Pesquisa e Estudo de Diagnostico por Imagem (FIDI), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Regina B., E-mail: regina.bitelli@fidi.org.br [Instituto de Pesquisa e Ensino em Medicina Diagnostica e Terapeutica (IPmed), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The FIDI company providing service to local health care system is responsible for managing part of the services diagnostic imaging of Sao Paulo in the South and Southeast ( 60 % ), Eastern ( 20 % ) and Midwest (20 %), Brazil. The generation of images in the municipal net is performed in conventional manner. Since 2009 works a maintenance associated with the verification of the performance of radiological equipment (annual) and processing (monthly) one. In 2008, on the occasion of the agreement between the city hall and FIDI, conditions were evaluated for radiological protection in 52 care units of the municipality. Were carried out verification tests of performance in conventional equipment, mammographic and tomographic equipment, in 138 and 71 analog processors, according to current legislation. In 2008 , 33 % of the devices had technical problems that prevented its operation. Currently only 3.4 % of the 91 are in radiological equipment maintenance. In 2008 the majority of radiological equipment had more than 10 years of manufacturing, while today fixed equipment have been replaced by new ones and therefore the use of mammography and generally have 2 to 3 years of manufacture . Currently the 31 processors are operative in 2008, 28 % were out of order. The replacement of most of the equipment associated with program quality and preventive/corrective maintenance has kept the service in accordance with the law. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the impacts of the gas aid program in Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos impactos do programa do auxilio-gas no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Thiago Pamplona [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FEARP-USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PIPGE/USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the coverage and the economic impact of the Federal Government Program Aid Gas (Auxilio Gas) , started in the year of 2002. The evaluation covers only the state of Sao Paulo, using as source the Research of Familiar Budgets of IBGE 2002/2003. To evaluate the coverage of 'Aid-Gas' the targeted population is compared with the population that effectively received the benefit. To evaluate the economic impact of the program a test of significance of dummy variable that differentiate weight gas consumption on income for those attended by the program, controlled by Working-Leser function that models the covariates of gas expenses. A low coverage of the program was evidenced, only 32,098 families had received the benefit (4,01%) out of 786.929 families targeted group, those with per capita income was inferior the half minimum wage. The economic impact had mixed results. In one hand program beneficiaries would spend a larger percentage of income with gas consumption than those not reached; on the other hand, they would have access larger quantities of the product. If the food consumption and the gas consumption are correlated, and the families not benefited by the program are rationed, it is possible to confirm that the introduction of the program would increase welfare of families. (author)

  5. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Patricia

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Environmental benefits of replacing fuel oil by natural gas in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (Brazil) has a population 16.322 million people (1995 estimate) living in an area of 8,051 km2 with most of them concentrated in the city of Sao Paulo with 9.8 million people and 4.6 million cars. Although with an air quality better than some other Latin American megacities such as Mexico and Santiago do Chile, the air quality still exceeds the national air quality standards. In 2/17/1993 Brazilian Petroleum Company (PETROBRAS) and the Bolivian Petroleum Company (Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos -- YPFB) signed an agreement to bring natural gas from Bolivia to the south and southeast of Brazil. The end of the construction of the gas pipeline will be in 1999, and it will deliver 4 million Nm3/day of natural gas to COMGAS Sao Paulo State Gas Company. This amount will increase to 8.1 million Nm3/day by the year 2006, that will be sufficient to supply the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region market need at that time. In this study an estimate of the influence in the air quality was performed supposing the substitution of fuel oil by natural gas in industry and also in diesel buses. The results showed that there will be benefits in relation to sulfur dioxide, PM10, greenhouse gases and trace elements, and negligible effects in relation to NOx, NMTOC and carbon monoxide

  7. IN SITU density measurements oozy bottom of the access channel to the port of Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The density of the bottom sediment of the access channel to the port of Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil was measured. The in situ measurements aimed at verifying the use for navigation purposes of the layers with densities equal to or smaller than 1200 kg/m3. (F.E.). 3 refs, 55 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Rocks age and metamorphic occurrence from the southeastern part of Sao Paulo State and their crustal evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pb-Pb and Rb-Sr whole rock isotope systematics and U-Pb on zircons method analyses are reported for rocks from the southeastern part of Sao Paulo state Brazil. The isotopic studies on granitic intrusions, orthogneissic rocks and migmatitic terranes, in this area, provides an important indication of the age and nature of the continental crust. (author)

  9. Nuclear technology in secondary school in the city of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, much has been said about nuclear technology development in Brazil. The importance of introducing the nuclear energy in the Brazilian energetic matrix has been now recognized by the society. There is a highly accepted assertion about the role developed by the energy offer for the country development, although it is wellknown that this is a necessary condition, but not enough. Another major issue is the environment preservation, so that future generations may live in adequate climatic and environmental conditions. Industrial activities and mining are some of the issues debated in the world scenario. Therefore the option to introduce nuclear energy in the country energetic matrix is a decision that should be supported by its knowledge. Nevertheless, do the youth know what nuclear energy is? What this kind of technology applications and implications are? To answer these questions, this project aims to analyze to what extent secondary schools are aware of nuclear technology and its applications, to verify whether there are the minimal necessary conditions for their interpretation and comprehension of related phenomena, as well as to analyze whether these students are able to critically opine on this subject. The methodology consists in using, as a data collection tool, a questionnaire applied to the students. For this purpose, the research field is constituted of the third year secondary school students, from public state schools, in the city of Sao Paulo. The data survey was restricted to schools belonging to three levels of classification, in the National Examination of Secondary Schools 2007. The questions proposed in the questionnaire were elaborated in considering what students, according to their age, were supposed to know concerning nuclear technology having as reference the 'Leis de Diretrizes e Bases da Educacao Nacional' (National Education Guidance Law), the 'Parametros Curriculares Nacionais' (National Curricula Parameters) and basic nuclear

  10. Hydrochemical and isotopic study of the Botucatu aquifer ground waters in Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process controlling chemical composition of ground water,its origin and apparent age as well as, the natural flow rate of the water in Botucatu aquifer in state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, have been investigated using hydrochemical and environmental isotopic (18O, 2H, 13C, 14C) Technics. The main recharge process is assumed to be the infiltration of rain water in the aquifer outcrop area. The progressive confining conditions with the increasing depth of the top of the aquifer layer makes the ground water temperature slowly greater. The recent magnesium and sodium bicarbonated waters changes first to sodium bicarbonated and then to sodium chloride-sulfated waters which are oldest found out in the research area(around 30.000 years ago). The mean Darcy permeability estimated on basis of 14C and hydraulic gradient data is 2.6x10-5 m/s. 9 maps (author)

  11. Compliance with technical standards for radiological protection at radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy services provide essential therapeutic procedures for cancer, one of the main causes of population morbidity and mortality. Despite their importance in the health system and their potential risks due to the use of ionizing radiation, there are few studies on such services. We evaluated compliance with technical standards for radiological protection in radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Forty-nine services were studied in 2000 through interviews with technical staff. Typologies of performance profiles focusing on structure and process variables were constructed and services compared. Important differences were observed in the services' positions in the health care system, level of complexity, and geographic distribution, with better average performance in structural conditions but very inadequate performance in patient protection, indicating the need for more effective health surveillance. (author)

  12. Rural electrification with multiple actors - the experience of the brazilian state of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lack of resources and the new scenery of private utilities turn necessary to look for the ways that allow to illuminate the rural zone. Several international papers show the involvement of different segments of the society as being a viable alternative to execute this goal. This paper analyses the experience of Sao Paulo in the practice of a program of rural electrification in which the society is involved. The model, the operational difficulties and the alternatives made to agile program are appraised. The main conclusion is that, in spite of the difficulties, the model in which the society is included is a viable alternative to solve the subject of the lack of energy in the countryside. (author)

  13. Study of the optical properties of aerosols in the Sao Paulo State by LIDAR Raman technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation reported in this dissertation has been divided in two parts. The first part was made to carry out an independent calibration of a Raman LIDAR system for water vapor in the CLA installed using a methodology that was developed at Howard University, based on a careful analysis of the efficiency of the optical system components aimed at determining the efficiency and displaying the spectral response of the system. After this study, which led to a better understanding of the eld of instrumental system, the second part, presents a preliminary study of the optical properties of aerosols in the troposphere by evaluating parameters such as, for example, the vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, SR and LR, using a mobile Raman LIDAR system developed by Raymetrics LIDAR Systems, during campaigns conducted in some research institutes in the State of Sao Paulo. (author)

  14. Neoproterozoic alkaline magmatism in Ilha do Cardoso, southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work focuses on the geology and geochronology of rocks cropping out on Cardoso Island, on the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State, close to the boundary with Parana State. The island, with an area of about 151 km2 is a protected area administered by the Forest Institute of the Secretariat for the Environment of the State of Sao Paulo. It is mountainous, with a peak at 814 m, and is covered by dense Atlantic Forest vegetation. The island is made up mainly of an igneous complex with light grey leucocratic, inequigranular, medium to coarse-grained syenites. The Tres Irmaos Syenite (STI), composed of pyroxene, hornblende, and perthitic to mesoperthitic microcline, predominates has magmatic flow structures, and it cut by the pinkish grey, leucocratic medium-grained Cambriu alkali-feldspar granites (GC). Geochemical analysis of STI and GC demonstrate their metaluminous alkaline nature and late orogenic to anorogenic character. The bodies formed between 620 and 570 Ma according to U-Pb dating of zircons and cooled between 597 and 531 Ma (K-Ar in amphiboles). Whole rock Sm-Nd analyses yield Meso- and Paleoproterozoic TDM ages (1,500 - 2,200 Ma). A belt of low-grade metasedimentary rocks occurs in the northern part of the island. Quartz schist, quartz-mica schist and mica-quartz schist, often-containing andalusite and cordierite, predominate. Geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the sources of the metasediments were continental arc andesites of whose protoliths separated from the mantle between 1,800 and 2,200 Ma during the Paleoproterozoic. These metasediments probably continue on the continent in the Taquari region and extend southwards in narrow strips between the granitoids of the Paranagua Domain. (author)

  15. Be-7 measured at ground air level and rainfall in the city of Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, Sandra R.; Souza, Joseilton M.; Frujuele, Jonatan V.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Leonardo, Lucio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiometria Ambiental

    2013-07-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide {sup 7}Be (T{sub 1/2} = 53.3 d), produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of oxygen and nitrogen, is one of the cosmogenic radionuclides that can be used as tracer for heavy metals and pollutants in the environment, tracer of soil erosion and sedimentation in lakes, among other examples. Their subsequent deposition to the land surface occurs as both wet and dry fallout, although it has been demonstrated that {sup 7}Be fallout is primarily associated with precipitation. There is limited data on the concentration of {sup 7}Be in rainfall and in particulate in the Southern Hemisphere and in Brazil, compared with data from the Northern Hemisphere. This paper presents the results obtained of {sup 7}Be concentrations measured from April 2011 to June 2013, in samples of air at ground level, each fifteen days, and rainfall in all the rainy events that occurred at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), which has its campus located in the city of Sao Paulo, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be were measured by non-destructive gamma-ray spectrometry using an extended range closed-end coaxial Be-layer HPGe detector with 25% relative efficiency and associated electronic devices and live counting time varying from 100,000 s to 300,000 s. The results obtained of {sup 7}Be in particulate and in rainfall were correlated to seasons, precipitation, temperature and sunspot number. The higher values obtained for the concentrations were in spring and summer time presenting good correlations with the amount of precipitation and sunspot number and a clear seasonal variation. (author)

  16. Food group contribution of essential elements of the Sao Paulo State market basket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish a Market Basket of Sao Paulo state seventy-one foods, with a mean consumption of more than 2 g day-1 per person, were grouped into 30 food categories. The food groups were: cereals, leguminous, leafy vegetables, fruity vegetables, tuberous vegetables, tropical fruits, other fruits, flours, pastas, breads, biscuits, prime grade beef, standard grade beef, pork meats, other meats, poultry, milk/cream, other dairy products, sugars, sweets, salts, sauces, oils, fats, alcoholic beverages, non-alcoholic beverages, coffee, ready-made dishes, saltwater and freshwater fishes. Information about individual food consumption was obtained from a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' conducted by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics from July 2002 to June 2003. Sampling and kitchen preparation of foods were carried out in restaurants of the University of Sao Paulo. Each food item was individually prepared table-ready. Foods of the same group were mixed, homogenized, pulverized and analyzed for the determination of Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Average daily intake of each element was calculated by multiplying the element concentration in the food by the corresponding weight of the ready-to-consume food group. The contribution of each food group to the total daily intake of elements by the ready-to-consume food groups of the Market Basket was evaluated. The food groups representing the highest contributions were salts: 79% Na; breads: 37% Fe and 46% Cr; cereals: 19% Zn and milk/cream: 58% Ca and 24% K. (author)

  17. Geology and geochronology of Cardoso Island, in the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This aim of work is the geological and geochronological study of rocks cropping out on Cardoso Island, on the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo States, close to be boundary with Parana State. The Island with an area of about 151 km2 is a protected area administered by the Forest Institute of Environment Secretariat of the State of Sao Paulo. It is mountanious, with a peak at 814 m, and is covered by dense Mata Atlantica vegetation. The terrains which compose the island are mainly an igneous complex with light grey leucocratic, inequigranular, medium - to coarse-grained syenites. The predominant Tres Irmaos Syenite (STI), composed of pyroxene, hornblende, and perthitic to mesoperthitic microcline, has a magmatic flow structures, and is cut by the Cambriu alkali-feldspar Granites (GC), which is pinkish grey, leucocratic and medium-grained. Geochemical analysis of STI and GC demonstrate their meta luminous alkaline nature and late-orogenic to an orogenic character. The geochronological results suggest that the bodies were formed between 620 and 570 My according to the U-Pb method in zircons, with cooling between 597 and 531 My (K-Ar in amphiboles). Whole rock Sm-Nd analysis yield TDM ages in the Meso and Paleoproterozoic (1.200 - 2.200 My). belt of low grade meta sedimentary rocks occurs in the northern part of the island. Quartz schist, quartz-mica schist and mica-quartz schist, often containing andaluzite and cordierite, predominate. The geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the sources of the metasediments were andesites of continental arc whose protolities separated from the mantle during the Paleoproterozoic, between 1.800 and 2.200 My. These metasediments probably continue on the continent in the Taquari region and extend southwards in narrow strips between the granitoids of the Paranagua Domain. Although quaternary deposits are expressive, they were not studied in details since they were not the objectives of this study. (author)

  18. Mercury and selenium accumulation assessment in fish most consumed by Cubatao Community, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High correlation between mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in fish organs is well known. In the present study, 58 fish samples of five fish species most commonly consumed by the Cubatao city population, Sao Paulo State, Brazil were analyzed. The Cubatao Estuary, located in southeastern Sao Paulo State, is an economically important area suffering severe environmental water quality problems due to industrial wastes, domestic sewage and solid residues. The waters of the bay suffer the impact of the immense industrial complex of Cubatao. In this study, Hg concentration in muscle, liver and kidney tissues and Se concentration in liver tissue from three predatory fish species: Macrodon ancylodon (Pescada), Menticirrhus americanus (Perna de Moca) and Micropogonias furnieri (Corvina) and two planctivorous species: Mugil liza (Tainha) and Sardella braziliensis (Sardinha) were determined. Mercury determination was performed using Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV AAS) and selenium by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The muscle-Hg concentration variation (wet weight) was: (8 to 40 μg kg-1) - Sardinha; (12 to 62 μg kg-1) - Pescada; (3 to 23 μg kg-1) - Tainha; (43 to 184 μg kg-1) - Perna de Moca and (41 to 348 μg kg-1) - Corvina. The general concentration ranges of the analyzed elements in all species studied were (dry weight): muscle-Hg (13 to 1512 μg kg-1); liver-Hg (21 to 1804 μg kg-1); kidney-Hg 47 to 9912 μg kg-1) and liver-Se (2.10 to 43.00 mg kg-1). Se concentrations were higher than those of Hg in the liver. (author)

  19. Food group contribution of essential elements of the Sao Paulo State market basket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: pagliaro@usp.b, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Fabio F. da, E-mail: ffsusp@uol.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica. Empresa Junior de Informatica, Matematica e Estatistica

    2009-07-01

    To establish a Market Basket of Sao Paulo state seventy-one foods, with a mean consumption of more than 2 g day{sup -1} per person, were grouped into 30 food categories. The food groups were: cereals, leguminous, leafy vegetables, fruity vegetables, tuberous vegetables, tropical fruits, other fruits, flours, pastas, breads, biscuits, prime grade beef, standard grade beef, pork meats, other meats, poultry, milk/cream, other dairy products, sugars, sweets, salts, sauces, oils, fats, alcoholic beverages, non-alcoholic beverages, coffee, ready-made dishes, saltwater and freshwater fishes. Information about individual food consumption was obtained from a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' conducted by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics from July 2002 to June 2003. Sampling and kitchen preparation of foods were carried out in restaurants of the University of Sao Paulo. Each food item was individually prepared table-ready. Foods of the same group were mixed, homogenized, pulverized and analyzed for the determination of Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Average daily intake of each element was calculated by multiplying the element concentration in the food by the corresponding weight of the ready-to-consume food group. The contribution of each food group to the total daily intake of elements by the ready-to-consume food groups of the Market Basket was evaluated. The food groups representing the highest contributions were salts: 79% Na; breads: 37% Fe and 46% Cr; cereals: 19% Zn and milk/cream: 58% Ca and 24% K. (author)

  20. The age of the rocks and the metamorphic episodes from the Southeastern of Sao Paulo state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rb-Sr, Pb-Pb and U-Pb geochronologic studies carried out on precambrian rocks from the southeastern Sao Paulo state suggest a Complex geologic evolution during the Archean and Proterozoic times. This region is divided in five differents allochthonous terranes named Itapira-Amparo, Piracaiba-Jundiai, Sao Roque, Embu and Costeiro, separated by thrust and strike-slip faults. The Itapira-Amparo domain has a original history dating back to 3.4 Ga. and since 2.6 to 2.5 Ga. and 2.2 to 1.9 Ga. metamorphic rockformation episode occurred involving both mantle-derived magmas and recycled material. Supracrustal sequences developed around 1.4 Ga. The domain was locally reworked in 0.8 - 0.65 Ga. In the Piracaia-Jundiai the main rock-formation event occurred at 1.4 Ga., but this domian was affected by strong granization and migmatization episodes during the period 1.1 - 0.6 Ga. The third terrain is characterized by the Sao Roque metavolcanossedimentary sequence developed during the time period 1.8 - 0.7 Ga., and comprising two metamorphic superimposed events (1.4 and 0.8 - 0.7 Ga.). the post-tectonics granites ranging in ages from 0.7 to 0.55 Ga. Within the Embu terrain ages of 2.5, 1.4 and 0,75 Ga. were obtained for the metamorphic terrain, with post-tectonic activities around 650 Ma. In the Costeiro domain all the metamorphic rocks developed in late-Proterozoic time, with syntectonic phase around 650 Ma

  1. The petrology and geochemistry of coastal dikes from Sao Paulo State, Brazil: implications for variable lithospheric contributions to alkaline magmas from the Western margin of South Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mesozoic magmation in Southern Brazil is represented by the basalts of the Serra Geral Formation, the dike swarms of the Ponta Grossa Arch, the mafic dikes along the coast between Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro and several alkaline complexes that lie along tectonic features associated with the evolution of the Parana Basin. The mafic dikes which are object of this study occur along the coast between Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities (Sao Paulo State) and crosscut Archean and Proterozoic rocks of the Costeiro Complex. They can also be found in Sao Sebastiao, Mar Virado and Anchieta Islands. 8 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Determination of essential and toxic elements in sea bass (Centropomus sp.) and hake (Cynoscion leiarchus) consumed in the city of Sao Paulo by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal was to use the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to evaluate the levels of essential and toxic elements in samples of hake (Cynoscion leiarchus) and sea bass (Centropomus sp.) that are most consumed fish in the town of some Sao Paulo. Ten specimens of hake and sea bass were acquired in Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazens Gerais de Sao Paulo (CEAGESP), main supply center for the population of the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. After gutted and cleaned, the edible tissue was freeze-dried, ground and sieved. The elements were determined through the use of hyperpure germanium spectrometer after irradiation in the nuclear research reactor IEAR-1

  3. Characterization of the brazilian alcohol program in the State of Sao Paulo: production costs to plants and distillery homogeneous groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ethanol producing plants in the State of Sao Paulo present variation in scale of production, productivity and cost structure. This paper presents production costs and analyses the competitiveness of neat ethanol with respect to gasoline, for each of the eight homogeneous groups of distilleries in operation in the State of Sao Paulo. The study shows that, at prices of march 1986, there is a variation of operational costs in the range of 1.46 to 1.95 cruzados per liter of hydrous ethanol. The reference price, including operational costs and interest on capital, varies from 2.47 to 3.15 cruzados per liter. These prices do not consider subsidies given by the Government under the Brazilian National Alcohol Program. The price of hydrous ethanol in Barrel Equivalent of Oil goes from 33.3 to 43.1 american dollars, showing that ethanol is not currently competitive with gasoline. (author)

  4. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  5. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and < 0.25 μm (E). Together the impactor, there is a Leland Legacy pump (SKC Cat No. 100-3002) with a flow of 9L/min. It was analyzed 56 households with average values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  6. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the

  7. Metal and trace element assessment of sediments from Guarapiranga reservoir, Sao Paulo State, by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarapiranga Reservoir is extremely important due to the fact that it is one of the main water reservoirs for South America's largest city, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Guarapiranga Basin is located within the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo - RMSP, and occupies an area of approximately 630 km2, and the reservoir itself is located in the northern part of the basin occupying approximately 26 km2. This reservoir is characterized by environmental impacts from urban invasion, industrial and sewage wastes, all of which seriously affect its water quality. Due to its vulnerability CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State) regularly monitors the contamination levels of waters and once a year sediment samples. In order to better understand geochemical and environmental processes and their possible changes due to anthropogenic activities trace metals analyses and their distribution in sediments are commonly undertaken. The present study reports results concerning the distribution of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements in sediments from the Guarapiranga Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cr and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL values) and adopted by CETESB. (author)

  8. A study on elemental composition in epiphytic lichen samples used as bioindicator of air pollution in Sao Paulo city; Estudo sobre a composicao elementar nas amostras de liquen epifitico utilizado como bioindicador da poluicao aerea na cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montezani, Edmila

    2010-07-01

    Studies on air pollution have intensified in recent years, due to the diversity of emissions and the effect caused to the health of populations. Consequently, several techniques have been investigated for air pollution evaluation and among them one that has gained considerable attention is that of biomonitoring. In this study chemical elemental levels in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo city were evaluated, by means of passive biomonitoring, using epiphytic Canoparmelia texana species, in order to compare between the results obtained in samples from different sites of Sao Paulo city and in a reference site of Ubatuba city, SP. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) procedure applied in the analyses consisted of irradiating aliquots of samples along with synthetic standards of elements in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 for 16 hours under a thermal neutron flux of about 5.0 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, followed by gamma ray spectrometry for the determination of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. Results obtained in the analyses of lichens samples in replicates presented good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared samples. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of certified reference materials IAEA-336 Lichen and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves. Results obtained in the reference materials presented, in general, good precision, with relative standard deviations between 0.4 and 14.8% and good accuracy with relative errors between 0.2 and 8.7%. In Sao Paulo city, the lichens were collected in the following sites: Parque Dom Pedro II, Congonhas, Cidade Universitaria, Lapa, Mooca, Morumbi, Nossa Senhora do O, Parque Ibirapuera, Pinheiros, Santana, Santo Amaro and Taboao da Serra. Element concentrations found in lichens indicated a great variability depending on the sites where the samples were collected. The results obtained in the lichens submitted to the cluster analysis indicated three groups of sampling sites

  9. Natural radionuclides in the Brazilian coast region: 1. Estuarine complex Cananeia-Iguape, Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangrove forests are of utmost important ecosystems for biogeochemical transport processes in a global scale because of the preferential transport via sediments and organic matter from continents to oceans. Such ecosystems are the richest biodiversity areas, in which bioaccumulation of chemical substances can be expected for some species, in this case, there is a lack of knowledge of natural radionuclides accumulation in mangrove vegetation. This work encompasses the first results obtained for the Estuarine Complex Cananeia-Iguape, a peculiar coast area of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In 2011, leaf samples of Rhyzophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa trees with perimeter at the breast height higher than 15 cm were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso. Sample preparation consisted of leaf washing, oven-drying, milling in porcelain mortar at the particle size lower than 0.5 mm. Portions of 10 g were transferred to polyethylene vials of appropriate geometry for the analysis by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Reference materials were analyzed together to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. K-40 was preferentially allocated in leaves. Some accumulation in leaves was noticed for Pb-210 and Ac-228 depending on the species, indicating differences of radionuclide distribution in the mangrove vegetation. (author)

  10. Neutron activation analysis of lichens for atmospheric pollution study in Sao Paulo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to determine the elements accumulated in samples of Canoparmelia texana, a specie of lichen, collected in regions with different levels of pollution: Intervales State Park, an area considered non polluted that belongs to Atlantic Forest ecosystem and distinct sites in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo city. The results obtained in the analysis showed that samples collected in the clean area indicated lower concentrations of elements than those obtained for samples from metropolitan region. The concentrations of the elements Ba, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn were obtained at μg g-1 levels and the elements As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc, Se and U at ng g-1 levels. Cluster analysis was applied to classify into distinct groups the sites using the element concentrations in these samples. The accuracy and precision of the results were evaluated by IAEA 336 Lichen reference material analysis and the data given for this material were in agreement with certified values with relative standard deviations lower than 11,4%. (author)

  11. Corn Water Variables Assessments from Earth Observation Data in the Sao Paulo State, Southeast Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonio Heriberto de Castro Teixeira[1; Femando Braz Tangerino Hemandez[2; Ricardo Guimaraes Andrade[1; Janice Freitas Leivas[1; Daniel de Castro Victoria[1; Edson Luis Bolfe[1

    2015-01-01

    Landsat satellite images and agrometeorological data were used together for modelling the crop coefficient (Kc) in irrigation pivots composed by a mixture of corn hybrids from a commercial farm for grains and silage, located at the northwestern side of Sao Paulo state, Brazil. After developing relationships between Kc and the accumulated degree-days (DDac) and having yield data for 2012 available, they were applied in the whole state, to upscale the crop water variables, during the GS (growing seasons) of a second-harvest crop from March to August. Spatial thermohydrological differences among the main corn growing regions were clear. The largest CWP (crop water productivity) values and SD (standard deviations) were for Itapetininga with an average value of 1.60 ± 0.43 kg m-3, while the lowest ones were for Presidente Prudente (0.81±0.21 kg m-3). As corn is important for these growing regions, being inside of the priorities from the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, these results should be considered for a rational exploration, including both, irrigation and rainfed conditions, as the actual water scarcity can bring much competition with other non-agricultural sectors.

  12. Suitability of Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' for biomonitoring ozone in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is a widely used sensitive bioindicator for ambient ozone, but it is rarely used in tropical countries. Our goal was to determine the suitability of this plant for biomonitoring ozone in the city of Sao Paulo by evaluating the relationships between leaf necroses and ozone under field conditions and measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidants in plants exposed to different concentrations of ozone in closed chambers. While a weak linear relationship between leaf injury and ozone concentrations (R2 = 0.10) was determined in the field, a strong linear relationship was observed in the chamber experiments. Maximum leaf injury was observed in plants submitted to 40 ppb, which coincided with a significant decrease in fluorescence and total ascorbic acid. The relationship between leaf damage observed in the field and ozone was improved when the concentrations were limited to 40 ppb (R2 = 0.28). - Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is suitable for indicating low ozone levels in Brazil

  13. The effects of Sao Paulo urban heat island on lightning activity: Decadal analysis (1999-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourscheidt, Vandoir; Pinto, Osmar; Naccarato, Kleber P.

    2016-05-01

    Eleven years of lightning data from the Brazilian Integrated National Lightning Detection Network were used to analyze the effects of the urban heat island (UHI) of Sao Paulo on lightning activity, extending the investigation of previous works. Cloud-to-ground lightning data were analyzed in both spatial and temporal perspectives, using different approaches: flash density, flash rate, thunderstorm hours (TH), and the cell initiation technique (CIT), which aims to identify the onset of thunderstorms. Land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) was used to analyze the UHI evolution over the years. MODIS data were validated using ground stations, distributed within the urban area. Different time intervals (seasonal and intraday) were used in an attempt to separate local convective systems from synoptic-scale events. The results indicate significant effects of the UHI (using LST) on THs and CIT. The CIT showed a nearly ring pattern, especially during the afternoon (14:00-18:00 LT) of summer months, reinforcing temperature contrast as a condition for storm initiation. The results also suggest an amplification of the UHI effects on thunderstorm activity by local factors (sea and country breeze, synoptic events, and terrain). Higher flash rates were also observed throughout the urban region, which influences the lightning density. Temporal analysis indicates that minimum temperature and lightning activity increase in wintertime. In summary, the results agree with previous studies about the UHI and indicate its importance on lightning occurrence, especially by increasing the temperature contrast and the instability in these regions.

  14. Calibration service of radiation detectors and dosemeters at IPEN/ Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Calibration Laboratory of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN, has already over 25 years been calibrating instruments used in radiation protection and therapy measurements and belonging to hospitals, industries, clinics and other users located in Sao Paulo and in other parts of Brazil. At the present time, the Calibration Laboratory is part of the Radiation Metrology Center and it acts in the Radiation Protection, Radiation Therapy, Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Radiology areas, using special set-ups with gamma and beta radiation sealed sources, alpha and beta radiation plane sources and low and intermediate energies of X radiation. Moreover, it has reference instruments for each calibration area with traceability to the Brazilian National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (secondary standards) and international laboratories (primary standards). The number of tested instruments is increasing annually (from 170 in 1980 to 1871 in 2005), and for the development of new techniques and radiation detectors the continuous improvement of the existing calibration methods is necessary, as well as the establishment of new calibration services to be offered by the Calibration Laboratory for Brazilian and South American users. The objective of this study is to show the evolution of the calibration service developed at IPEN, describing the applied methods and the calibrated instruments types. The quality system implantation process following the basis of the NBR IEC/ISO 17025 standard is also presented with some tools used in the calibration procedures. (Author)

  15. Calibration service of radiation detectors and dosemeters at IPEN/ Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potiens, M.P.A.; Caldas, L.V.E. [IPEN, CNEN/SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: mppalbu@ipen.br

    2006-07-01

    The Calibration Laboratory of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN, has already over 25 years been calibrating instruments used in radiation protection and therapy measurements and belonging to hospitals, industries, clinics and other users located in Sao Paulo and in other parts of Brazil. At the present time, the Calibration Laboratory is part of the Radiation Metrology Center and it acts in the Radiation Protection, Radiation Therapy, Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Radiology areas, using special set-ups with gamma and beta radiation sealed sources, alpha and beta radiation plane sources and low and intermediate energies of X radiation. Moreover, it has reference instruments for each calibration area with traceability to the Brazilian National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (secondary standards) and international laboratories (primary standards). The number of tested instruments is increasing annually (from 170 in 1980 to 1871 in 2005), and for the development of new techniques and radiation detectors the continuous improvement of the existing calibration methods is necessary, as well as the establishment of new calibration services to be offered by the Calibration Laboratory for Brazilian and South American users. The objective of this study is to show the evolution of the calibration service developed at IPEN, describing the applied methods and the calibrated instruments types. The quality system implantation process following the basis of the NBR IEC/ISO 17025 standard is also presented with some tools used in the calibration procedures. (Author)

  16. Evaluation of the quality of streamlet Franquinho's water, Basin Loud Tiete, Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work evaluated the water quality in Tiete River Basin, particularly of the streamlet Franquinho. The streamlet Franquinho, is located east zone of Sao Paulo metropolitan area, and receives a great load of domestic sewers. To evaluate the Franquinho's water quality, physical, chemical, biological and ecotoxicological parameters were used. The Aquatic Preservation Life Index (IVA) were applied. For physical, chemical, biological and ecotoxicological, 8 samples were taken from five stations, from 1999/March to 2000/May. Physical and chemical results indicate the eutrophic conditions, particularly the high content of organic matter and phosphorus. Toxicity tests with Daphnia similes (acute), Ceriodaphnia dubia and algae Selenastrum capricomutum (chronic) were used. The program TOXTAT 3,3 was used for the evaluation of the toxicity test results. The results of the toxicity tests show that all samples of water presented toxicity, it was verified that the toxicant agent's dilutions does not exist along the system. Metallic elements, low oxygen content and high-suspended solid were the main factors for the high toxicity. The toxicity tests, chemical analyses and the Aquatic Preservation Life Index (IVA) indicated critical conditions in the streamlet Franquinho. These findings indicated the necessity of precautionary measures and solutions to improve the water quality in these localities. (author)

  17. The HORUS model--inventory of atmospheric pollutant emissions from industrial combustion in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explains a methodology for a low-cost air pollution emissions inventory, focusing on fuel combustion processes in industries and based on the identification and refinement of connections among existing databases. The first bottom-up approach allowed by the HORUS model is especially suitable for developing countries, where there are limited resources for air emission monitoring. It starts from adapting and connecting databases and statistics, providing a top-down inventory that establishes the boundaries for the bottom-up assessment. The latter is based on a proxy distribution of the numbers of employees in each industry for each sector. Some results are presented for the case of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, with three different fuels submitted to three main combustion processes, producing three pollutants under two scenarios (plus carbon dioxide). From a universe of 157,304 industries, the model covered 46,283 (up to 54% of total fuel consumption). With a high spatial and temporal resolution, the model is extremely flexible and transparent, an approach that can be adapted to other regions in the world. This is particularly important in developing countries, with energy intensive industries and severe episodes of urban air pollution. Further developments can refine the model, by substituting the calculated outputs by real scale measurements or by providing upgrades in the available statistical databases, demonstrating the value of such a tool for an integrated energy and environmental planning

  18. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K estimate in edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Lilian Pavanelli de; Maihara, Vera A.; Moura, Patricia L.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: lilian.pavanelli@terra.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; patricialandim@ig.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, high levels of the radionuclide accumulation in different foodstuffs and the environment have being reported. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate fallout radionuclides in their fruit bodies have been well recognized. Mushrooms can also accumulate toxic elements in general, including natural radionuclides. In Southern Hemisphere countries, especially in Latin America, there are a few studies on this subject. In Brazilian literature, there are no studies that determine the composition of natural and artificial radionuclides in edible mushrooms. The objective of this study was to measure of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 40}K activity in commercialized edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The activity measurements were carried out by spectrometry gamma. The system detection efficiency was measured using the certified reference materials IAEA- 300 Marine Sediment and IAEA-375 Soil. The activities of {sup 13}'7Cs in the mushroom samples varied from 2.2 to 6.5 Bq kg{sup -1} for Pleurotus osteatus and Agaricus bisporus respectively. The {sup 40}K activities varied from 150 to 907 Bq kg{sup -1} for Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes, respectively. (author)

  19. External PIGE-PIXE measurements at the Sao Paulo 8UD tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An external PIGE-PIXE setup was installed on a beam line of the 8 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator of the Open Nuclear Physics Laboratory (LAFN). Proton beam energy was chosen in the 8-12 MeV range, sufficient to get an acceptable gamma ray yield but not so high as to prevent us from measuring X-rays. This also allowed the use of a thick aluminum exit window (0.5 mm) instead of the usual thin and sometimes fragile plastic windows. This external PIXE-PIGE system was used to analyze trace element concentrations in the enamel of human and animal teeth. The main interest was to find compatible human teeth substitutes for dentistry laboratory practice and chemical tests. In spite of their morpho-histological similarity, trace element concentrations in human and animal teeth have not yet been compared. Teeth from humans, cattle and swine collected primary at Sao Paulo region were analyzed. The elements Cu, K, Zn, Fe, Ti, Sr, V, Mn and Zr were detected by high energy external beam PIXE technique. Though preliminary, the results showed that the trace element concentrations observed in the enamel of human and swine are more similar to each other than to cattle teeth

  20. Evaluation of mercury, selenium and methylmercury in fish consumed by Santos Bay communities, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: lufarias@usp.br; Azevedo, Juliana de S.; Braga, Elisabete S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos no Mar (LABNUT)]. E-mail: juliana@io.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In the present study, mercury and selenium levels were evaluated in fish tissues and fish organs in the Santos Bay, Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. Santos Bay waters are polluted by the large industrial complex of Cubatao. The estuary system filters part of this pollution before it reaches the Bay. Mercury and methylmercury determination were performed using Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) and selenium determination by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Methodology validation for the determination of these elements was carried out by means of reference materials analyses. There was no significant correlation between mercury and selenium concentrations (n = 17, (r2 ) R2 = 0.3482, p = 0.1709) in Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo)- Ariidae family and Centropomus sp. (robalo)- Centropomidae family livers. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in muscle from carnivorous species: Ariidae Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo), Scianidae Steliffer rastifer (cangoa) and Scianidae Paralonchurus brasiliensis (maria-luiza) were determined and discussed. Total mercury concentration in Ariidae Catharops spixii livers presented the highest Hg level (7.6 mg kg-1). Although the Santos Bay is less contaminated than the inner section of its estuary system (Cubatao), it presents signs of environmental impact. (author)

  1. Municipal solid wastes incineration with combined cycle: a case study from Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda Balcazar, Juan Galvarino; Dias, Rubens Alves; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: pos09007@feg.unesp.br, rubdias@feg.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    Large urban centers have a huge demand for electricity, for the needs of its residents, and a growing problem of management of solid waste generated by it, that becomes an public administrative and great social problem. The correct disposal of solid waste generated by large urban centers is now one of the most complex engineering problems involving logistics, safety, environment, energy spent among other tools for sound management of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study was carried out a study of the use of incinerators and residue derived fuel and MSW with combined cycles, with the aim of producing thermal and mechanical energy (this later becomes electrical energy) and solid waste treatment in Sao Paulo. We used existing models and real plants in the European Union in this case, with the aim of making it the most viable and compatible with the current context of energy planning and resource today. A technical and economic feasibility study for a plant of this nature, using the scheme, is presented. It is expected a good attractiveness of using incinerators combined-cycle, due to its high efficiency and its ability to thermoelectric generation. (author)

  2. Three years of seasonal dose assessment from outdoors gamma exposure in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.; Sanches, Matias P.; Betti, Flavio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: janetegc@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of external (outdoors) gamma exposure from natural background radiation have been used to estimate the average annual doses in Sao Paulo city. Twelve monitoring stations were placed in different regions of the town including both urban (where building materials are present) and outskirts areas. Seasonally surveys observing the four seasons from 2008 to 2010 have been carried out. The data were drawn from a 3-month sampling using the thermoluminescent dosimetry. The effective doses values are quite similar (slightly higher during the winter), so it can be considered that these results are not under significant influence (or variability) of seasonal environmental conditions like temperature, wind or rain. Dose values over the three years period, from Vila Carrao district, exclusively an urban location with mostly no green areas, present the highest values, while the lower values were always obtained for Tucuruvi district, near the biggest urban forest, Parque Estadual da Cantareira. Over the assessed period, the mean of the average annual effective doses was 1.3 {+-} 0.1 mSv.y{sup -1}. For the same period, the average annual background from nuclear and radioactive facility at IPEN was 0.75 {+-} 0.12 mSv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  3. Evaluation of mercury, selenium and methylmercury in fish consumed by Santos Bay communities, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, mercury and selenium levels were evaluated in fish tissues and fish organs in the Santos Bay, Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. Santos Bay waters are polluted by the large industrial complex of Cubatao. The estuary system filters part of this pollution before it reaches the Bay. Mercury and methylmercury determination were performed using Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) and selenium determination by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Methodology validation for the determination of these elements was carried out by means of reference materials analyses. There was no significant correlation between mercury and selenium concentrations (n = 17, (r2 ) R2 = 0.3482, p = 0.1709) in Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo)- Ariidae family and Centropomus sp. (robalo)- Centropomidae family livers. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in muscle from carnivorous species: Ariidae Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo), Scianidae Steliffer rastifer (cangoa) and Scianidae Paralonchurus brasiliensis (maria-luiza) were determined and discussed. Total mercury concentration in Ariidae Catharops spixii livers presented the highest Hg level (7.6 mg kg-1). Although the Santos Bay is less contaminated than the inner section of its estuary system (Cubatao), it presents signs of environmental impact. (author)

  4. Three years of seasonal dose assessment from outdoors gamma exposure in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of external (outdoors) gamma exposure from natural background radiation have been used to estimate the average annual doses in Sao Paulo city. Twelve monitoring stations were placed in different regions of the town including both urban (where building materials are present) and outskirts areas. Seasonally surveys observing the four seasons from 2008 to 2010 have been carried out. The data were drawn from a 3-month sampling using the thermoluminescent dosimetry. The effective doses values are quite similar (slightly higher during the winter), so it can be considered that these results are not under significant influence (or variability) of seasonal environmental conditions like temperature, wind or rain. Dose values over the three years period, from Vila Carrao district, exclusively an urban location with mostly no green areas, present the highest values, while the lower values were always obtained for Tucuruvi district, near the biggest urban forest, Parque Estadual da Cantareira. Over the assessed period, the mean of the average annual effective doses was 1.3 ± 0.1 mSv.y-1. For the same period, the average annual background from nuclear and radioactive facility at IPEN was 0.75 ± 0.12 mSv.y-1. (author)

  5. Assessment of metal concentrations in sediment samples from Billings reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study chemically characterized sediment samples from the Billings reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, in the Metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, by determining metal concentration and other elements of interest. The chosen chemical parameters for this characterization were Aluminum, Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Selenium and Zinc. These parameters are also used in the water quality index, with the exception of Selenium. The concentrations were determined through different analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, GFAAS and CVAAS), optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and neutron activation analysis. These analytical methodologies were assessed for precision, accuracy and detection and/or quantification limits for the sediment elements in question. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique for each element and its concentration were also discussed. From these assessment the most adequate technique was selected for the routine analysis of sediment samples for each element concentration determination. This assessment verified also that digestion in a closed microwave system with nitric acid is efficient for the evaluation of extracted metals of environmental interest. The analytical techniques chosen were equally efficient for metals determination. In the case of Cd and Pb, the FAAS technique was selected due to better results than ICP OES, as it does not present matrix interference. The concentration values obtained for metals As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) TEL and PEL values. (author)

  6. Assessment of metal concentrations in sediment samples from Billings Reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study chemically characterized sediment samples from the Billings reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, in the Metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, by determining metal concentration and other elements of interest. The chosen chemical parameters for this characterization were Aluminum, Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Selenium and Zinco. These parameters are also used in the water quality index, with the exception of Selenium. The concentrations were determined through different analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, GFAAS and CVAAS), optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and neutron activation analysis. These analytical methodologies were assessed for precision, accuracy and detection and/or quantification limits for the sediment elements in question. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique for each element and its concentration were also discussed. From these assessments the most adequate technique was selected for the routine analysis of sediment samples for each element concentration determination. This assessment verified also that digestion in a closed microwave system with nitric acid is efficient for the evaluation of extracted metals of environmental interest. The analytical techniques chosen were equally efficient for metals determination. In the case of Cd and Pb, the FAAS technique was selected due to better results than ICP OES, as it does not present matrix interference. The concentration values obtained for metals As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) TEL and PEL values. (author)

  7. Spatial distribution of trace elements in topsoils adjacent to main avenues of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the concentration and distribution of Ba, Cu, Mo, Pb, S, Zn and Zr in soils collected along two main avenues (Pinheiros River Highway and Tiete River Highway) with high traffic density in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, are presented, and their possible sources are discussed. These elements are strongly considered as contaminants originated from vehicular emissions. The analytical technique employed was XRF. The data set was evaluated by a t test for independent samples (group: avenues) at a 0.05 significance level. According to t test, the average contents obtained from Pinheiros River Highways are significantly different than the Tiete River, except for Mo. Multivariate statistic approaches (Pearson Correlation, Cluster and Factorial Analysis - FA) were adopted for data treatment. FA identified two main factors which accounted for about 86% of the total variance. The behavior of Ba, Cu, Pb, S and Zn were explained by the Factor 1. This indicates that the elements may have similar sources, probably related to gas emissions escaping from the vehicle fuel system. Factor 2 included Mo and Zr, suggesting their origin in the sample soils may be associated with the deterioration process of some device in the vehicular engine system or may be associated with the chemical composition of the urban soil analyzed. (author)

  8. Natural radionuclides in the Brazilian coast region: 1. Estuarine complex Cananeia-Iguape, Sao Paulo State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, E.J. de; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Silva Neto, Paulo C.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Ribeiro, Andreza P., E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: biologofabiano10@gmail.com, E-mail: ptpoli@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Mangrove forests are of utmost important ecosystems for biogeochemical transport processes in a global scale because of the preferential transport via sediments and organic matter from continents to oceans. Such ecosystems are the richest biodiversity areas, in which bioaccumulation of chemical substances can be expected for some species, in this case, there is a lack of knowledge of natural radionuclides accumulation in mangrove vegetation. This work encompasses the first results obtained for the Estuarine Complex Cananeia-Iguape, a peculiar coast area of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In 2011, leaf samples of Rhyzophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa trees with perimeter at the breast height higher than 15 cm were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso. Sample preparation consisted of leaf washing, oven-drying, milling in porcelain mortar at the particle size lower than 0.5 mm. Portions of 10 g were transferred to polyethylene vials of appropriate geometry for the analysis by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Reference materials were analyzed together to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. K-40 was preferentially allocated in leaves. Some accumulation in leaves was noticed for Pb-210 and Ac-228 depending on the species, indicating differences of radionuclide distribution in the mangrove vegetation. (author)

  9. Electron spin resonance dating of shells from the sambaqui (shell mound) Capelinha, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica; Universidade do Sagrado Coracao, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Figuty, L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia. Setor de Arqueologia; Baffa, O. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    2006-03-15

    Capelinha is a fluvial sambaqui (Brazilian Shell Mound) located in the Ribeira Valley in the State of Sao Paulo that is being studied. It is one of the oldest sambaquis located along a river dated so far in this region. The use of ESR to date other shells stimulated our group to apply this method to the Capelinha site. Shells from land snails (Megalobulimus sp.) obtained in two levels of excavations were analyzed; one of them was in contact with a skeleton that was dated by C-14. The archaeological doses obtained were (8.05{+-}0.07) Gy and (9.50{+-}0.03) Gy. Since the last site was previously dated by C-14 (Beta -Analytics, Beta 153988) giving: 8860 +/- 60 years BP (conventional age) and 10180 to 9710 years BP (calibrated age), the archaeological dose found for this shell was used to determine the local rate of (0.93 to 0.98) mGy/year, that aggress with other surveys done in the region. Using this dose rate the age of the second shell was found to be 8.14 to 8.73 ky BP that agrees with the stratigraphy of the site. (author)

  10. Metal distribution in sediment cores from Sao Paulo State Coast, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Sediment core study in the total fraction. → Elementary composition of sediment for dredged sediment regulation. → Multivariate analysis for determination of basal level of sediment composition. → Importance of the determination of local reference values for sediment studies. - Abstract: Ten sediment core samples with lengths ranging from 35 to 100 cm were collected in the Baixada Santista region and analyzed to determine As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Rb, Sb, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earths (Sc, Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) level concentrations using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The studied region is located in the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State and is comprised of a densely urbanized area, the largest industrial complex of the country, with a predominance of petrochemical and fertilizer plants. It is also home to Brazil's most important and busiest port. The conclusions found that the As, La, Sm, Ne, Ce, Eu, Hf, Ta, Th, and U elements have a high background level in the region and that Fe and Zn were the main indicators of anthropogenic contribution in the sediments.

  11. Electron spin resonance dating of shells from the sambaqui (shell mound) Capelinha, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capelinha is a fluvial sambaqui (Brazilian Shell Mound) located in the Ribeira Valley in the State of Sao Paulo that is being studied. It is one of the oldest sambaquis located along a river dated so far in this region. The use of ESR to date other shells stimulated our group to apply this method to the Capelinha site. Shells from land snails (Megalobulimus sp.) obtained in two levels of excavations were analyzed; one of them was in contact with a skeleton that was dated by C-14. The archaeological doses obtained were (8.05±0.07) Gy and (9.50±0.03) Gy. Since the last site was previously dated by C-14 (Beta -Analytics, Beta 153988) giving: 8860 +/- 60 years BP (conventional age) and 10180 to 9710 years BP (calibrated age), the archaeological dose found for this shell was used to determine the local rate of (0.93 to 0.98) mGy/year, that aggress with other surveys done in the region. Using this dose rate the age of the second shell was found to be 8.14 to 8.73 ky BP that agrees with the stratigraphy of the site. (author)

  12. A study on elemental composition in epiphytic lichen samples used as bioindicator of air pollution in Sao Paulo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on air pollution have intensified in recent years, due to the diversity of emissions and the effect caused to the health of populations. Consequently, several techniques have been investigated for air pollution evaluation and among them one that has gained considerable attention is that of biomonitoring. In this study chemical elemental levels in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo city were evaluated, by means of passive biomonitoring, using epiphytic Canoparmelia texana species, in order to compare between the results obtained in samples from different sites of Sao Paulo city and in a reference site of Ubatuba city, SP. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) procedure applied in the analyses consisted of irradiating aliquots of samples along with synthetic standards of elements in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 for 16 hours under a thermal neutron flux of about 5.0 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1, followed by gamma ray spectrometry for the determination of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. Results obtained in the analyses of lichens samples in replicates presented good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared samples. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of certified reference materials IAEA-336 Lichen and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves. Results obtained in the reference materials presented, in general, good precision, with relative standard deviations between 0.4 and 14.8% and good accuracy with relative errors between 0.2 and 8.7%. In Sao Paulo city, the lichens were collected in the following sites: Parque Dom Pedro II, Congonhas, Cidade Universitaria, Lapa, Mooca, Morumbi, Nossa Senhora do O, Parque Ibirapuera, Pinheiros, Santana, Santo Amaro and Taboao da Serra. Element concentrations found in lichens indicated a great variability depending on the sites where the samples were collected. The results obtained in the lichens submitted to the cluster analysis indicated three groups of sampling sites according to the chemical

  13. Flood hazards analysis based on changes of hydrodynamic processes in fluvial systems of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas, Iury; Rodrigues, Cleide

    2016-04-01

    The metropolis of Sao Paulo, with its 7940 Km² and over 20 million inhabitants, is increasingly being consolidated with disregard for the dynamics of its fluvial systems and natural limitations imposed by fluvial terraces, floodplains and slopes. Events such as floods and flash floods became particularly persistent mainly in socially and environmentally vulnerable areas. The Aricanduva River basin was selected as the ideal area for the development of the flood hazard analysis since it presents the main geological and geomorphological features found in the urban site. According to studies carried out by Anthropic Geomorphology approach in São Paulo, to study this phenomenon is necessary to take into account the original hydromorphological systems and its functional conditions, as well as in which dimensions the Anthropic factor changes the balance between the main variables of surface processes. Considering those principles, an alternative model of geographical data was proposed and enabled to identify the role of different driving forces in terms of spatial conditioning of certain flood events. Spatial relationships between different variables, such as anthropogenic and original morphology, were analyzed for that purpose in addition to climate data. The surface hydrodynamic tendency spatial model conceived for this study takes as key variables: 1- The land use present at the observed date combined with the predominant lithological group, represented by a value ranging 0-100, based on indexes of the National Soil Conservation Service (NSCS-USA) and the Hydraulic Technology Center Foundation (FCTH-Brazil) to determine the resulting balance of runoff/infiltration. 2- The original slope, applying thresholds from which it's possible to determine greater tendency for runoff (in percents). 3- The minimal features of relief, combining the curvature of surface in plant and profile. Those three key variables were combined in a Geographic Information System in a series of

  14. Determination of natural radioactivity in public water supplies of Sao Paulo State. V.1-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to determine the activity concentrations of natural occurring radionuclides of the 238U and 232Th series in drinking water supplies of Sao Paulo State. A sampling program was carried out, in order to perform this survey, starting in 1994 and covering 54% of the 574 existing counties. The locations studied correspond to the public water systems operated routinely by SABESP - Companhia de Saneamento Basico do Estado de Sao Paulo, which is the state company responsible for collecting, treating and supplying water. The activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra were determined by gross alpha and beta counting, respectively, of a Ba(Ra)SO4 precipitate in a low-background gasflow proportional counter. The 228Rn concentrations were determined by liquid scintillation method. Concentrations up to 235 mBq/L and 131 mBq/L were observed for 226Rn and 228Ra, respectively, whereas 222Rn concentrations reached 315 Bq/L. Of the 452 water samples analyzed, a total of 3 presented activity concentrations for 226Ra above the limit of 0.1 Bq/L adopted by the Brazilian regulation for the gross-alpha activity in drinking water. These results, however, are below 1/50 of the annual limit of intake recommended for 226Ra by 'Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear', if an ingestion rate of 2L/d per person is considered. For the gross-beta activity, all the measured samples presented 228Ra activity concentrations below 1 Bq/L. It is concluded that the consumption of such waters will not imply in any additional health risk to the population. In order to evaluate the radioactive doses due to the ingestion of these waters, a conservative dosimetric calculation was carried out using dose conversion factors suggested by ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). Doses up to 0.3 mSv/y, 0.6 mSv/y and 3.2 mSv/y were estimated for the critical organs, for the ingestion of 226Ra, 228Ra and 222Rn, respectively; while the corresponding committed effective doses reached

  15. Fluvial fluxes of natural radium isotopes and dissolved barium for Ubatuba embayments, Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium isotopes are among the most important isotopes in the environment from both radioprotection and geo-hydrological points of view. They are also a powerful tool for studying geohydrological processes and have been used intensively as tracers of groundwater sources that discharge into the coastal ocean.The complex exchange of fluvial, subsurface and seawater within a coastal area directly affects global biogeochemical cycles. Environmental scientists have few tools to accurately quantify such processes and must therefore rely on various tracer techniques. Radium isotopes have been frequently applied as tracers of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). The unique radium signature of SGD is acquired within the subterranean estuary, a mixing zone between fresh groundwater and seawater in coastal aquifers. In this study we determined the fluvial fluxes of the radium isotopes and dissolved barium for Ubatuba embayments, northernmost part of Sao Paulo Bight. The research work was carried out from April/ 2007 to August/ 2007 and covered 17 small rivers sources that belong to the major surface draining system of such coastal area. During this period of investigation, groundwater samples were also collected from 10 sources available in this coastal region. Activity concentrations of 223Ra in riverine waters discharging to Ubatuba and Caraguatatuba embayments varied from -1 to 335 mBq 1000L-1 (in Cocanha River), while 224Ra concentrations ranged from 17 mBq 100L-1 to 7270 mBq 100L-1. Activity concentrations up to 1424 mBq 100L-1 were observed for 226Ra in riverine waters, while 228Ra concentrations varied from 1412 mBq 100L-1 to 4058 mBq 100L-1. Groundwater activity concentrations of 223Ra varied from 1 mBq 100L-1 to 126 mBq 100L-1, while 224Ra ranged from 118 mBq 100L-1 to 3701 mBq 100L-1. 223Ra/ 224Ra activity ratios up to 0.7x10-1 and 0.2 were observed in riverine and groundwater, respectively. For 226Ra groundwater activity concentrations ranged from 100 mBq 100L-1

  16. Natural radionuclides and 137Cs in commercialized edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial and natural radionuclides are commonly found in several compartments of the earth's crust. Some mushroom species have a high capacity to absorb radionuclides and toxic elements from the soil. Diet is considered as one of the main routes of radioactive contamination. Therefore, radioactivity measurements in the environment and in food are extremely important to monitor the radiation levels that human can be exposed to either directly or indirectly. Environmental bio monitoring has demonstrated that diverse organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful when evaluating both the contamination and the quality of the ecosystems. There are actually several radionuclides that can be accumulated in mushrooms, including 40K, 137Cs, 232Th and 238U. There are few studies in the Southern hemisphere countries, on the natural and artificial radioactivity levels in mushrooms. The present study evaluated 40K, 137Cs, 232Th and 238U in commercialized edible mushrooms in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The edible mushroom samples were acquired in different commercial establishments in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, specifically in Municipal Markets. Some samples were acquired directly from producers located in the cities of Mogi das Cruzes, Mirandopolis, Suzano and Juquitiba. About 400g were collected for each edible mushroom species, which included Agaricus sp, Pleurotus sp and Lentinula sp species. All the samples were prepared and stored in polyethylene bottles for approximately 35 days, so that secular equilibrium could be established before counting. The 40K, 137Cs, 232Th and 238U gamma activities were measured by gamma spectrometry. The equipment consisted of a Hyper pure Germanium detector connected to an electronic system. The detector efficiency was obtained from measurements of reference materials: IAEA-300, IAEA-327 and IAEA-375. The results for the specific activities in edible mushrooms samples ranged fi-om 461 to 1535 Bq kg-1, 1.4 to 10.6 Bq

  17. Hydrobiological aspects of Paraibuna and Paraitinga dams. Sao Paulo, with emphasis on phytoplankton community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inland waters are less on the Earth's surface and are extremely important for the survival of living things, why the concern for quality increases daily. The dams Paraibuna and Paraitinga, located in Paraibuna city, state of Sao Paulo, totaling 224 km2 of extension of water surface, with the current function of generating electricity. In order to analyze the water quality of these dams, this paper presents a diagnostic physical, chemical, and biological, which was used in the phytoplankton community and calculation of quality indexes. Four samples were taken at nine sampling points distributed along the dams. The physical and chemical analysis of water showed low concentrations of nutrients such as nitrate (mean 0,42 ± 0,23 mg.L-1 and phosphate (-1). Most metals and trace elements analyzed were within the limit established by federal law. The element phosphorus (mean 0,0293 ± 0,0153 mg.L-1) is presented above the values established by CONAMA Resolution 357/05 (0,020 mg.L-1) on all sampling points in the month of May, but this fact did not seem to influence the phytoplankton amount. High levels of dissolved oxygen and transparency, low levels of turbidity, conductivity and dissolved solids, pH close to neutrality, together with high diversity and low dominance of phytoplankton, with a predominance of green algae, showed that the dams still retain features of aquatic environment preserved, which suffer little influence of anthropogenic factors. However, the presence, even at low densities, of cyanobacteria and the existence of plantations and livestock activities in the borders of these dams deserve special attention in terms of their correct management to not become harmful factors to the quality of those waters. (author)

  18. Decreased fertility in mice exposed to environmental air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohallem, Soraya Vecci; de Araújo Lobo, Débora Jã; Pesquero, Célia Regina; Assunção, João Vicente; de Andre, Paulo Afonso; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Dolhnikoff, Marisa

    2005-06-01

    It has largely been shown that air pollution can affect human health. Effects on human fertility have been shown mainly in males by a decrease in semen quality. Few studies have focused on the environmental effects on female fertility. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo on mouse female fertility. Four groups of female Balb/c mice were placed in two chambers 10 days (newborn) or 10 weeks (adults) after birth. Mice were maintained in the chambers 24 h a day, 7 days a week, for 4 months. The first chamber received air that had passed through an air filter (clean chamber) and the second received ambient air (polluted chamber). We measured PM10 and NO2 inside both chambers. Mice belonging to the adult groups were bred to male mice after living for 3 months inside the chambers. The newborn groups mated after reaching reproductive age (12 weeks). After 19 days of pregnancy the numbers of live-born pups, reabsorptions, fetal deaths, corpora lutea, and implantation failures were determined. PM10 and NO2 concentrations in the clean chamber were 50% and 77.5% lower than in the polluted chamber, respectively. Differences in fertility parameters between groups were observed only in animals exposed to air pollution at an early age (10 days after birth). We observed a higher number of live-born pups per animal in the clean chamber than per animal from the polluted chamber (median=6.0 and 4.0, respectively; P=0.037). There was a higher incidence of implantation failures in the polluted group than in the clean group (median=3.5 and 2.0, respectively; P=0.048). There were no significant differences in the other reproductive parameters between groups. These results support the concept that female reproductive health represents a target of air pollutants. PMID:15820725

  19. Phurcalite and others secondary uranium minerals from Perus, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phurcalite has been found filling fractures in the tourmaline-bearing granitic pegmatite of Perus, in the north-west part of Sao Paulo city, Brazil. It forms aggregates of radiating euhedral crystals up to 5 mm in length. The crystals are bright yellow, transparent and display vitreous to adamantine lustre. Its streak is pale yellow. Phurcalite is brittle, with a conchoidal fracture, and non-fluorescent. The crystal structure of phurcalite has been solves by single-crystal x-ray diffraction methods and refined to R = 3.8% using 2065 observed [I > 3σ(I)] reflections. The structure consists of [(U O2)3 O2 (P O4)24n-]n layers, parallel to (010), connected by Ca2+ ions and H2 O. The coordination polyhedra are: for U(1) hexagonal bi pyramid; for U(2) and U(3) pentagonal bi pyramids; for Ca(4) and Ca(5) capped trigonal prism and triangulated dodecahedron, respectively; and for P(6) and P(7) tetrahedra. As a consequence of this work, the molecular formula of phurcalite previously reported as Ca2 (U O2)3 (P O4)2 (OH)4.4 H2 O must be changed to Ca2 (U O2)3 O2 (P O4)2.7 H2 O. Other secondary uranium minerals associated with Perus phurcalite are autunite, torbernite, meta-autunite, meta-torbernite, chernikovite, meta-uranocircite I, phosphuranylite, uranophane-alpha, uranophane-beta, haiweeite, barian week site and perhaps also bassetite, meta-tyuyamunite and meta-haiweeite. Opal, tridymite, cristobalite, secondary quartz, saponite and rhodochrosite occur associated to the uranium minerals. (author)

  20. Utilization of bromeliad Tillandsia Usneoides L. in biomonitoring of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo - SP, Brazil; Utilizacao da bromelia Tillandsia Usneoides L. no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica na Regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo - SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Caroline R.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Barbara C. da; Ticianelli, Regina B., E-mail: calbuuquerque@gmail.com, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Figueira, Rubens C.L., E-mail: aportellar@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico; Nievola, Catarina C.; Alves, Edenise S.; Domingos, Marisa, E-mail: ccnievola@uol.com.br, E-mail: ealves@ibot.sp.gov.br, E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br [Instituto de Botanica (IBt-SMA/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Andreza P., E-mail: andrezp@uninove.br [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, it was determined the metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb and Sb in plant Tillandsia Usneoides L., an epiphyte species popularly known as old beard and able to absorb water and nutrients directly from air, aiming to estimate the contribution of human activities in atmospheric metal pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. The samples were collected at five different points, located near the South West and stretches of highway Mario Covas (SP-21). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Optical Emission Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES) were the analytical techniques used in the quantification of metals of interest.

  1. Endometrium adenocarcinoma: last five years retrospective case at Hospital do Servidor Publico from Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil; Adenocarcinoma do endometrio: retrospectiva de casos dos ultimos cinco anos no Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual Francisco Morato de Oliveira, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millen, Eduardo Camargo; Blesa, Ana Cristina Poli; Silva, Fabiana Ruas Domingues da; Lopes, Luis Augusto Freire; Baracat, Fausto F.; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho; Lippi, Umberto Gazzi [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual Francisco Morato de Oliveira, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The present study is an institutional review of endometrial adenocarcinoma in patients of a public hospital for state civil servants in the city of Sao Paulo, the Francisco Morato de Oliveira Civil Servants Hospital, from January 1996 to October 2000. The following factors were considered: age of disease onset, age of menarche and menopause, number of pregnancies, use of hormone-replacement therapy, and associated morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension. The conclusion was that a history of menstrual disorders and vaginal bleeding in post-menopausal period, such as hypermenorraghia and endometrial thickness greater than four millimeters in post menopausal women, must be accurately investigated for endometrial neoplasia. (author)

  2. Characterization of the PROALCOOL in the State of Sao Paulo:, Brazil establishment of homogeneous groups of plants and distilleries; Caracterizacao do PROALCOOL no Estado de Sao Paulo: formacao de grupos homogeneos de usinas e destilarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, L.C.; Hwa, C.M.F.; Andreoni, S.; Myiake, M.Y. [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    A methodology to stratify the ethanol plants operating in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in homogeneous groups is presented. This group was obtained by multivariate stratification techniques considering factors as scale of production, agricultural productivity, industrial efficiency and effective industrial capacity utilization. This methodology differs from those adopted by the Fundacao Getulio Vargas and the Organizacao dos Plantadores de Cana-Orplana who consider only one variable- the scale of production. The advantage of this multivariate stratification is that the result clusters reflect more accurately the differences among the existing distilleries. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Shield calculation of project for instrument calibration integrated laboratory of IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Calculo das blindagens do projeto de um laboratorio integrado de calibracao de instrumentos no IPEN - Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Gustavo A.S.J.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: gustavaobarros@gmail.co, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work performed the shield calculation of the future rooms walls of the five X-ray equipment of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, which will be constructed in project of laboratory enlargement. The obtained results by application of a calculation methodology from an international regulation have shown that the largest thickness of shielding (25.7 cm of concrete or 7.1 mm of lead) will be of the wall which will receive the primary beam of the equipment with a 320 kV voltage. The cost/benefit analysis indicated the concrete as the best material option for the shielding

  4. Endometrium adenocarcinoma: last five years retrospective case at Hospital do Servidor Publico from Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is an institutional review of endometrial adenocarcinoma in patients of a public hospital for state civil servants in the city of Sao Paulo, the Francisco Morato de Oliveira Civil Servants Hospital, from January 1996 to October 2000. The following factors were considered: age of disease onset, age of menarche and menopause, number of pregnancies, use of hormone-replacement therapy, and associated morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension. The conclusion was that a history of menstrual disorders and vaginal bleeding in post-menopausal period, such as hypermenorraghia and endometrial thickness greater than four millimeters in post menopausal women, must be accurately investigated for endometrial neoplasia. (author)

  5. Exergetic analysis of refrigeration system of the Pelletron-Linac particle accelerator of the University of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pelletron-Linac accelerator of the University of Sao Paulo will use the existing electrostatic Pelletron accelerator as an injector for the linear superconducting accelerator (Linac), to increase the acceleration of the particles. The Linac uses a forced flow circulation helium system to promote continuous refrigeration for long periods of time, at temperatures below or equal to 4,9 K. This paper shows the exergetic analysis of the Pelletron-linac refrigerator, identifying the main sources of irreversibilities and evaluating energetic consumption of the system. An exergy-enthalpy diagram for the helium shows the thermodynamic processes that take place in the refrigeration plant and the exergy losses. (author)

  6. Long-term decomposition of sugarcane harvest residues in Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crop residues returned to the soil are important to preserve fertility and sustainability. This research addressed the long-term decomposition of sugarcane post-harvest residues (trash) under reduced tillage, therefore field renewal was performed with herbicide followed by subsoiling and ratoons were deprived of interrow scarification. The trial was conducted in the northern Sao Paulo State, Brazil during four consecutive crops (2005–2008) where litter bags containing 15N-labeled trash were disposed in the field attempting to simulate two distinct situations: the previous crop trash (PCT) or residues incorporated in the field after tillage, and post-harvest trash (PHT) or the remains of plant-cane harvest. Decomposition rates regarding dry matter (DM), carbon (C), root growth, plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S), lignin (LIG) cellulose (CEL) and hemicellulose (HCEL) contents were assessed for PCT (2005 ndash;2008) and for PHT (2006–2008). There were significant reductions on DM and C:N ratio due to C losses and root growth within the litter bags over time. The DM from PCT and PHT decreased 96% and 73% after four and three crops, respectively, and the higher nutrients release were found for K, Ca and N. The LIG, CEL and HCEL concentrations in PCT decreased 60%, 29%, 70% after four crops and 47%, 35%, 70% from PHT after three crops, respectively. Trash decomposition was driven mainly by residues biochemical composition, root growth within the trash blanket and the climatic conditions during the crop cycles. -- Highlights: ► Degradation of sugarcane previous or post-harvest trash (PCT or PHT) was evaluated. ► Dry matter and C decreased due to microbial and root growth within trash blankets. ► C:N ratio of PCT linearly decreased 23% per year during four consecutive crops. ► Lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose concentration averagely declined 54, 41 and 70%. ► PCT and PHT are long-term sources of C, K, Ca and N to the soil-plant system.

  7. Ethnicity and Cutaneous Melanoma in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Olinda C.; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Gonçalves, Fernanda T.; Francisco, Guilherme; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Sanches, José Antonio; Gattas, Gilka J. F.; Chammas, Roger; Eluf-Neto, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogenous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients) regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe—Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03–8.77), Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41–8.57), a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05–8.93), or ≥2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06–7.47); eye color—light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14–3.84) and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22–9.58); pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21–6.49); no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03–9.22); and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03–3.19). Conclusions Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants. PMID:22558444

  8. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from two estuarine systems: Santos/Sao Vicente and Cananeia, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated some toxic metals such as Cd, Hg and Pb and some other major and trace elements in surface sediment samples, from two different systems under different degrees of anthropogenic actions: the estuarine system of Santos/Sao Vicente and the southern part of the Cananeia estuary, both on the Sao Paulo state coast. Sediment samples were collected in 16 stations in the Santos/Sao Vicente estuary and 13 stations in the Cananeia estuary, during summer and winter of 2005 and 2006, in both estuaries. Three analytical techniques were used: NAA, AAS and ICP OES. NAA was used for the quantification of major element concentration levels (Ca, Fe and Na), trace elements (As, Ba, Br, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, and Zn and rare earths elements La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb, Yb). ICP OES was used for determination of the concentration levels of Al, Ba, Be, Bi, B, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Cr, Sn, Sr, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Tl, Ti, V and Zn. AAS for Cd and Pb quantification through graphite furnace (GF AAS) and Hg through cold vapor generation (CV AAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference material analyses for the three analytical techniques used. Detection and quantification limits were calculated for each element evaluated. Seasonal variations (summer and winter), spatial and temporal (2005 e 2006) variations of metals and trace elements were also evaluated. In the Santos estuary, in general, metal and trace element concentrations , organic matter content and % of pelitic fraction found in the Santos channel (area 1) were higher than those of the Santos Bay (area 2) and Sao Vicente channel (area 3). Area 1 suffers high impact from industrial activities from the Cubatao region and Santos port. The sediments from station 14 (area 3, Sao Vicente channel), showed the same behavior of those from area 1, suffering influence from the industrial pole and located in a mangrove area. In comparison with TEL and PEL

  9. Transmitted Drug Resistance among People Living with HIV/Aids at Major Cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Leandro Paula Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR is an important public health issue. In Brazil, low to intermediate resistance levels have been described. We assessed 225 HIV-1 infected, antiretroviral naïve individuals, from HIV Reference Centers at two major metropolitan areas of Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo and Campinas, the state that concentrates most of the Brazilian Aids cases. TDR was analyzed by Stanford Calibrated Population Resistance criteria (CPR, and mutations were observed in 17 individuals (7.6%, 95% CI: 4.5%–11.9%. Seventy-six percent of genomes (13/17 with TDR carried a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI resistance mutation, mostly K103N/S (9/13, 69%, potentially compromising the preferential first-line therapy suggested by the Brazilian HIV Treatment Guideline that recommends efavirenz-based combinations. Moreover, 6/17 (35% had multiple mutations associated with resistance to one or more classes. HIV-1 B was the prevalent subtype (80%; other subtypes include HIV-1 F and C, mosaics BC, BF, and single cases of subtype A1 and CRF02_AG. The HIV Reference Center of Campinas presented more cases with TDR, with a significant association of TDR with clade B infection (P<0.05.

  10. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A., E-mail: walace@usp.br [Setor de Analises Toxicologicas. CETESB, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao com Neutrons

    2011-07-01

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  11. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: wasoares@sp.gov.br, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2013-07-01

    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  12. Preliminary analysis on the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geological formations of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies show that deep geological formations are the most promising solution - technical and economical - for the safe disposal of the high-level radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry. In order to obtain the necessary information to assess on the use of geological sites in Brazil - for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste generated by the brazilian nuclear industry - a careful survey on the basalt and granite rocks of Sao Paulo State was made. The data obtained were evaluated according to guidelines established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The favourable and unfavourable characteristics of the basalts, granites and their respective occurrence areas in the Sao Paulo state territory - as potential waste disposal sites - were analysed. This preliminary and regional characterization is not a conclusive study whether these two rocks types are definitively the most suitable geological formations for use as nuclear waste repository or not. It is the subsidy for a more detailed analysis. Other factors such as social, political and economical aspects, ecological effects, engineering geology, heat generation rate of the waste, type of radiation emitted and corrosive nature of the waste must also be taken into account. (author)

  13. Ambient radiation dose to the population of the city of Sao Paulo-Brazil: indoor gamma distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to present results of indoor ambient dose equivalent rate (H*(10)) in the city of Sao Paulo. Studies show that people of industrialized cities spend indoor approximately 80% of their time, and that there are great variations of the rate of H*(10) all over the world. Values of environmental radiation are important base to epidemiological studies, or analyses of consequences and effects of radioactive or nuclear accidents and also to assist research on biological effects of low doses, a very controversial subject in the literature. There are no reports in the literature about environmental radiation in the city of Sao Paulo, showing the important of this study. Environmental radiation exists everywhere in the planet, so the human beings are exposed to it at any time or place, being indoor or outdoor. Three types of commercial indoor ambient with large flow of the population were analyzed: bank offices, shops in the neighborhood of the banks, and shopping centers. A gamma ray portable spectrometer was used, composed by a crystal of NaI (Tl). The mean value of the H*(10) rate obtained was 173,8(17) nSv/h. The results analyzed by commerce type and by the health divisions of the city are also presented. (author)

  14. Determination of Cl, K, and Na in the blood serum of healthy elderly in the city of Sao Paulo, SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work determined the blood serum concentration of Cl, K, and Na from a healthy elderly population of the city of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil viewing the comparison with reference values used in clinical laboratories. For collecting these samples the present work were approved by the Ethic Committee of the FMUSP and IPEN-CNEN/SP. The quality of the analytical results were evaluated by the analysis of the reference material certification NIST 1577b Bovine Liver. The results presented good accuracy and precision due to the fact that they presented relative errors less than 5.2 % and standard deviation less than 8.6 %. The average concentrations (mmol L-1) of Cl in the analysed serum were 99.1; the K were 3.9 and the Na were 136.9. The obtained data allows the to conclude that the mostly of the elderly presented Cl, K and Na concentrations in the range of reference values used in the clinical laboratories

  15. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  16. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  17. Tabagismo, abandono do fumo e os otorrinolaringologistas do estado de São Paulo Smoking, smoking cessation and otorhinolaryngologists in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracy Pereira Silveira Balbani

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Os otorrinolaringologistas estão diretamente envolvidos no diagnóstico e tratamento de doenças provocadas pelo cigarro, incluindo o câncer das vias aéreas superiores. É importante que os especialistas estejam capacitados a tratar o tabagismo e a dependência da nicotina. Também se sabe que há fumantes entre os próprios médicos. OBJETIVO: Pesquisar as opiniões e condutas de otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo frente ao tabagismo e à dependência química da nicotina, e avaliar o hábito tabagístico dos especialistas. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Corte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 600 otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo. A esses especialistas foi enviado, em março de 2005, por correio, um questionário padrão. Foram analisadas as respostas recebidas no período de março a maio de 2005. RESULTADOS: Foram recebidas 209 respostas. Nestas, 97 profissionais (46,4% avaliaram sua familiaridade com os meios de tratamento da dependência de nicotina como regular e 60 (28,7% como insatisfatória. Dos participantes do estudo, 144 (68,9% nunca fumaram, 50 (23,9% são ex-fumantes, nove (4,3% são fumantes ocasionais e seis (2,9% são fumantes. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de tabagistas na amostra de 209 otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo foi de 7,1%.Otorhinolaryngologists are directly involved in the diagnosis and management of smoking related diseases, including upper airway malignancy. It is important that the specialists have skills to treat smoking and nicotine dependence. It is also known that there are smokers amongst doctors. AIM: To assess the opinions and practices of the otorhinolaryngologists of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, concerning smoking and nicotine dependence, and evaluation of smoking habits of the specialists. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We randomly selected 600 otorhinolaryngologists of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A survey was mailed to

  18. Characterization of isolated communities: application in the city of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Caracterizacao de comunidades isoladas: aplicacao em comunicade de Ubatura/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maria Julita Guerra [Secretaria de Estado de Energia, Recursos Hidricos e Saneamento (SERHS), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mjulita@sp.gov.br; Pilla, Adelina Teixeira Fonseca de [Equilibrio, Desenvolvimento Ambiental Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: adelina.fonseca@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for characterization of isolated communities, developed on a consultant work for the Ministry of Mines and Energy - MME. It still presents the application of this methodology of analysis on a isolated community in the city of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo state. (author)

  19. Social Support Network for the Elderly Attending the Open University Program for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Marisa Accioly; Ordonez, Tiago Nascimento; Lima-Silva, Thais Bento; Torres, Maria Juliana; de Barros, Thabata Cruz; Cachioni, Meire

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the social support network of older adults enrolled in the Open University for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 117 elderly or older adults, mostly female (78%), married (53%), retired (82%), and aged on average…

  20. Georeferenced energy information system integrated of energetic matrix of Sao Paulo state from 2005 to 2035; Sistema de informacoes energeticas georreferenciadas integrado a matriz energetica do estado de Sao Paulo: 2005-2035

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, Joao Malta [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    A georeferenced information system energy or simply SIEG, is designed to integrate into the energy matrix of Sao Paulo from 2005 to 2035. Being an innovative request made by the Department of Sanitation and Energy of the state, this system would have the purpose to collect and aggregate information and data from several themes, relating this content in a geographic location spatialized. The main focus of the system is the analysis of the energy sector as a whole, from generation to final consumption, through all phases such as transmission and distribution. The energy data would also be crossed with various themes of support, contributing to the development of numerous reviews and generating sound conclusions. Issues such as environment, socio-economics, infrastructure, interconnected sectors, geographical conditions and other information could be entered, viewed and linked to the system. The SIEG is also a facilitator for planning and managing the energy sector with forecast models in possible future situations. (author)

  1. Application of field-bus to interface field instrumentation in hazardous areas of TRANSPETRO pipelines and terminals, Sao Paulo region; Aplicacao de barramento de campo (fieldbus) em areas classificadas nos dutos e terminais da TRANSPETRO, regiao de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcioli, Mario Sergio [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The following presentation focuses on the experiences that we have been adopting with success during the past seven (7) years at the TRANSPETRO Pipelines and Terminals, in the State of Sao Paulo region, to integrate the field instruments (switches, actuators, solenoid valves, motor starter and switchgear panels, and so on) installed in the hazardous areas, to Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) connected to Remote Input and Output Modules (I/O) in the hazardous area, designated to interface the field signals and condition them to communicate via a bus in the field (field bus), making use of a standard open type industrial communication bus - PROFIBUS DP V1, under which the independent manufacturers follow the industrial Standards EN50170 and EN50254, pointing out the advantages of the application of this instrumentation philosophy, that among other philosophies, allows the use of engineering tools for the asset management and to assist the maintenance and operation of industrial plants. (author)

  2. Cogeneration of electric power in the sugar and alcohol sectors: registration of the power plants in Sao Paulo, Brazil; Cogeracao de energia eletrica no setor sucroalcooleiro: cadastro das usinas em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Gustavo Goncalves [Federacao das Industrias do Estado de Sao Paulo (FIESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moreira, Helemilton Rios; Silva, Edison da [Agencia Reguladora de Saneamento e Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (ARSESP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    One of the major difficult for the planning of co-generation industry of electricity from the sugar cane bagasse is the determination of their true potential. This question comes up, especially in the lack of information about the sugar and ethanol facilities, therefore for the study of potential, we can not just focus on the issue of the cane grinding, but also in technology, the configuration of the power plant and its capacity to export energy. This paper presents a proposal to minimize this difficulty, detailing a solution dedicated to the development of a database for the registration and monitoring of these plants, part of a series of actions regarding in the Understanding Protocol for the promotion of co-generation of bagasse, signed between FIESP and the Government of the State of Sao Paulo. (author)

  3. Compliance with technical standards for radiological protection at radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Analise de conformidades as normas tecnicas de protecao radiologica dos servicos de radioterapia no Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula [Secretaria de Estado da Saude de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Vigilancia Epidemiologica; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina]. E-mail: mbpeduardo@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Radiation therapy services provide essential therapeutic procedures for cancer, one of the main causes of population morbidity and mortality. Despite their importance in the health system and their potential risks due to the use of ionizing radiation, there are few studies on such services. We evaluated compliance with technical standards for radiological protection in radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Forty-nine services were studied in 2000 through interviews with technical staff. Typologies of performance profiles focusing on structure and process variables were constructed and services compared. Important differences were observed in the services' positions in the health care system, level of complexity, and geographic distribution, with better average performance in structural conditions but very inadequate performance in patient protection, indicating the need for more effective health surveillance. (author)

  4. Public policies for energy substitution in bus: the case of city of Sao Paulo; Politicas publicas para a substituicao energetica em onibus: o caso da cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Gregorio da Cruz; Zisman, Sandra Francis [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Brazil has been on a leading position on fossil fuel substitution in light vehicles. In 2008 and 2009, ethanol contributed with more than 50% of the light vehicle fuel's consumption. A new energetic substitution program was launched in Sao Paulo, and it can be the turning point for the fossil fuel's substitution in the segment of collective transport. This program allows the development of new fuel and engine technologies, and creates opportunities for their deployment on the collective transport market. The economic consequence is a restructuring process that affects the already established markets. There are still big uncertainties about the program's execution, and also about what will be the winning solutions of this, already started, technological race. (author)

  5. Modernization perspectives of the Sao Paulo State sugarcane sector through the clean development mechanism and potential carbon credits generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil)], Emails: suani@iee.usp.br, blora@iee.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The world-wide necessity of greenhouse gases mitigation and the intergovernmental mobilization to reach the objectives established by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has opened space for the renewable energy increase in the world's energy matrix. In Brazil, the solid sugarcane industry currently develops business in the scope of the clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto's Protocol, by means of 18 biomass-based projects, with renewable energy generation through bagasse cogeneration at 20 Sao Paulo State's sugarcane production units. The projects activity's consists of increasing the efficiency in the bagasse cogeneration facilities, qualifying the units to sell surplus electricity to the national grid, avoiding the dispatch of the same amount of energy produced by fossil-fuelled thermal plants to that grid. The reduced emissions are measured in carbon equivalent and can be converted into negotiable credits. The objective of this study was to build a 'state of art' scenario, calculating the potential emissions reduction through CDM projects for the sugarcane sector of Sao Paulo State, in which we consider the adherence of all the production units of the State to the CDM projects. The technological parameters used to elaborate the scenario were provided by the Sao Paulo State Government Bioenergy Special Commission and the baseline factor used of 0,268 tCO{sub 2}e/MWh was the adopted by the CDM projects in operation in the State. The sugarcane database for the calculations was the production ranking provided by UNICA for the 2006/2007 season. In the most conservative scenario (40 bar bagasse) 131 units could generate 607 MWm of surplus power avoiding the emission of 1.404.593 tCO{sub 2}e/year. For the 92 bar (bagasse and straw) scenario, the units could generate 3.055 MWm of surplus power avoiding 12.199.443 tCO{sub 2}e/year. (author)

  6. Urban index modelling for forecasting of channeled natural gas market: an example in Sao Paulo metropolitan region; Modelagem de indicadores urbanos para previsao do mercado de gas natural canalizado: um exemplo na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massara, Vanessa Meloni; Faga, Murilo Tadeu Werneck; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: vmassara@iee.usp.br; murfaga@iee.usp.br; udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to present a systemic model for analysis of the expansion and grow up of the natural gas distribution pipeline in a city. This methodology integrates the understanding of the urban dynamics to the strategies of expansion in the natural gas distribution network, through the grouping of information such as family income, demographic density and construction area, percentage of land use, number of households as well as commercial, service and industrial establishments, number of real state as well as indicative information released by the Urban Plan of the city regarding the increments in the peripheral districts. Relating the gas consumption esteemed by each type of land occupation and the cost for expanding the gas distribution network, the model will indicate, for each neighborhood, the viability of implementing a gas network as well as the places with potential for growing density in the existing gas distribution system. The aim is to propose an integration of aspects of city dynamics and new energy source development, taking the advance of natural gas in Sao Paulo Metropolitan area as a specific case study. Through the analysis of highly industrialized, residential and commercial suburbs of the City of Sao Caetano do Sul, the importance of urban parameters in the decision making process for network expansion is identified. (author)

  7. Meat Consumption in Sao Paulo – Brazil: Trend in the Last Decade

    OpenAIRE

    de Carvalho, Aline Martins; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Regina Mara FISBERG; Marchioni, Dirce Maria

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize trends in meat consumption, and verify the percentage of excessive red and processed meat consumption in the last decade in São Paulo, Brazil. Design Cross-sectional weighted data from the Health Survey for São Paulo, conducted in São Paulo, Brazil among people aged 12 years and older. Setting Diet was assessed by two 24-hour recalls in each survey. Usual meat consumption was estimated by Multiple Source Method. Wald tests were used to compare means across survey yea...

  8. Education in nuclear science at IPEN - CNEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Advanced School of Nuclear Energy-EAEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EAEN (Advanced School of Nuclear Energy, 2010) is an annual school that consists of a week of activities in the area of Nuclear Physics, Radiochemistry and uses of Nuclear Energy for a public made of high school students. The EAEN project represents a pioneering program on science education and dissemination of knowledge, conducted by researchers and focused mainly on high school and scientific education for the population in general. The school's priority is to explore the failures and the lack of education in the dissemination of nuclear energy for high school students as well as to attract prospective students with great potential for graduate courses of IPEN and other institutions in Sao Paulo and in Brazil. (author)

  9. Evolution study of water quality from the High Middle Tiete River (Sao Paulo State - Brazil) using radioactive tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, including 38 cities, harbors one of the largest industrial concentrations in Latin America. The region is almost completely crossed by the Tiete River, the main drain of liquid waste generated in the city. This work presents an analysis of the self depurating behavior of the High Middle Tiete River in relation to several effluents flows of the Rasgao Reservoir and several BOD and OD level conditions. Between 1982 and 1984 five campaigns of Transit Time and water quality measurements were made in the High Middle Tiete, In such campaigns, radiotracer produced by IPEN was punctually injected to the downstream of the Rasgao Reservoir, with different flows however in a stationary regime. This way, the behavior of the relative cloud along the 266 kilometer sector of the High Middle Tiete River was studied. Flows varied from 1,1 to 350 m 3/s. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs

  10. Evaluation of the behavior of a hundred dentists concerning to radiation protection in the city of Aracatuba, Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the behavior of 100 dentists concerned to radiation protection in the city of Aracatuba, Sao Paulo State. Each dental office was visited, and a form was filled out by the dentists, with questions regarding the radiation protection of the patient, operator and staff. in the same visit, a radiography was taken using a phantom and processed according to the professionals'routine, to determine its diagnostic accuracy. After data analysis, we concluded that the dentists are not using satisfactorily the radiological sources, and the exposure and processing conditions could be improved. We also concluded that the professionals tend to task the radiographs after the clinical examination of the mouth, to reduce the number of the X-ray/patient ratio. Another conclusion is that the biological hazards from xradiation is not significant because of the small number of dental radiographs taken monthly. (author)

  11. Determination of the natural radioactivity levels present in the water used for the Sao Paulo State consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to determine the activity concentrations of natural occurring radionuclides of the 238 U an 232 Th series in drinking water supplies of the State of Sao Paulo, covering the period 1994-1996. The gross alpha and beta activities, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 226 Rn concentrations were measured in most of the ground and surface waters consumed by the population. The gross alpha and beta particles activities were determined measuring water samples in a low background gas-flow proportional counter. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra were determined by gross alpha and beta counting in a Ba(Ra)SO4 precipitate with the same detector. The 222 Rn concentrations were determine by liquid scintillation method. Gross alpha and beta activities ranging from 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 222 Rn respectively. (author). 19 refs., 1 tab

  12. Ingestion of 210 Pb and 210 Po through fish consumption in the Cananeia-Iguape system, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the ingestion of 210 Pb and 210 Po in the Cananeia - Iguape System, coast south of the Sao Paulo State was estimated. After the dissolution of the fish muscle (by microwave) radiochemical methods were applied for the analysis of those radionuclides.210 Pb was detected by using a Geiger-Muller detector while 210 Po by alpha spectrometry. The estimates of individual ingestion of 210 Pb and 210 Po for the fish of higher economical importance for the population of the System were of 0.004 and 0.035 Bq.d-1, respectively. Although, the levels of individual ingestion of these radionuclides obtained in this work are below the recommended levels it is advisable a periodic monitoring of these radionuclides in estuarine samples, especially, for the organisms such as fish that can be used as bio-indicators of 210 Pb and 210 Po. (author)

  13. Potential of municipal solid waste (MSW) as a source of energy in Sao Paulo: its impact on CO2 balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy generation is needed in Sao Paulo and MSW represents a promising alternative, although it is more expensive than hydroelectric power. About 14 900 t/day of MSW is generated, of which 8433 t/day is domestic and commercial MSW. From this amount, 1800 t will be destined to generate 30 MW of power. The eco-balance of CO2 has been considered for incineration and recycling. The recycling program of plastics, metals, paper and glass would represent a significant reduction in energy and CO2 emission. The total CO2 released is 3.34 x 105 t/yr without recycling, and is 1.25 x 105 t/yr with a recycling program. Most of the CO2 comes from plastics and paper production. Economic aspects could probably favor incineration with energy production as the best option. (author)

  14. Assessing screening practices among health care workers at a tertiary-care hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Gonçalves-Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the extent to which screening procedures (with and without evidence of effectiveness are practiced among health care workers at a tertiary-care hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: From February 2001 to September 2003, a cross-sectional study involving physicians, nurses and nursing assistants (aged 40 to 69 years was carried out at a tertiary-care hospital in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire that addresses 17 procedures with grades of recommendation of A, B, C, D or E, in accordance with the 1996 United States Preventive Services Task Force guidelines for routine screening. RESULTS: Of the 333 health care workers included, 228 (68.5% were female. The mean age was 48.8 (SD 6.6 years. Most subjects had undergone screening for hypertension (blood pressure measurement and lipid abnormalities (cholesterol testing. Screening for breast and cervical cancer was common among females. Resting electrocardiography, serum glucose testing, urine tests, chest X-rays and serum prostate-specific antigen testing were also quite common. However, only 6 (1.8% of the subjects had undergone screening for colorectal cancer (fecal occult blood test or sigmoidoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: A sizeable proportion of health care workers underwent screening procedures that are not recommended or for which there was insufficient evidence of a benefit. Conversely, certain recommended procedures were performed on a small proportion of such workers. These results indicate that the Brazilian National Ministry of Health must develop nationwide evidence-based screening recommendations and disseminate such recommendations among health care professionals in Brazil.

  15. Ecological aspects of phlebotomine fauna (Diptera, Psychodidae of Serra da Cantareira, Greater Sao Paulo Metropolitan region, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Moschin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL have been recorded in Serra da Cantareira, in the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Region, where two conservation units are situated, the Parque Estadual da Cantareira and the Parque Estadual Alberto Löfgren. The present study aimed to identify the sandfly fauna and some of its ecological aspects in these two parks and their surrounding area to investigate Leishmania sp. vectors. The captures were undertaken monthly from January to December 2009, from 6:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m., with automatic light traps installed in forests and peridomicile areas and with modified black/white Shannon traps in the peridomicile. A total of 12 species and 5,436 sandflies were captured: with automatic light traps (141, Shannon traps (5,219 and attempting to bite the researchers while they were conducting the collection in Shannon traps (76. Pintomyia fischeri and Migonemyia migonei were the most abundant species. Pi. fischeri predominated in all three kinds of captures (49%, 88.8% and 65.8%, respectively. Mg. migonei was the second most prevalent in Shannon traps (10.0% and attempting to bite the researchers (22.4%. Pi. fischeri females were significantly more attracted to black and those of Mg. migonei to white Shannon traps. A positive and significant correlation was observed between the numbers of Pi. fischeri and the mean of minimum relative humidity values on the fifteen days prior to capture, while there was a negative and significant correlation between the relative humidity on the capture day and the two most abundant species. The anthropophilia and high frequencies of Pi. fischeri and Mg. migonei suggest that both species may be transmitting ACL agents in this region.

  16. Evaluation of efficiency of equipment used in the conservation of fruits and vegetables in the terminal Warehouse of Sao Paulo - CEAGESP; Avaliacao da eficiencia no uso dos equipamentos de refrigeracao utilizados na conservacao de frutas e hortalicas no entreposto terminal de Sao Paulo (CEAGESP-Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazens Gerais de Sao Paulo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Neto, Josue; Ferreira, Marcos David [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Agricola (FEAGRI); Neves Filho, Lincoln de Camargo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos; Gutierrez, Anita de Souza Dias [CEAGESP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Qualidade em Horticultura

    2004-07-01

    The shelf life of fruits and vegetables can be directly related to store temperature. At determined temperature and humidity a better conservation of the product can be achieve. The cold chain delays the aging, having its conservation guaranteed until the consumer. It was carried through in the Terminal Warehouse of Sao Paulo- CEAGESP, a research for evaluation of the condition of the cold chambers used. The cold storage equipment evaluation was measured using the follow parameters: temperature, humidity, isolation, type of equipment used, etc. It was analyzed, chambers used for cold storage, using thermal load calculation. Apple and pears were the most stored commodities in CEAGESP, 50 % and bananas the second one (31,4%). Based in the average volume of commercialization, it was observed that 57% of the motors were over dimensioned. (author)

  17. Dietary intake and food contributors of polyphenols in adults and elderly adults of Sao Paulo: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, A M; Steluti, J; Fisberg, R M; Marchioni, D M

    2016-03-28

    A comprehensive estimation of polyphenol intake is needed to gain a better understanding of the association between polyphenol-rich food intake and the potential effects of this intake on chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the intake of polyphenols and the major dietary contributors in the population of Sao Paulo. Data were obtained from the Health Survey-São Paulo (ISA-Capital 2008) and were reported for 1103 adults and elderly adults. Food intake was estimated by one 24-h dietary recall (24HR). Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data from the 24HR with the polyphenol content in foods listed in the Phenol-Explorer database. The mean total intake of polyphenols was 377·5 (se 15·3) mg/d. The main polyphenol classes were phenolic acids (284·8 (se 15·9) mg/d) and flavonoids (54·6 (se 3·5) mg/d). Intakes were higher in the elderly adults than in other adults (Pcitrus fruits (4·6 %) and tropical fruits (3·4 %). Coffee was the major source of polyphenols, providing 266·2 (se 16·5) mg/d, and contributed 92·3 % of the phenolic acids and 93·1 % of the alkylmethoxyphenols. These findings will be useful for assessing the potential role on health of polyphenols and specific polyphenol-rich foods, such as coffee, and enable a comparison with people from other countries. PMID:26810764

  18. Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. (Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    1993-01-01

    Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Absorbed doses received by patients submitted to chest radiographs in hospitals of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Doses absorvidas pelos pacientes submetidos a radiografias toracicas em hospitais do municipio de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Marcelo Baptista de

    2000-07-01

    Medical irradiation contributes with a significant amount to the dose received by the population. Here, this contribution was evaluated in a survey of absorbed doses received by patients submitted to chest radiological examinations (postero-anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) projections) in hospitals of the city of Sao Paulo. Due to the variety of equipment and procedures used in radiological examinations, a selection of hospitals was made (12, totalizing 27 X-ray facilities), taking into account their representativeness as medical institutions in the city, in terms of characteristics and number of radiographs carried out. An anthropomorphic phantom, provided with thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD-1 00), was irradiated simulating the patient, and the radiographic image quality was evaluated. Absorbed doses were determined to the thoracic region (entrance and exit skin and lung doses), and to some important organs from the radiation protection point of view (lens of the eye, thyroid and gonads). The great variation on the exposure parameters (kV, mA.s, beam size) leads to a large interval of entrance skin doses-ESD (coefficients of variation, CV, of 60% and 76%, for PA and LAT projections, respectively, were found) and of organ doses (CV of 60% and 46%. for thyroid and lung respectively). Mean values of ESD for LAT and PA projections were 0.22 and 0.98 mGy, respectively. The average absorbed doses per exam (PA and LAT) to thyroid and lung, 0.15 and 0.24 mGy respectively,showed that the thyroid was irradiated by the primary beam in many cases. Values of lens of the eye and gonad absorbed doses were below 30 {mu}Gy. Comparison of the lung doses obtained in this study with values in the literature, calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, showed good agreement. On the other hand, the comparison shows significant differences in the dose values to organs outside the chest region (thyroid, lens of eye and gonads). The effective dose calculated for a chest examination, PA and

  20. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from two estuarine systems: Santos/Sao Vicente and Cananeia, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e outros elementos de interesse em amostras de sedimentos dos estuarios de Santos/Sao Vicente e Cananeia, estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Eduardo Paulo de

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated some toxic metals such as Cd, Hg and Pb and some other major and trace elements in surface sediment samples, from two different systems under different degrees of anthropogenic actions: the estuarine system of Santos/Sao Vicente and the southern part of the Cananeia estuary, both on the Sao Paulo state coast. Sediment samples were collected in 16 stations in the Santos/Sao Vicente estuary and 13 stations in the Cananeia estuary, during summer and winter of 2005 and 2006, in both estuaries. Three analytical techniques were used: NAA, AAS and ICP OES. NAA was used for the quantification of major element concentration levels (Ca, Fe and Na), trace elements (As, Ba, Br, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, and Zn and rare earths elements La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb, Yb). ICP OES was used for determination of the concentration levels of Al, Ba, Be, Bi, B, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Cr, Sn, Sr, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Tl, Ti, V and Zn. AAS for Cd and Pb quantification through graphite furnace (GF AAS) and Hg through cold vapor generation (CV AAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference material analyses for the three analytical techniques used. Detection and quantification limits were calculated for each element evaluated. Seasonal variations (summer and winter), spatial and temporal (2005 e 2006) variations of metals and trace elements were also evaluated. In the Santos estuary, in general, metal and trace element concentrations , organic matter content and % of pelitic fraction found in the Santos channel (area 1) were higher than those of the Santos Bay (area 2) and Sao Vicente channel (area 3). Area 1 suffers high impact from industrial activities from the Cubatao region and Santos port. The sediments from station 14 (area 3, Sao Vicente channel), showed the same behavior of those from area 1, suffering influence from the industrial pole and located in a mangrove area. In comparison with TEL and PEL

  1. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e elementos traco em amostras de sedimento do reservatorio Guarapiranga, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme Moura

    2011-07-01

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the

  2. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica por metais na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo, Brasil, utilizando a bromelia Tillandsia usneoides L. como biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton

    2006-07-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and

  3. Physico-chemical properties of aerosols in Sao Paulo, Brazil and mechanisms of secondary organic aerosol formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Varanda Rizzo, Luciana; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Godoy, Jose Marcus

    2013-04-01

    Megacities emissions are increasingly becoming a global issue, where emissions from the transportation sector play an increasingly important role. Sao Paulo is a megacity with a population of about 18 million people, 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. As a result of the vehicular and industrial emissions, the air quality in Sao Paulo is bellow WMO standards for aerosol particles and ozone. Many uncertainties are found on gas- and particulate matter vehicular emission factors and their following atmospheric processes, e.g. secondary organic aerosol formation. Due to the uniqueness of the vehicular fuel in Brazil, largely based on ethanol use, such characterization currently holds further uncertainties. To improve the understanding of the role of this unique emission characteristics, we are running a source apportionment study in Sao Paulo focused on the mechanisms of organic aerosol formation. One of the goals of this study is a quantitative aerosol source apportionment focused on vehicular emissions, including ethanol and gasohol (both fuels used by light-duty vehicles). This study comprises four sampling sites with continuous measurements for one year, where trace elements and organic aerosol are being measured for PM2.5 and PM10 along with real-time NOx, O3, PM10 and CO measurements. Aerosol optical properties and size distribution are being measured on a rotation basis between sampling stations. Furthermore, a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) are used to measure in real time VOCs and aerosol composition, respectively. Trace elements were measured using XRF and OC/EC analysis was determined with a Sunset OC/EC instrument. A TSI Nephelometer with 3 wavelengths measure light scattering and a MAAP measure black carbon. Results show aerosol number concentrations ranging between 10,000 and 35,000 cm-3, mostly concentrated in the nucleation and Aitken modes, with a peak in size at 80

  4. Absorbed doses received by patients submitted to chest radiographs in hospitals of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical irradiation contributes with a significant amount to the dose received by the population. Here, this contribution was evaluated in a survey of absorbed doses received by patients submitted to chest radiological examinations (postero-anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) projections) in hospitals of the city of Sao Paulo. Due to the variety of equipment and procedures used in radiological examinations, a selection of hospitals was made (12, totalizing 27 X-ray facilities), taking into account their representativeness as medical institutions in the city, in terms of characteristics and number of radiographs carried out. An anthropomorphic phantom, provided with thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD-1 00), was irradiated simulating the patient, and the radiographic image quality was evaluated. Absorbed doses were determined to the thoracic region (entrance and exit skin and lung doses), and to some important organs from the radiation protection point of view (lens of the eye, thyroid and gonads). The great variation on the exposure parameters (kV, mA.s, beam size) leads to a large interval of entrance skin doses-ESD (coefficients of variation, CV, of 60% and 76%, for PA and LAT projections, respectively, were found) and of organ doses (CV of 60% and 46%. for thyroid and lung respectively). Mean values of ESD for LAT and PA projections were 0.22 and 0.98 mGy, respectively. The average absorbed doses per exam (PA and LAT) to thyroid and lung, 0.15 and 0.24 mGy respectively,showed that the thyroid was irradiated by the primary beam in many cases. Values of lens of the eye and gonad absorbed doses were below 30 μGy. Comparison of the lung doses obtained in this study with values in the literature, calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, showed good agreement. On the other hand, the comparison shows significant differences in the dose values to organs outside the chest region (thyroid, lens of eye and gonads). The effective dose calculated for a chest examination, PA and LAT

  5. Abundance and behavior of the sally lightfoot crab (Grapsus grapsus in the colony of the brown booby (Sula leucogaster in the Sao Pedro and Sao Paulo Archipelago Abundancia y comportamiento del cangrejo costero (Grapsus grapsus en la colonia de piquero café (Sula leucogaster en el archipiélago de Sao Pedro y Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Gianuca

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available For nine days, the number of sally lightfoot crabs (Grapsus grapsus in a 300 m² area within the brown booby (Sula leucogaster colony and the activity of each crab were recorded in the morning (5:30-7:30 h, at midday (11:30-13:30 h, and in the afternoon (15:30-17:30 h. The average number of individuals was 80.2 ±15.5 (59-111 in the morning, 3.1 ± 2.3 (0-7 at midday, and 65.3 ± 15 (49-92 in the afternoon. A total of 1338 activity records were made, with the crabs standing still or walking in 844 records and handling material or feeding in 494 records. In the latter records, 53% of the crabs were handling detritus (pieces of dry bird excrement and sediment, 12.2% were handling feathers, 12.8% were feeding on regurgitated fish, 8.9% were feeding on dead Sula leucogaster, 8.1% were feeding on crab, 4.7% were feeding on material adhered to egg shells, and 0.6% were feeding on live nestlings of S. leucogaster. The low frequency of crabs in the colony around noon shows that the crabs avoid insolation, hiding in shady places and tidal pools. In the Sao Pedro and Sao Paulo Archipelago, the presence of S. leucogaster represents an important food source for G. grapsus. This crab plays the role of a cleaner in the S. leucogaster colony, consuming food remains, broken eggs, and dead birdsDurante nueve días se registró el número de cangrejos costeros (Grapsus grapsus en una área de 300 m²dentro de la colonia de piquero café (Sula leucogaster y la actividad de cada uno de los individuos durante la mañana (5:30-7:30 h, mediodía (11:30-13:30 h y tarde (15:30-17:30 h. La media de individuos en la mañana fue 80,2 ± 15,5 (59-111, en el mediodía 3,1 ± 2,3 (0-7 y en la tarde 65,3 ± 15 (49-92. Del total de 1.338 registros de comportamiento, 844 fueron de cangrejos detenidos o caminando y 494 manipulando algún material o alimento. De éstos, 53% fueron de manipulación de detrito (excremento seco de ave y sedimento; 12,2% de manipulación de plumas; 12

  6. The impact of change in MSEs? regulation in municipalities in Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Chagas, Andre; Almeida, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    In 2006 was approved, in Brazil, a new regulatory framework, named General Law of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs), regulating and expanding special conditions for MSEs - that representing more than 90% of companies in Brazil. The Law introduces differential treatment to MSEs for starting a business, reducing legal requirements, and providing differential treatment for government purchases, among others. In São Paulo state, the Law was promulgated in late 2007. About 340 municipalities (out...

  7. Sexual violence: characterization of the victims attended at a hospital in taubaté, sao paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Aparecida Aguiar de Araújo1, Ana Lucia De Faria, Mariana Valobra Prado, Neiliana Aquélica Soares, Tânia Saemi Miura

    2008-01-01

    Sexual violence represents an important parcel of violence cases in our society, and exerts great impact over the victims’ health, such as, physical and psychological traumatism, transmissible sexually diseases and unwanted pregnancy. The objective of this study was to identify victims’ characteristics of sexual violence attended at a hospital of Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil. The research was a retrospective, documental, descriptive and quantitative study, from January 2004 to June 2007. Most o...

  8. Active biomonitoring of magnesium and manganese using the Perna perna mussel collected in the north shore of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present work was to study the active biomonitoring of magnesium and manganese in the seashore of Sao Paulo, using the Perna perna mussel , which was transplanted from an uncontaminated region to probably contaminated sites. Mussel samples acquired in the control region, a mussel farm in Cocanha beach Caraguatatuba, were exposed for three months in the study sites, in Sao Sebastiao, Ilhabela, Ilha das Palmas and Ponta de Itaipu. The mussel samples were cleaned, grinded, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, (INAA).The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic standards of magnesium and manganese for 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6,6 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1 in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The measurements of the gamma radioactivity of the samples and standards were done using an hyperpure semiconductor Ge detector, coupled to associated electronics. For analytical quality control of the results, the certified reference material (CRM) NIST SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue was analyzed and the results obtained indicated good agreement with the certified values. The results obtained in the mussel samples analysis indicated that the samples exposed in Ilhabela in the autumn season presented higher accumulation of magnesium (7051 ± 333 μg g-1) than the other sites. For manganese, the highest concentrations were obtained for the mussels exposed in Ilha das Palmas in springtime, with 28.5 ± 0.8 μg g-1. It was concluded that it is possible to biomonitor magnesium and manganese by means of the analysis of Perna perna mussels. (author)

  9. Art collection preservation: gamma radiation application for decontaminating objects in the Instituto de Estudos Brasileiros from Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Instituto de Estudos Brasileiros (IEB) from the University of Sao Paulo received the charge from Sao Paulo's Federal Justice to take care of part of the collection from Banco Santos that was severely attacked by insects and micro-organisms (moulds) when stored in a warehouse that was flooded by intense rainfall. A chemical treatment to eliminate the biodeterioration agents was tried but it was not effective. As the heap has a large amount of Xylograph wood dye, printings and manuscripts from cordel literature an urgent way to treat was searched and after the study and previous experience on wood irradiation process it was decided to submit promptly the heap to gamma irradiation. After the treatment the art pieces were restored by IEB staff and now is being part of IEB collection and available for the scientific research community (author)

  10. Financing structure for the hydroelectric sector: the Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo - CESP case; Estrutura de financiamento do setor hidreletrico: o caso da CESP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leme, Thomaz Garcez

    1987-12-31

    The objective of this dissertation is to study the financial resources made use by Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo - CESP - for its implantation and later expansion, during the period of 1967 to 1980. The motivation in developing this subject originated of CESP`s importance in the Brazilian electric power sector. The dissertation is divided into three chapters. The first chapter describes the power sector in the state of Sao Paulo before CESP`s creation and after its consolidation. The second chapter studies some matter that shows the importance of company in the Brazilian power sector. In the third chapter, we study the performance of own resources and the third resources in CESP`s financing. At the end of the study the most important conclusion is that the own resources, more than third resources, were the prime motive liable in CESP`s financing during the period. (author) 102 refs., 23 figs.

  11. Technical and economic modeling of the presence sensor adjust influence on the lamps useful life and the economy of energy - case study at the University of Sao Paulo, BR; Modelagem tecnico-economica da influencia do ajuste de sensores de presenca sobre a vida util das lampadas e a economica de energia - estudo de caso na universidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidel, Marco Antonio; Gimenes, Andre Luiz Veiga; Capello, Ricardo Machado; Peng, Tang [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail: saidel@pea.usp.br; gimenes@gmail.com; ricmc@ig.com.br; tpbrazil@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    This paper evaluates the technical and economic viability through three main types of presence sensors in the market: the infrareds, the ultrasonics and the dual. With this objective, behavioural simulations modeled in classrooms of the university of Sao Paulo, validated by field survey for evaluating the energy reduction potential and impacts in the service life of the lamps. (author)

  12. Study of the demand for radiopharmaceutical 18F-FDG in the metropolitan regions of Sao Paulo and adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Medicine in Brazil and worldwide has developed distinction with diagnosis techniques that allow metabolic research of the disease, changing in a significant fashion the patient's outcome. This innovative technology leads expectations from specific fields up to society itself. This research studied the use of 18F-FDG radiopharmaceutical in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo and adjacent areas, as well as the recent trade structure and the difficulties that should be overcome with the increase of the 18F-FDG demand. This research counted on the analysis of the international radiopharmaceutical trade and the main changes that have been happening in this area in Brazil during the past few years. Interviews were performed with professionals within the area of nuclear medicine and data has been collected through questionnaire sent to the consuming centers of the radiopharmaceutical in the region covered in this research. The interviews expressed the opinions of the interviewees concerning transformations in this field and future tendencies and the information obtained from the survey was the basis of complementation of the use of radiopharmaceutical on equipment such as Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Positron Emission Tomography I Computer Tomography (PET/CT). The major use of 18F-FDG has been used for oncology diagnosis with equipment such as PET and PEC/CT. This use shall grow in the next years, maybe expanding to other specialties such as neurology and cardiology. Although nowadays restricted to the cities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, there is a possibility of expansion to other diagnosis modalities in other states of the country that are starting to structure the production of the radioisotope. The recent change in the constitution permitting the production and commerce of short half-life radioisotopes also contributes to the increase the interest of private funding of this sector in which

  13. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and

  14. Energy rating and productive of wood from reforestation of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the state of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In recent years, wood consumption is increasing, and the need to increase the availability of commercial wood reforestation becomes essentially important. In the state of Sao Paulo a few species of Eucalyptus and Pinus have stood out for having high productivity and with updated technical genetic improvements to productivity can be increased to 60 %. The work has to evaluate the productivity and quality of wood provided with commercial reforestation species of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the midwestern region of Sao Paulo. In this study we used six treatments: a seminal Eucalyptus grandis; two clones of Eucalyptus grandis, three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Pinus were analyzed for five hybrid progenies of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis and Pinus tecunumanii. We evaluated the productivity rates of each treatment and the quality of wood produced, by studying their average density and specific variations possible by the methods: TARG (Technique attenuation of gamma radiation from 241Am) and immersion. Productivity mass IMAM treatments for Eucalyptus S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 18.7, 17.0, 21.2, 28.1, 30.1 and 27.2 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 451.3, 439.0, 411.9, 518.8, 526.4 and 526.3 kg/m3. Productivity for Pinus mass IMAM treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 14.7, 13.5, 13.7, 14.8, 12.4 and 13.0 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 475, 522, 459, 478, 430 and 514 kg/m3. These results are extremely important and come to contradict some literature results that correlate productivity gains with losses in density. It was concluded that the values of density and productivity of each treatment and sperm Pinus hybrids there was significant improvement in the indices assessed. While in the Eucalyptus the results were remarkable, reflecting the improvement in productivity for

  15. The impact of maternal experience of violence and common mental disorders on neonatal outcomes: a survey of adolescent mothers in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Vikram; Guinsburg Ruth; Chalem Elisa; Barros Marina CM; Mitsuhiro Sandro S; Ferri Cleusa P; Prince Martin; Laranjeira Ronaldo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Both violence and depression during pregnancy have been linked to adverse neonatal outcomes, particularly low birth weight. The aim of this study was to investigate the independent and interactive effects of these maternal exposures upon neonatal outcomes among pregnant adolescents in a disadvantaged population from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods 930 consecutive pregnant teenagers, admitted for delivery were recruited. Violence was assessed using the Californian Perinatal Asse...

  16. The impact of maternal experience of violence and common mental disorders on neonatal outcomes: a survey of adolescent mothers in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ferri, CP; Mitsuhiro, SS; Barros, MCM; Chalem, E; R Guinsburg; Patel, V.; Prince, M; Laranjeira, R

    2007-01-01

    Background: Both violence and depression during pregnancy have been linked to adverse neonatal outcomes, particularly low birth weight. The aim of this study was to investigate the independent and interactive effects of these maternal exposures upon neonatal outcomes among pregnant adolescents in a disadvantaged population from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods: 930 consecutive pregnant teenagers, admitted for delivery were recruited. Violence was assessed using the Californian Perinatal Assessment....

  17. Total Diet Study. Mg and Mn content estimation of a Market Basket of Sao Paulo state (Brazil) by Instrumental Neutron Activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total Diet Studies (TDS) have been carried out to estimate dietary intakes of the essential and toxic elements for a large-scale population over a specific period of time. In this study, the TDS was based on the evaluation of food representing a Market Basket (MB), which reflected the dietary habits of the Sao Paulo State population, corresponding to 72 % of the average food consumption for the state of Sao Paulo. In the present Total Diet Study, magnesium and manganese concentrations were determined in 30 of the most consumed food groups of a MB of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been successfully used on a regularly basis in several areas of nutrition and foodstuffs. Element concentrations were determined by INAA in freeze-dried samples and ranged in mg kg-1. Mg 41.4 (fats)-5287 (coffee) and Mn 0.12 (prime grade beef)-32.9 (coffee). The average daily Mg and Mn intake was calculated by multiplying the concentration of each element in each table-ready food group by the respective weight (g day-1) of the food group in the MB and adding the products from all food groups. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study were: Mg 174.8 and Mn 1.34 mg day-1. Theses values were lower than the adequate intake (AI) proposed by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine (USA National Academy) for adults. The low levels of Mg and Mn intakes presented in this TDS are probably due to the fact that MB of this study represented only 72 % of the weight of the most consumed household foods of Sao Paulo State. (author)

  18. Orthotics, prosthesis and mobility aids (OPM) dispensation in the Regional Health Department of the 3RD Region of Sao Paulo State

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Caminha Caro; Paloma Soares Pereira Faria; Tatiana Barbieri Bombarda; Iracema Serrat Vergotti Ferrigno; Marina Silveira Palhares

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the process of dispensation of orthotics, prostheses and mobility aids (OPM) by the Unified Health System (SUS) in the Regional Health Department of the 3rd Region (DRSIII) of Sao Paulo state; perform a mapping of the existing physical rehabilitation services in that region; and subsequently correlate the data with applicable laws. Methodology: This is an exploratory cross-sectional qualitative study whose subjects were the main professionals involved in the process ...

  19. Electrical efficiency: case study of electric motors at machines room of a slaughterhouse in the state of Sao Paulo; Eficiencia eletrica: estudo de caso dos motores eletricos da sala de maquinas de um frigorifico no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Luiz A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Conselho Integrado de Infraestrutura Rural], E-mail: rossi@agri.unicamp.br; Silva, Roberto P.B. da; Barros, Regiane S. de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    To estimate the potential for energy saving in cold compressor motor of a food industry, a study was conducted in a slaughterhouse in the state of Sao Paulo. It was analyzed only the engine room of the company because according to measurements this one corresponds approximately 97% of all electricity consumption of the unit. It was found that the electrical efficiency indices were low, demonstrating the possibilities for adoption of conservation measures and the rationalization of electric energy. It was evident that the establishment of an efficiency study to change the electrical equipment used was feasible and, therefore, was demonstrated and proposed a new arrangement for the current system. Soon after the diagnosis of the use of electricity was found that from the six Machinery, five were oversized. Then it was suggested to replace these machines by others with lower power and greater efficiency, as well as conducted an analysis of technical and economic feasibility of the project, demonstrating the possibilities for the rational use of energy and the optimization of financial resources company (author)

  20. Utilization of biogas from sanitary landfill for generation of electrical energy in Sao Paulo: a case study; Aproveitamento do biogas proveniente de aterro sanitario para geracao de energia eletrica em Sao Paulo: estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcilasso, Vanessa Pecora; Coelho, Suani Teixeira Coelho [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez [Universitaria Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Utilization of the biogas proceeding from urban solid residues for electricity generation: case study in Sao Paulo. The biogas, generated from organic matter degradation, is composed by a mixture of gases, the main components being carbon dioxide and methane, which is a greenhouse effect gas with global warming potential around 21 times greater when compared to CO{sub 2}. Biogas production is possible from a great variety of organic residues such as urban solid residues, residues from agricultural and livestock activities, swine livestock, sewage mud, among others. The sanitary landfills may count on techniques of capture of the produced biogas and its later burning in flare, where the methane is transformed in CO{sub 2}, minimizing the environmental impact. Besides the opportunity of reducing the environmental damages, biogas can also be used as fuel for generating electricity, thus adding environmental gain and reduction of costs, due to the diminishing of purchase of the energy consumed in the concessionaire. In this context, this article presents the project of utilization of biogas proceeding from urban solid residues for electricity generation and gas illumination, developed by CENBIO. This project is currently in development and the obtained results will provide technical and economic subsidies for its replication. (author)

  1. Assessment of metal concentrations in sediment samples from Billings Reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais em amostras de sedimento do Reservatorio Billings, Braco Rio Grande, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostelmann, Eleine

    2006-07-01

    The present study chemically characterized sediment samples from the Billings reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, in the Metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, by determining metal concentration and other elements of interest. The chosen chemical parameters for this characterization were Aluminum, Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Selenium and Zinco. These parameters are also used in the water quality index, with the exception of Selenium. The concentrations were determined through different analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, GFAAS and CVAAS), optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and neutron activation analysis. These analytical methodologies were assessed for precision, accuracy and detection and/or quantification limits for the sediment elements in question. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique for each element and its concentration were also discussed. From these assessments the most adequate technique was selected for the routine analysis of sediment samples for each element concentration determination. This assessment verified also that digestion in a closed microwave system with nitric acid is efficient for the evaluation of extracted metals of environmental interest. The analytical techniques chosen were equally efficient for metals determination. In the case of Cd and Pb, the FAAS technique was selected due to better results than ICP OES, as it does not present matrix interference. The concentration values obtained for metals As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) TEL and PEL values. (author)

  2. Implementation of the integrated planning process of energy resources in the administrative region of the Aracatuba in Sao Paulo, Brazil; Implementacao do processo de planejamento integrado de recursos energeticos na regiao administrativa de Aracatuba no Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, Jonathas Luiz de Oliveira; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baesso [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (GEPEA/USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia

    2008-07-01

    The project 'Novos Instrumentos para o Planejamento Energetico Regional Visando o Desenvolvimento Sustentavel' considers, through the Integrated energy Resources Planning - IRP -, to identify to the necessities and strategical expectations for the region and the elaboration of business-oriented plans in distributed resources, to evaluate the economic potential of these resources and to develop strategical projects aiming to reach the sustainable development of the west region of Sao Paulo state. Structuralized to get information organized and reliable in order to help the decision being aimed at the sustainable development and evidencing the benefits of an ample or holistic vision suggested by the IRP, the methodology of work consider phases as the consolidation of resources and technologies, research of field, determination of the potential, accomplishment of the IRP with the evaluation of the complete costs (economical, environmental, social and political respects). The study of the region points at energy resources, as much for expansion of offers as for substitution of the existing ones, considering its social, environmental respects as much as economical and political, placing them of form if to classify in space, through the geo-referring; and classifying them qualitatively, taking itself in account all characteristics previously raised. (author)

  3. The Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SPLMA): Prospects to GOES-R GLM and CHUVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Rachel I.; Carrey, Larry; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Goodman, Steven J.; Bruning, Eric C.; Koshak, William; Morales, Carlos A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Angelis, Carlos F.; Pinto, Osmar, Jr.; Naccarato, Kleber; Saba, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics and prospects of a Lightning Mapping Array to be deployed at the city of S o Paulo (SPLMA). This LMA network will provide CHUVA campaign with total lightning, lightning channel mapping and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions for the thunderstorms investigated during one of its IOP. The real-time availability of LMA observations will also contribute to and support improved weather situational awareness and mission execution. For GOES-R program it will form the basis of generating unique and valuable proxy data sets for both GLM and ABI sensors in support of several on-going research investigations

  4. Degradation and formation of 14 C-atrazine bound residues in soils of the Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the degradation and formation of 14 C-atrazine bound residues in two soils of the Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Hapludox and Umbraquults soils were incubated for 63 days in 500 cm3 glass vessels with 1'4 C-atrazine at 10.38 μg a.i.g-1 of soil. The 14 CO2 evolution was mensured weekly. Acetonitrile and water (4:1 v/v) was used as extractor solution of the herbicide residues and the organic matter fractionation was based on the solubility of the humic fractions of acids and bases. The extracted residue were analyzed for radioactivity by using the Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) method. The mineralization process (0.1% at 63 days after incubation) was insignificant for the atrazine detoxification in the Umbraquults soil. Hidroxyatrazine was the main metabolite of atrazine found in both soils and bound residue formation was an important process in that molecule dissipation, especially in the Umbraquults soil. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the trace elements and the total mercury concentration in fishes commercialized at the Cubatao city, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the total Hg and the trace elements As, Br, Co, Cr and Rb concentrations in muscle of commercially important fishes at the Cubatao, Sao Paulo, Brazil, region. The following carnivore species were analysed: jew fish (Micropogonias furnieri), girl leg (Menticirrhus americanus), hake (Macrodon ancylodon), and plant eaters, sardine (Sardella braziliensis) and grey mullet (Mugil liza), representing a total of 58 samples. The analysed trace elements were determined through the neutron analysis activation (NAA) and total Hg, through the atomic absorption spectrometry with cold vapor generation (CV AAS). The analysed elements present a great concentration variation, not only among individuals of the same specie, but also among all the analysed species. The total Hg concentration were highly significant, with the predator species jew fish, girl leg and hake presenting concentrations larger than the non predator species sardine and grey mullet. Nevertheless, the content of total Hg remained bellow the limits established by the Brazilian legislation which is the 500 μg kg-1 for the non predator species, and the 1000 μg-1 for the predator species (humid weight)

  6. Survey on quality control of radiopharmaceutical dose calibrators in nuclear medicine units in the city of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessa, Ana Carolina Moreira de; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Costa, Alessandro Martins da [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica]. E-mail: amcosta@usp.br

    2008-03-15

    Objective: To perform a survey on routine quality control tests of dose calibrators at nuclear medicine units in the city of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. To evaluate the accuracy of measurements of seven dose calibrators activities, utilizing sources of clinically significant radionuclides at the calibration laboratory of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. Materials and methods: The survey on quality control of dose calibrators has been based on questionnaires answered by the nuclear medicine units. Seven dose calibrators, Ga-67, Tc-99m and Tl-201 sources and a secondary standard instrument have been utilized in the accuracy study. Results: The survey Results on the quality control tests of the dose calibrators showed some inappropriateness, for example, the absence of daily reproducibility tests in all of the units. The accuracy tests for the seven dose calibrators showed Results within the acceptable limit in compliance with the national regulations ({+-}10%). Conclusion: According to the few nuclear medicine units participating in the survey, the dose calibrators quality control is unsatisfactory. The accuracy study of seven dose calibrators has not demonstrated any performance faults, and has established the calibration of these instruments for the utilized sources. (author)

  7. Radon and progeny (214Pb and 214Bi) in urban water-supply systems of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many water-supply systems in South America utilize the waters of the Guarani aquifer at least as part of their networks. However, there is little present knowledge in Brazil of the factors affecting Rn presence in the water supplied for end-users, despite the economic importance of Guarani aquifer. 222Rn analyzes of 162 water samples were performed at 8 municipalities in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, with the aim of investigating the major factors affecting its presence in solution. The 222Rn activity concentration ranged from 0.04 up to 204.9 Bq/L, with three samples exceeding the World Health Organization maximum limit of 100 Bq/L. Aeration was confirmed as the most important factor for Rn release, as expected due to its gaseous nature. Accumulation in pipes and stratification in the water column were other significant factors explaining the data obtained in some circumstances. The Rn daughters 214Pb and 214Bi were also determined in a set of selected samples and their presence was directly related to the occurrence of Rn dissolved in water

  8. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2013-09-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods. PMID:23747923

  9. Proposal of lead time reduction in the thermoelectric products line of a small company in the State of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Veríssimo Soulé

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quick Response Manufacturing (QRM is a way manufacturing companies may increase their flexibility. Manufacturing flexibility is a key to differentiation and enhancement of competitiveness. There is few empirical research on the topic of how small and medium-sized enterprises (SME may benefit from QRM, what may impact the appropriation of this approach by these important actors of our economy. This article aims to present the results of a project which applied QRM to reduce the lead time of a small company located in the state of Sao Paulo. It was proposed to a balance the throughputs of slow operations, reducing 50% of production batches; b implement cellular manufacturing and improvements in the management of Work In Process, using the POLCA system and visual management; c implement an integrated sales and operations planning (S&OP and rules for prioritization of orders. It was identified that the proposal would generate a lead time reduction from 39 to 21.3 days and a decrease of at least 51% in the raw materials stock costs. During the research, the following conclusions could be drawn: a problems in management, investment capacity and relationship with suppliers are frequent in family-owned SMEs; b QRM approach can be adapted to work within this environment; c the knowledge developed in academia can be an important tool to help family-owned SMEs to supplant these obstacles.

  10. Land fauna composition of small mammals of a fragment of Atlantic Forest in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Moraes Barros-Battesti

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest small mammal land fauna, except bats, and the abiotic factors that might have an influence on its composition, were studied in the Itapevi County, State of Sao Paulo, a forested region, partly altered by antropic action, from January, 1995 to June, 1996. The trapping effort consisted of 2,888 trap-nights, resulting in a 4.6% trapping success and consisted of monthly trappings, for five consecutive days. During this period, 134 specimens were captured, of which 46.3% were Didelphimorphia and 53.7% were Rodentia. Eleven species were registered: two Didelphimorphia: Didelphis marsupialis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Marmosops incanus (Lund, 1841, and nine Rodentia: Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887, Bolomys lasiurus (Lund, 1841, Oxymycterus hispidus Pictet, 1843, Oxymycterus nasutus (Waterhouse, 1837, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Oryzomys angouya (Fischer, 1814, Raltus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769, Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer, 1814 and Cavia aperea Erxleben, 1777. The relative density indices were correlated with meteorological data by Spearman and Pearson coefficients. For marsupials these correlations were not significant. For rodents, the correlations were significant and directly related to lower temperature and rainfall indices (p<0.05. During the dry season the occurrence of small mammals was 50% greater than during the wet season, probably due to foraging strategies in the studied fragment of Atlantic Forest.

  11. Toxic metal, micro and macronutrient assessment in fish most consumed by Iguape community, Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Vieira, Andre S.; Bordon, Isabella C.A.C., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br, E-mail: isabella.bordon@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Farias, Luciana A., E-mail: lufarias2@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LABNUT/IO/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico

    2013-07-01

    It is well-known that, fish is an important source of protein for populations around the world. As such, fish consumption has increased because it is a healthy and low cholesterol source of protein and other nutrients. The city of Iguape, in the extreme south of the Sao Paulo State coast, is located in a well-preserved Atlantic Forest region. During the last two centuries the city suffered from drastic environmental changes, reinforcing the importance of environmental monitoring in this region. In the present study, 23 samples of the three most consumed fish species by the Iguape city population were analyzed. Fish samples were bought at local markets, conditioned in isothermic boxes in crushed ice (-4 deg C) and then identified before registering the biometric information (total length, total weight and body weight). The following micro and macronutrients As, Br, Ca, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn concentration in muscle from 02 predatory fish species Macrodon ancylodon (King weakfish - Pescada) and Centropomus parallelus (Fat snook - Robalo peba) and one detritivorus species: Anchoviella lepidentostole (Broadband anchovy - Manjuba) were assessed by INAA. Toxic metals Cd, Hg and Pb were also evaluated by AAS. Statistical correlation between element concentrations and fish species were tested. (author)

  12. Suitability of Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' for biomonitoring ozone in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant' Anna, Silvia M.R.; Esposito, Marisia P.; Domingos, Marisa [Instituto de Botanica, Secao de Ecologia, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Souza, Silvia R. [Instituto de Botanica, Secao de Ecologia, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: souzasrd@terra.com.br

    2008-01-15

    Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is a widely used sensitive bioindicator for ambient ozone, but it is rarely used in tropical countries. Our goal was to determine the suitability of this plant for biomonitoring ozone in the city of Sao Paulo by evaluating the relationships between leaf necroses and ozone under field conditions and measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidants in plants exposed to different concentrations of ozone in closed chambers. While a weak linear relationship between leaf injury and ozone concentrations (R{sup 2} = 0.10) was determined in the field, a strong linear relationship was observed in the chamber experiments. Maximum leaf injury was observed in plants submitted to 40 ppb, which coincided with a significant decrease in fluorescence and total ascorbic acid. The relationship between leaf damage observed in the field and ozone was improved when the concentrations were limited to 40 ppb (R{sup 2} = 0.28). - Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is suitable for indicating low ozone levels in Brazil.

  13. Determination of REE in urban park soils from Sao Paulo city for fingerprint of traffic emission contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Camargo, Sonia P., E-mail: anamaria@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sigolo, Joel B., E-mail: jbsigolo@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2009-07-01

    The study of rare earth elements (REE) distribution in urban environments has become very interesting in the last years, due to the increasing industrial use of these elements. The REE La, Ce and Nd are used in automobile converter catalysts to stabilize the catalyst support and to enhance the oxidation of pollutants. The honeycomb structure has a typical association of a high Ce (and often also La) concentration combined with high concentrations of Platinum Group Elements. Due to thermal and mechanical wear of catalysts, fine particles enriched in REE are released to the environment. These catalyst particles can accumulate in urban soils, mainly in soils located near high density traffic roads. The aim of this paper was to study the REE distribution and ratios in surface soil samples collected in fourteen urban public parks of Sao Paulo city, to assess the influence of vehicular emissions. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for the REE analysis. The diagrams normalized to chondrite values showed an enrichment of the light REE (La to Sm), in contrast to the heavy REE (Eu to Lu), with a negative anomaly of Eu. The results obtained indicated that the enrichment in REE is not clearly attributed to vehicular traffic, because of high background values associated to the natural geological composition of the soils. (author)

  14. Determination of REE in urban park soils from Sao Paulo city for fingerprint of traffic emission contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of rare earth elements (REE) distribution in urban environments has become very interesting in the last years, due to the increasing industrial use of these elements. The REE La, Ce and Nd are used in automobile converter catalysts to stabilize the catalyst support and to enhance the oxidation of pollutants. The honeycomb structure has a typical association of a high Ce (and often also La) concentration combined with high concentrations of Platinum Group Elements. Due to thermal and mechanical wear of catalysts, fine particles enriched in REE are released to the environment. These catalyst particles can accumulate in urban soils, mainly in soils located near high density traffic roads. The aim of this paper was to study the REE distribution and ratios in surface soil samples collected in fourteen urban public parks of Sao Paulo city, to assess the influence of vehicular emissions. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for the REE analysis. The diagrams normalized to chondrite values showed an enrichment of the light REE (La to Sm), in contrast to the heavy REE (Eu to Lu), with a negative anomaly of Eu. The results obtained indicated that the enrichment in REE is not clearly attributed to vehicular traffic, because of high background values associated to the natural geological composition of the soils. (author)

  15. Determination of REE and U in agricultural soils from Jaguari River basin, Sao Paulo, by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium has the highest atomic weight of the naturally occurring elements. It is weakly radioactive and occurs naturally in low concentrations (a few parts per million) in soil, rock and water. The rare earth elements (REE) form the largest chemically coherent group in the periodic table. The versatility and specificity of the REE have given them a level of technological, environmental, and economic importance considerably greater than might be expected. The objective of this work was to determine the concentration of the lanthanides (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu), and U, considering the soil use and occupation from the Jaguari river basin, Sao Paulo. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for the REE and U analysis The study area is located in a traditional agricultural area which is nowadays one of the main industrial regions of Brazil. In order to evaluate the quality of these soils in relation to lanthanides and U levels, the obtained concentrations were compared to guiding values reported by environmental protection agencies. The 75th percentile for U in agricultural soils (2.76 mg kg-1) was higher than in the control areas (1.61 mg kg-1), but much lower than the maximum allowed concentration for soils in The Netherlands (28.3 mg kg-1). The lanthanides presented concentration levels higher than the guiding values of the RIVM - -National Institute for Public Health and the Environment guidelines. (author)

  16. A preliminary study of archaeological ceramic from the Sao Paulo II, Brazil, archaeological site by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio B.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Oliveira, Paulo M.S., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neves, Eduardo G.; Tamahara, Eduardo K., E-mail: edgneves@usp.br [Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (MAE/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The determination of trace elements plays an important role in the characterization of archaeological ceramics. It is well established that ceramics can be grouped based on similarities/dissimilarities derived from chemical data. Different analytical methods can be applied to determine the sample composition. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is the method preferred because present several advantages in relation to the other techniques. In this work, the elements determined were As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm, U, Yb, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, I, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta , Tb, Th and Zn to carry out a preliminary chemical characterization in 44 ceramic samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site by INAA. The site is located in Coari city, 363 km from Manaus, Amazonas state (AM). The elementary concentration results were studied using multivariate statistical methods. The similarity/dissimilarity among the samples was studied by means of discriminant analysis. The compositions group classification was done through cluster analysis, showing the formation of the three distinct groups of the ceramics. (author)

  17. Toxic metal, micro and macronutrient assessment in fish most consumed by Iguape community, Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well-known that, fish is an important source of protein for populations around the world. As such, fish consumption has increased because it is a healthy and low cholesterol source of protein and other nutrients. The city of Iguape, in the extreme south of the Sao Paulo State coast, is located in a well-preserved Atlantic Forest region. During the last two centuries the city suffered from drastic environmental changes, reinforcing the importance of environmental monitoring in this region. In the present study, 23 samples of the three most consumed fish species by the Iguape city population were analyzed. Fish samples were bought at local markets, conditioned in isothermic boxes in crushed ice (-4 deg C) and then identified before registering the biometric information (total length, total weight and body weight). The following micro and macronutrients As, Br, Ca, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn concentration in muscle from 02 predatory fish species Macrodon ancylodon (King weakfish - Pescada) and Centropomus parallelus (Fat snook - Robalo peba) and one detritivorus species: Anchoviella lepidentostole (Broadband anchovy - Manjuba) were assessed by INAA. Toxic metals Cd, Hg and Pb were also evaluated by AAS. Statistical correlation between element concentrations and fish species were tested. (author)

  18. Precambrrian continental crust evolution of southeastern Sao Paulo state-Brazil: based on isotopico evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focussed area comprises five major different tectonic terranes separated by faults, which are named Alto Rio Grande Belt, Socorro-Guaxupe Nappe, Sao Roque, Embu and Costeiro Domains. The geological and geochronological history of these terranes show that the metamorphic episodes of crust-forming occurred involving both mantle-derived magmas and reworking of continental material since 3.4 Ga until 600 Ma. The post-tectonic granitic activities occurred within 1000-500 Ma range and in general, the rocks are progressively younger from the Socorro-Guaxupe Nappe (1000-850 Ma) in the NW towards the Costeiro Domain (550 Ma) in the SE. The Sr and Pb isotopic evidences, together with geological and geophysical informations, suggest that the proportions of the rock-forming processes through the geological time are: Archean, 10%; Lower Proterozoic, 10%; Middle Proterozoic, 38%; Late Proterozaic, 42%. Although the Mid and Late Proterozoic time were a period of a large amount of rocks were formed, they were not a major crustforming period, because these rocks are mainly constituted by recycled continental crust material. In our view, at end of the Early Proterozoic time, at least 85% of continetal crust, in this area, has accreted and differentiate. During the Middle and Late Proterozoic the continental crust grew at small rate. (author)

  19. Coaching and Mentoring as a Tool for Internal Customer Focus: A Regional Study in Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Oste Graziano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The research had as objective identifies the dimensions involved in the implementation of Coaching, for the manager's performance as manager close to your team, in real situation of work; the study includes the same investigation in relation to Mentoring, taking as study people's that work area of São Paulo focus. The data collected in the research they were collected through a questionnaire with open and closed subjects. The research showed as results of the pertinent subjects to the coaching and the mentoring that the great majority, or almost all had some training type, that happened in group, with the managers' presence just in the beginning and adding 8 hours, could end like this with that subject that in the researched respondents the work of the coaching is accomplished inside of the retail organizations. Concerning the mentoring, it can be concluded that she is inside present of the organization and it is represented by the leader. 

  20. Aedes aegypti entomological indices in an endemic area for dengue in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane A Favaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the most productive types of properties and containers for Aedes aegypti and the spatial distribution of entomological indices. METHODS: Between December 2006 and February 2007, the vector's immature forms were collected to obtain entomological indices in 9,875 properties in the Jaguare neighborhood of Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP, Southeastern Brazil. In March and April 2007, a questionnaire about the conditions and characteristics of properties was administered. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with the presence of pupae at the properties. Indices calculated per block were combined with a geo-referenced map, and thematic maps of these indices were obtained using statistical interpolation. RESULTS: The properties inspected had the following Ae. aegypti indices: Breteau Index = 18.9, 3.7 larvae and 0.42 pupae per property, 5.2 containers harboring Ae. aegypti per hectare, 100.0 larvae and 11.6 pupae per hectare, and 1.3 larvae and 0.15 pupae per inhabitant. The presence of yards, gardens and animals was associated with the presence of pupae. CONCLUSIONS: Specific types of properties and containers that simultaneously had low frequencies among those positive for the vector and high participation in the productivity of larvae and pupae were not identified. The use of indices including larval and pupal counts does not provide further information beyond that obtained from the traditional Stegomyia indices in locations with characteristics similar to those of São José do Rio Preto. The indices calculated per area were found to be more accurate for the spatial assessment of infestation. The Ae. aegypti infestation levels exhibited extensive spatial variation, indicating that the assessment of infestation in micro areas is needed.

  1. Natural radionuclides and {sup 137}Cs in commercialized edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo-Brazil; Radionuclideos naturais e {sup 137}Cs em cogumelos comestiveis comercializados em Sao Paulo - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Lilian Pavanelli de

    2008-07-01

    Artificial and natural radionuclides are commonly found in several compartments of the earth's crust. Some mushroom species have a high capacity to absorb radionuclides and toxic elements from the soil. Diet is considered as one of the main routes of radioactive contamination. Therefore, radioactivity measurements in the environment and in food are extremely important to monitor the radiation levels that human can be exposed to either directly or indirectly. Environmental bio monitoring has demonstrated that diverse organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful when evaluating both the contamination and the quality of the ecosystems. There are actually several radionuclides that can be accumulated in mushrooms, including {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U. There are few studies in the Southern hemisphere countries, on the natural and artificial radioactivity levels in mushrooms. The present study evaluated {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U in commercialized edible mushrooms in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The edible mushroom samples were acquired in different commercial establishments in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, specifically in Municipal Markets. Some samples were acquired directly from producers located in the cities of Mogi das Cruzes, Mirandopolis, Suzano and Juquitiba. About 400g were collected for each edible mushroom species, which included Agaricus sp, Pleurotus sp and Lentinula sp species. All the samples were prepared and stored in polyethylene bottles for approximately 35 days, so that secular equilibrium could be established before counting. The {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U gamma activities were measured by gamma spectrometry. The equipment consisted of a Hyper pure Germanium detector connected to an electronic system. The detector efficiency was obtained from measurements of reference materials: IAEA-300, IAEA-327 and IAEA-375. The results for the specific activities

  2. Evolucao dos precos relativos de grupos alimentares entre 1939 e 2010, em Sao Paulo, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Yuka Yuba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a evolução dos preços relativos dos grupos de produtos alimentares e sua influência nas políticas públicas para uma alimentação saudável. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados do município de São Paulo de 1939 a 2010, a partir da aplicação de métodos de cálculo de números-índices. Foram utilizados dados do banco de preços e estruturas de ponderação da Fundação Instituto de Pesquisas Econômicas (1939 a 1988 e do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (1989 a 2010. O banco de preços foi organizado, sua consistência foi testada e os preços foram deflacionados pelo Índice de Preços ao Consumidor. Os dados relativos a preços deflacionados foram calculados e agregados por categorias e grupos alimentares da pirâmide alimentar adaptada. Os índices de preços de cada grupo foram construídos aplicando a fórmula de Laspeyres modificada. O índice geral de preços da alimentação foi comparado com índices de cada grupo alimentar e respectiva categoria: alimentos in natura; alimentos industrializados; bebidas; carnes, leguminosas, leite e ovos; cereais e tubérculos; e refeições fora do domicílio. RESULTADOS: Os grupos alimentares de gorduras, óleos, condimentos, açúcares e alimentos processados (alimentos industrializados apresentaram tendência de redução de preços em termos relativos. O índice dos alimentos in natura, como frutas e verduras, apresentaram tendência de elevação de preços. Outros grupos alimentares, como cereais, farinhas e massas, carnes, leite e ovos, apresentaram estabilidade de preços relativos ao longo do tempo. CONCLUSÕES: A evolução dos preços relativos dos alimentos no município de São Paulo mostra tendência desfavorável à manutenção da alimentação saudável em nível domiciliar em longo prazo.

  3. Assessment of contamination for inorganic elements and phthalate esters in household dust from the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo; Avaliacao da contaminacao por elementos inorganicos e esteres ftalicos em poeira domestica da regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scapin, Valdirene de Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    Household dust has been identified as an important vector of exposure by inorganic and organic substances potentially toxic in children and adults. The dust composition has a strong influence of contaminants provided from internal and external environments. During the natural process of wearing or weather incidents of artifacts and materials variety, the chemical substances are released into the environment in the steam form or by leaching from final products. Once released, they can be accumulated and enriched in the dust; and by continuous exposure (inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact mechanisms), these substances are harmful to human health. In this work, a study to determine the inorganic constituents and phthalate esters concentrations in residential indoor environment dust samples, correlating them with the probable anthropogenic sources was proposed. Dust samples were collected from 69 residences in neighborhoods Pirituba, Freguesia do O, Jaragua and Perus of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, using a domestic vacuum cleaner, between 2006 and 2008. The samples were sieved in the fractions of 850, 850-300, 300-150, 150-75, 75-63 and <63 {mu}m. The analysis by X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) showed the presence of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb. The presence of phthalate esters (DEHP, DnBP, DEP, DEHA, DMP and BBP) was detected, by GCMS analyses. From the enrichment factor (EF), the elements P, S, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were classified as being significant and extremely enriched in the dust. The natural and anthropogenic contributions by statistical tools as factor analysis (AF) and cluster were identified. The elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were present significantly elevated concentrations in relation to the total exposure values (ingestion, inhalation and skin contact) and to risk. (author)

  4. Studies of osteoporosis in urban residents of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using isotope related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoporosis is presently a major problem scientific as well as economic all over the world. For this reason this disease has been studied quite intensely involving not only researchers but also densitometer makers and medicine manufacturers. Many etiologies have been described relating factors which could interfere either in bone formation or bone reabsorption or both. As bone loss along the life is a normal event it is quite understandable that the amount of remaining bone will depend on the amount gained during bone formation. For this reason it is quite important to know the peak of bone mass and the factors that would interfere in the amount of bone formed. It is also very important to define for a certain population its peak of bone mass which would be a valuable guide for future plans of osteoporosis prevention. This project is aimed at defining the peak of bone mass in an urban population which was chosen randomly taken into account the fact that there is a great miscegenation in S.Paulo

  5. Evolution of bacterial meningitis diagnosis in Sao Paulo State-Brazil and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Marques Salgado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial meningitis (BM is a severe disease and still represents a serious public health problem with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The most common cases of BM around the world, mainly in Brazil, have been caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Bacterial culture is the gold-standard technique for BM confirmation, but approximately 50% of suspected cases are not culture-confirmed, due to problems related to improper transportation and seeding or previous antibiotic treatment. Immunological methods present low sensitivity and have possibility of cross-reactions. Real time PCR (qPCR is a molecular technique and has been successful used for BM diagnosis at Instituto Adolfo Lutz in São Paulo State, Brazil, since 2007. The incorporation of qPCR in the Public Health surveillance routine in our state resulted in diminishing 50% of undetermined BM cases. Our efforts are focused on qPCR implementation in the BM diagnostic routine throughout Brazil.

  6. Concurrent crack and powder cocaine users from Sao Paulo: Do they represent a different group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breen Gerome

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cocaine abuse is a serious and socially damaging illegal drug problem. Different routes of administration are associated with a specific progression of use, different degrees of abuse liability, propensity for dependence and treatment response. There have been relatively few studies comparing different cocaine users groups and no studies into the characterization of the group of individuals reporting concurrent use of powder cocaine and crack cocaine. Methods Six hundred and ninety-nine cocaine users were assessed during the period August 1997 to October 1998 in one outpatient and six inpatient clinics located in the São Paulo, Brazil. Patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire schedule in Portuguese, designed specifically for the Brazilian population. The statistical analyses were performed using either ANOVA or a chi-squared test and focusing on their preferred form of use/route of administration and other variables. Results For 83% of the variables tested in this study, the Dual Users subgroup (using both powder and crack cocaine demonstrated statistical differences from the single drug user subgroups. Those differences include the initiation of cocaine, the abuse of other illicit drugs, and rates of criminal history. Conclusion These data suggest cocaine-dependent individuals who report use of both powder and crack cocaine are an at least partially, distinct subgroup. However, further studies will be necessary to confirm this and to determine if they also show a different treatment response.

  7. The contribution of vehicular emission to the atmospheric concentrations of carbon compounds in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, M.; Fornaro, A.; Miranda, R.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Freitas, E. D.; LAPAt-Laboratorio de Analise dos Processos Atmosfericos

    2013-05-01

    It is recognized that megacities have regional and global effects on climate, and that aerosols and Green House Gases (GHG) constitute the principal tracer of those effects. Such is the case in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), one of the largest mega-cities in the world. MASP has a population of almost 20 million inhabitants. The main source of air pollution is the transport sector. In this region, there are approximately 6.5 million passenger cars and commercial vehicles: 85% light duty, 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (diesel + 3% bio-diesel) and 12% motorcycles. Of the light duty vehicle, approximately 55% burn a mixture (v/v) of 78% gasoline with 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), 4% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), 38% flexible fuel vehicles capable of burning both gasohol as hydrated ethanol, and 2% use diesel. In average 50% of the fuel used in MASP is ethanol what brings the necessity of more studies to understand the formation of photochemical oxidants and secondary particles. According to the São Paulo State Environmental Protection Agency, 97% of carbon monoxide (CO), 85% of hydrocarbons (HC), 82% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 36% of sulfur dioxide emitted, and 36% of all inhalable particulate matter (PM10) are emitted by the vehicular fleet. Concerning particles, 75% of the Fine Particle Concentration is related to the burning of fuel, mainly diesel. The fine particles are composed of Organic Carbon (40%), Black Carbon (30%), ions (15%) and metals. It is known that the soot is warming the climate and is important to the radiative balance. Another important driver to the radiative balance, the CO2 is mainly emitted by the transport sector, which is responsible for 57% of its emission. A comprehensive project under development has the objective of determine the role of MASP as the source of gaseous and particle compounds to the atmosphere of the region and in a mesoscale perspective. The project with funding from the São Paulo

  8. Assessment of land use in protected areas of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iori, P.; da Silva, R. B.; Dias Junior, M. S.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    It is of universal knowledge that the soil, a basic natural resource, is renewable only if conserved or used correctly(Primavesi, 2002). It is salient for Araújo et al. (2007) that the establishment of index of soil quality is an important tool in the functions of control, supervision and monitoring of areas for environmental protection. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of the soil by means of a comparative diagram in different soil uses in permanent preservation areas (APP). The study was conducted in areas near the Ribeira de Iguape river in the city of Registro - São Paulo - Brazil, belonging to the Atlantic Forest domain, a Haplic Cambisol. The following uses of the soil had been evaluated: a) banana culture (CBAN) without agricultural traffic of machines; b) degraded pasture (PDEG) with extensive system predominantly Brachiaria decumbens L. c) use silvopastoral (MPIs), consisted in a kills with a traffic free for the animals, and d) native vegetation (MNAT), proposed in this study as a reference area.The following physical indicators were analyzed: bulk density (BD), total soil porosity (TP), macroporosity (Ma), microporosity (Mi), water dispersible clay (ADA), flocculation index (FI), preconsolidation pressure (PP), soil shear strength (SS), soil resistance to penetration (RP). To construct the comparative diagram the values for each attribute of the soil in each land use were related to the values of the native forest. It was feasible to use the comparative model in the qualitative evaluation of soil use, allowing separate environments under different uses. According to the comparative diagram of banana culture is the use that most negatively impacts the physical and mechanical soil due to the smaller size of the lower polygon.

  9. QC in imaging departments in Sao Paulo/Brazil: A 10 year experience at a public university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the beginning of the last decade, a work group composed of physicists and engineers was organized at the Institute of Electrotechnique and Energy of the University of Sao Paulo (IEE/USP) in order to start the development of technical procedures to be implemented as a Quality Control Programme for diagnostic imaging departments. The first years of this group dealt with personal qualification and education of the professionals in the area of quality control and radiation physics. After 1995, the QC Group of IEE/USP started to apply the programme at the imaging departments in public and private hospitals at Sao Paulo. The programme started to be implemented only in general, dental and fluoroscopic X ray equipment, but was quickly added to QC procedures for computed tomography and mammography equipment. During that decade a state regulation and a federal regulation were published, and many hospitals started the QC programme in order to comply with these regulations. The programme was adequately adapted to these regulations and an effort to disseminate information was made in order to improve the efficiency of the application of the programme. In some cases, international standards or standards from other countries have also been used as basis for the evaluation programme. The QC programme is implemented in a regular basis, with technical visits of the professionals for physical measurements following at least the periodicity established under the national regulations. The development of new procedures and the optimization of some methodologies followed two research programmes sponsored by Brazilian agencies. These researches provided the opportunity to improve the technical qualification of the team in charge with the QC tests, as well as make available the acquisition of electronic instruments and phantoms to be used in QC routine. Also during these research programmes, methods ere developed to implement the QC programme in ultrasound and resonance magnetic imaging

  10. Lichen specie Canoparmelia texana as bioindicator of environmental impact from the phosphate fertilizer industry of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian phosphate industry is the sixth worldwide producer of phosphate rock concentrate generating phosphoric acid, fertilizers, intermediates for fertilizers and other products. Two of the most important of these industries are both located in the city of Cubatao-Sao Paulo, Brazil, and they are responsible for the production of P2O5, generating a residue known as phosphogypsum. The raw material, phosphate rock and products are commonly transported to the industrial complex by a railroad line and present in their composition natural radionuclides from the U and Th series and rare earth elements. Lichens have been used for monitoring atmospheric pollution and radiological contamination for a long time and have proven to be an important tool. This paper aims to highlight the use of the lichen specie Canoparmelia texana (family Parmeliacea) as a bioindicator of atmospheric pollution by the natural radionuclides from the U and Th series and RREs due to the operation of these industries and the storage of their residue in the open air. Samples of these lichen specie were collected in the vicinity of the industries and the railroad. The radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb were measured by alpha and beta counting, after radiochemical separation, and 238U, 232Th as well as REEs were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results showed that the lichens present the same fingerprint as the phosphate rock and phosphogypsum, furthermore the cluster analysis of the results showed that the lichen samples collected near to the railroad line presented the highest values for all the elements studied. (author)

  11. Assessment of contamination for inorganic elements and phthalate esters in household dust from the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Household dust has been identified as an important vector of exposure by inorganic and organic substances potentially toxic in children and adults. The dust composition has a strong influence of contaminants provided from internal and external environments. During the natural process of wearing or weather incidents of artifacts and materials variety, the chemical substances are released into the environment in the steam form or by leaching from final products. Once released, they can be accumulated and enriched in the dust; and by continuous exposure (inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact mechanisms), these substances are harmful to human health. In this work, a study to determine the inorganic constituents and phthalate esters concentrations in residential indoor environment dust samples, correlating them with the probable anthropogenic sources was proposed. Dust samples were collected from 69 residences in neighborhoods Pirituba, Freguesia do O, Jaragua and Perus of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, using a domestic vacuum cleaner, between 2006 and 2008. The samples were sieved in the fractions of 850, 850-300, 300-150, 150-75, 75-63 and <63 μm. The analysis by X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) showed the presence of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb. The presence of phthalate esters (DEHP, DnBP, DEP, DEHA, DMP and BBP) was detected, by GCMS analyses. From the enrichment factor (EF), the elements P, S, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were classified as being significant and extremely enriched in the dust. The natural and anthropogenic contributions by statistical tools as factor analysis (AF) and cluster were identified. The elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were present significantly elevated concentrations in relation to the total exposure values (ingestion, inhalation and skin contact) and to risk. (author)

  12. Diesel emissions significantly influence composition and mutagenicity of ambient particles: a case study in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2003, a bus strike paralyzed the fleet of buses in Sao Paulo, Brazil during 3 days, from 6 to 8 of April, the complete interruption of services being achieved on the 7th. We evaluated the effect of the absence of this source of pollution on the composition, mutagenicity, and toxicity of the fine particulate material collected during this period. Particles were sampled in glass fiber filters on days 7 and 15 of April of 2003 (strike and nonstrike days, respectively), using a high-volume sampler. Trace element determinations (As, Br, Co, Cl, Fe, La, Mn, Sb, Sc, and Th) of particulate material samples were carried out by neutron activation analysis. Sulfur determination was done by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The ratio between nonstrike/strike concentrations of hydrocarbons associated with automotive emissions (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylenes; BTEX) was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Mutagenesis of testing solutions was determined by means of the Tradescantia micronucleus assay in early tetrads of Tradescantia pallida. The inhibition of mitosis of the cells of the primary meristema of the root tips of Allium cepa was used as an index of the toxicity. Fine particle trace element contents were lower during the strike. The concentrations of sulfur and BTEX were 50% and 39.3% lower, respectively, on the strike day. A significant (P=0.038) reduction of micronuclei induced by fine particles sampled during the strike was observed. No effect of the strike on toxicity was detected. These results indicate that a program aiming to reduce emissions of the bus fleet in our town may impact positively the air quality by reducing the mutagenic potential of ambient particles

  13. Mapping of occupational therapy practice in the psychosocial Care Centers of Alcohol and Drugs In Sao Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Regina Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug use and the challenge of finding answers in assistance to the so called drug abuse is a current theme that challenges professionals, services and managers. This study aimed to map features, professionals and the activities carried out by occupational therapists of the Psychosocial Care Centers of Alcohol and other Drugs (Centros de Atenção Psicossocial Álcool e Drogas – CAPS ad in the state of Sao Paulo, through the application of a self-answerable questionnaire. During data collection, 45 CAPS ad were found in the interior of the state. Nineteen professionals cooperated with the research; 15 of them were occupational therapists. The results showed that these care centers present proposals regulated according to the guidelines of the Ministry of Health, but the complexity of the demand and its multiple facets with the social dimension require further discussion on the type of intervention that has been employed, as well as on its efficacy. Regarding the profile of the occupational therapists, most of them have at least five years of training, graduate degrees, and did not choose the area of mental health and drugs. The occupational therapists have different views of their actions, use different resources and strategies, especially in group activities and through workshops, and signify their actions in different ways, promoting new projects of life by joining treatment proposals from abstinence to harm reduction. We conclude that the assistance to the users of CAPS ad is extremely complex, because it involves social character themes with macro social determinants which require greater integration between sectors, areas and resources.

  14. Assessment of natural radium isotopes and 222Rn in water samples from Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium isotopes and radon are among the most important natural radionuclides in the environment from both radioprotection and geo-hydrological points of view. These radionuclides are a powerful tool for studying coastal processes and have been used intensively as tracers of groundwater sources that discharge into the ocean. In this paper, naturally occurring radium isotopes and 222Rn were determined to trace water exchange and SGD in Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex, a shallow coastal plain estuary in southern Sao Paulo area. The research work was carried out during the first semester of 2009 and covered stations located both in Cananeia and Iguape outlets, as well as samples collected in Ribeira of Iguape River and groundwater. Activity concentrations of 226Ra in estuarine waters from Cananeia outlet varied from 2.9 mBq L-1 to 4.7 mBq L-1, while 228Ra concentrations ranged from 22 mBq L-1 to 45 mBq L-1. In Iguape outlet, activities of 226Ra ranged from 1.6 mBq L-1 to 6.6 mBq L-1; 228Ra varied from 13 mBq L-1 to 20 mBq L-1. Activities of Ra were slightly higher in samples collected at 5 m depth than at the surface water level. Groundwater activity concentrations of 226Ra ranged from 0.63 mBq L-1 to 12 mBq L-1 and for 228Ra from 18 mBq L-1 to 39 mBq L-1. In groundwater, the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratios varied from 3.3 to 31.7. 222Rn activities in groundwater up to 747 Bq L-1 were observed. Increased nitrate contents were observed in groundwater samples collected in Cananeia and Comprida Island. (author)

  15. Study of socio environmental actions of Energy and Nuclear Research Institute of Sao Paulo (IPEN/CNEN-SP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the years the evolution of environmental concept comes solidifying increasingly through programs, conferences and various activities taking place in Brazil and worldwide. As a result of this development, sustainability and social responsibility began to be seen as something present in day to day business and institutions. In particular, the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN), state authority associated with University of Sao Paulo (USP) and managed by the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), subordinate the Ministry of Science and Technology, which is the focus of this work, has the mission the commitment to society as regards: improving the quality of life of the population, producing scientific knowledge, developing technologies, generating products and services and training human resources in nuclear and related. Based on the mission of IPEN and in the lack of assessment tools of social actions, this paper aims to propose an instrument for assessing social responsibility and serve as a methodological option, strongly committed to the pursuit of improvements of IPEN. Through indicators and dimensions, built up a methodology that seeks to assess social responsibility and identify strengths, to be encouraged and weaknesses, which can be studied and improved. This methodology was applied to IPEN and the results that are presented in this work identified positives regarding their actions to their domestic audience and points to be improved in relation to their external audience. As an initial evaluation, the results were satisfactory; however, this work will continue in order to suggest the implementation of social and environmental actions feasible to be applied in IPEN. (author)

  16. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Ribeira do Iguape river, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Francisco J.V. de; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: franciscovc@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: gilsonn@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELTA - Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: franciscoj@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELAI - Setor de Quimica Inorganica

    2011-07-01

    The watershed region of the Ribeira do Iguape River and the estuarine complex of the Paranagua-Iguape- Cananeia and the various river basins located between this region and the Atlantic Ocean, is known as the Ribeira Valley. The Ribeira do Iguape River runs a total length of approximately 470 km, being the main source of fresh water in the Estuarine Complex of the Iguape-Cananeia-Paranagua (Lagamar). The Ribeira do Iguape River is the last major river in the State of Sao Paulo that has not been altered by dams. During virtually the entire 20th century, the region of the Ribeira Valley was the scene of constant environmental degradation resulting from the intense exploration and refining of lead, zinc and silver ores that were processed in the mines of the region, in a rudimentary way and without any control over environmental impacts. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aims to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals and semi-metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the sediment and water of aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The determination of these elements was carried out by GF AAS technique for water samples and ICP OES for the sediment samples. This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, according to precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb were compared to the Canadian Environmental oriented values (TEL and PEL). The results obtained for multielemental analyses in the sediment samples were compared to UCC values (Upper Continental Crust). (author)

  17. 14 C dating and isotopic composition of lacustrine sediment in the Vale do Ribeira, south-western Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is part of a multi and interdisciplinary study involving paleoenvironmental records based on systematic and joint actions of pollen, isotopic composition (12C, 13C and 14N, 15N) and 14C dating of lacustrine sediment. Samplings have been made in the Lagoa Grande located at Parque Estadual de Turismo do Alto Ribeira - PETAR, in the Vale do Ribeira, south-western Sao Paulo state. This integration must improve significantly the studies of vegetation and climate changes that occurred during the Late Pleistocene in the southeastern region of Brazil. The δ13C results of lacustrine sediment presented values from -23 to -30 per mille with isotopic tendencies of enrichment-depletion in the whole profile. The highest values of total organic carbon (TOC) and C/N associated with depleted δ13C values, were linked to organic matter from C3 land plant and interpreted as the presence of denser arboreal vegetation around the lake. The smallest values of TOC and C/N associated with enriched δ13C values were linked to phytoplanktonic influence and/or the presence of less dense arboreal vegetation around the lake. These fluctuations reflect changes in quality and quantity of sedimentary organic matter linked to vegetation changes and the production of organic matter within the sedimentation basin connected with lake level variations. The combination of C/N and δ13C data on a cross-plot diagram shows a general distribution of points lying close to the planktonic (algal) organic matter. However, the scattering of certain points indicates a slight contribution from C3 land plants. The variations in arboreal pollen (%AP) along the core are characterized by AP values between 40 and 80%. The 14C dating indicated Modern age at the shallow horizons to 1,030 years BP for the deeper horizon. (author)

  18. Barriers to control syphilis and HIV vertical transmission in the health care system in the city of Sao Paulo

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    Valdete Maria Ramos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify possible barriers to control vertical transmission of syphilis and HIV through the analysis of the orientation process of pregnant women from prenatal care to the obstetric center at an university hospital in Sao Paulo (Reference and their return (with their exposed babies for follow-up after hospital discharge (counter-reference. METHODS: It is a retrospective cross-sectional study including interviews with healthcare personnel. Pregnant women with syphilis and/or HIV-infection admitted for labor or miscarriage were identified from August 2006 to August 2007. Routine care for mothers and babies were analyzed. RESULTS: 56 pregnant women were identified: 43 were HIV-infected, 11 had syphilis and two were coinfected (syphilis/HIV; 22 health care professionals were interviewed. Prenatal care was identified in 91.1% of these women: 7/11 (63.6% with syphilis; 44/45 (97.8% HIV-infected or coinfected. The reference for delivery was satisfactory for 57.7% of the syphilis-infected women and 97.7% of the HIV-infected ones. The counter-reference was satisfactory for all babies and mothers at hospital discharge, besides the non-adherence to this recommendation. Interviews with health care professionals showed there are better routines for assisting and following-up pregnant women, puerperal women and HIV-infected or exposed babies than for those infected with syphilis. The epidemiological report and surveillance system are also better for HIV-infected patients. CONCLUSION: The difficulties in the reference and counter-reference system of these women and their babies are evident barriers to control the vertical transmission of these infectious diseases.

  19. Comparison of blood serum selenium concentrations from elderly population living in Sao Paulo city and literature data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selenium is an essential nutrient of fundamental importance to human biology. This element is a component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase that avoids the formation of free radicals protecting the organism against the oxidative damage. The Se concentrations in serum vary from one part of the world to another and this fact has been satisfactorily explained as a consequence of different Se intakes of the population. The main objective of this paper was the determination of serum Se concentrations in healthy elderly population included in a program for 'Successful Ageing' of the Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo University Medical School. The blood samples were collected after a 12 h fast from 32 subjects aged 60 to 87 years. The blood was centrifuged after completely clotted and 4.0 mL of serum were freeze.dried for Se determination using neutron activation analysis. The serum samples and Se standard were irradiated for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of de 5 x 1012 n cm-'2 s-1 at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. Se was determined by measuring the gamma activity of 75Se using an HGe detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The mean value of (0.92±0.07) μmol L-1 was obtained for serum Se concentration. This value is within the data used as reference values in clinical laboratories and those published in literature. Results obtained for certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 1577b Bovine Liver showed good precision and agreed with the certified values. The relative standard deviation of the results was lower than 4.8 % and relative error lower than 0.97 %. Detection limit value obtained for serum Se determination was 0.003 μmol L-1. (author)

  20. Tritium concentration analysis of ground water samples from the environmental monitoring program at IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Nuclear and Energetic Researches, IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares), located inside the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, comprises several nuclear and radiative facilities developing activities in the fields of nuclear physics, radiochemistry, nuclear engineering, radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals production, application of nuclear techniques in industry and radiation protection and environmental monitoring. In order to control the releases of radioactive substances to the environment under normal working conditions of existing facilities, samples of liquid effluents, ground water, rainwater and filters for air sampling in the influence area of IPEN are analyzed on a regular basis since 1988 by using high resolution gamma spectrometry. For tritium, a pure beta emitter with a maximum energy of 18,6 keV, we established the following procedure for water samples: the sample is slowly distilled for removing non-volatile radionuclides and usual quenching materials near dryness, assuring complete transfer of tritiated water. A sub-sample of the distillate is mixed (1:15 ratio) with the scintillation solution Insta-Gel XP from Packard Co., USA, in a glass scintillation vial and counted on a Packard Tri-Carb 2100 scintillation spectrometer. The spectrometer was calibrated with an Amersham standard solution and the efficiency was cca. 47 % for the 3H 18 keV energy. The calculated low-level detection limit for the procedure is 18.6 Bq/L, below the EPA tritium concentration limit for drinking water of 740 Bq/L. Ground-water bi-monthly collected samples from 6 wells on site since 1995 show values below the detection limit, indicating a low background tritium activity at IPEN. (author)

  1. Fluorose dentaria em criancas de Sao Paulo, SP, 1998-2010

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    Paulo Capel Narvai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a tendência de prevalência de fluorose dentária em crianças de 12 anos em contexto de exposição a múltiplas fontes de flúor. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se análise de tendência da prevalência de fluorose dentária no período de 1998 a 2010 na cidade de São Paulo, SP. As prevalências foram calculadas para diferentes anos (1998, 2002, 2008 e 2010, a partir de dados secundários obtidos em levantamentos epidemiológicos com amostras representativas da população de 12 anos de idade. A ocorrência de fluorose foi avaliada sob luz natural utilizando o índice de Dean, preconizado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde e categorizada em normal, questionável, muito leve, leve, moderada e severa. Em 1998 foram examinadas 125 crianças; 249 em 2002; 4.085 em 2008; e 231 em 2010. RESULTADOS: Em 1998 a prevalência de fluorose foi de 43,8% (IC95%35,6;52,8, em 2002 de 33,7% (IC95% 28,2;39,8, de 40,3% (IC95% 38,8;41,8 em 2008 e de 38,1% (IC95% 32,1;44,5 em 2010. As categorias muito leve + leve registraram 38,4% (IC95%30,3;47,6 em 1998, 32,1% (IC95% 26,6;38,2 em 2002, 38,0% (IC95% 36,5;39,5 em 2008 e 36,4% (IC95%30,4;42,7 em 2010. Não se observou fluorose severa com significância estatística. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de fluorose dentária em crianças paulistanas pode ser classificada como estacionária no período de 1998 a 2010, tanto em geral quanto ao se considerarem apenas as categorias muito leve + leve.

  2. Determinantes sociais da saude e o Programa Saude da Familia no municipio de Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pluciennik Dowbor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Analisar a situação do trabalho com determinantes sociais da saúde no âmbito do Programa Saúde da Família. MÉTODOS Estudo de caso com métodos mistos de pesquisa, ancorados em estratégia sequencial explanatória, com 171 gerentes das unidades do Programa Saúde da Família em São Paulo, SP, em 2005/2006. Questionários autopreenchíveis foram aplicados. Entrevistas semiestruturadas e grupos focais foram realizados com amostra intencional de profissionais envolvidos no trabalho com determinantes sociais da saúde. Os dados quantitativos foram analisados por análise descritiva, análise de correspondência múltipla, análise de agrupamento e testes de correlação entre variáveis. Os dados qualitativos foram apurados por análise de conteúdo e a criação de categorias temáticas. RESULTADOS Apesar da concentração de atividades direcionadas ao cuidado com a doença, o Programa Saúde da Família realizou atividades relacionadas à determinação social da saúde, contemplando todas as formas de abordagem da promoção da saúde (biológico, comportamental, psicológico, social e estrutural e os principais determinantes sociais da saúde descritos na literatura. Houve diferença significativa quanto à abrangência dos determinantes trabalhados nas unidades em relação às diferentes regiões do município. Constatou-se fragilidade das iniciativas e a sua desconexão com a estrutura programática do Programa Saúde da Família. CONCLUSÕES A quantidade e variedade de atividades com determinantes sociais da saúde realizadas no Programa Saúde da Família mostram potencial para trabalhar a determinação social da saúde. Mas a fluidez de objetivo e o caráter extraordinário das atividades descritas questionam sua sustentabilidade como parte integral da atual estrutura organizacional do programa.

  3. The Rio de Janeiro - Sao Paulo pipeline: the interests onset in the emptiness of the energy and regional development federal politics; Oleoduto Rio de Janeiro-Sao Paulo: embate de interesses no vazio da politica federal de energia e de desenvolvimento regional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alveal, Carmen

    2007-07-01

    The PETROBRAS project in constructing a pipeline between the Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo states originated a dispute of strategic interests between the PETROBRAS and the Rio de Janeiro state. However, the relevant dimension in this dispute is the absence of a Brazilian politics for the development of refining as an important thruster of regional development; this theme deserve to be inserted in the Brazilian energy politic agenda.

  4. Evaluation of gamma ray dose rates from building materials in popular dwellings of Santo Andre, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 36 samples of Brazilian raw materials and building products were analysed by high resolution gamma spectrometry for their 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K content. The effective dose equivalent rate due to the indoor gamma radiation from those materials was performed following the 1988 UNSCEAR procedures. The values obtained ranged from 4.0 x 10-3 mSv/y (concrete beam) to 0.3 mSv/y (concrete) which are below the 0.8 mSv/y assumed UNSCEAR value for natural radiation sources. (author). 14 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Determination of the average residence time in an anaerobic digester of Barueri wastewater treatment by using radioactive tracer, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas production in the Barueri Wastewater Treatment Plant digesters shows lower values than projected. This fact conducted to the hypothesis that there could be dead zones caused by homogenization deficiencies. In order to verify this hypothesis a full scale essay was conducted with Iodine - 131 as tracer. A Mutual Cooperation Agreement was signed between the Sao Paulo Basic Sanitation Company (SABESP) and the Nuclear and Energetic Research Institute (IPEN) to conduct these essays. The results showed that the active volume was almost 88% of the nominal capacity. (author)

  6. Assessment of atmospheric pollution of chemical elements by epiphytic lichen analysis at the Campus of the Sao Paulo University; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica de elementos quimicos pela analise de liquen epifitico no Campus da Cidade Universitaria de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rosiana Rocho

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution has been a frequent topic of research, due to the effects that it can cause on the health of living organisms, environment and climate. In order to identify pollution sources and their effects, biomonitoring has been studied due to its low cost and possibility of sampling in wide geographic areas. In this study for passive biomonitoring of air pollution levels at the Cidade Universitaria Armando Salles de Oliveira (CUASO), University of Sao Paulo campus, epiphytic lichens of Canoparmelia texana species were used. The lichens collected from tree barks at different sampling sites in the CUASO were cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Lichen samples were analyzed by X - ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). For XRFS, cylindrical pellets of samples were prepared to determine As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Rb, S, Sr and Zn. For NAA, lichen sample aliquots along with synthetic elemental standards were irradiated both for short and long periods at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The induced activities were measured by a gamma ray spectrometer to determine As, Br, Ca Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, V and Zn. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analysis of certified reference materials (MRCs). Their results of relative errors and standard deviations were below 15% for most of the elements. The standardized difference or En score values were lower than |1| indicating satisfactory results. Replicate analyses of a lichen sample by XRFS and NAA, indicated good homogeneity of the sample for the elements determined. The lichen results showed that the mean concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Se and U were higher in samples from CUASO than those from regions considered unpolluted. For Fe, K, La, S, V and Zn, they were of the same order of magnitude. The correlation study between the elements showed high correlation (r > 0.7) for elements

  7. Assessment of atmospheric pollution of chemical elements by epiphytic lichen analysis at the Campus of the Sao Paulo University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution has been a frequent topic of research, due to the effects that it can cause on the health of living organisms, environment and climate. In order to identify pollution sources and their effects, biomonitoring has been studied due to its low cost and possibility of sampling in wide geographic areas. In this study for passive biomonitoring of air pollution levels at the Cidade Universitaria Armando Salles de Oliveira (CUASO), University of Sao Paulo campus, epiphytic lichens of Canoparmelia texana species were used. The lichens collected from tree barks at different sampling sites in the CUASO were cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Lichen samples were analyzed by X - ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). For XRFS, cylindrical pellets of samples were prepared to determine As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Rb, S, Sr and Zn. For NAA, lichen sample aliquots along with synthetic elemental standards were irradiated both for short and long periods at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The induced activities were measured by a gamma ray spectrometer to determine As, Br, Ca Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, V and Zn. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analysis of certified reference materials (MRCs). Their results of relative errors and standard deviations were below 15% for most of the elements. The standardized difference or En score values were lower than |1| indicating satisfactory results. Replicate analyses of a lichen sample by XRFS and NAA, indicated good homogeneity of the sample for the elements determined. The lichen results showed that the mean concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Se and U were higher in samples from CUASO than those from regions considered unpolluted. For Fe, K, La, S, V and Zn, they were of the same order of magnitude. The correlation study between the elements showed high correlation (r > 0.7) for elements

  8. Improvement in treatment of mixtures generated between batches of different products in OSBRA (Sao Paulo Brasilia Pipeline) pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotchetkoff Neto, Andre Paulo; Agostineti, Antonio; Almeida, Marcio Manhaes Gomes de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The Sao Paulo Brasilia Pipeline (OSBRA) starts at the Planalto Refinery (REPLAN) and supplies gasoline, diesel oil and LPG to the mid-west region of Brazil. The pipeline is 786 kilometers long with diameter of 20 inches in its first segment and 178 kilometers with 12 inches in the second. The fuels are pumped by seven unmanned pump stations and are delivered to five tank farms. At first, these products were pumped into the pipeline in batches of diesel or LPG between gasoline batches. These sequences allowed the dilution of the mixtures generated between the two products during the pipeline transportation to the pure product tanks, keeping compliance to the former standards. The diesel/gasoline mixtures were diluted direct to pure product tanks and the LPG/gasoline mixtures were submitted to flashing in a vessel before dilution. In 2001, the National Petroleum Agency changed the LPG and diesel oil standards. This new regulation turned the OSBRA installations unable to dilute the whole mixture volume generated during pipeline transportation. Sending part of the mixture back to the Refinery turned a mandatory task, increasing the costs and making the LPG pipeline transportation unprofitable. To overcome this situation, a new product was developed - QINTER. The QINTER can be diluted in suitable rates either to diesel or gasoline keeping the compliance of these fuels to the new standards at the receiving tanks. The QINTER is currently pumped into the pipeline between the batches of diesel oil and gasoline. The standard solution to treat the mixture created between LPG and gasoline batches, a fractional tower, was studied but it showed to be of dubious profitability and it would compel changes to the existing working schedule time, from Monday to Friday (6:00 am to 10:00 pm) to a 24:00 h/day continuous work. An alternative project was developed. Three flash recirculation vessels were designed to allow the mixtures of LPG with vapor stream and gasoline with liquid stream

  9. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of 228Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of 228Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of 228Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate qualitatively the differences in behavior of both long-lived Ra isotopes, the concentrations of 226Ra

  10. Musculoskeletal Pain as a Marker of Health Quality. Findings from the Epidemiological Sleep Study among the Adult Population of Sao Paulo City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Roizenblatt

    Full Text Available We are witnessing the growth of urban populations, particularly in the developing world. São Paulo, the largest city in South America, continues to grow, and this growth is dramatically effecting the environment and human health. The aim of this study was to estimate the point prevalence of chronic pain in São Paulo city dwellers and to explore the influence of aspects related to urbanicity.A two-stage cluster randomized sample included 1100 individuals of the city of Sao Paulo, representing the population proportionally in terms of gender, age and social classes in 2007. For this observational cross-sectional study, the household sample was interviewed using validated questionnaires for sociodemographic aspects, the Beck inventories for anxiety and depression, the WHOQoL-REF for quality of life, the Chalder Fatigue Scale. Musculoskeletal pain was defined as diffuse pain or pain located in the back, joints or limbs. Data regarding sleep complaints and polysomnography were obtained from the Epidemiologic Sleep Study conducted in São Paulo city in 2007.The prevalence estimate of chronic musculoskeletal pain was approximately 27%, with a female/male ratio of approximately 2.6/1. The predictors were being in the age-range of 30-39 years, low socioeconomic and schooling levels, obesity, sedentarism, fatigue, non-restorative sleep, daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, poor life quality, anxiety and depression symptoms. Psychological wellbeing was the main discriminator between responders with chronic musculoskeletal pain and the controls, followed by depression for the participants with poor psychological wellbeing, and fatigue, for the remaining ones. Insomnia syndrome was the third-level discriminator for those with fatigue, whereas sleep quality for those without fatigue.Musculoskeletal pain was frequently reported by São Paulo city dwellers and its correlates with psychological and sleep aspects are suggestive of a response to urbanicity

  11. Isolamento do vírus da raiva em Artibeus fimbriatus no Estado de São Paulo Isolation of rabies virus in Artibeus fimbriatus bat in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice M Sequetin Cunha

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se, pela primeira vez, o isolamento e a identificação do vírus da raiva em morcego frugívoro Artibeus fimbriatus no município de São José do Rio Preto, Estado de São Paulo. O vírus foi isolado de exemplar encontrado em área urbana, caído sob uma árvore e ainda vivo. O diagnóstico foi realizado pelas técnicas de imunofluorescência direta e inoculação intracerebral em camundongos.This is the first report of the isolation and identification of the rabies virus in the frugivorous bat Artibeus fimbriatus in the city of Sao José do Rio Preto, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The virus was isolated from an animal found in an urban area. The animal was found on the ground under a tree, still alive. Diagnosis was made by direct immunofluorescence and intracerebral inoculation of mice.

  12. Electric power underground distribution at the campus of the Sao Paulo university - project, installation and operation; Distribuicao subterranea no campus da Cidade Universitaria da USP - projeto, instalacao e operacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Kleber; Bussolini, Miguel [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the new electric power distribution system at the main campus of the University of Sao Paulo - Brazil. This system aims to attain a high level of reliability in the electric power supply, with costs less than the present underground system.

  13. Long-term energy demand forecasting for the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, applying the structural decomposition model for three alternative growth sceneries of the state economy; Projecao da demanda setorial de energia do Estado de Sao Paulo no longo prazo, aplicando o modelo de desagregacao estrutural em tres cenarios alternativos de crescimento da economia do estado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laite, Alvaro Afonso Furtado; Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Pereira, Andre Flavio Soares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]|[Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE)]. E-mails: afurtado@fem.unicamp.br; bajay@fem.unicamp.br; apereira@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    Long-term demand forecasts (up to 2025) are presented in this paper for the main energy forms consumed in the residential, trade and services, rural, transport, and industrial sectors in the State of Sao Paulo. They were obtained with the help of a flexible forecasting model based on the structural decomposition of the demand, for three alternative scenarios concerning the growth of the state economy. These three state-wise scenarios are related to initially nation-wide defined scenarios, through assumptions concerning the evolution on the ratio between the state GDP and the national GDP. (author)

  14. Determination of rare earth elements in Solanum lycocarpum in 'Cerrado de Emas'- Pirassununga, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the rare earth elements concentration (REE) in plant leaves of the species Solanum lycocarpum from 'Cerrado de Emas', Pirassununga, Sao Paulo, and the soil where they have grown up, was determined by using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The obtained values for most of the light REE (La, Ce, Nd) were higher than the reference values for REE in plants. These results suggest that the light REE are more available in the soil than the heavy REE. The concentration of REE in the plant and the soil were normalized to chondrite contents, showing in the soil diagram a negative anomaly for the concentration of Eu and a positive anomaly for the concentration of Ce, which were not observed in the plant diagram. (author). 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. Total diet study in Sao Paulo State: estimation of dietary intakes of toxic (arsenic and cadmium) and essential elements (calcium, chromium, iron, selenium, sodium, potassium and zinc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275±31mg Ca; 20.7±1.9μg Cr; 5.7±0.4mg Fe; 861±46mg K; 9.44±0.48μg Se; 1928±278mg Na; 4.25±0.24mg Zn; 1.53±0.43μg As and 1.31±0.16μg Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market Basket of this study represented

  16. Elementary composition of As, Br, La, Sm and Rb in vegetable and soil samples of typical pasture of upland areas from Vale do Paraiba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper was to determine the chemical composition of Br, K, La, Sm and Rb in ground-brachiaria decumbens samples and bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) in typical pasture of the upland areas of the Vale do Paraiba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using the neutron activation analysis technique (INAA). The results will be catalogued in a data bank and could be used to nullify the doubts of small farmers of the region on the aetiology of the enzootic haematuria problem that currently occurs in bovines in these type of pasture in a very above-normal incidence, whose predisponent cause credits with chronic bracken poisoning as suggests a result of histological examination. (author)

  17. Passive biomonitoring study and effect biomarker in oysters Crassostrea brasiliana (Lamark, 1819. Mollusca, Bivalvia) in Santos and Cananeia Estuaries in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed the exposure and effects of trace elements in sentinel organisms, using the bivalve Crassostrea brasiliana in two estuarine areas in Sao Paulo State, Brazil: Santos Estuary and Cananeia Estuary, site of oyster farms, which was used as reference site. Oysters were evaluated for bioaccumulation of As, Co, Cr, Fe, Se and Zn by INAA and Cd, Pb and Hg by AAS. Effect biomarker was assessed by evaluation of lysosomal membrane stability. In the study of bioaccumulation of trace elements it was verified that Santos Channel presented the largest concentrations of elements studied in most cases. From the study of the cellular biomarker, it was verified that Santos Channel and winter showed higher stress to organisms in the present study. (author)

  18. Utilization of agricultural raw material as an energy source - a case study on the alcohol industry in Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian National Alcohol Programme (Proalcool) can well be considered the world's largest technical effort to replace petroleum with fuels from plant biomass: 11.5 billion liters of alcohol for fuel and industrial use were produced in the harvest of 1987/88. About 3.7 million of the 13 million Brazilian cars run on straight hydrous alcohol, the rest on gasohol (gasoline blend with up to 22% anhydrous alcohol). The following survey is focused on Sao Paulo State, which is responsible for 64% of Brazil's alcohol production (7.33 billion liters). In this state alcohol from sugarcane is produced in the largest (average 370.000 1/day) and technically most effective production units, at lowest production costs. This paper attempts to estimate via simulation the future productivity and cost of fuel alcohol, and evaluates its market position compared to energy of fossil origin. (author)

  19. 14C dating and isotopic composition of mangrove soil in the Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Southern Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is part of a study involving paleoenvironmental records based on pollen analysis, isotopic composition (12C, 13C and 14N, 15N) and 14C dating of mangrove soil. Samplings have been made in the Jacariu mangrove located at Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Cananeia, southern Sao Paulo state. This study must improve significantly the studies of vegetation and climate changes that occurred during the late Holocene (approximately the last 2000 years) in the southeastern region of Brazil. The δ13C results of mangrove soil presented values from -24 to -26 per mille The values of TOC and C/N associated with δ13C values indicated the predominance of organic matter from C3 land plant and phytoplankton (algal) in the whole profile. The 14C dating indicated Modern age at the shallow horizons to 1810 years B.P. for the deeper horizon. (author)

  20. Assessment of metal, trace and rare earth element concentrations in a sedimentary profile from Ponte Nova reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponte Nova reservoir, located in the upper basin of the Tiete River in the southern region of Sao Paulo State, covers an area of 25.7 km2 and drains an area of 320 km2. It was built in 1972 to control the rivers flow in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP) and water supply. A 30 cm sediment core was collected in the dam in August 2014, sliced at every 2.5 cm. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to the sediment samples to determine some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. The enrichment factor (EF) and Igeo were applied to the results by using NASC (North American Shale Composite) as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. An EF>1.5 was obtained for As, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U, and rare earths Ce, Eu, La, Nd and Sm when NASC values were used, but only for Br, when the last layer concentration values were used as reference values. Similar results were obtained for the Igeo index. For semi-metal As and metals Cr and Zn concentration values were compared to oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL) only Cr exceeded TEL value in some slices of the profile. These results may indicate that there is no anthropogenic contribution for the elements analyzed in this reservoir. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the results. (author)

  1. Assessment of metal, trace and rare earth element concentrations in a sedimentary profile from Ponte Nova reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Flavio R.; Bordon, Isabella C.C.L.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: flavio@baquara.com, E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Sharlleny A.; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: shasilva@sp.gov.br, E-mail: rfranklin@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (ELAI/CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Quimica Inorganica

    2015-07-01

    Ponte Nova reservoir, located in the upper basin of the Tiete River in the southern region of Sao Paulo State, covers an area of 25.7 km{sup 2} and drains an area of 320 km{sup 2}. It was built in 1972 to control the rivers flow in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP) and water supply. A 30 cm sediment core was collected in the dam in August 2014, sliced at every 2.5 cm. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to the sediment samples to determine some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. The enrichment factor (EF) and Igeo were applied to the results by using NASC (North American Shale Composite) as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. An EF>1.5 was obtained for As, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U, and rare earths Ce, Eu, La, Nd and Sm when NASC values were used, but only for Br, when the last layer concentration values were used as reference values. Similar results were obtained for the Igeo index. For semi-metal As and metals Cr and Zn concentration values were compared to oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL) only Cr exceeded TEL value in some slices of the profile. These results may indicate that there is no anthropogenic contribution for the elements analyzed in this reservoir. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the results. (author)

  2. Magnetic fabrics and rock-magnetism studies of early-late cretaceous mafic dike swarms from Ubatuba (Sao Paulo State, Brazil). Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The Mesozoic magmatism in Southern Brazil is represented mainly by the basaltic flows of the Serra Geral Formation, the dikes swarms from the Ponta Grossa Arch, Florianopolis, and along the coast between Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, and several alkaline complexes that lie along tectonic features associated with the evolution of the Parana Basin. The emplacement of the dike swarms and the alkaline complexes is related to the processes of separation between South America and Africa and, consequently, with the opening of Atlantic Ocean. The studied swarms occur along the coast in the city of Ubatuba (NE of Sao Paulo State), and crosscut Archean and Proterozoic polymetamorphosed rocks of the Costeiro Complex. The dikes are basalts and lamprophyres, and they crop out side by side in the beaches. They range from a few centimeters up to 2 m wide for the lamprophyres, and up to > 10 m for the basalts. Their trend is predominately N40 deg-50 deg E with vertical dips. Magnetic studies were performed on 19 basalt and lamprophyre dikes. Magnetic fabrics were determined by applying both anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). Rock magnetism properties indicate that pseudo-single-domain grains of almost pure magnetite carry the magnetic fabrics. However, six lamprophyre dikes show an unusual magnetic behavior probably due to the presence of the iron carbonate siderite which was detected in magnetic measurements at liquid helium temperature. Normal AMS fabric acquired during magma flow is dominant in both swarms, and its Kmax-Kint plane is parallel to the dike plane while the magnetic foliation pole (Kmin) is perpendicular to it. The analysis of the Kmax inclination permitted to infer that all lamprophyre dikes were fed by horizontal flow (Kmaxmax>30 deg) flows. The AARM fabric is either coaxial or better defined than AMS fabric. In addition, to better understand the

  3. The program for rational using of energy and alternative sources - PUREFA from Sao Paulo University (USP) - Brazil; O programa de uso racional de energia e fontes alternativas - PUREFA da USP: analise de resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidel, Marco Antonio; Gimenes, Andre Luiz Veiga; Castello Branco, Paula Luiz [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas]. E-mail: saidel@pea.usp.br, gimenes@pea.usp.br, paulacastello@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This work presents the results of project PUREFA - Program of Rational Use of Energy and Alternative Sources of the University of Sao Paulo, as they arise from the measures pertaining to its 13 Physical Goals, as well as their respective impacts for the University. The project used resources from FINEP, totaling approximately R$ 2,2 million, involving several units of the USP, both in the capital and in the countryside. Concluded actions include: Enhancing the system of management of energy (integrating action comprehending all others); Adding new distributed generation capacity at USP, installing 9 kWp of photovoltaic generation and 15 kW of biogas fired generation; Setting up of a policy of permanent incentive to the efficient and rational use of energy; Creation of norms of energy efficiency in buildings; Substitution of public and internal lighting systems, as well as air-conditioners; Installation of Systems of Solar Heating at Sao Carlos, Piracicaba and Sao Paulo in substitution to the electric showers; Installation of Systems for Solar Water Heating at the Central Restaurant of the CUASO Campus in Sao Paulo. The results show the importance of destining resources for energy saving in the public sector, the fast payback of corresponding investments and the potential for synergies and multiplying effects of such joint actions when applied to the University. (author)

  4. Prevalence of equine Piroplasmosis and its association with tick infestation in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum samples were collected from 582 horses from 40 stud farms in the State of São Paulo and tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations were evaluated on them. Serum samples were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT) and a competitive inhibition ELISA (cELISA) for Babesia caballi and Theileria e...

  5. Urban policies and citizenship. Some mechanisms for the production of urban space in the city of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rocco

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the historical reasons for the present conditions in the city of Sao Paolo, attempts at managing the place, preparation of the master plan, problems with establishment of particular mechanisms for creating urban space and reasons for success or failure of particular endeavours. An important aspect in solving physical problems of future development is prevention of social and physical segregation. Urban policies are presented with three types of measures. In conclusion, two examples of policy implementation are shown.

  6. Evaluation of the impact of farming activity in the water quality in surface catchment areas in hydrographic basin from Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed in 10 small basins located in the Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, in the Northeastern area of Sao Paulo State. The land belonging of these basins is used to grow row crops of potato, coffee and pasture areas. This study aimed to characterize small basins, to evaluate water and sediment quality and to correlate basic aspects of climatology, hydrology, toxicology and land uses to the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of the water in the streams. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used as a tool of evaluation of land uses and risk assessment was performed for a final evaluation. The samplings were carried out from June/1999 to June/2000 in the 13 collecting points. It was verified that water quality is dependent upon the rainy and dry periods and the harvest periods. In the beginning of rainy periods were found large concentrations of metals and traces of herbicides leachate from soil and, in the dry period the same event was verified, caused by concentration of the water. In August, September and October phosphorus concentrations were very low getting an improvement in the water quality. Al, Fe and Mn are majority elements of chemical compositions of rocks of the study area, and exceed the Brazilian Guidelines. The stream waters were classified as 44% oligotrophic, 42% mesotrophic and 14% eutrophic. Jaguari-Mirim River presented the largest values of Trophic Index (TI). Sediment analyses showed a great variety of organic compounds coming from anthropogenic activities (industrial and farming activity). Toxicity tests with hyalella azteca in the sediments presented toxicity for sediments from Sao Joao da Boa Vista and Divinolandia. A methodology was developed for organochlorinated pesticides by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GCMS). The presence of organochlorinated pesticides was not verified. (author)

  7. Methodology of technical analysis to reduce cost in the planning of the works of 'Energy for All' program in Sao Paulo, Brazil; Metodologia de analise tecnica para reducao de custo no planejamento das obras do programa 'Luz para Todos' em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betiol Junior, Genesio; Strazzi, Paulo Ernesto; Carmo, Jose R. do; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles [Comissao de Eletrificacao Rural do Estado de Sao Paulo (CERESP), SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This article relates the development of a research about low cost for rural electrification projects, which have been used like a base to develop a technical analysis in whole projects of the program 'Luz para Todos'. This program was made in 2002 with the purpose to offer electricity for whole people in Brazilian rural area. This method was developed seeking in to achieve cost reduction in the planning made by electric companies in Sao Paulo state. At first, were analyzed the rural electric projects made by electricity companies in the program 'Luz da Terra', in front of to the commitment in achieving cost reduction in the rural electric projects. The program 'Luz da Terra' was made whit a social purpose and it was developed in the whole Sao Paulo state, during 1996 until 2004. One of the main demands to achieve reasonable costs and to allow the program's viability was the previous analyses of rural distribution projects, before them changing to work of electricity, checking out if they had well defined. social, technical and economics methods. For that, were chosen quantitative and non-quantitative indicators, agreement whit a comparative analysis of each company performance in the program 'Luz da Terra', in agreement whit historical series, based on the group of the final result of each distribution electricity project. In a second moment, the same methodology was adjusted to confront the plans data of each company's future works in the program 'Luz para Todos', using the results of the first program. The research allowed the identification of some planner's tendencies when developing from a more rigorous model of low cost, like was the program 'Luz da Terra', to the actual program 'Luz para Todos'. Applied to all companies in the Sao Paulo state, the study served as a support to renegotiate budgets, what provided savings of more than US$ 10,000.000 in a total of 42

  8. Impact of vehicular emissions on the formation of fine particles in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: a numerical study with the WRF-Chem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vara-Vela, A.; Andrade, M. F.; Kumar, P.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Muñoz, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of vehicular emissions on the formation of fine particles (PM2.5; ≤ 2.5 µm in diameter) in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) in Brazil, where ethanol is used intensively as a fuel in road vehicles. The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model, which simulates feedbacks between meteorological variables and chemical species, is used as a photochemical modelling tool to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to the evolution of number and mass size distribution of particles through gas-to-particle conversion. A vehicular emission model based on statistical information of vehicular activity is applied to simulate vehicular emissions over the studied area. The simulation has been performed for a 1-month period (7 August-6 September 2012) to cover the availability of experimental data from the NUANCE-SPS (Narrowing the Uncertainties on Aerosol and Climate Changes in Sao Paulo State) project that aims to characterize emissions of atmospheric aerosols in the SPMA. The availability of experimental measurements of atmospheric aerosols and the application of the WRF-Chem model made it possible to represent some of the most important properties of fine particles in the SPMA such as the mass size distribution and chemical composition, besides allowing us to evaluate its formation potential through the gas-to-particle conversion processes. Results show that the emission of primary gases, mostly from vehicles, led to a production of secondary particles between 20 and 30 % in relation to the total mass concentration of PM2.5 in the downtown SPMA. Each of PM2.5 and primary natural aerosol (dust and sea salt) contributed with 40-50 % of the total PM10 (i.e. those ≤ 10 µm in diameter) concentration. Over 40 % of the formation of fine particles, by mass, was due to the emission of hydrocarbons, mainly aromatics. Furthermore, an increase in the number of small particles impaired the

  9. Archean and proterozoic multiple tectonothermal events recorded by gneisses in the Amparo Region, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basement of the Mesoproterozoic graywacke-volcanic arc of the Alto Rio Grande Belt, is a microplate between the Sao Francisco Craton and the Ribeira Fold Belt of southeastern Brazil. This basement is composed of migmatites/orthogneisses and intrusive metagranitoid rocks. These orthogneisses were derived from calc-alkaline plutonic rocks (Campos Neto, 1991), and have been considered to be Archean in age but affected by Proterozoic tectonothermal episodes (Tassinari and Campos Neto, 1988; Artur, 1988). In order to investigate further the age of the protoliths plus their subsequent high temperature crustal history, U-Pb zircon (SHRIMP) and Sm-Nd model ages were determined for different components of the migmatites and intrusive metagranitoids (au)

  10. Big House. Du générique au spécifique (Sao Paulo, Brésil)

    OpenAIRE

    Droux, Stéphanie; Fernandes, Assunçâo Natacha

    2014-01-01

    PERIPHERIE 5:30 AM ; Il est 5h je me lève, aujourd'hui je dois me rendre au centre de la ville pour mon travail. Je me dépêche, il me reste 4h de route et encore s'il n'y a pas d'embouteillages … Hop! Je prends mes clés, mon sac et mon pass pour le bus et le métro. ; CENTRE 10:15 AM ; Plus qu'un trajet, on m'a dit que l'immeuble était tout proche de la sortie du métro. ; SAO BENTO 10:45 AM ; On me bouscule, je cherche cette nouvelle construction dont tout le monde parle, elle est là, au-dessu...

  11. As transações entre varejistas e fornecedores de frutas, legumes e verduras na cidade de São Paulo The transactions between supermarkets and fresh fruit and vegetables (FFV suppliers in the Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta de Castro Souza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é caracterizar as estratégias usadas por três diferentes formatos de varejo (grande rede, associações de pequenos e médios supermercados e supermercados independentes em suas compras de frutas, legumes e verduras (FLV com foco na questão dos padrões de qualidade exigidos. A abordagem teórica utilizada é de economia dos custos de transação. Para a pesquisa empírica é utilizado o método de casos múltiplos viabilizado por meio de entrevistas presenciais com representantes dos distintos formatos de varejo na cidade de São Paulo. Os resultados indicam que há diferenças nas estratégias dos variados formatos de varejo com seus fornecedores de FLV. No caso de pequenos e médios supermercados é bastante representativo o fornecimento proveniente da Ceagesp (Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazéns Gerais do Estado de São Paulo, mesmo para o grande varejista entrevistado; cerca de 25% do suprimento de FLV é da Ceagesp, o que caracteriza uma relação de mercado. O restante é fornecido pelos chamados distribuidores de origem. Por fim, os resultados do artigo têm implicações gerenciais para os produtores de FLV, indicando que há alternativas de inserção nas cadeias produtivas de FLV tendo em vista os diferentes formatos de varejo e suas estratégias distintas de relacionamento com fornecedores.The objective of this article is to characterize the strategies used by three different retail formats (large retail chains, associations of small and mid-size supermarkets and independent supermarkets in their purchase of fruit and vegetables, focused on the issue of quality standard requirements of the different retail formats in the city of São Paulo. The conceptual approach uses the economic theory of transaction costs. The empirical part of the project uses the method of multiple case studies, which was made viable by face-to-face interviews with representatives from the different kinds of retail businesses in Sao

  12. Fibrilação atrial e demência: resultados do São Paulo ageing & health study Atrial fibrillation and dementia: results from the Sao Paulo ageing & health study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Andrea Kawabata-Yoshihara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A fibrilação atrial é um fator de risco controverso para demência. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a associação entre fibrilação atrial e demência em participantes do São Paulo Ageing & Health. MÉTODOS: O São Paulo Ageing & Health é um estudo transversal, de base populacional, de idosos residentes em um uma região de baixa renda da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Diagnóstico de demência foi realizado de acordo com o protocolo do grupo 10/66, com base em critérios do Manual de Diagnóstico e Estatística das Perturbações Mentais (DSM-IV. O diagnóstico de fibrilação atrial foi feito por eletrocardiograma de 12 derivações, avaliado por dois cardiologistas. Dados demográficos e de fatores de risco cardiovasculares também foram obtidos. RESULTADOS: A demência foi diagnosticada em 66 (4,3% e fibrilação atrial em 36 (2,4% de 1.524 participantes com um eletrocardiograma válido. A razão de chances bruta para demência em participantes com fibrilação atrial foi 2,8 (intervalo de confiança [IC] 95%: 1,0-8,1; p = 0,06 em comparação com indivíduos sem fibrilação atrial. Relação positiva foi encontrada em mulheres (RC 4,2; IC 95%: 1,2-15,1; p = 0,03. Após ajuste para idade, no entanto, essa associação tornou-se não significativa (RC 2,2, IC 95%: 0,6-8,9; p = 0,26. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve associação independente entre a fibrilação atrial e demência nessa amostra. A prevalência da fibrilação atrial pode ser baixa nesta população em virtude da mortalidade cardiovascular prematura.BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF is a controversial risk factor for dementia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the association between AF and dementia in the "Sao Paulo Ageing & Health" (SPAH study participants. METHODS: SPAH is a cross-sectional, population-based study of elderly people living in a deprived neighborhood in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Dementia diagnosis was performed according to

  13. A historical analysis of the evolution of the program efficiency 'Low income households consumers of electrical energy' in the interior of Sao Paulo state; Uma analise historica da evolucao da eficiencia do programa 'Consumidor de baixa renda de energia eletrica' no interior do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Jose Antonio Siqueira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao. Dept. de Eletronica e Microeletronica], e-mail: siqueira@demic.fee.unicamp.br; Tavares, Mauricio Lopes [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Economia, Administracao e Sociologia], e-mail: mautavar@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    An analysis of the criteria used to select the beneficiaries of the federally-funded social program 'Consumidor de baixa renda de energia eletrica (Low Income Households Consumers of Electrical Energy)' in the State of Sao Paulo is presented. The study is based on statistical data obtained from the database of Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz - CPFL, one of the most important electrical energy distributor in the mentioned region. The concept of 'low income household' is also discussed, based on studies presented by IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica and by FIPE - Fundacao Instituto de Pesquisas Economicas, comparing the expected number of low income households with the actual number of consumers who receive the subsidy. (author)

  14. Total diet study in Sao Paulo State: estimation of dietary intakes of toxic (arsenic and cadmium) and essential elements (calcium, chromium, iron, selenium, sodium, potassium and zinc); Estudo de dieta total no Estado de Sao Paulo: estimativa de ingestao dietetica de elementos toxicos (arsenio e cadmio) e essenciais (calcio, cromo, ferro, selenio, sodio, potassio e zinco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avegliano, Roseane Pagliaro

    2009-07-01

    Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275{+-}31mg Ca; 20.7{+-}1.9{mu}g Cr; 5.7{+-}0.4mg Fe; 861{+-}46mg K; 9.44{+-}0.48{mu}g Se; 1928{+-}278mg Na; 4.25{+-}0.24mg Zn; 1.53{+-}0.43{mu}g As and 1.31{+-}0.16{mu}g Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market

  15. Preliminary results of NAPL contamination in a disused industry in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, by radon evaluation with CR-39 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminated sites by NAPL (Non-Aqueous Phase-Liquids) may lead to safety risks to human health and to ecosystems, restrictions to urban development and decrease of real estate value. This work used the radon gas as an indicator for the analysis of subsurface soil gas, once this noble gas presents good solubility in a wide range of NAPL, being partially retained in the NAPL contamination. Therefore, a decrease of the activity of radon in the contaminated soil gas can be expected, due to the high capacity of partitioning of radon in NAPL, which allows that the NAPL retain part of the radon previously available in the soil pores. The survey was carried out at a disused industry, contaminated by low volatile NAPL, located at east of Sao Paulo city, in March/2015. Radon was evaluated by passive detection methodology with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Radon concentrations for the eight monitoring stations at non-contaminated locations in March/2015 varied from 16.4 ± 1.2 kBq.m-3 to 55 ± 4 kBq.m-3. For the two monitoring stations assumed as contaminated locations in March/2015, radon concentrations were 1.17 ± 0.08 kBq.m-3 and 4.2 ± 0.3 kBq.m-3, diminished in a range from 92% to 98% when compared with the results for the non-contaminated areas. (author)

  16. Comparative study of nutritional constituents and the mercury total constituents in fishes commercialized at the city of Cananeia, at the coastal of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming the determination of the Hg concentration and the As, Cr and Zn trace elements, four commercial available and frequently consumable fishes by the Cananeia, Sao Paulo, Brazil, were analysed. A total of 53 samples were evaluated as follows: jew fish (Micropogonias furnieri), hake (Macrodon ancylodon), perch (Centropomus undecimalis), and grey mullet (Mugil platanus), all acquired at local fishmonger. The atomic absorption and neutron activation analysis techniques were used for the determination of Hg total levels and trace elements respectively. The trace elements presented large concentration variation among the same specie and the species performed as well. The jew fish presented levels superior to 1000 μg kg-1 for the most individuals analysed and the perch presented chromium levels exceeding the limit of 0.10 mg kg-1 for some individuals. The level of Zn presented values below 50 mg kg-1 established by the Brazilian legislation for all species. The Zn total contents among all species presented values bellow the limits of the Brazilian legislation (500 μg kg-1 for the predator species and 1000 μg kg-1 for the predator species)

  17. Preliminary results of NAPL contamination in a disused industry in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, by radon evaluation with CR-39 detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateus, Crislene; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: crislene@ipen.br, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Contaminated sites by NAPL (Non-Aqueous Phase-Liquids) may lead to safety risks to human health and to ecosystems, restrictions to urban development and decrease of real estate value. This work used the radon gas as an indicator for the analysis of subsurface soil gas, once this noble gas presents good solubility in a wide range of NAPL, being partially retained in the NAPL contamination. Therefore, a decrease of the activity of radon in the contaminated soil gas can be expected, due to the high capacity of partitioning of radon in NAPL, which allows that the NAPL retain part of the radon previously available in the soil pores. The survey was carried out at a disused industry, contaminated by low volatile NAPL, located at east of Sao Paulo city, in March/2015. Radon was evaluated by passive detection methodology with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Radon concentrations for the eight monitoring stations at non-contaminated locations in March/2015 varied from 16.4 ± 1.2 kBq.m{sup -3} to 55 ± 4 kBq.m{sup -3}. For the two monitoring stations assumed as contaminated locations in March/2015, radon concentrations were 1.17 ± 0.08 kBq.m{sup -3} and 4.2 ± 0.3 kBq.m{sup -3}, diminished in a range from 92% to 98% when compared with the results for the non-contaminated areas. (author)

  18. Trace elements in livers of great egret (Ardea alba) from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region: a preliminary assessment of temporal trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: rcsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: poliver@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Paulo T.M.S., E-mail: poliver@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IME/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the variation of trace element concentrations present in great egret livers during six years, from 2006 to 2011. The data were obtained in twenty six livers of great egrets from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR). The elements Br, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Cd and Hg by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Arithmetic means and standard deviations of element concentrations of the results obtained in each year were calculated for the samples collected in each year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA; α = 0.05) followed by Kruskal Wallis test was applied to examine if there are temporal differences in the element mean concentrations over time. In general, significant differences of element concentrations were not obtained. However, an increase in Cd and Mn concentrations in the recent years was observed which may indicate recent increase to these elements in environment. The preliminary data obtained suggests the continuation of this kind of study to better understand the temporal trends of trace elements in the aquatic environment of SPMR. (author)

  19. The impact of maternal experience of violence and common mental disorders on neonatal outcomes: a survey of adolescent mothers in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Vikram

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both violence and depression during pregnancy have been linked to adverse neonatal outcomes, particularly low birth weight. The aim of this study was to investigate the independent and interactive effects of these maternal exposures upon neonatal outcomes among pregnant adolescents in a disadvantaged population from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods 930 consecutive pregnant teenagers, admitted for delivery were recruited. Violence was assessed using the Californian Perinatal Assessment. Mental illness was measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Apgar scores of newborns were estimated and their weight measured. Results 21.9% of mothers reported lifetime violence (2% during pregnancy and 24.3% had a common mental disorder in the past 12 months. The exposures were correlated and each was associated with low education. Lifetime violence was strongly associated with Common Mental Disorders. Violence during pregnancy (PR = 2.59(1.05–6.40 and threat of physical violence (PR = 1.86(1.03–3.35 and any common mental disorders (PR = 2.09 (1.21–3.63 (as well as depression, anxiety and PTSD separately were independently associated with low birth weight. Conclusion Efforts to improve neonatal outcomes in low income countries may be neglecting two important independent, but correlated risk factors: maternal experience of violence and common mental disorder.

  20. Evaluation of mutagenic potential of contaminated atmosphere at Ibirapuera Park, Sao Paulo - SP, Brazil, using the Tradescantia stamen-hair assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maria Izildinha [Secretaria da Saude do Municipio de Sao Paulo, Supervisao de Saude de Vila Prudente, Praca Centenario de Vila Prudente, 108, 03132-050 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: maria-izildinha@uol.com.br; Domingos, Marisa [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 4005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gomes, Heliana de A [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas, Rodovia Pocos de Caldas, Km. 13, 37701-970 Pocos de Caldas (Brazil); Saldiva, Paulo H.N. [Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Laboratorio de Poluicao Atmosferica Experimental, Avenida Dr. Arnaldo 455, 01246-903 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Assuncao, Joao V. de [Faculdade de Saude Publica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Saude Ambiental, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 715, 01246-904 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    Trad-SHM assay was used to check mutagenic potential of atmospheric contamination at Ibirapuera Park, located in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, and variation of risk along the year, besides determining which Tradescantia clone, BNL 4430 or KU-20, better indicates risk. Thirty pots of both clones were exposed during one-year period (September, 2002-August, 2003). Twenty inflorescences were taken from each clone twice a month in the morning, in order to estimate the frequency of mutations in stamen hairs. Results were compared to air pollution and climatic data measured next to the exposure site. KU-20 showed stamen-hair mutations greater than BNL 4430. Greatest mutation rates in KU-20 were observed in condition of high monthly mean of NO{sub 2} and average peak concentrations of NO during the day, indicating that mutagenic effects originated from vehicular pollution. Clone KU-20 revealed to be more appropriate for biomonitoring purposes at the Park. - Clone KU-20 showed to be more appropriate than clone BNL 4430 to indicate vehicular pollution mutagenic risks in Trad-SHM assay.

  1. Evaluation of mutagenic potential of contaminated atmosphere at Ibirapuera Park, Sao Paulo - SP, Brazil, using the Tradescantia stamen-hair assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trad-SHM assay was used to check mutagenic potential of atmospheric contamination at Ibirapuera Park, located in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, and variation of risk along the year, besides determining which Tradescantia clone, BNL 4430 or KU-20, better indicates risk. Thirty pots of both clones were exposed during one-year period (September, 2002-August, 2003). Twenty inflorescences were taken from each clone twice a month in the morning, in order to estimate the frequency of mutations in stamen hairs. Results were compared to air pollution and climatic data measured next to the exposure site. KU-20 showed stamen-hair mutations greater than BNL 4430. Greatest mutation rates in KU-20 were observed in condition of high monthly mean of NO2 and average peak concentrations of NO during the day, indicating that mutagenic effects originated from vehicular pollution. Clone KU-20 revealed to be more appropriate for biomonitoring purposes at the Park. - Clone KU-20 showed to be more appropriate than clone BNL 4430 to indicate vehicular pollution mutagenic risks in Trad-SHM assay

  2. The uranium behaviour during rock-water interaction in the granites from the Itu complex (Sao Paulo, Brazil): a laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Helen S.B. da; Marques, Leila S.; Kawauchi, Roberto K., E-mail: leila@iag.usp.br, E-mail: keiji@iag.usp.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas. Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the process of uranium leaching due to the rock-water interaction in the granitic rocks from Itu Complex (Sao Paulo, Brazil), an experimental arrangement was developed and built. About 2.5kg of crushed rock fragments from Cabreuva and Indaiatuba Intrusions were maintained at room temperature within a glass flask filled with circulating water. The percolating water was removed periodically (from 10 to 30 days) for uranium analysis and then replaced by an equal volume of fresh water. Alpha spectrometry was used to determine the activity concentrations of {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U, and {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios, of the waters as well as of the granites. The results for both samples showed that most of the uranium is leached in the first days after the contact between rock and water. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios were significantly greater than unity, indicating radioactive disequilibrium between those isotopes, probably due to alpha recoil. Although the uranium activity concentrations in the water samples diminished with the increasing of time, it was not observed considerable variations of the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios. It was also noticed that, the amount of leached uranium as well as the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios are characteristics of each sample submitted to leaching, reflecting the differences of the granite facies mineralogy.(author)

  3. Use of Pb and Sr isotopes on the determination of lead mineralization sources from Ribeira valley - Sao Paulo and Parana states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lead and strontium isotope study was carried out on galena, barite and calcite from Pb-Ag syngenetic stratiform (Perau type) and hydrothermal veins (Panela type) deposits from Vale do Ribeira region (Sao Paulo and Parana states). The leads from the Perau and Panelas type deposits have respectively isotope ratios (sup(206)Pb/ sup(204)Pb 16.157 to 16.505 amd 16.520 to 17.273; sup(207)Pb/ sup(204)Pb = 15.466 to 15.720 and 15.470 to 15.780 and sup(208)Pb/ sup(204)Pb = 36.370 to 36.763 and 37.043 to 38.243), that defined a Stacey and Kramers model ages mainly concentrate within 1.7-1.5Ga. A review of published Pb isotopic compositions for these deposits and considerations of new Sr isotope data and Pb results using plumbotectonics model, indicate that the Perau type mineralizations are related to the syngenetic process and the Pb are derived from upper crust with a short crustal residence time. For the Panelas type deposits the Pb and Sr isotope studies support the conclusion that the ores were emplaced during regional metamorphism and the Pb were derived from lithologically complex source which may include metasedimentary and basement rocks. (author)

  4. Trace elements in livers of great egret (Ardea alba) from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region: a preliminary assessment of temporal trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to assess the variation of trace element concentrations present in great egret livers during six years, from 2006 to 2011. The data were obtained in twenty six livers of great egrets from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR). The elements Br, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Cd and Hg by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Arithmetic means and standard deviations of element concentrations of the results obtained in each year were calculated for the samples collected in each year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA; α = 0.05) followed by Kruskal Wallis test was applied to examine if there are temporal differences in the element mean concentrations over time. In general, significant differences of element concentrations were not obtained. However, an increase in Cd and Mn concentrations in the recent years was observed which may indicate recent increase to these elements in environment. The preliminary data obtained suggests the continuation of this kind of study to better understand the temporal trends of trace elements in the aquatic environment of SPMR. (author)

  5. {sup 14}C dating and isotopic composition of mangrove soil in the Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Southern Sao Paulo State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidotto, Elaine; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Gouveia, Susy Eli M.; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: evidotto@cena.usp.br; pessenda@cena.usp.br; susyeli@cena.usp.br; jab@cena.usp.br; Ricardi-Branco, Fresia [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: fresia@ige.unicamp.br; Aravena, Ramon [University of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: roaraven@sciborg.uwaterloo.ca

    2007-07-01

    This work is part of a study involving paleoenvironmental records based on pollen analysis, isotopic composition ({sup 12}C, {sup 13}C and {sup 14}N, {sup 15}N) and {sup 14}C dating of mangrove soil. Samplings have been made in the Jacariu mangrove located at Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Cananeia, southern Sao Paulo state. This study must improve significantly the studies of vegetation and climate changes that occurred during the late Holocene (approximately the last 2000 years) in the southeastern region of Brazil. The {delta}{sup 13}C results of mangrove soil presented values from -24 to -26 per mille The values of TOC and C/N associated with {delta}{sup 13}C values indicated the predominance of organic matter from C{sub 3} land plant and phytoplankton (algal) in the whole profile. The {sup 14}C dating indicated Modern age at the shallow horizons to 1810 years B.P. for the deeper horizon. (author)

  6. Distribution of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soils and sugar cane crops at Corumbatai river basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The common use of phosphate fertilizers NPK and amendments in sugar cane crops in Brazilian agriculture may increase the 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentrations in soils and their availability for plants and human food chain. Thus, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soils and sugar cane crops in the Corumbatai river basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The gamma spectrometry was utilized to measure the 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentration in all samples. The soil-to-sugar cane transfer factors (TF) were quantified using the ratio between the radionuclide activity concentration in sugar cane and its activity concentration in soil. The results show that, although radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added in the sugar cane crops, if utilized in accordance with the recommended rates, their use does not lead to hazards levels in soils. The soil-to-sugar cane transfer of radionuclides occurred in the following order 40K>226Ra>232Th. Therefore, under these conditions, radionuclides intake through consumption of sugar is not hazardous to human health.

  7. Orthotics, prosthesis and mobility aids (OPM dispensation in the Regional Health Department of the 3RD Region of Sao Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Caminha Caro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the process of dispensation of orthotics, prostheses and mobility aids (OPM by the Unified Health System (SUS in the Regional Health Department of the 3rd Region (DRSIII of Sao Paulo state; perform a mapping of the existing physical rehabilitation services in that region; and subsequently correlate the data with applicable laws. Methodology: This is an exploratory cross-sectional qualitative study whose subjects were the main professionals involved in the process of OPM dispensation, or responsible for their acquisition flow in the cities of that region. Data collection was carried out through a semi-structured questionnaire, developed by the researchers themselves, composed of questions aiming to identify the physical rehabilitation centers in the towns, the staff members involved, the provision of assistive technology through SUS, delivery time and existence of waiting lists. Results and discussion: The data were statistically measured, categorized, described and correlated with the current legislation aimed to guarantee access to assistive technology. We observed that the practice around this resource in the 3rd region concentrates in a single care center, causing long waits and poor efficiency of the services provided, in addition to maintaining a paternalistic aspect. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that, although the right to access to assistive technology is legally guaranteed, there are still many difficulties and challenges around this practice.

  8. SEROPREVALENCE OF CHAGASIC INFECTION IN YOUNG INDIVIDUALS IN A BLOOD CENTER IN THE STATE OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Navarro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY This study aimed at estimating the number of cases of non-negative serological reactions to Chagas disease in blood donors at the Blood Center of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, from 2003 to 2010 and at relating them to their cities of origin. Five hundred and seventy-four non-negative results for Chagas disease were evaluated. Of these, 371 (64.8% were reagent, and 203 (35.4% were inconclusive. The prevalence of Chagas disease in blood donors was 0.05%. There were, on average, 72 cases/year, and a prevalence of males was observed (64.8%. Forty-three (7.49% individuals were 18 to 30 years old; 92 (16.02% were 31 to 40; 147 (25.61% 41 to 50, and 292 (50.87% were older than 50 years. It was observed that 29.3% of females with reagent serology were at their fertile age (18 and 45 years. The majority of donors were originally from cities in the southwestern and central regions of São Paulo, but individuals from other states contributed with 20%. The provenance of most donors was the city of Botucatu/SP, followed by the city of Taquarituba/SP. Therefore, the profile of donors at this blood center favors the occurrence of a larger number of non-negative serological reactions. Although there has been a significant reduction in the number of new cases/year for this disease, it is still a public-health problem, and results suggest the need for new epidemiological assessments in the studied region.

  9. Conditional factors for untreated caries in 12-year-old children in the city of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Marianna Lopes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze what sociodemographic and economic variables were associated with the presence of untreated caries in 12-year-old children in the city of São Paulo. This cross-sectional study had a complex sample design. It was based on secondary data generated by the Levantamento epidemiológico em saúde bucal (Epidemiological Oral Health Survey in the city of São Paulo, conducted in 2008, whose sample comprised 4,246 12-year-old children from the public and private schools of all the administrative districts of the city. A questionnaire was applied and an epidemiological exam was performed in accordance with the World Health Organization's (WHO recommendations. The variables of interest were categorized into a dependent variable of untreated dental caries (carious component of the DMFT index that corresponds to carious, missing and filled teeth and independent variables related to the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the children and their families, and to their access to dental services. The EPI-INFO 06 and STATA 10 programs were used for the analysis; the prevalence ratio and a confidence interval of 95% were applied to the population parameters. The Poisson regression model was used, adjusted for sampling of the complex type. Caries was associated with ethnicity (higher rate in black people, p = 0.042, attending public school (p = 0.000, lower average family income (p = 0.002, overcrowded dwellings (p = 0.000 and presence of pain (p = 0.000. Caries is a multifactorial disease influenced by social health determinants that intensify its risk.

  10. Portugueses e experiências políticas: a luta e o pão: São Paulo 1870-1945 The Portuguese and political experiences: the struggle and the bread: Sao Paulo 1870-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izilda Santos de Matos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende ser uma contribuição para o estudo das experiências cotidianas de imigrantes na cidade de São Paulo, no período entre 1870 e 1945. A análise procurará recuperar a teia de relações cotidianas na sua dimensão da experiência no mundo dos negócios e do trabalho, recobrando as atividades de produção e comercialização do pão, observando a trama das conexões e tensões que se estabeleciam entre proprietários e trabalhadores nas padarias, na sua maioria de origem portuguesa. Privilegiando a documentação do DEOPS (Departamento Estadual de Ordem Política e Social , particularmente os prontuários, a proposta recupera enfrentamentos, formas de resistência, luta e greves que atingiram o setor da panificação.This article is intended to be a contribution to the study of the everyday experiences of immigrants in the city of Sao Paulo during the period between 1870 and 1945. The analysis will seek to recapture the web of relationships in their everyday life and experience with respect to business and labor, relating aspects of their activities in the production and marketing of bread, and observing the interchange of communication and tensions that were prevalent between the owners and workers of the bakeries of which most of them were of Portuguese origin. Focusing mainly on documents from DEOPS (State Department of Political and Social Order, particularly the charts, the article retrieves information concerning confrontations, forms of resistance, struggles and strikes that plagued the bakery sector.

  11. Consumo de alcool e risco para doenca coronariana na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo: uma analise do Projeto GENACIS

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    Maria Cristina Pereira Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Examinar a associação entre consumo de álcool e risco para doença coronariana em amostra populacional. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, de base populacional, conduzido de janeiro/2006 a junho/2007, na região metropolitana de São Paulo, como parte do estudo internacional (Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study. Os sujeitos (1.501, sendo 609 homens e 892 mulheres eram residentes da região metropolitana de São Paulo, tinham 30 anos ou mais de idade e foram selecionados aleatoriamente, a partir de amostragem complexa por conglomerados. Todos os indivíduos consentiram em participar da pesquisa. A variável dependente foi risco cardíaco avaliado através do WHO Rose Angina Questionnaire. A análise multivariada consistiu em regressão logística, tendo sido realizado ajuste para uso de tabaco e índice de massa corpórea. RESULTADOS: A taxa de resposta foi 75%. Ser mulher, ter mais idade, ser negro, fumante e ter um índice de massa corpórea elevado, foram associados a maior risco para doença coronariana. Indivíduos que nunca beberam na vida (OR = 2,22 e ex-bebedores (OR = 2,42 tiveram maior risco de doença cardíaca do que aqueles que informaram beber até 19 g de álcool por dia, sem episódios de beber excessivo. Entre os que tiveram episódios de embriaguês observou-se uma tendência a maior risco (OR = 3,95, p = 0,09. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos achados sugerem um menor risco para doença coronariana entre os bebedores moderados. Destaca-se que os estudos que avaliam o impacto do álcool sobre doença cardíaca precisam identificar o padrão de uso de álcool dos sujeitos, visto que este aspecto pode modificar o risco. Políticas públicas são necessárias para reduzir o uso nocivo de álcool e a morbidade a ele relacionada no país.

  12. Teor de ácido cianídrico em variedades de mandioca cultivadas em quintais do estado de São Paulo Cyanide contents in cassava cultivars used for "in natura" consumption in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Osmar Lorenzi

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available No Estado de São Paulo, além das culturas comerciais que destinam sua produção às indústrias de transformação ou aos mercados hortifrutigranjeiros, a mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz é muito difundida em culturas denominadas de "fundo de quintal". Nesse caso, muitas variedades são cultivadas e utilizadas precipuamente para consumo doméstico, tendo o presente trabalho por objetivo avaliar a amplitude de variação do seu teor de ácido cianídrico (HCN. Foram analisadas raízes de 206 variedades originárias de uma coleta sistemática realizada em 126 municípios paulistas, utilizando-se o método de Liebig, com maceração por 24 horas. Os resultados mostraram que a amplitude máxima de variação do ácido cianídrico foi de 16 a 482 mg.kg-1 na polpa crua das raízes. A maioria das variedades (67,0% apresentou até 100 mg.kg-1 de HCN, que, apesar de alto em relação aos citados na literatura, sugere que possa ser considerado o limite superior de segurança para variedades de mesa.Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is widely cultivated in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, mostly as raw material for industrial purposes (production of cassava flour, starch, etc.. A small proportion of cassava production is destinated to "in natura" consumption, obtained essentially from backyard plantations. In this case, many varieties are used, with unknown cyanide contents, which can cause severe human intoxication. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the cyanide content range of these varieties. Roots of 206 varieties, collected at 126 sites in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed as to their cyanide contents, using the Liebig method, with maceration for a 24-hour period. Results showed a cyanide content variation from 16 to 482 mg.kg-1 of HCN in the tuber root fresh pulps. On the other hand, most of the varieties (67% under testing presented root cyanide contents below 100 mg.kg-1. So, this cyanide content may be considered as

  13. Primary cicatricial alopecias: a review of histopathologic findings in 38 patients from a clinical University Hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Emanuella Rosyane Duarte Moure

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scarring alopecias are classified into primary and secondary types according to the initial site of inflammation. In primary scarring alopecias, the hair follicle is the main target of destruction; the term secondary cicatricial alopecia implies that follicular destruction is not the primary pathologic event. AIMS: To review the histopathologic diagnoses of cases of cicatricial alopecia in order to classify them according to the North American Hair Research Society. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with biopsy specimens diagnosed as cicatricial alopecia seen from 2000 to 2005 at the Dermatologic Department of Hospital das Clinicas, São Paulo University Medical School had hematoxylin and eosin, Periodic acid-Schiff and Weigert stained slides reevaluated and sub-typed into different primary cicatricial alopecias. RESULTS: Thirty-eight cases of primary cicatricial alopecias were reclassified as: chronic cutaneous lupus (17, lichen planus pilaris (4, pseudopelade of Brocq (12, folliculitis decalvans (3, dissecting folliculitis (1, and non-specific scarring alopecia (1. In our cases, the methods employed allowed an accurate diagnosis in 12 of 13 cases (92.3% previously classified as non-specific cicatricial alopecias. CONCLUSIONS: Even in the late, pauci or non-inflammatory phases, an approach with systematic evaluation of a constellation of criteria in routine hematoxylin and eosin stain, Periodic acid-Schiff and Weigert stain allowed for a more accurate diagnosis of cicatricial alopecias.

  14. Prevalence, incidence density, and genotype distribution of GB virus C infection in a cohort of recently HIV-1-infected subjects in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Maria Teresa M Giret

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The results of previous studies elsewhere have indicated that GB virus C (GBV-C infection is frequent in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 due to similar transmission routes of both viruses. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, incidence density and genotypic characteristics of GBV-C in this population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study population included 233 patients from a cohort primarily comprised of homosexual men recently infected with HIV-1 in São Paulo, Brazil. The presence of GBV-C RNA was determined in plasma samples by reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction and quantified by real-time PCR. GBV-C genotypes were determined by direct sequencing. HIV viral load, CD4+ T lymphocyte and CD8+ T lymphocyte count were also tested in all patients. The overall prevalence of GBV-C infection was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.29 in the study group. There was no significant difference between patients with and without GBV-C infection and Glycoprotein E2 antibody presence regarding age, sex, HIV-1 viral load, CD4+ and CD8+T cell counts and treatment with antiretroviral drugs. An inverse correlation was observed between GBV-C and HIV-1 loads at enrollment and after one year. Also, a positive but not significant correlation was observed between GBV-C load and CD4+ T lymphocyte. Phylogenetic analysis of the GBV-C isolates revealed the presence of genotype 1 and genotype 2, these sub classified into subtype 2a and 2b. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: GBV-C infection is common in recently HIV -1 infected patients in Sao Paulo, Brazil and the predominant genotype is 2b. This study provides the first report of the GBV-C prevalence at the time of diagnosis of HIV-1 and the incidence density of GBV-C infection in one year.

  15. Development and validation of methodology SPE-LC-MS/MS for pharmaceuticals and illicit drug determination in the waters of Guarapiranga Dam, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the development of the methodology of solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry, SPE-LC-MS/MS, for the determination of 21 (twenty one) pharmaceuticals belonging to different therapeutic groups, 1 (one) illicit drug and its major metabolite, in surface water samples. The chromatographic separation was optimized by studying the performance of different stationary and mobile phases. Quantitation of selected compounds was performed by electrospray ionization (ESI) and the mass spectrometer operating in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The validation of the proposed methodology was performed using the parameters of selectivity, matrix effect, dynamic range, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision, accuracy, recovery and robustness. The validation of methodology allowed to apply the methodology in the evaluation of the distribution of the 23 (twenty one) selected compounds, in Guarapiranga Dam waters, an of the major producer system of drinking water of the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP). The presence of these pollutants in aquatic environments is from the direct release of urban sewage from the homes of your surroundings, as a result of poor sanitation system. The waters of Guarapiranga dam were evaluated in 14 (fourteen) locations strategically chosen and sampled in 3 (three) campaigns of sample collection (August 2011, September 2012 and April 2013). In these samples were quantified acetaminophen (9.6 - 254 ng L-1), atenolol (8.5 - 177 ng L-1), benzoylecgonine (7.9 - 139 ng L-1), caffeine (27 - 27386 ng L-1) carbamazepine (12 - 358 ng L-1), chlorthalidone (9.4 - 35 ng L-1), cocaine (12.8 - 2560 ng L-1), diclofenac (8 - 36 ng L-1), enalapril (20 ng L-1), losartan (6.7 - 114 ng L-1) and valsartan (9.7 - 47 ng L-1). The sample siting GU103-12 (23°41'88.5”S 46°44'67.3”W) was the region with the highest values in the level of concentration of the

  16. Drinking patterns and alcohol use disorders in Sao Paulo, Brazil: the role of neighborhood social deprivation and socioeconomic status.

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    Camila Magalhães Silveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research conducted in high-income countries has investigated influences of socioeconomic inequalities on drinking outcomes such as alcohol use disorders (AUD, however, associations between area-level neighborhood social deprivation (NSD and individual socioeconomic status with these outcomes have not been explored in Brazil. Thus, we investigated the role of these factors on drink-related outcomes in a Brazilian population, attending to male-female variations. METHODS: A multi-stage area probability sample of adult household residents in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area was assessed using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI (n = 5,037. Estimation focused on prevalence and correlates of past-year alcohol disturbances [heavy drinking of lower frequency (HDLF, heavy drinking of higher frequency (HDHF, abuse, dependence, and DMS-5 AUD] among regular users (RU; odds ratio (OR were obtained. RESULTS: Higher NSD, measured as an area-level variable with individual level variables held constant, showed an excess odds for most alcohol disturbances analyzed. Prevalence estimates for HDLF and HDHF among RU were 9% and 20%, respectively, with excess odds in higher NSD areas; schooling (inverse association and low income were associated with male HDLF. The only individual-level association with female HDLF involved employment status. Prevalence estimates for abuse, dependence, and DSM-5 AUD among RU were 8%, 4%, and 8%, respectively, with excess odds of: dependence in higher NSD areas for males; abuse and AUD for females. Among RU, AUD was associated with unemployment, and low education with dependence and AUD. CONCLUSIONS: Regular alcohol users with alcohol-related disturbances are more likely to be found where area-level neighborhood characteristics reflect social disadvantage. Although we cannot draw inferences about causal influence, the associations are strong enough to warrant future longitudinal alcohol studies to

  17. Spatial distribution of the risk of dengue and the entomological indicators in Sumare, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Gerson Laurindo Barbosa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a major public health problem worldwide, caused by any of four virus (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4; Flaviviridae: Flavivirus, transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito. Reducing the levels of infestation by A. aegypti is one of the few current strategies to control dengue fever. Entomological indicators are used by dengue national control program to measure the infestation of A. aegypti, but little is known about predictive power of these indicators to measure dengue risk. In this spatial case-control study, we analyzed the spatial distribution of the risk of dengue and the influence of entomological indicators of A. aegypti in its egg, larva-pupa and adult stages occurring in a mid-size city in the state of São Paulo. The dengue cases were those confirmed by the city's epidemiological surveillance system and the controls were obtained through random selection of points within the perimeter of the inhabited area. The values of the entomological indicators were extrapolated for the entire study area through the geostatistical ordinary kriging technique. For each case and control, the respective indicator values were obtained, according with its geographical coordinates and analyzed by using a generalized additive model. Dengue incidence demonstrated a seasonal behavior, as well as the entomological indicators of all mosquito's evolutionary stages. The infestation did not present a significant variation in intensity and was not a limiting or determining factor of the occurrence of cases in the municipality. The risk maps of the disease from crude and adjusted generalized additive models did not present differences, suggesting that areas with the highest values of entomological indicators were not associated with the incidence of dengue. The inclusion of other variables in the generalized additive models may reveal the modulatory effect for the risk of the disease, which is not found in this study.

  18. Geochronological data for lithostratigraphic complexes of a crystalline basement from the South regions of Minas Gerais and adjacent areas of the Sao Paulo state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New geochronological data (Rb/Sr, Pb/Pb) for the Amparo and Pinhal Complexes, southern State of Minas Gerais and adjacent areas of the State of Sao Paulo are presented and discussed with respect to other lithostratigraphic complexes which there occur. Among the different complexes considered, 4 are composed mainly by rock belonging to typical infrastructure associations. They are the Barcelona, the Guaxupe, the Amparo and the Pinhal complexes. The Barbacena Complex is a typical gray gneiss complex and geochronological data by different methods confirm its Archean age. The Guaxupe Complex is composed mainly by different types of charnockitic rocks and an Archean age is assumed on geotectonic basis due to its neighboring association with the gray gneiss/greenstone belt, a though confirming geochronological data are still missing, a normal feature in this type of mobile belts which generally show a complex, polycyling evolution. Geochronological data by different methods on diverse rock types indicates that the Amparo and Pinhal complexes are respectively of Lower an Upper proterozoic age. Geochronological, geological and petrographic data reveal that both complexes are composed mainly by 3 basic rock associations: a-mainly derived magmatic rocks including mafic/ultramafic ones as well as calc-alkaline, subalcaline and even alkaline granitoids; b-orthogneisses, migmatites and crustal granites derived by metamorphic processes acting on older, pre-existing rocks; corthogneisses and migmatites resulting from metamorphic processes acting on magmatic rocks intruded during the same tecto-metamorphic cycle during which its transformation took place. The results suggest a polycyclic evolution by successive tecto-metamorphic events which affected the older rocks of the considered are either by the reworking of enclosing rocks around pericratonic continental main magmatic arcs or by the remobilisation of older basement rocks during continental collisions. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna Mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coast of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V was evaluated in samples of Perna perna mussels collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos) subjected to anthropogenic contamination, to compare these values with those of mussels from reference site of Cocanha Beach (in Caraguatatuba). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009. They were cleaned, ground, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 8 and 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1 in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 2876 Mussel Tissue were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The ranges of concentrations (dry basis) of the elements obtained in mussels collected for the four seasons of the year were: 173.80 to 358.99 mg kg-1 for Br; 45658 ± 1811 to 109166 ± 824 mg kg-1 for Cl; 7043 ± 856 to 12506 ± 675 mg kg-1 for K; 2774 ± 211 to 5691 ± 717 mg kg-1 for Mg; 7.01 ± 0.30 to 29.74 ± 3.32 mg kg-1 for Mn and 0.77 ± 0.02 to 3.43 ± 0.28 mg kg-1 for V. The seasonal and spatial variations of these element concentrations were in this study. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna Mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coast of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiki; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: danyseo@uol.com.br, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: mgcatharino@uol.com.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de, E-mail: edvinett@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico. Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia Marinha e Microfitobentos

    2013-07-01

    In this study the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V was evaluated in samples of Perna perna mussels collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos) subjected to anthropogenic contamination, to compare these values with those of mussels from reference site of Cocanha Beach (in Caraguatatuba). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009. They were cleaned, ground, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 8 and 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 2876 Mussel Tissue were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The ranges of concentrations (dry basis) of the elements obtained in mussels collected for the four seasons of the year were: 173.80 to 358.99 mg kg{sup -1} for Br; 45658 ± 1811 to 109166 ± 824 mg kg{sup -1} for Cl; 7043 ± 856 to 12506 ± 675 mg kg{sup -1} for K; 2774 ± 211 to 5691 ± 717 mg kg{sup -1} for Mg; 7.01 ± 0.30 to 29.74 ± 3.32 mg kg{sup -1} for Mn and 0.77 ± 0.02 to 3.43 ± 0.28 mg kg{sup -1} for V. The seasonal and spatial variations of these element concentrations were in this study. (author)

  1. Proposal of reference concentration values for metals and metalloids in limnic and fluvial sediments of Tiete River, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project represents the first efforts in Brazil in the proposition and establishment of reference concentration values for metals and metalloids in limnic and fluvial sediments. The selected study site is the Tiete river basin (Sao Paulo state, southeast region), a watershed which is under significant environmental impact and degradation since the onset of the Brazilian revolution at early-mid 50's. In order to consolidate the analytical values 1,100 analyses were performed encompassing 95 sampling points in 29 municipalities, from the upper stream parts of the river down to its mouth at the Parana river, covering an extension of approximate 800 km. Sediment samples were collected in small streams and rivers as closest as possible to their upper reaches, as well as in rivers and reservoirs in locations minimally affected by human contamination. Samples were initially sieved for separation of the particles 3, HF, HClO4 and HCl). Chemical analyses were performed by induced coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry for Cr, Ti, Zn, and V, and via atomic absorption spectrometry using conventional flame for Co, Cu, Ni and Pb, graphite furnace for Cd and Ag, hydride generation for As and Se, and cold vapor for Hg. U and Th were analysed by molecular absorption spectrophotometry using the chromogenic reagent Arsenazo III. The referent concentrations determined by this study showed significant differences with respect to the assumed global geological reference for some elements; differences were also detected among the concentrations of the same element from different basin regions and are attributed to differences in regional geochemical characteristics. As a consequence of these lithological variations, four different sets of reference concentration values are proposed valid to the different regions of the studied basin. This study also presents application of different sediment quality classifications models and potential ecological risk index for Bariri, Billings

  2. Petrography, structure and geochemistry of nepheline syenites from the Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif, states of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subcircular Mid-Cretaceous Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif, states of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo, southern Brazil, covers over 800 Km2, and has as its main rock types phonolites and nepheline syenites, with subordinate amounts of pyroclastic rocks. Nepheline syenites consist mainly of K-feldspar, nepheline and pyroxene, varying both in texture and 'rare-metal silicates' content. A useful petrographic division is that which classifies the rocks into agpaitic and non-agpaitic (miaskitic or intermediate) types. The latter varieties, characterized by the absence of rare-metal silicates, are predominant by far; agpaitic types are easily recognized by the presence of eudialyte and other rare-metal silicates. Both petrographic and, as far as possible, structural descriptions as well are given for most of the mapped nepheline syenite bodies; many bodies show subhorizontal or moderately-dipping contacts with their country rocks. Chemically, these rocks show, on the whole, high alkaline contents (12-15%) and commonly very high K2O abundances. Chemical as well as additional isotopic and geochronological (Rb/Sr) data suggest that the asthenosphere is the source of parental magmas for the Pocos de Caldas nepheline syenites. The same arguments are used to reject, as unlikely, the magmatic activity interval (over 30 m.y.) given by previously published K/Ar ages. Simple structural models of the crust lithosphre in the Parana Basin area, coupled with the westward plate movement, suggest that irregularities at the asthenosphere-lithosphere decoupling surface are probable sites for melting of asthenospheric (and lithospheric) rocks induced by pressure relief. (D.J.M.)

  3. Drug-related disorders and the criminal and clinical background of the prison population of Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

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    Maíra Mendes dos Santos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between drug (DAD and alcohol (AAD abuse and dependency and criminal and clinical background by gender of prisoners in São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: Cross-sectional study, random sample stratified by administrative district, from which prisons and prisoners were selected via random, multistage sampling. Psychiatric diagnoses were made with the CIDI 2.1. Lifetime prevalence and 95% CI were calculated and adjusted via analysis of complex samples. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was carried out with four categories of dependent variables: presence AAD; presence DAD; presence of another mental disorder; no mental disorders. For female alcohol and drug abuse and dependency (ADAD were combined into a single category. RESULTS: The sample was composed by 1809 interviewed prisoners (1192 men and 617 women. Prevalence of DAD and AAD was 25.2% and 15.6%, respectively, among female prisoners, and 26.5% and 18.5% among males. Male prisoners with DAD were more likely to have a criminal record as an adolescent (OR 2.17, to be a repeat offender (OR 2.85, and to have committed a property crime (OR 2.18. Prisoners with AAD were repeat offenders (OR 2.18. Among female prisoners, ADAD was associated with repeat offenses (OR 3.39, a criminal record as an adolescent (OR 9.24, a clinical or infectious condition (OR 5.09, another health problem (OR 3.04, and violent crime (OR 2.5. CONCLUSION: The study confirmed an association between drug-use disorders and the criminal and clinical background in the study population. Prisoners with such disorders were more likely to be repeat offenders and to have a criminal record as adolescents. Among female prisoners disorders were also associated with violent crime and health problems, while among males they were associated with property crime. These patterns in clinical and criminal backgrounds illustrate the need for social rehabilitation programs and specific medical treatment for

  4. Analysis of technical feasibility, economic and environmental operation of the lift system Tiete-Billings in the supply of water and electricity in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo; Analise da viabilidade tecnico-economico-ambiental da operacao do sistema elevatorio Tiete-Billings no suprimento de agua e eletricidade na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Luiz

    2010-07-01

    This study examines the characteristics of the water from the upper Tiete, as an input in the form of drinking water produced in eight stations, water treatment plant (WTP), an input for hydropower generation and wastewater generated by different anthropogenic activities. The most important problem of this basin is the wastewater that is released in the Pinheiros river and due to the deficit of 32.41 m3/s (2008) in the treatment of sewage in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo ('RMSP') which produces one pollutant load of 920 thousand kilograms of BOD per day. The Pinheiros river's flow during the floods and drought has the same destination, the Billings reservoir. However, the legislation for floods and drought periods are different. The first case - floods occurs by the action of full control of the metropolitan region and is supported by the Joint Resolution of Secretaries of State of Sao Paulo (SEE-SMA-SRHSO on 13/03/96) that allows the pumping of water in the following emergencies: (1) estimates of flow of the Tiete river at the point of its confluence with the river Pinheiros, above 160 m3/ s; (2) raised level above 30 cm water level at the confluence with the river Pinheiros. The second case - drought, the Metropolitan Company for Water and Energy (EMAE) Project proposed flotation of the Secretary of State for the Environment (SMA, 2004) to treat 10 m3/ s water originating channel Pinheiros (set/2007 the set / 2008) by means of flotation technology in flow. Using information based on Environmental Sanitation Great Sao Paulo (SANEGRAN) and data from the operation of the prototype flotation system Pinheiros-Billings (Project QAPB), concluded that the environmental impact of the reservoir Billings for the load of pollutants (mass per second) pumped after the flotation of the Pinheiros river water was always lower than that observed in the flood control operation. The treatment presented by flotation removal of 91% for total phosphorus, 90% for E

  5. Evaluation of the impact of farming activity in the water quality in surface catchment areas in hydrographic basin from Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, Sao Paulo; Avaliacao do impacto da atividade agropecuaria na qualidade da agua em areas de captacao superficial nas bacias hidrograficas dos Rios Mogi-Guacu e Pardo, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuoka, Lidia

    2001-07-01

    This study was performed in 10 small basins located in the Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers, in the Northeastern area of Sao Paulo State. The land belonging of these basins is used to grow row crops of potato, coffee and pasture areas. This study aimed to characterize small basins, to evaluate water and sediment quality and to correlate basic aspects of climatology, hydrology, toxicology and land uses to the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of the water in the streams. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used as a tool of evaluation of land uses and risk assessment was performed for a final evaluation. The samplings were carried out from June/1999 to June/2000 in the 13 collecting points. It was verified that water quality is dependent upon the rainy and dry periods and the harvest periods. In the beginning of rainy periods were found large concentrations of metals and traces of herbicides leachate from soil and, in the dry period the same event was verified, caused by concentration of the water. In August, September and October phosphorus concentrations were very low getting an improvement in the water quality. Al, Fe and Mn are majority elements of chemical compositions of rocks of the study area, and exceed the Brazilian Guidelines. The stream waters were classified as 44% oligotrophic, 42% mesotrophic and 14% eutrophic. Jaguari-Mirim River presented the largest values of Trophic Index (TI). Sediment analyses showed a great variety of organic compounds coming from anthropogenic activities (industrial and farming activity). Toxicity tests with hyalella azteca in the sediments presented toxicity for sediments from Sao Joao da Boa Vista and Divinolandia. A methodology was developed for organochlorinated pesticides by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GCMS). The presence of organochlorinated pesticides was not verified. (author)

  6. Planning projects for generation of electrical energy in the state of Sao Paulo, according to the degree of interference on air quality: an atmospheric qualification index using fuzzy sets; Ordenamento de projetos de geracao de energia eletrica no estado de Sao Paulo, segundo o grau de interferencia na qualidade do ar: um indice de qualificacao atmosferica (IQA) utilizando fuzzy sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzedzej, Maira; Maciel, Jonas Fernandes; Santos, Afonso Henrique Moreira [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Duarte, Pamella Santos [MS Consultoria Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Environmental issues are of great importance when assessing the feasibility and priority installation of new developments in electric power generation. In this sense, fuzzy logic can help define the regions that have favorable characteristics for receiving certain forms of generation. This study sought to order for the State of Sao Paulo, four kinds of generation projects: those using municipal solid waste gasification, those which make use of landfill gas with a change in firing (to reduce emissions), thermoelectric plants (TEPs) to bagasse (with 15% straw) and Small Hydropower (SHP). Such an ordering considered not only the type of generation but also the allocation of projects in the four regions, defined by regional vocations as defined by the State Water Resources Plan (Annex III of the State Law No. 9.034/94): Agriculture, Conservation, In Industrialization and Industrial. As a result, the use of fuzzy sets allowed the creation of a ranking of the alternatives (which totaled 14 possibilities), based exclusively on the degree of interference in air quality resulting from the installation of every form of generation. Such information may help the decision-making governing bodies to establish priorities in order, thereby accelerating the process of installation and operation of projects for generating electricity. (author)

  7. Steps in the diagnosis of energy for the establishment of a rational use of energy in an agroprocessing of wood forest planting in the southwest of the state of Sao Paulo; Etapas do diagnostico energetico para a implantacao de um programa de uso racional de energia em um agroindustria de beneficiamento de madeira de florestas plantadas na regiao sudoeste do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneppele, Fernando de Lima; Souza, Caroline Mazzini de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Itapeva, SP (Brazil). Campus Experimental], E-mail: fernando@itapeva.unesp.br; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2010-07-01

    This work shows the steps for implementing a program of rational use of electricity in a pine sawmill processing through energy diagnosis and also provide an energy efficiency index, the reference consumption in Kw.h power and volume of timber in cubic meters. The study was conducted in a sawmill located at Itapeva, southwest of Sao Paulo. The region's economic potential is based on the processing of wood with the main export destination. Much of the lumber does not have advanced technology, because it may present with excessive spending power. The species used are Pinus elliottii and Pinus taeda. We collected data on the electrical installation of the mill and the main parts of the installation as tables and distribution lines and equipment engines were studied. The diagnostic results show that while the industry had a good general appearance, electrical installations and equipment using electric power for its functioning need more care, both in maintenance and in use. An energy efficiency program, if effected, could reduce the cost of the process and provides environmental benefits by less need for electric power generation. (author)

  8. Determination of total and organic mercury and evaluation of methylation and demethylation processes in sediments of the Rio Grande Reservoir, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rio Grande reservoir is located in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo and it is a very important water supply for this region. In the present study bottom waters and sediment samples collected in this reservoir, in four sampling points, in four campaigns, from September 2008 to January 2010, were analyzed. Firstly total Hg was determined in sediment and bottom waters by cold vapor atomic absorption technique (CV AAS). Following, the analytical methodology for organic Hg was adapted from literature, where the organomercurial compounds were extracted with dichloromethane in acid medium and subsequent destruction of organic compounds by bromine chloride. The validation of this methodology, in terms of precision and accuracy, was performed by means of IAEA 405 and BCR-CRM 580 reference materials analyses. For methylation and demethylation processes evaluation in this environment, the following physical and chemical parameters were assessed, in situ: pH, water temperature, redox potential (EH), transparency and depth. For the sediment samples, granulometry, total organic carbon, sulphate-reducing bacteria, total N and P, besides the metals Co, Cu, Fe and Mn were evaluated. The selection of these parameters was related to the factors that influence the behavior of MeHg in the sediments and its transition zone. Total Hg ranging from 1.0 to 71.0 mg kg'-1 and organic mercury from -1 in sediments and methylation rates from 0.06 to 1.4% were found, along the reservoir. Different methylation conditions along the reservoir and its influences were also discussed. As supplementary study the concentration of some metals and trace elements in the sediments by neutron activation analysis technique was determined. As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Fe, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn and rare earth elements Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm and Yb were determined. The enrichment factor in relation to earth crust values using Sc as normalizer element reached values higher than 2.0 for the elements As, Br, Sb

  9. Perda dentária precoce em adultos de 35 a 44 anos de idade: estado de São Paulo, Brasil, 1998 Early tooth loss in adults aged 35 - 44: State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1998

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    Paulo Frazão

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Dados secundários de condições de saúde bucal em adultos de 35 a 44 anos de idade foram analisados a fim de estimar a prevalência da perda dentária precoce e do ataque de cárie dentária. Uma amostra não probabilística, de exames epidemiológicos provenientes de 5.777 professores e funcionários de escolas públicas e particulares, aleatoriamente selecionadas em 131 cidades do estado de São Paulo foi utilizada. Os critérios de observação do ataque de cárie recomendados pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (1997 foram empregados. O índice CPOD, correspondendo ao número de dentes permanentes cariados, perdidos e restaurados, e a proporção de adultos com ao menos 20 dentes funcionais foram analisados de acordo com o sexo, a idade, o grupo étnico, acesso à água de abastecimento fluoretada, tipo de escola: rural e urbana e o tamanho da população da cidade. O censo de 1991 - na época a mais recente fonte disponível - ofereceu informação de base municipal do perfil sócio-econômico. Análise espacial foi empregada para avaliar associação entre o perfil de saúde bucal e os indicadores sócio-econômicos. O ataque de cárie na amostra de adultos foi 22,39 (6,24. Perda dentária foi responsável pela metade do valor do ataque. Taxas crescentes de perda dentária precoce foram observadas para adultos mais velhos, negros, que trabalhavam em escolas rurais, em cidades pequenas e áreas não fluoretadas. Indicadores sócio-econômicos municipais mostraram correlação com a proporção de adultos com ao menos 20 dentes funcionais. Estes resultados podem auxiliar na formulação de políticas públicas dirigidas à promoção da saúde bucal.Secondary data on the oral health status of adults aged 35 - 44 were analysed in order to estimate the prevalence of caries and early tooth loss. A non-probabilistic sample of 5,777 teachers and workers of public and private schools randomly selected in 131 cities of the State of Sao Paulo

  10. Validação de dados termopluviométricos obtidos via sensoriamento remoto para o Estado de São Paulo Validation of temperature and rainfall data obtained by remote sensing for the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila B. Camparotto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dados termopluviométricos são utilizados em diversos estudos. Contudo, a escassez de dados resultante da baixa densidade de estações meteorológicas é um problema frequentemente encontrado. Com isto, a utilização de dados estimados por satélites tem-se mostrado importante para regiões nas quais eles são escassos. Neste trabalho foram realizadas comparações entre dados mensais de precipitação pluvial estimados pelo satélite TRMM e de temperatura, estimados pelo satélite Aqua/MODIS aos dados observados por estações de superfície, para diferentes localidades do Estado de São Paulo, no período de 2003 a 2010. Os resultados demonstraram que para os dados de precipitação pluvial os menores erros foram observados nos meses de inverno e os maiores nos meses de verão. Em relação aos dados de temperatura observou-se que, com a inclusão de um fator de correção, os dados do satélite Aqua apresentaram boa exatidão em todos os meses. De maneira geral, os resultados obtidos indicam que os satélites TRMM e Aqua são alternativas eficientes na aquisição de informações em locais onde há falhas ou escassez dos mesmos podendo ser também utilizados na análise da consistência de dados coletados por meio de redes meteorológicas.Temperature and rainfall data are used in several scientific studies. However, the paucity of data resulting from the low density of weather stations is a problem frequently encountered in these studies. Thus, the use of estimated data from satellites has become an important tool in regions where they are scarce. In this study comparisons were made between monthly rainfall data estimated by TRMM satellite and temperature data estimated by the satellite Aqua/MODIS data observed by surface stations, for different locations in the State of Sao Paulo during the period 2003 to 2010. The results showed that for the rainfall data, smaller errors were observed during the winter and higher during the summer

  11. Development and validation of methodology SPE-LC-MS/MS for pharmaceuticals and illicit drug determination in the waters of Guarapiranga Dam, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Desenvolvimento e validacao de metodologia SPE-LC-MS/MS para a determinacao de farmacos e droga de abuso nas aguas da represa Guarapiranga, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shihomatsu, Helena Miho

    2015-07-01

    This study presents the development of the methodology of solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry, SPE-LC-MS/MS, for the determination of 21 (twenty one) pharmaceuticals belonging to different therapeutic groups, 1 (one) illicit drug and its major metabolite, in surface water samples. The chromatographic separation was optimized by studying the performance of different stationary and mobile phases. Quantitation of selected compounds was performed by electrospray ionization (ESI) and the mass spectrometer operating in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The validation of the proposed methodology was performed using the parameters of selectivity, matrix effect, dynamic range, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision, accuracy, recovery and robustness. The validation of methodology allowed to apply the methodology in the evaluation of the distribution of the 23 (twenty one) selected compounds, in Guarapiranga Dam waters, an of the major producer system of drinking water of the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP). The presence of these pollutants in aquatic environments is from the direct release of urban sewage from the homes of your surroundings, as a result of poor sanitation system. The waters of Guarapiranga dam were evaluated in 14 (fourteen) locations strategically chosen and sampled in 3 (three) campaigns of sample collection (August 2011, September 2012 and April 2013). In these samples were quantified acetaminophen (9.6 - 254 ng L{sup -1}), atenolol (8.5 - 177 ng L{sup -1}), benzoylecgonine (7.9 - 139 ng L{sup -1}), caffeine (27 - 27386 ng L{sup -1}) carbamazepine (12 - 358 ng L{sup -1}), chlorthalidone (9.4 - 35 ng L{sup -1}), cocaine (12.8 - 2560 ng L{sup -1}), diclofenac (8 - 36 ng L{sup -1}), enalapril (20 ng L{sup -1}), losartan (6.7 - 114 ng L{sup -1}) and valsartan (9.7 - 47 ng L{sup -1}). The sample siting GU103-12 (23°41'88.5”S 46°44'67.3”W) was the

  12. Controle da hanseníase no Estado de São Paulo: análise histórica Control de la hanseníasis en el Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil: análisis histórico Hansen's disease control in the State of São Paulo: a historical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Araujo Opromolla

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Para controle da hanseníase, doença infectocontagiosa conhecida desde os tempos bíblicos, são mostradas as intrincadas convergências de histórias nacionais, de políticas médicas, governamentais e internacionais. O estudo descreve a história e as ações de controle da hanseníase, a partir do começo do século XIX, no estado de São Paulo, e sua conexão com o desenvolvimento da saúde pública, utilizando análises bibliográficas e documentais.Para control de la hanseníasis, enfermedad infectocontagiosa conocida desde los tiempos bíblicos, se muestran las intrincadas convergencias de historias brasileñas, de políticas médicas, gubernamentales e internacionales. El estudio describe la historia y las acciones de control de la hanseníasis, a partir del comienzo del siglo XIX, en el estado de Sao Paulo, y su conexión con el desarrollo de la salud pública, utilizando análisis bibliográficas y documentales.Leprosy is an infectious contagious disease known since Biblical times. Global effort for disease control reveals intricate convergences of national history and of medical, governmental, and international policies. The study describes the history of Hansen's disease and control actions undertaken in the state of São Paulo starting in the 19th century and its connection with the development of public health in that state, by means of a bibliographic and documental analysis.

  13. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  14. Metals and trace elements concentration in water and sediments of the hydrographic basins from Mogi-Guacu and Pardo rivers in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao de metais e elementos-traco em aguas e sedimentos das bacias hidrograficas dos rios Mogi-Guacu e Pardo, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemes, Marcos Jose de Lima

    2001-07-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the environmental water and sediment quality in Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers Basins (Sao Paulo State), in the localities of water supply intake for the 13 cities in the basins. Metals and ions analysis of the water and sediment were performed according methods to procedures described in Standard Methods for Examinations of Water and Wastewater, 17th. edition. The hydrographic basins from Mogi-Guacu and Pardo Rivers have a large agriculture influence on limnologic, physical and chemical characteristics and this area is unique in the State of Sao Paulo that the water catchment for supply is only surface and used for water supply agriculture, public and industrial as well as far other uses, and it is also the recharge of Guarani's aquifer and it is one of huge aquifers of the world. On this study sampling was carried out at in a hydrological period, they were sampled bimonthly for 12 months (April 98/April 99) and analyzed: ions (F{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +} and NH{sub 4}{sup +}), nutrients (NO{sub 3}{sup -} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) using the Ion Chromatographic technique, metals (Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb and Zn) using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometric technique, organic carbon, using the Volumetric technique, for characterization of the sediments was used X Ray Fluorescence Spectrometric and X Ray Diffraction Spectrometric techniques in the 13 communities. During the catchment's period was gotten a large number of results. For it was used a computer software program for descriptive, correlation and principal components analysis. The descriptive analyze was written Fe, Mn and Al getting down concentration after treatment water, the Mg, Co, P, Cu, Na and K elements still at same concentration after treatment concentration and, the Ca, F{sup -}, Cl{sup -} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} elements getting upper concentration after treatment water. The

  15. Gestão dos Riscos Urbanos em São Paulo: as áreas contaminadas Urban Risk Management in Sao Paulo: contaminated sites Gestion des risques dans São Paulo: Les zones contaminées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Zilda dos Santos Ramires

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a problemática relacionada às áreas contaminadas. Esta questão ambiental passou a ser de conhecimento público a partir da década de 1980, por meio do processo de desconcentração industrial verificado na mais densa área urbana do Brasil. Na primeira parte, será analisado como este fenômeno, somado a mudança do uso do solo urbano resultou no surgimento das áreas de risco, uma vez que as áreas contaminadas estão sendo utilizadas ou receberam novos usos, como residenciais ou serviços, sem que fossem realizados estudos ambientais específicos com posterior recuperação e/ou remediação. Com o objetivo de auxiliar no entendimento, abrangência e magnitude da questão, será apresentado um mapeamento, por distrito, das indústrias existentes na mancha urbana paulista; o qual expressa à distribuição dos riscos e perigos construídos ao longo de décadas no território do município de São Paulo. Na segunda parte, aborda-se como o poder público trata o tema; suas dificuldades e acertos. Por fim, estão as conclusões, que indicam que a aplicação efetiva da legislação específica para a gestão de áreas contaminadas, com a exigência da realização dos estudos ambientais, além da disponibilização das informações à sociedade, com aumento da visibilidade do problema, pode ser o caminho para solucioná-los, ainda que hoje a participação popular, incipiente nesse caso, seja fundamental nesse processo.La problématique de ce travail s´inscrit autour des zones contaminées. La question de l´environnement est devenue publique à partir des années 1980 à cause du processus de déconcentration industrielle qui s´est opéré dans les aires urbaines les plus denses du Brésil. Dans la première partie on analyse comment ce phénomène a contribué à l´apparition de nouvelles zones de risque, suite au changement de l´usage du sol urbain. En effet, des habitations et des services ont

  16. A influência francesa na estruturação da escola de educação física da Força Pública de São Paulo, Brasil (1906-1914) = The French Influence in the Structuring of the School of Physical Education of the Armed Forces of Sao Paulo, Brazil (1906-1914)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Barsottini; Edivaldo Góis Junior; Sheila Aparecida Pereira dos Santos Silva

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la influencia cultural francesa en el campo de la Educación Física en el contexto de las Fuerzas Armadas de Sao Paulo a principios de década de los años 20 del pasado siglo, al tiempo que analizar las demandas políticas del gobierno del estado en la organización de esta escuela. En cuanto a los procedimientos metodológicos, hubo una investigación documental, que se caracterizó por la recogida de datos para la investigación sobre la estructura de la Es...

  17. Prevenção de anemia no primeiro ano de vida em centros de saúde do município de Santo André, São Paulo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szarfarc, S C; Berg, Gabriele; Santos, A L;

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an iron prophylactic supplementation program, in three health centers of Santo André, in São Paulo state. The prevalence of anemia was identified in a control group consisting of 201 children of 1 year old. The intervention group consisted...... and anemia and its risk to children's health. When the children were 12 months old, the diagnosis of anemia was made through dosage of hemoglobin concentration and the results were compared with those of the control group. It was verified that the 2 groups presented similar prevalences. It is important...... to realize that children with low frequency of visits to the health centers had prevalence of anemia significantly higher than those with high frequency. Some factors that possibly contributed to the result of the intervention are discussed....

  18. Fatores de risco para uso do tabaco em adolescentes de duas escolas do município de Santo André, São Paulo Risk factors for tobacco use in adolescent students of two high schools of Santo André city, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halley Ferraro Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar fatores de risco para uso de tabaco em estudantes de duas escolas do ensino médio do município de Santo André (SP em 2005, bem como traçar o perfil do adolescente experimentador do fumo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com questionário padronizado, autoaplicável e anônimo aplicado a adolescentes escolares de ambos os sexos, matriculados no primeiro ano do ensino médio de duas escolas de Santo André, uma particular e outra pública. Foram levantadas as seguintes variáveis: idade, sexo, raça, prática de esportes, religião e hábitos do adolescente e da família. Definiu-se como "experimentador do fumo" o adolescente que experimentou cigarro (tabaco e não continuou o hábito tabagista. Foi feita a análise descritiva com o teste do qui-quadrado e os fatores de risco para "experimentar fumo" foram analisados por regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Dos 232 questionários aplicados, 226 (90% foram respondidos, sendo 137 (61% na escola particular e 89 (39% na estadual. Dentre os entrevistados, 54 (24% referiram já ter experimentado tabaco uma vez na vida (35 na escola privada e 19 na pública. Foram fatores de risco significativos para experimentar fumo na escola particular: mãe fumante (OR 12,4; IC95% 4,1-37,8 e amigos fumantes (OR 9,6; IC95% 3,1-29,9. Na escola pública, os fatores de risco para a mesma variável foram: consumo de bebida alcoólica (OR 8,8; IC95% 1,9-40,1, amigos fumantes, (OR 7,9; IC95% 1,9-31,3 e contato com fumaça do cigarro (OR 6,4; IC95% 1,6-26,2. CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se influência significativa do meio ambiente do adolescente, inclusive social e familiar, para a experimentação do tabaco.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors for tobacco use in high school students of two schools of the city of Santo Andre (São Paulo, Brazil in 2005, as well as to describe the profile of the adolescent who uses tobacco. METHODS: Cross sectional study that applied a standardized anonimous self

  19. Pipeline maintenance, evaluation and inspection in water crossing: OSBRA case in Paranaiba River; Inspecao, avaliacao e manutencao de oleoduto em travessia: caso OSBRA (Oleoduto Sao Paulo-Brasilia) no Rio Paranaiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Newton Camelo de; Spagnolo, Rodrigo Alves; Vieira Paulo de Tarso [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Attempting to pipeline integrity proceeding of PETROBRAS, the OSBRA (Sao Paulo-Brasilia Pipeline) Management promoted field inspections by divers at Paranaiba River water crossing, located at your right-of-way pipeline. These services were composed by topography, visual inspections and local screened of the pipeline, determining the equipment layout at that water crossing. At Paranaiba River, the pipeline is seated above the river bed. The results indicated high spans in the pipeline structure. Considering this configuration, were made water speed and vibration measurements near the equipment. The activities were executed in order to assist the structural analysis of the pipeline. These studies had concluded to a temporary solution, which consisted in reducing loads and building additional supports. (author)

  20. Sao Luiz do Paraltinga underwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sao Luiz do Paaitinga, a city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, is considered a cultural and historical heritage of the country. On January first, of 2010 the city was hit by a devasting flood which resulted in the loss and destruction of historical and public buildings, monuments and houses. The referred places suffered damage in their structure and loss of physical and electronic documents. Most of the population lost its legal identity. The nucleo de Conservacao do Arquivo Publico do Estado de Sao Paulo - Nucleus for Conservation of public files of Sao Paulo- APESP and the Nucleo de Conservacao e Restauro Edson Motta, laboratory from National Service for Industrial Apprenticeship, became associated in order to save the documents. the access to the documents was only autorized 26 days after the flooding due to bureaucratic reasons. With few economic ressources and no time to come up with a big plan but only necessary practical courses of action, a completely manual method was established to recover this documents, with the exception of the third allotment. It had to be submitted to gamma-rays cobalt-60 from a multi purpose compact type irradiator from the Centro de Tecnologia das radiacoes do Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares due to enormous fungus infection. Describing the methodology applied to recover all documents and comparing the third allotment with the others which did not receive irradiation, are the purpose of this paper.

  1. A light at the end of the tunnel of knowledge: the arrival of occupational therapy in the city of Sao Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Auxiliadora Cursino Ferrari

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I recite the beginning of my academic and professional trajectory, which was marked by the arrival of Occupational Therapy in São Paulo. The facts reveal the challenges faced in different moments of this history. When I majored in pedagogy, I wished to work and keep on studying. When the occupational therapy course was implemented at the Faculty of Medicine of University of São Paulo, I became interested and enrolled in the course. Occupational Therapy was then known as Labor...

  2. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain; Levantamento dos niveis de radioatividade natural em aguas do alto Vale da Ribeira a planicie costeira do litoral sul do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Sueli Carvalho de

    2010-07-01

    freshwater/saltwater mixing). Thus, the Ra isotopes provide fundamental information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of {sup 228}Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of {sup 228}Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of {sup 228}Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate

  3. Assessment of hygienic conditions of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on the market in Sao Paulo City, by means of two methodologies for detecting the light filth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper should to be collected, processed, and packed under optimum conditions to avoid the presence of foreign matter. The hygienic conditions of ground pepper marketted in São Paulo city were assessed in determining the presence of foreign matter by means of two extraction methodologies. This study...

  4. Mortalidade cardiovascular por sexo e faixa etária em São Paulo, Brasil: 1996 a 1998 e 2003 a 2005 Mortalidad cardiovascular por sexo y grupo etario en São Paulo, Brasil: 1996 a 1998 y 2003 a 2005 Cardiovascular mortality by gender and age range in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil: 1996 to 1998, and 2003 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Farias

    2009-11-01

    corazón y cerebrovasculares (EIC y ECBV, en el municipio de São Paulo, por sexo y edad, de 1996 a 1998 y de 2003 a 2005. MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron datos de óbitos del Programa de Perfeccionamiento de la Información sobre Mortalidad para el Municipio (PROAIM y estimativas poblacionales de la Fundación Sistema Provincial de Análisis de Datos (SEADE del Estado de São Paulo. La magnitud en la mortalidad y los cambios entre los trienios fueron medidos por la descripción de coeficientes y variación porcentual relativa. También se utilizó el modelo de regresión de Poisson para estimar el cambio en la mortalidad entre los períodos. RESULTADOS: Se observó una importante reducción de la mortalidad cardiovascular. Los coeficientes aumentan con la edad en ambos sexos. Son más altos también en la población masculina, en la franja a partir de los 70 años. Los coeficientes de mortalidad por EIC son mayores que aquellos por ECBV, tanto en los hombres como en las mujeres de 50 años o más. El descenso por el conjunto de enfermedades cardiovasculares fue mayor en mujeres de 20 a 29 años (-30% y en hombres de 30 a 39 años (-26 %. CONCLUSIÓN: La intensidad de la mortalidad cardiovascular disminuyó entre 1996 y 1998, a 2003 y 2005. Aun así existen diferencias entre los grupos. Esa reducción puede significar, en parte, un mayor acceso a métodos diagnósticos y terapéuticos.BACKGROUND: Knowledge on the trends of cardiovascular mortality is important to make hypotheses on its occurrence as well as to support prevention and control measures. OBJECTIVES: To compare mortality for the group of cardiovascular diseases and their main subgroups (ischemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases in the city of Sao Paulo by age and gender between the periods of 1996 to1998 and 2003 to 2005. METHODS: Data on deaths from the Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações de Mortalidade para o Município(Program of Improvement of Information on Mortality for the City, and

  5. Análise espacial e sazonal da leptospirose no município de São Paulo, SP, 1998 a 2006 Análisis espacial y estacional de la leptospirosis en el municipio de Sao Paulo, SP, 1998 a 2006 Spatial and seasonal analysis on leptospirosis in the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, 1998 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Spinelli Martins Soares

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a distribuição espacial e sazonal da leptospirose, identificando possíveis componentes ecológicos e sociais para a sua transmissão. MÉTODOS: Foram georreferenciados 2.490 casos em cada distrito do município de São Paulo, SP, registrados de 1998 a 2006. Os dados foram obtidos do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação. Foram realizados mapas temáticos com as variáveis taxa de incidência, letalidade, taxa de alfabetização, renda média mensal, número de moradores por domicilio, abastecimento de água e rede de esgoto. Para identificar o padrão espacial (disperso, em aglomerado ou randômico, foram analisadas pelo Índice de Moran global e local. Foi utilizado o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman para testar associações entre as variáveis com padrão espacial em aglomerados. RESULTADOS: O padrão espacial em aglomerados foi observado nas variáveis taxa de incidência de leptospirose, taxa de alfabetização, renda média mensal, número de moradores por domicílio, abastecimento de água e rede de esgoto. Foram notificados 773 casos no período seco e 1.717 no úmido. A incidência e a letalidade estão correlacionadas com as condições socioeconômicas da população, independentemente do período. CONCLUSÕES: A leptospirose está distribuída por todo o município de São Paulo e sua incidência aumenta no período das chuvas. No período seco, os locais de aparecimento dos casos coincidem com as áreas de piores condições de moradia e, durante o período úmido, também aumenta em outros distritos, provavelmente devido à proximidade de rios e córregos.OBJETIVO: Analizar la distribución espacial y estacional de la leptospirosis, identificando posibles componentes ecológicos y sociales para su transmisión. MÉTODOS: Fueron georeferenciados 2.490 casos en cada distrito del municipio de Sao Paulo, en sureste de Brasil, registrados de 1998 a 2006. Los datos fueron obtenidos del Sistema

  6. Vacina contra o vírus da influenza e mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares na cidade de São Paulo Vacuna contra el virus de la Influenza y mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares en la Ciudad de São Paulo Vaccination against the influenza virus and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in the city of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Padua Mansur

    2009-10-01

    programa de vacunación contra la gripe. Las estimativas de la población y los datos de mortalidad fueron, respectivamente, obtenidos del Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística (IBGE; www.ibge.gov.br y del Ministerio de la Salud (www.datasus.gov.br para el período entre el 1980 y 2006. Se estimó el riesgo de muerte por el método directo de ajuste, en el que se utilizó la población estándar (mundial referente al 1960. RESULTADOS: Las comparaciones entre las inclinaciones de las líneas de regresión resultaron semejantes para las ECbV (p = 0,931 y CE (p = 0,941, sin embargo, para las EIC (p = 0,022, se observó significativa reducción de la línea del período postvacuna cuando comparada con la línea del período prevacuna. El cambio en la tendencia de la mortalidad tras el 1996 fue significativo sólo para las EIC (p = 0,022, permaneciendo inalterada para las ECbV (p = 0,931 y EE (p = 0,941. CONCLUSIÓN: La vacunación contra la gripe se asoció a la significativa reducción de la mortalidad por EIC.BACKGROUND: The effect of vaccination against the influenza virus on the mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mortality by CVD before and after the start of the vaccination against the Influenza virus in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: We analyzed the mortality due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD, cerebrovascular diseases (CbVD and external causes (EC in the population of the metropolitan region of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, aged > 60 years, before and after the start of the vaccination program against Influenza. The population estimates and mortality data were obtained, respectively, from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE; www.ibge.gov.br and from the Brazilian Ministry of Health (www.datasus.gov.br for the period between 1980 and 2006. The risk of death was adjusted by the direct method, using the 1960 world standard population. RESULTS: The comparisons between

  7. Oomycota (Straminipila) da Reserva Biológica de Paranapiacaba, Santo André, SP, Brasil Oomycota (Straminipila) from the Paranapiacaba Biological Reserve, Santo André, São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Lenk Gomes; Carmen Lidia Amorim Pires-Zottarelli

    2008-01-01

    Durante o período de novembro/2003 a novembro/2004, coletas trimestrais de amostras de água e solo foram realizadas na Reserva Biológica de Paranapiacaba, importante fragmento de Mata Atlântica localizado no estado de São Paulo, para estudo da diversidade de oomicetos. Para o isolamento destes organismos, as amostras foram tratadas pelo método de iscagem, que resultou na identificação de 35 espécies, das quais uma pertence a Leptomitales, quatro a Peronosporales, duas a Rhipidiales, e 28 a Sa...

  8. Analysis of technical feasibility, economic and environmental operation of the lift system Tiete-Billings in the supply of water and electricity in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the characteristics of the water from the upper Tiete, as an input in the form of drinking water produced in eight stations, water treatment plant (WTP), an input for hydropower generation and wastewater generated by different anthropogenic activities. The most important problem of this basin is the wastewater that is released in the Pinheiros river and due to the deficit of 32.41 m3/s (2008) in the treatment of sewage in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo ('RMSP') which produces one pollutant load of 920 thousand kilograms of BOD per day. The Pinheiros river's flow during the floods and drought has the same destination, the Billings reservoir. However, the legislation for floods and drought periods are different. The first case - floods occurs by the action of full control of the metropolitan region and is supported by the Joint Resolution of Secretaries of State of Sao Paulo (SEE-SMA-SRHSO on 13/03/96) that allows the pumping of water in the following emergencies: (1) estimates of flow of the Tiete river at the point of its confluence with the river Pinheiros, above 160 m3/ s; (2) raised level above 30 cm water level at the confluence with the river Pinheiros. The second case - drought, the Metropolitan Company for Water and Energy (EMAE) Project proposed flotation of the Secretary of State for the Environment (SMA, 2004) to treat 10 m3/ s water originating channel Pinheiros (set/2007 the set / 2008) by means of flotation technology in flow. Using information based on Environmental Sanitation Great Sao Paulo (SANEGRAN) and data from the operation of the prototype flotation system Pinheiros-Billings (Project QAPB), concluded that the environmental impact of the reservoir Billings for the load of pollutants (mass per second) pumped after the flotation of the Pinheiros river water was always lower than that observed in the flood control operation. The treatment presented by flotation removal of 91% for total phosphorus, 90% for E. coli, 53% for

  9. Fatores de risco para uso do tabaco em adolescentes de duas escolas do município de Santo André, São Paulo Risk factors for tobacco use in adolescent students of two high schools of Santo André city, São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Halley Ferraro Oliveira; Lourdes Conceição Martins; Lígia de Fátima N. Reato; Marco Akerman

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar fatores de risco para uso de tabaco em estudantes de duas escolas do ensino médio do município de Santo André (SP) em 2005, bem como traçar o perfil do adolescente experimentador do fumo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com questionário padronizado, autoaplicável e anônimo aplicado a adolescentes escolares de ambos os sexos, matriculados no primeiro ano do ensino médio de duas escolas de Santo André, uma particular e outra pública. Foram levantadas as seguintes variáveis: idade...

  10. Uso de anfetaminas por motoristas de caminhão em rodovias do Estado de São Paulo: um risco à ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito? Amphetamine use by truck drivers on highways of Sao Paulo State: a risk for the occurrence of traffic accidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Yonamine

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, é comum o uso de anfetaminas por motoristas de caminhão, o que pode culminar na ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito. O objetivo deste artigo é estimar a prevalência do uso de anfetaminas entre caminhoneiros. Motoristas (N = 134 foram abordados em duas rodovias do Estado de São Paulo e solicitados a responder um questionário, assim como a fornecer uma amostra de urina para realização de análises toxicológicas. Todos os dados foram analisados em Stata 8.0. Todos os participantes eram do sexo masculino, de idade média de 40,8 anos e de baixa escolaridade. A presença de anfetaminas foi detectada em 10,8% das amostras de urina, cujo uso foi justificado para manter a vigília durante o trabalho. O uso de anfetaminas foi detectado entre caminhoneiros em rodovias de São Paulo. Cessado o efeito estimulante, a sonolência advinda de uma possível privação de sono diminui a atenção e o bom desempenho na direção, predispondo o condutor aos acidentes de trânsito e seus custos relacionados.The use of amphetamines in Brazil is common among truck drivers, which may be an important factor in the occurrence of traffic accidents. This article seeks to estimate the prevalence of amphetamine use among truck drivers. Drivers (N = 134 were stopped on two different highways in Sao Paulo state and they were asked to answer a questionnaire and provide a urine sample for toxicological analysis. All data were analyzed on Stata 8.0. All participants were males with low levels of schooling, whose mean age was 40.8 years. The presence of amphetamines was detected in 10.8% of all urine samples collected, being commonly justified in order to make truck drivers able to maintain their state of awareness. Amphetamine use was detected among truck drivers on Sao Paulo highways. The problem is that when the stimulant effects wear off, sleepiness due to sleep deprivation reduces concentration and good driver performance, making drivers vulnerable to

  11. A experiência do núcleo de estudos de meios de solução de conflitos (NEMESC The experience of university of Sao Paulo´s dispute resolution study group (NEMESC

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    Carlos Alberto de Salles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta a experiência desenvolvida pelo Núcleo de Estudos de Meios de Solução de Conflitos (NEMESC no âmbito da Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de São Paulo. As atividades desenvolvidas, que completaram cinco anos em 2009, tiveram início informalmente através de grupo de estudo com alunos da graduação e pós-graduação e hoje se firmaram como disciplinas de extensão da Faculdade de Direito. Este artigo considera as atividades e práticas desenvolvidas pelo grupo, as escolhas metodológicas e o envolvimento dos alunos durante estes cinco anos de experiência do NEMESC, para demonstrar os resultados auferidos. o objetivo é contribuir para o debate sobre o tema e uma troca de experiências sobre meios de solução de conflitos no âmbito da faculdade de direito.This paper presents the 5 years' experience of the Alternative Dispute Resolution Group (NEMESC established at the University of Sao Paulo Law School. The NEMESC begun as a studying and reading group interested to debate and to research about alternative dispute resolution issues, and now a course emerged from this studying group at the law school. This paper considers the activities and practices developed by the group, the methodological choices and students' involvement during the 5 years of the NEMESC experience to show some positive results. The paper goal is contributing to the debates about alternative dispute resolution and to the exchange of views and experiences about adr at the law school environment.

  12. Comportamento socioambiental do consumidor: um estudo com universitários do interior paulista Consumer socio-environmental behavior: a study with college students in the countryside of the State of Sao Paulo

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    Helenita Rodrigues da Silva Tamashiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A Responsabilidade Social Corporativa vem se consolidando cada vez mais, dentro de um cenário de mercado muito competitivo e de consumidores mais exigentes e seletivos. Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar se as ações de responsabilidade socioambiental influenciam no processo de decisão de compra dos consumidores. Para tanto, foram aplicados 100 questionários a alunos de um curso de administração de uma universidade no Estado de São Paulo, sendo que, 68 questionários foram validados e analisados, aplicando-se a estatística descritiva. Os resultados demonstraram que: i as ações socioambientais não afetam o processo de compra desses consumidores; ii que as empresas devem informar aos seus públicos em quais ações sociais e ambientais estão envolvidas e quais são os impactos positivos que suas ações têm gerado à biodiversidade e à sociedade.Corporate Social Responsibility is increasingly being consolidated within a very competitive market scenario comprising more selective and demanding consumers. Thus, the purpose of this research was to verify whether socio-environmental actions influence consumer purchase decision. To this end, 100 questionnaires were applied to undergraduate students from a business administration course at a university in the State of Sao Paulo; 68 questionnaires were validated and analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results showed that: i socio-environmental actions do notaffect the purchase process of these consumers; ii companies should inform consumers which social and environmental actions they are involved in and which positive impacts their actions have generated to biodiversity and society.

  13. Greenhouse gas balances and land use changes associated with the planned expansion (to 2020) of the sugarcane ethanol industry in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is expected to increase its sugarcane production in the coming years. Almost 60% of the Brazilian sugarcane production in 2012 was situated in the state of São Paulo, where production is expected to increase further. This paper reports estimated direct land use changes and greenhouse gas balances (including soil carbon stock changes) associated with expanding production of sugarcane-based ethanol in São Paulo state. Geographic information about the location of existing and planned sugarcane mills and existing land use in these locations is used. Almost all of the sugarcane expansion in 2004–2008 took place on roughly equal shares of cropland or pasture land. The locations of the planned mills indicate that most new sugarcane might be planted on cropland unless the sugarcane is sourced from longer distances than has typically been the case. These results confirm that sugarcane expansion does not cause much direct deforestation but contrast with the view that direct competition for prime cropland is generally avoided since sugarcane is mostly planted on extensively used pasture lands. Analyses of greenhouse gas emissions and savings support the view that expansion of sugarcane ethanol in Brazil will likely bring about substantial savings – unless the expansion causes significant emissions associated with indirect land use change. - Highlights: • We model a sugarcane expansion in the state of São Paulo. • The expansion is based on environmental permits allowing new mills to be built. • If old expansion patterns are followed expansion will mainly take place on cropland. • Significant avoided GHG emissions, soil organic C losses from dLUC included

  14. Ambiente atmosférico urbano e admissão hospitalar de crianças, na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Urban atmospheric environment and hospital admission for children in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil Ambiente atmosférico urbano e ingresos hospitalarios de niños en la ciudad de Sâo Paulo, Brasil

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    Edelci Nunes da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As alterações climáticas constituem risco para a saúde pública. Contudo, poucos estudos têm procurado identificar como a dinâmica do clima afeta a saúde, a fim de se obter dados que alimentem modelos de previsão de riscos para a saúde. Nas cidades tropicais esses estudos são particularmente escassos. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar como as condições atmosféricas intraurbanas afetam a saúde respiratória das crianças menores de cinco anos no setor Sul/Sudeste, da cidade de São Paulo, associando as variáveis atmosféricas e o índice bioclimático PET (Physiological Equivalent Temperature com as admissões hospitalares. Analisaram-se 12.269 casos de internamento por doenças respiratórias em crianças – CID 10, Capítulo 10 - Doenças Respiratórias (J00-J32; J40-J47; J80-J99. Os dados diários de temperaturas média, mínima e máxima do ar (ºC, humidade relativa média do ar (% e velocidade média do vento (m/s foram obtidos na estação meteorológica do aeroporto de Congonhas e o índice de qualidade do ar, como controle, na CETESB/CONGONHAS. Utilizou-se a análise estatística descritiva e modelo de regressão. Os resultados apontaram associação estatística entre as variáveis atmosféricas, a poluição e os internamentos hospitalares. Não foram identificadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas para o grupo de crianças com doenças respiratórias, menores de cinco anos residentes em distritos com diferentes condições socioambientais.Climatic changes pose public health risks. However, few studies have tried to identify how climate dynamics affect health, in order to obtain evidence-based data for risk-prediction models. Moreover, such studies are particularly scarce for tropical cities. This study aimed to verify how intra-urban atmospheric conditions affect the respiratory health of children under five in the South- eastern part of Sao Paulo, Brazil, by associating atmospheric variables and the

  15. Perfil dos usuários de serviços de Saúde Mental do município de Lorena - São Paulo Perfil de los usuarios de servicios de Salud Mental del municipio de Lorena - Sao Paulo Profile of users of mental health services in the city of Lorena - São Paulo

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    Maria Odete Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar o perfil dos usuários do Ambulatório de Saúde Mental e do Centro de Atenção Psicossocial de Lorena - São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório descritivo com dados coletados em 5.830 prontuários dos usuários desses dois serviços de Saúde Mental. RESULTADOS:Foram analisados 5.490 prontuários no Ambulatório e 340 no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial. No Ambulatório 68% dos usuários eram mulheres e no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial, 61% eram homens. Os diagnósticos que prevaleceram no Ambulatório foram: transtornos neuróticos, relacionados ao estresse e os somatoformes, e no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial, foram os transtornos decorrentes do uso de substâncias psicoativas. O grupo de medicamentos mais prescritos no Ambulatório foi o de antidepressivos, e no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial, os antipsicóticos. CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se que os serviços de Saúde Mental atuam de forma desarticulada com a Atenção Básica de Saúde e faz-se necessário implantar o apoio matricial nesse município.OBJETIVOS: Identificar el perfil de los usuarios del Consultorio Externo de Salud Mental y del Centro de Atención Psicosocial de Lorena - Sao Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudio exploratorio descriptivo cuyos datos fueron recolecatos en 5.830 historias clínicas de los usuarios de esos dos servicios de Salud Mental. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 5.490 historias clínicas em el Consultorio Externo y 340 en el Centro de Atención Psicosocial. En el Consultorio externo el 68% de los usuarios eran mujeres y en el Centro de Atención Psicosocial, el 61% eran hombres. Los diagnósticos que prevalecieron en el Consultorio Externo fueron: trastornos neuróticos, relacionados al estrés y los somatoformes, y en el centro de Atención Psicosocial, fueron los trastornos generados por el uso de sustancias psicoactivas. El grupo de medicamentos más prescritos en el Consultorio Externo fue el de los antidepresivos, y en el Centro de Atenci

  16. Coinfecção de Tb/HIV em um distrito administrativo do município de São Paulo Coinfección de TB/VIH en un distrito administrativo del municipio de Sao Paulo Coinfection of Tuberculosis / Human Immunodeficiency Virus in an administrative district in the city of São Paulo

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    Paula Hino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar o perfil sóciodemográfico e epidemiológico de pessoas com co-infecção Tb/HIV, residentes no distrito administrativo Capão Redondo do Município de São Paulo no período de 2000 a 2009. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo. RESULTADOS: De um total de 1.612 casos de tuberculose, 162 casos foram positivos para o HIV. Houve predomínio da faixa etária de 30 a 39 anos (39,5%, sexo masculino (61,1% e a forma pulmonar (68,5%. Apenas 47,5% dos casos evoluíram para a cura, 13% abandonaram o tratamento e 32,2% foram a óbito. RESULTADOS: Ressalta-se a necessidade do conhecimento da situação da co-infecção Tb/HIV no sentido de oferecer uma assistência adequada a esta clientela, considerando que ambas as enfermidades não podem ser discutidas isoladamente. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que os casos de associação Tb/HIV contribuem para a não adesão ao tratamento e aumento da taxa de mortalidade.OBJETIVO: caracterizar el perfil sociodemográfico y epidemiológico de personas con coinfección TB/VIH, residentes en el distrito administrativo Capão Redondo del Municipio de Sao Paulo en el período de 2000 a 2009. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio retrospectivo. RESULTADOS: De un total de 1.612 casos de tuberculosis, 162 casos fueron positivos para el VIH. Hubo predominio del grupo etáreo de 30 a 39 años (39,5%, sexo masculino (61,1% y la forma pulmonar (68,5%. Apenas el 47,5% de los casos evolucionaron para la cura, 13% abandonaron el tratamiento y 32,2% fueron a óbito. RESULTADOS: Se resalta la necesidad de conocimiento de la situación de la coinfección TB/VIH en el sentido de ofrecer una asistencia adecuada a esta clientela, considerando que ambas enfermedades no pueden ser discutidas aisladamente. CONCLUSIÓN: Se concluye que los casos de asociación TB/VIH contribuyen para la no adhesión al tratamiento y aumento de la tasa de mortalidad.OBJECTIVE: To characterize the sociodemographic and epidemiological

  17. Fatores associados ao aborto induzido entre jovens pobres na cidade de São Paulo, 2007 Factores asociados al aborto inducido entre jóvenes pobres en la ciudad de Sao Paulo, 2007 Factors associated with induced abortion among poor youth in the city of São Paulo, 2007

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    Rebeca de Souza e Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo investiga fatores associados ao aborto induzido entre jovens residentes numa comunidade pobre da cidade de São Paulo. A amostra foi composta por 102 homens e 99 mulheres de 14 a 25 anos de idade que já haviam iniciado suas vidas sexuais. Usou-se o modelo hierárquico de regressão logística. As variáveis não ter companheiro sexual no momento da entrevista, sexo do entrevistado, idade no momento da entrevista, priorizar morar só e número de gestações compuseram o modelo final. Dar muita importância a morar só quadruplica a chance de ocorrer um aborto. Jovens mais velhos foram menos propensos a se deparar com um aborto, dado que a chance de se optar pelo aborto se reduz 17% para cada incremento de um ano na idade dos jovens. Isso é indicativo de que as gestações ocorreram de forma inesperada, intempestiva, como é praxe nas condutas adolescentes, sendo as maiores candidatas a terminarem em aborto provocado. Evidencia-se, portanto, a necessidade de serem investidos recursos financeiros para obtenção de métodos contraceptivos eficazes e inócuos, destinados ao início da vida sexual.Este artículo investiga factores asociados al aborto inducido entre jóvenes residentes en una comunidad pobre de la ciudad de Sao Paulo. La muestra estaba compuesta por 102 hombres y 99 mujeres de 14 a 25 años de edad que ya habían dado inicio a sus vidas sexuales. Se usó el modelo jerárquico de regresión logística. Las variables: no tener compañero sexual en el momento de la entrevista, sexo del entrevistado, edad en el momento de la entrevista, priorizar vivir solo, y número de gestaciones, compusieron el modelo final. Dar mucha importancia a vivir solo cuadruplica la posibilidad de que se produzca un aborto. Jóvenes de mayor edad fueron menos propensos a encontrarse con un aborto, dado que la posibilidad de optar por un aborto se reduce un 17%, respectoa cada incremento de un año en la edad de los jóvenes. Eso es indicativo de

  18. The geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto hydroelectric power plant, Ribeira River, Sao Paulo/Parana States, Brazil; Caracterizacao geomecanica do Macico de Fundacao da UHE Tijuco Alto (Rio Ribeira - SP/PR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Amarilis Lucia Casteli de

    1996-07-01

    This work has as its main objective the geomechanical characterization on the future rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto dam, sited at the Ribeira river, in the cities of Ribeirao, Sao Paulo state and Adrianopolis, Parana state, Brazil, owned by the Companhia Brasileira de Aluminio (Brazilian company of Aluminium). To reach that target, field studies were made to qualify the geotechnical parameters of the rocky mass, in the axis area open galleries. It was also used in situ deformability and stress test results performed in those galleries, that were reinterpreted for a better adaptation of the mass values. The knowledge of the mass inherent characteristics together with the laboratories test results, allowed for the geomechanical classification applications in several different gallery sectors. The geomechanical data obtained allowed through mathematical expressions, to reach the rocky mass values correlations of interest to the work (deformability and strength), that could be compared to the in situ test results. That analysis permitted, besides the classification critical system evaluation, the geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass, focusing its ability to the dam arch construction. (author)

  19. The advance of natural gas market using urban information: case study in Sao Paulo city (Brazil); Ampliacao de mercado para o gas natural utilizando informacoes urbanas: estudo de caso dos distritos paulistanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massara, Vanessa M.; Faga, Murilo T.W.; Santos, Edmilson M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)

    2004-07-01

    Considering the importance of the city of Sao Paulo for the Brazilian natural gas market, the aim of this paper is to propose an analytical methodology that integrates the understanding of the urban dynamics to the strategies of expansion in the natural gas distribution network, characterizing the gas consumption possibilities and attractiveness for each of the 96 districts composing the city. The methodology is developed through the grouping of information such as family income, demographic density and construction area, percentage of land use, number of households as well as commercial, service and industrial establishments, number of real state as well as indicative information released by the Urban Plan of the city regarding the increments in the peripheral districts. Relating the gas consumption esteemed by each type of land occupation and the cost for expanding the gas distribution network, the model will indicate, for each neighborhood, the viability of implementing a gas network as well as the places with potential for growing density in the existing gas distribution system. On this paper, examples of essential information that compose the methodology are presented for three districts: Itaquera, Moema and Tatuape, which have different socio-economic and geographical profiles. (author)

  20. Spontaneous reporting of adverse events following pandemic influenza A (H1N1 immunization in a reference center in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Danise Senna Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This paper describes adverse events (AEs temporally associated to the pandemic influenza A (H1N1 vaccine observed in a reference center in São Paulo, Brazil, during a 2010 mass vaccination campaign. Methods A retrospective study involving persons who sought medical care for AEs following influenza vaccination. Data were retrieved from medical records, vaccine AE notification forms, and a computerized system for immunobiological registration. Results Sixty-six vaccinees sought medical care for AEs after immunization. The most frequent AEs were fever, headache, myalgia, and pain at the injection site. No serious AEs were reported. Conclusions Few vaccinees spontaneously reported AEs to influenza A (H1N1 vaccine at this center.

  1. The coal carbon and the soil organic matter isotopes in the studies of vegetation and climate change in the Quaternary and the soil formation tax from the Sao Paulo State, Southeastern region, Brazil; Isotopos do carbono dos carvoes e da materia organica do solo em estudos de mudanca de vegetacao e clima no quaternario e da taxa de formacao de solos do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia, S.E.M.; Pessenda, L.C.R. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Boulet, R. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. ORSTOM; Aravena, R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Scheel-Ybert, R. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Inst. de Botanique

    1999-12-01

    This paper presents an attempt to reconstruct vegetation and climate changes in the Jaguariuna and Botucatu regions (state of Sao Paulo, southeast of Brazil) during the late Pleistocene and Holocene, based on {sigma}{sup 13} C values of soil organic matter (SOM), {sup 14} C dating and analysis of charcoal present in the soil profiles. Sampling sites were located under natural vegetation (cerradao), along the slopes of small hills. charcoal was found predominantly between 50 and 150 cm deep, indicating a period of greater frequency of fires in this area, between 3000 and 6000 years BP. The presence of charcoal on tops of the hills suggests that sedimentation could not be the major process responsible for burying the charcoal within the soil. Biological activity (termites, ants, earthworms) played an important role in this process. For Jaguariuna site, more enriched values of {sigma}{sup 13} C of SOM were observed from the late Pleistocene until mid Holocene, indicating drier climate when compared with present-day conditions. For Botucatu site, the {sigma}{sup 13} C profile suggests predominance of C{sub 3} vegetation during the entire Holocene. (author)

  2. Sobre "guetos" e "rótulos": tensões no mercado GLS na cidade de São Paulo On "ghettos" and "labels": tensions in the gay market in Sao Paulo

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    Isadora Lins França

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo, apoiado em observação etnográfica, fontes documentais e entrevistas, enfoca a constituição de um circuito GLS na cidade de São Paulo desde a década de 1990, bem como uma disposição de se passar ao largo de categorias relacionadas a sexualidade na definição de espaços de consumo e sociabilidade, abraçada por um público que poderia ser definido pela categoria "modernos". A abordagem desses processos está ancorada em perspectivas teóricas que observam o caráter contingencial e performativo da constituição de identidades, bem como consideram os processos relacionados ao consumo como sendo fundamentalmente um ato social.This article, cased on ethnographic research, documental sources and interviews, focuses on the formation of a gay and lesbian market in São Paulo since the 1990's. It analyses a disposition to escape to categories related to sexuality in the definition of spaces of sociability and consumption, which are supported by a public that could be called of "modern" people. The analysis of these processes is founded on theoretical perspectives that assume the contingent and performative character of identity construction, as well as considering the processes related to consumption as basically a social act.

  3. Human coronavirus ocurrence in different populations of Sao Paulo: a comprehensive nine-year study using a pancoronavirus RT-PCR assay

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    Tatiane K. Cabeça

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human coronaviruses (HCoVs are considered one of the most common respiratory viruses associated with respiratory tract illnesses. An emergent human coronavirus was identified as the causal agent of an epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS during 2002-2003. The severity of the disease combined with its rapid spread requires the continuous surveillance of coronaviruses in worldwide populations. Epidemiological and clinical data of HCoVs infectious in the Brazilian population are scarce and restricted to one or two groups of patients. Our study aimed to investigate retrospectively the presence of HCoVs in different populations of São Paulo presenting acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs during the years of 2001-2010. A pancoronavirus RT-PCR was performed in this study. Coronaviruses were detected in 126 (11.5% of 1,087 specimens. Peaks detection frequency was observed during 2002-2004 and 2008-2009, with the highest detection in 2008. The prevalence of HCoVs was higher among children with heart diseases (24.6%, patients under stem cell transplantation program (24.3% and renal transplanted patients (20.2%. Coryza, cough and fever were the most common symptoms at presentation of positive cases and wheezing, a lower respiratory tract infection symptom was reported by 12% of the total, and 27% of high at-risk patients. HCoVs may have an important role among patients with underlying conditions and transplanted ones.

  4. Metagenomic analysis of a tropical composting operation at the sao paulo zoo park reveals diversity of biomass degradation functions and organisms.

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    Layla Farage Martins

    Full Text Available Composting operations are a rich source for prospection of biomass degradation enzymes. We have analyzed the microbiomes of two composting samples collected in a facility inside the São Paulo Zoo Park, in Brazil. All organic waste produced in the park is processed in this facility, at a rate of four tons/day. Total DNA was extracted and sequenced with Roche/454 technology, generating about 3 million reads per sample. To our knowledge this work is the first report of a composting whole-microbial community using high-throughput sequencing and analysis. The phylogenetic profiles of the two microbiomes analyzed are quite different, with a clear dominance of members of the Lactobacillus genus in one of them. We found a general agreement of the distribution of functional categories in the Zoo compost metagenomes compared with seven selected public metagenomes of biomass deconstruction environments, indicating the potential for different bacterial communities to provide alternative mechanisms for the same functional purposes. Our results indicate that biomass degradation in this composting process, including deconstruction of recalcitrant lignocellulose, is fully performed by bacterial enzymes, most likely by members of the Clostridiales and Actinomycetales orders.

  5. Variabilidade espacial de atributos de um solo sob videira em Vitória Brasil (SP Spatial variability of soil characteristics under grapevine in Vitoria Brasil (State of Sao Paulo - Brazil

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    M. P. Carvalho

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi pesquisada a variabilidade espacial de alguns atributos físicos e químicos de uma associação de solos cultivada sob videira (Vitis vinifera-L, do município de Vitória Brasil, estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O objetivo foi estudar a dependência espacial de tais atributos, assim como caracterizar as respectivas variabilidades, distribuições de freqüência e números mínimos de subamostras do solo para a cultura da videira. Para isso, coletaram-se dados do solo, dispostos segundo uma malha com 156 pontos amostrais, sendo analisados por meio da geoestatística. As maiores variabilidades foram verificadas para a macroporosidade (MA, P, K, Ca, Mg, SB e CTC, ao passo que as menores foram para a densidade do solo (DS, pH e V. O número mínimo de subamostras, necessário para formar uma amostra composta e representativa, variou de 1 (pH e V a 241 (Mg, tendo seu valor médio de 64 subamostras. Quanto à dependência espacial, o P e o V apresentaram, respectivamente, forte e fraca dependência, enquanto o restante dos atributos apresentou moderada dependência. Desta forma, o alcance dos atributos físicos variou de 2,56 a 4,32 m, enquanto o dos químicos variou de 1,82 a 5,64 m.The spatial variability of some physical and chemical characteristics of a compound of soils under grapevine (Vitis vinifera-L cultivation was studied in the county Vitória Brasil, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Main objective was research into the spatial dependence of these soil characteristics and their variability, frequency distribution and minimum number of soil subsamples for grapevine crop. Soil data were collected in grid sampling at 156 points, using geoestatistics for the data analysis. Highest variability was found for macroporosity (MA, P, K, Ca, Mg, SB, and CTC, and the smallest for bulk density (BD, pH, and V. The minimum number of soil subsamples to form a compound and representative sample varied between 1 (pH and V and 241 (Mg, with a mean of 64

  6. A multiscale approach indicates a severe reduction in Atlantic Forest wetlands and highlights that Sao Paulo Marsh Antwren is on the brink of extinction.

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    Glaucia Del-Rio

    Full Text Available Over the last 200 years the wetlands of the Upper Tietê and Upper Paraíba do Sul basins, in the southeastern Atlantic Forest, Brazil, have been almost-completely transformed by urbanization, agriculture and mining. Endemic to these river basins, the São Paulo Marsh Antwren (Formicivora paludicola survived these impacts, but remained unknown to science until its discovery in 2005. Its population status was cause for immediate concern. In order to understand the factors imperiling the species, and provide guidelines for its conservation, we investigated both the species' distribution and the distribution of areas of suitable habitat using a multiscale approach encompassing species distribution modeling, fieldwork surveys and occupancy models. Of six species distribution models methods used (Generalized Linear Models, Generalized Additive Models, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines, Classification Tree Analysis, Artificial Neural Networks and Random Forest, Random Forest showed the best fit and was utilized to guide field validation. After surveying 59 sites, our results indicated that Formicivora paludicola occurred in only 13 sites, having narrow habitat specificity, and restricted habitat availability. Additionally, historic maps, distribution models and satellite imagery showed that human occupation has resulted in a loss of more than 346 km2 of suitable habitat for this species since the early twentieth century, so that it now only occupies a severely fragmented area (area of occupancy of 1.42 km2, and it should be considered Critically Endangered according to IUCN criteria. Furthermore, averaged occupancy models showed that marshes with lower cattail (Typha dominguensis densities have higher probabilities of being occupied. Thus, these areas should be prioritized in future conservation efforts to protect the species, and to restore a portion of Atlantic Forest wetlands, in times of unprecedented regional water supply problems.

  7. Methodological proposal for identification and evaluation of environmental aspects and impacts of nuclear facilities of IPEN, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil: a case study applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents an application of Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) to the process of identification of environmental aspects and impacts as a part of implementation and maintenance of an Environmental Management System (EMS) in accordance with the NBR ISO 14001 standard. Also, it can contribute, as a complement, to the evaluation and improvement of safety of the installation focused. The study was applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), situated at the Campus of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The CCN facility has the objective of promoting scientific research and of producing nuclear fuel elements for the IEA-R1 Research Reactor. To identify the environmental aspects of the facility activities, products, and services, a systematic data collection was carried out by means of personal interviews, documents, reports and operation data records consulting. Furthermore, the processes and their interactions, failure modes, besides their causes and effects to the environment, were identified. As a result of a careful evaluation of these causes it was possible to identify and to classify the major potential environmental impacts, in order to set up and put in practice an Environmental Management System for the installation under study. The results have demonstrated the validity of the FMEA application to nuclear facility processes, identifying environmental aspects and impacts, whose controls are critical to achieve compliance with the environmental requirements of the Integrated Management System of IPEN. It was demonstrated that the methodology used in this work is a powerful management tool for resolving issues related to the conformity with applicable regulatory and legal requirements of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment (IBAMA). (author)

  8. Novas curvas de crescimento da Organização Mundial da Saúde: comparação com valores de crescimento de crianças pré-escolares das cidades de Taubaté e Santo André, São Paulo New World Health Organization growth standards: comparison with growth data of preschool children of the cities of Taubaté and Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Claudio Leone

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Em 2007, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS propôs um referencial de crescimento de cinco a 19 anos, a ser utilizado em continuidade ao referencial de menores de cinco anos (de 2006, que, entre outras características, aos cinco anos de idade mostra um bom ajuste com a curva de 2006. Este estudo visa comparar os referenciais da OMS com o crescimento observado em pré-escolares brasileiros. MÉTODOS: A partir dos dados antropométricos de 2.830 crianças com idade entre três e seis anos de duas amostras das cidades de Taubaté e Santo André, em São Paulo, foram calculados os valores dos percentis (P 5, 50 e 95 de peso, estatura e índice de massa corpórea (IMC. Os valores dos novos referenciais da OMS foram comparados a esses resultados de acordo com o sexo e a faixa etária. RESULTADOS: Nos percentis de estatura, o referencial apresentou valores próximos ou pouco superiores aos dos pré-escolares até os cinco anos. Nessa idade, a tendência se inverte, obtendo-se valores progressivamente inferiores até os sete anos. Para peso e IMC, em todas as idades consideradas, o P5 e 50 dos referenciais são pouco menores que os das crianças, mas o P95 indica uma tendência de crescimento progressivamente menor, fazendo com que, próximo aos sete anos, o P95 de IMC dos pré-escolares da amostra seja cerca de 4kg/m² maior. CONCLUSÕES: Os referenciais da OMS apontam uma prevalência menor de magreza (desnutrição e baixa estatura entre cinco e sete anos e, ao mesmo tempo, uma elevação importante da prevalência de obesidade entre três e sete anos de idade.OBJECTIVE: The World Health Organization (WHO, in 2007, proposed a growth reference standard from five to 19 years to be used in continuation to the 2006 one (for children younger than five years-old. This growth chart shows a satisfactory adjustment at five years with the 2006 curve. This study aims to compare WHO references with the growth observed in Brazilian preschool

  9. Uso racional de medicamentos antineoplásicos e ações judiciais no Estado de São Paulo Uso racional de medicamentos antineoplásicos y acciones judiciales en el estado de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Rational use of anticancer drugs and patient lawsuits in the state of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

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    Luciane Cruz Lopes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a racionalidade das ações judiciais e pedidos administrativos recebidos pela Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo segundo evidências científicas de eficácia e segurança. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo, transversal, baseado em informações da Secretaria de Saúde sobre os medicamentos antineoplásicos solicitados por via judicial, com maior impacto financeiro para o Sistema Único de Saúde em 2006 e 2007. Os fármacos foram avaliados quanto às evidências clínicas de eficácia e segurança, com base na classificação do Micromedex®, em metanálises e revisões sistemáticas. As indicações foram confrontadas com aquelas aprovadas em agências reguladoras. RESULTADOS: Os medicamentos bevacizumabe, capecitabina, cetuximabe, erlotinibe, rituximabe, imatinibe e temozolomida geraram gastos superiores a R$ 40 milhões para atender 1.220 solicitações, com custo médio de R$ 33,5 mil por paciente. Os estudos selecionados não recomendam parte das indicações dos medicamentos prescritos. Cerca de 17% dos pedidos não tinham evidência para a indicação mencionada no pleito, o que equivale a um gasto inadequado de, no mínimo, R$ 6,8 milhões. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados reforçam a necessidade de qualificação técnica para tratar as demandas judiciais e exige capacitação dos profissionais no manejo da literatura científica, na seleção adequada dos fármacos e na escolha da melhor conduta terapêutica para cada condição clínica. Dessa forma será possível garantir o acesso a tecnologias eficazes e seguras, e assim aprimorar o modelo de assistência farmacêutica em oncologia.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la racionalidad de las acciones judiciales y pedidos administrativos recibidos por la Secretaria Estatal de Salud de Sao Paulo según evidencias científicas de eficacia y seguridad. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo, transversal basado en informaciones de la Secretaria sobre los medicamentos antineoplásicos solicitados

  10. Fidedignidade de rótulos de alimentos comercializados no município de São Paulo, SP Fidedignidad de rótulos de alimentos comercializados en municipio de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Reliability of food labels from products marketed in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

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    Cássia Maria Lobanco

    2009-06-01

    153 alimentos industrializados habitualmente consumidos por niños y adolescentes, comercializados en el municipio de Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil entre los años de 2001 y 2005. Los tenores de nutrientes informados por los rótulos fueron confrontados con los resultados obtenidos por métodos analíticos (fisico-químicos oficiales, considerando la variabilidad de 20% tolerada por la legislación vigente, para aprobar o condenar las muestras. Se calcularon promedios, desvíos estándar e intervalos con 95% de confianza para los nutrientes analizados, así como la distribución de la frecuencia porcentual de muestras condenadas. RESULTADOS: Todos los productos salados analizados presentaron inconformidades relativas al contenido de fibra alimentar, sodio o de grasas saturadas. Los productos dulces presentaron variación de cero a 36% de condenación relativa al tenor de la fibra alimentar. Más de la mitad (52% de los biscochos rellenos fueron condenados con relación a la cantidad de grasas saturadas. Los nutrientes implicados con la obesidad y sus complicaciones para la salud fueron aquellos que presentaron mayores proporciones de inconformidad. La falta de fidedignidad de las informaciones de rótulos en las muestras analizadas viola las disposiciones de la Resolución de la Directoria Colegiada Anvisa 360/03 y los derechos garantizados por la ley de Seguridad Alimentar y Nutricional y por el Código de Defensa del Consumidor. CONCLUSIONES: Se encontraron altos índices de no conformidad de los datos nutricionales en los rótulos de alimentos destinados al público adolescente e infantil, indicando la urgencia de acciones de fiscalización y de otras medidas de rotulación nutricional.OBJECTIVE: To assess reliability of information about nutritional facts stated on labels of foods marketed. METHODS: A total of 153 industrialized foods, usually consumed by children and adolescents and marketed in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 2001 and 2005

  11. O perfil dos candidatos ao curso técnico de enfermagem de uma escola particular da cidade de São Paulo The technical nurses profile at a private school of nursing in Sao Paulo city

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    Marcos Antonio da Eira Frias

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo levantar o perfil dos candidatos ao curso técnico de enfermagem de uma Escola de Enfermagem Particular da cidade de São Paulo. A população consta de indivíduos adultos jovens; com idade média de 31,09 anos; com renda familiar de 9,65 salários mínimos; solteiro; predominância do sexo feminino; 12,5% deles com formação escolar superior incompleto ou completo; 43,8% tem filhos, cujas idades variam entre 6 e 13 anos. Os candidatos apresentam afinidade para trabalhar com pacientes graves e sem afinidade para assistência pediátrica. Do trabalho em oncologia, o aprendizado pessoal é fator positivo em oposição ao sofrimento pessoal e do paciente, que é considerado aspecto negativo.The result showed the candidate's profile as they are adult; with age mindle of 31,09 years old; familiare income are 9,65 minimun salary; single; predominant female; 12,5% with university course complete or incomplete; 43,8% have a children. The age of a chil dren vary of 6-13 years old. The candidates refer afinity to work with patient of major risk and absence of afinity to pediatric patient. The work in oncology, demonstrated the positive way the personal learning and the negative, the personal and patient suffering.

  12. Vehicular emission factors and chemical profile of Particulate Matter measured in two road tunnels in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, T.; Miranda, R. M.; Dominutti, P. A.; Hetem, I. G.; Fornaro, A.; Andrade, M.

    2013-12-01

    The main source of air pollution in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), Brazil, is vehicle exhaust. In this study, trace-element concentrations inside and outside of two traffic tunnels in the MASP are shown. The experiments were conducted in May and July 2011, respectively, in the Jânio Quadros (JQT) and Rodoanel (RAT) road tunnels, both located in MASP. The JQT carries mainly light-duty vehicles (LDV), whereas the RAT carries LDVs and heavy-duty vehicles (HDV). Hourly carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide were measured during the sampling campaign. Particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM2.5-10) samples were collected 6-h (daytime) and 12-h (overnight), employing gravimetric analysis to quantify PM mass concentration; reflectance to quantify black carbon (BC) concentrations and X-ray fluorescence to characterize elemental composition. Mean concentrations for PM2.5 and BC inside the JQT were 41(×11), and 19(×9) μg/m3, respectively. In the RAT mean concentrations were 175(×61), and 140(×78) μg/m3, for PM2.5 and BC, respectively. Emission Factors (EFs) for PM2.5, PM2.5-10, BC and trace metal (Na to Pb) from mobile sources operating under real-world conditions were determined using these traffic tunnels in the MASP as experimental set-up. LDV emission factors were 45 × 18 mg/km, 39 × 17 mg/km, 306 × 121 μg/km, 108 × 46 μg/km, 742 × 453 μg/km, 624 × 261 μg/km, and 33 × 15 μg/km, for PM2.5, BC, Na, P, S, Cu, and Pb, respectively. HDV emission factors were 326 × 119 mg/km, 231 × 98 mg/km, 446 × 218 μg/km, 384 × 143 μg/km, 4618 × 1878 μg/km, 44 × 18 μg/km, and 46 × 20 μg/km, for PM2.5, BC, Na, P, S, Cu, and Pb, respectively. In general, the mean contribution of HDVs to the emissions of fine particles was from 1.4 to 7.3 times higher than that of LDVs. In addition, the data show a significant reduction in the EFs values when compared with data obtained in the last campaign held in the MASP in 2004. The reduction

  13. Caracterização das Unidades de Terapia Intensiva do município de São Paulo Caracteristics of intensive care units in Sao Paulo city - Brazil

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    Miako Kimura

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo constitui-se numa parte inicial de um Projeto Integrado que visa analisar os recursos estruturais das UTIs do Município de São Paulo, incluindo o ambiente físico, recursos humanos, equipamentos e materiais. Os aspectos analisados neste artigo referem-se às características destas Unidades quanto à sua quantidade e distribuição geográfica, número de leitos, entidade mantenedora, tipo de atendimento, de clientela e de tratamento, assim como as médias de ocupação e de permanência. Por amostragem casual estratificada, foram selecionados 40% dos hospitais com UTI de cada uma das regiões integrantes do SUS no Município. A amostra estudada foi de 43 UTIs e o instrumento para coleta de dados foi um questionário respondido pelo enfermeiro responsável pela Unidade. O número de UTIs nos hospitais variou de 1 a 4 , sendo mais frequentes aqueles com urna única Unidade (68,8%. 79,2% das UTIs pertenciam a hospitais particulares e 51,2% localizavam-se na região centro-oeste do Município. Os leitos de terapia intensiva corresponderam a 8,0% do total de leitos hospitalares. Cada Unidade tinha, em média, 10 leitos. Predominaram as UTIs gerais (60,5%, as destinadas somente a pacientes adultos (51,2% e as que atendiam tanto a pacientes clínicos como cirúrgicos ( 95,3%. Na maioria das Unidades, a porcentagem de ocupação mensal dos leitos foi de 80 a 100% e a média de permanência, de 4,5 dias.This study is the first part in a series of the articles reporting results of a project conducted to analyse the structural resources of ICUs in São Paulo city. This article describes the characteristics of those Units, considering the quantity and geographic location, bed number, maintainer entity, type of assistance, type of client, as well the percentage of beds usage and lenght of stay. Forty three ICUs were analysed and a questionnaire answered by the ICU nurse coordinator was used to collect data. The results showed that the number

  14. Determination of the average residence time in an anaerobic digester of Barueri wastewater treatment by using radioactive tracer, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Determinacao de tempo de residencia medio - TRM - em um digestor anaerobio da Estacao de Tratamento de Esgotos de Barueri com utilizacao de tracador radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helou, Luiz Carlos; Vitoreti, Cristiane da Silva; Moraes, Fabio Alceu Akiyama de [Companhia de Saneamento Basico do Estado de Sao Paulo (SABESP), Barueri, SP (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios de Tratamento de Esgotos; Aoki, Pedro Eiti; Silva, Valdir Cosmos da [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Gas production in the Barueri Wastewater Treatment Plant digesters shows lower values than projected. This fact conducted to the hypothesis that there could be dead zones caused by homogenization deficiencies. In order to verify this hypothesis a full scale essay was conducted with Iodine - 131 as tracer. A Mutual Cooperation Agreement was signed between the Sao Paulo Basic Sanitation Company (SABESP) and the Nuclear and Energetic Research Institute (IPEN) to conduct these essays. The results showed that the active volume was almost 88% of the nominal capacity. (author)

  15. Prevalência de Achados eletrocardiográficos no paciente idoso: estudo envelhecimento e saúde de São Paulo Prevalencia de hallazgos electrocardiográficos en el paciente añoso: estudio envejecimiento y salud de São Paulo Prevalence of electrocardiographic findings in elderly individuals: the Sao Paulo aging & health study

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    Liz A. Kawabata-Yoshihara

    2009-12-01

    .1-1.2 y bloqueo de rama izquierda. MÉTODOS: en estudio de base poblacional, 1.524 participantes (921 mujeres y 603 hombres con edad superior a 65 años habitantes de São Paulo, Brasil fueron sometidos a examen electrocardiográfico en reposo, a medidas antropométricas y de presión arterial, además de la extracción de sangre en ayunas para dosaje de glucemia, colesterol total y fracciones. RESULTADOS: la prevalencia ajustada por edad para ondas alargadas Q/QS fue el 12,1% (hombres, el 17,2%; mujeres, el 9,6%, para fibrilación auricular fue del 2,4% (hombres el 3,9%; mujeres, el 2,0%, y, para bloqueo de rama izquierda fue del 3,1% (hombres, el 3,1%; mujeres, el 3,8%. Para fibrilación auricular (ambos sexos, ondas alargadas Q/QS (hombres y bloqueo de rama izquierda (mujeres se observó un aumento de frecuencia de acuerdo a la franja etaria. Tras los ajustes para edad, sexo, diabetes y dislipidemia, la razón de chances entre las frecuencias de ondas alargadas Q/QS e hipertensión arterial fue 2,4 (intervalo de confianza 95% [IC 95%CI] 1,4 -3,9 siendo de 5,1 (IC 95% 1,8 -14,4 para mujeres y de 1,7 (95%CI, 0,95-3,1] para hombres. CONCLUSIÓN: la comparación de esos datos con otros estudios reveló prevalencia elevada de prolongación de ondas Q/QS en esa población con asociación directa con la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial.BACKGROUND: The determination of the prevalence of electrocardiographic alterations in the older age strata of the Brazilian population represents important information with clinical and epidemiological purpose. OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence rates of atrial fibrillation, enlarged Q/QS waves (Minnesota code 1.1-1.2 and left bundle branch block. METHODS: In a population-based study, 1,524 participants (921 women and 603 men aged > 65 years and living in Sao Paulo, Brazil, were submitted to electrocardiographic assessment at rest as well as anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, in addition to fasting blood collection for the

  16. Doenças respiratórias e fatores associados: estudo de base populacional em São Paulo, 2008-2009 Enfermedades respiratorias y factores asociados: estudio de base poblacional en Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil, 2008-2009 Respiratory diseases and associated factors: population-based study in São Paulo, 2008-2009

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    Clóvis Arlindo de Sousa

    2012-02-01

    adolescentes de Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil, de 2008 a 2009. Los participantes fueron seleccionados a partir de muestreo probabilístico, estratificado por sexo y edad y por conglomerados en dos fases. Para análisis ajustado fue realizada regresión múltiple de Poisson. RESULTADOS: De los entrevistados, 7,3% narraron bronquitis aguda, 22,6% rinitis y 15,3% sinusitis. Posterior al análisis ajustado, se asociaron la bronquitis aguda auto-referida: edad de cero a cuatro años (RP=17,86; IC95%:3,65;90,91, cinco a nueve años (RP=37,04; IC95%:8,13;166,67, diez a 14 años (RP=20,83; IC95%: 4,93;90,91, relatar presencia de alergia (RP=3,12; IC95%: 1,70;5,73, color de la piel negra/parda (RP=2,29; IC95%: 1,21;4,35 y vivir en domicilio con uno a tres cuartos (RP=1,85; IC95%:1,17;2,94; a la rinitis auto-referida: edad de diez a 14 años (RP=2,77; IC95%:1,60;4,78, 15 a 19 años (RP=2,58; IC95%:1,52;4,39, relatar presencia de alergia (RP=4,32; IC95%: 2,79;6,70, relatar presencia de asma (RP= 2,30; IC95%:1,30;4,10 y vivir en apartamento (RP=1,70; IC95%:1,06;2,73; a la sinusitis auto-referida: edad de cinco a nueve años (RP=2,44; IC95%: 1,09;5,43, diez a 14 años (RP=2,99; IC95%: 1,36;6,58, 15 a 19 años (RP=3,62; IC95%: 1,68;7,81, relatar presencia de alergia (RP=2,23; IC95%: 1,41;3,52 y presentar obesidad (RP=4,42; IC95%: 1,56;12,50. CONCLUSIONES: Las enfermedades respiratorias prevalecieron mayormente en grupos poblacionales con características definidas, como grupo de edad, enfermedades auto-referidas, tipo de vivienda y obesidad.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of acute bronchitis, rhinitis, and sinusitis among children and adolescents and identify associated factors. METHODS: This is a population-based, cross-sectional study. A household survey was conducted with 1,185 children and adolescents from the city of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil, from 2008 to 2009. The participants were selected by means of probability sampling, stratified by sex and age, and by two-stage cluster

  17. Prevalência e vulnerabilidade à infecção pelo HIV de moradores de rua em São Paulo, SP Prevalencia y vulnerabilidad a la infección por VIH en personas que viven en la calle en Sao Paulo, Brasil Prevalence and vulnerability of homeless people to HIV infection in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Alexandre Grangeiro

    2012-08-01

    prevenção.OBJETIVO: Analizar la prevalencia y el perfil de vulnerabilidad al VIH en personas que viven en la calle. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con muestra no probabilística de 1.405 personas que viven en la calle y que acuden a albergues de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil, de 2006 a 2007. Se realizó prueba anti-VIH y se aplicó cuestionario estructurado. El perfil de vulnerabilidad fue analizado por la frecuencia de uso del preservativo, considerando más vulnerables a los que relataron no haberlo usado nunca o a veces. Se utilizaron regresiones logística y multinomial para estimar las medidas de efecto e intervalos de 95% de confianza. RESULTADOS: Hubo predominancia del sexo masculino (85,6%, promedio de 40,9 años, haber cursado educación primaria (72,0% y no tener color blanco (71,5%. La práctica homo/bisexual fue relatada por 15,7% y la pareja ocasional por 62,0%. El número promedio de parejas en un año fue de 5,4 y más de la mitad (55,7% narraron uso de drogas en la vida, de los cuales 25,7% lo hicieron de forma frecuente. En total, 39,6% mencionaron haber tenido una enfermedad sexualmente transmisible y 38,3% contaron el uso de preservativo en todas las relaciones sexuales. La prevalencia de VIH fue de 4,9% (17,4% de los cuales presentaron también serología positiva para sífilis. Poco más de la mitad (55,4% tenía acceso a acciones de prevención. La mayor prevalencia del VIH estuvo asociada a ser más joven (OR 18 a 29 años = 4,0 [IC95% 1,54;10,46], historia de enfermedad sexualmente transmisible (OR = 3,3 [IC95% 1,87;5,73]; práctica homosexual (OR = 3,0 [IC95% 1,28;6,92] y a la presencia de sífilis (OR = 2,4 [IC95% 1,13;4,93]. El grupo de mayor vulnerabilidad fue caracterizado por ser mujer, joven, tener práctica homosexual, número reducido de parejas, pareja fija, uso de drogas y alcohol y no tener acceso a acciones de prevención y apoyo social. CONCLUSIONES: El impacto de la epidemia entre las personas que viven en la calle es elevado

  18. Effects of human trampling on a rocky shore fauna on the Sao Paulo coast, southeastern Brazil Impactos do pisoteio humano na fauna de um costão rochoso do litoral de São Paulo, no sudeste brasileiro

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    MN. Ferreira

    2009-11-01

    estudado de forma intensa e pode representar uma fonte significativa de impactos para as comunidades da zona entre-marés. Neste projeto, foi aplicado um desenho de blocos randômicos para se avaliar experimentalmente os efeitos de duas intensidades de pisoteio na riqueza, diversidade, densidade, recobrimento e biomassa da fauna de um costão situado na praia do Obuseiro, no município do Guarujá, São Paulo, Brasil. Os blocos foram alocados em dois povoamentos diferentes, dominados respectivamente por Chthamalus bisinuatus (Cirripedia e Isognomon bicolor (Bivalvia. O pisoteio foi aplicado durante três meses, simulando a temporada de férias no Brasil, e os blocos foram monitorados nos nove meses seguintes. Os resultados indicaram que Chthamalus bisinuatus é vulnerável aos impactos do pisoteio. Os índices de riqueza, diversidade e turnover apresentaram uma tendência ao aumento nas áreas pisoteadas quatro meses após o término do pisoteio. No geral, os resultados concordam com estudos anteriores e sugerem que mesmo baixas intensidades do distúrbio podem causar impacto às comunidades bentônicas. Estratégias de manejo devem envolver o isolamento de áreas sensíveis, a construção de passarelas, a educação dos visitantes e o monitoramento das comunidades impactadas. No Brasil, a realização de maior quantidade de estudos experimentais é necessária para a melhor compreensão dos impactos do pisoteio nas comunidades de costões rochosos.

  19. Desigualdades no acesso e utilização dos serviços de saúde na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo Health care services utilization and access inequalities in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region

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    Umberto Catarino Pessoto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo relata achados dos estudos de casos realizados em cinco municípios da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo (RMSP: São Paulo, Guarulhos, Santo André, Osasco e Franco da Rocha. As desigualdades no acesso aos serviços e sua utilização foram descritas a partir de tabulações avançadas da Pesquisa de Condições de Vida-PCV de 1998 do Seade. Analisamos informações a partir das variáveis posse ou não de planos de saúde, quintil de renda e faixa etária. Os atributos estudados foram: utilização dos serviços, tipo de cobertura do plano, procura pelos serviços e tempo médio de espera no atendimento. A comparação com estudos de outras regiões metropolitanas do Brasil, a partir da PNAD 98 do IBGE, permite afirmar que existem disparidades intra-regionais somente detectadas em estudos de menor escala espacial - os municípios. Apesar da RMSP possuir a maior cobertura de planos de saúde no Brasil, nota-se grande heterogeneidade interna. As desigualdades na posse de planos, no acesso, tempo de espera, tipo de cobertura se manifestam claramente na análise segundo quintil de renda e faixa etária. Conforme os resultados, sugerimos o aumento da capacidade de regulação do Estado, permitindo que os princípios da universalidade e eqüidade se estabeleçam no SUS, efetivando o direito à saúde.This paper presents case study findings in five municipalities in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region. Inequalities in access to health care services and their utilization were described through advanced tabulation data from the 1998 SEADE Life Conditions Survey. The variables analyzed were: owning or not owning private health care insurance, income and age brackets. The health care service attributes studied were: health care services coverage by a health insurance plan, health services demands and average waiting time to receive health care. Compared with other studies, using the 1998 IBGE PNAD, the results allowed us to confirm

  20. Evaluation of prenatal care at basic health units in the city of Sao Paulo Evaluación de la asistencia prenatal en unidades básicas del municipio de San Pablo Avaliação da assistência pré-natal em unidades básicas do município de São Paulo

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    Regina Célia de Menezes Succi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of prenatal care offered in 12 Basic Health Units (BHU in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, through a review of medical and nurse charts, before and after the municipalization of the public health system. The indicator used considered excellence in care as: starting prenatal care in the first quarter of pregnancy; at least six medical visits; at least two results of blood screening for syphilis and one for HIV; returning to BHU up to 42 days after delivery. This indicator was not present in any care delivered in 2000, and only 7.7% of the care delivered in 2004 obtained it (1.1% to 30% of the care per unit assessed. Although there was an evident improvement in care during the period, the low proportion of excellent prenatal care shows an urgent need to improve this care in the BHU of São Paulo city.El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad de la asistencia prenatal ofrecida en doce Unidades Básicas de Salud (UBS del municipio de San Pablo a través de la revisión de los registros médicos y de enfermería antes y después de la municipalización del sistema de salud. Fue utilizado un indicador que consideraba como atención de excelencia aquella con: inicio del acompañamiento prenatal en el primer trimestre de la gestación; con un mínimo de seis consultas; registro de por lo menos dos resultados de exámenes serológicos para sífilis y una prueba para el VIH; retorno a la UBS hasta 42 días después del parto. Ese indicador no fue obtenido en ninguna atención realizada en el 2000 y apenas en 7,7% de las atenciones en el 2004 (1,1% a 30% de las atenciones por unidad evaluada. A pesar de que con evidente mejoría de la atención en el período, la baja proporción de atención prenatal de excelencia, revela una urgente necesidad de mejorar esa asistencia en las UBS en el Municipio de San Pablo.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade da assistência pré-natal oferecida em doze

  1. Vulnerabilities in snakebites in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Rita Bertolozzi; Camila Morato da Conceição Scatena; Francisco Oscar de Siqueira França

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe elements of vulnerability of victims of snakebite. METHODS This qualitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study had, as theoretical framework, the concept of vulnerability in individual, social, and programmatic dimensions. We interviewed 21 patients admitted into a hospital specialized in the care of accidents caused by venomous animals. The interviews were analyzed according to a discourse analysis technique. RESULTS Patients were mainly young men, living in r...

  2. Planejamento e aspectos ambientais envolvidos na disposição final de lodos das estações de tratamento de água da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo Planning and environmental aspects involved in the final disposal of sludge from water treatment plants in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo

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    Gladys Fernandes Januário

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A disposição de lodos de estações de tratamento de água (ETAs de forma ambientalmente correta configura-se em mais um desafio a ser enfrentado pelas companhias de saneamento e tem recebido maior atenção no Brasil e na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo (RMSP nos últimos anos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar alternativas existentes de uso e disposição final dos lodos das ETAs da RMSP e, assim sendo, foram pesquisadas várias técnicas de uso e disposição de lodos praticados no Brasil e no mundo e suas condições técnicas e ambientais. Foram avaliadas a quantidade de lodos gerados na RMSP e a existência ou previsão de implantação de sistemas de adensamento e desidratação e, a partir destas informações, foram identificadas alternativas de uso e disposição tecnicamente e ambientalmente exeqüíveis para os lodos das ETAs da RMSP.The disposal of sludge produced by water treatment plants in an environmentally safe manner is one more challenge to be faced by the sanitation companies and has been given more attention in Brazil and in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP. The purpose of this work is to present the existing alternatives for use and final disposal of sludge produced by the Water Treatment Plants (WTP of the MASP. In this respect, several techniques for use and disposal of sludge performed in Brazil and worldwide have been investigated, and their technical and environmental conditions. The amount of sludge generated in the MASP and the existence of or the forecast to establish sludge thickening and dewatering systems have been evaluated and based on this information alternatives have been identified for use and disposal which are technically and environmentally feasible for sludge produced by the WTP in the MASP.

  3. Relação entre situação social e crescimento físico, numa população infantil de Santo André, SP, Brasil Relationship between social situation and physical growth in children from Santo Andre, State of S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Maria Stella Ferreira Levy

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available Baseado em dados sócio-antropológicos e em medidas antropométricas coletados no Município de Santo André, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, foi analisada a população infantil de ambos os sexos e de treze idades diferentes (0, 3, 6 e 9 meses, 1 ano, 1 ano e meio, 2 a 8 anos. Foram utilizadas 3 variáveis independentes ISSE - índice de situação sócio-econômica da família (baseado nas inter-relações da média de gasto familiar mensal "per capita" e a instrução e ocupação do chefe da casa; CATANCES - construída a partir da informação sobre a nacionalidade dos ascendentes das crianças até 3ª geração; e Tamanho do Grupo Residencial. Como variáveis dependentes, utilizou-se a estatura, o peso e o Índice de Kaup. Considerando a relação positiva entre melhores condições de vida e desenvolvimento físico, constatou-se (através do teste de ordenação de médias de Duncan que, embora as médias das medidas diferissem segundo as variáveis independentes, isso não acontecia igualmente nas mesmas idades e nos dois sexos. Observou-se pelos resultados das análises de variância, na maioria das vezes significantes, que as variáveis selecionadas explicavam muito pouco da variação das medidas nas várias idades e sexos. Conclui-se que a amostra estudada, segundo as variáveis independentes deste estudo, difere entre idades em ambos os sexos. Isto levanta uma série de questões sobre quais as variáveis mais adequadas a estudos desse gênero. Sugere-se, consideradas as duas categorias de variável CATANCES, a utilização de duas "tabela padrão" para peso e altura, segundo regiões brasileiras. Quanto ao índice de Kaup, evidenciou-se a necessidade de ser encontrada uma função matemática específica para cada idade, uma vez que, ao menos em relação a crianças em crescimento, o índice não media aquilo a que se propunha.This article was based on some of the data collected in the county of Santo André, State of Sew Paulo

  4. Reflexões sobre homofobia e educação em escolas do interior paulista Reflections on homophobia and education in schools in the interior of Sao Paulo state

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    Fernando Silva Teixeira-Filho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo do tipo survey realizado em 2009 junto a 2.282 estudantes de ambos os sexos cursando as três séries do ensino médio em três cidades do interior do Oeste Paulista (Assis, Presidente Prudente e Ourinhos. O instrumento de coleta de dados foi um questionário autoaplicável e anônimo com 131 questões. Neste artigo, reflete-se sobre o quanto @s participantes da pesquisa reproduzem e reforçam, no espaço escolar, os discursos hegemônicos de controle das sexualidades pautados na tentativa de fazer prevalecer a heterossexualidade como a única forma de inteligibilidade sexual, em detrimento de outras formas de manifestação da sexualidade. Discute-se como a homofobia e os dispositivos de controle social das sexualidades (reproduzem preconceitos e estereotipias, resultantes em vulnerabilidades que os adolescentes não-heterossexuais apresentam, tais como: vitimização homofóbica, isolamentos sociais e afetivos, e ideações e tentativas de suicídio. O estudo mostra que o invariante foram as discriminações, as violências homofóbicas e as injúrias que são perpetradas nos valores e discursos dos adolescentes em situação escolar e familiar, demonstrando a institucionalização da homofobia como prática regulatória da construção social e psicológica de gêneros e identidades sexuais. Destaca-se quão importante é, para a escola, apropriar-se de meios de desconstrução das normativas heterocentradas, visando preservar os direitos e a cidadania de pessoas que não se identificam aos modelos vigentes da heterossexualidade.This is a survey conducted in 2009 with 2,282 students of both sexes enrolled in the three grades of high school in three cities of the west of Sao Paulo state (Assis, Presidente Prudente and Ourinhos. The data collection instrument was a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire with 131 questions. In this article, we reflect on how in schools the research participants reproduce and

  5. Perfil epidemiológico de mulheres com vaginose bacteriana, atendidas em um ambulatório de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, em São Paulo, SP Epidemiological profile of women with bacterial vaginosis treated at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in the city of Sao Paulo, SP

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    Vanessa d´Andretta Tanaka

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS - A vaginose bacteriana é doença de grande relevância devido à sua alta prevalência e suas complicações obstétricas e ginecológicas. OBJETIVO - Descrever o perfil epidemiológico das pacientes com diagnóstico de vaginose bacteriana, atendidas em um ambulatório de São Paulo, segundo variáveis de interesse social, demográfico e clínico. MÉTODOS - Estudo transversal descritivo, baseado nos prontuários de 658 mulheres atendidas de janeiro de 1999 a dezembro de 2004. Foram coletadas as seguintes informações: idade, cor, estado civil, procedência, grau de escolaridade, preferência sexual, número de parceiros e presença de doença sexualmente transmissível associada. RESULTADOS - A prevalência encontrada foi de 29%. Com relação ao perfil da mulher com vaginose bacteriana, observou-se maior ocorrência em jovens entre 10 e 19 anos (40%, negras (37,1%, viúvas (62,5%, com segundo grau incompleto (39,5%, heterossexuais (29,5%, com dois ou mais parceiros sexuais nos últimos 30 dias (50% e nos últimos cinco anos (32,3%. A associação com outras doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, concomitante, foi encontrada em 31,9% dos casos. CONCLUSÃO - A distribuição dos casos segundo faixa etária, raça, número de parceiros sexuais e associação com outras doenças encontradas nas pacientes com diagnóstico de vaginose bacteriana foi semelhante aos dados encontrados na literatura. A ocorrência está dentro dos limites descritos (10 e 36%.BACKGROUND- Bacterial vaginosis is an important disease on account of its high prevalence as well as the obstetrical and gynecological complications. OBJECTIVE- To present an epidemiological profile of patients diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis seen at an outpatient clinic in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, described according to socio-demographic and clinical variables. METHODS- A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed by collecting data from the medical records of 658

  6. Frugivoria por aves em um mosaico de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e reflorestamento misto em Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brasil Frugivory by birds in a mosaic of seasonal semideciduous forest and a mixed reforested area in Rio Claro, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Samira Athiê

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando subsidiar futuros projetos de recuperação florestal com base nas interações animal-planta, foram avaliadas as espécies ornitocóricas e o consumo de frutos por aves em um mosaico de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e um reflorestamento misto, em Rio Claro, São Paulo. Através do monitoramento da frutificação e avaliação dos eventos de frugivoria em sessões focais e ad libitum, foram registradas 31 espécies ornitocóricas fornecendo frutos para 38 espécies de aves consumidoras. No reflorestamento misto foram observadas 90,3% (n=28 das espécies ornitocóricas frutificando ao longo de todo ano, enquanto no fragmento florestal, somente 51,6% (n=16 delas foram registradas, com maiores variações temporais na oferta de frutos; 65,2% (n=1027 dos frutos foram consumidos no reflorestamento misto e 34,8% (n=547 no fragmento florestal. Tais resultados podem estar relacionados ao menor tamanho do fragmento de vegetação nativa, o que, proporcionalmente, poderia determinar uma menor riqueza de espécies vegetais no mesmo e/ou ao fato de a dispersão abiótica tender a predominar nos locais fragmentados e perturbados. O reflorestamento misto, embora apresente algumas espécies vegetais exóticas, está sendo ecologicamente mais funcional para a avifauna e, devido à proximidade com o fragmento, parece estar contribuindo para a manutenção das comunidades de aves residentes e visitantes deste último através dos recursos alimentares oferecidos.To support future forest recovery projects based on plant-animal interactions, this work aimed to evaluate the ornithochoric species and fruit consumption by birds in both a mosaic of seasonal semideciduous forest and a mixed reforested area in Rio Claro, Sao Paulo, Brazil. By monitoring and evaluating fruiting and frugivory events in focal and ad libitum sessions, 31 ornithochoric species were found that provide fruits to 38 species of frugivorous birds. In the mixed reforested area, 90.3% (n

  7. Fidedignidade de rótulos de alimentos comercializados no município de São Paulo, SP Fidedignidad de rótulos de alimentos comercializados en municipio de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Reliability of food labels from products marketed in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cássia Maria Lobanco; Gabriela Milhassi Vedovato; Cristiane Bonaldi Cano; Deborah Helena Markowicz Bastos

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a fidedignidade das informações sobre dados nutricionais declarados em rótulos de alimentos comercializados. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 153 alimentos industrializados habitualmente consumidos por crianças e adolescentes, comercializados no município de São Paulo (SP) entre os anos de 2001 e 2005. Os teores de nutrientes informados pelos rótulos foram confrontados com os resultados obtidos por métodos analíticos (físico-químicos) oficiais, considerando a variabilidade de 20% to...

  8. Doenças respiratórias e fatores associados: estudo de base populacional em São Paulo, 2008-2009 Enfermedades respiratorias y factores asociados: estudio de base poblacional en Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil), 2008-2009 Respiratory diseases and associated factors: population-based study in São Paulo, 2008-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Clóvis Arlindo de Sousa; Chester Luiz Galvão César; Marilisa Berti de Azevedo Barros; Luana Carandina; Moisés Goldbaum; Júlio Cesar Rodrigues Pereira

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de bronquite aguda, rinite e sinusite em crianças e adolescentes e identificar fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, de base populacional. Foi realizado inquérito domiciliar com 1.185 crianças e adolescentes de São Paulo, SP, de 2008 a 2009. Os participantes foram selecionados a partir de amostragem probabilística, estratificada por sexo e idade e por conglomerados em dois estágios. Para análise ajustada foi realizada regressão múltipla de Poisson. R...

  9. BLUETONGUE VIRUS ANTIBODIES DETECTIONS IN SHEEP FROM ARAÇATUBA REGION –SAO PAULO, BRAZIL DETECÇÃO DE ANTICORPOS CONTRA O VÍRUS DA LÍNGUA AZUL EM OVINOS NA REGIÃO DE ARAÇATUBA – SÃO PAULO, BRASIL

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    Adriana Hellmeister de Campos Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Bluetongue (BT is an infectious, insect-born viral disease of ruminants. The causative agent of BT is bluetongue virus (BTV that belongs to the family Reoviridae genus Orbivirus. Insect vectors in the genus Culicoides transmit this virus. BT affects domestic and wild ruminants, however small ruminants are considered the most affected specie. The aim of the study was to detect antibodies against BTV in commercial sheep farms, of the Northeastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 1002 sera samples collected from adult sheep (above 1 year-old, comprising a total of 31 farms, were screened for the presence of BTV antibodies, by agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID and ELISA-CFS (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay – competitive solid phase, both produced by Pan American Center of FMDV. From a total of 1002 samples, 651 (65% were positive by AGID and 742 (74.1%, were positive by ELISA-CFS. These results suggest that the BTV is widespread among farms, probably causing subclinical infections.

    KEY WORDS: AGID, bluetongue virus, ELISA-CFS, seroepidemiological survey.

    A língua azul é uma doença viral, cujo agente etiológico pertence à família Reoviridae, gênero Orbivirus, transmitida por um vetor (artrópode hematófago, do gênero Culicoides. Os animais acometidos são ruminantes domésticos e selvagens, porém os pequenos ruminantes são os mais afetados. O estudo teve como objetivo detectar a presença de anticorpos para língua azul em ovinos da região de Araçatuba, por possuir um rebanho expressivo e condições climáticas favoráveis à multiplicação de insetos. Foram analisadas 1.002 amostras de soros ovinos, provenientes de 31 cabanhas, pelas provas de imunodifusão dupla em gel de ágar (AGID e ELISA (Enzyme Linked immunosorbent Assay de competição da fase sólida (ELISA CFS, provenientes do Centro Panamericano de Febre Aftosa. Desses soros, 651 (65% foram

  10. Andres Ehin Jaapanist Iirini

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Andres Ehin valiti Ülemaailmse Haiku Assotsiatsiooni auliikmeks ja kirjaniku inglisekeelset luulekogu "Moose Beetle Swallow" esitleti 2005. aasta Euroopa kultuuripealinnas Corkis Iirimaal. Järgneb: Looming 2006, nr. 2, lk. 311

  11. A cor da morte: causas de óbito segundo características de raça no Estado de São Paulo, 1999 a 2001 The color of death: causes of death according to race in the State of Sao Paulo, 1999 to 2001

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    Luís Eduardo Batista

    2004-10-01

    represent vulnerability to sickness, this study attempts to verify whether race or ethnic origin have an effect on mortality patterns. METHODS: The Sao Paulo State death register was examined from 1999 to 2001 in a contingence table of causes according to the 10th ICD and race or skin-color categories (White, Black, Mulatto and others. Chi-square test was used to check the association between skin-color and cause of death; residual analysis was used to elicit statistically significant excessive occurrences when each category of cause of death and skin color was combined; and correspondence analysis was used to examine overall relations among all categories considered. RESULTS: A total of 647,321 valid death registers were analyzed, among which 77.7% were of Whites, 5.4% of Blacks, 14.3% of Mulattoes and 2.6% of others. A significant association between skin color or race and cause of death was found. It may be observed that, although Blacks and Mulattoes present a similar death profile, on the contrary of Whites and others, which could be aggregated into a single category, the former appear in distinct positions on the multidimensional map presented. Except for mal defined causes, which characterize only the deaths of Blacks, the other causes of death within this group are common to both Blacks and Mulattoes, varying however, in intensity and as to the order in which they appear death. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of mortality according to race or color revealed that death has a color. There is a White death, which has, among its causes, sicknesses, which, although variable, are nothing more than sicknesses. There's a Black death, which is not caused by sicknesses but by external causes, complications in labor and delivery, mental disorders and ill- defined causes.

  12. Percepção dos enfermeiros sobre a avaliação da aprendizagem nos treinamentos desenvolvidos em um hospital de São Paulo Percepción de los enfermeros sobre la evaluación del aprendizaje en los programas de capacitación de un hospital de Sao Paulo Perception of nurses on the learning evaluation process in training programs in a São Paulo hospital

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    Liliana Cristina de Castro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com os enfermeiros de um hospital universitário da cidade de São Paulo, objetivando conhecer sua percepção sobre o processo de valiação da aprendizagem nos treinamentos desenvolvidos junto a eles. Para a coleta de dados utilizou-se um instrumento contendo a questão norteadora: Qual a sua percepção sobre a avaliação da aprendizagem nos programas de treinamento? Os discursos foram analisados, segundo o referencial de Bardin, na modalidade análise de conteúdo. Os resultados mostraram as posições dos enfermeiros em três categorias distintas: 1 dificuldades percebidas no processo de avaliação da aprendizagem em que a disponibilidade de tempo, sentimentos negativos quanto à avaliação e despreocupação com os resultados dos treinamentos são os desafios a serem trabalhados no dia-a-dia; 2 metodologia desenvolvida no processo de avaliação da aprendizagem devendo considerar diferentes ritmos de aprendizado, sua experiência e história de vida e conhecimentos anteriores e 3 a avaliação do processo ensino-aprendizagem como um indicador preciso das ações passadas e controle da qualidade do ensino adotado no treinamento.Este estudio fue realizado con los enfermeros de un hospital universitario de la ciudad de Sao Paulo, teniendo como objetivo conocer su percepción sobre el proceso de evaluación del aprendizaje en la capacitación desarrollada con ellos. Para la recolección de los datos se utilizó un instrumento que contenía la pregunta norteadora: Cuál es su percepción sobre la evaluación del aprendizaje en los programas de capacitación? Los discursos fueron analizados, según el referencial de Bardin, en la modalidad análisis de contenido. Los resultados mostraron las posiciones de los enfermeros en tres categorías distintas: 1 dificultades percibidas en el proceso de evaluación del aprendizaje en el que la disponibilidad de tiempo, sentimientos negativos en cuanto a la evaluación y

  13. Caracterização da cultura de crack na cidade de São Paulo: padrão de uso controlado Caracterización de la cultura de crack en la ciudad de Sao Paulo: el padrón del uso controlado Characterization of the crack cocaine culture in the city of São Paulo: a controlled pattern of use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Garcia de Oliveira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a situação do uso de crack na cidade de São Paulo, assim como o perfil sociodemográfico de seu usuário. PROCEDIMENTOS METODOLÓGICOS: Estudo qualitativo etnográfico com amostra intencional de usuários (n=45 e ex-usuários de crack (n=17. Os participantes foram recrutados pela técnica de amostragem em cadeias e responderam a uma entrevista semi-estruturada, direcionada por questionário, durante os anos de 2004 e 2005. O conjunto de cada questão e suas respectivas respostas originou relatórios específicos que foram interpretados individualmente. ANÁLISE DOS RESULTADOS: O perfil predominante do usuário de crack foi ser homem, jovem, solteiro, de baixa classe socioeconômica, baixo nível de escolaridade e sem vínculos empregatícios formais. O padrão de uso mais freqüentemente citado foi o compulsivo, caracterizado pelo uso múltiplo de drogas e desenvolvimento de atividades ilícitas em troca de crack ou dinheiro. Entretanto, identificou-se o uso controlado que consiste no uso não-diário de crack, mediado por fatores individuais, desenvolvidos intuitivamente pelo usuário e semelhantes, em natureza, às estratégias adotadas por ex-usuários para o alcance do estado de abstinência. CONCLUSÕES: A cultura do uso de crack tem sofrido mudanças quanto ao padrão de uso. Embora a maioria dos usuários o faça de forma compulsiva, observou-se a existência do uso controlado, que merece maior detalhamento, principalmente quanto às estratégias adotadas para seu alcance.OBJETIVO: Caracterizar la situación del uso de crack en la ciudad de Sao Paulo, así como el perfil sociodemográfico del usuario. PROCEDIMENTOS METODOLÓGICOS: Estudio cualitativo etnográfico con muestra intencional de usuarios (n=45 y ex-usuarios de crack (n=17. Los participantes fueron reclutados por la técnica de toma de muestra en cadenas y respondieron a una entrevista semi-estructurada, direccionada por cuestionario, durante los anos

  14. Direct medical costs associated with schizophrenia relapses in health care services in the city of São Paulo Costo directo médico-hospitalario de recaída en esquizofrenia en servicios de salud en la ciudad de Sao Paulo, sureste de Brasil Custo direto médico-hospitalar de recaída em esquizofrenia em serviços de saúde na cidade de São Paulo

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    Claudiane Salles Daltio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess direct medical costs associated with schizophrenia relapses in mental health services. METHODS: The study was conducted in three health facilities in the city of São Paulo: a public state hospital; a Brazilian National Health System (SUS-contracted hospital; and a community mental health center. Medical records of 90 patients with schizophrenia who received care in 2006 were reviewed. Information on inpatient expenditures was collected and used for cost estimates. RESULTS: Mean direct medical cost of schizophrenia relapses per patient was US$ 4,083.50 (R$ 8,167.58 in the public state hospital; US$ 2,302.76 (R$ 4,605.46 in the community mental health center; and US$ 1,198.50 (R$ 2,397.74 in the SUS-affiliated hospital. The main component was daily inpatient room rates (87% - 98%. Medication costs varied depending on the use of typical or atypical antipsychotic drugs. Atypical antipsychotic drugs were more often used in the community mental health center. CONCLUSIONS: Costs associated with schizophrenia relapses support investments in antipsychotic drugs and strategies to reduce disease relapse and the need for mental health inpatient services. Treating patients in a community mental health center was associated with medium costs and added the benefit of not depriving these patients from family life.OBJETIVO: Evaluar el costo directo médico-hospitalario de la recaída en esquizofrenia, en servicios en salud mental. MÉTODOS: Estudio conducido en tres servicios de salud de la ciudad de Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil: un hospital público estatal, un hospital contratado en convenio con el Sistema Único de Salud, y un centro de atención psicosocial. Se analizaron 90 prontuarios de pacientes portadores de esquizofrenia atendidos durante el año de 2006. Los recursos utilizados durante la permanencia de los pacientes en los servicios fueron obtenidos y valorados para cálculos de las estimaciones. RESULTADOS: El costo directo m

  15. Doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica e fatores associados em São Paulo, SP, 2008-2009 Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica y factores asociados en Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil, 2008-2009 Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and risk factors in São Paulo, Brazil, 2008-2009

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    Clóvis Arlindo de Sousa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência e fatores associados à doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, de base populacional com 1.441 indivíduos de ambos os sexos e com 40 anos de idade ou mais no município de São Paulo, SP, entre 2008 e 2009. As informações foram coletadas por meio de entrevistas domiciliares e os participantes foram selecionados a partir de amostragem probabilística, estratificada por sexo e idade, e por conglomerados em dois estágios (setores censitários e domicílios. Foi realizada regressão múltipla de Poisson na análise ajustada. RESULTADOS: Dos entrevistados, 4,2% (IC95% 3,1;5,4 referiram doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica. Após análise ajustada, identificaram-se os seguintes fatores independentemente associados ao agravo: número de cigarros fumados na vida (> 1.500/nenhum RP = 3,85 (IC95%: 1,87;7,94, cansar-se com facilidade (sim/não RP = 2,61 (IC95% 1,39;4,90, idade (60 a 69 anos/50 a 59 anos RP = 3,27 (IC95% 1,01;11,24, idade (70 anos e mais/50 a 59 anos RP = 4,29 (IC95% 1,30;14,29, problemas de saúde nos últimos 15 dias (sim/não RP = 1,31 (IC95% 1,02;1,77, e atividade física no tempo livre (sim/não RP = 0,57 (IC95% 0,26;0,97. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica é elevada e está associada ao uso do tabaco e idade acima de 60 anos. Os problemas de saúde freqüentes e redução da atividade física no tempo livre podem ser considerados conseqüências dessa doença.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia y factores asociados con la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, de base poblacional con 1.441 individuos de ambos sexos y con 40 años de edad o más en el municipio de São Paulo, Sureste de Brasil, entre 3008 y 2009. Las informaciones fueron colectadas por medio de entrevistas domiciliares y los participantes fueron seleccionados a partir de muestreo probabilístico estratificado por sexo y edad, y por

  16. Optimization of the daily operation of the plants of Medio Sao Francisco; Otimizacao da operacao diaria das usinas do Medio Sao Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Jessica Pillon Torralba; Colnago, Glauber Renato; Correia, Paulo de Barros; Ohishi, Takaaki [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: pillon@fem.unicamp.br, colnago@fem.unicamp.br, pcorreia@fem.unicamp.br, taka@densis.fee.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an optimization model for daily operation of Sao Francisco hydroelectric power plants. The study considers eight power plants - Sobradinho (USB), Luiz Gonzaga (ULG), Apolonio Sales (UAS), Paulo Afonso I, II, III, (UPA), Paulo Afonso IV (USQ) e Xingo (UXG)- belongs to Sao Francisco Hydroelectric Company (CHESF). Its objective is to maximize the power plant efficiency and to minimize the number of startup and shutdowns of generating units (GU), simultaneously. Considering those GU are equal, is determined the number of units to be dispatched and their charge. The optimal dispatch, linear and non-linear programming techniques and genetic algorithms (GA) support this article. (author)

  17. Avaliação da estrutura dos centros de atenção psicossocial do município de São Paulo, SP Evaluación de la estructura de los centros de atención psicosocial del municipio de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil Evaluation of psychosocial healthcare services in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

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    Andréia de Fátima Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    "equipamentos-síntese" dos quais os usuários não recebem alta, até serviços que encaminham e dão alta após a estabilização dos sintomas dos usuários, numa tentativa de construção de uma rede de cuidados.OBJETIVO: Describir la estructura física, recursos humanos y modalidades de atención existentes en los centros de atención psicosocial (CAPS. MÉTODOS: Fueron incluidos en el estudio 21 CAPS para atención de adultos, vinculados a la Secretaria Municipal de Salud de Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil, entre 2007 y 2008. Fueron colectadas informaciones sobre las instalaciones físicas de los servicios, recursos humanos disponibles y procedimientos de cuidado al paciente, utilizando instrumento estandarizado. Fueron realizados análisis descriptivos de los datos y la prueba de Chi-cuadrado para evaluar la asociación entre los tipos de actividades y el origen y localización de los servicios. RESULTADOS: Diez servicios fueron creados como ambulatorios y posteriormente transformados, ocho eran hospitales-día y apenas tres fueron creados como CAPS. Ningún servicio funcionaba diariamente durante 24 horas. Mitad de los servicios funcionaba en inmuebles alquilados, con instalaciones físicas inadecuadas especialmente para atenciones grupales. La composición de los equipos de servicios fue bastante diversa. Las actividades desempeñadas en los CAPS fueron heterogéneas, con mayor valorización de las actividades grupales desarrolladas con usuarios dentro de los CAPS y poca integración a los otros equipos de salud. Los servicios de origen ambulatorio presentaban actividades artesanales y los que habían sido hospitales-día realizaban más actividades de integración psicofísica. El perfil de actividades se relacionó con la distribución regional de los servicios. CONCLUSIONES: La heterogeneidad de los CAPS parece relacionarse con la historia de los programas de salud mental implementados en el municipio desde la década de 1980 y a la diversidad socioeconómica y cultural

  18. Retrospective analysis of concurrent chemoradiotherapy for head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma: preliminary experience from ABC School of Medicine, Santo Andre, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Avaliacao retrospectiva do tratamento quimiorradioterapico concomitante em carcinoma epidermoide de cabeca e pescoco: experiencia preliminar da Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo Andre, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba Junior, Antonio Freitas [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Oncologia Clinica; Giglio, Auro del [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Hematologia e Oncologia]. E-mail: sandrabr@netpoint.com.br; Philbert, Paula Lajolo; Kaliks, Rafael [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Ensino

    2005-07-01

    Background: concurrent chemoradiotherapy constitutes an option for head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treatment. Although we found a high incidence of this tumor in our population, we do not have so far results reported for the Brazilian population. Methods: medical records from HNSCC patients who ere treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy between January 2001 to June 2004 were systematically reviewed. Results: twenty-two HNSCC patients were treated with chemoradiotherapy. The median age was 56 years. The primary tumor site was located in the oropharynx in 11, the larynx in 9 and hypopharynx in 2 patients. Most of the patients (86%) presented with stage III or IV disease. 19 (86%) patients were treated with Cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} D1-22-43, and 3 (14%) patients used Cisplatin 20 mg/m{sup 2} weekly, concurrent with radiotherapy. Hematological and renal toxicity grade 3 or higher was seen in 58% and 10% patients, respectively. Eleven patients achieved a complete response and 8 a partial response. Median disease-free survival was 10 months and median overall survival was 25 months. (author)

  19. Operation auxiliary system (SAO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents an auxiliary system for nuclear power plants operation (SAO). The development purpose consisted in a computing supervision system to be installed at different sites of a reactor, mainly in the control room. The inclusion of this system to a nuclear power plant minimizes the possibility of human error for the facility operation. (Author)

  20. Smoke-free São Paulo: a campaign evaluation and the case for sustained mass media investment Sao Paulo libre de humo de tabaco: evaluación de una campaña y el caso para una inversión sostenida en medios masivos

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    Jorge Alday

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although evidence from high-income countries suggests that mass media campaigns can increase knowledge of tobacco harms and encourage smoking cessation, there is little evidence of this from developing countries, particularly related to campaigns that seek to increase support for smoke-free places and laws. Two campaigns that ran in São Paulo, Brazil during implementation of a smoke-free law in São Paulo were evaluated to assess their effectiveness in changing attitudes and creating support for the law. The campaigns were evaluated through street-intercept surveys conducted in early July and late August in São Paulo (Ns= 603; 615. Findings reveal that mass communications can generate support for smoke-free laws and underscore the importance of running campaigns that are both well-funded and that use harder-hitting, more graphic messages.Aunque la evidencia de los países de altos ingresos sugiere que las campañas de los medios masivos de comunicación pueden elevar el conocimiento de los daños del tabaco y alentar a dejar de fumar, hay poca evidencia de esto en los países en desarrollo, particularmente en relación con las campañas que tratan de dar más apoyo a los lugares libres de humo de tabaco y a las leyes. Dos campañas que se transmitieron en São Paulo, Brasil durante la ejecución de la ley libre de humo en São Paulo fueron evaluadas para determinar su eficacia en el cambio de actitudes y su contribución al aumento de apoyo a esta la ley. Las campañas fueron evaluadas a través de encuestas realizadas en la calle a principios de julio y finales de agosto en São Paulo (N= 603 615. Los hallazgos revelan que la comunicación masiva puede generar apoyo a las leyes antitabaco y subrayan la importancia de la realización de campañas que estén bien financiadas, así como el uso de mensajes gráficos más fuertes.

  1. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of São Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in São Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23º 37'S - 45° 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23º 57'S - 46º 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms was performed in all seasons of the year, beginning in spring 2008 and ending in winter 2009. The samples

  2. Megabacteriosis Occurrence in Budgerigars, Canaries and Lovebirds in Ribeirao Preto region - Sao Paulo State - Brazil Ocorrência de Megabacteriose em Periquitos Autralianos, Canários e Agapornis na Região de Ribeirão Preto- Estado de São Paulo - Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    K. Werther; R P Schocken-Iturrino; CES Verona; Barros LSS

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of an megabacterium-like organism at small birds from the Northeast area of São Paulo State - Brazil. The results presented herein were obtained from 64 necropsy along four years (1994-1997). Sixty four birds (4 budgerigars Melopsittacus undulatus, 12 lovebirds Agapornis spp and 48 canaries Serinus canaria) were studied. At 56% of the examined birds showed at the proventricular mucus smear a presence of rod-shaped (similar to a toothpick) organisms, Gram posi...

  3. Methodological proposal for identification and evaluation of environmental aspects and impacts of nuclear facilities of IPEN, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil: a case study applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center; Proposta metodologica para a identificacao e avaliacao de aspectos e impactos ambientais em instalacoes nucleares do IPEN: estudo de caso aplicado ao Centro do Combustivel Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Luis Antonio Terribile de

    2013-07-01

    This work presents an application of Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) to the process of identification of environmental aspects and impacts as a part of implementation and maintenance of an Environmental Management System (EMS) in accordance with the NBR ISO 14001 standard. Also, it can contribute, as a complement, to the evaluation and improvement of safety of the installation focused. The study was applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), situated at the Campus of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The CCN facility has the objective of promoting scientific research and of producing nuclear fuel elements for the IEA-R1 Research Reactor. To identify the environmental aspects of the facility activities, products, and services, a systematic data collection was carried out by means of personal interviews, documents, reports and operation data records consulting. Furthermore, the processes and their interactions, failure modes, besides their causes and effects to the environment, were identified. As a result of a careful evaluation of these causes it was possible to identify and to classify the major potential environmental impacts, in order to set up and put in practice an Environmental Management System for the installation under study. The results have demonstrated the validity of the FMEA application to nuclear facility processes, identifying environmental aspects and impacts, whose controls are critical to achieve compliance with the environmental requirements of the Integrated Management System of IPEN. It was demonstrated that the methodology used in this work is a powerful management tool for resolving issues related to the conformity with applicable regulatory and legal requirements of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment (IBAMA). (author)

  4. Graafikatriennaali peapreemia Andres Talile

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Tallinna XII graafikatriennaali preemiad: grand prix - Andres Tali; 3 võrdset preemiat - Janne Laine, Leonards Laganovskis, Peeter Laurits; diplomid - Lynne Allen, Lucrecia Urbano, Vladimir Tshaika, Zora Stanè, Endi Poskovic, Päivikki Kallio; EKM preemia - Tif Bitmap; Tallinna linna preemia - Ülle Marks ja Jüri Kass; eripreemiad: - J. Laine (Eesti Pank), Vive Tolli (Paletti Eesti AS), Martins Ratniksh, Juris Boiko, T. Bitmap (Balteco AS). Žürii koosseis

  5. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female sex workers in a city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil Prevalencia de enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles en mujeres profesionales del sexo en un municipio del interior del estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil Prevalência de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em mulheres profissionais do sexo, em um município do interior paulista, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Rodrigues Baldin-Dal Pogetto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the profile of sexually transmitted diseases have increased the need for their detection, particularly where there is a concentration of individuals with risk behavior, so that diagnosis and immediate treatment can be translated in the reduction of resulting problems. The objective was to identify the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female sex workers in a medium-sized city in São Paulo state. This population prevalence study was conducted in 2008 on 102 females. The prevalence was 71.6%. When considered separately and in association, the highest values found were: HPV (67.7% and Chlamydia (20.5%. HPV typing showed oncogenic genotypes. The prevalence of syphilis was 4.0% and of trichomoniasis 3.0%. No cases of hepatitis B or gonorrhea were identified. It was concluded that the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the studied group was high, since approximately two thirds of the women showed some type of disease under this classification.Cambios en el perfil de las enfermedades sexualmente transmisibles han ampliando la necesidad de su seguimiento, especialmente donde existe concentración de personas o grupos con comportamientos de riesgo, para que el diagnóstico y tratamiento inmediato se traduzcan en reducción de los problemas causados. El objetivo fue identificar la prevalencia de enfermedad sexualmente transmisible entre mujeres profesionales del sexo de un municipio de porte medio del interior del estado de Sao Paulo. Este estudio de prevalencia poblacional fue realizado en el año de 2008 con 102 profesionales del sexo. La prevalencia general de enfermedad sexualmente transmisible fue 71,6%. Considerados aisladamente y en asociación, los mayores valores encontrados fueron: VPH (67,7% e infección clamidiana (20,5%. El tipaje del VPH evidenció genotipos oncogénicos. La prevalencia de sífilis fue de 4,0% y de tricomoníasis 3,0%. Ningún caso de hepatitis B o gonorrea fue identificado. Se concluye

  6. Armazenamento de sementes de arroz e milho em diferentes embalagens e localidades paulistas Storage of rice and corn seeds in different containers and localities of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernandes Razera

    1986-01-01

    -resistant plastic bag. The seeds were then maintained under non-controlled room temperature conditions in the localities of Campinas and Ubatuba, both in the State of São Paulo, and tested for moisture content at every three month interval for a period of 36 months. The seeds stored at Ubatuba deteriorated faster than those stored at Campinas, mainly when packed in water vapor permeable containers. For example, at Campinas, rice seeds held in cloth bags maintained seed germination higher than 80% up to 15 months, while those at Ubatuba did so only up to 6 months. Packing seeds in 0.25 mm thick plastic films was advantageous, mainly at Ubatuba where the germination of the corn seeds, for example, was null after 15 months when held in the other containers, and 97.5% when held in the plastic films. The packages made with cloth, paper, and 5 x 5 and 5 x 6 woven plastic gave similar results for the preservation of seed germination and vigor. This indicated the great difficulty, or even the impossibility of storing seeds in warm and humid areas, like Ubatuba, unless the storage temperature and/or relative humidity are controlled, or seed moisture is reduced to relatively low levels (10-11% or less and seeds are packed in a moisture-resistant container. The water vapor permeable containers showed to be adequate to mantain seed viability and vigor in regions with more favorable climate.

  7. Caracterização da comunidade de plantas aquáticas de dezoito reservatórios pertencentes a cinco bacias hidrográficas do Estado de São Paulo Characterization of the aquatic plant communities of 18 reservoirs of five watersheds in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, D.; N.V. Costa; M.A. Terra; S.R. Marchi

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar e comparar a composição florística de 18 reservatórios pertencentes a cinco bacias hidrográficas do Estado de São Paulo. Os levantamentos foram realizados no período de fevereiro a setembro de 2002, com o auxílio de um barco. Percorreu-se a margem dos reservatórios das bacias hidrográficas dos rios Paraíba, Paraná, Paranapanema, Grande e Tietê, à velocidade de 30 km h-1. A cada 20 minutos, estabeleceu-se um ponto de amostragem, determinando-se sua po...

  8. Fatores motivadores da adoção de práticas ambientais em empresas paulistas processadoras de madeira The motivating factors which led to the adoption of environmental practices by the wood processing companies in the State of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Samuel Sávio Bernardo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as práticas ambientais adotadas por empresas paulistas processadoras de madeira, na etapa de geração e aquisição de matérias-primas, e analisar quais são os principais fatores motivadores da adoção dessas práticas. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo em 5 empresas que produzem produtos de madeira para escrita, celulose e papel, ou embalagens de papelão reciclado. O método de pesquisa adotado foi o estudo de caso e, como instrumentos de coleta de dados, foram utilizadas entrevistas e análises de documentos. Observou-se que as práticas ambientais adotadas pela maioria das empresas estudadas são referentes ao consumo de madeira e água e à poluição do solo, ar e água. Conclui-se que os principais fatores motivadores da adoção de práticas ambientais são a legislação, regulamentação de mercado e fatores relacionados à competitividade dos negócios, como a melhoria da imagem ambiental e a possibilidade de redução de custos.The objective of this study was to identify the environmental practices adopted by the wood processing companies in the State of Sao Paulo in the stage of generating and acquiring raw material, and to analyze the major motivating factors that led to the adoption of these practices. A qualitative study was carried out in 5 companies that produce wooden products for writing, cellulose and paper, or recycled corrugated fiberboard packaging. The research methodology adopted was case studies. Several interviews were conducted and documents were analyzed. It was observed that the environmental practices adopted by the majority of the studied companies refer to the consumption of wood and water, and to the pollution of the soil, air, and water. It was concluded that the major motivating factors for the adoption of environmental practices were: legislation, market regulation, and factors related to business competitiveness, such as the improvement of the environmental

  9. Encontro de imaturos de Anopheles cruzii em bromélias de área urbana, litoral de São Paulo Encuentro de inmaduros de Anopheles cruzii en bromelias de área urbana, litoral de Sao Paulo Anopheles cruzii larvae found in bromelias in an urban area on the Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela R A M Marques

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Primeiro relato da ocorrência de larvas de Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii, mosquito essencialmente silvestre, em bromélias de solo em área urbana do município de Ilhabela, litoral norte do estado de São Paulo. De março de 1998 a julho de 1999 foram capturadas 312 formas imaturas de An. cruzii, sendo 8,6% em bromélias do ambiente urbano, 40,1% em bromélias do periurbano e 51,3% na mata. O número médio de bromélias com An. cruzii foi de 4,0% dentre o total de pesquisadas, com valores próximos de positividade para ambiente periurbano e mata. A presença de An. cruzii no ambiente urbano provavelmente é resultante da sua ocorrência prévia na mata, aliada à elevada presença desse criadouro na área urbana, de fonte alimentar e abrigos disponíveis. Alerta-se para a possibilidade de transferência de infecções entre esses ambientes.Primer relato de la presencia de larvas de Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii, mosquito esencialmente silvestre, en bromelias de suelo en área urbana del municipio de Ilhabela, litoral norte del estado de São Paulo (Sureste de Brasil. De marzo de 1998 a julio de 1999 fueron capturadas 312 formas inmaduras de An. cruzii, siendo 8,6% en bromelias del ambiente urbano, 40,1% en bromelias del periurbano, y 51,3% en la selva. El número prmedio de bromelias con An. cruzii fue de 4,0% del total de evaluadas, con valores próximos de positividad para ambiente periurbano y selva. La presencia de An. cruzii en el ambiente urbano probablemente es resultante de su ocurrencia previa en la selva, aliado a la elevada presencia de criaderos en el área urbana, de fuente de alimentación y abrigos disponibles. Se alerta la posibilidad de transferencia de infecciones entre esos ambiente.The occurrence of Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii larvae is reported for the first time in bromelias on the ground located in an urban area within the municipality of Ilha Bela, on the northern coast of the State of São Paulo. From March 1998 to July

  10. Megabacteriosis Occurrence in Budgerigars, Canaries and Lovebirds in Ribeirao Preto region - Sao Paulo State - Brazil Ocorrência de Megabacteriose em Periquitos Autralianos, Canários e Agapornis na Região de Ribeirão Preto- Estado de São Paulo - Brasil

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    K Werther

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the occurrence of an megabacterium-like organism at small birds from the Northeast area of São Paulo State - Brazil. The results presented herein were obtained from 64 necropsy along four years (1994-1997. Sixty four birds (4 budgerigars Melopsittacus undulatus, 12 lovebirds Agapornis spp and 48 canaries Serinus canaria were studied. At 56% of the examined birds showed at the proventricular mucus smear a presence of rod-shaped (similar to a toothpick organisms, Gram positive and acidophilic in Giemsa staining, called megabacteria. Different kind of culture media was testes to replicated these organism in vitro. Also the dimension (large and width of the fresh microorganism from the proventricular mucus and from the first culture was compared. The macroscopic alterations observed at the necropsies was also listed.Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar a ocorrência de um agente etiológico, denominado na Europa, Australia e EUA como "megabactéria", observado em estômago de pequenas aves (canários belgas, agapornis e periquitos australianos, provenientes da região de Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo/SP. As necropsias de 64 aves silvestres (4 periquitos australianos, 12 agapornis e 48 canários, realizadas no perído de 1994 a 1997, foram analisadas, constatando-se em 56% dos casos a presença de estruturas filiformes, acidofílicas sob coloração Giemsa, gram positivas, existentes no muco do proventrículo, descritas na literatura como "megabactérias". Foram testados diversos tipos de meios de cultura para reprodução in vitro deste microrganismo. Foram ainda comparadas as dimensões (comprimento e largura dessa bactéria obtida apartir do esfregaço fresco de muco proventricular e da "megabactéria" proveniente de cultivo in vitro. Também foram listados os principais achados macroscópicos do animais portadores desta bactéria.

  11. Maailmaparandajad / Ole Ry, Susanne Andres

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ry, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Terapeudid Ole Ry ja Susanne Andres räägivad Dr David Berceli loodud TRE (Tension & Trauma Releasing Exercises) harjutuste kasutamise kogemusest erinevate psüühiliste traumade ja pingetega klientide tervise parandamisel

  12. Safeguard system of IPEN-CNEN/Sao Paulo - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history, requirements, organization, and operation of the State System of Accounting and Control from the institute for Energetic and Nuclear Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP) are described. The implementation system at the institution take into consideration the national and international safeguards requirements. It has started by the nuclear material (U, Pu and Th) physical inventory taking, including their provenance and transformation. The earlier computerized accounting system used for control has been replaced by a new one developed by the National Authority (CNEN/SESAL). The optimized system has more flexibility, giving a more effective answer to any occurred change on Material Balance Area. The actual system make use of an effective methodology. (author)

  13. Endoscopy dose examinations at the Sao Paulo University Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During some specific endoscopic examinations, radiographic and fluoroscopic images of patients are taken with the medical staff near to them. To evaluate the equivalent and effective doses in these occupational exposures, simulated examinations have been performed, using an anthropomorphic phantom in place of one of the members of the staff. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were attached in various positions of the phantom in order to determine some organ doses. From the comparison between the experimentally determined doses the International and the Brazilian recommended occupational dose limits, the maximum number of examinations that any member of the staff can perform, was calculated. If a protective apron is used, this number is limited by the high equivalent dose to the eye lens (average of 1.67 mSv/examination) of the staff's member. (authors). 3 refs., 4 tabs

  14. Regional and municipal energetic statistics - Sao Paulo State - 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main Brazilian energetic information for subsidizing planning studies in regional and municipal level are presented, including data for the year 1987 that represent the sale of the main petroleum by-product and hydrated alcohol and the electricity consumption. (C.G.C.)

  15. Planktic Cyanobacteria from Sao Paulo State, Brazil: Chroococcales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sant'Anna, C. L.; Azevedo, M. T. P.; Senna, P. A. C.; Komárek, Jiří; Komárková, Jaroslava

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2004), s. 213-227. ISSN 0100-8404 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : taxonomy * Brazil * Chroococcales Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  16. Epidemiological analysis of mandibular fractures treated in Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Kelly Marinho

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The treatment of mandibular fractures should be aimed at restoring the occlusion and mastication function, with surgery being the most indicated treatment, using reduction and internal fixation with the use of a plates and screws system based on the experience of the authors. Knowledge of surgical techniques and methods of reduction and fixation of fractures, and periodic monitoring allow these patients to receive the appropriate treatment.

  17. Consumo de doces, refrigerantes e bebidas com adição de açúcar entre adolescentes da rede pública de ensino de Piracicaba, São Paulo Consumption of sweets, soft drinks and sugar-added beverages among adolescents from public schools in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo

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    Marina Bueno do Carmo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as práticas alimentares de adolescentes quanto à ingestão energética, distribuição de macronutrientes na dieta e porções consumidas de doces, refrigerantes e bebidas com adição de açúcar. METODOLOGIA: Foi avaliada uma amostra de adolescentes matriculados em escolas da rede pública de ensino de Piracicaba, São Paulo. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por um Questionário de Freqüência Alimentar. Para a comparação do consumo com a recomendação de ingestão de energia e de macronutrientes, utilizaram-se as Dietary Reference Intakes. A análise do consumo de doces baseou-se nas recomendações do guia alimentar norte-americano. Dados de consumo de refrigerantes e bebidas com adição de açúcar foram avaliados em comparação com outros estudos. RESULTADOS: O estudo incluiu 390 adolescentes. Apenas 6,2% destes apresentaram consumo energético em conformidade com o intervalo preconizado e 83,8% revelaram ingestão energética acima dos valores propostos. Expressiva parcela apresentou consumo de carboidratos e proteínas de acordo com o recomendado, mas foi verificado consumo alto de lipídios em 36,7% da amostra. Comprovou-se um consumo médio de 3,8 porções diárias de doces, sendo que 78,2% dos entrevistados ultrapassaram a recomendação máxima. O consumo médio diário alcançou aproximadamente 230ml e 550ml de refrigerante e bebidas com adição de açúcar, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Devido à alarmante inadequação das práticas alimentares observadas entre os adolescentes, devem ser adotadas estratégias educativas que enfatizem a redução do consumo de açúcares e os benefícios da adoção de uma dieta equilibrada.OBJECTIVE: To describe the dietary patterns of adolescents in relation to energy intake, distribution of macronutrients in diet and consumption of portions of sweets, soft drinks and sugar-added beverages. METHODOLOGY: A sample of adolescents enrolled in public schools in Piracicaba

  18. Concepções de gênero entre homens e mulheres de baixa renda e escolaridade acerca da violência contra a mulher, São Paulo, Brasil Gender conceptions related to violence against women among men and women of low income and low educational level, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Márcia Thereza Couto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho aborda como homens e mulheres de baixa renda e escolaridade, da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, pensam suas relações afetivo-familiares e os diferentes contextos de violência que vivenciam. Trata-se de estudo qualitativo, utilizando grupos focais, com vistas a subsidiar estudo mais global acerca de violência contra a mulher e saúde. Foram realizados quatro grupos focais (dois com mulheres e dois com homens, na faixa etária de 25 a 35 anos, abordando as representações, livres e instigadas por ditos populares, de: homem e mulher ideais; as relações afetivo- sexuais e familiares; os concretamente vividos; e a violência doméstica. Usa-se a análise temática. Os resultados apontam para cisões entre atributos físicos e condutas morais na mulher ideal referida pelos homens, já aquela referida pelas mulheres define uma autonomia controlada. Os homens tiveram dificuldades em definir o homem ideal, já para as mulheres o ideal é o homem-família. Quanto à violência, é em princípio sempre condenável. É tolerável e instintiva para homens; e fatalidade ou destino, pela natureza masculina, para mulheres, tornando-se evento natural e trivial dos cotidianos de ambos. O referencial de gênero permite compreensão da violência como ocorrência comum, mas de sentidos diferentes entre gêneros.This article discusses how men and women of low income and educational level, living in São Paulo City, think their affective and familiar relationships and the different violent contexts they live in. It consists of a qualitative study, based on focus groups and subsiding a more global study on violence against women and health. It has been conducted four groups (two with men and two with women, aging 25 to 35 years broaching, free and instigated by popular sayings, conceptions on: the ideal man and woman, concretely experienced sexual affective and familiar relationships and on domestic violence. Thematic analysis was used. The results

  19. Estado nutricional, clínico e padrão alimentar de pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids em assistência ambulatorial no município de São Paulo Nutritional and clinical status, and dietary patterns of people living with HIV/AIDS in ambulatory care in Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Erika Ferrari Rafael Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Atualmente, a abordagem nutricional desempenha papel essencial no tratamento de pessoas que vivem com HIV/aids, particularmente no caso de alterações metabólicas pelo uso da terapia antirretroviral (TARV que podem estar associadas ao maior risco de doenças cardiovasculares (DCV. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar o estado nutricional, clínico e a qualidade da dieta de pessoas que vivem com HIV/aids. METODOLOGIA: Trata-se de um estudo transversal envolvendo pessoas que vivem com HIV/aids em atendimento na rede de serviços especializados no município de São Paulo. Os usuários desta rede, em uso ou não de TARV, foram recrutados no período de dezembro de 2004 a maio de 2006, durante consultas de rotina. Foram coletados dados sociodemográficos, clínicos, bioquímicos, antropométricos e dietéticos. A qualidade da dieta foi avaliada segundo escores de padrão de consumo predominantemente "não protetor" e "protetor" para DCV. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi constituída por 238 pacientes em TARV e 76 sem TARV. A média dos níveis de colesterol total, triglicérides e glicemia foram maiores no grupo TARV (p INTRODUCTION: Nutrition currently plays a key role in the treatment of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA, especially in the case of metabolic alterations due to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, which could be related to cardiovascular diseases (CD. OBJECTIVE: to describe the nutritional and clinical status, and the quality of diet of PLHA. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study involving a network of ambulatory care facilities for PLHA in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Patients, in use of HAART or not, were selected from December 2004 to may 2006, through routine clinic visits. We collected: socio-demographic, clinical, biochemical, anthropometric measures and dietary data. Diet quality was evaluated according to a "protecting" or "non-protecting" pattern of consumption scores for CD. RESULTS: The sample had 238 patients on

  20. Caracterização da comunidade de plantas aquáticas de dezoito reservatórios pertencentes a cinco bacias hidrográficas do Estado de São Paulo Characterization of the aquatic plant communities of 18 reservoirs of five watersheds in Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    D. Martins

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar e comparar a composição florística de 18 reservatórios pertencentes a cinco bacias hidrográficas do Estado de São Paulo. Os levantamentos foram realizados no período de fevereiro a setembro de 2002, com o auxílio de um barco. Percorreu-se a margem dos reservatórios das bacias hidrográficas dos rios Paraíba, Paraná, Paranapanema, Grande e Tietê, à velocidade de 30 km h-1. A cada 20 minutos, estabeleceu-se um ponto de amostragem, determinando-se sua posição por meio de GPS. Em cada ponto, em área de 1.000 m², identificaram-se as espécies ocorrentes e respectivas densidades, em porcentagem da área amostrada. Foram identificadas 39 espécies, distribuídas em 21 famílias, destacando-se as flutuantes Salvinia auriculata, Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea e Pistia stratiotes e as emersas Polygonum lapathifolium, Brachiaria arrecta,Brachiaria mutica, Cyperus sp. e Typha latifolia, considerando as quatro espécies com maior freqüência em cada bacia. O maior índice de similaridade (0,71 ocorreu entre as bacias dos rios Paranapanema e Grande, e o menor (0,49, entre as bacias dos rios Paraíba e Tietê.The objective of this work was to evaluate and compare the aquatic plant composition of 18 reservoirs in five watershed basins in SP-Brazil. The survey was carried out on a boat from February to September 2002, comprising the watersheds basins of the rivers Paraíba, Paraná, Paranapanema, Grande and Tietê. On average, every 20 minutes a sampling point was determined by means of a portable GPS, and the species were identified based on high density, average density and low density. A total of 39 species was identified, distributed in 21 families. The prominent species were the floating Salvinia auriculata, Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea, Pistia stratiotes and the immersed Polygonum lapathifolium, Brachiaria arrecta, Brachiaria mutica, Cyperus sp. and Typha latifolia

  1. Paulo Freire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convergence, 1970

    1970-01-01

    The noted educator, Paulo Friere, who has done literacy work in Brazil and Chile, contends that all teaching methods imply a concept of man; his distinctive literacy approach is aimed chiefly at conscientizacion, an awakening of consciousness involving an accurate awareness of one's place in nature, time, and society. (Editor/LY)

  2. Promoção automática nos anos 1950: a experiência pioneira do Grupo Experimental da Lapa (São Paulo Automatic promotion in the 1950s: the pioneering experiment of the Experimental School of Lapa (Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia S. Viégas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo visa apresentar o projeto pioneiro de abolição da reprovação na rede estadual paulista, elaborado no final da década de 1950 e implantado no início de 1960, em caráter experimental, no Grupo Experimental da Lapa, escola que funcionava como unidade oficial de pesquisas da Secretaria da Educação. Apesar de inaugural, tal experiência raramente comparece em publicações sobre o tema, havendo poucos registros a seu respeito. Para tanto, o artigo esboça, a princípio, um breve contexto histórico do debate em torno da então chamada promoção automática, que se inicia no Brasil em 1918, no contexto da Primeira República, e ganha força, sobretudo, na década de 1950, no período desenvolvimentista. Em seguida, o texto aborda elementos constitutivos do projeto realizado no Grupo Experimental da Lapa, justificando a pertinência e a atualidade da promoção automática, bem como delineia sua formatação, em especial no que diz respeito à organização das classes, ao currículo, à avaliação e ao papel docente. Posto isso, são revelados trechos de depoimentos dados por educadores envolvidos na construção do referido projeto, os quais revelam suas potencialidades e contradições. Também são apresentados documentos raros sobre o tema publicados no contexto dessa experiência pioneira. Ao final, são tecidas considerações sobre a experiência em questão, a qual, apesar de pouco divulgada, possui enorme importância histórica. Espera-se, com este artigo, contribuir para a construção da escola pública de qualidade, principalmente considerando a crescente implantação da política de ciclos nas redes públicas educacionais brasileiras.This article presents the pioneering project of abolishing failure in the state public schools in São Paulo state, developed in the late 1950 and implemented at the beginning of 1960 on an experimental basis at the Experimental School of Lapa, a school that worked as the

  3. Reaction of Sao Paulo stock exchange corporative events: a test of the Efficient Market Hypothesis Análise empírica da reação do mercado de capitais brasileiro a eventos corporativos: teste conjunto da Hipótese de Eficiência do Mercado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio de Camargos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The Efficient Market Hypothesis, defined by Fama (1970 and 1991, in the moderate version, postulates an instantaneous and precise adjustment by the market for any relevant information announced by participating companies. An analysis was made of the reaction of Sao Paulo Stock Exchange to abnormal returns around the time of announcement of the three specific corporate events of fusions and acquisitions, issuance of American Depositary Receipts and adherence to the Different Levels of Corporate Governance, in order to identify if the market was efficient according to the moderate Hypothesis. An Event Study collected data, between 1992 e 2004 of company stocks on the Exchange, for analysis of preferred stocks at times around all three types of these event announcements and for common stock analysis only at times around last type of event. Announcements of all the three types of events were shown to provide information relevant to market stock pricing. Exchange market reactions were found however only for fusions and acquisitions and adherence to the Different Levels of Corporate Governance but not for American Depositary Receipt. Because this market reacted to only two of the three types of events cited in the Hypothesis, it was therefore considered not to be efficient according to the moderate version of the Efficient Market Hypothesis.A Hipótese de Eficiência do Mercado, definida por Fama (1970, 1991, pressupõe, em sua forma semiforte, que o mercado faz ajustes instantâneos e precisos de qualquer informação relevante que seja divulgada pelas empresas que dele participam. Neste artigo, fez-se uma análise da eficiência do mercado brasileiro por meio do estudo do comportamento dos retornos anormais acumulados em períodos próximos à divulgação de três eventos corporativos - fusões e aquisições, lançamento de American Depositary Receipts e adesão aos Níveis Diferenciados de Governança Corporativa -, visando identificar se o

  4. Instrumentos de Avaliação de Desempenho e Risco no Mercado Acionário Brasileiro: um estudo de anomalias de mercado na Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (BOVESPAInstruments for the Evaluation Analysis of Performance and Risk in the Brazilian Stock Market: a study of the market anomalies at (BOVESPA Sao PauloInstrumentos de Evaluación del Desempeño y Riesgo en el Mercado de Acciones Brasileño: un estudio de anomalías de mercado en la Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (BOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVIERI, Francisco José

    2004-09-01

    , selected (representative in the decision-making by the investors, this study aimed at developing the questionings arising from the Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT model, based on the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM of the pricing in portfolios, which relations among its components are translated by Beta. This study applies to the evolution of the evaluation theories, risk measurement and formation of assets’ prices (expected pay-back which, in recent studies, have shown that, many times, the behavior of the investors does not confirm the divulged efficiency of the markets. The study was based on certain areas of the theory of investments, highlighting the risk approach as a factor for decision-making, in addition to the Asset Pricing Models of portfolios evaluation. This study was based on a documental and data research with the Sao Paulo Stock Exchange, institutions that manage investment funds and the Brazilian Central Bank (from 1997 to 2001 to test the several theories on market efficiency and, finally, the analysis of the information obtained from data modeling, searching to identify the consistency of the results, in view of the different models studied, relating them to the concepts of market weaknesses. As a result, it was possible to define the Security Market Line for the Brazilian market, based on the assets pricing models, beta coefficients and APT factors.RESUMENA partir de la formulación de las hipótesis de los Mercados Eficientes y del descubrimiento de las relaciones entre los activos negociados en el mercado bursátil y un determinado modelo de conducta racional, elegido (representativo en la toma de decisiones de los inversionistas, este estudio buscó desarrollar a partir del modelo CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model, de precificación en portfolios, cuyas relaciones entre componentes se traducen por el Beta, los cuestionamientos que advienen con el modelo APT (Arbitrage Pricing Theory. Se dedica entonces a la evolución de las teorías de la evaluaci

  5. Depression prevalence in Intensive Care Unit nursing workers: a study at hospitals in a northwestern city of São Paulo State Prevalencia de depresión en trabajadores de enfermería de Unidades de Terapia Intensiva: estudio en hospitales de una ciudad del noroeste del Estado de Sao Paulo Prevalência de depressão em trabalhadores de enfermagem de Unidade de Terapia Intensiva: estudo em hospitais de uma cidade do noroeste do Estado São Paulo

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    Divane de Vargas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of depression in nursing staff working in Intensive Care Units of hospitals from a city in Northwestern São Paulo State - Brazil, examining its association with participants' socio-demographic characteristics. The Beck Depression Inventory was applied to a sample of 67 nursing workers from three general hospitals, showing an 28.4% prevalence of depression. The analysis based on the multiple model showed a significant association between depression and marital status (OR=1.52, night work (OR=1.46 and double shifts (OR=2.11. Also, there were significant percentages of workers who reported discouragement, sadness and hopelessness. In conclusion, the prevalence of depression is significant and more attention should be paid to this problem workers at these units face. Further studies are needed in the attempt to broaden knowledge on the subject, which can support strategies to guarantee attention to ICU nursing workers' physical and mental health needs.Este estudio fue realizado con el objetivo de estimar la prevalencia de depresión, en trabajadores de enfermería de Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI de hospitales de una ciudad del Noroeste del estado de Sao Paulo, analizando su asociación con las características sociodemográficas de los participantes. Se aplicó el Inventario de Depresión de Beck a una muestra de 67 trabajadores de enfermería de tres hospitales generales; se observó una prevalencia de 28,4% de depresión. El análisis por el modelo múltiple demostró asociación significativa entre depresión y estado civil (OR=1,52, trabajo nocturno (OR=1,46 y doble jornada (OR=2,11, fueron significativos también los porcentajes de trabajadores que relataron desanimo, tristeza y desesperanza. Se concluye que es significativa la prevalencia de depresión y que se debe dar mayor atención a ese problema enfrentado por los trabajadores de esas unidades. Se sugiere la realización de otros estudios

  6. Methods for Simultaneous Evaluation of Productivity, Adaptability and Genotypic Stability in Eucalyptus grandis Progeny Trials in the State of Sao Paulo Avaliação Simultânea de Produtividade, Adaptabilidade e Estabilidade Genotípica de Eucalyptus grandis em Distintos Ambientes do Estado de São Paulo

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    José Elidney Pinto Júnior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The estimated Harmonic Mean for Genetic Values (MHVG, Relative Performance of Genetic Values (PRVG and the Harmonic Mean of Relative Performance of Genetic Values (MHPRVG were used as measures to provide and facilitate the interpretation of genotypic stability and adaptability of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. The different criteria were applied as alternatives to the simulation of selection for productivity, stability, adaptability, as well as for the joint value of these attributes together. The estimates were generated by using the mixed model, assuming genetic effects to be random. The software SELEGEN-REML/BLUP was used to evaluate progeny trials and to estimate statistical parameters. The best trees to be used in seedling and clonal orchards were identified. Fifty three half-sib families from three Australian provenances were tested in the municipalities of Mogi Guaçu, Boa Esperança do Sul and Caçapava, in the State of São Paulo. Compact family blocks designs were used, involving variable numbers of replicates, with six-trees linear plots, in a 3 x 2 m spacing. Two types of data transformation were tried in order to evaluate their efficiency in the reduction of the genetic, environmental and phenotypic variances. MHVG, PRVG and MHPRVG statistics proved to be useful in simulations for the selection of individuals with the attributes considered, providing options for choosing strategies and criteria by considering different values for the estimated genetic gains. The joint analysis of experiments in different locations confirmed that substantial gains can be obtained in DBH through individual selection based on their genetic values. This can be achieved by either thinning the trial, which leads to the formation of a seedling seed orchard or vegetative propagation of the best individuals, in order to establish a clonal seed orchard. The genetic correlation between locations indicated that a

  7. Eesti keset Vilniust / Andres Kurg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurg, Andres, 1975-

    1998-01-01

    Eesti saatkond Vilniuses. Saatkonnahoone arhitektuurivõistluse võitsid ja hoone projekteerisid arhitektuuribüroo Kolm Pluss Üks arhitektid Markus Kaasik, Andres Ojari, Inga Raukas, Ilmar Valdur. Maja valmis 1998. a. veebruaris. Ehitas Merko Ehitus. Arhitektuurist, sisekujundusest. Võrdlus shveitslaste Herzogi ja de Meuroni ning Peter Zumthori loominguga.

  8. Suursaadik Andres Talvik : Prantsusmaa ei ole euroliidu laienemise pooldaja / Andres Talvik ; interv. Marianne Mikko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talvik, Andres, 1947-

    2002-01-01

    Eesti suursaadik Prantsusmaal Andres Talvik Prantsusmaa presidendivalimistest, paremäärmuslase Jean-Marie Le Peni pääsemisest selle II vooru, prantslaste vastuseisust EL-i laienemisele, Prantsuse-Saksa suhetest. Andres Talviku elulooandmeid

  9. FEARS AND THE REALITY OF THE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN SÃO PAULO CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Teruo Kawamoto Júnior; Alexander M. C. de Albuquerque; Victor Marcel Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Brazil is known worldwide as one of the countries with large numbers of people with entrepreneurial profile. São Paulo, for its population concentration, has the highest number of people with this profile. The objective of this study is to quantify the opinion of the population of 39 cities in the state of Sao Paulo regarding their main fears and difficulties when considering opening their own businesses or after starting it. In order to reach the objective, we prepared a questionnaire based ...

  10. The establishment of bonds between professional and patient in TB treatment: the performance of primary health care services in a city in the interior of São Paulo Vínculo entre profesional y enfermo en el tratamiento de la tuberculosis: desempeño de la atención básica en un municipio del estado de Sao Paulo Vínculo profissional/doente no tratamento da tuberculose: desempenho da atenção básica em município do interior paulista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amélia Zanon Ponce

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the performance of health care services implementing TB control actions in relation to the establishment of bonds between health professionals and patients in São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil from the perspective of patients, health professionals, and managers. A total of 108 patients, 37 health professionals and 15 managers were interviewed through a questionnaire containing 10 indicators of bond-establishment based on the instruments of the Primary Care Assessment Tool, adapted to evaluate tuberculosis control in Brazil. The three groups of actors considered the establishment of bonds satisfactory, though opinions of patients and managers differed in almost all indicators. This fact indicates that the view of managers is still predominantly focused on bureaucratic and administrative aspects, which shows the need for managers to integrate more management and care actions.El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el desempeño de los servicios de salud que realizan acciones de control de la TB relacionado al vínculo entre el profesional y el enfermo, en el municipio de Sao José del Rio Preto, en Sao Paulo, en la percepción de enfermos, profesionales de la salud y gestores. Fueron entrevistados 108 enfermos, 37 profesionales y 15 gestores utilizando un cuestionario elaborado con 10 indicadores para la dimensión vínculo construidos con base en el Primary Care Asesment Tool, adaptado para evaluar de la atención a la tuberculosis en Brasil. El vínculo fue evaluado como satisfactorio por los tres actores, entre tanto hubo variabilidad entre las opiniones de los enfermos y los gestores en casi todos los indicadores, lo que permite inferir que la visión de los gestores todavía está orientada predominantemente por los aspectos burocrático/administrativos, necesitando que estos integren más las acciones gerenciales y asistenciales.O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o desempenho dos serviços de saúde que realizam ações de

  11. Building organic strategies: actions to promote organic agriculture in São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Maria Celia M.; Ramos, Soraia F.; Monteiro, Ana Victoria V.M.; Sampaio, Renata M.; Otani, Malimiria N.; Saes, Maria Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Authors show recent evolution and future trends in organic food in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Using the netchain approach, a Workshop was carried out in order to update the last ten years of achievements, build bridges among different actors, sectors and strategies, besides defining specific guidelines to NGOs, private and public sectors regarding the development of organic agriculture in the state.

  12. Introdução de alimentos complementares e sua relação com variáveis demográficas e socioeconômicas, em crianças no primeiro ano de vida, nascidas em Hospital Universitário no município de São Paulo Introduction of complementary foods and its relation with demographic and socioeconomic variables during the first year of life of children born in a University Hospital in the city of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Gabriela Nascimento Simon

    2003-04-01

    of Sao Paulo was studied. The age of introduction of foods to the infants was verified through a form that mothers filled out every day with the foods offered to their children, until the end of the follow-up. The introduction of foods was described using the Kaplan & Meier life table analysis. The association between age of introduction of foods and independents variables was analyzed by using Cox's multivariate analysis model. RESULTS: The median age of introduction of water or tea, milk, fruits, greens and vegetables, cereals and tubercles was less than six months. Statistically significant associations between mother's schooling, family income, working conditions of the mother and supplementary foods introduction were observed. CONCLUSION: There was an early introduction of the water or tea and non-breast milk. In addition to family income and mother's working conditions, mother's schooling seems to be the variable that most influenced the introduction of supplementary foods.

  13. A velhice e a violência nos jornais de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrina Côrte

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa objetivou verificar quais as categorias sobre a velhice eram destaques nas capas e editorias dos jornais paulistas. Os dados foram categorizados e tabulados a partir de recortes de notícias dos jornais Folha de São Paulo (FSP, Jornal da Tarde (JT, Valor Econômico (VE e O Estado de São Paulo (OESP publicadas nos anos de 2004 e 2005. Observou-se que a valorização apresentou o maior número de imagens na primeira página e baixo percentual de manchetes textuais, o que demonstra que no caso a própria imagem fala de si. Palavras-chave: Velhice; Violência; Jornais ABSTRAC: This research aimed at determining which old age categories were featured on the covers and editorials of newspapers from Sao Paulo. Data from news clippings from Folha de Sao Paulo (FSP, Jornal da Tarde (JT, Valor Economico (EV and O Estado de Sao Paulo (OESP newspapers published in 2004 and 2005 were categorized and tabulated. It has been noticed that valuation was given the highest number of images on the front page and a low percentage of headline text, which shows that, this case, the image speaks for itself. Keywords: Old age; Violence; Newspapers

  14. Vulkaner andre steder i Solsystemet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Henning

    2007-01-01

    planetens overflade måske er gloende varm? Vulkanerne andre steder i Solsystemet overgår på mange måder dem på Jorden. Venus er den planet i solsystemet, der har flest vulkaner, Mars har de største og højeste vulkaner, asteroiden Vesta har de ældste, og Jupiters måne Io har de mest aktive vulkaner i......Der er vulkaner mange andre steder end på Jorden. De indre fire jordlignende planeter har, ligesom mange af solsystemets måner og asteroider, vulkaner, der dog for de flestes vedkommende er udslukte for mange hundrede millioner år siden. Der er direkte observeret vulkanudbrud på Jorden og på...... Jupiters måne, Io, og man regner man med at Venus og formentlig også Mars stadig er vulkansk aktive. Ved at rette blikket ud i solsystemet har vi  mulighed for at studere vulkansk aktivitet under helt anderledes betingelser end her på Jorden. Hvad sker der f.eks., hvis tyngdekraften er svagere, eller...

  15. Cafe Lyon = Cafe Lyon / Andres Labi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Labi, Andres, 1977-

    2013-01-01

    Cafe Lyon (Meistri 22, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Autorid: Janno Roos, Andres Labi, Kristel Jakobson (Ruumilabor). Prantsuse Lütseumi direktori Lauri Leesi arvamus. Disainibüroo Ruumilabor lühitutvustus

  16. Investigação sobre a satisfação do usuário dos serviços prestados pelo Metrô de São Paulo: um estudo exploratório, descritivo e ilustrativo com a utilização do modelo de equações estruturais User satisfaction with the Metro of Sao Paulo: an exploratory, descriptive and illustrative study using structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Castilho Ferreira da Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi discutir a aplicabilidade da metodologia do American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI a situações da realidade brasileira, com base no modelo de equações estruturais. Para tanto, foi realizada uma verificação empírica do comportamento do modelo, aplicando-o à amostra de dados colhida entre usuários dos serviços prestados pela Companhia do Metropolitano de São Paulo - Metrô. Os resultados confirmaram apenas em parte as relações do modelo, sugerindo, principalmente, que para aumentar sua aplicabilidade a situações similares a esta que foi estudada é imprescindível que o conceito de Expectativa e sua relação com as demais variáveis latentes do modelo sejam revistos. O impacto da expectativa nas demais variáveis latentes do modelo é o ponto mais destoante daquele proposto por Fornell, já que nenhum coeficiente estrutural suficientemente relevante foi obtido. Esses resultados, de forma geral, corroboram outras experimentações empíricas envolvendo tal modelo que demonstraram que a Satisfação do Consumidor está muito mais orientada para a Qualidade e para o Valor do que para a Expectativa. A pesquisa ainda calculou um escore global de satisfação do consumidor, que poderá ser comparado a outros escores obtidos entre usuários de serviços afins.The applicability in Brazil of the American Customer Satisfaction Index Model using the Structural Equation Modeling technique was discussed. An empirical survey was made of model behavior with data from those using the "Companhia do Metropolitano de São Paulo" - Metro. Results confirmed, in part, the associations of the Model suggesting however that the concept of customer expectations and the relation to other latent variables of the Model must be revised for better results. The impact of this concept on other latent Model variables differed the most from that proposed by Fornell because no sufficiently relevant structural coefficient was obtained

  17. LibKiSAO: a Java library for Querying KiSAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukova Anna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kinetic Simulation Algorithm Ontology (KiSAO supplies information about existing algorithms available for the simulation of Systems Biology models, their characteristics, parameters and inter-relationships. KiSAO enables the unambiguous identification of algorithms from simulation descriptions. Information about analogous methods having similar characteristics and about algorithm parameters incorporated into KiSAO is desirable for simulation tools. To retrieve this information programmatically an application programming interface (API for KiSAO is needed. Findings We developed libKiSAO, a Java library to enable querying of the KiSA Ontology. It implements methods to retrieve information about simulation algorithms stored in KiSAO, their characteristics and parameters, and methods to query the algorithm hierarchy and search for similar algorithms providing comparable results for the same simulation set-up. Using libKiSAO, simulation tools can make logical inferences based on this knowledge and choose the most appropriate algorithm to perform a simulation. LibKiSAO also enables simulation tools to handle a wider range of simulation descriptions by determining which of the available methods are similar and can be used instead of the one indicated in the simulation description if that one is not implemented. Conclusions LibKiSAO enables Java applications to easily access information about simulation algorithms, their characteristics and parameters stored in the OWL-encoded Kinetic Simulation Algorithm Ontology. LibKiSAO can be used by simulation description editors and simulation tools to improve reproducibility of computational simulation tasks and facilitate model re-use.

  18. Prevalence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in the urban area neighboring a petrochemical complex and a control area in Sao Paulo, Brazil Prevalência de tireoidite de Hashimoto na população vicinal ao Pólo Petroquímico de Capuava (área Polo e área controle (São Bernardo Campo na região metropolitana da grande São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalinda Y. A. Camargo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in 2 urban areas of metropolitan São Paulo (Brazil: Polo Area neighboring a large petrochemical complex and São Bernardo Campo Area (control area. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Subjects were randomly included from the adult population (20 to 70 years of age of both genders (women 80%, men 20% who voluntarily agreed to participate. From the Polo Area, in the vicinity of a large petrochemical industrial complex, 409 subjects were included; from the control area (São Bernardo Campo Area 420 individuals were included. All subjects were clinically examined, and a detailed record of past thyroid illness and medications was obtained. Ultrasonographic studies were performed using a portable GE Medical Systems apparatus. Blood samples were obtained for free T4, serum TSH, and serum anti-thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies. Urine specimens were collected in Monovette syringes for assaying iodine content. Salt samples were collected at households, and the iodine content was measured. RESULTS: Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis was diagnosed both echographically (marked hypoechogenicity and immunologically (presence of autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase. In the Polo Area, 15.6% of the examined population had chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, and in the control area (São Bernardo Campo Area, 19.5% of the population had evidence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (P > 0.057, not significant. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 4.9% in the Polo Area and 8.3% in the São Bernardo Campo Area (P = 0.0461 significant. Taking the 2 populations together, 6.6% had hypothyroidism (about one third of these patients were on L-T4 treatment. The mean thyroid volume was 11.2 mL. Domestic salt had a normal concentration of iodine (35.5 + 6.61 mg/kg. Urinary excretion of iodine was above 300 µg Iodine/L in 58.5% of the total population. CONCLUSION: The high iodine intake (above 300 µg Iodine/L of urine that

  19. A Study of Consumer Behavior on Recycling of Fluorescent Lamps in São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro M. Laruccia; Jarbas Vargas Nascimento; Gilmar Jonas Deghi; Mamerto Granja Garcia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to understand consumer behavior on the disposal of fluorescent lamps used in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The research discusses the consumer's decision on recycling, environmental aspects of disposal of fluorescent lamps and reverse logistics. Regarding methodology procedures we used a survey on the basis of convenience, with a sample of 240 people. As a result, most people discard fluorescent lamps in the organic waste and considering the right place for disposal the se...

  20. A Study of Consumer Behavior on Recycling of Fluorescent Lamps in S?o Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Maia Laruccia; Jarbas Vargas Nascimento; Gilmar Jonas Deghi; Mamerto Granja Garcia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to understand consumer behavior on the disposal of fluorescent lamps used in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The research discusses the consumer's decision on recycling, environmental aspects of disposal of fluorescent lamps and reverse logistics. Regarding methodology procedures we used a survey on the basis of convenience, with a sample of 240 people. As a result, most people discard fluorescent lamps in the organic waste and considering the right place for disposal the se...

  1. Andres Kollist teadusraamatukogude nõukogu esimeheks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    8. sept. 2009 valis teadusraamatukogude nõukogu oma uueks esimeheks Tallinna Ülikooli Akadeemilise Raamatukogu direktori Andres Kollisti, senine nõukogu esimees Martin Hallik astus kohalt tagasi ning pühendus ELNET Konsortsiumi juhatuse esimehena raamatukogude avalike huvide eest seismisele

  2. André Rousset 1930-2001

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    André Rousset in 1962 , seen working on BP3, one of the earlier bubble chambers, with André Lagarrigue (standing). André Rousset died on 1 July at the age of 70. For those who lived through the Gargamelle epic, his name is linked with the success of the great bubble chamber that made possible the 1973 discovery of neutral currents. A graduate of Paris's famous Ecole Polytechnique which produced so many great names in particle physics, André Rousset, a native of southern France, joined Louis Leprince-Ringuet's famous laboratory at the Polytechnique in 1954. Among other topics, Rousset played a part in the cosmic ray experiments at the Pic du Midi in the Pyrénées and designed heavy liquid bubble chambers. A Professor at the Ecole des Mines from 1960 onwards, he became deputy director of Louis Leprince-Ringuet's laboratory in 1964. In 1969 he came to CERN where, logically, he headed the TCL group in charge of heavy liquid bubble chambers. In thi...

  3. André Petermann (1922-2011)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The CERN theory community mourns the loss of André Petermann, one of the first members of the Theory Division, who passed away last August in his 89th year. He pioneered, together with his advisor Stueckelberg, the renormalization group, one of the fundamental ideas in quantum field theory that underlies the modern theory of phase transitions as well as asymptotic freedom and the quest for unification of all the particle interactions.   André was among the very first staff members of CERN, which at the beginning was a small group of theorists at the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, headed by Bohr himself.  When the group moved to Geneva, they first occupied a set of barracks in Cointrin, next to the airport, before moving to the University of Geneva, and then finally settling on the Meyrin site. André was our last direct contact with our nomadic origins. The importance of André’s early work on the renormalization group was recogn...

  4. Mobbing, sosiale medier - og oss andre

    OpenAIRE

    Gjesvik, Kalle

    2013-01-01

    Vi leser stadig i avisene om ungdom som blir hetset på forskjellige måter på sosiale media – oftest er Facebook nevnt, men også andre. Dessuten kan en del oppleve ganske traumatiske situasjoner knyttet til sex-relaterte bilder.

  5. Eesti fond rahastab Vene infotehnoloogiat / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2006-01-01

    Martinson Trigon Venture Partners (MTVP) loob uue tarkvarainvesteeringute fondi, mis viib endise NSVL-i alale kuni 780 miljonit krooni, fond võtab sihiks kümmekond uut ettevõtet. MTVP esimese fondi investeeringutest. Fondide juhi Andres Susi selgitusi. Lisa: Martinson Trigon Venture Partners osalusega firmad; Vt. samas: Moskvas pole raha ja geeniused kohtunud

  6. Distribution of natural gas: introduction of the interruptible segment in Sao Paulo, Brazil; Distribuicao de gas natural canalizado: introducao do segmento interruptivel em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Claudio Paiva de [Agencia Reguladora de Saneamento e Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (ARSESP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The principal objective of this paper is the better knowledge and evaluation of the natural gas distribution network interruptible branch. This new service can be appropriate for thermal power generation on flexible dispatch mode, as 'take or pay' contracts surplus jobs. The paper indicates no regulatory restraints in an interruptible network implantation and one can guess that the inexistence of contracts for this service resembles only lack of conjunctural opportunities for this job applications. These difficulties appear both in the supply and distribution branches of the gas business, which prefer flat contracts. The final conclusion is interruptible contracts can be an improvement on the distribution business and certainly can accommodate a suitable demand and supply volumes in the long-term gas market balance. (author)

  7. Energy Balance of the Sao Paulo State -1997. Base year 1996; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo - 1997. Ano base 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This energy balance of the Santa Catarina State presents the following main topics that can be outstanding: panorama of the energy matrix; supply and demand of energy by source 1983-1996; energy consumption by sector 1983/1996; socio-economic aspects; resources and reserves energy; and balance of the transformation centers 1984/1996.

  8. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2006. Calendar year 2005; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo 2006. Ano base 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document presents an abstract of the analyzed period as follows: supply and demand of the energy by source; energy consumption by sector; external commerce of energy; the balances of the transformation centers; energy and social economy; energy resources and reserves. The annexes show the regional and historical aspects; the installed capacity; the CO{sub 2} emissions; the general structure of the balance; the information treatment; conversion factors and the consolidated energy balance.

  9. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2007. Calendar year 2006; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo 2007. Ano base 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document presents an abstract of the analyzed period as follows: supply and demand of the energy by source; energy consumption by sector; external commerce of energy; balances of the transformation centers; energy and social economy; energy resources and reserves. The annexes show the regional and historical aspects, the installed capacity, the CO{sub 2} emissions, the general structure of the balance, the information treatment, the conversion factors and the consolidated energy balance.

  10. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2005. Calendar year 2004; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo 2005. Ano base 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document presents an abstract of the analyzed period as follows: supply and demand of the energy by source; energy consumption by sector; external commerce of energy; the balances of the transformation centers; energy and social economy; energy resources and reserves. The annexes show the regional and historical aspects; the installed capacity; de CO{sub 2} emissions; the general structure of the balance; the information treatment; conversion factors and the consolidated energy balances.

  11. Seguimento do enfermeiro graduado na Escola de Enfermagem da USP: sua inserção em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Following up of the nurses graduated at the school of nursing of the University of Sao Paulo: their insertion in Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Hatsuye Kitahara

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado com os objetivos de identificar as atividades desenvolvidas após a formatura pelos enfermeiros graduados na Escola de Enfermagem da SP (EEUSP e caracterizar a inserção destes enfermeiros em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTIs no que se refere a ter sido ou não sua primeira área de atuação, à experiência anterior de trabalho em UTI, ao treinamento inicial específico e às dificuldades enfrentadas para assumir as atividades nessas Unidades. A população foi composta pelos egressos da EEUSP nos anos de 1991 a 1995. Uma listagem dos alunos formados no período, com os respectivos endereços e telefones, foi obtida junto à Seção de Graduação. Foi utilizado um questionário para a coleta de dados. Dentre os 235 questionários enviados, 117 (49,8% retornaram com resposta. Quanto as atividades após a formatura, 90,5% informaram estar exercendo a profissão; o hospital ,foi o local de trabalho mais indicado, totalizando 76,2% das respostas. Em todos os anos do período estudado, um contingente significativo de enfermeiros foi absorvido nas UTls. Dos 117 respondentes, 55 (47,0% informaram que trabalham ou trabalharam em UTI, sendo que para 54,5% deles, este foi o primeiro emprego. A maioria (52,8% não tinha experiência de trabalho anterior em UTI. Apesar de 64,1% dos enfermeiros terem recebido treinamento inicial específico, foram mencionadas dificuldades para assumir as atividades na UTI, dentre as quais destacaram-se: a falta de destreza manual e de conhecimento teórico (45,4%, o manuseio de equipamentos (25,8% e o relacionamento com as equipes de enfermagem. e multiprofissional (8,2%.The purposes of this research was to identify the activities developed by the nurses after undergraduation course at the School of Nursing of the University of São Paulo and to characterize their insertion in Intensive Care Units (ICUs, in relation to have been or not their first area of job, their previous experience in ICU

  12. First description of necrosis in leaves and pseudo-bulbs of Oncidium orchids caused by Burkholderia gladioli in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A necrosis of orchid leaves and pseudobulbs was observed in a commercial orchid nursery in Mogi das Cruzes, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The symptoms were water-soaked, brown lesions that can develop into large areas of necrosis that extend throughout the entire plant, ultimately causing death. Bacteria were...

  13. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  14. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by University of São Paulo

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On 03/07/2013, we will have a conference to students from the University of São Paulo (USP), part of the Post Graduation Program in Interdisciplinary Science Education. This program comprises the following areas: Teaching of Physics, Teaching of Chemistry and Teaching of Biology. The event will be enriched by a Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Detector at CERN/Switzerland. The attendees to the virtual tour are enrolled on the course "Complements of Electromagnetism", from the Teaching of Physics area. A total of 21 students are expected, most of them are high school teachers in public and private schools in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. - See more at: http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2013/SaoPaulo2013.html

  15. Andres Sööt tegi filmi esimaalijast

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Kolmapäeval Tallinnas Rüütelkonna hoones ja reedel Tartu Kirjandusmajas esitleb Andres Sööt oma dokumentaalfilmi maalikunstnik Konrad Mägist (1878-1925) "Konrad Mägi" : stsenarist Maie Raitar : režissöör ja operaator Andres Sööt : 2001

  16. Andres Tolts: "Jutud maalikunsti surmast on enneaegsed" / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-

    2009-01-01

    9. novembril anti Kadrioru Kunstimuuseumis pidulikult Andres Toltsile üle 2009. aasta Konrad Mäe preemia, millega kaasneb Enn Johannese kujundatud medal ja 50000 krooni. Žürii tunnustas Andres Toltsi pikaajalist tegevust esteetilise suuna viljelemisel eesti maalikunstis

  17. GOVERNANÇA DA RESERVA DA BIOSFERA DO CINTURÃO VERDE DA CIDADE DE SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Costa Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available They are examining the management of the Biosphere Reserve of the Green Belt city of Sao Paulo, Heritage of Humanity and the Man and the Biosphere Program, UNESCO, from the consideration of two levels of management: international, through UNESCO, and regional levels, through the State Department of Environment of the State of Sao Paulo. To this end, discussions on whether what is governance, defined as the meeting of various subjects in a legitimate forum and structure for a decision upheld by the state, to investigate how it develops in the reserve in question. The author was based on the documentation on the establishment and institutionalization of the reserve and on interviews with experts responsible for their management.

  18. FACTORS IMPORTANT FOR THE FEELING OF HAPPINESS OF THE POPULATION OF THE STATE OF SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO AUGUSTO RODRIGUES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the feeling of happiness, not as a complex trait and subjective, but the reported happiness, relating it to socioeconomic factors. For this, we used the multiple logistic regression model from a data set obtained from a survey in the population over 16 years of the State of Sao Paulo. Through a random sample of 300 individuals found that the variables of age and state of residence are jointly associated with the feeling of happiness of Sao Paulo. Another result has been observed that individuals with less than 40 years and home ownership is 96.4% chance of considering happy, while this percentage reaches about 65% for individuals over 60 years and without proper housing.

  19. Otomi de San Andres Cuexcontitlan, Estado de Mexico (Otomi of San Andres Cuexcontitlan, State of Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastra, Yolanda

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Otomi, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Andres Cuexcontitlan, in the state of Mexico. The objective of collecting such a representative…

  20. Health physics routine at the Instituto de Energia Atomica, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The routine health physics work at the IEAR-1 reactor and the modifications that are being made, are described. The Personal Dosimetry Laboratory, Waste Disposal and Decontamination Laboratory, Shielding Calculation Section, Dosimetry Laboratory, Radioactive Source and Instrumentation Calibration, are presented. Methods of calibration of radioactive sources and instrumentation are also presented

  1. Evaluation of radioactive wastes in Instituto de Energia Atomica (Sao Paulo-Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of present and future production of radioactive waste in several departments of the Instituto de Energia Atomica has been done. Taking into account this evaluation, the criteria for disposal and convenient treatment technique have been studied. The most critical form of liquid radioactive waste is that of 131I processing because high concentration of radiotellurium always accompanies this form of waste. Ion exchange and precipitation techniques were used to study this waste processing. Two kinds of resins were used by the ion exchange method: the strong anionic and the stron cationic. Quantitative tellurium retention has not been attained by the ion exchange method using either resins. The technique of precipitation of radioactive tellurium as ammonium tellurate was also used, allowing us to obtain more than 99% of tellurium removal. The remaining radioactive wastes can be eliminated using the storage for decay criteria with further release to the sewers in the case of liquids and burial in the case of solids. (Author)

  2. ANTIRABIES VACCINATION IN CATTLE AND HORSES OF RURAL AREA IN BOTUCATU, SAO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Edenilson Miranda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a viral disease that can affect all mammals and is transmitted primarily by the saliva of infected vampire bats. It is important that animals are immunized with rabies vaccine, although this is not mandatory in farmed animals. This study aimed to assess the frequency of rabies vaccination in animals from farms in Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Farmers were interviewed from a questionnaire. Sixty-five percent of the 224 visited farms sighted bats and 27% reported attacks over the herd. Fifty percent of owners inoculated animals while another 45% and 5% did not inoculate or did not answer the questionnaire, respectively. It was observed that in cities with fewer attacks, the animals were immunized. In 112 properties, 10,148 animals were vaccinated (mean = 91 animals / property, particularly those of intensive farming. Most did not justify why they did not vaccinate their animals. It was concluded that despite the presence of bats in the region and the occurrence of attacks on animals there is little concern and prevention of rabies. Lack of guidance and / or information on the subject can be one of the main reasons for non-vaccination of horses and cattle in Botucatu region. Thus, it is emphasized the importance of professional performance in Agribusiness, in guiding farmers on the necessary preventive measures to ensure success in herd through health and animal welfare.

  3. Studies of osteoporosis in urban residents of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using isotope related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazilians as other communities are also predisposed to osteoporosis; even though the condition of diet may vary, the exposure to sun light all year long may introduce a factor of variability in the frequency and presentation of bone metabolic disturbances. Studies have already shown decreased incidence of hip fracture in the Brazilian elders. Normal variation of bone mineral density has already been determined in selected groups of individuals in large cities, but without any reference to diet or exposure to sun. The aim of this study is to evaluate bone mineral density as well as define the peak of bone mass in a normal urban population from 5 to 50 year old (90 females and 90 males), correlating these data with nutritional intake, sun exposure and physical activity. As a complement to this project, bone biopsies will be taken from normal individuals who died in automobile accidents and elements like Ca, Zn, K, Na, Sr, Fe, Cl will be evaluated. (author)

  4. Occupational radiation protection at the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work shows some activities developed by the Division for Radiation Protection of the Department for Nuclear Security, responsible for occupational and environmental radiological protection. The Division for Radiation Protection at CTMSP controls access in areas where radioactive materials are handled, by means of procedures and implementing preventive and corrective programs of radioprotection. The protective actions include the access control in restricted areas and the monitoring of radiation into the environment and indoor. The corrective activities include the personal monitoring and potential intakes by workers, through thermoluminescent dosimeters and 'in vivo' and 'in vitro' measurements, after access in restricted areas. Finally, this Division have demonstrated special attention in relation to effective dose to member of the public, applying appropriate procedures in protection and prevention of accidents involving release of radioactive substances into the environment in the form of gaseous and liquid radioactive effluents and radioactive wastes. (author)

  5. New aerophytic morphospecies of Nostoc (Cyanobacteria) from Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sant Anna, C. L.; Azevedo, M. T. P.; Branco, L.H.Z.; Komárek, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2007), s. 95-101. ISSN 0073-2877 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005308; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Nostoc * new troical morphospecies * aerophytic habitats Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  6. Environmental radiometric control at the vicinity of the Instituto de Energia Atomica, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimized derived limits (ODL) for gaseous and liquid wastes released to the environment of Instituto de Energia Atomica (IEA) following the ICRP's recommendations were determined. Techniques for routine environmental monitoring were implanted in order to ensure that these limits be respected. The treatment of liquid wastes which gives rise to the optimized discharge resulted from cost-benefit analysis, is the elimination of medium half-lived radioisotopes in the soil. The ODL value for iodine-131 is 50mCi/y and 7,5 Ci/y for gaseous and liquid effluents, respectively. The ODL values for other radionuclides of radiosanitary interest in liquid waste also determined. The most appropriate environmental monitoring techniques for IEA were studied and parameters of radioactive material dilution in the atmosphere and water courses were determined. Sample collection points were chosen to obtain the most representative data for the evaluation of radioactive dose in the critical group and the detriment produced in the population. Detection system and methods were calibrated and standardized for the determination of radionuclides in wastes released from IEA in order to evaluate their concentrations in the main transference pathways. (Author)

  7. Urban informality and democratisation in Sao Paulo: the sinous road to citizenship

    OpenAIRE

    Rocco, R.C.; Ballegooien, J.

    2015-01-01

    There has been a renewed interest in informal urbanization among urban thinkers in the last decades. In their contributions to the discourse on urban informality, we often find an overvaluation of informality’s positive aspects. The underlying argument is that governments and planners should ‘learn’ from informal settlements in the global south, as informal settlements represent a more authentic, ‘honest’ and politically desirable form of urban development. Other authors identify intrinsic fo...

  8. Study on natural radionuclide activities in meat samples consumed in Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Taddei, Maria HelenaT. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: mychelle@cnen.gov.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Consumption of food is usually the most important route by which natural and artificial radionuclides can enter the human body. An assessment of radionuclide levels in different foods and diets is therefore important to estimate the intake of these radionuclides by man. The contamination by radionuclides can occur via the food chain (soil, root, plant and animal), with emphasis to the long half-life radionuclides, which can also have their transfer through the animal meat. The inclusion of meat in human nutrition is important because it is an excellent source of high quality protein, nutrient related to construction and cell regeneration. This work aims the determination of natural radionuclides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 228}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb) in meat samples. Five groups of samples were analyzed, such as cattle meat (beef), fish, pork, poultry, and processed meat, after radiochemical separation followed by alpha or alpha beta spectrophotometry, and total count quantification. The determination of these radionuclides is very important because they are products of the natural decay series of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, being easily found in meat samples. (author)

  9. Microstructural, compositional and mechanical properties of the archaeological indigenous ceramics of Caninhas, Sao Paulo,Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeological ceramics contain infinity of data about social and cultural indigenous site Caninhas/SP. The ceramics present a gradient of color (ochre to dark gray), when from the surface to the center of the piece, indicating compositional variability caused by inefficient sintering carried out by indigenous peoples. It was analyzed the composition phases by X-rays diffraction (XRD) and mapping by EDS, identifying the illite, quartz and lutecite phases (ochre region) and illite, quartz, hydrated alumina and lutecite phases (dark gray region). The results of EDS confirmed the stages identified by X-rays diffraction and suggesting the presence of roots and scrap of ceramics sintered in the composition of indigenous ceramics, when compared by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. Vickers hardness identified as fragile and heterogeneous are archaeological ceramics, reaching approximately 203 HV in the grains of silica and 16 HV in the ceramic matrix. (author)

  10. Evaluation of radiation protection conditions in dental offices in Bauru City, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out in order to evaluate the behaviour of 145 dentists, in their offices, as far as radiation protection in concerned. Every dental office was visited and the dentist filled out a form with questions regarding to radiation protection of patient, professional and dental assistant. The same visit exposure and processing conditions of intraoral films were checked and a no-screen film was exposed for late measurement of the diameter of x-ray bean. After data analysis it seems fair to conclude that exposure and processing conditions could be improved if the correct exposure and development times according to those suggested by their manufactures were employed. Another reasonable conclusion that could be drawn from the obtained data: the number of dental radiographs taken is small and so the probability of biological damage is not significant at the level of present knowledge. (author). 177 refs., 5 figs., 42 tabs

  11. Incineration facility for combustible solid and liquid radioactive wastes in IPEN-CNEN - Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for incinerating the combustible solid and liquid radioactive wastes was developed in order to achieve higher mass and volume reduction of the wastes generated at IPEN-CNEN/SP or received from other institutions. The radioactive wastes for incineration are: animal carcasses, ion-exchange resins, contaminated lubricant oils, cellulosic materials, plastics, etc. The optimization of the process was achieved by considering the following factors: selection of better construction and insulating material; dimensions; modular design of combustion chambers to increase burning capacity in future; applicability for various types of wastes; choise of gas cleaning system. The off-gas system utilizes dry treatment. The operation is designed to function with a negative pressure. (Author)

  12. Incineration facility for combustible solid and liquid radioactive wastes in IPEN-Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for incinerating combustible solid and liquid radioactive wastes was developed in order to achieve higher mass and volume reduction of the wastes generated at IPEN-CNEN/SP or received from other institutions. The radioactive wastes for incineration are: animal carcasses, ion-exchange resins, contaminated lubricant oils, cellulotic materials, plastics, etc. The process was optimized considering: selection of better construction and insulating materials; dimensions; modular design of combustion chambers to increase burning capacity in future; applicability for various types of wastes; choise of gas cleaning system. (Author)

  13. Determination of essential elements in formulas commercialized at the Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper intends to determine the concentration of elements, presents in the infant formulas, by using the Neutron Activation Analysis for verification if the quantity is not exceeding the toxicity limit, and if the concentration of each element is correct as presented on the label of each packaging

  14. Contribution to the microflora of chroococcalean cyanoprokaryotes in Sao Paulo State, Southeast Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Azevedo, M. T. P.; Sant'Anna, C. L.; Senna, P. A. C.; Komárek, Jiří; Komárková, Jaroslava

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2003), s. 285-295. ISSN 0073-2877 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : taxonomy * cyanoprokaryotes * Brazil ian new species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  15. Financial analysis of ELETROPAULO slump income program, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to present financial analysis of slump income program considering a Brazilian electric utility case study

  16. Studies of osteoporosis in urban residents of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using isotope related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poor bone mass is a major public health problem of worldwide concern. Obviously the main reason for this concern is the fact that the decreasing bone mass is directly related to bone fragility, osteoporosis and increased incidence of fractures affecting mainly elder people. The problems originated from the bone fractures involved areas as economy, social and scientific. Such is the importance of this problem that the Scientific Advisory Committee of the World Health Organization selected osteoporosis as one of the four priority research areas being developed by the Program for Research on Aging. The project on osteoporosis is a crossnational study which will try to explain the differences in hip fractures in countries around the world disclosing the risk and protective factors which will help developing etiologic hypotheses and planning specific preventive interventions. One of the primary objectives is to determine the age range over which peak bone mass (BMD) is maintained which is a valuable guide for plans of osteoporosis prevention. This project is aimed at defining the peak bone mass as well as the period it lasts before the non-nal decrease with aging

  17. Clean up strategies and results in Usin site in Sao Paulo City, Brazil - 59243

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: This paper presents the experience of the team of technicians and consultants from INB (Industrias Nucleares do Brazil SA) in activities related to environmental remediation of soils contaminated by radionuclides of natural series of uranium and thorium in the USIN unit (old mill Interlagos). In 2007 was elaborated a master plan for remediation the USIN site, after 6 months the plan was approved by CNEN, the nuclear regulatory agency in Brazil. Given the lack of a final deposit of radioactive residues in Brazil, the elaborate plan aimed to minimize the volume of radioactive waste final. A criterion was developed to fractionate the tailings at three levels. The waste level 1, with activity of 226Ra and 228Ra below 0.5 Bq/g and the effective dose of less than 1.0 mSv/yr, may remain in the area. The waste level 2, with activity of 226Ra and 228Ra than 0.5 Bq/g and individual effective dose exceeding 1,0 mSv/yr, but with total activity below 30 Bq/g may be disposed in municipal landfills. The waste level 3, with total activity above 30 Bq/g should be stored in steel drums of 200 liters and stored in a radioactive residues warehouse

  18. Study on natural radionuclide activities in meat samples consumed in Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumption of food is usually the most important route by which natural and artificial radionuclides can enter the human body. An assessment of radionuclide levels in different foods and diets is therefore important to estimate the intake of these radionuclides by man. The contamination by radionuclides can occur via the food chain (soil, root, plant and animal), with emphasis to the long half-life radionuclides, which can also have their transfer through the animal meat. The inclusion of meat in human nutrition is important because it is an excellent source of high quality protein, nutrient related to construction and cell regeneration. This work aims the determination of natural radionuclides (234U, 235U, 238U, 228Th, 230Th, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 210Pb) in meat samples. Five groups of samples were analyzed, such as cattle meat (beef), fish, pork, poultry, and processed meat, after radiochemical separation followed by alpha or alpha beta spectrophotometry, and total count quantification. The determination of these radionuclides is very important because they are products of the natural decay series of 238U and 232Th, being easily found in meat samples. (author)

  19. Elemental composition of herbal medicines sold over-the-counter in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil, the use of herbal medicines is very popular due to its immense flora, cultural aspects and to the popular belief that herbs, which are of natural origin, are safe and without undesirable side effects. Aside from that public interest in natural therapies, the use of herbal medicines has increased expressively due to the high cost of synthetic medicines. In this study, elemental compositions of herbal medicines from the species Ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, Centella asiatica, Mulberry and Aloe vera supplied by different suppliers were evaluated by neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, Zn and some lanthanides were determined in these samples. Comparisons made between the results indicated differences in their elemental contents depending on the plant species, origins of the samples and the age of the leaves. The results also showed that the herbal medicines contain elements such as Ca, Co, K, Fe, Mg and Zn known as essential to humans and for treatment and prevention of diseases. Toxic elements such as Hg, Cd and Cu were not detected. Elements As and Sb were detected in some samples but at very low concentrations at the μg kg-1 levels. Herbal medicine results were also compared to literature values. Biological certified reference material was analyzed for quality control of the analytical results. (author)

  20. Exposure to MTV's Global HIV Prevention Campaign in Kathmandu, Nepal; Sao Paulo, Brazil; and Dakar, Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke, Holly McClain; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane, Shailes; Sall, Yacine Ba; Wong, Emily

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 MTV aired a global media campaign, "Staying Alive," to promote HIV prevention among 16- to 25-year-olds. Skeptics believed that a global MTV campaign would reach only a small group of elite young people. MTV increased access to its campaign, however, by making all materials "rights free" to third-party (non-MTV) broadcasters. Over 789…

  1. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2007. Calendar year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents an abstract of the analyzed period as follows: supply and demand of the energy by source; energy consumption by sector; external commerce of energy; balances of the transformation centers; energy and social economy; energy resources and reserves. The annexes show the regional and historical aspects, the installed capacity, the CO2 emissions, the general structure of the balance, the information treatment, the conversion factors and the consolidated energy balance

  2. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2006. Calendar year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents an abstract of the analyzed period as follows: supply and demand of the energy by source; energy consumption by sector; external commerce of energy; the balances of the transformation centers; energy and social economy; energy resources and reserves. The annexes show the regional and historical aspects; the installed capacity; the CO2 emissions; the general structure of the balance; the information treatment; conversion factors and the consolidated energy balance

  3. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2005. Calendar year 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents an abstract of the analyzed period as follows: supply and demand of the energy by source; energy consumption by sector; external commerce of energy; the balances of the transformation centers; energy and social economy; energy resources and reserves. The annexes show the regional and historical aspects; the installed capacity; de CO2 emissions; the general structure of the balance; the information treatment; conversion factors and the consolidated energy balances

  4. Determination of natural Ra isotopes in samples from northern Sao Paulo state coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work aims the determination of natural Ra isotopes in coastal samples collected at Ubatuba region, with the application of the obtained inventories to estimate coastal water mixing rates and assess submarine groundwater discharge. Since these radionuclides are present in sea water in trace form (10''-16 g/ L), the methodology included pre-concentration of huge volumes of sea water using MnO2 coated acrylic fiber, leaching of these fibers in HCl media and co-precipitation of the long-lived Ra isotopes with BaSO4. Before long-lived radium isotopes determination, the isotopes 223Ra e 224Ra were quantified using a delayed coincidence system. The delayed coincidence system utilizes the difference in decay constants of the short-lived Po daughters of radon 219Rn and 220Rn to identify alpha particles derived from its decay products. The activities of 226Ra and 228Ra were determined by gross alpha and beta counting respectively, of the Ba(Ra)SO4 precipitate in low-level gas flow proportional detector. Considering the results obtained in 2002 and 2003, the coastal waters exchange time were estimated for Flamengo, Fortaleza and Mar Virado embayments using the activity concentrations of 223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra and 228Ra. (author)

  5. Energy Balance of the Sao Paulo State -1997. Base year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This energy balance of the Santa Catarina State presents the following main topics that can be outstanding: panorama of the energy matrix; supply and demand of energy by source 1983-1996; energy consumption by sector 1983/1996; socio-economic aspects; resources and reserves energy; and balance of the transformation centers 1984/1996

  6. Determination of chromium, iron, zinc and calcium contents in pastes commercialized at Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foods, in particular pastes, in the industrial manufacture process are in contact with equipment made of stainless steel, containing Cr, fe and Zn in their structures. The aim of this study is to verify Cr, Fe and Zn migration from the stainless steel equipment to the food during the industrial process. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to determine the concentrations of Cr, Fe, Zn and Ca in four brands of pastes. Only the migration of chromium was be observed. (author)

  7. Ethnicity and Cutaneous Melanoma in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz, Olinda C.; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Gonçalves, Fernanda T.; Francisco, Guilherme; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Sanches, José Antonio; Gattas, Gilka J. F.; Chammas, Roger; Eluf-Neto, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogenous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that th...

  8. Regiões homogêneas e tamanho de amostra para atributos do clima no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Homogeneous regions and sample size for attributes of the climate in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Newton Martin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram demarcar regiões homogêneas e estimar o número de anos de avaliações para as variáveis insolação, radiação solar global e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa para o Estado de São Paulo. Utilizaram-se dados da média mensal de insolação, radiação solar e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa de 18 locais do Estado de São Paulo. A homogeneidade das variâncias entre os meses do ano para os 18 locais (variabilidade temporal e a homogeneidade das variâncias entre os locais em cada mês (variabilidade espacial foram testadas pelo teste de homogeneidade de Bartlett. Estimou-se o tamanho de amostra para cada local durante o ano. Como resultados há variabilidade temporal e espacial para as estimativas de insolação, radiação solar e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa para os 18 municípios avaliados. Além disso, a variabilidade do tamanho de amostra para a insolação, radiação solar e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa depende do local e da época do ano no Estado de São Paulo.The purpose of this study was to separate homogeneous regions and to estimate the numbers of years necessary to evaluate the variables: sunshine, global solar radiation and photossintetically active radiation in Sao Paulo State. Monthly data of sunshine, solar radiation and photossintetically active radiation for 18 places in Sao Paulo State were used in the analysis. The homogeneity of the variances among the months for the 18 places (seasonal variability and the homogeneity of variances among places in each month (spatial variability were tested by the test of homogeneity of Bartlett. In addition, the sample size for each place was calculated during the year. The results show the existence of seasonal and spatial variability in the estimates of sunshine, solar radiation and photossintetically active radiation for the 18 cities evaluated in Sao Paulo State. Moreover, the variability of the sample size for sunshine

  9. Presentacio Monografic: Paulo Freire

    OpenAIRE

    Flecha, Ramón

    1989-01-01

    No em sembla que s'hagi de justificar el fet de destinar la monografia d'aquest primer número a la figura i l'obra de Paulo Freire. La inusual repercussió a tots els ambits que ha tingut la seva estada recent a Catalunya, on ha rebut el nomenament de Doctor Honoris Causa per la Universitat de Barcelona, ha posat en relleu novament la importancia i la singularitat d'aquest gran educador. Per una banda, no sembla aventurat de considerar-lo com el més destacat pedagog encara viu; en certa manera...

  10. Eesti Energia esindused = Eesti Energia branches / Andres Labi, Janno Roos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Labi, Andres, 1977-

    2013-01-01

    Eesti Energia klienditeeninduse kontorite sisekujundusest. Autorid: Janno Roos, Andres Labi ja Liisa Põime (Ruumilabor). Visuaalne identiteet: Tank.Teenuste disain: Urmas Pastarus. ESLi aastapreemiate žürii esimehe Kaido Kivi ning žürii liikme Raivo Puusepa arvamused

  11. Juubelitervitus (eks)avangardist Andres Toltsile / Eero Kangor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangor, Eero, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Andres Toltsi isikunäitused "Näitus" (kuraator Harry Liivrand) Tallinna Kunstihoones 25. oktoobrini, "Asjad" Hobusepea galeriis 30. sept.-12. oktoobrini ja sünnipäevanäitus Haus Galeriis 13. novembrini

  12. "Vettpidavad allikad" = "Watertight sources" / Janno Roos, Andres Labi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roos, Janno, 1976-

    2013-01-01

    Eesti Ajaloomuuseumis avatud näituse kujundasid Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor). Kuraator Krista Sarv. Graafiline disain: Identity. Eksponeeritud allveeuuringute käigus leitu. Arhitektuuriajaloolase Leele Välja arvamus

  13. Final San Andres National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on San Andres NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  14. Andrés Rivera, Escritor social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Waldegaray

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available La narrativa de Andrés Rivera hace de la historia el material de origen de la escritura y de su convicción política de izquierda el molde en el cual desde hace ya más de cuatro décadas su escritura adquiere forma.Acontecimiento histórico, circunstancia política, poseen en sus primeras novelas el valor de verdad política, de testimonio social. La convicción ideológica que sus libros exhiben se acompaña de una trayectoria literaria que, en su práctica inicial, fue confiada a la representación r...

  15. Acne vulgaris: prevalence and clinical forms in adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil *

    OpenAIRE

    Bagatin, Ediléia; Timpano, Denise Lourenço; Guadanhim, Lilia Ramos dos Santos; Nogueira, Vanessa Mussupapo Andraus; Terzian, Luiz Roberto; Steiner, Denise; Florez, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acne is a common disease in adolescents, but there are no epidemiological data for acne in Brazil. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence and degree of acne in adolescents from Sao Paulo and study socio-demographic factors, family history and lifestyle, associated with the disease. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 452 adolescents aged between 10 and 17 (mean=13.3 years), students from elementary and high school, examined by 3 independent evaluators. RESULTS 62.4% were female, 85.8...

  16. Andres Tolts 60 : omanäoliste vaikelude imeline maailm / Andres Tolts ; intervjueerinud Tiina Kolk ; kommenteerinud Jaan Elken

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tolts, Andres, 1949-2014

    2009-01-01

    Andres Toltsi näitused "Asjad" Hobusepea galeriis 12. oktoobrini, "Näitus" Tallinna Kunstihoones 25. oktoobrini, "Varane Tolts" Haus galeriis 13. novembrini. Pikemalt näitusest "Näitus", kuraator Harry Liivrand

  17. Paleomagnetism and geochronology of mafic dikes from the regions of Salvador, Olivenca and Uaua, Sao Francisco craton, Brazil: present stage of the USP/Princeton University collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the USP/Princeton University collaboration project is a paleomagnetic and geochronological study of Precambrian metamorphic units and anorogenic Proterozoic intrusives from selected areas in Brazil. The Instituto Astronomico e Geofisico of the Universidade de Sao Paulo has been carrying out the paleomagnetic analyses whereas geochronological determinations using the sup(40)Ar/ sup(39)Ar method are being made at Princeton University with the collaboration of the Instituto de Geociencias of USP. The present status of the paleomagnetic and geochronological studies of these rocks is presented here, including results obtained up to now and an analysis of paleogeographic and geotectonic implications. (author)

  18. São Paulo, uma metrópole desigual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana P. Taschner

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Las contradicciones en el desarrollo urbano post-industrial, sobre todo en las metrópolis del llamado Tercer Mundo en una economía globalizada, acentúan viejas desigualdades sociales y abren las puertas para nuevas espacializaciones, tanto entre los estratos ricos como entre los pobres. El presente trabajo presenta una primera visión de la segregación socioespacial. La estructura intraurbana del municipio de São Paulo concentra sus estratos más ricos en los anillos más centrales, dejando que la pobreza domine la periferia. Es el retrato de una metrópolis excluyente, sin urbanidad, un tejido urbano donde se perciben enclaves de riqueza y de pobreza, en el medio de una malla indistinta, tejido fragmentadoThe contradictions in post-industrial urban development, mainly regarding the so-called third world metropolis in a globalized economy, enhance old social disparities and welcome new "spacial structures", both in rich and poor fractions. The present paper shows an initial view of the socio-spacial segregation. The intra-urban structure of the city of Sao Paulo concentrates the wealthy in central rings, thus making the periphery the domain of the poor. It is the picture of a divided metropolis, with no civility, an urban patchwork quilt where rich and poor enclaves are placed on an indistinct frame

  19. FEARS AND THE REALITY OF THE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN SÃO PAULO CITY

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    Luiz Teruo Kawamoto Júnior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is known worldwide as one of the countries with large numbers of people with entrepreneurial profile. São Paulo, for its population concentration, has the highest number of people with this profile. The objective of this study is to quantify the opinion of the population of 39 cities in the state of Sao Paulo regarding their main fears and difficulties when considering opening their own businesses or after starting it. In order to reach the objective, we prepared a questionnaire based on exploratory research and in articles on the subject. As a result, we observed that funding, bureaucracy, overcoming the competition and the lack of preparation in conducting a business are considered the main difficult factors.

  20. Ambiental volatile organic compounds in the megacity of São Paulo

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    Leila Droprinchinski Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the composition of the main urban air organic compounds in the megacity of Sao Paulo, analysis of samples collected during the winter of 2003 downtown was carried out. The samplings were performed on the roof of a building in the commercial center of São Paulo. Hydrocarbons and carbonyls compounds were collected on August 4, 5 and 6. Comparing to previous data, the concentration of hydrocarbons presented no decrease in the concentration, except for the aldehydes, which decreased when compared to previous data. Among the HCs species analyzed, the highest concentrations observed were those of toluene (7.5 ± 3.4 ppbv, n-decane (3.2 ± 2.0 ppbv, benzene (2.7 ± 1.4 ppbv and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (2.2 ± 1.5 ppbv.

  1. São Paulo: exercícios de esquecimento do passado

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    Silvia Helena Zanirato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Com este texto se pretende refletir sobre o tratamento dispensado ao patrimônio cultural em São Paulo, o que implica considerar, por um lado, o tombamento como uma medida de proteção pública e de valorização do bem cultural, e, por outro, as decisões que levam a revogar a proteção deferida e que contribuem para a descaracterização do bem, seu abandono e, não raras vezes, sua demolição.This text aims to reflect about the treatment of cultural heritage in Sao Paulo, which involves considering, firstly, the registration as a measure of public protection and enhancement of the cultural heritage and, secondly, decisions that lead to revoke a deferred protection and contribute to distortion of the cultural heritage, their abandonment and often, their demolition.

  2. São Paulo: exercícios de esquecimento do passado

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Helena Zanirato

    2011-01-01

    Com este texto se pretende refletir sobre o tratamento dispensado ao patrimônio cultural em São Paulo, o que implica considerar, por um lado, o tombamento como uma medida de proteção pública e de valorização do bem cultural, e, por outro, as decisões que levam a revogar a proteção deferida e que contribuem para a descaracterização do bem, seu abandono e, não raras vezes, sua demolição.This text aims to reflect about the treatment of cultural heritage in Sao Paulo, which involves considering, ...

  3. Musculoskeletal Pain as a Marker of Health Quality. Findings from the Epidemiological Sleep Study among the Adult Population of São Paulo City

    OpenAIRE

    Suely Roizenblatt; Altay L Souza; Luciana Palombini; Luciana M Godoy; Sergio Tufik; Lia Rita A Bittencourt

    2015-01-01

    Background We are witnessing the growth of urban populations, particularly in the developing world. São Paulo, the largest city in South America, continues to grow, and this growth is dramatically effecting the environment and human health. The aim of this study was to estimate the point prevalence of chronic pain in São Paulo city dwellers and to explore the influence of aspects related to urbanicity. Methods A two-stage cluster randomized sample included 1100 individuals of the city of Sao ...

  4. Effect of local and remote sources and new particle formation events on the activation properties of cloud condensation nuclei in the Brazilian megacity of São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Souto-Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo; Andrade, Maria de Fátima; Kumar, Prashant; Lopes, Fábio Juliano da Silva; Babinski, Marly; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol is the most important source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Microphysics and chemical composition of aerosols can affect cloud development and precipitation process. Only a few studies in Latin American have reported the impact of urban aerosol on CCN activation parameters such as activated ratio (AR) and activation diameter (Dact). Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) is the biggest megacity of South America with over 20 million inhabitants. This is the first study in ...

  5. Andres Tali sõnavõtt ettekannete päeval = Andres Tali's speech given on the lecture day / Andres Tali

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    Tali, Andres, 1956-

    2006-01-01

    Kaasaegse Kunsti Eesti Keskuse ettekannete päev "Kunstnike moraalsed valikud kultuurikonfliktides" 27.04.2006 Tallinna Kunstihoones. Oma installatsioonist "Pastoraalne pastishsh" ning videost "Vägivald ja propaganda - The Movie" samas 8.04.-28.05.2006 avatud Elin Kardi, Marko Mäetamme, Marco Laimre ja Andres Tali ühisnäitusel "Vägivald ja propaganda"

  6. Avaliação da qualidade da atenção básica em 37 municípios do centro-oeste paulista: características da organização da assistência Evaluation of the quality of primary care health services in 37 municipalities in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil: organizational dimensions of care

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    Elen Rose L. Castanheira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available No Estado de São Paulo, existe uma rede extensiva de serviços de Atenção Básica (AB com perfil organizacional heterogêneo e pouco conhecido. Este estudo objetiva caracterizar a organização dos serviços de AB em 37 municípios do Centro-oeste paulista, como primeira etapa de um projeto de avaliação da qualidade desses serviços. Trata-se de um estudo transversal conduzido mediante questionário estruturado, autorrespondido pelos gerentes e equipes locais, com questões que abordam características institucionais e de organização e gerência do trabalho. Esses questionários foram enviados para 131 UBS, distribuídas em 37 municípios. Obteve-se resposta de 113 unidades (87% localizadas em 32 municípios (86,4%. Do total de unidades, 57 (50% são UBS tradicionais, 26 (22,8%, Unidades de Saúde da Família, e 31, (27,2% organizadas segundo formas mistas. A maioria dos serviços (62%, 70/113 não trabalha com área de abrangência deli