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Sample records for andisol typic hapludand

  1. KARAKTERISTIK TANAH ANDISOL PADA LAHAN KERING DI DESA BATUNGSEL, KECAMATAN PUPUAN, KABUPATEN TABANAN UNTUK BUDIDAYA KOPI DAN SALAK

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    IDA AYU SUTYADNYANI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Characteristics of Andisol on Dryland at Batungsel Village, Pupuan District, Tabanan Regency for Growing Coffe and Salacca The purpose of the research was to know the characteristics of Andisol on dryland at Batungsel village, Pupuan District, Tabanan Regency for growing coffea and salacca plant. Soil survey methods and laboratory analysis were used in this research. The parameters of soil characteristics were observed i.e. soil morphology in the fields, physical and chemical, and mineralogical properties. Soil classification was done based on Soil Taxonomy system by using Keys to Soil Taxonomy (2003. Soil characteristics were: soil colour was dark bown, solum depth was deep (>100 cm,CEC was high, base saturation was high, and had a good soil fertility.Based on Soil Taxonomy system, the soil families were Typic Hapludands, ashy, isohyperthermic. The land suitability was suitable enough for coffea and salacca.

  2. Adsorción de metales pesados en andisoles, vertisoles y ácidos húmicos

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    Luis Enrique Cortés Páez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la adsorción de los metales pesados cadmio (Cd, cobre (Cu, níquel (Ni, plomo (Pb y zinc (Zn en Andisoles (Typic Melanudand y Vertisoles (Epiaquert ústico arcilloso fino isohipertérmico 1% de Colombia y en ácidos húmicos (AH extraídos de muestras de leonardita tomadas en España. En todos los casos se determinaron las propiedades químicas y físicas: pH, capacidad de intercambio catiónico (CIC, carbono orgánico (%CO, bases intercambiables y contenido total de metales. La composición química de los AH se determinó empleando técnicas espectrométricas como ICP_MS, FTIR, UV-Vis, CPMAS 13C NMR y Py-GC/MS-THMA. Los resultados de adsorción de los metales ajustados al modelo de Freundlich mostraron un comportamiento diferente de los adsorbentes en relación con los metales estudiados, siendo la máxima capacidad de adsorción (K y la fuerza de retención (n de los metales diferente (P Pb > Cu > Ni > Zn; en Andisol: Pb > Cu > Cd > Zn > Ni; y en Vertisol: Cd > Pb > Cu > Ni > Z. Para n en ácidos húmicos: Pb > Zn > Cd > Cu > Ni; en Andisol: Cu > Ni > Zn > Pb > Cd, y en Vertisol: Zn > Ni > Cu > Pb > Cd.

  3. How forest fire affects the chemical properties of Andisols

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    Neris, Jonay; Hernández-Moreno, José Manuel; Tejedor, Marisa; Jiménez, Concepción

    2013-04-01

    Forest fires affect soil physical, chemical and mineralogical properties. However, the magnitude of these changes depends on both fire properties, such as the peak temperature reached and duration or depth achieved; and initial soil properties (soil type) as for example soil moisture, organic matter content or soil structure characteristics. Although many works have studied the effects of fire on the chemical properties of different soil types, its effects on Andisols properties have been omitted until now. Taking into account the high susceptibility to drying processes showed by the properties of Andisols affected by land use changes, it could be expected that the fire effects on their chemical properties may differ from those shown by other types of soil. In this study, the main chemical properties in addition to the specific andic properties of burned pine forest Andisols were compared to their unburned control. The chemical properties of ashes found after fire at the soil surface were also studied. The results show a slightly increase in EC and pH after the fire due mainly to the higher content of cations of the soil solution. Ashes derived from the vegetation and soil organic matter consumption by fire could be the main source of these elements in the soils after a fire, as they showed a high cation content. However, the rise in EC and pH is lower than the reported by most authors for other soil types. This behaviour could be related to the higher organic matter content of this soils, even after fire, and the buffering effect of organic compounds on the soil EC and pH changes after the fire. As other authors have shown, a decrease in both the total and active organic content after the fire was also observed as a result of the fire event. The specific andic properties of Andisols were also affected. The P retention of these soils slightly declines as a consequence of fire, while the content of short-range-order products was also modified, but no statistically

  4. DINÁMICA DEL AGUA EN ANDISOLES BAJO CONDICIONES DE LADERA SOIL WATER DYNAMICS IN ANDISOLS UNDER HILLSLOPE CONDITIONS

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    Edgar Hincapié Gómez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El flujo de agua en el suelo es calificado como un proceso dinámico que regula reacciones químicas y eventos físicos y biológicos, que a su vez influyen en la nutrición, crecimiento y desarrollo de las plantas; es considerado de interés ambiental, ya que influye en la regulación hidrológica, en la distribución y transmisión de agua, solutos y contaminantes a través de la zona no saturada del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la dinámica de la humedad volumétrica y del potencial matricial del suelo a lo largo de un periodo de secado, en dos Andisoles, localizados en terrenos de ladera en los municipios de Chinchiná (Caldas y Quimbaya (Quindío - Colombia. En cada localidad se seleccionaron y aislaron tres monolitos de suelo de 1,5 m de ancho y 6,0 m de largo, con diferente grado de pendiente (20, 40 y 70%, en Chinchiná y 20, 40 y 75%, en Quimbaya. Se instalaron sensores de humedad y tensiómetros a diferentes profundidades y se monitoreó simultáneamente la humedad volumétrica y el potencial mátrico del suelo durante un periodo de 80 días y se obtuvieron las curvas de secamiento del suelo. El modelo potencial se ajustó mejor al comportamiento de la humedad volumétrica con relación al tiempo; en general, la humedad volumétrica se redujo drásticamente durante la primera etapa del drenaje (0-24 horas; posteriormente, le siguió un drenaje lento en el cual los cambios en la humedad volumétrica a través del tiempo fueron mínimos. La tasa de secamiento del suelo aumentó conforme se incrementó el ángulo de inclinación de la pendiente, lo que se atribuye a una refracción del flujo de agua, considerando que el potencial gravitacional está influido por la inclinación de la pendiente y a la vez indica que la pendiente del terreno afecta el movimiento del agua en el suelo.Abstract. Soil water flux is qualified as a dynamic processes that regulate soil chemical reactions, physical and biological events

  5. Using thermal analysis to evaluate the fire effects on organic matter content of Andisols

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    J. Neris; Hernández-Moreno, J. M.; C Jiménez; M. Tejedor

    2013-01-01

    Soil organic compounds play a relevant role in aggregate stability and thus, in the susceptibility of soils to erosion. Thermal analysis (N2 and air) and chemical oxidation techniques (dichromate and permanganate oxidation) were used to evaluate the effects of a forest fire on the organic matter of Andisols. Both thermal analysis and chemical methods showed a decrease in the organic matter content and an increase in the recalcitrance of the remaining organic compounds in the burned zones. The...

  6. Aggregate structure and stability linked to carbon dynamics in a south Chilean Andisol

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    C. Oyarzún; Godoy, R.; O. Van Cleemput; P. Boeckx; Huygens, D.

    2005-01-01

    International audience The extreme vulnerability of soil organic carbon to climate and land use change emphasizes the need for further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. We have studied the aggregate stability and carbon dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses in a south Chilean Andisols: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR), a grassland (GRASS) and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Al as soil ...

  7. Aggregate structure and stability linked to carbon dynamics in a south Chilean Andisol

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    C. Oyarzún

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The extreme vulnerability of soil organic carbon to climate and land use change emphasizes the need for further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. We have studied the aggregate stability and carbon dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses in a south Chilean Andisols: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR, a grassland (GRASS and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Al as soil organic matter stabilizing agent in this Andisol. In a case study, we linked differences in carbon dynamics between the three land use treatments to physical protection and recalcitrance of the soil organic matter (SOM. In this study, C aggregate stability and dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOM, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOM fractions, and mineralization measurements. The results showed that electrostatic attractions between and among Al-oxides and clay minerals are mainly responsible for the stabilization of soil aggregates and the physical protection of the enclosed soil organic carbon. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS. In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions showed that the recalcitrance of the SOM decreased in another order: PINUS > SGFOR > GRASS. We concluded that physical protection of soil aggregates was the main process determining whole soil C mineralization. Land use changes affected soil organic carbon dynamics in this south Chilean Andisol by altering soil pH and consequently available Al.

  8. Rape genotypic differences in P uptake and utilization from phosphate rocks in an Andisol of Chile

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    Montenegro, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), Centro Regional de Carillanca, Temuco (Chile); Zapata, F. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: F.Zapata@iaea.org

    2002-05-15

    A main constraint to agricultural productivity in the southern regions of Chile is the low available soil P exacerbated by the high P sorption capacity of the predominant Andisols. Therefore, substantial amounts of P fertilizers must be applied to obtain optimum growth and crop yields. One cost-effective strategy followed to supply P to crops grown in these soils is the direct application of the local Bahia Inglesa PR source. However, a more sustainable strategy would be to combine the use of the local PR with the crop species and cultivars that are able to grow in these acid soils and can utilize efficiently PR. Rape is reported to be very efficient in utilising P from PR sources due to its capacity to exude organic acids to the rhizosphere. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the ability of five rape cultivars grown in an Andisol of southern Chile in utilising P from two PR sources (Bahia Inglesa and Bayovar) and triple superphosphate, a water-soluble P fertilizer. It was found that rape was able to absorb significant amounts of P from the PR sources and much less from the TSP and soil P. Both Bahia Inglesa and Bayovar PRs were found to be as effective as TSP for the rape genotypes in the Andisol Pemehue. The use of the {sup 32}P isotope technique enabled to assess the ability of the genotypes tested to utilize P from the different P fertilizers applied. The genotypes G2 and G3 showed increased P acquisition from the PR than the genotype G5. Combined utilization of P efficient genotypes and direct application of the Bahia Inglesa PR seems to be a promising technology for attaining sustainable agricultural productivity in the Andisols of Chile. Further field trials for validating these findings at the level of cropping systems are needed. This agronomic testing should be accompanied by in-depth studies to assess the relative importance of the morphological and physiological traits determining a higher P efficiency. (author)

  9. Rape genotypic differences in P uptake and utilization from phosphate rocks in an Andisol of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A main constraint to agricultural productivity in the southern regions of Chile is the low available soil P exacerbated by the high P sorption capacity of the predominant Andisols. Therefore, substantial amounts of P fertilizers must be applied to obtain optimum growth and crop yields. One cost-effective strategy followed to supply P to crops grown in these soils is the direct application of the local Bahia Inglesa PR source. However, a more sustainable strategy would be to combine the use of the local PR with the crop species and cultivars that are able to grow in these acid soils and can utilize efficiently PR. Rape is reported to be very efficient in utilising P from PR sources due to its capacity to exude organic acids to the rhizosphere. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the ability of five rape cultivars grown in an Andisol of southern Chile in utilising P from two PR sources (Bahia Inglesa and Bayovar) and triple superphosphate, a water-soluble P fertilizer. It was found that rape was able to absorb significant amounts of P from the PR sources and much less from the TSP and soil P. Both Bahia Inglesa and Bayovar PRs were found to be as effective as TSP for the rape genotypes in the Andisol Pemehue. The use of the 32P isotope technique enabled to assess the ability of the genotypes tested to utilize P from the different P fertilizers applied. The genotypes G2 and G3 showed increased P acquisition from the PR than the genotype G5. Combined utilization of P efficient genotypes and direct application of the Bahia Inglesa PR seems to be a promising technology for attaining sustainable agricultural productivity in the Andisols of Chile. Further field trials for validating these findings at the level of cropping systems are needed. This agronomic testing should be accompanied by in-depth studies to assess the relative importance of the morphological and physiological traits determining a higher P efficiency. (author)

  10. Potential impacts of seasonal variation on atrazine and metolachlor persistence in andisol soil.

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    Jaikaew, Piyanuch; Boulange, Julien; Thuyet, Dang Quoc; Malhat, Farag; Ishihara, Satoru; Watanabe, Hirozumi

    2015-12-01

    To estimate the potential effect of seasonal variation on the fate of herbicides in andisol soil, atrazine and metolachlor residues were investigated through the summer and winter seasons during 2013 and 2014 under field condition. The computed half-lives of atrazine and metolachlor in soil changed significantly through the two seasons of the trial. The half-lives were shorter in summer season with 16.0 and 23.5 days for atrazine and metolachlor, respectively. In contrast, the half-lives were longer during the winter season with 32.7 and 51.8 days for atrazine and metolachlor, respectively. The analysis of soil water balance suggested that more pesticide was lost in deeper soil layers through infiltration in summer than in winter. In addition, during the summer season, metolachlor was more likely to leach into deeper soil layer than atrazine possibly due to high water solubility of metolachlor.

  11. Nitrate leaching in an Andisol treated with different types of fertilizers

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    Nitrate leaching in upland fields under Japanese conditions may be reduced by substituting compost or slow-release fertilizer for readily available chemical fertilizer. - Nitrate (NO3) leaching was studied in an Andisol treated with four N fertilizers (SC: swine compost, CU: coated urea, AN: ammonium N, or NF: no fertilizer) for 7 years. Sweet corn (Zea mays L.) was grown in summer, followed by Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. amplexicaulis) or cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) in autumn each year. In chemical fertilizer plots treated with AN or CU, NO3-N concentrations in soil water at 1-m depth increased markedly in the summer of the second year and fluctuated between 30 and 60 mg l-1. In the SC plot, NO3-N concentration started increasing in the fourth year, reaching the same level as in the AN and CU plots in the late period of the experiment. In the NF plot, NO3-N concentration was about 10 mg l-1 for the first 4 years and decreased to 5 mg l-1. The potential NO3-N concentrations by an N and water balance equation satisfactorily predicted NO3-N concentration in the AN and CU plots, but substantially overestimated that in the SC plot, presumably because a large portion of N from SC first accumulated in soil in the organic form. Our results indicate that, under the Japanese climate (Asian monsoon), excessive N from chemical fertilizers applied to Andisols can cause substantial NO3 leaching, while compost application is promising to establish high yields and low N leaching during a few years but would cause the same level of NO3 leaching as in chemically fertilized plots over longer periods

  12. Nitrate leaching in an Andisol treated with different types of fertilizers

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    Maeda, Morihiro; Zhao Bingzi; Ozaki, Yasuo; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu

    2003-03-01

    Nitrate leaching in upland fields under Japanese conditions may be reduced by substituting compost or slow-release fertilizer for readily available chemical fertilizer. - Nitrate (NO{sub 3}) leaching was studied in an Andisol treated with four N fertilizers (SC: swine compost, CU: coated urea, AN: ammonium N, or NF: no fertilizer) for 7 years. Sweet corn (Zea mays L.) was grown in summer, followed by Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. amplexicaulis) or cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) in autumn each year. In chemical fertilizer plots treated with AN or CU, NO{sub 3}-N concentrations in soil water at 1-m depth increased markedly in the summer of the second year and fluctuated between 30 and 60 mg l{sup -1}. In the SC plot, NO{sub 3}-N concentration started increasing in the fourth year, reaching the same level as in the AN and CU plots in the late period of the experiment. In the NF plot, NO{sub 3}-N concentration was about 10 mg l{sup -1} for the first 4 years and decreased to 5 mg l{sup -1}. The potential NO{sub 3}-N concentrations by an N and water balance equation satisfactorily predicted NO{sub 3}-N concentration in the AN and CU plots, but substantially overestimated that in the SC plot, presumably because a large portion of N from SC first accumulated in soil in the organic form. Our results indicate that, under the Japanese climate (Asian monsoon), excessive N from chemical fertilizers applied to Andisols can cause substantial NO{sub 3} leaching, while compost application is promising to establish high yields and low N leaching during a few years but would cause the same level of NO{sub 3} leaching as in chemically fertilized plots over longer periods.

  13. VARIABILIDAD ESPACIAL DE LAS PROPIEDADES QUÍMICAS DEL EPIPEDÓN DE UN ANDISOL HIDROMÓRFICO DEL ORIENTE ANTIOQUEÑO (COLOMBIA SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF THE EPIPEDON CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN AN HYDROMORPHIC ANDISOL FROM THE ANTIOQUIA EAST ( COLOMBIA

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    Daniel Francisco Jaramillo Jaramillo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la variabilidad espacial de algunas propiedades químicas del epipedón de un Andisol de régimen de humedad ácuico. La mayoría de las propiedades estudiadas presentó una dependencia espacial alta, con una variabilidad estructurada de más del 50% de la variabilidad total y con rango relativamente corto de 20 m en promedio, situación que puede estar reflejando una alta intensidad de uso y manejo del suelo en actividades agropecuarias como la aplicación de fertilizantes y enmiendas.The spatial variability of some chemical properties of the epipedon in an Andisol with aquic humidity regime was studied. The most properties presented a high spatial dependence (C/Sill>50% and a relatively short range average ( 20 m, possibly caused by the intensive use of soil that has involved the application of fertilizers and amendments.

  14. Adsorption of Sodium Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate on Highly Humic Non-allophanic Andisol at High-Electrolyte Concentration

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    Ahmed, Farook; ISHIGURO, Munehide; MORIGUCHI, Kazuki

    2012-01-01

    To clarify the adsorption characteristics of surfactants, it is important to understand the surfactant behavior in the soil and water environments.However,there are few adsorption studies for highly humic soil. In this study, the adsorption characteristics of dodecylbenzene sulfonates in a highly humic soil were investigated. A non‒allophanic Andisol was used since this soil contains a large amount of humic substances and is only negatively charged. Thus, electrically, only repulsive force is...

  15. The response of coffee trees to doses of boron soil applications two or three times a year in Andisoles at Heredia, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of coffee trees to doses of Boron soil applications two or three times a year in Andisoles at Heredia, Costa Rica. The effect of coffee production of increasing boron doses, applied to the soil two or three times a year, was tested in a 4 year-old plantation cv. Caturra, growing in a Typic Haplustand at Heredia, Costa Rica, from 1991 to 1994. The effect of B contents in soil and leaves (2nd or 4th pair), the Ca/B ratios, and toxicity symptoms, were also determined. There were significant differences among treatments in all variables. The highest yields were obtained with 40 kg/ha B2O3 split into three applications: May, August and November (early, mid and late rainy season). Yields of four annual harvest periods decreased significantly as doses increased over 40 kg/ha. Increasing B doses shifted Ca/B foliar ratios toward values reported as toxic, and more so in the 4th leaf pair. All treatments except 20 Kg/ha B2O3 induced slight to severe toxicity symptoms on leaves. (Author)

  16. Fire-induced risk in Andisols: An State-of-the-Art

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    Neris, Jonay; Cerdà, Artemi; Santamarta, Juan C.; Doerr, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires are increasingly recognized as the primary natural hazard affecting forests and woodlands (Pausas, 2004), and changing the soil properties due to the heat (Aznar et al., 2013). They are also the factor that determines the increase in soil and water losses (Cerdà, 1998a; Shakesby, 2011). Fire contributes to increase the surface runoff due to the water repellency (Mataix-Solera et al., 2004; Cerdà and Doerr, 2008) although a quick recovery is found when vegetation is recovered (Cerdà, 1988b; Guénon et al., 2013). Within the recovery process ash is the key factor once the vegetation is recovered (Bodí et al., 2011; León et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013). To reduce the impact of forest fires some strategies were developed (Prats et al., 2013). The fire direct and indirect impacts on ecosystems and the human population, infrastructures, supplies and goods have been increasing over the last decades due to climatic and socio-economic changes and are projected to increase further in the future. In the densely populated volcanic regions that are characterized by steep and fire-prone slopes, Andisols are the main soil type. Their mineralogical properties provide them with specific chemical and physical properties which strength their fertility and resistance to erosion but also differentiate their response to environmental disturbances such as land use change (Jiménez et al., 2006; Neris et al., 2012) but also forest fires and agricultural burning (Neris et al., 2013; Poulenard et al., 2001). Despite their relevance for human development and safety, little specific knowledge exists about them and papers addressing their singularities are limited. This works seeks to compile and review existing scientific works focused on the effects of fire on this particular type of soils, evaluate their response to this disturbance and identify knowledge gaps related to the fire-induced risk in Andisols in order to develop new lines of research. Acknowledgements This

  17. Fraccionamiento y cuantificación de la materia orgánica en Andisoles bajo diferentes sistemas de producción

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    Juan Carlos Montoya Salazar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En Andisoles de los municipios de Cajibío, departamento del Cauca y Sevilla, Valle del Cauca, Colombia, se evalúo el efecto del uso del suelo con sistemas de bosque; guadua (Guadua angustifolia K.; cultivo de café (Coffea arabiga var. Caturra a plena exposición, con sombra de guamo (Inga sp. y sombra de nogal (Cordia alliodora; y pastura de brachiaria (Brachiaria decumbens sobre diferentes formas de la materia orgánica (M.O.. Para el efecto en Cauca se tomaron muestras de un Typic Melanudand localizado a 1740 m.s.n.m. utilizado con los cinco primeros sistemas de cultivos, y en Sevilla de un Typic Haplustand en 1660 m.s.n.m en pasturas de brachiaria. Los suelos de ambos sitios fueron caracterizados por sus propiedades físicas (humedad higroscópica, densidad aparente, distribución de partículas, estabilidad de agregados y tamaño de arenas, y químicas (capacidad de intercambio catiónico, pH, % carbono orgánico. Las sustancias húmicas se obtuvieron con extracción secuencial en soluciones (0.1 N de tetraborato, pirofosfato e hidróxido de sodio, previa separación granulométrica por tamizado en húmedo; igualmente se purificaron y caracterizaron los ácidos húmicos y fúlvicos por diferentes técnicas analíticas y espectroscópicas. En ambos suelos, se encontraron diferencias (P 1 en ácidos húmicos y < 1 en fúlvicos. Los ácidos húmicos con mejor grado de condensación se encontraron en el Typic Melanudand.

  18. Using thermal analysis to evaluate the fire effects on organic matter content of Andisols

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    J. Neris

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic compounds play a relevant role in aggregate stability and thus, in the susceptibility of soils to erosion. Thermal analysis (N2 and air and chemical oxidation techniques (dichromate and permanganate oxidation were used to evaluate the effects of a forest fire on the organic matter of Andisols. Both thermal analysis and chemical methods showed a decrease in the organic matter content and an increase in the recalcitrance of the remaining organic compounds in the burned zones. Thermal analysis indicated an increase in the thermal stability of the organic compounds of fire-affected soils and a lower content of both labile and recalcitrant pools as a consequence of the fire. However, this decrease was relatively higher in the labile pool and lower in the recalcitrant one, indicative of an increase in the recalcitrance of the remaining organic compounds. Apparently, black carbon did not burn under our experimental conditions. Under N2, the results showed a lower labile and a higher recalcitrant and refractory contents in burned and some unburned soils, possibly due to the lower decomposition rate under N2 flux. Thermal analysis using O2 and the chemical techniques showed a positive relation, but noticeable differences in the total amount of the labile pool. Thermal analysis methods provide direct quantitative information useful to characterize the soil organic matter quality and to evaluate the effects of fire on soils.

  19. Contrasting nitrate adsorption in Andisols of two coffee plantations in Costa Rica.

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    Ryan, M C; Graham, G R; Rudolph, D L

    2001-01-01

    Fertilizer use in coffee plantations is a suspected cause of rising ground water nitrate concentrations in the ground water-dependent Central Valley of Costa Rica. Nitrate adsorption was evaluated beneath two coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plantations in the Central Valley. Previous work at one site had identified unsaturated zone nitrate retardation relative to a tritium tracer. Differences in nitrate adsorption were assessed in cores to 4 m depth in Andisols at this and one other plantation using differences in KCl- and water-extractable nitrate as an index. Significant adsorption was confirmed at the site of the previous tracer test, but not at the second site. Anion exchange capacity, X-ray diffraction data, extractable Al and Si, and soil pH in NaF corroborated that differences in adsorption characteristics were related to subtle differences in clay mineralogy. Soils at the site with significant nitrate adsorption showed an Al-rich allophane clay content compared with a more weathered, Si-rich allophane and halloysite clay mineral content at the site with negligible adsorption. At the site with significant nitrate adsorption, nitrate occupied less than 10% of the total anion adsorption capacity, suggesting that adsorption may provide long-term potential for mitigation or delay of nitrate leaching. Evaluation of nitrate sorption potential of soil at local and landscape scales would be useful in development of nitrogen management practices to reduce nitrate leaching to ground water.

  20. Caracterización química de Andisoles repelentes al agua del oriente Antioqueño.

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    Jaramillo J. Daniel F.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron algunas propiedades químicas de 76 Andisoles repelentes al agua, de lotes bajo cobertura de Pinus Patula muchas de las propiedades evaluadas presentaron coeficientes de variación con valores relativamente altos, mayores a 20%; sólo los pHs presentaron coeficientes de variación menores de 10%. Al interpretar los valores de las propiedades relacionadas con la fertilidad, puede decirse que estos suelos son de muy baja fertilidad, con muy bajos contenidos de nutrimientos, baja saturación con bases, alta saturación con aluminio, muy ácidos y con baja CICE.

  1. Caracterización preliminar de los compuestos hidrofóbicos removidos de Andisoles repelentes al agua de Antioquia.

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    Jaramillo J. Daniel F.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available En 15 muestras de Andisoles repelentes al agua se caracterizaron los compuestos orgánicos extraídos por mezclas de etanol - benceno, 1:2 y de isopropanol - amoniaco 7:3; se confirmó que los compuestos responsables de la hidrofobicidad del suelo extraídos son poco humificados, tienen una composición general de ácidos carboxílicos alifáticos de cadenas largas y que corresponden a humus tipo Rp.

  2. Fire-induced risk in Andisols: An State-of-the-Art

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    Neris, Jonay; Cerdà, Artemi; Santamarta, Juan C.; Doerr, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires are increasingly recognized as the primary natural hazard affecting forests and woodlands (Pausas, 2004), and changing the soil properties due to the heat (Aznar et al., 2013). They are also the factor that determines the increase in soil and water losses (Cerdà, 1998a; Shakesby, 2011). Fire contributes to increase the surface runoff due to the water repellency (Mataix-Solera et al., 2004; Cerdà and Doerr, 2008) although a quick recovery is found when vegetation is recovered (Cerdà, 1988b; Guénon et al., 2013). Within the recovery process ash is the key factor once the vegetation is recovered (Bodí et al., 2011; León et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013). To reduce the impact of forest fires some strategies were developed (Prats et al., 2013). The fire direct and indirect impacts on ecosystems and the human population, infrastructures, supplies and goods have been increasing over the last decades due to climatic and socio-economic changes and are projected to increase further in the future. In the densely populated volcanic regions that are characterized by steep and fire-prone slopes, Andisols are the main soil type. Their mineralogical properties provide them with specific chemical and physical properties which strength their fertility and resistance to erosion but also differentiate their response to environmental disturbances such as land use change (Jiménez et al., 2006; Neris et al., 2012) but also forest fires and agricultural burning (Neris et al., 2013; Poulenard et al., 2001). Despite their relevance for human development and safety, little specific knowledge exists about them and papers addressing their singularities are limited. This works seeks to compile and review existing scientific works focused on the effects of fire on this particular type of soils, evaluate their response to this disturbance and identify knowledge gaps related to the fire-induced risk in Andisols in order to develop new lines of research. Acknowledgements This

  3. Typical Protectionism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the middle of October,acting on a complaint from the United Steelworkers union,the Office of the U.S.Trade Representative initiated a Section 301 investigation into China's clean energy policies and practices.The move has aroused strong opposition from China.China's New Energy Association says the probe is neither well-founded nor responsible,and is typical trade protectionism.

  4. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on the composition of rhizobacterial communities of two Chilean Andisol pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorquera, Milko A; Martínez, Oscar A; Marileo, Luis G; Acuña, Jacquelinne J; Saggar, Surinder; Mora, María L

    2014-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization on composition of rhizobacterial communities of volcanic soils (Andisols) from southern Chile at molecular level is poorly understood. This paper investigates the composition of rhizobacterial communities of two Andisols under pasture after 1- and 6-year applications of N (urea) and P (triple superphosphate). Soil samples were collected from two previously established sites and the composition of rhizobacterial communities was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The difference in the composition and diversity between rhizobacterial communities was assessed by nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis and the Shannon-Wiener index. In Site 1 (fertilized for 1 year), PCR-DGGE targeting 16S rRNA genes and MDS analysis showed that moderate N application (270 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)) without P significantly changed the composition of rhizobacterial communities. However, no significant community changes were observed with P (240 kg P ha(-1) year(-1)) and N-P application (270 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) plus 240 kg P ha(-1) year(-1)). In Site 2 (fertilized for 6 years with P; 400 kg P ha(-1) year(-1)), PCR-DGGE targeting rpoB, nifH, amoA and alkaline phosphatase genes and MDS analysis showed changes in rhizobacterial communities only at the highest rate of N application (600 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)). Quantitative PCR targeting 16S rRNA genes also showed higher abundance of bacteria at higher N application. In samples from both sites, the Shannon-Wiener index did not show significant difference in the diversity of rhizobacterial communities. The changes observed in rhizobacterial communities coincide in N fertilized pastures with lower soil pH and higher pasture yields. This study indicates that N-P application affects the soil bacterial populations at molecular level and needs to be considered when developing fertilizer practices for Chilean pastoral Andisols. PMID

  5. Aplikasi Kompos Tithonia diversifolia dan Chromolaena odorata dengan Menggunakan Dekomposer Trichoderma harzianum Terhadap Ketersediaan P dan Serapan Hara P oleh Tanaman Jagung Pada Tanah Andisol

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmi, Kamila

    2010-01-01

    The aims of research was to studied about the aplication effect of Tithonia diversifolia compost and Chromolaena odorata compost in using Trichoderma harzianum decomposer on Andisol in availabity P and their effect on the growth and nutrient uptake of maize. The experiment was conducted in a kasahouse and biology laboratory faculty of Agriculture, North Sumatera Universitas. It was arranged in randomized block designed faktorial consist of two factor with three replication. The first factor ...

  6. HUMEDAD CRÍTICA Y REPELENCIA AL AGUA EN ANDISOLES COLOMBIANOS BAJO COBERTURA DE Pinus patula Schltdl y Cham CRITICAL MOISTURE AND WATER REPELLENCY OF COLOMBIAN ANDISOLS COVERED WITH Pinus patula Schltdl and Cham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Francisco Jaramillo Jaramillo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En un lote con Andisoles bajo cobertura de Pinus patula Schltdl y Cham se ubicaron 4 transectos sobre los cuales se hizo un muestreo horizontal cada 5 cm, en 4 profundidades, con el fin de establecer si había una zona de transición de humedad crítica en el suelo que estuviera controlando la presencia de repelencia al agua en él. Se hicieron determinaciones de WDPT en el campo y luego en muestras secadas a 35 °C, en laboratorio. En cada condición se determinó el contenido gravimétrico de humedad a cada muestra y se relacionaron estos contenidos con su correspondiente WDPT. Los suelos presentaron altos contenidos de humedad, tanto en campo, como secos a 35 °C. La mayoría de los sitios fueron humectables en campo pero, al secar las muestras a 35 °C, la mayoría de ellas, en las tres primeras profundidades, se tornaron fuertemente repelentes al agua. Ambas propiedades tuvieron una alta variabilidad. En algunas profundidades de varios transectos fue posible definir, precariamente, zonas críticas de humedad para la repelencia al agua pero, al tratar de generalizar esta zona para todo el perfil del transecto, no fue posible definirla.In a stand with Andisoles planted with Pinus patula Schltdl and Cham, 4 transects were established for horizontal sampling every 5 cm in 4 depths to establish whether there was a transition zone for critical humidity in the soil that could determine the presence of water repellency in it. Determinations of WDPT were made in the field and later on samples dried at 35 °C in the laboratory. For each condition, the gravimetric content of humidity of each sample was determined and these contents were compared to their corresponding WDPT. The soils presented high humidity contents, both in the field and when dried at 35 °C. Most of the sites were humidified in the field, but upon drying the samples at 35 °C, the majority of them from the first three pit depths became strongly water repellent. Both properties were

  7. Response of CO2 Concentration in Andisol to Rainfall Events by Using Buried Tubing Gas Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Toshifumi; Tokida, Takeshi; Imoto, Hiromi; Nishimura, Taku; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi

    For the purpose of continuous soil CO2 gas monitoring, gas permeable resins were evaluated. Among polytetrafluoroethylen (PTFE), polyfluoroethylene propylene (PFEP) and silicone, the silicone rubber tube had highest permeability for oxygen gas. Buried Tubing Gas Monitoring System (BT-GMS) consisting of silicone rubber tube connected to a Non-diffuse infrared (NDIR) -CO2 gas and galvanic cell O2 gas sensors were constructed, and buried into an Andisol upland field at a depth of 20cm. Thermo-couples and EC-5 soil moisture sensors were inserted into 10 and 20cm deep layers. Soil CO2 gas concentration, temperature and moisture were continuously monitored for 5 months. Soil CO2 concentration was sensitive to rainfall events and soil moisture change. Responses were keen during summer until early autumn when soil temperature was higher than 20°C. Then, when soil temperature got lower the response tended to be dull. This suggested quick CO2 gas concentration change following a rainfall event was mostly due to enhancement in soil respiration with soil moisture rise.

  8. Pengaruh Pelindian Dan Ketebalan Debu Vulkanik Gunung Sinabung Terhadap Sifat Tanah Andisol Dan Pertumbuhan Tanaman Sawi (Brassica juncea L.) Pada 4 Kali Tanam

    OpenAIRE

    Perangin-angin, Desrika Christina

    2015-01-01

    Eruption of Sinabung caused volcanic ash covered the a part of area on Karo high level land with ranging thickness from 1 - 10 cm. This causes influence on soil properties and plant growth. Research to determine effect of the thickness and leaching of Sinabung volcanic ash on Andisol properties and green mustard in four plants. This study used a factorial randomized block design with treatment of the thickness volcanic ash D0 (without volcanic ash), D1 (989,6 g /10 kg air soil dried), D2 (...

  9. Characterization of the atrazine sorption process on Andisol and Ultisol volcanic ash-derived soils: kinetic parameters and the contribution of humic fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, María E; Fuentes, Edwar; Espinoza, Jeannette

    2013-07-01

    Atrazine sorption was studied in six Andisol and Ultisol soils. Humic and fulvic acids and humin contributions were established. Sorption on soils was well described by the Freundlich model. Kf values ranged from 2.2-15.6 μg(1-1/n)mL(1/n)g⁻¹. The relevance of humic acid and humin was deduced from isotherm and kinetics experiments. KOC values varied between 221 and 679 mLg⁻¹ for these fractions. Fulvic acid presented low binding capacity. Sorption was controlled by instantaneous equilibrium followed by a time-dependent phase. The Elovich equation, intraparticle diffusion model, and a two-site nonequilibrium model allowed us to conclude that (i) there are two rate-limited phases in Andisols related to intrasorbent diffusion in organic matter and retarded intraparticle diffusion in the organo-mineral complex and that (ii) there is one rate-limited phase in Ultisols attributed to the mineral composition. The lower organic matter content of Ultisols and the slower sorption rate and mechanisms involved must be considered to assess the leaching behavior of atrazine. PMID:23711282

  10. Influences of nitrogen fertilization on the evolution of CO2 and yield in oat in a soil of Chimangual (Andisol), of Nariño department of Colombia Influencia de la fertilización nitrogenada sobre la evolución de CO2 y rendimiento de avena en un suelo de Chimangual (Andisol), departamento de Nariño - Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Menjivar Juan; Gálviz Carmen; Silva Amanda

    2007-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen fertilization on microbial activity and yield of oat crop in a soil of Chimangual (Andisol) of Nariño department of Colombia was mesasured. The experiment was designed using a factorial design arranged in a CBD. The three N sources consisted of: potassium nitrate, 13%N, ammonium sulfate 21%N and colacteos 27%N (a local nitrogen fertilizer). Also, three doses (25,75 y 150 kg N ha-1) and three application times were used: at sowing time, total at 45 days an fractional,...

  11. EVALUACIÓN DE LA ELECTRORREMEDIACIÓN DE ANDISOLES CONTAMINADOS, MEDIANTE EL ANÁLISIS DE LAS SOLUCIONES DE LAVADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Rodríguez V.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la composición de soluciones de lavado provenientes de las cámaras de electrodos de una celda de remediación a nivel de laboratorio. Se estudió el movimiento de iones nitrato y plomo como contaminantes de suelos de la región (Andisol.Para los estudios se analizaron conjuntamente medidas de pH, conductiVidad, turbidez, concentración de contaminantes y corriente dé electrólisis.Se comprueba que, para las condiciones experimentales empleadas, los iones nitrato se mueven libremente y son fácilmente removidos del suelo, mientras que el catión plomo es parcialmente retenido, y la cantidad de metal que se moviliza es obtenido finalmente bajo formas insolubles dado el valor de pH generado en la cámara del cátodo.

  12. Physiological and Genotypic Characteristics of Nitrous Oxide (N2O)-Emitting Pseudomonas Species Isolated from Dent Corn Andisol Farmland in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yanxia; Li, Li; Isoda, Reika; Wang, Mengcen; Hatano, Ryusuke; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki

    2016-06-25

    Dent corn Andisol at the Hokkaido University Shizunai Livestock Experimental Farm actively emits nitrous oxide (N2O). In order to screen for culturable and active N2O emitters with high N2O emission potential, soft gel medium containing excess KNO3 was inoculated with soil suspensions from farm soil samples collected at different land managements. Dominant bacterial colonies were searched for among 20 of the actively N2O-emitting cultures from post-harvest soil and 19 from pre-tilled soil, and all isolates were subjected to the culture-based N2O emission assay. Ten active N2O-emitting bacteria, four from post-harvest soil and six from pre-tilled soil, out of 156 isolates were identified as genus Pseudomonas by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These N2O emitters showed clear responses to NO3(-) within a neutral pH range (5.5-6.7), and accelerated N2O production with 1.5-15 mM sucrose supplementation, suggesting the production of N2O during the denitrification process. However, the negative responses of 6 active N2O emitters, 3 from post-harvest soil and 3 from pre-tilled soil, out of the 10 isolates in the acetylene-blocking assay suggest that these 6 N2O emitters are incomplete denitrifiers that have lost their N2O reductase (N2OR) activity. Although the PCR assay for the denitrification-associated genes, narG and nirK/S, was positive in all 10 Pseudomonas isolates, those negative in the acetylene-blocking assay were nosZ-negative. Therefore, these results imply that the high N2O emission potential of dent corn Andisol is partly attributed to saprophytic, nosZ gene-missing pseudomonad denitrifiers. PMID:27109825

  13. Modeling typical performance measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekers, Anke Martine

    2009-01-01

    In the educational, employment, and clinical context, attitude and personality inventories are used to measure typical performance traits. Statistical models are applied to obtain latent trait estimates. Often the same statistical models as the models used in maximum performance measurement are appl

  14. CO2 and N2O emissions from an Andisol in Chile under a no-till system using non-fixed closed chambers Emisiones de CO2 y N2O desde un Andisol de Chile bajo sistema de cero labranza usando cámaras cerradas no-fijas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Muñoz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chile has different types of soil and climate conditions that favor a wide range of agricultural activities that can generate potential atmospheric contamination like greenhouse gases (GHG. Nevertheless, the contribution of agricultural soils to atmospheric emissions has yet to be measured in Chile. The aim of this study was to assess seasonal variability of CO2 and N2O effluxes in situ from a volcanic ash-derived soil under different agronomic management practices. Gas samples were obtained from headspaces of non-fixed closed chambers in an annual crop rotation under a no-till system in an Andisol in southern Chile (36° S. Two N-sources (NH4+ and NO3- and ammonium fertilization plus two lime doses (0.5 and 1 Mg ha-1 were considered for soil treatments Effluxes of CO2 and N2O were determined periodically for 1 yr, and soil variables, such as temperature, water, and mineral N content, were recorded. Results showed that CO2 effluxes respond to a seasonal pattern. No effect was evidenced when considering crop management practices with a maximum of 53.2 ± 8.5 kg CO2-C ha-1 d-1 in the wet fall period and a minimum of 9.7 ± 2.1 kg CO2-C ha-1 d-1 for summer, fall dry period, and winter. N2O efflux was highly variable throughout the year and showed no influence of treatments or season variability with a mean of 0.95 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1. Soil mineral N variations are not related to GHG effluxes as a single variable. Results indicate that an Andisol under a no-till system in southern Chile has a low N2O emission potential, and higher CO2 emissions are mainly produced in wet seasons (wet fall and/or spring.Chile tiene diferentes tipos de suelo y condiciones climáticas que favorecen un amplio rango de actividades agrícolas, las cuales pueden generar contaminación atmosférica potencial como los gases de efecto invernadero (GHG. Sin embargo, mediciones de la contribución de los suelos agrícolas en las emisiones atmosféricas de estos gases no ha sido

  15. HUMEDAD CRÍTICA Y REPELENCIA AL AGUA EN ANDISOLES BAJO COBERTURA DE Cupressus lusitanica y Quercus humboldtii EN LA CUENCA DE LA QUEBRADA PIEDRAS BLANCAS (MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA CRITICAL MOISTURE AND WATER REPELLENCY ON ANDISOLS UNDER Cupressus lusitanica AND Quercus humboldtii COVER IN THE PIEDRAS BLANCAS WATERSHED ( MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Caballero Mejía

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En dos vertientes de la cuenca de la quebrada Piedras Blancas (Medellín, Colombia se estudió la relación humedad - persistencia de la repelencia al agua en la parte superficial de andisoles bajo dos coberturas vegetales: Cupressus lusitanica (ciprés y Quercus humboldtii (roble, en tres posiciones a lo largo de la vertiente de colinas bajas: superior, media e inferior y en dos condiciones de humedad: con la humedad de campo y con la humedad adquirida al equilibrar al aire durante dos días muestras que habían sido secadas a 105 °C. En cada sitio de la vertiente se ubicó una parcela de 6 m x 5 m y en ella se tomaron 60 muestras de suelo en una malla de 1 m x 0,5 m. La persistencia de la repelencia al agua se evaluó con el método del WDPT en muestras tamizadas a 1 mm. Se presentó un alto número de muestras fuertemente repelentes al agua en todas las condiciones de trabajo, siendo mayor la frecuencia en ciprés que en roble. Tanto la repelencia al agua como la humedad presentaron comportamiento diferencial por cobertura y por posición en la vertiente dentro de la misma cobertura. No se pudo establecer una relación consistente entre el contenido de humedad de las muestras y la persistencia de la repelencia al agua que presentaron, así como tampoco se pudo definir una zona de transición de humedad crítica para que se manifestara la repelencia al agua en ellas, en ninguna de las dos coberturas vegetales y en ninguna posición en la vertiente.In two hillside of the Piedras Blancas watershed ( Medellín, Colombia was studied the relation humidity - persistence of the water repellency on the surface of the andisols under two vegetable covers: Cupressus lusitanica (cypress and Quercus humboldtii (oak groves. These were found in three different positions along the side of low hills: upper, middle and lower grounds, as well as in two conditions of humidity: with the humidity acquired when equilibrated with the air during two days (samples

  16. Effects of Nitrogen on Productivity, Grain Quality, and Optimal Nitrogen Rates in Winter Wheat cv. Kumpa-INIA in Andisols of Southern Chile Efecto del Nitrógeno en Productividad, Calidad del Grano y Dosis Óptimas de Nitrógeno en Trigo Invernal cv. Kumpa-INIA en Andisoles del Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Campillo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is one of the main inputs of the winter wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L. in southern Chile. Nitrogen efficient management is basic to optimizing its utilization while decreasing pollution risks and operational costs. Crop response and N use efficiency (NUE, defined as the ratio of yield to mineral N supply, regardless of source are important for evaluating N requirements of winter wheat, and reaching maximum and economic yields. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of N rate on grain yield, calculate the N rate that maximizes yield, and estimate the optimal grain yield rate and quality of high-yielding winter wheat cv. Kumpa-INIA. Five annual N rates were evaluated in a randomized complete block design during two successive winter wheat cropping seasons on a Vilcún series soil of the Pachic Melanudands family (Andisol in La Araucania Region, Chile, and subjected to intensive annual crop rotation. Significant effects (P ≤ 0.01 of N rate on grain yield and quality were found. The optimal physical N rate (OPR in both seasons ranged from 290 to 339 kg ha-1, whereas optimal economic N rate (OER ranged from 248 to 274 kg ha-1, with yields between 10.2 and 10.1 t ha-1. Nitrogen use efficiency associated to OER was high in both seasons (36.9 and 41.2 kg grain kg-1 N and fluctuated in similar ranges. Nitrogen rate increased hectoliter weight and grain protein, but decreased NUE.El N es uno de los principales insumos del cultivo de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. en Chile. Su manejo eficiente optimiza las dosis, disminuye los riesgos de contaminación y los costos de producción. La respuesta del cultivo y eficiencia de uso de N (NUE, definida como la razón de rendimiento y suministro de N mineral, independientemente de la fuente son importantes para evaluar los requerimientos de N y alcanzar rendimientos máximos y económicos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del N en la producción y las dosis que

  17. Efecto de la fertilización nitrogenada sobre la actividad microbial y rendimiento de avena forrajera en un suelo andisol del departamento de Nariño, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva P Amanda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available COMPENDIO La investigación evaluó los cambios en la actividad microbial por efecto de la aplicación de tres fuentes nitrogenadas al suelo: nitrato de potasio (13% de N y 44% de K20, sulfato de amonio (21% de N y 24% de S y colacteos (27% de N, 10% de K y 6% de P , en tres épocas de aplicación (a la siembra, a los 45 días y fraccionado y en tres dosis (25, 75 y 150 kg/ha, en un suelo Andisol de Pasto, Nariño, Colombia, localizado a 2820 msnm. y 12 0C. La actividad microbial se incrementó con la aplicación del fertilizante a la siembra y a los 45 días y con las dosis altas, sin importar la fuente utilizada. La época de aplicación no afectó el número de bacterias, ni la población de hongos pero sí la de actinomicetos, cuyo número se incrementó con la aplicación del fertilizante al momento de la siembra. Las dosis altas de nitrato de potasio incrementaron las poblaciones de bacterias y actinomicetos. Los contenidos de materia seca se incrementaron cuando se aplicó todo el fertilizante en la siembra o a los 45 días, mientras que los máximos rendimientos en forraje fresco, materia seca y proteína se obtuvieron con 75 y 150 kg/ha. En cuanto a las fuentes los mayores rendimientos en forraje fresco, materia seca y proteína se obtuvieron, respectivamente, con nitrato de potasio, sulfato de amonio y colácteos. Palabras clave: Avena sativa, fuentes nitrogenadas, actividad microbial, población microbial, Nariño, rendimiento. ABSTRACT Effect of nitrogen fertilization on microbial activity and forage yield in oat in an andisol of Nariño department of Colombia. The effect of three nitrogen sources potassium nitrate (13% de N y 44% de K20, ammonium sulphate (21% de N y 24% de S and colácteos (27% de N, 10 % de K20 y 6% de P2O5, at three application time (at seeding time, total at 45 days and fractional, 50% at sowing and 50% at 45 days after sowing and three doses (25, 75 and 150 kg/ha, in an Andisol of Nariño, Colombia

  18. Typical errors of ESP users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.; Korneva, Anna A.

    2004-07-01

    The paper presents analysis of the errors made by ESP (English for specific purposes) users which have been considered as typical. They occur as a result of misuse of resources of English grammar and tend to resist. Their origin and places of occurrence have also been discussed.

  19. Typical and atypical AIS. Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudin, M; Pinchuk, D

    2012-01-01

    AIS hypothesis has the right to recognition, if it explains the transition of "healthy" vertebra column into status of "scoliotic" one. AIS is the most investigated disease in the history of orthopedics, but up the present time there is no clear explanation of some its phenomena: vertebra column mono-form deformation along with its poly etiology character, interrelation of its origin and development and child's growth process etc. The key for authors' view at AIS was scoliosis with non-standard (concave side) rotation. On the bases of its' multifunctional instrumental investigation results (Rtg, EMG, EEG, optical topography, hormonal and neuropeptides trials, thermo-vision methods and other) in comparison with typical AIS was worked out the new hypothesis, part of it is suggested for discussion. In the work under observation is the sequence of appearance of typical and atypical scoliosis symptomatology beginning from the preclinical stage. PMID:22744477

  20. Typicality, graded membership, and vagueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, James A

    2007-05-01

    This paper addresses theoretical problems arising from the vagueness of language terms, and intuitions of the vagueness of the concepts to which they refer. It is argued that the central intuitions of prototype theory are sufficient to account for both typicality phenomena and psychological intuitions about degrees of membership in vaguely defined classes. The first section explains the importance of the relation between degrees of membership and typicality (or goodness of example) in conceptual categorization. The second and third section address arguments advanced by Osherson and Smith (1997), and Kamp and Partee (1995), that the two notions of degree of membership and typicality must relate to fundamentally different aspects of conceptual representations. A version of prototype theory-the Threshold Model-is proposed to counter these arguments and three possible solutions to the problems of logical selfcontradiction and tautology for vague categorizations are outlined. In the final section graded membership is related to the social construction of conceptual boundaries maintained through language use.

  1. Typicality and Misinformation: Two Sources of Distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of two sources of memory error: exposure to post-event information and extracting typical contents from schemata. Participants were shown a video of a bank robbery and presented with high-and low-typicality misinformation extracted from two normative studies. The misleading suggestions consisted of either changes in…

  2. Three Aspects of Typicality in Multiverse Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-01-01

    Extracting predictions from cosmological theories that describe a multiverse, for what we are likely to observe in our domain, is crucial to establishing the validity of these theories. One way to extract such predictions is from theory-generated probability distributions that allow for selection effects---generally expressed in terms of assumptions about anthropic conditionalization and how typical we are. In this paper, I urge three lessons about typicality in multiverse settings. (i) Because it is difficult to characterize our observational situation in the multiverse, we cannot assume that we are typical (as in the 'principle of mediocrity'): nor can we ignore the issue of typicality, for it has a measurable impact on predictions for our observations. (ii) There are spectra of assumptions about both conditionalization and typicality, which lead to coincident predictions for our observations, leading to problems of confirmation in multiverse cosmology. And moreover, (iii) when one has the freedom to consid...

  3. Some typical solid propellant rocket motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, B.T.C.

    2013-01-01

    Typical Solid Propellant Rocket Motors (shortly referred to as Solid Rocket Motors; SRM's) are described with the purpose to form a database, which allows for comparative analysis and applications in practical SRM engineering.

  4. What is typical is good: the influence of face typicality on perceived trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality's influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness judgments. Here, we argue that face typicality is an important factor for social perception because it affects trustworthiness judgments, which approximate the basic evaluation of faces. This effect has been overlooked because trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments have a high level of shared variance for most face samples. We show that for a continuum of faces that vary on a typicality-attractiveness dimension, trustworthiness judgments peak around the typical face. In contrast, perceived attractiveness increases monotonically past the typical face, as faces become more like the most attractive face. These findings suggest that face typicality is an important determinant of face evaluation.

  5. What is typical is good: the influence of face typicality on perceived trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality's influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness judgments. Here, we argue that face typicality is an important factor for social perception because it affects trustworthiness judgments, which approximate the basic evaluation of faces. This effect has been overlooked because trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments have a high level of shared variance for most face samples. We show that for a continuum of faces that vary on a typicality-attractiveness dimension, trustworthiness judgments peak around the typical face. In contrast, perceived attractiveness increases monotonically past the typical face, as faces become more like the most attractive face. These findings suggest that face typicality is an important determinant of face evaluation. PMID:25512052

  6. What is typical is good: The influence of face typicality on perceived trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, C.; Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Todorov, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality's influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  7. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Azhar, Feraz

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typi...

  8. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy in typical retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, Srinivasaraghavan; Rajalakshmi, Adithyapuram Ramachandran

    2015-01-01

    A 39-year-old woman with typical retinitis pigmentosa (RP) for 9 years and a positive family history of night blindness was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM). She developed proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) during the course of disease. She was promptly managed with pan retinal photocoagulation (PRP). PDR developing in a case of typical RP is extremely rare and has not been reported in the literature to date. Recognition of this rare, vision threatening complication, points out a definite need to further look deep into the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26021380

  9. Typical horticultural products between tradition and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenza Chessa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent EU and National policies for agriculture and rural development are mainly focused to foster the production of high quality products as a result of the increasing demand of food safety, typical foods and traditional processing methods. Another word very often used to describe foods in these days is “typicality” which pools together the concepts of “food connected with a specific place”, “historical memory and tradition” and “culture”. The importance for the EU and the National administrations of the above mentioned kind of food is demonstrated, among other things, by the high number of the PDO, PGI and TSG certificated products in Italy. In this period of global markets and economical crisis farmers are realizing how “typical products” can be an opportunity to maintain their market share and to improve the economy of local areas. At the same time, new tools and strategy are needed to reach these goals. A lack of knowledge has being recognized also on how new technologies and results coming from recent research can help in exploiting traditional product and in maintaining the biodiversity. Taking into account the great variety and richness of typical products, landscapes and biodiversity, this report will describe and analyze the relationships among typicality, innovation and research in horticulture. At the beginning “typicality” and “innovation” will be defined also through some statistical features, which ranks Italy at the first place in terms of number of typical labelled products, then will be highlighted how typical products of high quality and connected with the tradition and culture of specific production areas are in a strict relationship with the value of agro-biodiversity. Several different examples will be used to explain different successful methods and/or strategies used to exploit and foster typical Italian vegetables, fruits and flowers. Finally, as a conclusion, since it is thought that

  10. Typical electric bills, January 1, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Typical Electric Bills report is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration; Department of Energy. The publication is geared to a variety of applications by electric utilities, industry, consumes, educational institutions, and government in recognition of the growing importance of energy planning in contemporary society. 19 figs., 18 tabs

  11. Modelling Typical Online Language Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…

  12. What is a typical optic nerve head?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, A P; Grimm, J L; Bilonick, R A; Kagemann, L; Ishikawa, H; Schuman, J S; Wollstein, G; Sigal, I A

    2016-08-01

    Whereas it is known that elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) increases the risk of glaucoma, it is not known why optic nerve heads (ONHs) vary so much in sensitivity to IOP and how this sensitivity depends on the characteristics of the ONH such as tissue mechanical properties and geometry. It is often assumed that ONHs with uncommon or atypical sensitivity to IOP, high sensitivity in normal tension glaucoma or high robustness in ocular hypertension, also have atypical ONH characteristics. Here we address two specific questions quantitatively: Do atypical ONH characteristics necessarily lead to atypical biomechanical responses to elevated IOP? And, do typical biomechanical responses necessarily come from ONHs with typical characteristics. We generated 100,000 ONH numerical models with randomly selected values for the characteristics, all falling within literature ranges of normal ONHs. The models were solved to predict their biomechanical response to an increase in IOP. We classified ONH characteristics and biomechanical responses into typical or atypical using a percentile-based threshold, and calculated the fraction of ONHs for which the answers to the two questions were true and/or false. We then studied the effects of varying the percentile threshold. We found that when we classified the extreme 5% of individual ONH characteristics or responses as atypical, only 28% of ONHs with an atypical characteristic had an atypical response. Further, almost 29% of typical responses came from ONHs with at least one atypical characteristic. Thus, the answer to both questions is no. This answer held irrespective of the threshold for classifying typical or atypical. Our results challenge the assumption that ONHs with atypical sensitivity to IOP must have atypical characteristics. This finding suggests that the traditional approach of identifying risk factors by comparing characteristics between patient groups (e.g. ocular hypertensive vs. primary open angle glaucoma) may not

  13. Typical horticultural products between tradition and innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Romano; Paolo Sambo; Innocenza Chessa

    2009-01-01

    Recent EU and National policies for agriculture and rural development are mainly focused to foster the production of high quality products as a result of the increasing demand of food safety, typical foods and traditional processing methods. Another word very often used to describe foods in these days is “typicality” which pools together the concepts of “food connected with a specific place”, “historical memory and tradition” and “culture”. The ...

  14. Design of typical glued laminated timber beams

    OpenAIRE

    Domadenik, Žiga

    2015-01-01

    In this graduation thesis, I developed a computer program with the help of Excel's built-in developer. I used the programming language Visual Basics (VBA). The program allows dimensioning of typical laminated timber beams covered by Eurocode 5: Single tapered beam, double tapered beam, curved beam and pitched cambered beam. The program uses simplified expressions of Eurocode 5. The first part of the thesis describes expressions used for dimensioning, the second part describes the ...

  15. Symmetric Minimally Entangled Typical Thermal States

    OpenAIRE

    Bruognolo, Benedikt; von Delft, Jan; Weichselbaum, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We extend White's minimally entangled typically thermal states approach (METTS) to allow Abelian and non-Ablian symmetries to be exploited when computing finite-temperature response functions in one-dimensional (1D) quantum systems. Our approach, called SYMETTS, starts from a METTS sample of states that are not symmetry eigenstates, and generates from each a symmetry eigenstate. These symmetry states are then used to calculate dynamic response functions. SYMETTS is ideally suited to determine...

  16. Typicity in potato: characterization of geographic origin

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Manzelli; Sigfrido Romagnoli; Lisetta Ghiselli; Stefano Benedettelli; Enrico Palchetti; Luisa Andrenelli; Vincenzo Vecchio

    2010-01-01

    A two-year study was carried out in three regions of Italy and the crop performance and the chemical composition of tubers of three typical potato varieties evaluated. Carbon and nitrogen tuber content was determined by means of an elemental analyzer and the other mineral elements by means of a spectrometer. The same determinations were performed on soil samples taken from experimental areas. The Principal Component Analysis, applied to the results of mineral element tuber analysis, permitted...

  17. Typicality ratings of male and female voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisak, Brian; Mullennix, John; Moro, Kelly; Will, Jessica; Farnsworth, Lynn

    2002-05-01

    Researchers have suggested that human voices are represented in memory in terms of prototypes [e.g., Kreiman and Papcun (1991); Papcun et al. (1989)]. Others have suggested that speech utterances are stored in memory via detailed exemplar-based representations [e.g., Lachs et al. (2000)]. The goal of the present study was to provide the first step toward assessing the viability of a prototype view of voice. Ten hVd utterances were recorded from each of 20 male and 20 female speakers. The utterances were blocked by speaker gender and presented to male and female listeners who rated each stimulus on a 1-7 typicality scale from ``least typical voice'' to ``most typical voice.'' There were significant effects of the type of vowel and speaker voice on the ratings, as well as interactions of vowel type with gender of subject and speaker voice. The results are discussed in terms of the strength of evidence for a graded category structure of voice categories that would be consistent with a prototype perspective of long-term memory representations of voice.

  18. What Is Typical Is Good : The Influence of Face Typicality on Perceived Trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality’s influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  19. A Psychoanalytic Approach to Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊

    2015-01-01

    Typical American is the representative work of Gish Jen, a famous Chinese American woman writer. This novel is based on the three youth, Ralph, Theresa, and Helen who came to America to study and then became American citizens. This thesis tries to analyze the special psychological state of them from the perspective of psychoanalysis according to Freud 's psychoanalytic theo-ry. Through the writing of this thesis, the author regards that their specific psychoanalytic state is a group features. To learn these special features can help us have a good understanding of people coming from different cultural backgrounds.

  20. Youth spare time: Typical patterns of behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanović Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have tried to identify typical patterns of young people's behavior in their spare time and to use these patterns in order to group our subjects regarding their interests and preferences. Main-component analysis showed that it was possible to find different patterns of secondary school students' behavior in spare time as well as that the identified models could be the criteria for grouping them. Five patterns have been identified describing youth orientations towards their free time: academic orientation, orientation towards sports, orientation towards entertainment, orientation towards spending time going out and orientation towards music and computers.

  1. Typical Women Figures in Hemingway's Fictional World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春会; 范璐

    2008-01-01

    Ernest Hemingway is widely regarded as a giant figure in American literature, but meantime he is often criticized for his prejudice against women. However, whether Ernest Hemingway is a misogynist writer or not, I believe is largely depended on readers' comprehension of his works. This paper launched an interesting study on typical women characters in Hemingway's fictional world. The study also reveals that fact that far from being a misogynist writer, Hemingway shows great concern to women as a group. Not only did he own strong insight on women but also expressed his sympathy towards women.

  2. On Typicality in Nonequilibrium Steady States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Denis J.; Williams, Stephen R.; Searles, Debra J.; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2016-08-01

    From the statistical mechanical viewpoint, relaxation of macroscopic systems and response theory rest on a notion of typicality, according to which the behavior of single macroscopic objects is given by appropriate ensembles: ensemble averages of observable quantities represent the measurements performed on single objects, because " almost all" objects share the same fate. In the case of non-dissipative dynamics and relaxation toward equilibrium states, " almost all" is referred to invariant probability distributions that are absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure. In other words, the collection of initial micro-states (single systems) that do not follow the ensemble is supposed to constitute a set of vanishing, phase space volume. This approach is problematic in the case of dissipative dynamics and relaxation to nonequilibrium steady states, because the relevant invariant distributions attribute probability 1 to sets of zero volume, while evolution commonly begins in equilibrium states, i.e., in sets of full phase space volume. We consider the relaxation of classical, thermostatted particle systems to nonequilibrium steady states. We show that the dynamical condition known as Ω T-mixing is necessary and sufficient for relaxation of ensemble averages to steady state values. Moreover, we find that the condition known as weak T-mixing applied to smooth observables is sufficient for ensemble relaxation to be independent of the initial ensemble. Lastly, we show that weak T-mixing provides a notion of typicality for dissipative dynamics that is based on the (non-invariant) Lebesgue measure, and that we call physical ergodicity.

  3. Managing uncertainty in typical mining project studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhn, Christoff

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mining project studies and their evaluation are characterised by high uncertainties. These uncertainties range in magnitude from, and are prevalent in, the geological data on which the project is based, through to the final prices received for the ore, metal, or mineral being sold to the market. The process for managing uncertainties in mining projects could have a huge impact on the decision about the final option and on the project composition. It is therefore critical that a systematic process is followed that manages these uncertainties effectively and consistently throughout the project phases, and when evaluating various options one against the other. This paper discusses the results of an investigation to determine the extent to which risk management was applied in twenty different project studies in the mining environment. The results of these studies indicate that uncertainties relating to typical mining project studies are not well understood or managed. A process to manage these uncertainties throughout the project development phases was developed and used in a typical pre-feasibility study. The results indicate that the process can be successfully implemented; and that the process helps to develop the project faster by focusing the project teams most on the uncertainties that affect the project need or requirement.

  4. Manipulating decision making of typical agents

    CERN Document Server

    Yukalov, V I

    2014-01-01

    We investigate how the choice of decision makers can be varied under the presence of risk and uncertainty. Our analysis is based on the approach we have previously applied to individual decision makers, which we now generalize to the case of decision makers that are members of a society. The approach employs the mathematical techniques that are common in quantum theory, justifying our naming as Quantum Decision Theory. However, we do not assume that decision makers are quantum objects. The techniques of quantum theory are needed only for defining the prospect probabilities taking into account such hidden variables as behavioral biases and other subconscious feelings. The approach describes an agent's choice as a probabilistic event occurring with a probability that is the sum of a utility factor and of an attraction factor. The attraction factor embodies subjective and unconscious dimensions in the mind of the decision maker. We show that the typical aggregate amplitude of the attraction factor is $1/4$, and ...

  5. Typicity in Potato: Characterization of Geographic Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Manzelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-year study was carried out in three regions of Italy and the crop performance and the chemical composition of tubers of three typical potato varieties evaluated. Carbon and nitrogen tuber content was determined by means of an elemental analyzer and the other mineral elements by means of a spectrometer. The same determinations were performed on soil samples taken from experimental areas. The Principal Component Analysis, applied to the results of mineral element tuber analysis, permitted the classification of all potato tuber samples according to their geographic origin. Only a partial discrimination was obtained in function of potato varieties. Some correlations between mineral content in the tubers and in the soil were also detected. Analytical and statistical methods proved to be useful in verifying the authenticity of guaranteed geographical food denominations.

  6. Iron absorption from typical Latin American diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, A; Amar, M; Cornbluth-Szarfarc, S C; Dillman, E; Fosil, M; Biachi, R G; Grebe, G; Hertrampf, E; Kremenchuzky, S; Layrisse, M

    1984-06-01

    The availability and daily absorption of iron was determined by the extrinsic label method in typical lower middle to lower class diets consumed in regions of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. Differences in iron absorption from meals up to 7-fold, could be attributed to the varying contents of absorption enhancers, eg, in meat, and of inhibitors in tea, vegetables, and wheat or maize bread. The total iron available in the diets from four countries did not meet the physiological requirements for normal subjects but deficient subjects fulfilled their requirements absorbing from 1.0 to 2.1 mg/day. In five diets heme iron (6 to 24% of the total) provided 34 to 73% of the iron absorbed. These data suggest that such absorption and utilization studies may be used to correlate the prevalence of iron deficiency in a population with certain diets and to guide fortification programs.

  7. Management of refractory typical GERD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpellini, Emidio; Ang, Daphne; Pauwels, Ans; De Santis, Adriano; Vanuytsel, Tim; Tack, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The management of patients with refractory GERD (rGERD) is a major clinical challenge for gastroenterologists. In up to 30% of patients with typical GERD symptoms (heartburn and/or regurgitation), acid-suppressive therapy does not provide clinical benefit. In this Review, we discuss the current management algorithm for GERD and the features and management of patients who do not respond to treatment (such as those individuals with an incorrect diagnosis of GERD, inadequate PPI intake, persisting acid reflux and persisting weakly acidic reflux). Symptom response to existing surgical techniques, novel antireflux procedures, and the value of add-on medical therapies (including prokinetics and reflux inhibitors) for rGERD symptoms are discussed. Pharmaceutical agents targeting oesophageal sensitivity, a condition that can contribute to symptom generation in rGERD, are also discussed. Finally, on the basis of available published data and our expert opinion, we present an outline of a current, usable algorithm for management of patients with rGERD that considers the timing and diagnostic use of pH-impedance monitoring on or off PPI, additional diagnostic tests, the clinical use of baclofen and the use of add-on neuromodulators (tricyclic agents and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). PMID:27075264

  8. How typical is the Coma cluster?

    CERN Document Server

    Pimbblet, K A; Davies, R L

    2013-01-01

    Coma is frequently used as the archetype z~0 galaxy cluster to compare higher redshift work against. It is not clear, however, how representative the Coma cluster is for galaxy clusters of its mass or X-ray luminosity, and significantly: recent works have suggested that the galaxy population of Coma may be in some ways anomolous. In this work, we present a comparison of Coma to an X-ray selected control sample of clusters. We show that although Coma is typical against the control sample in terms of its internal kinematics (substructure and velocity dispersion profile), it has a significantly high (~3sigma) X-ray temperature set against clusters of comparable mass. By de-redshifting our control sample cluster galaxies star-formation rates using a fit to the galaxy main sequence evolution at z 99 per cent. One way to alleviate this discrepency and bring Coma in-line with the control sample would be to have the distance to Coma to be slightly lower, perhaps through a non-negligible peculiar velocity with respec...

  9. TYPICAL ABSENCES: RESULTS OF OWN INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical absences (TA are brief primary generalized epileptic seizures characterized by sudden onset and termination. According to their definition, absences consist of impairment of consciousness that is synchronously accompanied by electroencephalographic (EEG changes as generalized spike–slow wave discharges of 3 or more Hz. The authors conducted an investigation of 1261 patients with different forms of epilepsy with onset of seizures from the first days of life to the age of 18 years. The patients were followed up from 1990 to 2010. Absence seizures were detected in 231 patients, which accounts for 18.3 % of all the epileptic patients. TA were found in 102 patients, which constitutes 8.1 % of all cases of epilepsy with onset of seizures beyond the age of 18 years. The paper provides a detailed analysis of a group of patients with TA in terms of anamnestic, clinical, electroencephalographic, and neuroimaging features and the results of therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. The age of onset of TA-associated epilepsy was from 9 months to 17 years (mean 9.4 ± 4.06 years. The disease occurred most frequently in young school-age children (41.2 %. Isolated TA as the only type of seizures were observed in the clinical picture of 28 (27.5 % patients. TA were concurrent with other types of seizures in other cases. The investigators have identified 4 types of seizures which TA (generalized convulsions, myoclonic seizures, febrile seizures, and eyelid myoclonia may be concurrent with. Neuroimaging stated there were no brain changes in 85.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. Moderate diffuse subatrophic changes were detected in other cases (14.7 %. Local cerebral structural abnormalities were absent. The use of antiepileptic therapy as both monotherapy and polytherapy using different combinations showed the high efficacy of AEDs. Complete remission was achieved in 84.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. An AED-induced reduction in the frequency of

  10. The typical mass ratio and typical final spin in supermassive black hole mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Gergely, László Á

    2012-01-01

    We prove that merging supermassive black holes (SMBHs) typically have neither equal masses, nor is their mass ratio too extreme. The majority of such mergers fall into the mass ratio range of 1:30 to 1:3, implying a spin flip during the inspiral. We also present a simple expression for the final spin $\\chi_{f}$ of the emerging SMBH, as function of the mass ratio, initial spin magnitudes, and orientation of the spins with respect to the orbital plane and each other. This formula approximates well more cumbersome expressions obtained from the fit with numerical simulations. By integrating over all equally likely orientations for precessing mergers we determine a lower approximant to the final spin distribution as function of the mass ratio alone. By folding this with the derived mass ratio dependent merger rate we derive a lower bound to the typical final spin value after mergers. We repeat the procedure deriving an upper bound for the typical spin in the case when the spins are aligned to the orbital angular m...

  11. On Jacobian group arithmetic for typical divisors on curves

    OpenAIRE

    Khuri-Makdisi, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    In a previous joint article with F. Abu Salem, we gave efficient algorithms for Jacobian group arithmetic of "typical" divisor classes on C_{3,4} curves, improving on similar results by other authors. At that time, we could only state that a generic divisor was typical, and hence unlikely to be encountered if one implemented these algorithms over a very large finite field. This article pins down an explicit characterization of these typical divisors, for an arbitrary smooth projective curve o...

  12. Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's.

  13. On typical properties of the universe in superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further properties of the Typical Universe are investigated. A typical measure determined by the evolution of the Universe as a dynamical system is defined in Wheeler-DeWitt superspace. Poincare Recurrence Theorem is shown to violate for the Universe due to the fact that the measure of returning points is zero. (author). 13 refs

  14. A Relationship between Typical Script Events and Positive Interpersonal Judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjafield, John; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the possibility that the extent to which people expect typical events to occur is correlated with the degree to which people make positive judgements about their acquaintances. Results supported this possibility and suggested that the typicality of scripts is indicative of the general positivity of a person's expectations. (Author/JAC)

  15. Three Typical Dermatological Cases Treated by Dr. Li Yueping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shaoqiong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Dr. Li Yueping has been engaged in dermatological clinic for more than 40 years, accumulating rich experience in treating dermatological diseases. The following is three typical cases she gave successful treatment.

  16. Food and Wine Tourism: an Analysis of Italian Typical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to focus the specific role of local food productions in spite of its relationship with tourism sector to valorization and promotion of the territorial cultural heritage. The modern agriculture has been and, in the recent years, several specific features are emerging referring to different territorials areas. Tourist would like to have a complete experience consumption of a destination, specifically to natural and cultural heritage and genuine food. This contribute addresses the topics connected to the relationship between typical productions system and tourism sector to underline the competitive advantages to local development. The typical productions are Designation of Protected Origin (Italian DOP, within wine certifications DOCG and DOC and Typical Geographical Indication (IGP and wine’s IGT. The aim is an analysis of the specialization of these kinds of production at Italian regional scale. The implication of the work has connected with defining a necessary and appropriate value strategies based on marketing principles in order to translate the benefit of typical productions to additional value for the local system. Thus, the final part of the paper describes the potential dynamics with the suitable accommodation typology of agriturismo and the typical production system of Italian Administrative Regions.

  17. Entanglement Dynamics in Typical Local- and Normal-Mode Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xi-Wen; WAN Ming-Fang; MA Zhong-Qi

    2007-01-01

    The entanglement dynamics of two stretching vibrations in theoretically typical local- and normal-mode molecules and realistic molecules H2O and SO2 in an algebraic model is studied in terms of the reduced-density linear entropy with initial entangled states taken to be two-mode squeezed vacuum states. It is shown that the behaviour of the entropy in theoretically typical molecules appears to be more regular than that in realistic ones, and that the entropy becomes irregular as the amplitude of two-mode squeezed vacuum states increases. For initial states with a small amplitude, it is demonstrated that the periodicity and the "classical" beat phenomenon of the entropy occur with the beat in theoretically typical molecules being more regular than that in realistic molecules H2O and SO2.

  18. Stimulus Overselectivity in Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, William V.; Farber, Rachel S.; Mueller, Marlana R.; Grant, Eileen; Lorin, Lucy; Deutsch, Curtis K.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulus overselectivity refers to maladaptive narrow attending that is a common learning problem among children with intellectual disabilities and frequently associated with autism. The present study contrasted overselectivity among groups of children with autism, Down syndrome, and typical development. The groups with autism and Down syndrome…

  19. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-02-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each conditionalization scheme studied, we analyze how correlations between densities of different dark matter species affect the prediction, and explicate the effects of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that the effects of correlations can depend on the conditionalization scheme, and that in each case atypicality can significantly change the prediction. In doing so, we demonstrate the existence of overlaps in the predictions of different "frameworks" consisting of conjunctions of theory, conditionalization scheme and typicality assumption. This conclusion highlights the acute challenges involved in using such tests to identify a preferred framework that aims to describe our observational situation in a multiverse.

  20. The Roots of Disillusioned American Dream in Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古冬华

    2016-01-01

    Typical American is one of Gish Jen’s notable novels catching attention of the American literary circle. The motif of disillusioned American dream can be seen clearly through the experiences of three main characters. From perspectives of the consumer culture and cultural conflicts, this paper analyzes the roots of the disillusioned American dream in the novel.

  1. Quantum typicality in spin network states of quantum geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Anzà, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we extend the so-called typicality approach, originally formulated in statistical mechanics contexts, to SU(2) invariant spin network states. Our results do not depend on the physical interpretation of the spin-network, however they are mainly motivated by the fact that spin-network states can describe states of quantum geometry, providing a gauge-invariant basis for the kinematical Hilbert space of several background independent approaches to quantum gravity. The first result is, by itself, the existence of a regime in which we show the emergence of a typical state. We interpret this as the prove that, in that regime there are certain (local) properties of quantum geometry which are "universal". Such set of properties is heralded by the typical state, of which we give the explicit form. This is our second result. In the end, we study some interesting properties of the typical state, proving that the area-law for the entropy of a surface must be satisfied at the local level, up to logarithmic c...

  2. Effects of contrasting category, conjoint frequency and typicality on categorization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das-Smaal, E.A.; Swart, de J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether (a) experience with a contrasting category, (b) conjoint frequency of dimensional values, (c) range of typicality of values, and (d) type of information administered during learning influenced subsequent test performance. Each experiment began wi

  3. Typical School Personnel Developing and Implementing Basic Behavior Support Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen; Horner, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of typical school personnel with basic behavioral training to develop and implement function-based supports for students with mild to moderate problem behaviors. Descriptive results indicated that following four 1-hr training sessions, 13 participants were able to (a) identify interventions that were and were not…

  4. Fostering an Interest in Science in a Typically Underrepresented Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sarah F.; McEntire, Jennifer Cleveland; Sarakatsannis, James

    2007-01-01

    This "case study" details how food science was introduced into the classrooms of a typically underrepresented population. James Sarakatsannis, an 8th grade physical science teacher, was planning a unit that would use fast food to teach science to his classes, when he came across the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) website and a wealth of…

  5. NOUN DERIVATION OF THE TYPICAL MINAHASA FOOD AND BEVERAGE NAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina P Pamantung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Derivation of the name of typical Minahasa food and beverage is a change or replacement of the word class of verbs, adverbs, and adjectives into nouns. It occurs through the process of compounding, affixation, and reduplication. Free morpheme which appears is ransak, tei, tu'tu, tape, segor, sende ', rica, fresh, rukus. Conversely, some morphemes or bound forms (affixes are the prefix /pe-/,/wa-/, and /ko-/ ; infix /-in-/ ; suffix /-en/, and confixes /-in- + -an/ and  /ka- + -an/ . Prefixes /pe-/, /wa-/, and /ko-/ ; infix /-in-/ ; sufi x-en/, andconfixes /-in- + -an/ occur in the formation of derivational words of  food, while  drinks contain two morphemes (affixes, the infix / -in- / and confix (ka + -an. Thus, the derivation of the typical Minahasa food naming is called derivational affixes such as derivational prefix, infix, and confix. Meanwhile, derivational infix, and confix occur in a typical Minahasa drink. Empty derivation is not found in the typical Minahasa food and beverage since a single form, for example, pangi, sa’ut, paniki, kawok, dan sopi have a meaning that does not change the word class. In addition, the characteristics of the structure of itscompounding: root + base (base + roots, that have a sense of the endocentric and exocentric compound words. Endocentric ompounding is the most frequent.

  6. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Sung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu College of Medicine, Daegu 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk Jung [Department of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Yoon [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast.

  7. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast

  8. BRONCHOSCOPIC THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH INTRALUMINAL TYPICAL BRONCHIAL CARCINOID

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SUTEDJA, TG; SCHREURS, AJ; VANDERSCHUEREN, RG; KWA, B; VANDERWERF, TS; POSTMUS, PE

    1995-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficacy of bronchoscopic therapy in patients with intraluminal typical bronchial carcinoid. Design: Retrospective analysis of the data of patients with bronchial carcinoid, treated primarily with bronchoscopic techniques such as Nd-YAG laser in various hospitals in the Nethe

  9. Temperament Dimensions in Stuttering and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F.; Van den Bergh, Bea R. H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether children who stutter (CWS) and typically developing children (TDC) differ from each other on composite temperament factors or on individual temperament scales. Methods: Participants consisted of 116 age and gender-matched CWS and TDC (3.04-8.11). Temperament was assessed with a Dutch…

  10. Are typical plains state towns potential superfund sites?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A typical plains town (Hastings, population 23,000) in south-central Nebraska was the subject of a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS). This town was classified as a Superfund site in 1985. The RI/FS consisted of installing 40 monitoring wells, drilling 111 exploratory boreholes, and analyzing numerous soil, soil gas, and ground-water samples. As the picture unfolded, it became evident that this Superfund site is probably typical of any agricultural community in the plains states. The site is approximately 3.25 miles long, 0.5 mile wide, and is centered on the intersection of two major rail lines. The site was segmented into seven subsites based on identified sources of ground-water contamination. Each source could represent an operation typical of small towns located on the plains. Two of the subsites were designated because of fumigant releases at former and current grain storage facilities; one of these subsites also experienced a solvent release from a manufacturing facility. A third subsite was designated because of a solvent release. This subsite was adjacent to a fourth subsite containing the residuals of a former coal gasification operation. Another two subsites were former landfills. The seventh subsite, a former Navy Ammunition Depot located outside of town, is not typical of most towns in the plains states. This subsite is currently an industrial complex. Contaminant releases have been identified on this subsite that are the result of former ammunition operations and some current operations. Ground-water contaminant configuration is very complicated in that the site ground-water contaminant plume is the commingling of six major contaminants forming five separate plumes. Given the overall similarity in the physiographic conditions, geologic formations, hydrogeology, and farming related industries/operations, we believe that HaStings may not be unique and other typical plains state towns have the potential to become Superfund sites

  11. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-01-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each condi...

  12. Stimulus Overselectivity in Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, William V; Farber, Rachel S; Mueller, Marlana R; Grant, Eileen; Lorin, Lucy; Deutsch, Curtis K

    2016-05-01

    Stimulus overselectivity refers to maladaptive narrow attending that is a common learning problem among children with intellectual disabilities and frequently associated with autism. The present study contrasted overselectivity among groups of children with autism, Down syndrome, and typical development. The groups with autism and Down syndrome were matched for intellectual level, and all three groups were matched for developmental levels on tests of nonverbal reasoning and receptive vocabulary. Delayed matching-to-sample tests presented color/form compounds, printed words, photographs of faces, Mayer-Johnson Picture Communication Symbols, and unfamiliar black forms. No significant differences among groups emerged for test accuracy scores. Overselectivity was not statistically overrepresented among individuals with autism in contrast to those with Down syndrome or typically developing children.

  13. [A case of disseminated gonococcal infection without typical skin rash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Kazuhisa; Gomi, Harumi; Morisawa, Yuji

    2011-07-01

    Few case reports have been published on disseminated gonococcal infection in Japan. We report such a non-HIV case without typical skin rash. A 49-year-old Japanese man living in Thailand on business was seen for fever and multiple arthralgia after returning to Japan. Given the travel history, differential diagnoses included endemic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dengue fever, and chikungunya. Diagnosis was based on right-knee arthrocentesis, and synovial fluid culture followed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The isolated strain was sensitive to penicillin. The man was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone and oral levofloxacin. Disseminated gonococcal infection should thus be considered when examining those with classical polyarthralgia symptoms even without a typical skin rash.

  14. Stimulus Overselectivity in Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, William V; Farber, Rachel S; Mueller, Marlana R; Grant, Eileen; Lorin, Lucy; Deutsch, Curtis K

    2016-05-01

    Stimulus overselectivity refers to maladaptive narrow attending that is a common learning problem among children with intellectual disabilities and frequently associated with autism. The present study contrasted overselectivity among groups of children with autism, Down syndrome, and typical development. The groups with autism and Down syndrome were matched for intellectual level, and all three groups were matched for developmental levels on tests of nonverbal reasoning and receptive vocabulary. Delayed matching-to-sample tests presented color/form compounds, printed words, photographs of faces, Mayer-Johnson Picture Communication Symbols, and unfamiliar black forms. No significant differences among groups emerged for test accuracy scores. Overselectivity was not statistically overrepresented among individuals with autism in contrast to those with Down syndrome or typically developing children. PMID:27119213

  15. Energy Renovation of a Typical Danish Single-family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    , the purpose of the project was to demonstrate that energy efficient renovation of a typical single-family house would lead to large reductions in energy consumption in a cost efficient manner, and at the same time improve living conditions. The focus has also been on achieving a commonly acceptable design......In 2006, new tighter energy performance requirements were introduced in Denmark for both new buildings and renovation, including a new classification system for low energy buildings. These demands are based on the directive on Energy Performance of Buildings, the EPBD (2002/91/EC). In general...... of a typical Danish single-family house from the 1960/70’s with need of renovation has been initiated and the preliminary results are presented in this paper. It is worth noting that about 500,000 of a total of 1.1 million Danish detached single-family houses were erected in that time period. Specifically...

  16. Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

  17. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seismic response of a typical shear structure in a commercial nuclear power plant was investigated for a series of site and foundation conditions using best estimate and design procedures. The structure selected is a part of the Zion AFT complex which is a connected group of reinforced concrete shear wall buildings, typical of nuclear power plant structures. Comparisons between best estimate responses quantified the effects of placing the structure on different sites and founding it in different manners. Calibration factors were developed by comparing simplified SSI design procedure responses to responses calculated by best estimate procedures. Nineteen basic cases were analyzed - each case was analyzed for ten earthquakes targeted to the NRC R.G. 1.60 design response spectra. The structure is a part of the Zion auxiliary-fuel handling turbine building (AFT) complex to the Zion nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  18. Dealing with typical values via Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmidt, Eulalia; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2010-07-01

    This paper is an improved and extended version of our previous work2 on typicality in terms of Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets (to be called A-IFSs, for short)3. We follow the line of reasoning known from psychological and cognitive sciences, in particular from linguistic experiments, and verify how those results work in the case of classification - a typical problem in computer science, decision sciences, etc. Our considerations concentrate on a typical example discussed in cognitive sciences - we investigate to which extent a linguistic representation in a psychological space (we start from nominal data - names are assigned to objects as labels) succeeds in predicting categories via A-IFSs. First, we consider a model of categories with a geometrical centroid model in which the similarity is defined in terms of a distance to centroids. Next, we verify if the extreme ideals, which are important in cognitive processes when categories are learnt in the presence of the alternative (contrast) category, give comparative results. Finally, we discuss if the 'reachable extreme ideals' and 'dominating frequency centres' give comparative results. We show that A-IFSs make it possible to reflect a positive and negative information via the concept of membership and non-membership. Although the paper presents ongoing research, the results obtained are promising and point out the usefulness and strength of A-IFSs as a tool to account for more aspects of vague data and information. Based on 'On Some Typical Values for A-IFS', by E. Szmidt and J. Kacprzyk which appeared in the Proceedings of the 4th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Systems IS'08, pp. 13-2-13-7. There is currently a discussion on the appropriateness of the name IFS introduced by Dubois et al. (2005), and also Atanassov's (2005) response. This is, however, beyond the scope of this paper which will not be dealing with this issue.

  19. Predicting Friendship Quality in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bauminger, Nirit; Solomon, Marjorie; Rogers, Sally J.

    2009-01-01

    The role played by social relationship variables (attachment security; mother–child relationship qualities) and social-cognitive capacities (theory of mind) was examined in both observed friendship behaviors and in children’s descriptions of friendships (age 8–12) with high functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) (n = 44) and with typical development (TYP) (n = 38). Overall, half of the HFASD sample (54.45%) reported maternal attachment security, corroborating data from yo...

  20. CYBERCITY:CONCEPTION,TECHNICAL SUPPORTS AND TYPICAL APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper,the concepts about the CyberCity and the corresponding technique supports and typical applications are introduced.As the pilot projects,the applications of CCGIS software in CyberShenzhen and CyberShanghai are also presented.At last,some of key technologies such as the reconstruction of three dimensional city model,vast amount of data integration and its real time application of 3D animation are discussed.

  1. Characteristics of bivalve diversity in typical habitats of China seas

    OpenAIRE

    Fengshan Xu; Junlong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    With vast sea areas, long coastline and complex environmental conditions, the China seas contain various habitats for bivalves. The diversity characteristics of some typical habitats can reflect the molluscan fauna of China seas. Based on our years of work and records from malacologists home and abroad, the bi-valve diversity, habitats and ecological habits in different environments are described, and the distribution characters in different sea areas are analysed. Due to the effects of coast...

  2. Effect of Biofumigation on Typical Weeds of Strawberry Fields

    OpenAIRE

    González Zamora, José Enrique; López Martínez, Nuria; Aguirre Jiménez, Itziar; Avilla Hernández, Carlos; Lopez Medina, Jose

    2006-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of biofumigation using fresh organic matter on typical weeds present in strawberry fields of southern Spain. Field experiments consisted of biofumigation (BF) treatment over 45 days, at two locations, with hen droppings or horse manure at a dose of 3 kg m-2, alone or in combination with solarization (BF+S) in an experimental randomized block design. Results showed good control of the main weed species, Poa annua, Portulaca oleracea and Lolium...

  3. Typical homicide ritual of the Italian Mafia (incaprettamento)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineschi, V; Dell'Erba, A S; Di Paolo, M; Procaccianti, P

    1998-03-01

    Certain methods of homicide used by the Italian Mafia are intended to have an admonitory significance. One such method is the so-called "incaprettamento." This study analyzes 18 cases of homicidal ligature strangulation in which the body was found in this typical position. The circumstances of the crime and the macroscopic and microscopic evidence were evaluated to determine whether or not the ligatures on the wrists and ankles were placed antemortem or postmortem. PMID:9539400

  4. Properties of typical bounded closed convex sets in Hilbert space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. de Blasi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For a nonempty separable convex subset X of a Hilbert space ℍ(Ω, it is typical (in the sense of Baire category that a bounded closed convex set C⊂ℍ(Ω defines an m-valued metric antiprojection (farthest point mapping at the points of a dense subset of X, whenever m is a positive integer such that m≤dimX+1.

  5. Intracranial germinoma; typical CT appearances and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The typical CT appearances of intracranial germinomas are described in three cases. These consist of an isodense or hyperdense tumour in the mid-line, originating from the pineal body or infundibulum, with marked increase in density on contrast enhancement. Periventricular tumour expansion in relation to the entire supratentorial ventricular system is characteristic. The rapid tumour regression after small doses of radiation is stressed and complete regression of the tumour, as seen on CT, is a sign of its radio-curability. (orig.)

  6. [Interferon alpha antibodies show no cross reactions with typical autoantibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görg, S; Klouche, M; Wilhelm, D; Kirchner, H

    1993-04-01

    Patients treated with natural human interferon alpha develop anti-interferon antibodies (IFN-AB) only in very rare cases. By contrast, patients with autoimmune disorders are able to generate high-titered IFN-AB against endogenous interferon alpha. One explanation for the development of auto-IFN-AB could be cross-reactivity with typical autoimmune antigens. We investigated the cross-reactivity of 3 high-titered IgG IFN-AB of female autoimmune patients (aged 32, 36, 74 years; two severe cases of SLE, one case of autoimmune thyroiditis) as well as 25 low-titered natural IgM IFN-AB of healthy blood donors (aged 19-48 years). Typical autoimmune antigens including dsDNA, ENA, as well as natural interferon beta and recombinant interferon gamma are not able to inhibit binding of IFN-AB to interferon alpha in an ELISA test system. Preincubation of sera containing either dsDNA antibodies (dsDNA-AB) (24 patients), thyroid peroxidase (TPO-AB) (9 patients) or thyroglobulin (TG-AB) (12 patients) with interferon alpha resulted in no change in the respective autoantibody titer. These data suggest that there is no cross-reactivity between IFN-alpha-AB and dsDNA-AB, TPO-AB or TG-AB. Thus, an explanation for the occurrence of IFN-AB in autoimmune disorders cannot be found in a cross-reaction between interferon alpha with typical autoimmune antigens.

  7. Rural Tourism and Local Development: Typical Productions of Lazio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The local development is based on the integration of the tourism sector with the whole economy. The rural tourism seems to be a good occasion to analyse the local development: consumption of "tourist products" located in specific local contexts. Starting from the food and wine supply chain and the localization of typical productions, the aim of the present work will be analyse the relationship with local development, rural tourism sustainability and accommodation system, referring to Lazio. Which are the findings to create tourism local system based on the relationship with touristic and food and wine supply chain? Italian tourism is based on accommodation system, so the whole consideration of the Italian cultural tourism: tourism made in Italy. The touristic added value to specific local context takes advantage from the synergy with food and wine supply chain: made in Italy of typical productions. Agritourism could be better accommodation typology to rural tourism and to exclusivity of consumption typical productions. The reciprocity among food and wine supply chain and tourism provides new insights on the key topics related to tourism development and to the organization of geographical space as well and considering its important contribution nowadays to the economic competitiveness.

  8. DINÁMICA DEL AGUA EN ANDISOLES BAJO CONDICIONES DE LADERA SOIL WATER DYNAMICS IN ANDISOLS UNDER HILLSLOPE CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Hincapié Gómez; Conrado Tobón Marín

    2012-01-01

    Resumen. El flujo de agua en el suelo es calificado como un proceso dinámico que regula reacciones químicas y eventos físicos y biológicos, que a su vez influyen en la nutrición, crecimiento y desarrollo de las plantas; es considerado de interés ambiental, ya que influye en la regulación hidrológica, en la distribución y transmisión de agua, solutos y contaminantes a través de la zona no saturada del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la dinámica de la humedad volumétrica y del po...

  9. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.J.; Schewe, E.C.; Maslenikov, O.R.

    1984-04-01

    The Simplified Methods project of the US NRC-funded Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has as its goal the development of a methodology to perform routine seismic probabilistic risk assessments of commercial nuclear power plants. The study reported here develops calibration factors to relate best estimate response to design values accounting for approximations and simplifications in SSI analysis procedures. Nineteen cases were analyzed and in-structure response compared. The structure of interest was a typical shear wall structure. 6 references, 44 figures, 22 tables.

  10. Identifying Typical Movements Among Indoor Objects - Concepts and Empirical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radaelli, Laura; Sabonis, Dovydas; Lu, Hua;

    2013-01-01

    With the proliferation of mobile computing, positioning systems are becoming available that enable indoor location-based services. As a result, indoor tracking data is also becoming available. This paper puts focus on one use of such data namely the identification of typical movement patterns among...... indoor moving objects. Specifically, the paper presents a method for the identification of movement patterns. Leveraging concepts from sequential pattern mining, the method takes into account the specifics of spatial movement and, in particular, the specifics of tracking data that captures indoor...

  11. ORGANIC NITROGEN IN A TYPIC HAPLUDOX FERTILIZED WITH PIG SLURRY

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The application of pig slurry may have a different effect on nitrogen dynamics in soil compared to mineral fertilization. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the different forms of organic N in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (Typic Hapludox) and their relationship to N uptake by crops in response to 10 years of annual application of pig slurry and mineral fertilizer. The treatments were application rates of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 m3 ha-1 of pig slurry, in addition to mineral fer...

  12. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Simplified Methods project of the US NRC-funded Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has as its goal the development of a methodology to perform routine seismic probabilistic risk assessments of commercial nuclear power plants. The study reported here develops calibration factors to relate best estimate response to design values accounting for approximations and simplifications in SSI analysis procedures. Nineteen cases were analyzed and in-structure response compared. The structure of interest was a typical shear wall structure. 6 references, 44 figures, 22 tables

  13. Characterising mechanical transmission wire ropes’ typical failure modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Espejo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The National University of Colombia’s Engineering School’s AFIS research group has helped several public and private institutions during the last five years in analysing the causes of failures presented in elevation and trans- port machinery leading to expensive consequences and even the loss of life. A group of typical wire rope failure modes have been identified, along with their common causes. These are presented in this work to offer help to our industry’s engineers and technicians, allowing them to identify possible risk situations in their routine work regarding the wire ropes which they use and approaches for carrying out wire rope failure analysis.

  14. Formation of disinfection byproducts in typical Chinese drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbo; Zhao, Yanmei; Chow, Christopher W K; Wang, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Eight typical drinking water supplies in China were selected in this study. Both source and tap water were used to investigate the occurrence of chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), and seasonal variation in the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) of seven water sources was compared. The results showed that the pollution level for source water in China, as shown by DBP formation potential, was low. The most encountered DBPs were chloroform, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and chlorodibromoacetic acid. The concentration of every THMs and haloacetic acid (HAA) compound was under the limit of standards for drinking water quality. The highest total THMs concentrations were detected in spring.

  15. Formation of disinfection byproducts in typical Chinese drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbo Liu; Yanmei Zhao; Christopher WK Chow; Dongsheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Eight typical drinking water supplies in China were selected in this study.Both source and tap water were used to investigate the occurrence of chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), and seasonal variation in the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) of seven water sources was compared.The results showed that the pollution level for source water in China, as shown by DBP formation potential, was low.The most encountered DBPs were chloroform, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and chiorodibromoacetic acid.The concentration of every THMs and haloacetic acid (HAA) compound was under the limit of standards for drinking water quality.The highest total THMs concentrations were detected in spring.

  16. Typical exposure of children to EMF: exposimetry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey study with portable exposimeters, worn by 21 children under the age of 17, and detailed measurements in an apartment above a transformer substation were carried out to determine the typical individual exposure of children to extremely low- and radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. In total, portable exposimeters were worn for >2400 h. Based on the typical individual exposure the in situ electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) values were calculated for an 11-y-old female human model. The average exposure was determined to be low compared with ICNIRP reference levels: 0.29 μT for an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field and 0.09 V m-1 for GSM base stations, 0.11 V m-1 for DECT and 0.10 V m-1 for WiFi; other contributions could be neglected. However, some of the volunteers were more exposed: the highest realistic exposure, to which children could be exposed for a prolonged period of time, was 1.35 μT for ELF magnetic field and 0.38 V m-1 for DECT, 0.13 V m-1 for WiFi and 0.26 V m-1 for GSM base stations. Numerical calculations of the in situ electric field and SAR values for the typical and the worst-case situation show that, compared with ICNIRP basic restrictions, the average exposure is low. In the typical exposure scenario, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.03 % and the RF exposure <0.001 % of the corresponding basic restriction. In the worst-case situation, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.11 % and the RF exposure <0.007 % of the corresponding basic restrictions. Analysis of the exposures and the individual's perception of being exposed/ unexposed to an ELF magnetic field showed that it is impossible to estimate the individual exposure to an ELF magnetic field based only on the information provided by the individuals, as they do not have enough knowledge and information to properly identify the sources in their vicinity. (authors)

  17. Gamma shielding factor for typical houses in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The housing features in a country depend much on its climate. Dwellings in warm countries are much lighter constructions than in cold ones, which will reflect on the amount of shielding against radiation they provide. In addition to that, wealth is another factor that influences the building's finishing. Great effort has been taken to determine parameters to more accurately estimate dose to a population in case of a radioactive or nuclear accident. Nevertheless, most available data are concerned with typical housing in cold climate countries. This study aims to determine shielding factors for typical building materials used in the southeast of Brazil, a warm area, due to radioactive material deposited on the surrounding field, walls and ceiling of the external surfaces. The shielding factors determination was performed by simulation with the MCNP5 Monte Carlo computer code. The air kerma indoors for the 300, 662 and 3000 keV photon energies have been determined for three different housing patterns, ranging from the very simple to a very complex structure. The shielding factor, defined as the ratio of the air kerma indoor to the air kerma in open field, for the most simple house type and 300 keV photon energy was found to be twice of the best finished one for the same energy. (authors)

  18. A Case of Typical Carcinoid of the Larynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Sato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report herein a rare case of typical carcinoid occurring primarily in the epiglottis. The patient was a 70-year-old man. On initial examination, a polypoid lesion with irregular surface near the center right-hand side of the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis was observed, and a biopsy was performed. Pathological examination of the specimen suggested the possibility of adenocarcinoma. Surgical excision was performed by means of laryngomicrosurgery. A Weerda-type laryngoscope was used to open the larynx, supplemented by rigid nasal sinus surgery endoscopes, and the right-hand half of the epiglottis were excised was ensured using a CO2 laser. Postoperative pathological diagnosis was negative for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell cancer; typical carcinoid was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization criteria. Aspiration occurred postoperatively, swallowing training was therefore provided, and the patient was discharged from hospital 2 months after surgery when he was able to eat normally. As of 4 years after surgery, the patient remains under follow-up observation by means of PET-CT and neck, thoracic, and abdominal CT administered at appropriate intervals, but no findings indicating obvious recurrence or metastasis have been observed, and the patient displays good swallowing function.

  19. Memory for radio advertisements: the effect of program and typicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Luengo, Beatriz; Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of the type of radio program on the memory for radio advertisements. We also investigated the role in memory of the typicality (high or low) of the elements of the products advertised. Participants listened to three types of programs (interesting, boring, enjoyable) with two advertisements embedded in each. After completing a filler task, the participants performed a true/false recognition test. Hits and false alarm rates were higher for the interesting and enjoyable programs than for the boring one. There were also more hits and false alarms for the high-typicality elements. The response criterion for the advertisements embedded in the boring program was stricter than for the advertisements in other types of programs. We conclude that the type of program in which an advertisement is inserted and the nature of the elements of the advertisement affect both the number of hits and false alarms and the response criterion, but not the accuracy of the memory. PMID:24230943

  20. Diversity of amino acids in a typical chernozem of Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunze, N. I.

    2014-12-01

    The content and composition of the amino acids in typical chernozems were studied. The objects of the study included a reference soil under an old fallow and three variants under fodder crop rotations: not fertilized, with mineral fertilizers, and with organic fertilizers. The contents of 18 amino acids were determined in these soils. The amino acids were extracted by the method of acid hydrolysis and identified by the method of ion-exchange chromatography. The total content of most of the amino acids was maximal in the reference soil; it was much lower in the cultivated soils and decreased in the following sequence: organic background > mineral background > no fertilization. The diversity of amino acids was evaluated quantitatively using different parameters applied in ecology for estimating various aspects of the species composition of communities (Simpson, Margalef, Menhinick, and Shannon's indices). The diversity and contribution of different amino acids to the total pool of amino acids also varied significantly in the studied variants. The maximum diversity of amino acids and maximum evenness of their relative abundance indices were typical of the reference chernozem; these parameters were lower in the cultivated soils. It was concluded that the changes in the structure of the amino acids under the impact of agricultural loads are similar to those that are usually observed under stress conditions.

  1. Typical magnitude and spatial extent of crowding in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyberg, Jan; Robertson, Caroline E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced spatial processing of local visual details has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC), and crowding is postulated to be a mechanism that may produce this ability. However, evidence for atypical crowding in ASC is mixed, with some studies reporting a complete lack of crowding in autism and others reporting a typical magnitude of crowding between individuals with and without ASC. Here, we aim to disambiguate these conflicting results by testing both the magnitude and the spatial extent of crowding in individuals with ASC (N = 25) and age- and IQ-matched controls (N = 23) during an orientation discrimination task. We find a strong crowding effect in individuals with and without ASC, which falls off as the distance between target and flanker is increased. Both the magnitude and the spatial range of this effect were comparable between individuals with and without ASC. We also find typical (uncrowded) orientation discrimination thresholds in individuals with ASC. These findings suggest that the spatial extent of crowding is unremarkable in ASC, and is therefore unlikely to account for the visual symptoms reported in individuals with the diagnosis.

  2. Typical action perception and interpretation without motor simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannuscorps, Gilles; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Every day, we interact with people synchronously, immediately understand what they are doing, and easily infer their mental state and the likely outcome of their actions from their kinematics. According to various motor simulation theories of perception, such efficient perceptual processing of others' actions cannot be achieved by visual analysis of the movements alone but requires a process of motor simulation--an unconscious, covert imitation of the observed movements. According to this hypothesis, individuals incapable of simulating observed movements in their motor system should have difficulty perceiving and interpreting observed actions. Contrary to this prediction, we found across eight sensitive experiments that individuals born with absent or severely shortened upper limbs (upper limb dysplasia), despite some variability, could perceive, anticipate, predict, comprehend, and memorize upper limb actions, which they cannot simulate, as efficiently as typically developed participants. We also found that, like the typically developed participants, the dysplasic participants systematically perceived the position of moving upper limbs slightly ahead of their real position but only when the anticipated position was not biomechanically awkward. Such anticipatory bias and its modulation by implicit knowledge of the body biomechanical constraints were previously considered as indexes of the crucial role of motor simulation in action perception. Our findings undermine this assumption and the theories that place the locus of action perception and comprehension in the motor system and invite a shift in the focus of future research to the question of how the visuo-perceptual system represents and processes observed body movements and actions. PMID:26699468

  3. The experimental investigation of microcracks nucleation in typical tectonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The evolution and nucleation of microcracks in typical tectonics are investigated in the experiment of fracture of marble specimen. The change of state during nucleation of microcracks is observed. The controlling effect of tectonics on evolution of microcracks is analyzed by using the damage mechanics theory. These characteristics can be analogized to kilometer meters as the first effect of earthquake precursors. These studies may be helpful to interpret the foreshock or general foreshock in the moderate or short stage before strong earthquakes. The other physical precursors are second or third effect. The local density of microcracks increasing abruptly may be helpful to interpret the phenomenon that part precursor records appear catastrophic jump. The part out of nucleation where some microcracks heal and the density change reversibly may be helpful to interpret the phenomenon that some precursors records appear reverse change. The area difference of microcracks accumulation and evolution in different part of typical tectonics is studied. This difference may be helpful to interpret the characteristics (including the area) of earthquake preparation of different tectonics, and further to interpret the difference of the precursors between plate edge and intraplate. These differences may be introduced by the scholars with different points of view as to discuss about the existence of precursors before earthquakes. However, when the precursor records are studied, one must notice the geology background in different areas.

  4. A study on prioritizing typical women’s entrepreneur characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Ramezani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is one of the main pivot of progress and growth of every country. The spread of entrepreneurship particularly the role of women in this category has speeded up today more than any other times. Many of researchers believe that attention to women entrepreneurship plays remarkable role in soundness and safety of nation’s economy. Maybe in Iran less attention has been paid to this matter in proportion to other countries and due to various reasons, there are not many entrepreneur woman. However, employing typical entrepreneur women in various fields of productivity, industrial, commercial, social and cultural and even higher than these, in country’s political issue proves that women’s role is magnificent and in many cases they enjoy higher abilities in portion to men. In this paper, using additive ratio assessment (ARAS as a prioritizing method, eleven entrepreneur women were chosen for prioritizing criteria for measuring a typical women’s entrepreneurship characteristics. The results show that the balance between work and family among criteria are propounded as the highest weight and fulfilling different jobs simultaneously as the lowest weight.

  5. Recommended Concentration Limits of Typical Indoor Air Contaminants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV Chao; JIANG Yun-tao; ZHAO Jia-ning

    2009-01-01

    From the view of both objective and subjective factors.the indoor air quality(IAQ)evaluation was considered.Carbon dioxide (CO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) were selected as the typical contaminants of indoor air,and the evaluation method of logarithmic index was adopted as the evaluation means of IAQ.Then the recommended limits (RL) of typical contaminants CO2 and HCHO were given through analysis and calcula-tion.The limits of CO2 and HCHO in Indoor Air Quahty Standard of China or other existing standards probably correspond to the level of PD=25(%).The result shows that the existing standards fail to meet the require-ment of the definition of"acceptable indoor air quality",that is to say,less than 20% of the people express dis-satisfaction.When PD=20%,RL of CO2 and HCHO are 728×10-6 and 0.068×10-6 respectively,which are stricter than the limits in the existing standards.The method proposed in this paper is applicable to 13.1%≤PD≤86.7%.

  6. Word Retrieval Ability on Phonemic Fluency in Typically Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Sunila; Rajashekhar, Bellur; Guddattu, Vasudeva

    2016-01-01

    Verbal fluency tasks are simple behavioral measures useful in assessing word retrieval abilities. Among the verbal fluency tasks, the utility of the Phonemic Fluency Task in children has received less attention. As the task is dependent on phonemic characteristics of each language, there is a great need for understanding its developmental trend. The present study, therefore, aims to delineate the performance on phonemic fluency in typically developing Malayalam-speaking children. Verbal fluency performance on 2 tasks of phonemic fluency was tested using a cross-sectional study design among 1,015 school-going Malayalam-speaking typically developing children aged 5 to 15 years old. Performance with respect to word productivity and clustering-switching measures was analyzed. The effect of age, gender, and tasks on the outcome measures were investigated in the present study. Study findings revealed a positive influence of age with no statistically significant gender effects. Children employed both task-discrepant and task-consistent organizational strategies during tasks of phonemic fluency, dependent purely on the Malayalam language. Future research focusing on developmental trends across different languages is vital for enhancing the task's clinical sensitivity and specificity among childhood disorders. PMID:26980155

  7. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viganò

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  8. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viganò

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  9. Analysis and Comparison of Typical Models within Distribution Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jacob; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    This paper investigates the characteristics of typical optimisation models within Distribution Network Design. During the paper fourteen models known from the literature will be thoroughly analysed. Through this analysis a schematic approach to categorisation of distribution network design models...... for educational purposes. Furthermore, the paper can be seen as a practical introduction to network design modelling as well as a being an art manual or recipe when constructing such a model....... are covered in the categorisation include fixed vs. general networks, specialised vs. general nodes, linear vs. nonlinear costs, single vs. multi commodity, uncapacitated vs. capacitated activities, single vs. multi modal and static vs. dynamic. The models examined address both strategic and tactical planning...

  10. GENERATION OF A TYPICAL METEOROLOGICAL YEAR FOR PORT HARCOURT ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OGOLOMA O.B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data for the typical meteorological year (TMY for the Port Harcourt climatic zone based on the hourly meteorological data recorded during the period 1983–2002, using the Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method. The data are the global solar radiation, wind velocity, dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, and others. The HVAC outside design conditions for the Port Harcourt climatic zone (latitude 4.44oN, longitude 7.1oE, elevation 20 m were found to be 26.7oC, 78.6% and 3.5 m/s for the dry bulb temperature, relative humidity and wind speed, respectively, and 13.5 MJ/m2/day for the global solar radiation. The TMY data for the zone are shown to be sufficiently reliable for engineering practice.

  11. Infiuence of Bicycle Traffic on Capacity of Typical Signalized Intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaoming; SHAO Chunfu; YUE Hao

    2007-01-01

    Bicycle traffic has a significant effect on the capacity of signalized intersections. This paper divides the influence of bicyclists on vehicular flow into four types with the time durations estimated based on probability, shock wave, and gap acceptance theory. Vehicular saturation flow rate is predicted for various conditions on the basis of the speed-flow curve for the capacity of typical intersections influenced by bicycle traffic.The model overcomes the limitations of the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM, 2000) method for left-turns due to data collection, and takes into account the effect of trapped bicycles on the through vehicular traffic.The numerical results show that the left-turn and through capacities predicted by the model are lower than those of the HCM method. The right-turn capacity is close to that of the HCM method at Iow bicycle volumes and higher than that of the HCM method at high bicycle volumes.

  12. Typical and unusual cases of female genital tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kulchavenya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a disease with myriad presentations and manifestations; it can affect any organ or tissue, excluding only hair and nails. Doctors who are not familiar with extrapulmonary tuberculosis often overlook this disease. Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB is the second most common form of TB in countries with severe epidemic situation and the third most common form in regions with low incidence of TB. The term “Urogenital tuberculosis” includes kidney tuberculosis; male and female tuberculosis and urinary tract tuberculosis as complication of kidney tuberculosis. We describe rarest case of tuberculosis of a placenta in young woman, suffered from genital tuberculosis, which was overlooked before delivery, as well as typical tubo-ovarian tuberculomas.

  13. Porokeratosis ptychotropica: a rare manifestation with typical histological exam*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Dalapicola, Monique Coelho; Lellis, Rute Facchini; Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Manzione, Thiago da Silveira; Rodrigues, Maria Clarissa de Faria Soares

    2016-01-01

    Porokeratosis is a disorder of epidermal keratinization characterized clinically by a distinctive ridge-like border, and histologically by cornoid lamellae. The known clinical variants of porokeratosis are: classic porokeratosis of Mibelli, disseminated superficial (actinic) porokeratosis (DSAP), porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata, linear porokeratosis and punctate porokeratosis. In 1995, a seventh form was described as porokeratosis ptychotropica: a verrucous form resembling psoriasis involving the gluteal cleft presenting on the histological exam multiple cornoid lamellae. There are very few reports in the literature of this clinical variant. The present study describes the case of a healthy male presenting gluteal hyperkeratotic plaques for 22 years. He had been to several dermatologists, none of them had achieved a definitive diagnosis. We present a typical clinical presentation and its dermoscopy findings, in addition to histological examination that confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27579746

  14. Eyelid myoclonia with typical absences: an epilepsy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, R E; Panayiotopoulos, C P; Acomb, B A; Beirne, M

    1993-01-01

    Five unrelated patients are described with the clinical and electrical features of eyelid myoclonia with absences (EMA). In this syndrome brief, typical absences occur with rapid eyelid myoclonia associated with retropulsive movements of the eyeballs and occasionally of the head. The seizures are of shorter duration than in childhood absence epilepsy, and are accompanied by less profound impairment of consciousness. The electroencephalogram demonstrates high amplitude discharges consisting of spikes, multiple spikes and slow waves at a fluctuating frequency of 3-5 Hz and following eye closure, which disappear in darkness. Photosensitivity is also seen. Onset is in early childhood and EMA appears to persist into adult life. Treatment is sodium valproate in combination with either ethosuximide or a benzodiazepine. On the basis of the clinical features, EEG findings, and the response to treatment and prognosis, it is suggested that EMA be classified as a specific epilepsy syndrome. PMID:8270934

  15. Typical duration of good seeing sequences at Concordia

    CERN Document Server

    Fossat, Eric; Agabi, Karim; Bondoux, Erick; Challita, Zalpha; Jeanneaux, Francois; Mekarnia, Djamel

    2010-01-01

    Context: The winter seeing at Concordia is essentially bimodal, excellent or quite poor, with relative proportions that depend on altitude above the snow surface. This paper studies the temporal behavior of the good seeing sequences. Aims: An efficient exploitation of extremely good seeing with an adaptive optics system needs long integrations. It is then important to explore the temporal distribution of the fraction of time providing excellent seeing. Methods: Temporal windows of good seeing are created by a simple binary process. Good or bad. Their autocorrelations are corrected for those of the existing data sets, since these are not continuous, being often interrupted by technical problems in addition to the adverse weather gaps. At the end these corrected autocorrelations provide the typical duration of good seeing sequences. This study has to be a little detailed as its results depend on the season, summer or winter. Results: Using a threshold of 0.5 arcsec to define the "good seeing", three characteris...

  16. Fluctuating asymmetry and preferences for sex-typical bodily characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William M; Price, Michael E; Kang, Jinsheng; Pound, Nicholas; Zhao, Yue; Yu, Hui

    2008-09-01

    Body size and shape seem to have been sexually selected in a variety of species, including humans, but little is known about what attractive bodies signal about underlying genotypic or phenotypic quality. A widely used indicator of phenotypic quality in evolutionary analyses is degree of symmetry (i.e., fluctuating asymmetry, FA) because it is a marker of developmental stability, which is defined as an organism's ability to develop toward an adaptive end-point despite perturbations during its ontogeny. Here we sought to establish whether attractive bodies signal low FA to observers, and, if so, which aspects of attractive bodies are most predictive of lower FA. We used a 3D optical body scanner to measure FA and to isolate size and shape characteristics in a sample of 77 individuals (40 males and 37 females). From the 3D body scan data, 360 degrees videos were created that separated body shape from other aspects of visual appearance (e.g., skin color and facial features). These videos then were presented to 87 evaluators for attractiveness ratings. We found strong negative correlations between FA and bodily attractiveness in both sexes. Further, sex-typical body size and shape characteristics were rated as attractive and correlated negatively with FA. Finally, geometric morphometric analysis of joint configurations revealed that sex-typical joint configurations were associated with both perceived attractiveness and lower FA for male but not for female bodies. In sum, body size and shape seem to show evidence of sexual selection and indicate important information about the phenotypic quality of individuals. PMID:18711125

  17. Specific Heat in a Typical Metallic Glass Former

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Hai-Bo; ZHAO Zuo-Feng; WEN Ping; WANG Wei-Hua

    2012-01-01

    The specific heat in a typical Pd40Ni10Cu30P20 metallic glass forming system is investigated.It is found that the specific heat of the metallic liquid is around 4.7R (R is the gas constant) and that it is almost independent of temperature.The glass transition observed during cooling is accompanied by a decrease in the specific heat of 1.5R.The specific heat of the metallic glass is similar to that of its crystalline phases,contributed mainly from atomic vibrations.Combined with the results of the structural relaxation and diffusivities,we demonstrate an intrinsic connection between the atomic motion and the specific heat in the metallic glass-forming liquid.The results support the idea that glass transition is a process accompanied by the freezing of most of the atomic transitional motions in a metallic supercooled liquid during cooling.%The specific heat in a typical Pd40 Ni10 Cu30 P20 metallic glass forming system is investigated. It is found that the specific heat of the metallic liquid is around 4.7R (R is the gas constant) and that it is almost independent of temperature. The glass transition observed during cooling is accompanied by a decrease in the specific heat of 1.5R. The specific heat of the metallic glass is similar to that of its crystalline phases, contributed mainly from atomic vibrations. Combined with the results of the structural relaxation and diffusivities, we demonstrate an intrinsic connection between the atomic motion and the specific heat in the metallic glass-forming liquid. The results support the idea that glass transition is a process accompanied by the freezing of most of the atomic transitional motions in a metallic supercooled liquid during cooling.

  18. Space and Language in Williams syndrome: Insights from typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Barbara; Ferrara, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    One of the holy grails of cognitive science is to understand the causal chain that links genes and cognition. Genetic syndromes accompanied by cognitive effects offer natural experiments that can uniquely inform our understanding of this chain. In this article, we discuss the case of Williams syndrome (WS), which is characterized by a set of missing genes on chromosome 7q11.23, and presents with a unique cognitive profile that includes severe spatial impairment along with strikingly fluent and well-structured language. An early inference from this profile was the idea that a small group of genes could directly target one cognitive system while leaving others unaffected. Recent evidence shows that this inference fails. First, the profile within the spatial domain is varied, with relative strength in some aspects of spatial representation but severe impairment in others. Second, some aspects of language may fail to develop fully, raising the question of how to compare the resilience and fragility of the two key cognitive domains in this syndrome. Third, much research on the profile fails to place findings in the context of typical developmental trajectories. We explore these points and propose a new hypothesis that explains the unusual WS cognitive profile by considering normal mechanisms of cognitive development that undergo change on an extremely prolonged timetable. This hypothesis places the elements of the WS cognitive profile in a new light, refocuses the discussion of the gene-cognition causal chain for WS and other disorders, and more generally, underlines the importance of understanding cognitive structure in both typical and atypical development.

  19. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lanteri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  20. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Rao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  1. Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in autism and typical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigge, Molly B. D.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Zygmunt, Kristen M.; Travers, Brittany G.; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders remains unclear. Cross-sectional studies have identified regional abnormalities in brain volume and cortical thickness in autism, although substantial discrepancies have been reported. Preliminary longitudinal studies using two time points and small samples have identified specific regional differences in cortical thickness in the disorder. To clarify age-related trajectories of cortical development, we examined longitudinal changes in cortical thickness within a large mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal sample of autistic subjects and age- and gender-matched typically developing controls. Three hundred and forty-five magnetic resonance imaging scans were examined from 97 males with autism (mean age = 16.8 years; range 3–36 years) and 60 males with typical development (mean age = 18 years; range 4–39 years), with an average interscan interval of 2.6 years. FreeSurfer image analysis software was used to parcellate the cortex into 34 regions of interest per hemisphere and to calculate mean cortical thickness for each region. Longitudinal linear mixed effects models were used to further characterize these findings and identify regions with between-group differences in longitudinal age-related trajectories. Using mean age at time of first scan as a reference (15 years), differences were observed in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis and pars triangularis, right caudal middle frontal and left rostral middle frontal regions, and left frontal pole. However, group differences in cortical thickness varied by developmental stage, and were influenced by IQ. Differences in age-related trajectories emerged in bilateral parietal and occipital regions (postcentral gyrus, cuneus, lingual gyrus, pericalcarine cortex), left frontal regions (pars opercularis, rostral middle frontal and frontal pole), left supramarginal gyrus, and right transverse temporal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and

  2. [Biodegradation Coefficients of Typical Pollutants in the Plain Rivers Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuai; Li, Xu-yongl; Deng, Jian-cai

    2016-05-15

    Biodegradation is a significant part of pollutant integrated degradation, the process rate of which is represented by the biodegradation coefficient. To investigate the biodegradation law of typical pollutants in the plain rivers network located in the upstream of the Lake Taihu, experiments were conducted in site in September 2015, one order kinetics model was used to measure the biodegradation coefficients for permanganate index, ammonia, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, and influencing factors of the biodegradation coefficients were also analyzed. The results showed that the biodegradation coefficients for permanganate index, ammonia, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were 0.008 3-0.126 4 d⁻¹, 0.002 1-0.213 8 d⁻¹, 0.002 1-0.090 5 d⁻¹ and 0.011 0- 0.152 8 d⁻¹, respectively. The influencing factors of the biodegradation coefficients for permanganate index were permanganate index and pH; those for ammonia were ammonia concentration and pH; those for total nitrogen were inorganic nitrogen concentration, total dissolved solid concentration and nitrite concentration; and those for total phosphorus were background concentration and pH. The research results were of important guiding significance for pollutants removal and ecological restoration of the plain rivers network located in the unstream of the Lake Taihu. PMID:27506025

  3. A Typical Simulation of a 3-KW Stirling Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Stirling engine is being received more and more attention with the development of renewable energy utility. The paper described the design and simulation of a 3-KW Stirling engine based on a testing V-type machine while in the process of manufactured at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology. The engine was driven by solar energy. Based on the testing machine, the heater model of variable heat source, regenerator model and complete appliance model were built, and the thermal performance was simulated and shown under a typical sunlight in the area of Wuhan. The results suggested that the output power curve of Stirling engine appeared as the shape of a saddle in consideration that the radiant energy density of solar energy was non-constant, and electrical heating was employed to serve as the auxiliary heat source. There was about 1.83 KW output work of the manufactured engine during the simulation, and the effective efficiency was about 25.4%.

  4. Investigation of flowfields found in typical combustor geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Activities undertaken during the entire course of research are summarized. Studies were concerned with experimental and theoretical research on 2-D axisymmetric geometries under low speed nonreacting, turbulent, swirling flow conditions typical of gas turbine and ramjet combustion chambers. They included recirculation zone characterization, time-mean and turbulence simulation in swirling recirculating flow, sudden and gradual expansion flowfields, and furher complexities and parameter influences. The study included the investigation of: a complete range of swirl strengths; swirler performance; downstream contraction nozzle sizes and locations; expansion ratios; and inlet side-wall angles. Their individual and combined effects on the test section flowfield were observed, measured and characterized. Experimental methods included flow visualization (with smoke and neutrally-buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles), five-hole pitot probe time-mean velocity field measurements, and single-, double-, and triple-wire hot-wire anemometry measurements of time-mean velocities, normal and shear Reynolds sresses. Computational methods included development of the STARPIC code from the primitive-variable TEACH computer code, and its use in flowfield prediction and turbulence model development.

  5. ORGANIC NITROGEN IN A TYPIC HAPLUDOX FERTILIZED WITH PIG SLURRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco André Grohskopf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of pig slurry may have a different effect on nitrogen dynamics in soil compared to mineral fertilization. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the different forms of organic N in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (Typic Hapludox and their relationship to N uptake by crops in response to 10 years of annual application of pig slurry and mineral fertilizer. The treatments were application rates of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 m3 ha-1 of pig slurry, in addition to mineral fertilizer, organized in a randomized block design with four replications. The N contents were determined in the plant tissue and in the forms of total N and acid hydrolyzed fractions: ammonium-N, hexosamine-N, α-amino-N, amide-N, and unidentified-N. Annual application of pig slurry or mineral fertilizer increased the total-N content in the 0-10 cm depth layer. The main fractions of organic N in the soil were α-amino-N when pig slurry was applied and unidentified-N in the case of mineral fertilizers. Pig slurry increased the N fractions considered as labile: α-amino-N, ammonium-N, and amide-N. The increase in these labile organic N fractions in the soil through pig slurry application allows greater N uptake by the maize and oat crops in a no-tillage system.

  6. [Effect of Three Typical Disinfection Byproducts on Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Lu; Zhang, Meng-lu; Wang, Chun-ming; Lin, Hui-rong; Yu, Xin

    2015-07-01

    The effect of typical disinfection byproducts (DBPs) on bacterial antibiotic resistance was investigated in this study. chlorodibromomethane (CDBM), iodoacetic acid (IAA) and chloral hydrate (CH) were selected, which belong to trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and aldehydes, respectively. After exposure to the selected DBPs, the resistance change of the tested strains to antibiotics was determined. As a result, all of the three DBPs induced Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to gain increased resistance to the five antibiotics tested, and the DBPs ranked as IAA > CH > CDBM according to their enhancement effects. Multidrug resistance could also be enhanced by treatment with IAA. The same result was observed in Escherichia coli K12, suggesting that the effect of DBPs on antibiotic resistance was a common phenomenon. The mechanism was probably that DBPs stimulated oxidative stress, which induced mutagenesis. And the antibiotic resistance mutation frequency could be increased along with mutagenesis. This study revealed that the acquisition of bacterial antibiotic resistance might be related to DBPs in drinking water systems. Besides the genotoxicological risks, the epidemiological risks of DBPs should not be overlooked.

  7. Typical application of Rogowski coils in inspection of electrobath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭红; 贾正春

    2004-01-01

    During the aluminum electrolytic roasting process, each component of the electrobath of aluminum performs unsteadily when the electrolytic bath is in the pre-roasting stage. It is important to monitor the currents of the anodes and the cathodes of the aluminum electrobath at regular intervals. Both practice and investigation indicate that Rogowski coil can be adopted to measure heavy direct current of the anodes and the cathodes of the aluminum electrobath. The paper not only introduces the typical application of the Rogowski coil to inspect the state of aluminum electrobath in the roasting process, but also analyzes the principles of the coil sensor including its dynamic properties and some important measurement results respectively. The optimal parameters of the coil can be simulated by means of an advanced simulation tool: simulink tools based on MATLAB soft environment. Based on the gathered current data, an even-current coefficient has been introduced, and the current curve can be drawn. Since they are applied in AL-Electrolyzing, it is possible to distinguish the anode of which the current is not evenly distributed, and to take adjusting measures over a period of time to ensure that the current is evenly distributed.

  8. Typical distribution of the solar erythemal UV radiation over Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pribullová

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Maps of the solar erythemal ultraviolet (UV radiation daily doses were created for every month with horizontal resolution of 500 m at geographical domain 47.15 N–49.86 N×16.94 E–22.81 E covering the territory of Slovakia. Cloud modification factor for the UV radiation (cmfUV was modelled utilizing relation between the cmf of total and UV radiation.

    The maps of the cmf factor of the UV radiation were created utilizing measurements of total radiation performed at 9 observatories during 1995–2004 period and the model of cmf dependence on altitude. Maps of clear-sky UV radiation daily dose and UV radiation daily dose affected by average cloudiness were constructed for mean monthly total ozone, their upper and lower monthly limits, for two probability levels of snow cover occurrence as criterion for the snow effect incorporation in the model and for 1 day representing typical values of every month. The map-set can be considered as an atlas of the solar erythemal UV radiation over Slovakia.

  9. Typical distribution of the solar erythemal UV radiation over Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chmelík

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Maps of solar erythemal ultraviolet (EUV irradiance daily doses were created for every month with a horizontal resolution of 500 m at the geographical domain 47.15 N–49.86 N×16.94 E–22.81 E covering the territory of Slovakia. The cloud modification factor for the EUV radiation (cmfUV was modeled utilizing the relation between the cloud modification factor of global and EUV radiation. The maps of the cmfUV factor were created by utilizing measurements of global irradiance performed at nine observatories during the period 1995–2004 and modeling of the cmfUV dependence on altitude. Maps of the EUV irradiance daily dose corresponded to clear-sky conditions and EUV irradiance daily dose affected by average cloudiness were constructed for mean monthly total ozone, its upper and lower monthly limits, for two probability levels of snow cover occurrence as criteria for the snow effect incorporation in the model and for one day representing typical values for every month. The map-set can be regarded as an atlas of solar EUV radiation over Slovakia.

  10. Dependence of gait parameters on height in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Valentina; Nascimbeni, Alberto; Di Nardo, Francesco; Fioretti, Sandro; Burattini, Laura; Knaflitz, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In clinical gait analysis is fundamental to have access to normative data, to be used as a reference in the interpretation of pathological walking. In a paediatric population this may be complicated by the dependence of gait parameters on child growth. The aim of this work is to provide the correlations of spatial-temporal gait parameters with children's height. We obtained the regression lines of cadence, double support, and gait phases, with respect to height, from a sample of 85 normally typically developing children aged 6 to 11. Our analysis of gait phases was not limited to the traditional analysis of stance and swing, but rather focused on the sub-phases of stance - heel contact, flat foot contact, push off - which proved to be an innovative approach to gait analysis. Heel contact decreased, flat foot contact increased and push off remained essentially unchanged with respect to children's height. These results may be useful in the interpretation of gait data in developing children, and the regression lines obtained may be used to normalize their gait parameters.

  11. Anthropic reasoning and typicality in multiverse cosmology and string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Steven

    2006-06-01

    Anthropic arguments in multiverse cosmology and string theory rely on the weak anthropic principle (WAP). We show that the principle is fundamentally ambiguous. It can be formulated in one of two ways, which we refer to as WAP1 and WAP2. We show that WAP2, the version most commonly used in anthropic reasoning, makes no physical predictions unless supplemented by a further assumption of 'typicality', and we argue that this assumption is both misguided and unjustified. WAP1, however, requires no such supplementation; it directly implies that any theory that assigns a non-zero probability to our universe predicts that we will observe our universe with probability one. We argue, therefore, that WAP1 is preferable, and note that it has the benefit of avoiding the inductive overreach characteristic of much anthropic reasoning. Thanks to Yuri Balashov, Gordon Belot, Rob Caldwell, Marcelo Gleiser, Brad Monton, Ken Olum, Jim Peebles, Lee Smolin and Alex Vilenkin for helpful discussions and comments on an earlier draft.

  12. New typical meterological years and solar radiation data manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A new solar radiation data manual and new typical meterological years (TMYs) were developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Analytic Studies Division under the Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project. These tasks were funded and monitored by the Photovoltaics Branch of the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The new manual and the new TMYs were derived from the 1961-1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). The new manual is entitled Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors. It provides designers and engineers of solar-energy-related systems with average monthly and yearly solar radiation values for various types of collectors for 239 stations in the United States and its territories. The new TMY data sets are referred to as TMY2s. This distinguishes them from earlier TMY data sets derived from the 1952-1975 SOLMET/ERSATZ data base. This paper describes the new data manual and the new TMY2s.

  13. Comparison of typical mega cities in China using emergy synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. X.; Chen, B.; Yang, Z. F.; Chen, G. Q.; Jiang, M. M.; Liu, G. Y.

    2009-06-01

    An emergy-based comparison analysis is conducted for three typical mega cities in China, i.e., Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, from 1990 to 2005 in four perspectives including emergy intensity, resource structure, environmental pressure and resource use efficiency. A new index of non-renewable emergy/money ratio is established to indicate the utilization efficiency of the non-renewable resources. The results show that for the three mega urban systems, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the total emergy inputs were 3.76E+23, 3.54E+23, 2.52E+23 sej in 2005, of which 64.88%, 91.45% and 72.28% were imported from the outsides, respectively. As to the indicators of emergy intensity involving the total emergy use, emergy density and emergy use per cap, three cities exhibited similar overall increase trends with annual fluctuations from 1990 to 2005. Shanghai achieved the highest level of economic development and non-renewable resource use efficiency, and meanwhile, lower proportion of renewable resource use and higher environmental pressure compared to those of Beijing and Guangzhou. Guangzhou has long term sustainability considering an amount of local renewable resources used, per capita emergy used, energy consumption per unit GDP and the ratio of waste to renewable emergy. It can be concluded that different emergy-based evaluation results arise from different geographical locations, resources endowments, industrial structures and urban orientations of the concerned mega cities.

  14. Do Typical Galaxies in Adolescence Already Host Growing Black Holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    This archival grism proposal achieves a 100-fold gain in high-quality {5+sigma} information for discovering which properties of adolescent {0.7typical mass and SFR are linked to AGN activity. We propose to analyze 147 WFC3 G141 and 111 ACS 800L pointings of 2-orbit grism data in the CANDELS fields, for a sample of 3000 galaxies reaching SFR 5 Msun/yr and stellar masses of log{M*/Msun} 9 at z 1.5. We will leverage spatially-resolved line ratios to uniquely distinguish a nuclear AGN from extended low-metallicity or shocked gas. Compared to our 30-galaxy published sample that hints at AGNs in low-mass z 2 galaxies {Trump et al. 2011}, this 3000 galaxy sample enables a 100-fold gain in divisions by galaxy morphology, SFR, and stellar mass to discover which galaxy properties correlate most with rapid SMBH growth. We will stack the deep {0.8-4 Ms} Chandra data available in these fields as an independent check of the grism AGN/SF diagnostics. The unique ancillary data in these fields also include ACS+WFC3 imaging for morphologies, deep multiwavelength data for well-sampled SEDs and stellar masses, and previous optical {and future near-IR} spectroscopy to supplement the G141 coverage. Based on discussions with the GOODS-N and 3D-HST teams, our proposed AGN science does not overlap with their proposed or funded science goals. As a value-added product for the community we will release, via the public Rainbow-CANDELS database server, an atlas of spatial maps of emission lines and line ratios {and associated errors} for the entire sample of 3000 galaxies.

  15. Integrated SNG Production in a Typical Nordic Sawmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennai Mesfun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced biomass-based motor fuels and chemicals are becoming increasingly important to replace fossil energy sources within the coming decades. It is likely that the new biorefineries will evolve mainly from existing forest industry sites, as they already have the required biomass handling infrastructure in place. The main objective of this work is to assess the potential for increasing the profit margin from sawmill byproducts by integrating innovative downstream processes. The focus is on the techno-economic evaluation of an integrated site for biomass-based synthetic natural gas (bio-SNG production. The option of using the syngas in a biomass-integrated gasification combined cycle (b-IGCC for the production of electricity (instead of SNG is also considered for comparison. The process flowsheets that are used to analyze the energy and material balances are modelled in MATLAB and Simulink. A mathematical process integration model of a typical Nordic sawmill is used to analyze the effects on the energy flows in the overall site, as well as to evaluate the site economics. Different plant sizes have been considered in order to assess the economy-of-scale effect. The technical data required as input are collected from the literature and, in some cases, from experiments. The investment cost is evaluated on the basis of conducted studies, third party supplier budget quotations and in-house database information. This paper presents complete material and energy balances of the considered processes and the resulting process economics. Results show that in order for the integrated SNG production to be favored, depending on the sawmill size, a biofuel subsidy in the order of 28–52 €/MWh SNG is required.

  16. Typical tumors of the petrous bone; Typische Tumoren des Felsenbeins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Mueller, U. [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Institut fuer Radiologie, Baden (Switzerland); Ulmer, S. [Medizinisch-Radiologisches Institut, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2014-04-15

    In the region of the petrous bone, inner acoustic canal and cerebellopontine angle, a variety of different tissues can be found, such as bony, epithelial, neural and vascular structures. Tumorous or tumor-like lesions, vascular or bony malformations or other pathologies can therefore be found in all of these areas. We discuss various frequently occurring tumorous or tumor-like pathologies including congential lesions, such as mucoceles, inflammatory disorders including osteomyelitis, pseudotumors and Wegener's granulomatosis. Benign non-neoplastic lesions, such as cholesteatoma, cholesterol granuloma, epidermoid and benign neoplastic tumors, such as the most commonly found vestibular schwannoma, meningeoma, paraganglioma, vascular pathologies and finally malignant lesions, such as metastasis, chordoma or chondrosarcoma and endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) are also discussed. The emphasis of this article is on the appearance of these entities in computed tomography (CT) and more so magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it provides key facts and typical images and discusses possibilities how to distinguish these pathologies. (orig.) [German] In der Region des Felsenbein, inneren Gehoerkanals und Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels findet sich eine Vielzahl an unterschiedlichen Gewebearten inklusive knoechernes, epitheliales, nervales und vaskulaeres Gewebe. Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Laesionen, ossaere oder vaskulaere Pathologien koennen entsprechend dort gefunden werden. Wir diskutieren verschiedene Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Pathologien inklusive angeborene Laesionen wie Muko- und Meningozelen, entzuendliche Veraenderungen wie die Osteomyelitis, Pseudotumoren, die Wegener-Granulomatose, nichtneoplastische Tumoren wie das Epidermoid, Cholesteatom oder Cholesterolgranulom und gutartige neoplastische Tumoren wie das am haeufigsten zu findende Vestibularisschwannom, das Paragangliom und das Meningeom, Gefaessprozesse/-pathologien und schliesslich maligne Laesionen wie Metastasen

  17. Albanian typical products as a tool towards sustainable rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBAN JAUPI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The turn of consumers towards quality, healthy and safe food products results in a new definition of quality that refers to: i. their geographical origin ii. their freshness and seasonality; iii the environmentally friendly or healthy production techniques; iv. the producers themselves, since societal relationships play an important role between producer and consumer [2]. Thus, there exist certified agro-food products of a spatial character such as the Protected Designations of Origin (PDOs and the Protected Geographical Indications (PGIs and certified agro-food products of an a-spatial character such as the organic products [11].The main goal of our case study is the identification of Korça typical products, PDO and PGI potential products and their contribution to the sustainable rural development in order to designing the policy intervention framework in the future. This study is based on a structured survey with the: i. farmers/producers (381 interviews, ii. working personnel in various public agencies, iii. the businessmen and businesswomen. Moreover, a number of secondary data by public agencies of Korça region, farmers associations, etc., but also by University papers and studies and scientific journals have been used. A series of elements regarding perceptions and attitudes among consumers was measured, using basic descriptive statistics analysis to describe the responses of the sample under study.According to this study, most consumers prefer their products based on origin that brings to a conclusion that PDOs or PGIs, or Traditional Specialty Guaranteed (TSGs must be promoted through a Public Private partnership.

  18. Food Poisioning Typicality in Food Safety Vulnerable Area of Indonesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AdilBasukiAhza

    2001-01-01

    Food poisoning characteristics and patterns were studied in six vulnerable provinces of Indonesia to identify the typicality of food poisonings.Units of analysis were district level,gender,type of food,and place of events,using the data of incidence of food poisoning from 1987to 1998 period(ten year),Multivariate analysis and bi-plot technique were used to characterize the vulnerability of the areas based on the following variables:(1) time of symptom perceived,(2) number of cases for each kind of poison,(3) incidence of chemicals poisoning,and (4)incidence the microbial poisonings,It was found that the three provinces most vulnerable to food poisoning are Central Java,West Java and Jogyakarta.The causes of food poisoning incidence are microbial poisonings(49.36%),chemicals(24.50%),natural toxicant(4.66%),and other causes or indications(21.37%),The poisoning symptoms were perceived within 1.0-144 hrs with incubation time of 0.08 to 33.00 hrs after food intake,depedn on the type of poison.The type of foods that caused poisoning are family prepared foods(30.57%),preserved food(industrial products) (29.94%),food from catering services(21.66%),traditional foods(10.83%) and street foods(7.00%),WOmen are more vulnerable(67.84)than men(32.16%),The most vulnerable places for food poisoning are respectively at home(family)(44.16%),at workplaces (16.23%),party venue(14.29%),school(12.99%),and in public places(12.34%).The results lead to the urgent needs of a better formulation,more stringent food control policy and regulation at district levels,the use of different approach towards a more locally oriented food poisoning safety measures and actions.

  19. Biogeographic Distribution Patterns of Bacteria in Typical Chinese Forest Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zongwei; Bai, Edith; Wang, Qingkui; Gao, Decai; Zhou, Jidong; Jiang, Ping; Wu, Jiabing

    2016-01-01

    Microbes are widely distributed in soils and play a very important role in nutrient cycling and ecosystem services. To understand the biogeographic distribution of forest soil bacteria, we collected 115 soil samples in typical forest ecosystems across eastern China to investigate their bacterial community compositions using Illumina MiSeq high throughput sequencing based on 16S rRNA. We obtained 4,667,656 sequences totally and more than 70% of these sequences were classified into five dominant groups, i.e., Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes (relative abundance >5%). The bacterial diversity showed a parabola shape along latitude and the maximum diversity appeared at latitudes between 33.50°N and 40°N, an area characterized by warm-temperate zones and moderate temperature, neutral soil pH and high substrate availability (soil C and N) from dominant deciduous broad-leaved forests. Pairwise dissimilarity matrix in bacterial community composition showed that bacterial community structure had regional similarity and the latitude of 30°N could be used as the dividing line between southern and northern forest soils. Soil properties and climate conditions (MAT and MAP) greatly accounted for the differences in the soil bacterial structure. Among all soil parameters determined, soil pH predominantly affected the diversity and composition of the bacterial community, and soil pH = 5 probably could be used as a threshold below which soil bacterial diversity might decline and soil bacterial community structure might change significantly. Moreover, soil exchangeable cations, especially Ca(2+) (ECa(2+)) and some other soil variables were also closely related to bacterial community structure. The selected environmental variables (21.11%) explained more of the bacterial community variation than geographic distance (15.88%), indicating that the edaphic properties and environmental factors played a more important role than

  20. TYPICAL HOT WATER DRAW PATTERNS BASED ON FIELD DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Jim; Melody, Moya

    2012-11-08

    There is significant variation in hot water use and draw patterns among households. This report describes typical hot water use patterns in single-family residences in North America. We found that daily hot water use is highly variable both among residences and within the same residence. We compared the results of our analysis of the field data to the conditions and draw patterns established in the current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure for residential water heaters. The results show a higher number of smaller draws at lower flow rates than used in the test procedure. The data from which the draw patterns were developed were obtained from 12 separate field studies. This report describes the ways in which we managed, cleaned, and analyzed the data and the results of our data analysis. After preparing the data, we used the complete data set to analyze inlet and outlet water temperatures. Then we divided the data into three clusters reflecting house configurations that demonstrated small, medium, or large median daily hot water use. We developed the three clusters partly to reflect efforts of the ASHRAE standard project committee (SPC) 118.2 to revise the test procedure for residential water heaters to incorporate a range of draw patterns. ASHRAE SPC 118.2 has identified the need to separately evaluate at least three, and perhaps as many as five, different water heater capacities. We analyzed the daily hot water use data within each cluster in terms of volume and number of hot water draws. The daily draw patterns in each cluster were characterized using distributions for volume of draws, duration of draws, time since previous draw, and flow rates.

  1. Physical Composition, Nutrients and Contaminants of Typical Waste Dumping Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Meuser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The composition of wastes is quite variable depending upon the generating source and mode of collection. Most of the material from the domestic activities will be organic in nature and contains essential plant nutrients, whereas the dumping material of commercial and industrial wastes usually contains appreciable amounts of heavy and potentially toxic metals and organic pollutants. Approach: Objective of the present study was to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the waste material and the distribution and extent of toxic pollutants in three selected typical dumping sites in the state of Haryana, India. Results: 62-65% of the waste fine material consisted of mineral particles and biodegradable organic waste, 20-25% consisted of construction and demolition waste and the remaining 10-15% were other materials such as study, plastic, metals, glass and timber, with an amount of polyethene of 3.4-5.7%. The ratio of the plant available concentrations of P, K and S and their total amounts were 3-7% for P and 1-4% for S, whereas the macronutrient potassium reached values of 29-39%. Metals As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were present in all samples (total concentration in aqua regia extract. As, Ba, Ni and Pb did not show clear differences between the three investigates sites. Cd, Cr and Zn concentrations were high but different at the different sites (Cu maximum: 1,964 mg kg−1, Zn maximum: 2,200 mg kg−1. The mobility of the metals was calculated as the ratio of DTPA/aqua regia extraction. Cd showed the highest ratio (18-22%, while the other calculated metals showed much lower ratios (Cu 6.7, Pb 7.9 Ni 2.1, Zn 3.6 and Cr 0.5%. In general, PAH and benzo(apyrene concentrations fell below the detection limit. Also the phenol index did not exceed the detection limit of 1.2 mg kg−1 (with two exceptions. In 14 out of 36 samples a GC-MS screening was conducted in order to get an overview of the organic

  2. A Typical Case Study: Solid Waste Management in Petroleum Refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadea S. Alshammari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current environmental concerns have forced developed and developing countries to reduce air, water and land pollution for sustainable growth. Solid refinery waste is cocktail of hydrocarbons, water, heavy metal and fine solids and is substantial in quantity. The principal processes of waste management focus mainly on waste source reduction, reusing, recycling, composting, incineration with or without energy recovery, fuel production and land filling. Waste management models have a common approach of assignment of generating sources to landfills, transfer stations sitting, site selection for landfills, etc. but recently new integrated models have been developed and applied. Waste management system in an industrial complexes uses multi-objective mixed integer programming approach for the running of existing facilities in dynamic net work flow models with nonlinear costs of management. The latest multi-objective mixed integer programming techniques are applied to resolve the potential conflict between environmental and economic goals and to evaluate sustainable strategies for waste management. In this approach, material recycling in an economic sense exhibits huge indirect benefits, although the emphasis of environmental quality as a major objective in decision-making drives the optimal solution toward pro-recycling programs. The use of grey and fuzzy system theories as uncertainty analysis tools as an enhancement of this modeling analysis proves to be highly profitable. A multi-objective optimization model based on the goal programming approach has been developed and tested in this study for passable management of solid waste generated by a typical petroleum refining industry in the state of Kuwait. The analytic hierarchy process, a decision-making approach, including qualitative and quantitative aspects of a problem, has been integrated in the model to prioritize the conflicting goals existing in the waste management problems of the petroleum

  3. 'Most advanced, yet acceptable': typicality and novelty as joint predictors of aesthetic preference in industrial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekkert, Paul; Snelders, Dirk; van Wieringen, Piet C W

    2003-02-01

    Typicality and novelty have often been shown to be related to aesthetic preference of human artefacts. Since a typical product is rarely new and, conversely, a novel product will not often be designated as typical, the positive effects of both features seem incompatible. In three studies it was shown that typicality (operationalized as 'goodness of example') and novelty are jointly and equally effective in explaining the aesthetic preference of consumer products, but that they suppress each other's effect. Direct correlations between both variables and aesthetic preference were not significant, but each relationship became highly significant when the influence of the other variable was partialed out. In Study 2, it was furthermore demonstrated that the expertise level of observers did not affect the relative contribution of novelty and typicality. It was finally shown (Study 3) that a more 'objective' measure of typicality, central tendency - operationalized as an exemplar's average similarity to all other members of the category - yielded the same effect of typicality on aesthetic preference. In sum, all three studies showed that people prefer novel designs as long as the novelty does not affect typicality, or, phrased differently, they prefer typicality given that this is not to the detriment of novelty. Preferred are products with an optimal combination of both aspects.

  4. An Analysis of Ralph's Fate in Typical American from the Perspective of Cultural Adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨

    2016-01-01

    Ralph, the hero of Typical American written by Gish Jen, is originally a Chinese man who goes to America for PhD but finally becomes a typical American after a series of cultural crisis and adaptation. This paper is intended to analyze the fate of Ralph from the perspective of Lysgaard's U-curve cultural adaptation theory.

  5. Early Deictic but "Not" Other Gestures Predict Later Vocabulary in Both Typical Development and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçaliskan, Seyda; Adamson, Lauren B.; Dimitrova, Nevena

    2016-01-01

    Research with typically developing children suggests a strong positive relation between early gesture use and subsequent vocabulary development. In this study, we ask whether gesture production plays a similar role for children with autism spectrum disorder. We observed 23 18-month-old typically developing children and 23 30-month-old children…

  6. On the role of object knowledge in reference production : Effects of color typicality on content determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerbeek, H.G.W.; Koolen, R.M.F.; Maes, A.A.; Bello, Paul; Guarini, Marcello; McShane, Marjorie; Scassellati, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In two language production experiments, we investigated whether stored knowledge of the typical color of objects affects spoken reference. In experiment 1, human speakers referred to objects with colors ranging from very typical (e.g., red tomato) to very atypical (e.g., blue pepper). The probabilit

  7. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  8. Social and Non-Social Cueing of Visuospatial Attention in Autism and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, John R.; LaMacchia, Angela; Hoertel, Sarah; Squire, Emma; McVey, Kelly; Todd, Richard D.; Constantino, John N.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments explored attention to eye gaze, which is incompletely understood in typical development and is hypothesized to be disrupted in autism. Experiment 1 (n = 26 typical adults) involved covert orienting to box, arrow, and gaze cues at two probabilities and cue-target times to test whether reorienting for gaze is endogenous, exogenous,…

  9. 42 CFR 137.294 - What is the typical IHS environmental review process for construction projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.294 What is the typical IHS environmental review... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the typical IHS environmental review... impact on the environment, and therefore do not require environmental impact statements (EIS)....

  10. The involvement of limbic structures in typical and atypical absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onat, F.Y.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Nehlig, A.; Snead, O.C.

    2013-01-01

    Typical and atypical seizures of absence epilepsy are thought to be generated by a rhythmogenic interplay between the cortex and the thalamus. However, the question remains as to which other subcortical and extrathalamic structures are involved in the pathophysiology of typical and atypical absence

  11. Using Typical Infant Development to Inform Music Therapy with Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Barbara L.; Stultz, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates some ways in which observations of typically-developing infants can inform music therapy and other work with children with disabilities. The research project that is described examines typical infant development with special attention to musical relatedness and communication. Videotapes of sessions centering on musical…

  12. Antecedent Selection: Comparing Simplified and Typical Verbal Antecedents for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Brown, Mapy; Scott, Jack; Ross, Denise E.

    2005-01-01

    This study measured the differential effects of simplified and typical verbal antecedents on acquisition of picture discriminations for four preschool children with autism. During baseline probes, participants emitted no correct selection responses to pictures of common stimuli during either simplified or typical verbal antecedent conditions.…

  13. Impact of Typical Aging and Parkinson's Disease on the Relationship among Breath Pausing, Syntax, and Punctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan; Francis, Elaine J.; Zhang, Dabao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examines the impact of typical aging and Parkinson's disease (PD) on the relationship among breath pausing, syntax, and punctuation. Method: Thirty young adults, 25 typically aging older adults, and 15 individuals with PD participated. Fifteen participants were age- and sex-matched to the individuals with PD.…

  14. Clasificación taxonómica de los suelos del altiplano de San Félix, departamentos de Caldas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaramillo J. Daniel F.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available En 5 perfiles de suelos derivados de piroclastos de la secuencia El Cedral, en el altiplano de San Félix, Municipio de Satamina (Caldas, se estudiaron las propiedades ándicas y espódicas de sus materiales, con el fin de clasificarlos taxonómicamente según el sistema del USDA (Soil Survey Staff, SSS, 1998. Con ayuda de la propuesta de ajuste de Shoji et al (1996. Ninguno de los suelos cumple todos los requisitos para materiales espódicos o ándicos pero por sus características fueron clasificados en el orden Andisol; sus propiedades quimcas los ubicaron en el subgrupo Acrudoxic de los grandes grupos Fluviales (3 de 5 perfiles y Hapludand, familia medial isomésica. Se sugiere incluir en la clasificación del subgrupo, la partícula Thaptic para resaltar la presencia de un horizonte Ab, cuando el límite superior de éste presente dentro de los 100 cm superiores del suelo, aún si no se cumple estrictamente los requerimientos de calor.

  15. Categorization method affects the typicality effect: ERP evidence from a category-inference task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi ewang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The typicality effect during categorization describes a phenomenon whereby typical items are more easily judged as members of a category than atypical items. Prior studies of the typicality effect have often used an inclusion task, which asks participants to assess whether an item belongs to a category. However, the correct exclusion of non-members is also an important component of effective categorization, which has yet to be directly investigated. Thus, the present study investigated how categorization method (inclusion versus exclusion modulates the typicality effect via behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Sixteen participants each in inclusion and exclusion groups were shown consecutively six words that shared a feature. Then, a seventh word was presented. The inclusion group judged if the seventh word also possessed the feature, whereas the exclusion group judged whether the word did not possess the feature. The seventh word could be typical, atypical, or a nonmember of the category. Behavioral data and event-related potentials (ERPs data were collected. Behavioral results showed that the two groups did not differ in accuracy. However, typical items elicited shorter response times than atypical items, and this effect was more pronounced in the inclusion than in the exclusion group. With regard to ERPs, interactions between item type and group were shown for P2, N2, and N400 periods. Within the inclusion group, a typicality effect (indicated by a main effect of item type was present in P2 and N400 time windows, while the exclusion group elicited a typicality effect only in the N2 time window. These results provide electrophysiological evidence that an inclusion judgment task is more sensitive to category typicality than an exclusion task.

  16. On Medical Care Interpreting:Basic Requirements and Solutions to Typical Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晶晶

    2013-01-01

      Based on Pöchhacker, Kadric and Tebble’s theory on interpreting requirements, this paper suggested the basic require⁃ments for medical care interpreters. Through a practical analysis on three typical scenarios, this paper discussed typical problems and their solutions in medical care interpreting, including long instructions, patients asking for advice and unexpected reaction from patients. The research showed that the basic requirements of interpreting are the keys to solving the typical problems and proved the importance of understanding of the barriers in cross-culture communication.

  17. A definition of a typical flare and the determination of its positionin an active region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro Ramos, I.

    On the basis of a new approach to Gower's type matrix a definition of a typical flare is introduced for an active center. Its predominant position in the active centers of the β, βp and βf type is studied. It is shown that a typical flare is preferably located near the center of a bipolar group. Active centers of predominantly α-configuration in the presence of a bipolar stage do not manifest this tendency. No regularities of a typical flare behaviour with time have been noticed.

  18. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data obser...

  19. Typical flutter ablation as an adjunct to catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipen Shah

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Typical atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation are frequently observed to coexist(1 .  In the current context of interventional electrophysiology, curative or at least definitive ablation is available for both arrhythmias. Despite their coexistence, it is not clear whether typical flutter ablation is necessary in all patients undergoing catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. The following review explores the pathophysiology of both arrhythmias, their interrelationships and the available data pertaining to this theme.

  20. Developing the Tourist Market through the Exploitation of the Typical Products

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo ASERO; Sebastiano PATTI

    2009-01-01

    Typical products are considered suitable features to characterise the tourist supply of a destination. Their exploitation can contribute both to develop and to create the tourist market, enriching a tourist package or specializing a specific segment. Many typical products are simultaneously an expression of the culture of a territory; they identify a local community and its identity, they represent its traditions and its cultural heritage. Then they can defined ‘territorial intensive products...

  1. Inspiration of Direct Grain Production Subsidy System in Typical Countries and Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunqiang; SUN; Lu; CHEN; Ya; LI

    2014-01-01

    Through comparison of direct grain production subsidy system in typical countries and regions,such as the United States,EU,Japan and South Korea,this paper evaluated the performance of direct grain production subsidy system. On the basis of comparison and analysis,it summed up experience of the direct grain production subsidy system in typical countries and regions. Finally,it came up with countermeasures and recommendations for improving the direct grain production subsidy system in China.

  2. SOCIAL AND NON-SOCIAL CUEING OF VISUOSPATIAL ATTENTION IN AUTISM AND TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Pruett, John R.; LaMacchia, Angela; Hoertel, Sarah; Squire, Emma; McVey, Kelly; Todd, Richard D.; Constantino, John N.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments explored attention to eye gaze, which is incompletely understood in typical development and is hypothesized to be disrupted in autism. Experiment 1 (n=26 typical adults) involved covert orienting to box, arrow, and gaze cues at two probabilities and cue-target times to test whether reorienting for gaze is endogenous, exogenous, or unique; experiment 2 (total n=80: male and female children and adults) studied age and sex effects on gaze cueing. Gaze cueing appears endogenous ...

  3. Autism spectrum traits predict the neural response to eye gaze in typical individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Engell, Andrew D.; von dem Hagen, Elisabeth; Henson, Richard N A; Calder, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by impaired social interaction and communication, restricted interests and repetitive behaviours. The severity of these characteristics are posited to lie on a continuum extending into the typical population, and typical adults' performance on behavioural tasks that are impaired in ASD is correlated with the extent to which they display autistic traits (as measured by Autism Spectrum Quotient, AQ). Individuals with...

  4. The micronutrient profile of the typical American diet enhances colorectal carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Perez Monsanto, Stephany del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The typical Western dietary pattern is characterized by the consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and has been linked to increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Our research group previously developed the total Western diet (TWD) that emulates typical human dietary intakes of macro- (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) on an energy density basis for rodents. In the present study, we sought to determine the impact of TWD on biomarkers of ...

  5. SIMULATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS OF THE PRE-ARCING TIMES IN HBC FUSES UNDER TYPICAL ELECTRIC FAULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Memiaghe, Steeve,; Rochette, David; Touzani, Rachid; André, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    International audience This work deals with the comparison between calculations and measurements of pre-arcing times in High Breaking Capacity fuses under typical fault current conditions. This paper also describes the temperature evolution and the Joule energy dissipated in a fuse element during the pre-arcing time. By varying typical electrical parameters, namely the closing angle and the power factor, we show that various prospective currents such as those observed in industrial case ca...

  6. Maturation of social attribution skills in typically developing children: An investigation using the social attribution task

    OpenAIRE

    Chan Raymond CK; Hu Zhouyi; McAlonan Grainne M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The assessment of social attribution skills in children can potentially identify and quantify developmental difficulties related to autism spectrum disorders and related conditions. However, relatively little is known about how these skills develop in typically developing children. Therefore the present study aimed to map the trajectory of social attribution skill acquisition in typically developing children from a young age. Methods In the conventional social attribution ...

  7. COO advertising of export products : effects on perceptions of product-origin typicality and product evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Pran, Kristin Rogge

    2009-01-01

    COO labels increasingly appear on food products as a response to the growing consumer demand for safety, traceability and authenticity. However, little research has been done to examine the effect of these labels. COO research has focused on the effects of country image on product evaluation. In this study t is argued that product-origin typicality perceptions are a prerequisite for COO effects: if a product is not considered as typical of its origin, the origin attribute will not be relevant...

  8. Good and bad at numbers: typical and atypical development of number processing and arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Iuculano, T.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis elucidates the heterogeneous nature of mathematical skills by examining numerical and arithmetical abilities in typical, atypical and exceptional populations. Moreover, it looks at the benefits of intervention for remediating and improving mathematical skills. First, we establish the nature of the ‘number sense’ and assess its contribution to typical and atypical arithmetical development. We confirmed that representing and manipulating numerosities approximately is fundamentally d...

  9. Profitability of labour factor in the typical dairy farms in the world

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Parzonko

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the article was to analyse the productivity and profitability of labour factor and to present asset endowments of the typical dairy farms distinguished within IFCN (International Farm Comparison Network). Among analysed 103 typical dairy farms from 34 countries, the highest net dairy farm profit characterised large farms from USA, Australia and New Zealand. Those farms generated also significantly higher profit per working hour then the potential wages that could be earned...

  10. The "lecithotrophic" sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma lacks typical yolk platelets and yolk glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, L B; Lennarz, W J; Raff, R A; Wray, G A

    1990-03-01

    The sea urchin Heliocidaris tuberculata undergoes typical development, forming an echinoid pluteus larva, whereas H. erythrogramma undergoes direct development via a highly modified, nonfeeding larva. Using a polyclonal antibody prepared against yolk glycoproteins from the typical developer Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus, we found that H. tuberculata contains cross-reactive proteins in abundance, but H. erythrogramma does not. In addition, we used immunoelectron microscopy to demonstrate that unfertilized eggs of H. tuberculata contain yolk platelets, but those of H. erythrogramma do not.

  11. The influence of gender and gender typicality on autobiographical memory across event types and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie A; Graci, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Gender differences in autobiographical memory emerge in some data collection paradigms and not others. The present study included an extensive analysis of gender differences in autobiographical narratives. Data were collected from 196 participants, evenly split by gender and by age group (emerging adults, ages 18-29, and young adults, ages 30-40). Each participant reported four narratives, including an event that had occurred in the last 2 years, a high point, a low point, and a self-defining memory. Additionally, all participants completed self-report measures of masculine and feminine gender typicality. The narratives were coded along six dimensions-namely coherence, connectedness, agency, affect, factual elaboration, and interpretive elaboration. The results indicated that females expressed more affect, connection, and factual elaboration than males across all narratives, and that feminine typicality predicted increased connectedness in narratives. Masculine typicality predicted higher agency, lower connectedness, and lower affect, but only for some narratives and not others. These findings support an approach that views autobiographical reminiscing as a feminine-typed activity and that identifies gender differences as being linked to categorical gender, but also to one's feminine gender typicality, whereas the influences of masculine gender typicality were more context-dependent. We suggest that implicit gendered socialization and more explicit gender typicality each contribute to gendered autobiographies. PMID:27068433

  12. Effects of role typicality on processing person information in German: evidence from an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmen, Lisa; Holt, Daniel V; Weisbrod, Matthias

    2010-09-24

    The present ERP study investigated how reference resolution is affected by semantic cues to referent gender such as the gender typicality of role names. Participants read general statements about social and occupational groups denoted by a role name (e.g., pilots, florists), which was followed by a co-referring NP with masculine, feminine or neutral lexical gender (e.g., these men/women/people) that could either semantically match, mismatch or be neutral to the role name's gender typicality. The study was run in German. Between 300 and 400 ms (N400) responses to all anaphors were more negative after typically male than after typically female antecedents. Between 500 and 700 ms (P600) role name typicality interacted with the lexical gender of the anaphor. Responses to feminine anaphors were more positive in case of incongruent compared to congruent typicality of the antecedent. The effects suggest that participants anticipate a possible semantic incongruity before the anaphor is actually resolved. They, furthermore show that different cues to referent gender are conceptually integrated after 500 ms following the onset of the anaphoric noun. Results are discussed with regard to two-stage models of reference resolution. PMID:20637743

  13. Time to discontinuation of atypical versus typical antipsychotics in the naturalistic treatment of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Marvin

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an ongoing debate over whether atypical antipsychotics are more effective than typical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. This naturalistic study compares atypical and typical antipsychotics on time to all-cause medication discontinuation, a recognized index of medication effectiveness in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods We used data from a large, 3-year, observational, non-randomized, multisite study of schizophrenia, conducted in the U.S. between 7/1997 and 9/2003. Patients who were initiated on oral atypical antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, or ziprasidone or oral typical antipsychotics (low, medium, or high potency were compared on time to all-cause medication discontinuation for 1 year following initiation. Treatment group comparisons were based on treatment episodes using 3 statistical approaches (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, Cox Proportional Hazards regression model, and propensity score-adjusted bootstrap resampling methods. To further assess the robustness of the findings, sensitivity analyses were performed, including the use of (a only 1 medication episode for each patient, the one with which the patient was treated first, and (b all medication episodes, including those simultaneously initiated on more than 1 antipsychotic. Results Mean time to all-cause medication discontinuation was longer on atypical (N = 1132, 256.3 days compared to typical antipsychotics (N = 534, 197.2 days; p Conclusion In the usual care of schizophrenia patients, time to medication discontinuation for any cause appears significantly longer for atypical than typical antipsychotics regardless of the typical antipsychotic potency level. Findings were primarily driven by clozapine and olanzapine, and to a lesser extent by risperidone. Furthermore, only clozapine and olanzapine therapy showed consistently and significantly longer treatment duration compared to perphenazine, a medium

  14. Study on the three-station typical network deployments of workspace Measurement and Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi; Zhu, J. G.; Xue, B.; Ye, Sh. H.; Xiong, Y.

    2013-10-01

    As a novel network coordinate measurement system based on multi-directional positioning, workspace Measurement and Positioning System (wMPS) has outstanding advantages of good parallelism, wide measurement range and high measurement accuracy, which makes it to be the research hotspots and important development direction in the field of large-scale measurement. Since station deployment has a significant impact on the measurement range and accuracy, and also restricts the use-cost, the optimization method of station deployment was researched in this paper. Firstly, positioning error model was established. Then focusing on the small network consisted of three stations, the typical deployments and error distribution characteristics were studied. Finally, through measuring the simulated fuselage using typical deployments at the industrial spot and comparing the results with Laser Tracker, some conclusions are obtained. The comparison results show that under existing prototype conditions, I_3 typical deployment of which three stations are distributed in a straight line has an average error of 0.30 mm and the maximum error is 0.50 mm in the range of 12 m. Meanwhile, C_3 typical deployment of which three stations are uniformly distributed in the half-circumference of an circle has an average error of 0.17 mm and the maximum error is 0.28 mm. Obviously, C_3 typical deployment has a higher control effect on precision than I_3 type. The research work provides effective theoretical support for global measurement network optimization in the future work.

  15. The influence of thematic congruency, typicality and divided attention on memory for radio advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Luengo, Beatriz; Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of the thematic congruence between ads and the programme in which they are embedded. We also studied the typicality of the to-be-remembered information (high- and low-typicality elements), and the effect of divided attention in the memory for radio ad contents. Participants listened to four radio programmes with thematically congruent and incongruent ads embedded, and completed a true/false recognition test indicating the level of confidence in their answer. Half of the sample performed an additional task (divided attention group) while listening to the radio excerpts. In general, recognition memory was better for incongruent ads and low-typicality statements. Confidence in hits was higher in the undivided attention group, although there were no differences in performance. Our results suggest that the widespread idea of embedding ads into thematic-congruent programmes negatively affects memory for ads. In addition, low-typicality features that are usually highlighted by advertisers were better remembered than typical contents. Finally, metamemory evaluations were influenced by the inference that memory should be worse if we do several things at the same time. PMID:23947823

  16. Typical Versus Atypical Anorexia Nervosa Among Adolescents: Clinical Characteristics and Implications for ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silén, Yasmina; Raevuori, Anu; Jüriloo, Elisabeth; Tainio, Veli-Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2015-09-01

    There is scant research on the clinical utility of differentiating International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10 diagnoses F50.0 anorexia nervosa (typical AN) and F50.1 atypical anorexia. We reviewed systematically records of 47 adolescents who fulfilled criteria for ICD-10 F50.0 (n = 34) or F50.1 (n = 13), assessing the impact of diagnostic subtype, comorbidity, background factors and treatment choices on recovery. Atypical AN patients were significantly older (p = 0.03), heavier (minimum body mass index 16.7 vs 15.1 kg/m(2) , p = 0.003) and less prone to comorbidities (38% vs 71%, p = 0.04) and had shorter, less intensive and less costly treatments than typical AN patients. The diagnosis of typical versus atypical AN was the sole significant predictor of treatment success: recovery from atypical AN was 4.3 times (95% confidence interval [1.1, 17.5]) as likely as recovery from typical AN. Overall, our findings indicate that a broader definition of AN may dilute the prognostic value of the diagnosis, and therefore, ICD-11 should retain its distinction between typical and atypical AN. PMID:26010207

  17. Typical Versus Atypical Anorexia Nervosa Among Adolescents: Clinical Characteristics and Implications for ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silén, Yasmina; Raevuori, Anu; Jüriloo, Elisabeth; Tainio, Veli-Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2015-09-01

    There is scant research on the clinical utility of differentiating International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10 diagnoses F50.0 anorexia nervosa (typical AN) and F50.1 atypical anorexia. We reviewed systematically records of 47 adolescents who fulfilled criteria for ICD-10 F50.0 (n = 34) or F50.1 (n = 13), assessing the impact of diagnostic subtype, comorbidity, background factors and treatment choices on recovery. Atypical AN patients were significantly older (p = 0.03), heavier (minimum body mass index 16.7 vs 15.1 kg/m(2) , p = 0.003) and less prone to comorbidities (38% vs 71%, p = 0.04) and had shorter, less intensive and less costly treatments than typical AN patients. The diagnosis of typical versus atypical AN was the sole significant predictor of treatment success: recovery from atypical AN was 4.3 times (95% confidence interval [1.1, 17.5]) as likely as recovery from typical AN. Overall, our findings indicate that a broader definition of AN may dilute the prognostic value of the diagnosis, and therefore, ICD-11 should retain its distinction between typical and atypical AN.

  18. EVALUATION OF TROQUE VS CLOSURE BOLT PRELOAD FOR A TYPICAL CONTAINMENT VESSEL UNDER SERVICE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.

    2010-02-16

    Radioactive material package containment vessels typically employ bolted closures of various configurations. Closure bolts must retain the lid of a package and must maintain required seal loads, while subjected to internal pressure, impact loads and vibration. The need for insuring that the specified preload is achieved in closure bolts for radioactive materials packagings has been a continual subject of concern for both designers and regulatory reviewers. The extensive literature on threaded fasteners provides sound guidance on design and torque specification for closure bolts. The literature also shows the uncertainty associated with use of torque to establish preload is typically between 10 and 35%. These studies have been performed under controlled, laboratory conditions. The ability to insure required preload in normal service is, consequently, an important question. The study described here investigated the relationship between indicated torque and resulting bolt load for a typical radioactive materials package closure using methods available under normal service conditions.

  19. Contamination profile on typical printed circuit board assemblies vs soldering process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper was to analyse typical printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) processed by reflow, wave or selective wave soldering for typical levels of process-related residues, resulting from a specific or combination of soldering processes. Typical solder flux residue...... distribution pattern, composition and concentration are profiled and reported. The effect of such contaminants on conformal coating was tested. Design/methodology/approach – Presence of localized flux residues was visualized using a commercial residue reliability assessment testing gel test and chemical...... out using a commercial critical contamination control extraction system. Findings – Results clearly show that the amount and distribution of flux residues are a function of the soldering process, and the level can be reduced by an appropriate cleaning. Selective soldering process generates...

  20. Hospitalization and cost after switching from atypical to typical antipsychotics in schizophrenia patients in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonlue, Tuanthon; Subongkot, Suphat; Dilokthornsakul, Piyameth; Kongsakon, Ronnachai; Pattanaprateep, Oraluck; Suanchang, Orabhorn; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2016-01-01

    Background Several clinical practice guidelines suggest using atypical over typical antipsychotics in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, cost-containment policy urged restricting usage of atypical antipsychotics and switching from atypical to typical antipsychotics. Objective This study aimed to evaluate clinical and economic impacts of switching from atypical to typical antipsychotics in schizophrenia patients in Thailand. Methods From October 2010 through September 2013, a retrospective cohort study was performed utilizing electronic database of two tertiary hospitals. Schizophrenia patients aged 18 years or older and being treated with atypical antipsychotics were included. Patients were classified as atypical antipsychotic switching group if they switched to typical antipsychotics after 180 days of continual atypical antipsychotics therapy. Outcomes were schizophrenia-related hospitalization and total health care cost. Logistic and Poisson regression were used to evaluate the risk of hospitalization, and generalized linear model with gamma distribution was used to determine the health care cost. All analyses were adjusted by employing propensity score and multivariable analyses. All cost estimates were adjusted according to 2013 consumer price index and converted to US$ at an exchange rate of 32.85 Thai bahts/US$. Results A total of 2,354 patients were included. Of them, 166 (7.1%) patients switched to typical antipsychotics. The adjusted odds ratio for schizophrenia-related hospitalization in atypical antipsychotic switching group was 1.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23–2.83). The adjusted incidence rate ratio was 2.44 (95% CI 1.57–3.79) for schizophrenia-related hospitalizations. The average total health care cost was lower in patients with antipsychotic switching (−$64; 95% CI −$459 to $332). Conclusion Switching from atypical to typical antipsychotics is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia-related hospitalization

  1. Acquired Pharyngeal Diverticulum after Anterior Cervical Fusion Operation Misdiagnosed as Typical Zenker Diverticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Myung; Kim, Chang Wan; Kim, Do Hyung

    2016-08-01

    A pharyngeal diverticulum is a rare complication of an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). We present a case of a pharyngeal diverticulum after an ACDF, which was misdiagnosed as a typical Zenker diverticulum. A 54-year-old woman presented with dysphagia and a sense of irritation in the neck following C5 through C7 cervical fusion 3 years prior. The patient underwent open surgery to resect the diverticulum with concurrent cricopharyngeal myotomy. An ACDF-related diverticulum is difficult to distinguish from a typical Zenker diverticulum. PMID:27525244

  2. Analysis of partial discharge Ultrasonic wave characteristic on typical Defects in GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jing Gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For analyzing partial discharge ultrasonic wave characteristic on typical defects in SF6 gas insulation switchgear (GIS, a 110 kV GIS was taken as an object to design and simulate the typical partial discharge models in GIS. There are point electrode model on bus and cavity of GIS, floating electrode model, air interstice model in insulator, metal particle and iron core electromagnetic shock models. PD signals on different defects were thus detected with the ultrasonic method. The experimental results indicated that the ultrasonic signals of different defects showed different characteristics in waveform, amplitude and phase resolved partial discharge chart, which is helpful in PD pattern recognition for GIS.

  3. Typical Behavior of the Linear Programming Method for Combinatorial Optimization Problems: A Statistical-Mechanical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabe, Satoshi; Hukushima, Koji

    2014-04-01

    The typical behavior of the linear programming (LP) problem is studied as a relaxation of the minimum vertex cover problem, which is a type of integer programming (IP) problem. To deal with LP and IP using statistical mechanics, a lattice-gas model on the Erdös-Rényi random graphs is analyzed by a replica method. It is found that the LP optimal solution is typically equal to that given by IP below the critical average degree c*=e in the thermodynamic limit. The critical threshold for LP = IP extends the previous result c = 1, and coincides with the replica symmetry-breaking threshold of the IP.

  4. Cerebellar abnormalities typical of methylmercury poisoning in a fledged saltmarsh sparrow, Ammodramus caudacutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoville, Sheila A; Lane, Oksana P

    2013-05-01

    A fledged, 12-15 day-old saltmarsh sparrow, Ammodramus caudacutus, was collected from an accidental kill on Cinder Island, Long Island, NY, USA. The sparrow was assessed for feather mercury levels and the brain analyzed for cerebellar abnormalities by microscopic examination. In humans, fetal Minamata disease is caused by maternal ingestion of mercury. It is characterized by disrupted and disordered cerebellar neuronal migration in the fetus or infant. Results from this sparrow show cerebellar abnormalities typical of Minamata disease. It is the first known avian or mammalian specimen taken from the wild to show the abnormalities typical of the human fetal syndrome.

  5. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data observed at weather station belongs to the Australian bureau of meteorology in Armidale town over a fourteen years period from 1997–2010. Simulation of solar photovoltaic panels and wind turbines were conducted to obtain the optimal hybrid system sizing and best efficient with lowest cost. Correlations between the solar and wind power data were carried out on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis. It is shown that the hybrid system can be applied for the efficient and economic utilization of wind and solar renewable energy sources.

  6. Maternal Functional Speech to Children: A Comparison of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, P.; de Falco, S.; Esposito, G.; Zaninelli, M.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2012-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities benefit from their language environment as much as, or even more than, typically developing (TD) children, but maternal language directed to developmentally delayed children is an underinvestigated topic. The purposes of the present study were to compare maternal functional language directed to children…

  7. Peer Social Skills and Theory of Mind in Children with Autism, Deafness, or Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida; Slaughter, Virginia; Moore, Chris; Wellman, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    Consequences of theory of mind (ToM) development for daily social lives of children are uncertain. Five to 13-year-olds (N = 195) with typical development, autism, or deafness (both native and late signers) took ToM tests and their teachers reported on their social skills for peer interaction (e.g., leadership, group entry). Groups differed in…

  8. Structural and Lexical Case in Child German: Evidence from Language-Impaired and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbeiss, Sonja; Bartke, Susanne; Clahsen, Harald

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examined the system of case marking in two groups of German speaking children, 5 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 5 typically developing (TD) children matched to the children with SLI on a general measure of language development. The data from both groups demonstrate high accuracy scores for structural case…

  9. 47 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart N of... - Typical Audio Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Typical Audio Wave 2 Figure 2 to Subpart N of Part 2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO... Audio Wave EC03JN91.006...

  10. Attenuation of typical sex differences in 800 adults with autism vs. 3,900 controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Baron-Cohen

    Full Text Available Sex differences have been reported in autistic traits and systemizing (male advantage, and empathizing (female advantage among typically developing individuals. In individuals with autism, these cognitive-behavioural profiles correspond to predictions from the "extreme male brain" (EMB theory of autism (extreme scores on autistic traits and systemizing, below average on empathizing. Sex differences within autism, however, have been under-investigated. Here we show in 811 adults (454 females with autism and 3,906 age-matched typical control adults (2,562 females who completed the Empathy Quotient (EQ, the Systemizing Quotient-Revised (SQ-R, and the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ, that typical females on average scored higher on the EQ, typical males scored higher on the SQ-R and AQ, and both males and females with autism showed a shift toward the extreme of the "male profile" on these measures and in the distribution of "brain types" (the discrepancy between standardized EQ and SQ-R scores. Further, normative sex differences are attenuated but not abolished in adults with autism. The findings provide strong support for the EMB theory of autism, and highlight differences between males and females with autism.

  11. Empirical processes, typical sequences and coordinated actions in standard Borel spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Raginsky, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a new notion of typical sequences on a wide class of abstract alphabets (so-called standard Borel spaces), which is based on approximations of memoryless sources by empirical distributions uniformly over a class of measurable "test functions." In the finite-alphabet case, we can take all uniformly bounded functions and recover the usual notion of strong typicality (or typicality under the total variation distance). For a general alphabet, however, this function class turns out to be too large, and must be restricted. With this in mind, we define typicality with respect to any Glivenko-Cantelli function class (i.e., a function class that admits a Uniform Law of Large Numbers) and demonstrate its power by giving simple derivations of the fundamental limits on the achievable rates in several source coding scenarios, in which the relevant operational criteria pertain to reproducing empirical averages of a general-alphabet stationary memoryless source with respect to a suitable function class.

  12. Recent tendencies of vertical Cs 137 distribution in typical Belarusian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In article results of longstanding investigations of Cs 137 vertical migration processes in typical Belarus' soils are present. On the base of convective-diffusion model quantitative parameters of migration were calculated, their analysis was made and revealed recent tendencies of vertical Cs 137 distribution deep into soil. It is showed that with time decrease of average rate of radionuclide displacement was observed. (authors)

  13. Chaotic Solutions of a Typical Nonlinear Oscillator in a Double Potential Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jian-Shu

    2003-01-01

    We have obtained a general unstable chaotic solution of a typical nonlinear oscillator in a double potential trap with weak periodic perturbations by using the direct perturbation method. Theoretical analysis reveals that the stable periodic orbits are embedded in the Melnikov chaotic attractors. The corresponding chaotic region and orbits in parameter space are described by numerical simulations.

  14. Does Nutritional Intake Differ between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Children with Typical Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Alison C.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Johnson, Susan L.; Leiferman, Jenn; Reynolds, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Consumption of macro- and micronutrients and food group servings by children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; n = 46) and typical development (n = 31) were compared using 3-day diet records. Children with ASDs consumed significantly more vitamin B6 and E and non-dairy protein servings, less calcium, and fewer dairy servings (p less than…

  15. Successful non-typical radiotherapy of a recurrent and metastasizing malignant melanoma of the vulva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, W.; Dietz, R.

    1982-02-01

    A report is given about the successful, ambulatory, non-typical radiotherapy of a malignant vulvar melanoma producing recurrences and metastases after surgery. The problems of radiotherapy are discussed under special consideration of this case. With regard to the communications found in literature, the author underlines the efficiency of radiotherapy, especially if it is fractionated into high individual doses.

  16. Development of Novel Metaphor and Metonymy Comprehension in Typically Developing Children and Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herwegen, Jo; Dimitriou, Dagmara; Rundblad, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of novel metaphor and metonymy comprehension in both typically developing (TD) children and individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Thirty-one TD children between the ages of 3;09 and 17;01 and thirty-four individuals with WS between the ages of 7;01 and 44 years old were administered a newly developed task…

  17. Parenting Stress and Closeness: Mothers of Typically Developing Children and Mothers of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.; Hodge, Danelle; Lopez-Wagner, Muriel C.; Looney, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Mothers of children diagnosed with autism (N = 104) reported higher levels of stress than mothers of typically developing children (N = 342) on 13 of 14 subscales of the "Parenting Stress Index." The only scores that did not differ were from the Attachment subscale, which indicates lack of emotional closeness and rather cold patterns of…

  18. Mechanism for the Environmental Process & Ecological Effects of Typical Chemical Pollutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiaobai; WANG Liansheng; DAI Shugui; HUANG Yuyao

    2007-01-01

    @@ Principally being engaged in the field of earth sciences, this research project explores the mechanism which governs the environmental process of some typical chemical contaminants and their eco-toxic effects at various levels. The research project features the following achievements:

  19. Macrostructure in the Narratives of Estonian Children with Typical Development and Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodla, Piret; Kikas, Eve

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the macrostructure in Estonian children's narratives according to the story grammar (SG) model. The study's aims were to determine whether differences exist in narrative macrostructure between Estonian- and English-speaking children, among typically developed (TD) children, and between children with and without…

  20. Successful non-typical radiotherapy of a recurrent and metastasizing malignant melanoma of the vulva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given about the successful, ambulatory, non-typical radiotherapy of a malignant vulvar melanoma producing recurrences and metastases after surgery. The problems of radiotherapy are discussed under special consideration of this case. With regard to the communications found in literature, the author underlines the efficiency of radiotherapy, especially if it is fractionated into high individual doses. (orig.)

  1. Sleep Patterns in Preschool-Age Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates sleep disorders by assessing the quantity and quality of sleep in preschool children with autism and comparing them with developmental delay without autism, and typical development. The results prove that sleep patterns are different in preschool children across all three categories.

  2. Adolescent Risk Behaviors: Studying Typical and Atypical Individuals via Multidimensional Scaling Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; Ding, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of problem behavior theory, the purpose of this study was to examine risk behavior profiles of typical and atypical adolescents and the differential outcomes of well-beings for these individuals in the United States. Based on the data from the survey of Health Behavior of School-Aged Children by World Health Organization,…

  3. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1610 - An Example of a Typical Indicator Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false An Example of a Typical Indicator Finger 4 Figure 4 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Part...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1610 - An Example of a Typical Gas Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false An Example of a Typical Gas Shield 5 Figure 5 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part...

  5. Television, Video Game and Social Media Use among Children with ASD and Typically Developing Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Wenstrup, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the nature of television, video game, and social media use in children (ages 8-18) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, n = 202) compared to typically developing siblings (TD, n = 179), and relative to other activities. Parents completed measures assessing children's screen-based and other extracurricular activities. Children…

  6. Brain bases of reading fluency in typical reading and impaired fluency in dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna A Christodoulou

    Full Text Available Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates.

  7. Brain bases of reading fluency in typical reading and impaired fluency in dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Joanna A; Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Lymberis, John; Saxler, Patricia K; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Triantafyllou, Christina; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-01-01

    Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates.

  8. Recall Memory in Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Peers Matched on Developmental Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevich, H.; Lukowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas research has indicated that children with Down syndrome (DS) imitate demonstrated actions over short delays, it is presently unknown whether children with DS recall information over lengthy delays at levels comparable with typically developing (TD) children matched on developmental age. Method: In the present research, 10…

  9. Social-Emotional Inhibition of Return in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder versus Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antezana, Ligia; Mosner, Maya G.; Troiani, Vanessa; Yerys, Benjamin E.

    2016-01-01

    In typical development there is a bias to orient visual attention to social information. Children with ASD do not reliably demonstrate this bias, and the role of attention orienting has not been well studied. We examined attention orienting via the inhibition of return (IOR) mechanism in a spatial cueing task using social-emotional cues; we…

  10. The Association between Graphomotor Tests and Participation of Typically Developing Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Limor

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between graphomotor tests--VMI, ROCF, SWT--and the measures of a child's participation. Seventy-five typically developing children aged 4 to 9 years were individually evaluated using the graphomotor tests and their parents completed a participation questionnaire. After controlling for child's age, the…

  11. A Case Study on Procedural Modeling of Geo-Typical Southern Afghasistan Terrain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelik, R.M.; Kraker, J.K. de; Tutenel, T.; Bidarra, R.

    2009-01-01

    A cost-effective method of military training is game-based training, for which custom geo-typical terrain models are often most suitable. However, for training instructors, scenario preparation is seriously slowed down by the complexity of current terrain modeling tools and methods. They would benef

  12. Sleep Problems among Taiwanese Children with Autism, Their Siblings and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Miao-Chun; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Wu, Yu-Yu; Lee, Ju-Chin; Wong, Ching-Ching; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    The current study compared the sleep schedules, sleep problems among children with autism, their siblings and typically developing children, and to explore other associated factors with sleep problems. We conducted a case-control study consisting 110 children with autistic disorder, 125 unaffected siblings, and 110 age-, sex-, and parental…

  13. Analysis of a Typical Chinese High School Biology Textbook Using the AAAS Textbook Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ye; Cobern, William W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a typical Chinese high school biology textbook using the textbook standards of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The data were composed of three chapters selected from the textbook. Each chapter was analyzed and rated using the AAAS textbook standards. Pearson correlations…

  14. Effects of Semantic Elaboration and Typicality on Picture Naming in Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Claudia A.; Altmann, Lori J. P.; Kendall, Diane; Fischler, Ira; Heilman, Kennneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with probable Alzheimer disease (pAD) are frequently impaired at picture naming. This study examined whether a semantic elaboration task would facilitate naming in pAD, and whether training either semantically typical or atypical stimulus items facilitated generalized improvement in picture naming and category generation…

  15. Cognitive Mechanisms underlying visual perspective taking in typical and ASC children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amy; Marsh, Lauren; Ropar, Danielle; Hamilton, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that people with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) may have difficulty with visual perspective taking (VPT) but it is not clear how this relates to different strategies that can be used in perspective taking tasks. The current study examined VPT in 30 children with autism and 30 verbal mental age matched typical children, in comparison to mental rotation (MR) abilities and body representation abilities. Using a similar paradigm to Hamilton, Brindley, and Frith [2009] all children completed three tasks: a VPT task in which children decided what a toy on a table would look like from a different points of view; a MR task in which the child decided what a toy would look like after it had been rotated; and a body posture matching task, in which children matched pictures of a body shown from different viewpoints. Results showed that children with ASC performed better than the typically developing children on the MR task, and at a similar level on the VPT task and body matching task. Importantly, in the typical children VPT performance was predicted by performance on the body matching task, whereas in the ASC children VPT performance was predicted by MR ability. These findings suggest that differences in VPT in ASC may be explained by the use of a spatial rotation strategy rather than the embodied egocentric transformation strategy used by typical children. PMID:26052836

  16. Typical Plan: The Architecture of Labor and the Space of Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marullo, F.

    2014-01-01

    In a short essay dealing with the repetitive homogeneity of the Manhattan’s office layouts, Rem Koolhaas defined the term Typical Plan as one of the purest American architectural archetypes. A plan stripped of all its qualities and reduced to a calculated relation between discreet standardised eleme

  17. Anxiety, Depression, and Irritability in Children with Autism Relative to Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Ahuja, Meesha; Smith, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal ratings of anxiety, depression, and irritability were analyzed in 1390 children (6-16 years of age), including 233 children with high functioning autism (HFA, IQ greater than or equal to 80), 117 children with low functioning autism (LFA, IQ less than 80), 187 typical children, and 853 children with other disorders. As a group, children…

  18. Anxiety and Depression in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, Reading Disabilities, or Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Irene C.; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were…

  19. Dynamic consequences of mutating the typical HPGG motif of apocytochrome b5 revealed by computer simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Wu Lin; Tian Lei Ying; Li Fu Liao

    2009-01-01

    Apecytochrome b5 with a typical heme-binding motif of HPGC,and its variants with mutated motifs,GPGG,GPGH,HVGG,and HPGP,have been subjected to molecular dynamics simulation.Comparison of the dynamic consequences has revealed the crucial role of HPGG in assembling the heme group of cytochrome b5 and in modulating protein structure,property and function.

  20. Characterization of typical chemical background interferences in atmospheric pressure ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Xinghua; Bruins, Andries P.; Covey, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    The structures and origins of typical chemical background noise ions in positive atmospheric pressure ionization liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (API LC/MS) are investigated and summarized in this study. This was done by classifying chemical background ions using precursor and product ion sc

  1. Cognitive State Verbs and Complement Clauses in Children with SLI and Their Typically Developing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horne, Amanda J. Owen; Lin, Shanju

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of cognitive state verbs (CSVs) and complement clauses in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. In Study 1, conversational samples from 23 children with SLI (M = 6;2), 24 age-matched TD children (M = 6;2) and 21 vocabulary-matched TD children (M = 4;9) were…

  2. Bridge Building and Other Possible Metaphors for Patching over Discrepancies between Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The next several pages are intended as a "Commentary" on the six target articles bundled together as a Special Issue of the "Journal of Cognition and Development"--literature reviews and research reports all intended to "build bridges" between the study of cognitive development in typical and atypical populations.

  3. Bridging the Gaps in the Study of Typical and Atypical Cognitive Development: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Susan A.; Madigan, Sheri

    2016-01-01

    The articles in this special issue of the "Journal of Cognition and Development" examine the cognitive development of children who are following typical and atypical developmental pathways. The articles offer a mixture of theory-based considerations, reviews of the literature, and new empirical data addressing fundamental aspects of…

  4. Decision-Tree Models of Categorization Response Times, Choice Proportions, and Typicality Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Daniel; Lacouture, Yves; Cohen, Andrew L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present 3 decision-tree models of categorization adapted from T. Trabasso, H. Rollins, and E. Shaughnessy (1971) and use them to provide a quantitative account of categorization response times, choice proportions, and typicality judgments at the individual-participant level. In Experiment 1, the decision-tree models were fit to…

  5. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Characterisation of N-Alkyl Quaternary Ammonium Salts Typical Precursors of Cyanines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Almeida

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and spectroscopic characterisation of some representative N-alkylsubstituted quaternary ammonium salts derived from benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzoselenazole, indole and quinoline are described. These heterocyclic salts, bearing an activated methyl group in the 2-position in relation to the nitrogen atom and N-methyl, -pentyl, -hexyl and -decyl chains, are typical precursors of cyanine dyes.

  6. Social Behaviors of Gifted and Typical Preschool Children in Laboratory School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupkowski, Ann E.

    1989-01-01

    Comparison of the social behaviors of intellectually gifted and typical three-to five-year-olds in a university laboratory school found no difference in the two groups on a social development scale, but found that gifted children exhibited cooperative play to a much greater extent. (MSE)

  7. VMI-VI and BG-II KOPPITZ-2 for Youth with HFASDs and Typical Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christin A.; Volker, Martin A.; Lopata, Christopher; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Lee, Gloria K.; Lipinski, Alanna M.; Dua, Elissa H.; Schiavo, Audrey M.; Bain, Fabienne; Nelson, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    The visual-motor skills of 90 youth with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) and 51 typically developing (TD) youth were assessed using the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, Sixth Edition (VMI-VI) and Koppitz Developmental Scoring System for the Bender-Gestalt Test-Second Edition (KOPPITZ-2).…

  8. Sensitivity of different SSI parameters on the floor response spectra of a typical nuclear reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of several critical soil-structure interaction (SSI) parameters on the floor response spectra (FRS) of a typical nuclear reactor building has been examined. These parameters are: computation of impedance functions using different approaches, deconvolution effects (reductions in ground motion with depth), and, strain dependency of soil dynamic properties. (author)

  9. Longitudinal Relationships between Lexical and Grammatical Development in Typical and Late-Talking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Maura Jones; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Evans, Julia L.; Lindstrom, Mary J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the longitudinal relationships between lexical and grammatical development in typically developing (TD) and late-talking children for the purposes of testing the single-mechanism account of language acquisition and comparing the developmental trajectories of lexical and grammatical development in late-talking and TD…

  10. When any Worx looks typical to you: global relative to local processing increases prototypicality and liking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Förster; M. Denzler

    2011-01-01

    Two studies examine novelty categorization theory's (Förster, Marguc & Gillebaart, 2010) assumption that global compared to local processing styles enhance typicality judgments of atypical objects and thereby enhance liking. We used an artificial category of figures for an alleged computer game incl

  11. Theory of Mind and Children's Trait Attributions about Average and Typically Stigmatized Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapan, Candace; Boseovski, Janet J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicates that children hold negative beliefs about peers with foreign accents, physical disabilities, and people who are obese. The current study examined skills associated with individual differences in children's social judgements about these typically stereotyped groups. Theory of mind, memory, and cognitive inhibition were…

  12. Pretend Play and Maternal Scaffolding: Comparisons of Toddlers with Advanced Development, Typical Development, and Hearing Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelock, Martha J.; Brown, P. Margaret; Morrissey, Anne-Marie

    2003-01-01

    A study involving three children with impaired hearing, three typical children, and three showing intellectual advancement, found children scoring above 130 IQ at age four demonstrated significantly advanced pretend play as toddlers. Mothers of the high IQ children engaged in scaffolding behaviors involving higher stages of pretend transformation,…

  13. The Representational Status of Pretence: Evidence from Typical Development and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrold, Christopher; Mansergh, Ruth; Whiting, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The question of whether understanding pretend play requires meta-representational skill was examined among typically developing children and individuals with autism. Participants were presented with closely equated true and false pretence trials in which they had to judge a protagonist's pretend reading of a situation, which either matched or…

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 438 - Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Machinery Sectors A Appendix A to Part 438 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL PRODUCTS AND MACHINERY POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pt. 438, App. A Appendix A to Part 438—Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors AEROSPACE...

  15. Reading under the Skin: Physiological Activation during Reading in Children with Dyslexia and Typical Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Valentina; Bonifacci, Paola; Ottaviani, Cristina; Borsato, Thomas; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate physiological activation during reading and control tasks in children with dyslexia and typical readers. Skin conductance response (SCR) recorded during four tasks involving reading aloud, reading silently, and describing illustrated stories aloud and silently was compared for children with dyslexia (n =…

  16. Integrated Prevention and Control System for Soil Erosion in Typical Black Soil Region of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-ying; CAI Qiang-guo; CHEN Sheng-yong; HE Ji-jun

    2012-01-01

    The black soil region of Northeast China is one of the most important food production bases and commodity grain bases in China. However, the continual loss and degradation of precious black soil resources has led to direct threats to national food security and regional sustainable development. Therefore, it is necessary to summarize integrated prevention and control experience of small watersheds in black soil region of Northeast China. Tongshuang small watershed, a typical watershed in rolling hills of typical black soil areas in Northeast China, is selected as the study area. Based on nearly 50 years’ experience in prevention and control of soil and water loss, the structures and overall benefits of an integrated prevention and control system for soil and water loss are investigated. Then, the ’three defense lines’ tri-dimensional protection system with reasonable allocation of different types of soil and water control measures from the hill top to gully is systematically analyzed. The first line on the top hill can weaken and block uphill runoff and sediment, hold water resources and improve soil property. The second line on the hill can truncate slope length, slow down the runoff velocity and reduce erosion energy. The third line in the gully is mainly composed of waterfall engineering, which can inhibit soil erosion and restore land resources. The ’three defense lines’ system is feasible for soil and water loss control of small watersheds in the typical black soil region of Northeast China. Through the application of the in Tongshuang small watershed, There are effective improvements in ecological conditions in Tongshuang small watershed after the application of ’three defense lines’ soil and water control system. Moreover, the integrated treatment paradigm for soil and water loss in typical black soil region is compared with that in loess region. The results of this study could offer references and experiences for other small watersheds in

  17. SMEs Development Strategy for Competitive and Sustainable Typical Local Snacks of Banten Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawarni Hasibuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs for snacks in Indonesia currently has a good growth rate on one hand; but on the other hand, its level of competition is also quite high.  Growth in sales volume of the Indonesian snack industry, both in modern and traditional markets in 2012, was recorded at 10-15 percent far beyond the growth of other manufacturing industries.  However, the level of competition in the snack industry is also relatively high. Business people in the snacks sector do not only compete with fellow local business people but also with imported products, both legal and illegal.  Currently, Banten Province is indeed not known as a culinary destination with a variety of distinctively local foods. The growth  of the food industry in Banten Province is not as rapid as other manufacturing industries. However, in Banten, some types of food produced in small and medium scales (SMEs are also known.  Therefore, efforts to develop and empower typical local snack SMEs in Banten Province needs to be conducted to be able to increase its competitiveness in facing the globalization era and the ASEAN free market in 2015.  The purpose of this reseach is to map the performance profile of Banten typical local snack SMEs and to provide recommendation on SME development strategies for competitive and sustainable Banten typical local snacks.  The research method used combines the descriptive research method, IPA (Importance Performance Analysis, and SWOT analysis.  The performance level measurement for Banten typical local snack SMEs is based on stakeholder perceptions on the condition of the existing 16 attributes compared to the perception on the development expectation of each of these attributes.  Results of SWOT matrix mapping puts  the products of Banten typical local snack SMEs in quadran II.  The strategy prioritized is the quality attribute maintenance strategy for superior products, as well as product diversification to expand market share

  18. Perception and Processing of Faces in the Human Brain Is Tuned to Typical Feature Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, D. Samuel; Alvarez, Ivan; Lawson, Rebecca P.; Henriksson, Linda; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Faces are salient social stimuli whose features attract a stereotypical pattern of fixations. The implications of this gaze behavior for perception and brain activity are largely unknown. Here, we characterize and quantify a retinotopic bias implied by typical gaze behavior toward faces, which leads to eyes and mouth appearing most often in the upper and lower visual field, respectively. We found that the adult human visual system is tuned to these contingencies. In two recognition experiments, recognition performance for isolated face parts was better when they were presented at typical, rather than reversed, visual field locations. The recognition cost of reversed locations was equal to ∼60% of that for whole face inversion in the same sample. Similarly, an fMRI experiment showed that patterns of activity evoked by eye and mouth stimuli in the right inferior occipital gyrus could be separated with significantly higher accuracy when these features were presented at typical, rather than reversed, visual field locations. Our findings demonstrate that human face perception is determined not only by the local position of features within a face context, but by whether features appear at the typical retinotopic location given normal gaze behavior. Such location sensitivity may reflect fine-tuning of category-specific visual processing to retinal input statistics. Our findings further suggest that retinotopic heterogeneity might play a role for face inversion effects and for the understanding of conditions affecting gaze behavior toward faces, such as autism spectrum disorders and congenital prosopagnosia. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Faces attract our attention and trigger stereotypical patterns of visual fixations, concentrating on inner features, like eyes and mouth. Here we show that the visual system represents face features better when they are shown at retinal positions where they typically fall during natural vision. When facial features were shown at typical (rather

  19. Pattern Recognition in Numerical Data Sets and Color Images through the Typicality Based on the GKPFCM Clustering Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Ojeda-Magaña, B.; Ruelas, R.; Corona Nakamura, M.A.; D. W. Carr Finch; Gómez-Barba, L.

    2013-01-01

    We take the concept of typicality from the field of cognitive psychology, and we apply the meaning to the interpretation of numerical data sets and color images through fuzzy clustering algorithms, particularly the GKPFCM, looking to get better information from the processed data. The Gustafson Kessel Possibilistic Fuzzy c-means (GKPFCM) is a hybrid algorithm that is based on a relative typicality (membership degree, Fuzzy c-means) and an absolute typicality (typicality value, Possibilistic c...

  20. The relationship between species richness and productivity in four typical grasslands of northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Wenhong

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between plant species richness and primary productivity has long been acentral topic in biodiversity research.In this paper,we examine the relationship between species richness and productivity in four typical grasslands of Northern China at different spatial scales.At the community scale,a positive correlation was found for six of seven communities.A unimodal pattern was found only for one community (Stipa glareosa community),while at a large scale (vegetation type or landscape/region),the relationship was also found significantly positive.Species richness ranged from 4 to 35 species,and community aboveground productiand aboveground productivity were found in alpine meadow,followed by meadow steppe,typical steppe and desert steppe.

  1. Pattern recognition of typical defects in high-voltage storage capacitors based on DC partial discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    High-voltage storage capacitors(hereinafter call capacitors for short)have been widely used in pulsed power technology.In accordance with the actual work conditions of capacitors,direct current partial discharge(DCPD)detection was put forward.The whole test system was based on the impedance balance circuit characterized by good configuration and anti-interference ability.Through DCPD detection on capacitors which contained four typical defects respectively,test results revealed that DCPD signals could well reflect the state of capacitor insulation.DCPD distribution spectra of capacitors containing four typical defects were obviously different.Defects in capacitors could be exactly judged by computer–aided pattern recognition based on support vector machine(SVM).

  2. Scoliosis associated with typical Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K; Esham, R H; Thorneycroft, I

    2000-02-01

    Disorders that cause congenital scoliosis include Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome. We present the case of a 46-year-old karyotypical (XX) woman with müllerian agenesis (MRKH type A, typical form), a rudimentary bicornate uterus, a blind vaginal pouch, and adenocarcinoma of both ovaries with subsequent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. She also had scoliosis of the thoracic and lumbar spine, an association thus far seen only among patients with type B (atypical) MRKH. We describe typical and atypical forms of MRKH and emphasize how these various anomalies associated with müllerian agenesis have affected the classification of the syndrome. We also outline possible embryologic etiologies of müllerian agenesis.

  3. Reading under the skin: physiological activation during reading in children with dyslexia and typical readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Valentina; Bonifacci, Paola; Ottaviani, Cristina; Borsato, Thomas; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate physiological activation during reading and control tasks in children with dyslexia and typical readers. Skin conductance response (SCR) recorded during four tasks involving reading aloud, reading silently, and describing illustrated stories aloud and silently was compared for children with dyslexia (n = 16) and a control group of typical readers (n = 16). Children's school wellness was measured through self- and parent-proxy reports. Significantly lower SCR was found for dyslexic children in the reading-aloud task, compared to the control group, whereas all participants showed similar physiological reactions to the other experimental conditions. SCR registered during reading tasks correlated with "Child's emotional difficulties," as reported by parents. Possible interpretations of the lower activation during reading aloud in dyslexic children are discussed.

  4. Comparison study of typical algorithms for reconstructing time series from the recurrence plot of dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jie; Shi Shu-Ting; Zhao Jun-Chan

    2013-01-01

    The three most widely used methods for reconstructing the underlying time series via the recurrence plots (RPs) of a dynamical system are compared with each other in this paper.We aim to reconstruct a toy series,a periodical series,a random series,and a chaotic series to compare the effectiveness of the most widely used typical methods in terms of signal correlation analysis.The application of the most effective algorithm to the typical chaotic Lorenz system verifies the correctness of such an effective algorithm.It is verified that,based on the unthresholded RPs,one can reconstruct the original attractor by choosing different RP thresholds based on the Hirata algorithm.It is shown that,in real applications,it is possible to reconstruct the underlying dynamics by using quite little information from observations of real dynamical systems.Moreover,rules of the threshold chosen in the algorithm are also suggested.

  5. Pattern recognition of typical defects in high-voltage storage capacitors based on DC partial discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU GuangNing; BIAN ShanShan; ZHOU LiRen; ZHANG XueQin; RAN HanZheng; YU ChengLong

    2009-01-01

    High-voltage storage capacitors(hereinafter call capacitors for short)have been widely used in pulsed power technology.In accordance with the actual work conditions of capacitors,direct current partial discharge(DCPD)detection was put forward.The whole test system was based on the impedance balance circuit characterized by good configuration and anti-interference ability.Through DCPD detection on capacitors which contained four typical defects respectively,test results revealed that DCPD signals could well reflect the state of capacitor insulation.DCPD distribution spectra of capacitors containing four typical defects were obviously different.Defects in capacitors could be exactly judged by computer-aided pattern recognition based on support vector machine(SVM).

  6. TYPICAL WEATHER CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH AIR POLLUTION IN HONG KONG AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xun-lai; FAN Shao-jia; LI Jiang-nan; LIU Ji; WANG An-yu; FONG Soi-kun

    2008-01-01

    With the hourly data of Air Pollution Index (API) by Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (HKEPD) during the 6 years of 2000 - 2005 and NCEP / NCAR reanalysis data of 2.5°×2.5° wind and pressure fields, the characteristics of API in Hong Kong area and the impacts of typical weather characteristics on the air pollution in Hong Kong have been studied. The results are shown as follows. (1) The API exhibits obvious seasonal variability as the number of air pollution days increases by the year. For most of the local monitoring stations, it is the most from January to March, a little less from July to September and the least from April to June. (2) There are four typical types of weather situations that are responsible for the air pollution in Hong Kong: tropical cyclones, continental cold highs, transformed highs that have moved out to sea and low pressure troughs.

  7. Caregivers' suffix frequencies and suffix acquisition by language impaired, late talking, and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlaumont, Anne S; Jarmulowicz, Linda

    2012-11-01

    Acquisition of regular inflectional suffixes is an integral part of grammatical development in English and delayed acquisition of certain inflectional suffixes is a hallmark of language impairment. We investigate the relationship between input frequency and grammatical suffix acquisition, analyzing 217 transcripts of mother-child (ages 1 ; 11-6 ; 9) conversations from the CHILDES database. Maternal suffix frequency correlates with previously reported rank orders of acquisition and with child suffix frequency. Percentages of children using a suffix are consistent with frequencies in caregiver speech. Although late talkers acquire suffixes later than typically developing children, order of acquisition is similar across populations. Furthermore, the third person singular and past tense verb suffixes, weaknesses for children with language impairment, are less frequent in caregiver speech than the plural noun suffix, a relative strength in language impairment. Similar findings hold across typical, SLI and late talker populations, suggesting that frequency plays a role in suffix acquisition.

  8. Maternal support for autonomy: relationships with persistence for children with Down syndrome and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Linda; Cuskelly, Monica; Jobling, Anne; Hayes, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Maternal behaviors and child mastery behaviors were examined in 25 children with Down syndrome and 43 typically developing children matched for mental age (24-36 months). During a shared problem-solving task, there were no group differences in maternal directiveness or support for autonomy, and mothers in the two groups used similar verbal strategies when helping their child. There were also no group differences in child mastery behaviors, measured as persistence with two optimally challenging tasks. However, the two groups differed in the relationships of maternal style with child persistence. Children with Down syndrome whose mothers were more supportive of their autonomy in the shared task displayed greater persistence when working independently on a challenging puzzle, while children of highly directive mothers displayed lower levels of persistence. For typically developing children, persistence was unrelated to maternal style, suggesting that mother behaviors may have different causes or consequences in the two groups. PMID:19304452

  9. Late talking, typical talking, and weak language skills at middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Gerard H; Miller, Carol A

    2013-08-01

    To better understand early predictors of weak language and academic abilities, we identified children with and without weak abilities at age 8. We then looked back at age 2 vocabulary and word combining, and evaluated these measures as predictors of age 8 outcomes. More than 60% of children with weak oral language abilities at 8 were not late talkers at 2. However, no word combining at 2 was a significant risk factor for poor oral language, reading comprehension, and math outcomes at 8. The association of no word combining with age 8 reading comprehension and math ability was mediated by age 8 oral language ability. The findings indicate that children take different developmental pathways to weak language abilities in middle childhood. One begins with a delayed onset of language. A second begins with language measures in the typical range, but ends with language ability falling well below typical peers. PMID:24039376

  10. Reading under the skin: physiological activation during reading in children with dyslexia and typical readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Valentina; Bonifacci, Paola; Ottaviani, Cristina; Borsato, Thomas; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate physiological activation during reading and control tasks in children with dyslexia and typical readers. Skin conductance response (SCR) recorded during four tasks involving reading aloud, reading silently, and describing illustrated stories aloud and silently was compared for children with dyslexia (n = 16) and a control group of typical readers (n = 16). Children's school wellness was measured through self- and parent-proxy reports. Significantly lower SCR was found for dyslexic children in the reading-aloud task, compared to the control group, whereas all participants showed similar physiological reactions to the other experimental conditions. SCR registered during reading tasks correlated with "Child's emotional difficulties," as reported by parents. Possible interpretations of the lower activation during reading aloud in dyslexic children are discussed. PMID:26271916

  11. A Typical Production and Elimination Process of Particles in Beijing during Early 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to discuss he produce and elimination rules of particles in Beijing during early 2008 Olympic Games. [Method] Based on the analysis of particulate matter online observation data and meteorological data during the corresponding period in Chinese environmental science college, Hysplit Back trace model and Numerical weather prediction graphs, and combined with the different analytical methods on meteorological flow fields, a typical process of particles in Beijing during early 2008 Olym...

  12. Sulfur use efficiency ofradish as affected by sulfur source and rate in typic ustifluvent soil

    OpenAIRE

    M.V. Sriramachandrasekharan

    2012-01-01

    Radish is one of the most popular root crops inthe tropical and temperate regions. Sulfurdeficiency is common in coarse textured soildue to leachingloss. Rootyieldof radishis reportedtoincreasewith sulfur application.Fieldexperiments was conducted in two seasons to study theeffect of sulfur(S) rate and sourceon radish (Raphanus sativus L.) nutrition, an experimentwas conducted in aPadugai sandy clay loam(TypicUstifluvents) deficient in available sulfur. The treatmentsconsisted of four levels ...

  13. An analytical study on electronic transport of typical nanotubes with square structure network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Rabani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the electronic conductance of two typical single-wall nanotubes with square lattice by using Green’s function method in tight-binding approximation. Then the effect of various factors such as presence of symmetrical bond defects, the distance between two defects and the nanotube hopping energies was studied on the system electronic conductance. The square and rhombic nanotubes showed metallic and insulator/semiconductor behaviors, respectively.

  14. The moderating influence of personality and culture on social loafing in typical versus maximum performance situations

    OpenAIRE

    Klehe, Ute-Christine; Anderson, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The current paper combines research from personality, cultural, social, and work- and organizational psychology. More precisely, it addresses the motivating effects of situations that either foster or inhibit social loafing under typical vs maximum performance conditions. It further tests how these effects are moderated by the three individual difference variables of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness to experience, and the two cultural dimension variables of collectivism and powe...

  15. Not Your “Typical Patient”: Cryptococcal Meningitis in an Immunocompetent Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Hilaire I.

    2005-01-01

    Meningitis, when caused by the fungal mycoses Cryptococcus neoformans, is normally seen in immunocompromised hosts. However, immunocompetent patients are also susceptible to cryptococcal meningitis (CM). In patients with an intact immune system, CM usually presents with the typical signs and symptoms of meningitis: fever, stiff neck, and headache. Major implications for the primary and advanced practice nursing plans of carefor CM patients include a thorough history and physical exam, early d...

  16. Exploring the role of auditory analysis in atypical compared to typical language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Manon; Cooper, Freya E; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Kelly, Tom; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between auditory processing and language skills has been debated for decades. Previous findings have been inconsistent, both in typically developing and impaired subjects, including those with dyslexia or specific language impairment. Whether correlations between auditory and language skills are consistent between different populations has hardly been addressed at all. The present work presents an exploratory approach of testing for patterns of correlations in a range of measures of auditory processing. In a recent study, we reported findings from a large cohort of eleven-year olds on a range of auditory measures and the data supported a specific role for the processing of short sequences in pitch and time in typical language development. Here we tested whether a group of individuals with dyslexic traits (DT group; n = 28) from the same year group would show the same pattern of correlations between auditory and language skills as the typically developing group (TD group; n = 173). Regarding the raw scores, the DT group showed a significantly poorer performance on the language but not the auditory measures, including measures of pitch, time and rhythm, and timbre (modulation). In terms of correlations, there was a tendency to decrease in correlations between short-sequence processing and language skills, contrasted by a significant increase in correlation for basic, single-sound processing, in particular in the domain of modulation. The data support the notion that the fundamental relationship between auditory and language skills might differ in atypical compared to typical language development, with the implication that merging data or drawing inference between populations might be problematic. Further examination of the relationship between both basic sound feature analysis and music-like sound analysis and language skills in impaired populations might allow the development of appropriate training strategies. These might include types of musical

  17. Electrochemical dissolution of steel as a typical catalyst for electro-Fenton oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Kočanová, Veronika; Dušek, Libor

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although traditional Fenton reaction is known for a long time, it is still a perspective method for removal of pollution from wastewater. Applications of electro-Fenton oxidation are commonly used in wastewater treatment. These methods are classified into groups—electrochemical advanced oxidation processes. Typical catalysts for these technologies are Fe2+ ions. Comparison between two material types of steel was investigated in this paper. Alloy steel Cr–Ni and non-alloy steel were u...

  18. Seed germination of three species of Fabaceae typical of seasonally dry forest

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Meira Arruda; Diego Oliveira Brandão; Maria das Dores Magalhães Veloso; Yule Roberta Ferreira Nunes

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates seeds germination of Anadenanthera colubrina, Acacia polyphylla and Bauhinia cheilantha, typical species of deciduous forests. Seeds were submitted to pre-germination treatments and attack of native insects. The seeds of each species were grouped in: seeds scarified with sandpaper; seeds immersed in water heated to 70 °C, seeds with signs of attack by herbivore insects and the control group. The largest proportion of germinated seeds occurred in the first week of incubati...

  19. Examining executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and typical development

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, Blythe A.; Constantine, Laura J.; Hendren, Robert; Rocke, David; Ozonoff, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Executive functioning (EF) is an overarching term that refers to neuropsychological processes that enable physical, cognitive, and emotional self-control. Deficits in EF are often present in neurodevelopmental disorders, but the specificity of EF deficits and direct comparison across disorders is rare. The current study investigated EF in 7 to 12 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typical development using a comprehensive...

  20. Exploring the role of auditory analysis in atypical compared to typical language development ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Grube, Manon; Cooper, Freya E.; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Kelly, Tom; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between auditory processing and language skills has been debated for decades. Previous findings have been inconsistent, both in typically developing and impaired subjects, including those with dyslexia or specific language impairment. Whether correlations between auditory and language skills are consistent between different populations has hardly been addressed at all. The present work presents an exploratory approach of testing for patterns of correlations in a range of meas...

  1. Between Intersective and 'Split' Interpretations of Predicate Conjunction: The Role of Typicality

    OpenAIRE

    Poortman, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to account for the different interpretations of plural sentences with conjoined predicates. Such sentences are somc:times ~terpreted strictly intersectively, sometimes strictly non-mtersectively (or 'split'), and sometimes both ~terpreta~ons appear to be allowed We propose that the logical mtt:rJ>~tion of these sentences is systematically affected by typicality effects of the complex predicate in the sentence. We show with a set of experiments that a) the acceptability of a no...

  2. Insect visitors and their behaviors in the typical herbaceous plant communities of the Shennongjia Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Du; Hongxia Wang; Xiaofan Wang

    2007-01-01

    Insect visitation was preliminarily monitored in some typical herbaceous plant communities at different altitudes (1,000–2,600 m) in the Shennongjia Mountains, Hubei Province, China. In the nine quadrats studied, insects in eleven families of Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera were observed to be floral visitors. The taxa of insect visitors were visibly associated with the community composition. Observing the behavior of floral visitors, we found that the total visitation frequency and the ...

  3. Dysfunctional metacognition and drive for thinness in typical and atypical anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Davenport, Emily; Rushford, Nola; Soon, Siew; McDermott, Cressida

    2015-01-01

    Background Anorexia nervosa is complex and difficult to treat. In cognitive therapies the focus has been on cognitive content rather than process. Process-oriented therapies may modify the higher level cognitive processes of metacognition, reported as dysfunctional in adult anorexia nervosa. Their association with clinical features of anorexia nervosa, however, is unclear. With reclassification of anorexia nervosa by DSM-5 into typical and atypical groups, comparability of metacognition and d...

  4. Investigating the Shape Bias in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Emily R. Potrzeba; Deborah eFein; Letitia eNaigles

    2015-01-01

    Young typically developing (TD) children have been observed to utilize word learning strategies such as the noun bias and shape bias; these improve their efficiency in acquiring and categorizing novel terms. Children using the shape bias extend object labels to new objects of the same shape; thus, the shape bias prompts the categorization of object words based on the global characteristic of shape over local, discrete details. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently atten...

  5. Structure Analysis of Typical Fuzzy Controllers with Unequally Spaced Fuzzy Sets for Input and Output Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xingzhe; ZHANG Naiyao; LINing

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a kind of typical fuzzycontrollers is defined, which have two inputs (e and△c) and one output (△u); triangular, symmetric andfull-overlapped membership functions for input vari-ables; singleton and symmetric membership func-tions for output variable; linear fuzzy control rules;Sum-Product inference method, and weighted meanmethod for defuzzification. For this kind of typicalfuzzy controllers we have analyzed their analyticalstructure, limiting structure and local stability.

  6. Both typical and atypical long-acting injectable antipsychotics in bipolar disorder: a retrospective chart review

    OpenAIRE

    Alpak, Gokay; Demir, Bahadir; Aksoy, Ihsan; Kaya, Hilal; Unal, Ahmet; Bulbul, Feridun; Savas, Haluk A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder which shows difficulties in the process of diagnosis and treatment. One of the biggest problems in BD maintenance therapy is to ensure medication compliance. Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic medications have important advantages in such cases. In this study we aimed to include both LAI atypical and typical antipsychotics and to compare the clinical status, number of hospitalization, and side effects of pre and post-t...

  7. Speech processing in typical and atypical language development: using nonwords to map the way

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, S. -S

    2011-01-01

    Accurate differential diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) is essential to determine the optimum form and content of treatment. It is therefore important to address the cognitive processes underpinning SLI and to evaluate potential clinical markers. The experiments presented here were designed to investigate input and output phonological processing in typically developing (TD) children, children with SLI and children with SLI and a concomitant speech disorder (SLI+SS...

  8. Pollution characteristics and environmental risk assessment of typical veterinary antibiotics in livestock farms in Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Guo, Xinyan; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiangji; Gao, Shixiang; Shan, Zhengjun

    2014-01-01

    Scientific interest in pollution from antibiotics in animal husbandry has increased during recent years. However, there have been few studies on the vertical exposure characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in different exposure matrices from different livestock farms. This study explores the distribution and migration of antibiotics from feed to manure, from manure to soil, and from soil to vegetables, by investigating the exposure level of typical antibiotics in feed, manure, soil, vegetables, water, fish, and pork in livestock farms. A screening environmental risk assessment was conducted to identify the hazardous potential of veterinary antibiotics from livestock farms in southeast China. The results show that adding antibiotics to drinking water as well as the excessive use of antibiotic feed additives may become the major source of antibiotics pollution in livestock farms. Physical and chemical properties significantly affect the distribution and migration of various antibiotics from manure to soil and from soil to plant. Simple migration models can predict the accumulation of antibiotics in soil and plants. The environmental risk assessment results show that more attention should be paid to the terrestrial eco-risk of sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlorotetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin, and to the aquatic eco-risk of chlorotetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin. This is the first systematic analysis of the vertical pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in livestock farms in southeast China. It also identifies the ecological and human health risk of veterinary antibiotics.

  9. Ecosystem responses to warming and watering in typical and desert steppes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Hou, Yanhui; Zhang, Lihua; Liu, Tao; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is projected to continue, leading to intense fluctuations in precipitation and heat waves and thereby affecting the productivity and the relevant biological processes of grassland ecosystems. Here, we determined the functional responses to warming and altered precipitation in both typical and desert steppes. The results showed that watering markedly increased the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in a typical steppe during a drier year and in a desert steppe over two years, whereas warming manipulation had no significant effect. The soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the soil respiration (SR) were increased by watering in both steppes, but the SR was significantly decreased by warming in the desert steppe only. The inorganic nitrogen components varied irregularly, with generally lower levels in the desert steppe. The belowground traits of soil total organic carbon (TOC) and the MBC were more closely associated with the ANPP in the desert than in the typical steppes. The results showed that the desert steppe with lower productivity may respond strongly to precipitation changes, particularly with warming, highlighting the positive effect of adding water with warming. Our study implies that the habitat- and year-specific responses to warming and watering should be considered when predicting an ecosystem’s functional responses under climate change scenarios. PMID:27721480

  10. Non-alcoholic acute Wernicke's encephalopathy: Role of MRI in non typical cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elefante, Andrea, E-mail: aelefant@unina.it [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Puoti, Gianfranco [I Division of Neurology, General Medicine Department, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Senese, Rossana [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Coppola, Cinzia [I Division of Neurology, General Medicine Department, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Russo, Carmela [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Tortora, Fabio [Department of Neuroradiology, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Divitiis, Oreste de [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Brunetti, Arturo [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Aim: Acute Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a severe neurological disorder caused by thiamine deficiency, most commonly found in chronic alcoholics. It is not so easy to suspect acute WE when the clinical picture does not include all the typical symptoms and alcohol abuse is not reported. Three rare cases of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) in non-alcoholic patients are reported. Cases presentation: Two patients developed the disease following prolonged intravenous feeding, the third was carrying a gastric lymphoma. None of them presented with the classic clinical triad of WE (ophtalmoplegia/nystagmus, ataxia and consciousness disturbance), showing just one or two of the typical symptoms. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represented the key tool to suspect and define WE diagnosis, showing a picture characterized by bilaterally altered signal of the thalamic pulvinar, mesencephalic cup, mammillary bodies, periaqueductal grey matter and floor of fourth ventricle. All patients dramatically improved within 48 h after administration of thiamine. Conclusion: We emphasize that WE should be suspected in all patients showing typical MRI features presenting with at least one of the clinical triad of WE.

  11. Typical Atrial Flutter - When Do You Say You Have Got It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Peyrol, MD

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Right Atrial Flutter (AFL is a common form of macro reentrant arrhythmia.1–3 In absence of previous cardiac surgery, the reentry circuit is usually bounded anteriorly by the tricuspid annulus (TA and posteriorly by the ostia of vena cava and Eustachian ridge. In this case, AFL is consensually called "typical" AFL and is highly dependent of the cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI.2 The CTI is a critical channel which represents the predominant area of slow conduction of the circuit. Therefore, this narrow isthmus has become the universally accepted target for ablation of typical AFL.2–4If ablation is carried out during AFL the first "intuitive" procedure endpoint is arrhythmia termination. Although this latter was initially thought to be an acceptable endpoint for ablation procedure, bidirectional CTI conduction block is actually considered as the gold standard endpoint for elimination of typical AFL recurrence.5,6 Indeed, Schumacher et al. found a 9% recurrence rate after bidirectional CTI block achievement, 54% recurrence rate after unidirectional CTI block and 100% recurrence rate when persistent slow conduction across CTI was noted after RF application on the CTI.

  12. Effects of circumferential rigid wrist orthoses in rehabilitation of patients with radius fracture at typical site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Aleksandar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of orthoses is a questionable rehabilitation method for patients with the distal radius fracture at typical site. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the rehabilitation on patients with radius fracture at the typical site, who wore circumferential static wrist orthoses, with those who did not wear them. Methods. Thirty patients were divided into 3 equal groups, 2 experimental groups, and 1 control group. The patients in the experimental groups were given the rehabilitation program of wearing serially manufactured (off-the-shelf, as well as custom-fit orthoses. Those in the control group did not wear wrist orthoses. Evaluation parameters were pain, edema, the range of the wrist motion, the quality of cylindrical, spherical, and pinch-spherical grasp, the strength of pinch and hand grasp, and patient's assessment of the effects of rehabilitation. Results. No significant difference in the effects of rehabilitation on the patients in experimental groups as opposed to control group was found. Patients in the first experimental group, and in control group were more satisfied with the effects of rehabilitation, as opposed to the patients in the second experimental group (p<0,05. Conclusion. The effects of circumferential static wrist orthoses in the rehabilitation of patients with distal radius fracture at the typical site were not clinically significant. There was no significant difference between the custom and off-the-shelf orthoses.

  13. Non-alcoholic acute Wernicke's encephalopathy: Role of MRI in non typical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Acute Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a severe neurological disorder caused by thiamine deficiency, most commonly found in chronic alcoholics. It is not so easy to suspect acute WE when the clinical picture does not include all the typical symptoms and alcohol abuse is not reported. Three rare cases of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) in non-alcoholic patients are reported. Cases presentation: Two patients developed the disease following prolonged intravenous feeding, the third was carrying a gastric lymphoma. None of them presented with the classic clinical triad of WE (ophtalmoplegia/nystagmus, ataxia and consciousness disturbance), showing just one or two of the typical symptoms. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represented the key tool to suspect and define WE diagnosis, showing a picture characterized by bilaterally altered signal of the thalamic pulvinar, mesencephalic cup, mammillary bodies, periaqueductal grey matter and floor of fourth ventricle. All patients dramatically improved within 48 h after administration of thiamine. Conclusion: We emphasize that WE should be suspected in all patients showing typical MRI features presenting with at least one of the clinical triad of WE.

  14. Lip colour affects perceived sex typicality and attractiveness of human faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Ian D; McKeegan, Angela M

    2010-01-01

    The luminance contrast between facial features and facial skin is greater in women than in men, and women's use of make-up enhances this contrast. In black-and-white photographs, increased luminance contrast enhances femininity and attractiveness in women's faces, but reduces masculinity and attractiveness in men's faces. In Caucasians, much of the contrast between the lips and facial skin is in redness. Red lips have been considered attractive in women in geographically and temporally diverse cultures, possibly because they mimic vasodilation associated with sexual arousal. Here, we investigate the effects of lip luminance and colour contrast on the attractiveness and sex typicality (masculinity/femininity) of human faces. In a Caucasian sample, we allowed participants to manipulate the colour of the lips in colour-calibrated face photographs along CIELab L* (light--dark), a* (red--green), and b* (yellow--blue) axes to enhance apparent attractiveness and sex typicality. Participants increased redness contrast to enhance femininity and attractiveness of female faces, but reduced redness contrast to enhance masculinity of men's faces. Lip blueness was reduced more in female than male faces. Increased lightness contrast enhanced the attractiveness of both sexes, and had little effect on perceptions of sex typicality. The association between lip colour contrast and attractiveness in women's faces may be attributable to its association with oxygenated blood perfusion indicating oestrogen levels, sexual arousal, and cardiac and respiratory health. PMID:20942361

  15. Typical Features of Amelogenesis Imperfecta in Two Patients with Bartter’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercílio Martelli-Júnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI is due to many inherited defects of enamel formation that affect the quantity and quality of enamel, leading to delay in tooth eruption and cosmetic consequences. AI has been described in association with nephrocalcinosis, which is called the enamel-renal syndrome. The aim of this case report is to describe typical features of AI in 2 patients with Bartter’s syndrome (BS for the first time. Methods: -Eight patients with confirmed BS were systematically screened for dental abnormalities as part of protocol. Those with suggestive clinical features of AI were submitted to panoramic X-ray and decayed teeth were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Results: Typical features of AI were detected in 2 girls with BS. These 2 patients showed nephrocalcinosis, and diagnosis and adequate clinical control were delayed. Genetic analysis detected the mutation responsible for BS in 1 of these patients. In this case, BS was due to a homozygous mutation of exon 5 of the KCNJ1 gene resulting in a substitution of valine for alanine at the codon 214 (A214V. Conclusions: The finding of typical features of AI in BS might constitute preliminary evidence that abnormalities of the biomineralization process found in patients with renal tubular disorders might also affect calcium deposition in dental tissues.

  16. THE SIMULATED STORAGE CAPACITY OF FLOOD AND WATERLOGGING IN THE TYPICAL AGRICULTURAL REGION IN JIANGHAN PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Jianghap plain is one of the important bases of China's agricultural productivity, located in central and southern Hubei province in the middle reach of Yangtze River. The Jianghan Plain is the one region of flood and waterlogging occurring frequently. The area is low-lying and is characterized by deep alluvial deposits, many smaller rivers and numerous larger and shallow lakesformed by meandering of the Changjiang(Yangtze) River. The alluvial plain is a honeycomb of waterways bordered by natural levees, and the depressional areas encompassed by these waterways are dish-shaped in cross-section. The systems of rivers and lakes are main wetland types in this area. Owing to wetlands in Jianghan plain-lake district fulfill the function related to the flood regulation, the estimating of the storage capacity is useful tocontrolling and reducing the disasters of flooding and waterlogging. In this paper, by selecting typical experimental area, based on its DEM, the relation among the water level, area and volume of inundation in the typical region is defined by using regression analysis. Based on the agricultural cultivating line in this region and the experiment result of bearing the inundation for crop, we define the storage capacity of the typical region in Jianghan Plain - Lake district.

  17. Long-Term Outcome of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Treatment of Typical Trigeminal Neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze the long-term outcomes of patients with typical trigeminal neuralgia treated with gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS). Patients and Methods: A total of 62 consecutive patients with typical trigeminal neuralgia were treated with GKRS between 1998 and 2004. Of the 62 patients, 2 were lost to follow-up; the remaining 60 patients were followed for >12 months. The mean prescribed maximal dose was 79.7 Gy (range, 75-80), using a 4-mm shot. Results: Of the 60 patients, 48 were followed for >4 years. An additional 3 patients, followed for 70 years correlated with a favorable outcome in terms of pain recurrence after radiosurgery (hazard ratio, 0.125; 95% confidence interval, 0.016-0.975; p = .047) on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: GKRS seems to be an effective treatment modality for patients with typical trigeminal neuralgia considering the initial response rate; however, fewer than one-half of patients might continue to benefit from GKRS after long-term follow-up. Elderly patients might be good candidates for radiosurgery considering the long-term durability of efficacy.

  18. Early deictic but not other gestures predict later vocabulary in both typical development and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçalışkan, Şeyda; Adamson, Lauren B; Dimitrova, Nevena

    2016-08-01

    Research with typically developing children suggests a strong positive relation between early gesture use and subsequent vocabulary development. In this study, we ask whether gesture production plays a similar role for children with autism spectrum disorder. We observed 23 18-month-old typically developing children and 23 30-month-old children with autism spectrum disorder interact with their caregivers (Communication Play Protocol) and coded types of gestures children produced (deictic, give, conventional, and iconic) in two communicative contexts (commenting and requesting). One year later, we assessed children's expressive vocabulary, using Expressive Vocabulary Test. Children with autism spectrum disorder showed significant deficits in gesture production, particularly in deictic gestures (i.e. gestures that indicate objects by pointing at them or by holding them up). Importantly, deictic gestures-but not other gestures-predicted children's vocabulary 1 year later regardless of communicative context, a pattern also found in typical development. We conclude that the production of deictic gestures serves as a stepping-stone for vocabulary development.

  19. Early deictic but not other gestures predict later vocabulary in both typical development and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçalışkan, Şeyda; Adamson, Lauren B; Dimitrova, Nevena

    2016-08-01

    Research with typically developing children suggests a strong positive relation between early gesture use and subsequent vocabulary development. In this study, we ask whether gesture production plays a similar role for children with autism spectrum disorder. We observed 23 18-month-old typically developing children and 23 30-month-old children with autism spectrum disorder interact with their caregivers (Communication Play Protocol) and coded types of gestures children produced (deictic, give, conventional, and iconic) in two communicative contexts (commenting and requesting). One year later, we assessed children's expressive vocabulary, using Expressive Vocabulary Test. Children with autism spectrum disorder showed significant deficits in gesture production, particularly in deictic gestures (i.e. gestures that indicate objects by pointing at them or by holding them up). Importantly, deictic gestures-but not other gestures-predicted children's vocabulary 1 year later regardless of communicative context, a pattern also found in typical development. We conclude that the production of deictic gestures serves as a stepping-stone for vocabulary development. PMID:26503989

  20. Identifying typical patterns of vulnerability: A 5-step approach based on cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sietz, Diana; Lüdeke, Matthias; Kok, Marcel; Lucas, Paul; Carsten, Walther; Janssen, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Specific processes that shape the vulnerability of socio-ecological systems to climate, market and other stresses derive from diverse background conditions. Within the multitude of vulnerability-creating mechanisms, distinct processes recur in various regions inspiring research on typical patterns of vulnerability. The vulnerability patterns display typical combinations of the natural and socio-economic properties that shape a systems' vulnerability to particular stresses. Based on the identification of a limited number of vulnerability patterns, pattern analysis provides an efficient approach to improving our understanding of vulnerability and decision-making for vulnerability reduction. However, current pattern analyses often miss explicit descriptions of their methods and pay insufficient attention to the validity of their groupings. Therefore, the question arises as to how do we identify typical vulnerability patterns in order to enhance our understanding of a systems' vulnerability to stresses? A cluster-based pattern recognition applied at global and local levels is scrutinised with a focus on an applicable methodology and practicable insights. Taking the example of drylands, this presentation demonstrates the conditions necessary to identify typical vulnerability patterns. They are summarised in five methodological steps comprising the elicitation of relevant cause-effect hypotheses and the quantitative indication of mechanisms as well as an evaluation of robustness, a validation and a ranking of the identified patterns. Reflecting scale-dependent opportunities, a global study is able to support decision-making with insights into the up-scaling of interventions when available funds are limited. In contrast, local investigations encourage an outcome-based validation. This constitutes a crucial step in establishing the credibility of the patterns and hence their suitability for informing extension services and individual decisions. In this respect, working at

  1. Sulfur cycle in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jingshuang; LI Xinhua

    2008-01-01

    The sulfur cycle and its compartmental distribution within an atmosphere-plant-soil system was studied using a compartment model in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland in the Sanjiang Plain Northeast China. The results showed that in the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem, soil was the main storage compartment and current hinge of sulfur in which 98.4% sulfur was accumulated, while only 1.6% sulfur was accumulated in the plant compartment. In the plant subsystem, roots and litters were the main storage compartment of sulfur and they remained 83.5% of the total plant sulfur. The calculations of sulfur turnover through the compartments of the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem demonstrated that the above-ground component took up 0.99 gS/m2 from the root, of which 0.16 gS/m2 was translocated to the roots and 0.83 gS/m2 to the litter. The roots took in 1.05 gS/m2 from the soil, subsequent translocation back to the soil accounted for 1.31 gS/m2, while there was 1.84 gS/m2 in the litter and the net transfer of sulfur to the soil was more than 0.44 gS/(m2·a). The emission of H2S from the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem to the atmosphere was 1.83 mgS/(m2·a), while carbonyl sulfide (COS) was absorbed by the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem from the atmosphere at the rate of 1.76 mgS/(m2·a). The input of sulfur by the rainfall to the ecosystem was 4.85 mgS/m2 during the growing season. The difference between input and output was 4.78 mgS/m2, which indicated that sulfur was accumulated in the ecosystem and may cause wetland acidify in the future.

  2. Hospitalization and cost after switching from atypical to typical antipsychotics in schizophrenia patients in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonlue T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuanthon Boonlue,1,2 Suphat Subongkot,1,2 Piyameth Dilokthornsakul,3,4 Ronnachai Kongsakon,5 Oraluck Pattanaprateep,6 Orabhorn Suanchang,7 Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk3,8–10 1Clinical Pharmacy Division, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 2The College of Pharmacotherapy of Thailand, Nonthaburi, Thailand; 3Center of Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 4Center for Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO, USA; 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 6Department of Health Informatics, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 7Department of Pharmacy, Somdet Chaopraya Institute of Psychiatry, Bangkok, Thailand; 8School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 9School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; 10School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA Background: Several clinical practice guidelines suggest using atypical over typical antipsychotics in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, cost-containment policy urged restricting usage of atypical antipsychotics and switching from atypical to typical antipsychotics. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate clinical and economic impacts of switching from atypical to typical antipsychotics in schizophrenia patients in Thailand. Methods: From October 2010 through September 2013, a retrospective cohort study was performed utilizing electronic database of two tertiary hospitals. Schizophrenia patients aged 18 years or older and being treated with atypical antipsychotics were included. Patients were classified as atypical antipsychotic switching group if they switched to typical antipsychotics after 180 days of continual

  3. Survivel, growth, and nutrition of tree seedlings fertilized at planting on Andisol soils in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Hreinn; Sigurgeirsson, Adalsteinn; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    Ledeb. and Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. After six growing seasons, seedlings provided with controlled-release-fertilizer (Osmocote®: 25 g per seedling) or smaller amounts of easily soluble nitrogen–phosphorus fertilizer (e.g. 1.2 g N per seedling and 1.4 g P per seedling) showed significantly improved...

  4. IMPACTO DEL PASTOREO CON GANADO HOLSTEIN Y JERSEY SOBRE LA DENSIDAD APARENTE DE UN ANDISOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo WingChing-Jones

    2009-01-01

    momento del pastoreo (antes y después y potrero, fueron significativas para la cuantificación del cambio en la densidad aparente. Los valores de ¿a antes de que entrara el ganado a los apartos variaron entre 0,47 y 0,58 Mg/m3, con un promedio de 0,52 Mg/m3, mientras que después del paso del ganado variaron entre 0,52 y 0,77 Mg/m3, con un promedio de 0,64 Mg/m3. Cuando el pastoreo se realizó con ganado Jersey, la ¿a aumentó a valores entre 0,52 y 0,72 Mg/m3, con un promedio de 0,62 Mg/m3y con pastoreo de ganado Holstein entre 0,62 y 0,77 Mg/m3, con un valor promedio de 0,69 Mg/m3. El cambio en la densidad aparente producto del pisoteo en un suelo con cobertura permanente de pasto kikuyo, con las condiciones que prevalecieron durante este trabajo varió entre 14 y 31%.

  5. Aliso en simbiosis dual con frankia y endomicorrizas y respuesta a boro en un andisol

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Sierra, Marisol; Velásquez Restrepo, Jesús Oswaldo; Pinzón Sarmiento, Luz Mary

    2012-01-01

    Resumen. Se evaluó la respuesta del aliso (Alnus acuminata Kunth) a la inoculación dual con cepas de Frankia spp. y de hongos endomicorrizógenos con dos niveles de boro (B) (0,3 y 0,6 mg kg-1 suelo) y la aplicación de nitrógeno (N) (40 kg ha-1), fósforo (P) (30 mg kg-1 suelo) y un control sin inoculación ni elementos químicos. Se empleó un diseño completamente aleatorizado, con 41 tratamientos y 20 repeticiones. Para el análisis estadístico de componentes principales se empleó el programa Mul...

  6. Development of an online database of typical food portion sizes in Irish population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jacqueline; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The Irish Food Portion Sizes Database (available at www.iuna.net) describes typical portion weights for an extensive range of foods and beverages for Irish children, adolescents and adults. The present paper describes the methodologies used to develop the database and some key characteristics of the portion weight data contained therein. The data are derived from three large, cross-sectional food consumption surveys carried out in Ireland over the last decade: the National Children's Food Survey (2003-2004), National Teens' Food Survey (2005-2006) and National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008-2010). Median, 25th and 75th percentile portion weights are described for a total of 545 items across the three survey groups, split by age group or sex as appropriate. The typical (median) portion weights reported for adolescents and adults are similar for many foods, while those reported for children are notably smaller. Adolescent and adult males generally consume larger portions than their female counterparts, though similar portion weights may be consumed where foods are packaged in unit amounts (for example, pots of yoghurt). The inclusion of energy under-reporters makes little difference to the estimation of typical portion weights in adults. The data have wide-ranging applications in dietary assessment and food labelling, and will serve as a useful reference against which to compare future portion size data from the Irish population. The present paper provides a useful context for researchers and others wishing to use the Irish Food Portion Sizes Database, and may guide researchers in other countries in establishing similar databases of their own.

  7. Multivariate analyses of CT findings in typical schizophrenia and atypical psychosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Takuji; Watanabe, Toyonobu; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Sekine, Takeo (Aichi Medical Univ., Nagakute (Japan))

    1992-09-01

    In order to investigate the brain morphological differences between typical schizophrenia and atypical psychosis, the brain CTs of 41 patients with typical schizophrenia, 27 patients with atypical psychosis (ATP), and 20 controls were examined. The schizophrenics had larger values for 9 CT indices, i.e., interhemispheric fissure (IHF) index, VBR, 2 lateral ventricles (L-V) and 3rd venricle (III-V) indices, and 4 sylvian fissure (SF) indices, while the values of ATP patients for 3 SF indices were greater than for the controls. Moreover, the schizophrenics had greater III-V and L-V indices than the ATP patients. The correlation matrix of CT indices indicates that the III-V index correlated well with the other CT indices, whereas the VBR, IHF and right SF indices did not. Therefore, it was speculated that there might be 3 subgroups, each of which has a main focus of alteration in the above-mentioned regions. Therefore, all the cases were divided by means of a cluster analysis into 5 groups. Group I, which contained mainly normal controls, and Group II, which consisted mainly of atypical psychosis patients, had no abnormal CT findings. Group III, which comprised mainly ATP pateints and paranoid type schizophrenics, had right SF enlargement. Group IV, which showed significant IHF enlargement, and the residue group, which had larger VBR and significant left SF enlargement, consisted mostly of schizophrenics. Thus, our results suggest that the classification by CT data corresponds on the whole to our clinical diagnosis, according to which schizophrenic psychosis is divided into typical schizophrenia and atypical psychosis, and that each of the two psychosis groups may be further classified into distinct subgroups. (author).

  8. Typical patterns in road-traffic accidents during driver training: an explorative Swedish national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Hans-Yngve; Gregersen, Nils P; Laflamme, Lucie

    2004-07-01

    A new law came into force in Sweden on 1 September 1993, which makes instructor-assisted driving practice possible at the age of 16 years instead of the previous 17 years and 6 months. When the age limit was reduced, the possibility that this would lead to more road-traffic accidents (RTA) during driving practice was discussed. The aim of this study was to highlight typical road-traffic accident patterns and to discuss their potential for improved training and targeted prevention. A total of 11 variables (41 categories) descriptive of the 1081 RTA involving novice drivers and police registered during the period 1994-1999 were analysed simultaneously using in turn, two multivariate analysis techniques: the Factorial Analysis of Correspondence (FAC) and the Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC). Four accident classes were identified and quantified, of which the first two were more typical of rural areas: (1). accidents in rural areas on straight stretches and related to speed limit 70 km/h (n = 306); (2). accidents in rural areas on straight stretches and high-speed related (n = 97); (3). accidents in built-up areas, low-speed related and of the type rear-end (n = 289); and (4). accidents in built-up areas, at road junctions and low-speed related (n = 380). Together, these classes point to a variety of opportunities to develop ways of working with targeted prevention. Instead of adopting a general attempt to counteract the relationship between individual variables and accidents, it is possible instead to focus on a whole context and its relationship with its typical accidents and any resulting injuries. This, in its turn, allows greater specificity in the build up of the Swedish licence and training regulations and its corresponding course curriculum. PMID:15094413

  9. Typical types and formation mechanisms of haze in an eastern Asia megacity, Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Huang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An intensive aerosol and gases campaign has been performed at Shanghai in the Yangtze River Delta region over Eastern China from late March to early June 2009. This study provided a complementary picture of typical haze types and formation mechanisms in megacities over China by using a synergy of ground-based monitoring, satellite observation and lidar inversion. During the whole study period, several extreme low visibility periods were observed with distinct characteristics, and three typical haze types were identified, i.e. secondary inorganic pollution, dust, and biomass burning. Sulfate, nitrate and ammonium accounted for a major part of PM2.5 mass during the secondary inorganic pollution, and the good correlation between SO2/NOx/CO and PM2.5 indicated that coal burning and vehicle emission were the major sources. Large-scale regions with high AOD and low Ångström exponent were detected by remote-sensing observation during the dust pollution episode, and this episode corresponded to coarse particles rich in mineral components such as Al and Ca with mineral aerosol contributing 76.8 % to TSP. The relatively low Ca/Al ratio of 0.75 combined with the air mass backward trajectory analysis suggested the dust source from Gobi Desert. Typical tracers for biomass burning from satellite observation (column CO and HCHO and from ground measurement (CO, particulate K+, OC, and EC were greatly enhanced during the biomass burning pollution episode. The exclusive linear correlation between CO and PM2.5 corroborated that organic aerosol dominated aerosol chemistry during biomass burning, and the high concentration and enrichment degree of arsenic (As could be also partly derived from biomass burning. Aerosol optical profile observed by lidar demonstrated that aerosol was mainly constrained below the boundary layer and comprised of spheric aerosol (depolarization ratio <5 % during the

  10. Seismic response of a typical fixed platform foundation under earthquake loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Feng; Wang Jun

    2013-01-01

    Offshore platforms in seismically active areas should be designed to service severe earthquake excitations with no global structural failure.This paper summarizes the dynamic analysis of a typical fixed platform under the earthquake loading in the seismically active area.The dynamic analysis includes interpretation of dynamic design parameters based on the available site-specific data,together with foundation design recommendations for earthquake loading conditions,which include free-field site response analyses,liquefaction analyses and soil-pile interaction analyses.

  11. Characterization of typical surface effects in additive manufacturing with confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surfaces of laser-sintered and laser beam melted parts are characterized by typical surface effects and thus cause difficulties when using the popular tactile profilometry method and conventional two-dimensional surface parameters for analysis. Therefore, this study shows the potential of a new measurement approach by a confocal microscope and three-dimensional surface parameters. Within this study, a special focus is laid on the classification of different surface orientations and on a special issue in laser sintering: orange peel severity. (paper)

  12. Simulation studies of laser wakefield acceleration based on typical 100 TW laser facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Da-Zhang; GAO Jie; ZHU Xiong-Wei; HE An

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,2-D Particle-In-Cell simulations are made for Laser Wakefield Accelerations(LWFA).As in a real experiment,we perform plasma density scanning for typical 100 TW laser facilities.Several basic laws for self-injected acceleration in a bubble regime are presented.According to these laws,we choose a proper plasma density and then obtain a high quality quasi-monoenergetic electron bunch with arms energy of more than 650 MeV and a bunch length of less than 1.5 μn.

  13. Cushing's like syndrome in typical bronchial carcinoid a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedicelli, Ilaria; Patriciello, Giuseppina; Scala, Giovanni; Sorrentino, Antonietta; Gravino, Gennaro; Patriciello, Pasquale; Zeppa, Pio; Di Crescenzo, Vincenzo; Vatrella, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome occurred in 1-5% of cases of bronchial carcinoids. In this paper we describe a case of typical bronchial carcinoid in a nonsmoker young male with clinical manifestations mimicking a Cushing's syndrome. The patient performed chest radiograph and computed tomography. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed the presence of an endobronchial mass occluding the bronchus intermedius. A rigid bronchoscopy was necessary for the conclusive diagnosis and for partial resection of the intraluminal tumor. Despite of the presence of Cushingoid features, the normal blood levels of ACTH and cortisol excluded the coexistence of a Cushing's syndrome.

  14. Classroom Management in Young Learners English Teaching——Typical Problems and Effective Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗基萍

    2009-01-01

    Classroom management is the orchestration of classroom life:planning curriculum,organizing procedures and rcsources,arranging the environment to maximize efficiency,monitoring progress,dealing with existent problems.Successful clasgroonl management looked like magic shows because students in these classrooms seem to glide from one activity to the next.Successful classroom management contributes to students' good achievement.Effective classroom management is one of the key elements of importance for efficient school education.However,almost all English teachers face a same problem-classroom management.In this paper,some typical problems and effective solutions in classroom management will be described.defined,or characterized.

  15. CRESDA APPLICATION SYSTEM OF CBERS-1, RESULTS AND TYPICAL EXAMPLES OF APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    CRESDA Application System of CBERS-1 was established in 1999. During the operation of the system for more than two years, about 240 000 scenes of CBERS-1 Level 0 data have been archived and more than 13 000 scenes of Level 2 products have been ordered by end users from different application fields.In this paper, the typical examples of applications in crop yield estimation,calamity alleviation, resources survey and protection, environment monitoring and continuable development, and urban planning are mainly described.

  16. Coincidence and Upgrade:A Typical Case Study of Rural Ecotourism Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Degang; Huang Xiaoting

    2006-01-01

    At present, internal rural tourism is at the stage of upgrading and renewing, and ecotourism has been considered to be the main direction. This paper discussed the concepts and criteria of rural tourism and ecotourism, analyzed a typical case of Nongke Village of Chengdu City-being considered to be the first rural tourism site in China, went deep into the problems of the contents and criteria of the development of rural ecotourism, and tried to probe into the principles of the development of rural ecotourism both theoretically and practically so as to understand the rules of the development of rural ecotourism.

  17. Improbability of void growth in aluminum via dislocation nucleation under typical laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L D; Warner, D H

    2012-01-20

    The rate at which dislocations nucleate from spherical voids subjected to shear loading is predicted from atomistic simulation. By employing the latest version of the finite temperature string method, a variational transition state theory approach can be utilized, enabling atomistic predictions at ordinary laboratory time scales, loads, and temperatures. The simulation results, in conjunction with a continuum model, show that the deformation and growth of voids in Al are not likely to occur via dislocation nucleation under typical loadings regardless of void size. PMID:22400757

  18. Foregrounded Beauty:A Brief Analysis of Cummings’Typical Poems from the Perspective of Stylistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文荣

    2014-01-01

    E. E. Cummings is one of the representatives of American modern experimental poets whose poems are well-known for the unique style. Cummings endeavors to make his poems be different from other poets’. He broke the traditional way of writing poems, invented in the changing of lines of the poem and the spelling of the words in the poem, thus to make his personal poem style distinctive. Therefore, standing on the stylistic point of view, this paper makes a brief analysis on Cummings’typical poems from foregrounding perspective.

  19. Simulated comparison on kinematics properties of two typical mechanisms of forging manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yunpeng; Lu, Chongshao; Han, Qingkai; Zhang, Tianxia; Wen, Bangchun

    2007-12-01

    The kinematics of two typical mechanisms is analyzed following the concept design of a 4MNm forging manipulator for a huge hydraulic press, i.e. a parallel links mechanism and a swing links mechanism. For the first kind of mechanism, when the jaw swings up and down, the swing angle is in proportion to the extending length of its driving hydraulic cylinder. For the second kind of mechanism, it is mostly difficult for the fluid driving control system to make sure three hydraulic pressure cylinders to keep moving synchronously. Based on these simulations and considering practical technological demands, the first kind of mechanism with parallel links is chosen as a better one.

  20. A typical example of a photomagnetic study carried out on a spin-crossover material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jean-François Létard; Chiara Carbonera; Emilie Courcot; José Sanchez Costa

    2006-11-01

    The light-induced excited spin state trapping (LIESST) is a well known phenomenon in an iron(II) spin-crossover (SCO) material which offers some interesting prospects in data storage. In this work, we present a typical investigation of the photomagnetic properties of a SCO material. At the surface of the sample, the light-induced phenomenon is investigated by using a home-built reflectivity set up and in bulk material by using a quantum design SQUID magnetometer coupled to a light source.

  1. Entanglement propagation and typicality of measurements in a quantum version of the Kac ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberreuter, Johannes; Homrighausen, Ingo; Kehrein, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Time development in quantum many body systems poses serious challenges to our understanding of classical statistical mechanics. Exact results are very rare due to the large Hilbert spaces and the resulting complexity involved. We propose a pedagogical approach with a very tractable toy model, in which questions of entanglement creation, propagation and destruction between a system and an environment can be studied explicitly. Comparing this quantum model with its classical counterpart, we find an intriguing correspondence between the typical result of repeated measurements on a classical ensemble and the repeated measurements of a quantum system in an appropriate superposition.

  2. Leak-before-break demonstration for a typical PWR main steam pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently the main steam line break evaluations of pressurized water reactor coolant systems are performed for postulated circumferential (guillotine) breaks. This results in overly conservation loading conditions. The objective of this paper is to study the local and global stability of a postulated through wall circumferential flaw in the main steam pipe of a typical pressurized water reactor. Steam leak rates are estimated and are examined in light of currently available leak rate criteria to demonstrate the leak-before-break condition. The need for additional criteria for detection of steam leaks is identified

  3. Chemical and Microbiological Characterization for PDO Labelling of Typical East Piedmont (Italy Salami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gianotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the characterisation of typical salami produced in Alessandria province (North West of Italy. Seventeen small or medium salami producers from this area were involved in the study and provided the samples investigated. The aim is double and consists in obtaining a screening of the characteristics of different products and following their evolution along ripening. The study involved five types of typical salami that were characterised for aroma components and nutritional features. This approach could provide a basis for a possible PDO or PGI label request. Principal Component Analysis and cluster analysis were used as multivariate statistical tools for data treatment. The overall results obtained point out that the products investigated do not deviate from analogous European products and show the possibility of characterising by specific parameters three main groups of samples: Salamini di Mandrogne, Muletta, and Nobile Giarolo; moreover some considerations can also be drawn with respect to the nutritional characterization considering the biogenic amines profile.

  4. ALMA Reveals Weak [NII] Emission in "Typical" Galaxies and Intense Starbursts at z=5-6

    CERN Document Server

    Pavesi, Riccardo; Capak, Peter L; Carilli, Christopher L; Sharon, Chelsea E; Stacey, Gordon J; Karim, Alexander; Scoville, Nicholas Z; Smolcic, Vernesa

    2016-01-01

    We report interferometric measurements of [NII] 205 um fine-structure line emission from a representative sample of three galaxies at z=5-6 using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). These galaxies were previously detected in [CII] and far-infrared continuum emission and span almost two orders of magnitude in star formation rate (SFR). Our results show at least two different regimes of ionized inter-stellar medium properties for galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time, separated by their L_[CII]/L_[NII] ratio. We find extremely low [NII] emission compared to [CII] (L_ [CII]/L_[NII]=68 [+200/-28]) from a "typical" L*_UV star-forming galaxy, likely directly or indirectly (by its effect on the radiation field) related to low dust abundance and low metallicity. The infrared-luminous modestly star-forming Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG) in our sample is characterized by an ionized-gas fraction (L_[CII]/L_[NII]<=20) typical of local star-forming galaxies and shows evidence for spatial variations i...

  5. Simulation and evaluation of the quality and availability of typical GLI ocean image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    ADEOS-II satellite will be launched in the near future. It collocates many remote sensing instruments in the same platform. Among them, Global Image (GLI) is considered to be a main sensor which will play a key role. In order to understand the characteristics of future GLI ocean color images, a simulation and evaluation of the quality and availability of GLI typical ocean image has been done. In the paper, we first introduce the simulation models briefly, and simulate typical cases of radiance images at visible channels, in which the radiance distribution is based on geographic location, the satellite orbital parameters and sensor properties. A method, complex signal noise ratio (CSNR) to evaluate the image quality and availability, is developed according to the characteristics of image. Meanwhile, a series of CSNR images are generated from the simulated radiance components for different cases, which can be used to evaluate the quality and availability of GLI images before the ADEOS-II is placed in orbit. Finally, the quality and availability of GLI images are quantitatively analyzed by the simulated CSNR data. The results will be beneficial to the people who are in charge of GLI mission or plan to use the data from GLI.

  6. The Typical Thunderclap Headache of Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome and its Various Triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducros, Anne; Wolff, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    During the last 10 years, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) has emerged as the most frequent cause of thunderclap headache (TCH) in patients without aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and as the most frequent cause of recurrent TCHs. The typical TCHs of RCVS are multiple, recurring over a few days to weeks, excruciating, short-lived, and brought up by exertion, sexual activities, emotion, Valsalva maneuvers, or bathing, among other triggers. All these triggers induce sympathetic activation. In a minority of cases with RCVS, TCH heralds stroke and rarely death. Early diagnosis of RCVS in patients who present with isolated headache enables proper management and might reduce the risk of eventual stroke. This review describes the characteristics, triggers, diagnosis, and management of TCH in RCVS. One aim is to underline that the TCH pattern of RCVS is so typical that it enables, according to the 2013 revision of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, the diagnosis of "probable RCVS" in patients with such a headache pattern, normal cerebral angiography, and no other cause. Another objective is to discuss the role of physical and emotional stress in RCVS and in other related conditions involving similar triggers.

  7. Dealing with consumer differences in liking during repeated exposure to food; typical dynamics in rating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Nanetti, Luca; Renken, Remco J; de Wijk, René A; Ter Horst, Gert J

    2014-01-01

    Consumers show high interindividual variability in food liking during repeated exposure. To investigate consumer liking during repeated exposure, data is often interpreted on a product level by averaging results over all consumers. However, a single product may elicit inconsistent behaviors in consumers; averaging will mix and hide possible subgroups of consumer behaviors, leading to a misinterpretation of the results. To deal with the variability in consumer liking, we propose to use clustering on data from consumer-product combinations to investigate the nature of the behavioral differences within the complete dataset. The resulting behavioral clusters can then be used to describe product acceptance. To test this approach we used two independent data sets in which young adults were repeatedly exposed to drinks and snacks, respectively. We found that five typical consumer behaviors existed in both datasets. These behaviors differed both in the average level of liking as well as its temporal dynamics. By investigating the distribution of a single product across typical consumer behaviors, we provide more precise insight in how consumers divide in subgroups based on their product liking (i.e. product modality). This work shows that taking into account and using interindividual differences can unveil information about product acceptance that would otherwise be ignored.

  8. Typical Collocations in the Judgments on Appeal of the European Court of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Macko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The research paper aims to identify typical collocations frequently used in the appellate judgments of the European Court of Justice (ECJ and to compare their use with the general English language. The metho-dological guidelines of corpus linguistics were followed in the course of investigation. The research focuses on the analysis of the right verbal collocates of Court. The British National Corpora (BNC was used as the source of general English. The quantitative methods include applying statistical measures (MI score and log-likelihood to test the significance of the extracted collocations and to compare the calculated values with those of corresponding collocations in the BNC. The qualitative part of the research focuses on classifying the most frequent collocations of the chosen syntactic pattern (NOUN + VERB into structural (grammatical and semantic patterns. The results show that typical collocations used in the appellate judgments of the ECJ differ from the general English language in terms of frequency and statistical significance and exhibit unique semantic characteristics, therefore suggesting that there are considerable lexical differences between legal and general English that should be taken into account in teaching and learning

  9. Amyloid β Enhances Typical Rodent Behavior While It Impairs Contextual Memory Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Salgado-Puga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is associated with an early hippocampal dysfunction, which is likely induced by an increase in soluble amyloid beta peptide (Aβ. This hippocampal failure contributes to the initial memory deficits observed both in patients and in AD animal models and possibly to the deterioration in activities of daily living (ADL. One typical rodent behavior that has been proposed as a hippocampus-dependent assessment model of ADL in mice and rats is burrowing. Despite the fact that AD transgenic mice show some evidence of reduced burrowing, it has not been yet determined whether or not Aβ can affect this typical rodent behavior and whether this alteration correlates with the well-known Aβ-induced memory impairment. Thus, the purpose of this study was to test whether or not Aβ affects burrowing while inducing hippocampus-dependent memory impairment. Surprisingly, our results show that intrahippocampal application of Aβ increases burrowing while inducing memory impairment. We consider that this Aβ-induced increase in burrowing might be associated with a mild anxiety state, which was revealed by increased freezing behavior in the open field, and conclude that Aβ-induced hippocampal dysfunction is reflected in the impairment of ADL and memory, through mechanisms yet to be determined.

  10. Material characteristics and construction methods for a typical research reactor concrete containment in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimia, Mahsa; Suha, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eghbalic, Rahman; Jahan, Farzaneh Asadi malek [School of Architecture and Urbanism, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Generally selecting an appropriate material and also construction style for a concrete containment due to its function and special geometry play an important role in applicability and also construction cost and duration decrease in a research reactor (RR) project. The reactor containment enclosing the reactor vessel comprises physical barriers reflecting the safety design and construction codes, regulations and standards so as to prevent the community and the environment from uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. It is the third and the last barrier against radioactivity release. It protects the reactor vessel from such external events as earthquake and aircraft crash as well. Thus, it should be designed and constructed in such a manner as to withstand dead and live loads, ground and seismic loads, missiles and aircraft loads, and thermal and shrinkage loads. This study aims to present a construction method for concrete containment of a typical RR in Iran. The work also presents an acceptable characteristic for concrete and reinforcing re bar of a typical concrete containment. The current study has evaluated the various types of the RR containments. The most proper type was selected in accordance with the current knowledge and technology of Iran.

  11. Huldah�s oracle: The origin of the Chronicler�s typical style?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis C. Jonker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Scholars of Chronicles normally emphasise that the Chronicler used typical words and phrases in those parts that belong to his Sondergut. Amongst these are phrases like �to humble yourself�, �to seek Yahweh�, and �not to forsake Yahweh�. The writer�s typical changes to the burial notices of the royal narratives also belong in this category. Something which is often overlooked, however, is that many of these features already occur in the narrative about Huldah�s oracle (2 Chr 34:19�28 which was taken over with only minor changes from the Deuteronomistic version (2 Ki 22:11�20. My paper investigates whether or not the Huldah oracle could have served as theological paradigm according to which the Chronicler developed his own unique style. If so, the investigation will prompt me to revisit the issue of how continuity and discontinuity, with the older historiographical tradition, characterise the identity negotiation process that we witness in this literature.

  12. Generation of a typical meteorological year for north–east, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • TMY for sites in north–east Nigeria was produced using Finkelstein–Schafer method. • It was found the TMY can be used to represents the long-term weather parameters. • The generated TMY can be used the design and evaluation of solar energy systems. • A handy database in the estimation of building heating loads in north–east Nigeria. - Abstract: The Finkelstein–Schafer statistical method was applied to analyze a 34-year period (1975–2008) hourly measured weather data which includes global solar radiation, dry bulb temperatures, precipitation, relative humidity and wind speed in order to generate typical meteorological year (TMY) for five locations spreading across north–east zone, Nigeria. The selection criteria are based on solar radiation together with the dry bulb temperature values and representative typical meteorological months (TMMs) were selected by choosing the one with the smallest deviation from the long-term cumulative distribution function. A close-fit agreement is observed between the generated TMY and long-term averages. The TMY generated will be very useful for optimal design and performance evaluation of solar energy conversion systems, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) and other solar energy dependent systems to be located in this part of Nigeria

  13. Safety and efficacy of cryothermal and radiofrequency catheter ablation in treatment of typical atrial flutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fang; HUANG Cong-xin; CHEN Gang; ZHANG Feng; MENG Wei-dong; SUN Bao-gui

    2007-01-01

    @@ Radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the critical isthmus between the tricuspid annulus and the inferior vena cava is commonly used to treat typical atrial flutter (AFL).1 This has become the first line therapy in Europe and in the US due to its high success rate and significant improvement in quality of life compared with conventional medical therapy.2 Sizeable lesions are required to achieve persistent bidirectional conduction block (BCB), which is the best endpoint to ensurelong-term success.3,4 Cooling the ablation electrode by irrigation has been shown to prevent both overheating of the electrode-tissue interface and impedance rise during RF delivery, allowing greater power delivery and larger,deeper lesion.5 Recent studies showed that pain-free cryoablation was comparable to RF ablation regardingthe short and long-term clinical success rate and safety.6However, no studies have shown that cryoablation is superior to the irrigation RF ablation. In this study, we compared the efficacy and safety of cryoablation with the irrigation radiofrequency ablation technologies for typical AFL.

  14. Association between Blood Omega-3 Index and Cognition in Typically Developing Dutch Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge S. M. van der Wurff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13–15 years is investigated. Baseline data from Food2Learn, a double-blind and randomized placebo controlled krill oil supplementation trial in typically developing adolescents, were used for the current study. The Omega-3 Index was determined with blood from a finger prick. At baseline, participants finished a neuropsychological test battery consisting of the Letter Digit Substitution Test (LDST, D2 test of attention, Digit Span Forward and Backward, Concept Shifting Test and Stroop test. Data were analyzed with multiple regression analyses with correction for covariates. The average Omega-3 Index was 3.83% (SD 0.60. Regression analyses between the Omega-3 Index and the outcome parameters revealed significant associations with scores on two of the nine parameters. The association between the Omega-3 Index and both scores on the LDST (β = 0.136 and p = 0.039, and the number of errors of omission on the D2 (β = −0.053 and p = 0.007. This is a possible indication for a higher information processing speed and less impulsivity in those with a higher Omega-3 Index.

  15. A change will do us good: threats diminish typical preferences for male leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth R; Diekman, Amanda B; Schneider, Monica C

    2011-07-01

    The current research explores role congruity processes from a new vantage point by investigating how the need for change might shift gender-based leadership preferences. According to role congruity theory, favorability toward leaders results from alignment between what is desired in a leadership role and the characteristics stereotypically ascribed to the leader. Generally speaking, these processes lead to baseline preferences for male over female leaders. In this research, the authors propose that a shift in gender-based leadership preferences will emerge under conditions of threat. Because the psychological experience of threat signals a need for change, individuals will favor candidates who represent new directions in leadership rather than consistency with past directions in leadership. Specifically, they find that threat evokes an implicit preference for change over stability (Experiment 1) and gender stereotypes align women with change but men with stability (Experiments 2a and 2b). Consequently, the typical preference for male leaders is diminished, or even reversed, under threat (Experiments 3 and 4). Moreover, the shift away from typical gender-based leadership preferences occurs especially among individuals who highly legitimize the sociopolitical system (Experiment 4), suggesting that these preference shifts might serve to protect the underlying system. PMID:21467539

  16. Investigation of Flow Field in a Typical Hypersonic Wind Tunnel over a Standard Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fata mohammadifard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to start designing a new hypersonic wind tunnel, it is important to have a pre-view about physical phenomena in a typical Hypersonic Wind Tunnel (HWT. In present research, it is tried to view phenomenologically the aerodynamics of flow in a typical HWT by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The considered HWT consists of a curved nozzle in nominal Mach number 12, free-jet type test section, a test model and a convergent-divergent diffuser. Aerodynamics of flow in the nozzle exit and test section, conical shock wave system in the diffuser and flow over a standard model (HB-2 are investigated. A method is introduced for numerical simulation of capturing the free shear layer in free-jet test section based on the vorticity distribution of flow. The aerodynamics behavior of HB-2 model is investigated in various Mach numbers and flow domains. The results make a better view of some aerodynamic phenomena in a free-jet type test section of wind tunnel that are rarely considered. This research is conducted towards the project of designing and manufacturing the industrial hypersonic wind tunnel for Qadr Aerodynamic research Center.

  17. [Modeling Study of A Typical Summer Ozone Pollution Event over Yangtze River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Zhu, Bin; Gao, Jin-hui; Kang, Han-qing; Yang, Peng; Wang, Hong-lei; Li, Yue-e; Shao, Ping

    2015-11-01

    WRF/Chem model was used to analyze the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics and physical and chemical mechanism of a typical summer ozone pollution event over Yangtze River Delta (YRD). The result showed that the model was capable of reproducing the temporal and spatial distribution and evolution characteristics of the typical summer ozone pollution event over YRD. The YRD region was mainly affected by the subtropical high-pressure control, and the weather conditions of sunshine, high temperature and small wind were favorable for the formation of photochemical pollution on August 10-18, 2013. The results of simulation showed that the spatial and temporal distribution of O3 was obviously affected by the meteorological fields, geographic location, regional transport and chemical formation over YRD. The sensitivity experiment showed that the O3 concentration affected by maritime airstream was low in Shanghai, but the impact of Shanghai emissions on the spatial and temporal distribution of O3 concentration over YRD was significant; The main contribution of the high concentration of O3 in Nanjing surface was chemical generation ( alkene and aromatic) and the vertical transport from high-altitude O3, whereas the main contribution of the high concentration of O3 in Hangzhou and Suzhou was physics process. The influence of the 15:00 peak concentration of O3 over YRD was very obvious when O3 precursor was reduced at the maximum O3 formation rate (11-13 h).

  18. Individual differences in cognitive performance and brain structure in typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Yokota

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in cognitive patterning is informative in understanding one's cognitive strengths and weaknesses. However, little is known about the difference in brain structures relating to individual differences in cognitive patterning. In this study, we classified typically developing children (n = 277; age range, 5–16 years into subtypes with k-means cluster analysis along with factor index scores using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Third Edition. We then applied voxel-based morphometry to investigate whether significant gray-matter-volume differences existed among subtypes of cognitive patterns. Depending on the level of performance and cognitive patterning, we obtained six subtypes. One subtype that generally scored below average showed larger volume in the right middle temporal gyrus than the other five. On the other hand, two subtypes that achieved average levels of performance showed reverse-patterned factor index scores (one scored higher in Verbal Comprehension and Freedom from Distractibility, and the other scored lower in these two factor index scores and had smaller volume in the right middle temporal gyrus than the other subtypes. From these results, we concluded that cognitive discrepancy was also obvious in typically developing children and that differences in cognitive patterning are represented in brain structure.

  19. On Typical Significance of Sushi%略论苏轼的典型意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章澄

    2014-01-01

    In the current study on Sushi,Li Zehou was the first to advance the proposition of "Sushi's typical significance",but there are always many different meanings,and it is difficult to find its true answer. From the perspective of interdisciplinary com-parative research,Sushi's typical significance shows up in such five aspects as value examining,personality pursuit,knowledge composition,cultural spirit,ultimate concern.%在当代苏轼研究中,李泽厚先生率先提出了“苏轼的典型意义”这一命题,但历来聚讼纷纭、难解真意。从跨学科比较研究的角度看,苏轼的典型意义表现在价值审视、人格追求、知识构成、文化精神、终极关怀等五个方面。

  20. The comparison of laterality pattern of language perception in Down Syndrome and typical children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    جهانگیری / روحی جهانگیری / روحی

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is the comparison of the pattern of language perception in Down Syndrome (DS children and typical children. To achieve the objective, nine subjects with DS (whose mental ages were 72-78 months and were drawn from five center of special education in the city of Mashhad and five typical children with the same mental ages were selected through random sampling; and after the controlling of the associated variables. In this study after the selecting right-handed children by using the Annet Handedness Questionnaire, Electroencephalogram (EEG technique was employed for investigating the laterality pattern of language perception through recording of the voltage of brain waves in brain cortex (temporal regions in two states: resting and listening to a story. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results indicated that the mean voltage of brain waves in cerebral hemispheres is different between two groups in each of the two states. Keywords: Laterality, speech auditory perception, Down Syndrome, Electroencephalogram.

  1. Analyzed polarized reflectance model of typical surface types over China based on the PARASOL measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Kun-Sheng; Cheng, Tian-Hai; Gu, Xing-Fa; Guo, Hong; Chen, Hao; Wang, Ying; Wei, Xi; Bao, Fang-Wen; Kong, Fan-Ping

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the parameters of four types of polarization reflectance models (the Breon physical model, the Nadal-Breon semi-empirical model, the Maignan et al. single parameter model, and the Litvinov et al. model) were analyzed based on the PARASOL observation of three typical features in China three sites (forest, grassland, and desert). Subsequently, combined with the model analysis, the polarization reflectance characteristics of each typical feature were studied. The results reveal that 1) the imitative effect of the Litvinov et al. model about forest was the best, as the linear slope was greater than 0.9 and R2 was better than 0.8; 2) the linear slope and R2 of the Nadal-Breon model about all surfaces were higher than 0.8; 3) although fitting slope of the Maignan et al. model was bad under the forest (0.15type and provide a priori knowledge for the quantitative inversion of surface atmospheric parameters.

  2. Hypotheses about Typical General Human Strategic Behavior in a Concrete Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagiew, Rustam

    This work is about typical human behavior in general strategic interactions called also games. This work is not about modelling best human performance in well-known games like chess or poker. It tries to answer the question 'How can we exactly describe what we typically do, if we interact strategically in games we have not much experience with?' in a concrete case. This concrete case is a very basic scenario - a repeated zero sum game with imperfect information. Rational behavior in games is best studied by game theory. But, numerous experiments with untrained subjects showed that human behavior in strategic interactions deviates from predictions of game theory. However, people do not behave in a fully indescribable way. Subjects deviate from game theoretic predictions in the concrete scenario presented here. As results, a couple of regularities in the data is presented first which are also reported in related work. Then, the way of using machine learning for describing human behavior is given. Machine learning algorithms provide automatically generated hypotheses about human behavior. Finally, designing a formalism for representing human behavior is discussed.

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil from three typical industrial areas in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongfei; Fu, Shan; Liu, Xinchun; Li, Zheng; Dong, Yuan

    2013-12-01

    Areas containing industrial facilities belonging to three different typical industries that may cause pollution by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Beijing, China were investigated. Specifically, the areas contained a solid waste incineration plant, a chemical factory, and a heat and power plant. Investigation of the pollution status of PBDEs in the surface soil from areas around these industries revealed the highest concentration of 42 PBDE congeners (118 ng/g, dry mass) at the solid waste incineration plant. In the other two plants, the highest concentrations were both 26 ng/g (dry mass). Among the PBDE homologues, the PBDE contamination at all sites showed similar congener compositions, with BDE 209 being the dominant congener. Our findings established the first contamination status of three typical industrial areas in Beijing. Furthermore, the total concentrations of 42 PBDE congeners tended to decrease as the distance from the investigated plants increased. Overall, these plants were identified as potential pollution sources of PBDEs in Beijing. Moreover, Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the major PBDE source in Beijing may be associated with the technical deca-BDE and penta-BDE mixture. Based on the data obtained in this preliminary investigation, further study of the potential of these sources to emit PBDEs in Beijing is warranted. PMID:24649676

  4. Social cognition, face processing, and oxytocin receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms in typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylissa M. Slane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has provided evidence of a link between behavioral measures of social cognition (SC and neural and genetic correlates. Differences in face processing and variations in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene have been associated with SC deficits and autism spectrum disorder (ASD traits. Much work has examined the qualitative differences between those with ASD and typically developing (TD individuals, but very little has been done to quantify the natural variation in ASD-like traits in the typical population. The present study examines this variation in TD children using a multidimensional perspective involving behavior assessment, neural electroencephalogram (EEG testing, and OXTR genotyping. Children completed a series of neurocognitive assessments, provided saliva samples for sequencing, and completed a face processing task while connected to an EEG. No clear pattern emerged for EEG covariates or genotypes for individual OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. However, SNPs rs2254298 and rs53576 consistently interacted such that the AG/GG allele combination of these SNPs was associated with poorer performance on neurocognitive measures. These results suggest that neither SNP in isolation is risk-conferring, but rather that the combination of rs2254298(A/G and rs53576(G/G confers a deleterious effect on SC across several neurocognitive measures.

  5. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis: typical patterns of bone involvement in whole-body bone scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikgoz, Gunsel; Averill, Lauren W

    2014-08-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an autoinflammatory bone disease of unknown etiology. It affects children and adolescents predominantly and occurs mostly in the female population. It is characterized by the insidious onset of pain and swelling, with a fluctuating clinical course of relapses and remissions. Typically, several bones are affected, either synchronously or metachronously, and bilateral involvement is common. CRMO most commonly affects the metaphysis of long bones, especially the tibia, femur, and clavicle. The spine, pelvis, ribs, sternum, and mandible may also be affected. Although lesions are mostly multiple, patients may present with a single symptomatic focus. Radiographic findings may be negative early in the course of the disease. Bone scintigraphy is useful in determining the presence of abnormality and the extent of disease. The imaging and clinical features of CRMO overlap with those of infectious osteomyelitis, bone malignancy, and inflammatory arthritis. Nonetheless, CRMO can be confidently diagnosed with the recognition of typical imaging patterns in the appropriate clinical setting. This article reviews imaging findings with special emphasis on bone scintigraphy and specific disease sites.

  6. Visual scan paths and recognition of facial identity in autism spectrum disorder and typical development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Ellie Wilson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD have impaired facial identity recognition, and also exhibit abnormal visual scanning of faces. Here, two hypotheses accounting for an association between these observations were tested: i better facial identity recognition is associated with increased gaze time on the Eye region; ii better facial identity recognition is associated with increased eye-movements around the face. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eye-movements of 11 children with ASD and 11 age-matched typically developing (TD controls were recorded whilst they viewed a series of faces, and then completed a two alternative forced-choice recognition memory test for the faces. Scores on the memory task were standardized according to age. In both groups, there was no evidence of an association between the proportion of time spent looking at the Eye region of faces and age-standardized recognition performance, thus the first hypothesis was rejected. However, the 'Dynamic Scanning Index'--which was incremented each time the participant saccaded into and out of one of the core-feature interest areas--was strongly associated with age-standardized face recognition scores in both groups, even after controlling for various other potential predictors of performance. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: In support of the second hypothesis, results suggested that increased saccading between core-features was associated with more accurate face recognition ability, both in typical development and ASD. Causal directions of this relationship remain undetermined.

  7. Imitation from 12 to 24 months in autism and typical development: a longitudinal Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gregory S; Rogers, Sally J; Hutman, Ted; Rozga, Agata; Sigman, Marian; Ozonoff, Sally

    2011-11-01

    The development of imitation during the second year of life plays an important role in domains of sociocognitive development such as language and social learning. Deficits in imitation ability in persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from toddlerhood into adulthood have also been repeatedly documented, raising the possibility that early disruptions in imitation contribute to the onset of ASD and the deficits in language and social interaction that define the disorder. This study prospectively examined the development of imitation between 12 and 24 months of age in 154 infants at familial risk for ASD and 78 typically developing infants who were all later assessed at 36 months for ASD or other developmental delays. The study established a developmental measure of imitation ability and examined group differences over time, using an analytic Rasch measurement model. Results revealed a unidimensional latent construct of imitation and verified a reliable sequence of imitation skills that was invariant over time for all outcome groups. Results also showed that all groups displayed similar significant linear increases in imitation ability between 12 and 24 months and that these increases were related to individual growth in both expressive language and ratings of social engagement but not in fine motor development. The group of children who developed ASD by age 3 years exhibited delayed imitation development compared with the low-risk typical outcome group across all time-points, but were indistinguishable from other high-risk infants who showed other cognitive delays not related to ASD. PMID:21910524

  8. [Surrounding characteristics of preferential flow in cultivated typical black soils of northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-jin; Wang, En-heng; Chen, Xiang-wei; Xia, Xiang-you; Shi, Chang-ting

    2010-12-01

    Taking the cultivated soils in typical black soil region of Northeast China as test objects, and by using dye tracer and double-ring infiltrometer techniques and photograph interpretation method, this paper measured and analyzed the dye-stained width and dye-stained coverage of soil transverse and longitudinal sections as well as the field maximum dye-stained depth, aimed to approach the water flow movement pattern and distribution characteristics in test soils. At soil depth 0-15 cm, matrix flow was the main soil water flow movement pattern; at depth 15-20 cm, lateral flow was observed, and the average dye-stained width and dye-stained coverage reached their maximum, being 23 cm and 20.73%, respectively. At depth 20-67 cm, the main soil water flow movement pattern was macro-pore flow, with cracks and macro-pores as the main preferential routes. The cracks at depth 20-35 cm made the preferential flow have distinct surrounding characteristics, and the macro-pores at depth 40-67 cm were the main preferential routes. Due to the existence of the preferential routes of cracks and macro-pores, the migration velocity of water in soil increased by 4.5 times, which could not only cause water loss, but also accelerate the migration of pesticides to ground water. It was suggested that these preferential routes should be decreased or eliminated during the cultivation and management on cultivated typical black soils. PMID:21442999

  9. Association between Blood Omega-3 Index and Cognition in Typically Developing Dutch Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wurff, Inge S M; von Schacky, Clemens; Berge, Kjetil; Zeegers, Maurice P; Kirschner, Paul A; de Groot, Renate H M

    2016-01-02

    The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13-15 years is investigated. Baseline data from Food2Learn, a double-blind and randomized placebo controlled krill oil supplementation trial in typically developing adolescents, were used for the current study. The Omega-3 Index was determined with blood from a finger prick. At baseline, participants finished a neuropsychological test battery consisting of the Letter Digit Substitution Test (LDST), D2 test of attention, Digit Span Forward and Backward, Concept Shifting Test and Stroop test. Data were analyzed with multiple regression analyses with correction for covariates. The average Omega-3 Index was 3.83% (SD 0.60). Regression analyses between the Omega-3 Index and the outcome parameters revealed significant associations with scores on two of the nine parameters. The association between the Omega-3 Index and both scores on the LDST (β = 0.136 and p = 0.039), and the number of errors of omission on the D2 (β = -0.053 and p = 0.007). This is a possible indication for a higher information processing speed and less impulsivity in those with a higher Omega-3 Index.

  10. [Chlorination byproducts formation potentials of typical nitrogenous organic compounds in water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Xu, Bin; Qin, Cao; Xia, Sheng-Ji; Gao, Nai-Yun; Tian, Fu-Xiang; Li, Da-Peng

    2011-07-01

    Twelve typical nitrogenous organic compounds including herbicides, pesticides, amino acids, industrial products etc in polluted raw water were selected to investigate formation of typical carbonaceous and nitrogenous DBPs during chlorination and chloramination. To indentify the formation mechanism of carbonaceous and nitrogenous disinfection byproducts from nitrogenous chemicals, chlorination and chloroamination of urea herbicides, triazine herbicides, amino acid, and other compounds were investigated. As a result, the potential precursors for different DBPs were defined as well. It has been identified that widely used urea herbicides could produce as many as 9 specific DBPs. The chlorotoluron shows highest reactivity and yields chloroform (CF), monochloroacetic acid (MCAA), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), 1,1-dichloro-acetone (1,1-DCP), 1,1,1-trichloro-acetone (1,1,1-TCP), chloropicrin (NTCM), dichloro-acetonitrile (DCAN), dimethylnitrosamine (NDMA). The results indicated that aldicarb and dinoseb are important precursors of CF, DCAA, MCAA, NTCM as well. High concentrations of CF and DCAA were found during L-tryptophan chlorination. Furthermore, DBPs formation pathways and mechanisms were suggested during chlorination and chloramination of chlorotoluron, ametryn, dinoseb L-tryptophan.

  11. Carbon and Nitrogen Contents in Typical Plants and Soil Profiles in Yanqi Basin of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Juan; WANG Xiu-jun; WANG Jia-ping; WANG Wei-xia

    2014-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen are the most important elements in the terrestrial ecosystem. Studying carbon and nitrogen distributions in plant and soil is important for our understanding of the ecosystem dynamics and carbon cycle on arid lands. A study was conducted in a typical arid area, the Yanqi Basin, Northwest China. Carbon and nitrogen distributions in plant tissues and soil proifles were determined at 21 sites with typical native plants and crops. Our results indicated that carbon content was similar between crops and native plants, and the average carbon contents in aboveground (42.4%) and belowground (42.8%) tissues were almost the same. Average nitrogen contents in crops were nearly the same (~0.7%) in aboveground and belowground tissues whereas mean nitrogen content was approximately 100% higher in aboveground (2.2%) than in belowground (1.2%) tissues for native species. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in cropland (9.4 and 0.9 g kg-1) were signiifcantly higher than those in native land (6.2 and 0.7 g kg-1). Multiple regression analyses indicated that carbon content in belowground tissue and nitrogen content in aboveground tissue were key factors connecting plant and soil in native land. However, there was no signiifcant relationship for carbon or nitrogen between soil and crop, which might relfect human disturbance, such as plowing and applications of various organic materials.

  12. Multimodal imaging of temporal processing in typical and atypical language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovelman, Ioulia; Wagley, Neelima; Hay, Jessica S F; Ugolini, Margaret; Bowyer, Susan M; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee; Brennan, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    New approaches to understanding language and reading acquisition propose that the human brain's ability to synchronize its neural firing rate to syllable-length linguistic units may be important to children's ability to acquire human language. Yet, little evidence from brain imaging studies has been available to support this proposal. Here, we summarize three recent brain imaging (functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and magnetoencephalography (MEG)) studies from our laboratories with young English-speaking children (aged 6-12 years). In the first study (fNIRS), we used an auditory beat perception task to show that, in children, the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) responds preferentially to rhythmic beats at 1.5 Hz. In the second study (fMRI), we found correlations between children's amplitude rise-time sensitivity, phonological awareness, and brain activation in the left STG. In the third study (MEG), typically developing children outperformed children with autism spectrum disorder in extracting words from rhythmically rich foreign speech and displayed different brain activation during the learning phase. The overall findings suggest that the efficiency with which left temporal regions process slow temporal (rhythmic) information may be important for gains in language and reading proficiency. These findings carry implications for better understanding of the brain's mechanisms that support language and reading acquisition during both typical and atypical development.

  13. Peer social skills and theory of mind in children with autism, deafness, or typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida; Slaughter, Virginia; Moore, Chris; Wellman, Henry M

    2016-01-01

    Consequences of theory of mind (ToM) development for daily social lives of children are uncertain. Five to 13-year-olds (N = 195) with typical development, autism, or deafness (both native and late signers) took ToM tests and their teachers reported on their social skills for peer interaction (e.g., leadership, group entry). Groups differed in both ToM understanding (with late-signing deaf children especially delayed even relative to autistic children) and peer social skills (with autistic children especially delayed even relative to deaf late signers). Crucially, for the typically developing hearing children and deaf children alike, ToM understanding independently predicted peer social skills over and above age, gender, language ability, and, for deaf children, status as native- or late-signer. These novel findings offer some of the best evidence to date of the relevance of ToM cognitions to real-world social behavior for both these groups. However, for those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) the pattern was different. The apparent link of ToM to peer competence was not a direct one but instead was significantly mediated by language ability. Several possible explanations for this intriguing autism-specific result were also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26524383

  14. Characterization of the aromatic profile for the authentication and differentiation of typical Italian dry-sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F; Cantoni, C; Careri, M; Chiesa, L; Musci, M; Pinna, A

    2007-06-15

    In order to chacterize two kinds of typical Italian dry-sausages, namely "Salame Mantovano" and "Salame Cremonese", the volatile composition was determined for seven samples of "Salame Mantovano" and for five samples of "Salame Cremonese". The study was performed by the dynamic headspace extraction technique (DHS) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the 104 volatiles identified, terpenes, aldehydes, ketones and alcohols represented the most abundant compounds. Peak area data for all the substances from the above mentioned group was used for statistical purposes. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out in order to visualize data trends and to detect possible clusters within samples. Then, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was performed in order to detect the volatile compounds able to differentiate the two kinds of sausages investigated. The data obtained by GC-MS shows that the most important contributions to the differentiation of the two kinds of typical Italian salami were seven volatile compounds, i.e. 3-methylbutanal, 6-camphenol, dimethyl disulfide, 1-propene-3,3'-thiobis, ethyl propanoate, 1,4-p-menthadiene and 2,6-dimethyl-1,3,5,7-octatetraene. Prediction ability of the calculated model was estimated to be 100% by the "leave-one-out" cross-validation. PMID:19071797

  15. Ground reaction forces and lower-limb joint kinetics of turning gait in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Philippe C; Stebbins, Julie; Theologis, Tim; Zavatsky, Amy B

    2014-11-28

    Turning is a common locomotor task essential to daily activity; however, very little is known about the forces and moments responsible for the kinematic adaptations occurring relative to straight-line gait in typically developing children. Thus, the aims of this study were to analyse ground reaction forces (GRFs), ground reaction free vertical torque (TZ), and the lower-limb joint kinetics of 90° outside (step) and inside (spin) limb turns. Step, spin, and straight walking trials from fifty-four typically developing children were analysed. All children were fit with the Plug-in Gait and Oxford Foot Model marker sets while walking over force plates embedded in the walkway. Net internal joint moments and power were computed via a standard inverse dynamics approach. All dependent variables were statistically analysed over the entire curves using the mean difference 95% bootstrap confidence band approach. GRFs were directed medially for step turns and laterally for spin turns during the turning phase. Directions were reversed and magnitudes decreased during the approach phase. Step turns showed reduced ankle power generation, while spin turns showed large TZ. Both strategies required large knee and hip coronal and transverse plane moments during swing. These kinetic differences highlight adaptations required to maintain stability and reorient the body towards the new walking direction during turning. From a clinical perspective, turning gait may better reveal weaknesses and motor control deficits than straight walking in pathological populations, such as children with cerebral palsy, and could potentially be implemented in standard gait analysis sessions.

  16. Sleep Lab Adaptation in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Typically Developing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Bessey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Research has shown inconsistencies across studies examining sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. It is possible that these inconsistencies are due to sleep lab adaptation. The goal of the current study was to investigate the possibility that children with ADHD adapt differently to the sleep lab than do typically developing (TD children. Patients and Methods. Actigraphy variables were compared between home and the sleep lab. Sleep lab adaptation reports from the parent and child were compared between children with ADHD (n=25 and TD children (n=25. Results. Based on actigraphy, both groups had reduced sleep duration and reduced wake after sleep onset in the sleep lab compared to home. The only interaction effect was that TD children had increased sleep efficiency in the sleep lab compared to home. Conclusions. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that children with ADHD adjust to the sleep lab differently than their typically developing peers. However, both groups of children did sleep differently in the sleep lab compared to home, and this needs to be considered when generalizing research findings from a sleep lab environment to children’s sleep in general.

  17. Residual stress relaxation in typical weld joints and its effect on fatigue and crack growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangbi LI; Zhengquan WAN; Zili WANG; Chunyan JI

    2009-01-01

    Many factors influence the fatigue and crack growth behavior of welded joints. Some structures often undergo fairly large static loading before they enter service or variable amplitude cyclic loading when they are in service. The combined effect of both applied stress and high initial residual stress is expected to cause the residual stresses relaxation. Only a few papers seem to deal with appropriate procedures for fatigue analysis and crack growth by considering the combined effect of variable amplitude cyclic loading with residual stresses relaxation. In this article, some typical welded connections in ship-shaped structures are investigated with 3-D elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The effect of residual stress relaxation, initial residual stress, and the applied load after variable amplitude cyclic loading is revealed, and a formula for predicting the residual stress at hot spot quantitatively is proposed. Based on the formula, an improved fatigue procedure is introduced. Moreover, crack growth of typical weld joints considering residual stresses relaxation is studied.

  18. Typical Scenario of Preparation, Implementation, and Aftershock Sequence of a Large Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    We have tried here to construct and examine the typical scenario of a large earthquake occurrence. The Harvard seismic moment GCMT catalog was used to construct the large earthquake generalized space-time vicinity (LEGV) and to investigate the seismicity behavior in LEGV. LEGV was composed of earthquakes falling into the zone of influence of any of the considerable number (100, 300, or 1,000) of largest earthquakes. The LEGV construction is aimed to enlarge the available statistics, diminish a strong random component, and to reveal in result the typical features of pre- and post-shock seismic activity in more detail. In result of the LEGV construction the character of fore- and aftershock cascades was examined in more detail than it was possible without of the use of the LEGV approach. It was shown also that the mean earthquake magnitude tends to increase, and the b-values, mean mb/mw ratios, apparent stress values, and mean depth tend to decrease. Amplitudes of all these anomalies increase with an approach to a moment of the generalized large earthquake (GLE) as a logarithm of time interval from GLE occurrence. Most of the discussed anomalies agree well with a common scenario of development of instability. Besides of such precursors of common character, one earthquake-specific precursor was found. The revealed decrease of mean earthquake depth during large earthquake preparation testifies probably for the deep fluid involvement in the process. The revealed in LEGV typical features of development of shear instability agree well with results obtained in laboratory acoustic emission (AE) study. Majority of the revealed anomalies appear to have a secondary character and are connected mainly with an increase in a mean earthquake magnitude in LEGV. The mean magnitude increase was shown to be connected mainly with a decrease of a portion of moderate size events (Mw 5.0 - 5.5) in a closer GLE vicinity. We believe that this deficit of moderate size events hardly can be

  19. Inconsistency of speech in children with childhood apraxia of speech, phonological disorders, and typical speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuzzini, Jenya

    There is a lack of agreement on the features used to differentiate Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) from Phonological Disorders (PD). One criterion which has gained consensus is lexical inconsistency of speech (ASHA, 2007); however, no accepted measure of this feature has been defined. Although lexical assessment provides information about consistency of an item across repeated trials, it may not capture the magnitude of inconsistency within an item. In contrast, segmental analysis provides more extensive information about consistency of phoneme usage across multiple contexts and word-positions. The current research compared segmental and lexical inconsistency metrics in preschool-aged children with PD, CAS, and typical development (TD) to determine how inconsistency varies with age in typical and disordered speakers, and whether CAS and PD were differentiated equally well by both assessment levels. Whereas lexical and segmental analyses may be influenced by listener characteristics or speaker intelligibility, the acoustic signal is less vulnerable to these factors. In addition, the acoustic signal may reveal information which is not evident in the perceptual signal. A second focus of the current research was motivated by Blumstein et al.'s (1980) classic study on voice onset time (VOT) in adults with acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) which demonstrated a motor impairment underlying AOS. In the current study, VOT analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between age and group with the voicing distribution for bilabial and alveolar plosives. Findings revealed that 3-year-olds evidenced significantly higher inconsistency than 5-year-olds; segmental inconsistency approached 0% in 5-year-olds with TD, whereas it persisted in children with PD and CAS suggesting that for child in this age-range, inconsistency is a feature of speech disorder rather than typical development (Holm et al., 2007). Likewise, whereas segmental and lexical inconsistency were

  20. Effect of tea on iron absorption from the typical Tunisian meal 'couscous' fed to healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdaoui, M; Hedhili, A; Doghri, T; Tritar, B

    1994-01-01

    Black and green tea decoctions are popular beverages in Tunisia, especially after eating. Our study was performed to examine the effect of graded amounts of black and green tea decoction prepared under realistic Tunisian conditions on nonheme iron absorption from a typical Tunisian meal, 'couscous', by extrinsic radioiron labeling in rats. Concentrations of 300, 200 and 100 micrograms/ml of black tea decreased dramatically nonheme iron bioavailability from couscous, but 50 micrograms/ml did not influence iron absorption. The inhibition of nonheme iron from couscous varied from 36 to 61% with black tea and 30.5% with green tea. Taken together, our findings show that the tea decoction in Tunisia has a great inhibitory power and may constitute an important factor for the development of iron deficiency anemia throughout Tunisia. PMID:7832583

  1. Predictors of token-to-token inconsistency in preschool children with typical speech-language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, Toby; Sosa, Anna V

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine potential concurrent predictors and replicate rates of token-to-token inconsistency (inconsistency in repeated productions of the same word) in 43 children with typical speech-language development, ages 2;6 to 4;2. A standard linear regression was used to determine which variables, if any, among age, expressive and receptive vocabulary, and speech sound production abilities predicted token-to-token inconsistency. Inconsistency rates in children from one research site, reported elsewhere, were compared to rates in children from a second research site. The results revealed that expressive vocabulary was the only significant predictor of token-to-token inconsistency in these children. Furthermore, inconsistency rates were similarly high across the two research sites. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for our theoretical understanding of token-to-token inconsistency and its role in the differential diagnosis of speech sound disorders in children. PMID:26308586

  2. A parametric study of structure-soil-structure interactions (SSSI) effects for typical NPP structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents parametric study results of the dynamic structure-soil-structure interaction (SSSI) effects for typical nuclear power plant structures built in Korea. Three building structures and three site conditions are considered in the study. Distance ratio and mass ratio are considered as critical parameters. As a result, it is found that the effects of SSSI phenomenon are more significant for lighter structures with small distance ratios, and generally this phenomenon can be ignored for buildings with large distance ratios or for buildings founded on stiff stratum. However, if dynamic characteristics of the structure are similar to the adjacent structure, the structural response could be influenced by SSSI effects even through the buildings are on a stiff site. Therefore, the effects of SSSI should be considered for this condition. (author). 5 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Spatio-temporal parameters and lower-limb kinematics of turning gait in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Philippe C; Stebbins, Julie; Theologis, Tim; Zavatsky, Amy B

    2013-09-01

    Turning is a requirement for most locomotor tasks; however, knowledge of the biomechanical requirements of successful turning is limited. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the spatio-temporal and lower-limb kinematics of 90° turning. Seventeen typically developing children, fitted with full body and multi-segment foot marker sets, having performed both step (outside leg) and spin (inside leg) turning strategies at self-selected velocity, were included in the study. Three turning phases were identified: approach, turn, and depart. Stride velocity and stride length were reduced for both turning strategies for all turning phases (pphases (pgait. Many spatio-temporal differences between turn conditions and phases were also found (pgait disorders in pathological populations, such as children with cerebral palsy.

  4. DISTRIBUTION OF MERCURY IN TYPICAL WETLAND PLANTS IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ru-hai; WANG Qi-chao; WANG Yan; ZHANG Lei; SHAO Zhi-guo

    2003-01-01

    Total mercury concentration of typical wetland plants was analyzed in this paper. There were great differences of total mercury concentration among different plants: moss>hydrophyte>sedge>herbage>shrub. Total mercury concentrations show an increasing trend from vascular plants to bryophytes, and from dry to wet lands. The mercury concentration of wetland plants was higher than that of crops. The wetland soil was the source of mercury in the air close to the ground, so it affected the concentration of mercury in the plant. In different parts of a plant, mer-cury concentration was in the order of: dead stand>root>leaf>stem. Mercury concentration increased at the initial stage and decreased in the end of the growing season. According to the mercury content and biomass, mercury stock of plants was 39.4μg/m2 above ground in Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland and 35.8μg/m2 in Carex lasiocarpa wet-land.

  5. Quenchant Characterization System Based on Application of Thermal Probes of Typical Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-ting; ZHANG Li-wen; PEI Ji-bin; WANG Fu-gang; YU Cheng-xin

    2004-01-01

    A system was developed to identify characteristics of quenchants. It consists of computerized hardware,temperature acquisition software as well as changeable probes of steels. The feature of the ability to use probes made of any metallic material enables evaluation of hardening power of quenchants. Three thermal couples located on the same cross-section plane in the middle of probe's length give cooling curves that present cooling behavior at different depths from the surface of probe. Microstructure and hardness of the quenched probes on the same plane in the middle of probe's length from surface to center was investigated to estimate hardening effect. A number of quenchants were tested by this characterization system with several thermal probes of typical steels. Experimental data were stored in QuenDB quenchant database, which was designed for quenchants identification and hardness distribution storage.

  6. On a Model of the Typical Cell from a Solar Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, Minerva; Chiritoiu, Viorel; Costache, Marius; Zaharie, Ioan; Luminosu, Ioan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents theoretical and experimental researches concerning of application for a mathematical model for a photovoltaic panel with 36 Si cells in a serial circuit of Siemens SM55 PV panel type. Thus, the experimental I-V characteristics for the five different illuminations at constant temperature are performed by the producer. A simple mathematical model is drawn from the equivalent electrical circuit with a single diode assuming the shunt resistance as infinite. A formula for the diode ideality factor is derived in this case. This model allow us to determine the optimally working point for a typically cell and for a panel made by association of cells for different insolations. The results which we have obtained yield to a numerically simulation of photovoltaic panels made by one type cells in different naturally insolation conditions.

  7. [Differential geometry expression and analysis of regionalized variables of typical pollutants concentration in terrestrial environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Han-Feng; Guo, Shu-Hai; Wu, Bo; Wang, Yan-Hu

    2009-10-01

    Based on the basic concepts of differential geometry in analyzing environmental data and establishing related models, the methodology for differential geometry expression and analysis of pollutants concentration in terrestrial environment was presented. As a kind of regionalized variables, the spatial distribution pattern of the pollutants concentration was transformed into 3-dimension form, and fitted with conicoid. This approach made it possible to analyze the quantitative relationships between the regionalized variables and their spatial structural attributes. For illustration purpose, several sorts of typical space fabrics, such as convexity, concavity, ridge, ravine, saddle, and slope, were calculated and characterized. It was suggested that this approach was feasible for analyzing the regionalized variables of pollutants concentration in terrestrial environment.

  8. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyuan Wu

    Full Text Available The behavior of rope-guided conveyances is so complicated that the rope-guided hoisting system hasn't been understood thoroughly so far. In this paper, with user-defined functions loaded, ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 was employed to simulate lateral motion of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts. With rope-guided mine elevator and mine cages taken into account, results show that the lateral aerodynamic buffeting force is much larger than the Coriolis force, and the side aerodynamic force have the same order of magnitude as the Coriolis force. The lateral aerodynamic buffeting forces should also be considered especially when the conveyance moves along the ventilation air direction. The simulation shows that the closer size of the conveyances can weaken the transverse aerodynamic buffeting effect.

  9. Predictors of token-to-token inconsistency in preschool children with typical speech-language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, Toby; Sosa, Anna V

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine potential concurrent predictors and replicate rates of token-to-token inconsistency (inconsistency in repeated productions of the same word) in 43 children with typical speech-language development, ages 2;6 to 4;2. A standard linear regression was used to determine which variables, if any, among age, expressive and receptive vocabulary, and speech sound production abilities predicted token-to-token inconsistency. Inconsistency rates in children from one research site, reported elsewhere, were compared to rates in children from a second research site. The results revealed that expressive vocabulary was the only significant predictor of token-to-token inconsistency in these children. Furthermore, inconsistency rates were similarly high across the two research sites. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for our theoretical understanding of token-to-token inconsistency and its role in the differential diagnosis of speech sound disorders in children.

  10. Statistical Study of Trace Elemental Concentrations in Major Types of Organisms from Typical Chinese Coastal Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭卫东; 胡明辉; 石谦; 杨逸萍

    2004-01-01

    Frequency distribution characteristics of trace elements Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu. Sr and Ba are studied for the marine organisms collected from typical Chinese coastal waters and compared with those of major elements Ca and Mg. Nearly all the distributions for trace elements in macroalgae, benthic molluscs, crustaceans, cephalopods and different tissues of fish ( muscle, liver and bone ) are found to show some degree of positive skewness, indicating a relatively large number of marine organisms with low concentrations for a particular element and only a few organisms with disproportionately high concentrations. Their distribution types are generally logarithmic normal distribution or nearly logarithmic normal distribution. Distribution of Ca is similar to that of trace elements, while Mg shows normal distribution. Average elemental concentrations of major types of organisms are calculated based on their frequency distributions.

  11. RUNOFF GENERATION CHARACTERISTICS IN TYPICAL EROSION REGIONS ON THE LOESS PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li CHEN; Qingquan LIU; Jiachun LI

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a process-based model for runoff generation on slopes. One dimensional kinematic wave theory combined with the revised Green-Ampt infiltration formula is applied in the model. According to the characteristics of soil and rainfall in the Loess Plateau area, six types of storm are defined, and among them three typical erosion zones that have different values of representative parameters are chosen to simulate the runoff generation processes. The primary hydraulic characteristics of the runoff generation, such as unit discharge, runoff depth, flow velocity, shear stress and ratio of runoff generation, are obtained and analyzed. The results demonstrate that the different erosion characteristics are related to different runoff generation zones.

  12. A case study and mechanism investigation of typical mortars used on ancient architecture in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Yuyao [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhang Bingjian [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)], E-mail: zbj@mail.hz.zj.cn; Liang Xiaolin [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2008-07-10

    Mortars sampled from Dutifulness Monument, where typical ancient China mortar formulas and manufacturing processes were used, were analyzed by starch-iodine test, FTIR, DSC-TG, SEM and XRD methods. Several modeling samples were then made according to historical records of Chinese ancient mortar formulas and analyzed with the same techniques. The modeling formulas also were used to consolidate loose specimens. The results show that sticky rice plays a crucial role in the microstructure and the consolidation properties of lime mortars. A possible mechanism was suggested that biomineralization may occur during the carbonation of calcium hydroxide, where the sticky rice functions as a template and controls the growth of calcium carbonate crystal. The organic-inorganic materials formed based on this mechanism will be more favorable for consolidating the loose samples both in strength improvement and durability.

  13. Assessment of the environmental impacts deriving from the life cycle of a typical solar water heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gaidajis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to life cycle thinking, the environmental burden deriving from different life cycle stages of a product or a system, such as manufacturing, transportation, maintenance and landfilling should be taken into consideration while assessing its environmental performance. In that aspect, the environmental impacts deriving from the life cycle of a typical solar water heater (SWH in Greece are analyzed and assessed with the application of relative life cycle assessment (LCA software in this study. In order to examine various impact categories such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, ecotoxicity and so forth, the IMPACT2002+ method is applied. The aim of this study is to examine the life cycle stages, processes and materials that significantly affect the system under examination and to provide a discussion regarding the environmental friendliness of solar water heaters.

  14. Thermogravimetric characteristics of typical municipal solid waste fractions during co-pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Long, YanQiu; Meng, AiHong; Li, QingHai; Zhang, YanGuo

    2015-04-01

    The interactions of nine typical municipal solid waste (MSW) fractions during pyrolysis were investigated using the thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). To compare the mixture results with the calculation results of superposition of single fractions quantitatively, TG overlap ratio was introduced. There were strong interactions between orange peel and rice (overlap ratio 0.9736), and rice and poplar wood (overlap ratio 0.9774). The interactions of mixture experiments postponed the peak and lowered the peak value. Intense interactions between PVC and rice, poplar wood, tissue paper, wool, terylene, and rubber powder during co-pyrolysis were observed, and the pyrolysis at low temperature was usually promoted. The residue yield was increased when PVC was blended with rice, poplar wood, tissue paper, or rubber powder; while the residue yield was decreased when PVC was blended with wool. PMID:25680236

  15. Experimental researches on mass and heat transfer in new typical cross-flow rotating packed bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Haihui; ZENG Yingying; GAO Wenshuai

    2006-01-01

    New typical cross-flow Rotating Packed Bed(RPB)called multi-pulverizing RPB was manufactured.There is enough void in multi-pulverizing RPB,where liquid easily flows and is repeatedly pulverized by light packing,which decreases the material consumed,lightens the weight,and compacts the structure.Mass and heat transfer property in the new type PRB were studied by two experimental models.In the mass transfer model,the axial fan pumping gas press is only 100 Pa,mass transfer coefficient and volumetric mass transfer coefficient are similar to countercurrent RPB,which are an order quantity lager than that in the conventional packed tower.In the heat transfer experiment,the axial fan pumping gas press is only 120 Pa;volumetric heatwhich especially suits the treatment of large gas flow and lower gas pressure drop.

  16. A comparative analysis of the two typical farmland transfer models in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖轶; 魏朝富; 尹珂; 罗光莲

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to conduct a comparative analysis of the two typical farmland transfer models introduced by Chongqing in its comprehensive coordinated reform experiment for balanced urban and rural development: i) the "pooling of land as shares" in Qilin village, Changshou district; and ii) the "homestead/house swap, contracted land/ social security swap" in Jiulongpo district. It is estimated that the former model offers lower land appreciation benef its than the latter; the former faces greater operational risks, whereas the latter can to a certain extent mitigate risks by boosting regulatory control and reasonable government guidance. The homestead/house swap, contracted land/social security swap model is therefore the preferred choice. It can solve a series of social security problems that arise after peasants are divorced from land and enable peasants to garner higher land appreciation benefits through farmland transfer.

  17. Intelligence and handedness: Meta-analyses of studies on intellectually disabled, typically developing, and gifted individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta; Tomprou, Dimitra-Maria

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the relationship between cerebral laterality and intelligence is important in elucidating the neurological underpinnings of individual differences in cognitive abilities. A widely used, behavioral indicator for cerebral laterality, mainly of language, is handedness. A number of studies have compared cognitive abilities between groups of left- and right-handers, while others have investigated the handedness prevalence between groups of different cognitive abilities. The present study comprises five meta-analyses of studies that have assessed the handedness prevalence in (a) individuals with intellectual disability (ID) of unknown/idiopathic nature compared to typically developing (TD) individuals, and (b) individuals with intellectual giftedness (IG) compared to TD individuals. Nineteen data sets totaling 16,076 participants (5795 ID, 8312 TD, and 1969 IG) were included in the analyses. Elevated levels of atypical handedness were found to be robust only for the ID to TD comparison. Findings constrain the range of acceptable theories on the handedness distribution for different intelligence levels.

  18. Structural and chemical modifications of typical South African biomasses during torrefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafu, Lihle D; Neomagus, Hein W J P; Everson, Raymond C; Carrier, Marion; Strydom, Christien A; Bunt, John R

    2016-02-01

    Torrefaction experiments were carried out for three typical South African biomass samples (softwood chips, hardwood chips and sweet sorghum bagasse) to a weight loss of 30 wt.%. During torrefaction, moisture, non-structural carbohydrates and hemicelluloses were reduced, resulting in a structurally modified torrefaction product. There was a reduction in the average crystalline diameter (La) (XRD), an increase in the aromatic fraction and a reduction in aliphatics (substituted and unsubstituted) (CPMAS (13)C NMR). The decrease in the aliphatic components of the lignocellulosic material under the torrefaction conditions also resulted in a slight ordering of the carbon lattice. The degradation of hemicelluloses and non-structural carbohydrates increased the inclusive surface area of sweet sorghum bagasse, while it did not change significantly for the woody biomasses.

  19. Study of radon-222 released from water during typical household activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small quantities of radon-222 can be found in all ground water from natural sources as a result of decay of radium-226 both in water and the soils and soil matrix surrounding the water. Radon in drinking water has previously been considered a source of radiation exposure primarily from an ingestion standpoint. However, the EPA, Office of Radiation Programs, is investigating the potential for exposure to individuals from inhalation of gaseous radon released from water. This report describes the results of a study to determine the fraction of radon released from water during typical household activities such as clothes washing, dishwashing, showering, etc., and estimates the potential radon concentration in air and resulting working levels in structures

  20. Investigating the probability of detection of typical cavity shapes through modelling and comparison of geophysical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P.

    2011-12-01

    With a growing need for housing in the U.K., the government has proposed increased development of brownfield sites. However, old mine workings and natural cavities represent a potential hazard before, during and after construction on such sites, and add further complication to subsurface parameters. Cavities are hence a limitation to certain redevelopment and their detection is an ever important consideration. The current standard technique for cavity detection is a borehole grid, which is intrusive, non-continuous, slow and expensive. A new robust investigation standard in the detection of cavities is sought and geophysical techniques offer an attractive alternative. Geophysical techniques have previously been utilised successfully in the detection of cavities in various geologies, but still has an uncertain reputation in the engineering industry. Engineers are unsure of the techniques and are inclined to rely on well known techniques than utilise new technologies. Bad experiences with geophysics are commonly due to the indiscriminate choice of particular techniques. It is imperative that a geophysical survey is designed with the specific site and target in mind at all times, and the ability and judgement to rule out some, or all, techniques. To this author's knowledge no comparative software exists to aid technique choice. Also, previous modelling software limit the shapes of bodies and hence typical cavity shapes are not represented. Here, we introduce 3D modelling software (Matlab) which computes and compares the response to various cavity targets from a range of techniques (gravity, gravity gradient, magnetic, magnetic gradient and GPR). Typical near surface cavity shapes are modelled including shafts, bellpits, various lining and capping materials, and migrating voids. The probability of cavity detection is assessed in typical subsurface and noise conditions across a range of survey parameters. Techniques can be compared and the limits of detection distance

  1. Outdoor performances of four photovoltaic technologies under four typical meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenounou, A.; Aillerie, M.; Malek, A.; Triki, A.; Oulebsir, A.; Smara, Z.; Mahrane, A.; Chikh, M.

    2016-07-01

    We present a comparative study of the behavior and performance undervarious weather conditions of four PV modules of different technologies recorded in four typical daysin summer and winter. The study is based on the simultaneous and continuous testing of PV modules under natural conditions of a site located in a coastal area of southern Mediterranean. We essentially interested to the fill factor, the conversion efficiency and the energy performance. A brief description of the experimental set up and the originally method is given after the introductive paragraph. All obtained graphical results allow, at first, the validation of the approach and at second, point out that the daily evolution curves of the fill factor and the efficiency of the PV modules adopt different paces depending on the PV technology. In addition, the results of the energy study showthat the performance ratios of the different technologies aredifferently influenced by weather environment and seasons.

  2. Running a typical ROOT HEP analysis on Hadoop MapReduce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, S. A.; Pinamonti, M.; Cobal, M.

    2014-06-01

    We evaluate how a typical ROOT High Energy Physics (HEP) analysis can be executed on Hadoop MapReduce. We take into account several aspects and we propose a method to perform the analysis in a completely transparent way to ROOT, the data and the user: the goal is to let ROOT run without any modifications and to store the data in its original format. The solutions which has been found to solve the encountered problems can be easily ported to any HEP code, and in general to any code working on binary data relying on independent sub-problems like HEP particle collision events. We tested the method by running an analysis code for the top quark pair production cross section measurement with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in the CERN laboratory.

  3. Early phonetic development in typically developing children: A longitudinal investigation from Cypriot-Greek child data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petinou, Kakia; Theodorou, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the acquisition of consonantal singleton segments in Cypriot-Greek. The study's aims were: (a) to determine the acquisition of segments for manner and place of articulation as a function of age and word position, (b) to provide preliminary normative data, and (c) to further support the cross-linguistic data pool regarding developmental phonology patterns. Participants were 14 Cypriot-Greek speaking typically developing toddlers, examined at ages 24, 28, 32 and 36 months. Spontaneously produced and elicited glossable utterances were used in constructing each child's inventory. Findings revealed an increase of segmental acquisition across all age levels. Group trend analysis for manner and place of articulation indicated bilabial and alveolar stops and nasals to be among the earlier segments to develop. A word medial position advantage was also evident. The findings are discussed in terms of phonological universals and language-specific factors. Implications for early evidence-based phonetic assessment are discussed.

  4. Effect of climatic change on surface environments in the typical region of Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The town of Agura,a typical region in Horqin Sandy Land,was selected as the study area in this paper.Using 12 remote sensing images and climatic data from the past 20 years,the effects of climate change on surface environments were analyzed.The impact indices of climatic factors,along with their corresponding ranks,were used to characterize the responses of different types of surface environments to climate change.Results show that in the past 20 years,the surface environments of the study area have been deteriorating.Furthermore,there is a positive relationship between the changes in surface environments and those in climatic factors.Various climatic factors influence surface environments in different ways and at different levels.The most sensitive factor is relative humidity,followed by precipitation and evaporation.Overall,moisture is the key factor that affects the changes in surface environments of arid and semi-arid areas.

  5. Weather data analysis based on typical weather sequence analysis. Application: energy building simulation

    CERN Document Server

    David, Mathieu; Garde, Francois; Boyer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In building studies dealing about energy efficiency and comfort, simulation software need relevant weather files with optimal time steps. Few tools generate extreme and mean values of simultaneous hourly data including correlation between the climatic parameters. This paper presents the C++ Runeole software based on typical weather sequences analysis. It runs an analysis process of a stochastic continuous multivariable phenomenon with frequencies properties applied to a climatic database. The database analysis associates basic statistics, PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and automatic classifications. Different ways of applying these methods will be presented. All the results are stored in the Runeole internal database that allows an easy selection of weather sequences. The extreme sequences are used for system and building sizing and the mean sequences are used for the determination of the annual cooling loads as proposed by Audrier-Cros (Audrier-Cros, 1984). This weather analysis was tested with the datab...

  6. [Effects of fuel properties on the performance of a typical Euro IV diesel engine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-miao; Wang, Jian-xin; Shuai, Shi-jin

    2008-09-01

    With the purpose of establishing diesel fuel standard for China National 4th Emission Standard, as one part of Beijing "Auto-Oil" programme, engine performance test has been done on a typical Euro IV diesel engine using eight diesel fuels with different fuel properties. Test results show that, fuel properties has little effect on power, fuel consumption, and in-cylinder combustion process of tested Euro IV diesel engine; sulfate in PM and gaseous SO2 emissions increase linearly with diesel sulfur content increase; cetane number increase cause BSFC and PM reduce and NOx increase; T90 decrease cause NOx reduce while PM shows trend of reduce. Prediction equations of tested Euro IV diesel engine's ESC cycle NOx and PM emissions before SCR response to diesel fuel sulfur content, cetane number, T90 and aromatics have been obtained using linear regression method on the base of test results.

  7. Simulation of maximum light use efficiency for some typical vegetation types in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Maximum light use efficiency (εmax) is a key parameter for the estimation of net primary productivity (NPP) derived from remote sensing data. There are still many divergences about its value for each vegetation type. The εmax for some typical vegetation types in China is simulated using a modified least squares function based on NOAA/AVHRR remote sensing data and field-observed NPP data. The vegetation classification accuracy is introduced to the process. The sensitivity analysis of εmax to vegetation classification accuracy is also conducted. The results show that the simulated values of εmax are greater than the value used in CASA model, and less than the values simulated with BIOME-BGC model. This is consistent with some other studies. The relative error of εmax resulting from classification accuracy is -5.5%―8.0%. This indicates that the simulated values of εmax are reliable and stable.

  8. Running a typical ROOT HEP analysis on Hadoop MapReduce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluate how a typical ROOT High Energy Physics (HEP) analysis can be executed on Hadoop MapReduce. We take into account several aspects and we propose a method to perform the analysis in a completely transparent way to ROOT, the data and the user: the goal is to let ROOT run without any modifications and to store the data in its original format. The solutions which has been found to solve the encountered problems can be easily ported to any HEP code, and in general to any code working on binary data relying on independent sub-problems like HEP particle collision events. We tested the method by running an analysis code for the top quark pair production cross section measurement with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in the CERN laboratory

  9. The typical aging problem of the main component materials in PWR nuclear steam supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aging problem of equipment, components, and materials, is a systematic problem which exists throughout the whole process of NPP from design to retirement .In this paper, the basic information and current status of aging research and aging management is introduced, with detailed information about the typical aging problem and research work of main component materials in PWR nuclear steam supply system. Systematical studies have shown that: 1) the aging management work of NPP in China has started a little late and the research foundation is relatively weak; 2)the technology system and management system of aging management and lifetime assessment has not yet been formed; 3) the research work about aging problem of component materials concentrates only on the design verification except for the reactor pressure vessel , and there's no specialized research work on aging problem; 4)there's a lack of important data on aging evaluation and lifetime enhancement analysis . A systematical research work on component aging problem is suggested. (authors)

  10. Measurement and analysis of typical motion error traces from a circular test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The circular test provides a rapid and efficient way of measuring the contouring accuracy of a machine tool.To get the actual point coordinate in the work plane,an improved measurement instrument - a new ball bar test system - is presented in this paper to identify both the radial error and the rotation angle error when the machine is manipulated to move in circular traces.Based on the measured circular error,a combination of Fourier components is chosen to represent the systematic form error that fluctuates in the radial direction.The typical motion errors represented by the corresponding Fourier components can thus be identified.The values for machine compensation can be calculated and adjusted until the desired results are achieved.

  11. Non-Smooth Morphologies of Typical Plant Leaf Surfaces and Their Anti-Adhesion Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-quan Ren; Shu-jie Wang; Xi-mei Tian; Zhi-wu Han; Lin-na Yan; Zhao-mei Qiu

    2007-01-01

    The micromorphologies of surfaces of several typical plant leaves were investigated by scanning electron microscopy(SEM).Different non-smooth surface characteristics were described and classified.The hydrophobicity and anti-adhesion of non-smooth leaf surfaces were quantitatively measured.Results show that the morphology of epidermal cells and the morphology and distribution density of epicuticular wax directly affect the hydrophobicity and anti-adhesion.The surface with uniformly distributed convex units shows the best anti-adhesion,and the surface with regularly arranged trellis units displays better anti-adhesion.In contrast,the surface with randomly distributed hair units performs relatively bad anti-adhesion.The hydrophobic models of papilla-ciliary and fold-setal non-smooth surfaces were set up to determine the impacts of geometric parameters on the hydrophobicity.This study may provide an insight into surface machine molding and apparent morphology design for biomimetics engineering.

  12. Impact of conduit geometry on the performance of typical particulate microchip packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Stephanie; Höltzel, Alexandra; Ehlert, Steffen; Mora, Jose-Angel; Kraiczek, Karsten; Dittmann, Monika; Rozing, Gerard P; Tallarek, Ulrich

    2009-12-15

    This work investigates the impact of conduit geometry on the chromatographic performance of typical particulate microchip packings. For this purpose, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV-microchips with separation channels of quadratic, trapezoidal, or Gaussian cross section were fabricated by direct laser ablation and lamination of multiple polyimide layers and then slurry-packed with either 3 or 5 microm spherical porous C8-silica particles under optimized packing conditions. Experimentally determined plate height curves for the empty microchannels are compared with dispersion coefficients from theoretical calculations. Packing densities and plate height curves for the various microchip packings are presented and conclusively explained. The 3 microm packings display a high packing density irrespective of their conduit geometries, and their performance reflects the dispersion behavior of the empty channels. Dispersion in 5 microm packings correlates with the achieved packing densities, which are limited by the number and accessibility of corners in a given conduit shape. PMID:19916548

  13. Brain-potential analysis of visual word recognition in dyslexics and typically reading children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka eFraga González

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The specialization of visual brain areas for fast processing of printed words plays an important role in the acquisition of reading skills. Dysregulation of these areas may be among the deficits underlying developmental dyslexia. The present study examines the specificity of word activation in dyslexic children in 3rd grade by comparing early components of brain potentials elicited by visually presented words vs. strings of meaningless letter-like symbols. Results showed a more pronounced N1 component for words compared to symbols for both groups. The dyslexic group revealed larger left-lateralized, word-specific N1 responses than the typically reading group. Furthermore, positive correlations between N1 amplitudes and reading fluency were found in the dyslexic group. Our results support the notion of N1 as a sensitive index of visual word processing involved in reading fluency.

  14. Experimental study on drying of typical MSW under incinerator-like conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; YanGuo; CHEN; MeiQian; MENG; AiHong; LI; QingHai; CHEN; YunXuan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a series of experiments were conducted to investigate the drying of typical municipal solid wastes (MSW) in a muffle incinerator. From the experimental drying characteristic curves, the effects of temperature on drying process were observed to be more obvious in the low temperature region than in the high temperature region in muffle incinerator. At a specified drying temperature, drying time was highly dependent upon the packed waste thickness, having an exponent relation with the thickness. When the drying temperature increased or the thickness of potato bulks was diminished, the maximum drying rate reduced. Based on the first-order reaction, activation energy (Ea), and factor A of potato and cabbage were determined.

  15. [Anesthesia for geriatric patients. Part 1: age, organ function and typical diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herminghaus, A; Löser, S; Wilhelm, W

    2012-02-01

    Due to demographic changes in the population of industrial nations the number of elderly patients undergoing elective or emergency procedures will rise significantly in the coming years. Anesthesia for geriatric patients is challenging for the anesthesiologist in many ways: with increasing age numerous physiological changes occur which all lead to a subsequent reduction of physical performance and compensatory capacity of the organism, in many cases additionally aggravated by chronic illness. Subsequently, these age-dependent changes (with or without chronic illness) increase the risk for admission to intensive care units, perioperative death, treatment costs and a prolonged length of hospital stay. Therefore, subtle preoperative assessment and tailored anesthetic management are essential in elderly patients. Part 1 of this continuous education article covers the influence of age on organ functions and describes typical comorbidities which are of high relevance for the perioperative care of geriatric patients. The special features of anesthetic agents and anesthesia management in the elderly will be presented in part 2.

  16. Television, video game and social media use among children with ASD and typically developing siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O; Wenstrup, Colleen

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the nature of television, video game, and social media use in children (ages 8-18) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, n = 202) compared to typically developing siblings (TD, n = 179), and relative to other activities. Parents completed measures assessing children's screen-based and other extracurricular activities. Children with ASD spent approximately 62% more time watching television and playing video games than in all non-screen activities combined. Compared with TD siblings, children with ASD spent more hours per day playing video games (2.4 vs. 1.6 for boys, and 1.8 vs. 0.8 for girls), and had higher levels of problematic video game use. In contrast, children with ASD spent little time using social media or socially interactive video games.

  17. Characterization of the neutron flux gradients in typical irradiation channels of a TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron distribution in a defined volume (gradient) for different matrices (air, water, cellulose, biological material and silicon dioxide) in two typical irradiation channels (pneumatic tube (PT) and IC40-channel in the carousel facility) in the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Jozef Stefan Institute (IJS) was studied. Experiment was based on inserting Fe wires (flux monitors) into the chosen matrices. The wires were cut into small pieces after irradiation and the induced activities of 59Fe measured. The results showed that for the studied geometry the average spatial thermal neutron flux inhomogeneities (for five studied matrices) are about 2.3% in the PT-channel and about 2.9% in the IC40-channel. (author)

  18. The impact of sleep restriction on daytime movement in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Abbey; Gendron, Melissa; Vriend, Jennifer; Davidson, Fiona; Corkum, Penny

    2016-03-01

    The current study investigated the link between poor sleep and ADHD symptomatology. The effects of extending versus restricting sleep on subjective (questionnaires) and objective (actigraphy) measures of daytime movement were examined in 25 typically developing children aged 8-12 years. Subjective measures demonstrated an increase in ADHD symptomology following sleep restriction, with follow-up analyses indicating that findings were due to poorer attention, not changes in hyperactivity. The results of actigraphy data indicated that there were no differences found for mean or median daytime activity, but the standard deviation of activity was found to be significantly higher following sleep restriction. Contrary to the popular belief that sleep restriction results in increased overall activity, this study instead found an increase in variability of activity. This suggests that a sleep-restricted child's activity level may appear as alternating periods of high and low activity levels throughout the day. PMID:26160688

  19. Multimodal interactions in typically and atypically developing children: natural versus artificial environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopulu, Irini

    2013-11-01

    This review addresses the central role played by multimodal interactions in neurocognitive development. We first analyzed our studies of multimodal verbal and nonverbal cognition and emotional interactions within neuronal, that is, natural environments in typically developing children. We then tried to relate them to the topic of creating artificial environments using mobile toy robots to neurorehabilitate severely autistic children. By doing so, both neural/natural and artificial environments are considered as the basis of neuronal organization and reorganization. The common thread underlying the thinking behind this approach revolves around the brain's intrinsic properties: neuroplasticity and the fact that the brain is neurodynamic. In our approach, neural organization and reorganization using natural or artificial environments aspires to bring computational perspectives into cognitive developmental neuroscience. PMID:23689878

  20. A Case Study of a Typical Dust Storm Event over the Loess Plateau of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Xiao-Lu; GUO Wei-Dong; ZHAO Qian-Fei; ZHANG Bei-Dou

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced observational meteorological elements, energy fluxes, and the concentration of dust aerosols collected from the Semi-Arid Climate Observatory and Laboratory (SACOL) during a typical dust storm period in March 2010 at Lanzhou were used in this paper to investigate the impact of dust aerosols on near surface atmospheric variables and energy budgets. The results show that the entire dust storm event was associated with high wind velocities and decreasing air pressure, and the air changed from cold and wet to warm and dry and then recovered to its initial state. The response of energy fluxes occurred behind meteorological elements. At high dust concentration periods, the net radiation was significantly less in the daytime and higher at night, while the heat fluxes displayed the same trend, indicating the weakening of the land-atmosphere energy exchange. The results can be used to provide verification for numerical model results in semi-arid areas.

  1. Typical xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A fibroblasts have detectable ultraviolet light-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet-induced nuclear uptake of tritiated thymidine [3H]dThd demonstrable by autoradiography in non-synthesis phases of the cell cycle is known as unscheduled DNA synthesis and reflects repair replication of ultraviolet-damaged DNA. We have reported that the rate of any such unscheduled DNA synthesis in typical group A xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts, if present, is less than 2% of the normal rate. We have now performed experiments to determine whether these fibroblasts have any unscheduled DNA synthesis. Fibroblast coverslip cultures of four xeroderma pigmentosum group A strains were prepared. Irradiated (254 nm ultraviolet light) and unirradiated cultures from each strain were incubated with [3H]dThd at 37degC, and autoradiograms were prepared using NTB-3 emulsion. A nuclear grain count was made of 100 consecutive nuclei of non-S-phase irradiated and unirradiated cells. A slide background grain count was simultaneously made from an acellular area adjacent to each cell analyzed. When a strain's irradiated and unirradiated autoradiograms having similar slide background grain count averages were compared, the nuclear grain count average of the irradiated cells was always higher than that of the unirradiated cells. This ultraviolet-induced increase in the mean nuclear grain count ranged from 0.4 to 1.3% of that given by normal non-xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts and was not reduced by 10-2M hydroxyurea. Planimetric studies showed that the ultraviolet-induced increase in nuclear grain count is not due to an increased nuclear area in irradiated cells. We conclude that these typical group A xeroderma pigmentosum strains perform very low, but detectable, ultraviolet-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis which probably reflects repair replication. We cannot, however, determine if there are significantly different rates of ultraviolet-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis among these ultraviolet strains

  2. Modeling a Typical Winter-time Dust Event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalenderski, S.; Stenchikov, G.; Zhao, Chun

    2013-02-20

    We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ~2.4 Tg/day and ~1.5 Tg/day, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground- and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3-4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W/m2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from rural household biomass burning in a typical Chinese village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HaiLin; ZHUANG YaHui; HAO ZhengPing; CAO MeiQiu; ZHONG JinXian; WANG XiaoKe; NGUYEN Thi Kim Oanh

    2008-01-01

    Biomass energy sources are still popular in the rural areas of developing countries for cooking and space heating. Since the incomplete combustion of agricultural residues in home-made ranges might lead to both outdoor and indoor air pollution and cause potential health threat to the rural population,we monitored the ambient levels of 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a typical rural site. Ambient particulate PAH samples (PM2.5 and PM10) were taken during both cooking and non-cooking periods. Source emission monitoring was also conducted for both improved and traditional cooking stoves used in the area. Ambient PAHs had a significant increase during the cooking periods and varied from 72.1 to 554.4 ng/m3. The highest total PAH levels were found during the supper cooking time,in which five- and six-ring species accounted for a large proportion. The observed PAH levels during cooking periods at this rural site were even higher than those in urban areas. A good correlation was found between the benzo[a]pyrene level and the total PAH concentration (r=0.98),making benzo[a]pyrene a potential molecular marker for PAH pollution in the rural areas,where biomass burning is typical. The profiles of the particulate PAHs in both ambient air and source emissions showed a high proportion of high molecular-mass PAHs. In addition,emission factors of 16 PAHs from an improved household stove were found to be significantly lower than those from traditional stoves used in China and in other Asian countries.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from rural household biomass burning in a typical Chinese village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NGUYEN; Thi; Kim; Oanh

    2008-01-01

    Biomass energy sources are still popular in the rural areas of developing countries for cooking and space heating. Since the incomplete combustion of agricultural residues in home-made ranges might lead to both outdoor and indoor air pollution and cause potential health threat to the rural population, we monitored the ambient levels of 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a typical rural site. Ambient particulate PAH samples (PM2.5 and PM10) were taken during both cooking and non-cooking periods. Source emission monitoring was also conducted for both improved and tra- ditional cooking stoves used in the area. Ambient PAHs had a significant increase during the cooking periods and varied from 72.1 to 554.4 ng/m3. The highest total PAH levels were found during the supper cooking time, in which five- and six-ring species accounted for a large proportion. The observed PAH levels during cooking periods at this rural site were even higher than those in urban areas. A good correlation was found between the benzo[a]pyrene level and the total PAH concentration (r=0.98), making benzo[a]pyrene a potential molecular marker for PAH pollution in the rural areas, where bio- mass burning is typical. The profiles of the particulate PAHs in both ambient air and source emissions showed a high proportion of high molecular-mass PAHs. In addition, emission factors of 16 PAHs from an improved household stove were found to be significantly lower than those from traditional stoves used in China and in other Asian countries.

  5. Frequency of a typical radiological pattern of pulmonary tuberculosis in adults and elderly (dissertation based article)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculosis is one of the oldest diseases and one third of the world's population is affected. Typical pattern (infiltration and or nodules with or without cavitations involving upper zone lung field) of pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common mode of radiological presentation in adults. There is a trend towards a relative increase in the unusual radiological presentations. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of atypical radiological trend of pulmonary tuberculosis in adults and elderly. Subjects and Methods: The objective of the study was to determine frequency of a typical radiological pattern of pulmonary tuberculosis in adults and elderly. It was a descriptive (case series) study and was conducted in the Department of Pulmonology, Nishtar Hospital Multan. The study duration was six months from 24 May 2006 to 23 November 2006. 300 patients presenting with pulmonary tuberculosis were selected. History and clinical examination was done. Relevant investigations and x-ray chest were carried out. Lesions like infiltration with or without cavitation were localized in upper, middle and lower zones. Groups of patients with their x-ray findings in different zones were made and analyzed accordingly, data collected were entered in specific proforma. Results: 205 (97.6%) adults and 85 (94.4%) elderly presented with cough while 205 (97.6%) adults and 75 (83.3%) elderly presented with fever. Out of 300 cases infiltration was found in 141 (46.19% vs 48.88%) young adult and elderly cases. There were 99 cases with nodule (35.71% vs 26.66%) and 60 cases had cavitation (18.09% vs 24.44%). Conclusion: There is a trend towards a relative increase in the frequency of unusual radiological presentations which is more common in elderly. (author)

  6. [Analysis of XRD spectral characteristics of soil clay mineral in two typical cultivated soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Luo, Xiang-Li; Jiang, Hai-Chao; Li, Qiao; Shen, Cong-Ying; Liu, Hang; Zhou, Ya-Juan; Zhao, Lan-Po; Wang, Ji-Hong

    2014-07-01

    The present paper took black soil and chernozem, the typical cultivated soil in major grain producing area of Northeast, as the study object, and determinated the soil particle composition characteristics of two cultivated soils under the same climate and location. Then XRD was used to study the composition and difference of clay mineral in two kinds of soil and the evolutionary mechanism was explored. The results showed that the two kinds of soil particles were composed mainly of the sand, followed by clay and silt. When the particle accumulation rate reached 50%, the central particle size was in the 15-130 microm interval. Except for black soil profile of Shengli Xiang, the content of clay showed converse sequence to the central particle in two soils. Clay accumulated under upper layer (18.82%) in black soil profile while under caliche layer (17.41%) in chernozem profile. Clay content was the least in parent material horizon except in black profile of Quanyanling. Analysis of clay XRD atlas showed that the difference lied in not only the strength of diffraction peak, but also in the mineral composition. The main contents of black soil and chernozem were both 2 : 1 clay, the composition of black soil was smectite/illite mixed layer-illite-vermiculite and that of chernozem was S/I mixture-illite-montmorillonite, and both of them contained little kaolinite, chlorite, quartz and other primary mineral. This paper used XRD to determine the characteristics of clay minerals comprehensively, and analyzed two kinds of typical cultivated soil comparatively, and it was a new perspective of soil minerals study.

  7. Motor skills in Brazilian children with developmental coordination disorder versus children with motor typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Ana Amélia; Magalhães, Livia Castro; Rezende, Marcia Bastos

    2014-12-01

    The aims of the study were to compare the performance of children with probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and motor typically developing peers on items from the Assessment of Motor Coordination and Dexterity (AMCD), to determine whether age, gender and type of school had significant impact on the scores of the AMCD items, to estimate the frequency of DCD among Brazilian children ages 7 and 8 years and to investigate whether children with DCD exhibit more symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder than children with motor typical development. A total of 793 children were screened by the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire - Brazilian version (DCDQ-Brazil); 90 were identified as at risk for DCD; 91 matched controls were selected from the remaining participants. Children in both groups were evaluated with the AMCD, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-II) and Raven's coloured progressive matrices. Thirty-four children were classified as probable DCD, as defined by a combination of the DCDQ-Brazil and MABC-II scores (fifth percentile). The final frequency of DCD among children ages 7 and 8 years was 4.3%. There were significant differences between children with and without DCD on the majority of AMCD items, indicating its potential for identifying DCD in Brazilian children. The use of a motor test (MABC-II) that is not validated for the Brazilian children is a limitation of the present study. Further studies should investigate whether the AMCD is useful for identifying DCD in other age groups and in children from different regions of Brazil. The application of the AMCD may potentially contribute in improving occupational therapy practice in Brazil and in identifying children that could benefit from occupational therapy services.

  8. Field experiment and Modeling full coupling hydrologic model with mircotopography in typical watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Long; Zhu, Yongshu; Xu, Ruchao; Yu, Zhongbo; Chen, Li

    2015-04-01

    With high human activties and landscape remodeling, the various landuse and micropography are newly added in scienctific sight. In order to quanify the solpo effect in high resolution sub-grid system, three-dimensional Richards' equations and the two-dimensional diffusion wave equations are chosen to solve the output difference between hydro-flows, The difficulty of quantitating surface water and groundwater interaction and parameterizing the microtopography with the help of multi-scale observation experiments. For three-dimensional coupling mechanism in surface-subsurface system, we design real-time observations on water flow at Hydrologic Response Units (HRU) located on various landuse and outlet in Meilin experimental watershed. The continuously observed data disclose the principle of runoff yield spatially and temporally, and show the surface runoff redistribution, unsaturated soil water dynamics, shallow groundwater response to typical rainfall-runoff events on complex microtopographic slope. A surface storage function with elevation various is embeded into diffuse wave equations to describe microtopographic effect. we improve for paramterizing microtopography in subelements and evaluate the strength of microtopography and couple length at soil-water interface impacting the hydrologic modeling. Based on observed conclusions, a full physical based distributed model system is established at Meilin watershed to quantify the hydrodynamic processes of overland flow, soil water saturation, and groundwater level and analyze dynamic exchanges among them in simulation. The relationships between the various saturation area (VSA) and runoff yield and flow confluence in each typical event are quantified statistically. With the field work and simulations, we demostrated the approach to describe complex hydrologic processes in human-interrupted watershed. Keywords: micropography, coupling mechanism, various saturation area, surface storage

  9. Soil fractal features of typical forest stands in Jinyun Mountain, Chongqing City, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Chen; WANG Yujie; WANG Yunqi; PAN Yujuan

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore the forest soil physical property in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas,the fractal theory was adopted to study the soil fractal features of the four typical forest stands(mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forests,evergreen broadleaved forests,Phyllostachyspubescens forests and evergreen broadleaved shrub forests)in Jinyun Mountain,Chongqing City,and they were compared with arable land.It has been proposed that the model can be used for the analysis of the relationship between the fractal dimensions and the properties of forest soil.The impacts of fractal dimensions on the soil properties were analyzed with the elasticity analysis and marginal yield analysis.Results showed that the fractal dimension of particle size distribution(PSD),the micro-aggregate size distribution(ASD)and the soil pore size distribution(SPD)can be used as the indices to evaluate the soil structure.In the typical stands of Jinyun Mountain,the fractal dimension of PSD is 2.7-2.9,the ASD is 2.5-2.8,and the SPD is 2.3-2.8.The soil structure of evergreen broadleaved shrub forests performed best in PSD,ASD and SPD,and the soil of P.pubescens forests is the worst.There were some relationships among the PSD,ASD,SPD and some soil properties in the different forests and farmland.The related coefficients are over 0.5.Based on the elasticity analysis and marginal yield analysis,the effect of PSD was more than those of ASD and SPD.Obviously,the further study on the fractal theory application in soil structure and soil properties has important significance.

  10. Modeling a typical winter-time dust event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, S.

    2013-02-20

    We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ?2.4 Tg day-1 and ?1.5 Tg day-1, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground-and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3-4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W m-2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  11. Modeling a typical winter-time dust event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalenderski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ~2.4 Tg day−1 and ~1.5 Tg day−1, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground- and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3–4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W m−2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  12. Maturation of social attribution skills in typically developing children: an investigation using the social attribution task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Raymond CK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of social attribution skills in children can potentially identify and quantify developmental difficulties related to autism spectrum disorders and related conditions. However, relatively little is known about how these skills develop in typically developing children. Therefore the present study aimed to map the trajectory of social attribution skill acquisition in typically developing children from a young age. Methods In the conventional social attribution task (SAT participants ascribe feelings to moving shapes and describe their interaction in social terms. However, this format requires that participants understand both, that an inanimate shape is symbolic, and that its action is social in nature. This may be challenging for young children, and may be a potential confounder in studies of children with developmental disorders. Therefore we developed a modified SAT (mSAT using animate figures (e.g. animals to simplify the task. We used the SAT and mSAT to examine social attribution skill development in 154 healthy children (76 boys, 78 girls, ranging in age from 6 to 13 years and investigated the relationship between social attribution ability and executive function. Results The mSAT revealed a steady improvement in social attribution skills from the age of 6 years, and a significant advantage for girls compared to boys. In contrast, children under the age of 9 years performed at baseline on the conventional format and there were no gender differences apparent. Performance on neither task correlated with executive function after controlling for age and verbal IQ, suggesting that social attribution ability is independent of cognitive functioning. The present findings indicate that the mSAT is a sensitive measure of social attribution skills from a young age. This should be carefully considered when choosing assessments for young children and those with developmental disorders.

  13. Involvement of Basal Ganglia network in motor disabilities induced by typical antipsychotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Chetrit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical treatments with typical antipsychotic drugs (APDs are accompanied by extrapyramidal motor side-effects (EPS such as hypokinesia and catalepsy. As little is known about electrophysiological substrates of such motor disturbances, we investigated the effects of a typical APD, alpha-flupentixol, on the motor behavior and the neuronal activity of the whole basal ganglia nuclei in the rat. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The motor behavior was examined by the open field actimeter and the neuronal activity of basal ganglia nuclei was investigated using extracellular single unit recordings on urethane anesthetized rats. We show that alpha-flupentixol induced EPS paralleled by a decrease in the firing rate and a disorganization of the firing pattern in both substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr and subthalamic nucleus (STN. Furthermore, alpha-flupentixol induced an increase in the firing rate of globus pallidus (GP neurons. In the striatum, we recorded two populations of medium spiny neurons (MSNs after their antidromic identification. At basal level, both striato-pallidal and striato-nigral MSNs were found to be unaffected by alpha-flupentixol. However, during electrical cortico-striatal activation only striato-pallidal, but not striato-nigral, MSNs were found to be inhibited by alpha-flupentixol. Together, our results suggest that the changes in STN and SNr neuronal activity are a consequence of increased neuronal activity of globus pallidus (GP. Indeed, after selective GP lesion, alpha-flupentixol failed to induce EPS and to alter STN neuronal activity. CONCLUSION: Our study reports strong evidence to show that hypokinesia and catalepsy induced by alpha-flupentixol are triggered by dramatic changes occurring in basal ganglia network. We provide new insight into the key role of GP in the pathophysiology of APD-induced EPS suggesting that the GP can be considered as a potential target for the treatment of EPS.

  14. Typical synoptic situations and their impacts on the wintertime air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Naifang; Li, Guohui; Huang, Ru-Jin; Cao, Junji; Meng, Ning; Feng, Tian; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Qiang; Molina, Luisa T.

    2016-06-01

    Rapid industrialization and urbanization have caused severe air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, northwestern China, with heavy haze events occurring frequently in recent winters. Using the NCEP reanalysis data, the large-scale synoptic situations influencing the Guanzhong basin during wintertime of 2013 are categorized into six types to evaluate the contribution of synoptic situations to the air pollution, including "north-low", "southwest-trough", "southeast-high", "transition", "southeast-trough", and "inland-high". The FLEXPART model has been utilized to demonstrate the corresponding pollutant transport patterns for the typical synoptic situations in the basin. Except for "southwest-trough" and "southeast-high" (defined as favorable synoptic situations), the other four synoptic conditions (defined as unfavorable synoptic situations) generally facilitate the accumulation of air pollutants, causing heavy air pollution in the basin. In association with the measurement of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) in the basin, the unfavorable synoptic situations correspond to high PM2.5 mass concentrations or poor air quality and vice versa. The same analysis has also been applied to winters of 2008-2012, which shows that the basin was mainly influenced by the unfavorable synoptic situations during wintertime leading to poor air quality. The WRF-CHEM model has further been applied to simulate the selected 6 days representing the typical synoptic situations during the wintertime of 2013, and the results generally show a good agreement between the modeled distributions and variations of PM2.5 and the corresponding synoptic situations, demonstrating reasonable classification for the synoptic situations in the basin. Detailed meteorological conditions, such as temperature inversion, low-level horizontal wind speed, and planetary boundary layer, all contribute to heavy air pollution events in the basin under unfavorable synoptic conditions

  15. Economic evaluation of environmental impacts: methodology of valuation of health impacts due to air pollution around a typical power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides methodology for valuation of health impact due to air pollution around a typical power plant expansion project. Inputs from EIA study of a typical coal based thermal power plant (TPP) expansion project (850+210 Mw capacity) performed by NEERI is taken for the valuation purpose. (author)

  16. A Preliminary Report on the English Phonology of Typically Developing English-Mandarin Bilingual Preschool Singaporean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    En, Lydea Gn Wei; Brebner, Chris; McCormack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are no published data on typical phonological development for Singaporean children. There is therefore the risk that children's speech in Singapore may be misdiagnosed or that clinicians may set goals erroneously. Aims: This paper reports a preliminary study on the English phonology of typically developing 4;0-4;5-year-old…

  17. Typical and atypical symptoms of gastro esophageal reflux disease: Does Helicobacter pylori infection matter?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurino; Grossi; Antonio; Francesco; Ciccaglione; Leonardo; Marzio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyze whether the presence of Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) infection could affect the quality of symptoms in gastro-esophageal reflux disease(GERD) patients. METHODS: one hundred and forty-four consecutive patients referred to our Unit for suspected GERD were recruited for the study. All patients underwent esophageal p H-metric recording. For those with a positive test, C13 urea breath test was then performed to assess the H. pylori status. GERD patients were stratified according to the quality of their symptoms and classified as typical, if affected by heartburn and regurgitation, and atypical if complaining of chest pain, respiratory and ears, nose, and throat features. H. pylori-negative patients were also asked whether they had a previous diagnosis of H. pylori infection. If a positive response was given, on the basis of the time period after successful eradication, patients were considered as "eradicated"(E) if H. pylori eradication occurred more than six months earlier or "recently eradicated" if the therapy had been administered within the last six months. Patients without history of infection were identified as "negative"(N). χ2 test was performed by combining the clinical aspects with the H. pylori status.RESULTS: one hundred and twenty-nine of the 144 patients, including 44 H. pylori-positive and 85 H. pylori-negative(41 negative, 21 recently eradicated, 23 eradicated more than 6 mo before), were eligible for the analysis. No difference has been found between H. pylori status and either the number of reflux episodes(138 ± 23 vs 146 ± 36, respectively, P = 0.2, not significant) or the percentage of time with pH values < 4(6.8 ± 1.2 vs 7.4 ± 2.1, respectively, P = 0.3, not significant). The distribution of symptoms was as follows: 13 typical(30%) and 31 atypical(70%) among the 44 H. pylori-positive cases; 44 typical(52%) and 41 atypical(48%) among the 85 H. pylori-negative cases,(P = 0.017 vs H. pylori +; OR = 2.55, 95%CI: 1

  18. Development of proprioceptive acuity in typically developing children: normative data on forearm position sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Mae Holst-Wolf

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study mapped the development of proprioception in healthy, typically developing children by objectively measuring forearm position sense acuity. We assessed position sense acuity in a cross-sectional sample of 308 children (5-17 y/o; M/F = 127/181 and a reference group of 26 healthy adults (18-25 y/o; M/F = 12/14 using a body-scalable bimanual manipulandum that allowed forearm flexion/extension in the horizontal plane. The non-dominant forearm was passively displaced to one of three target positions. Then participants actively matched the target limb position with their dominant forearm. Each of three positions was matched five times. Position error (PE, calculated as the mean difference between the angular positions of the matching and reference arms, measured position sense bias or systematic error. The respective standard deviation (SDPdiff indicated position sense precision or random error. The main results are as follows: First, systematic error, measured as PE, did not change significantly from early childhood to late adolescence (Median PE at 90º target: -2.85º in early childhood; -2.28º in adolescence; 1.30º in adults. Second, response variability as measured by SDPdiff significantly decreased with age (Median SDPdiff at 90º target: 9.66º in early childhood; 5.30º in late adolescence; 3.97º in adults. The data of this large cross-sectional sample of children document that proprioceptive development in typically developing children is characterized as an age-related improvement in precision, not as a development or change in bias. In other words, it is the reliability of the perceptual response that improves between early childhood and adulthood. This study provides normative data against which position sense acuity in pediatric patient populations can be compared. The underlying neurophysiological processes that could explain the observed proprioceptive development include changes in the tuning of muscle spindles at the

  19. Comprehensive molecular etiology analysis of nonsyndromic hearing impairment from typical areas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Dongyang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every year, 30,000 babies are born with congenital hearing impairment in China. The molecular etiology of hearing impairment in the Chinese population has not been investigated thoroughly. To provide appropriate genetic testing and counseling to families, we performed a comprehensive investigation of the molecular etiology of nonsyndromic deafness in two typical areas from northern and southern China. Methods A total of 284 unrelated school children with hearing loss who attended special education schools in China were enrolled in this study, 134 from Chifeng City in Inner Mongolia and the remaining 150 from Nangtong City in JiangSu Province. Screening was performed for GJB2, GJB3, GJB6, SLC26A4, 12S rRNA, and tRNAser(UCN genes in this population. All patients with SLC26A4 mutations or variants were subjected to high-resolution temporal bone CT scan to verify the enlarged vestibular aqueduct. Results Mutations in the GJB2 gene accounted for 18.31% of the patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss, 1555A>G mutation in mitochondrial DNA accounted for 1.76%, and SLC26A4 mutations accounted for 13.73%. Almost 50% of the patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss in these typical Chinese areas carried GJB2 or SLC26A4 mutations. No significant differences in mutation spectrum or prevalence of GJB2 and SLC26A4 were found between the two areas. Conclusion In this Chinese population, 54.93% of cases with hearing loss were related to genetic factors. The GJB2 gene accounted for the etiology in about 18.31% of the patients with hearing loss, SLC26A4 accounted for about 13.73%, and mtDNA 1555A>G mutation accounted for 1.76%. Mutations in GJB3, GJB6, and mtDNA tRNAser(UCN were not common in this Chinese cohort. Conventionally, screening is performed for GJB2, SLC26A4, and mitochondrial 12S rRNA in the Chinese deaf population.

  20. Trade-offs among ecosystem services in a typical Karst watershed, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yichao; Wang, Shijie; Bai, Xiaoyong; Luo, Guangjie; Xu, Yan

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, most research results on ecosystem services in Karst areas are limited to a single function of an ecosystem service. Few scholars conduct a comparative study on the mutual relationships among ecosystem services, let alone reveal the trade-off and synergic relationships in typical Karst watershed. This research aims to understand and quantitatively evaluate the relationships among ecosystem services in a typical Karst watershed, broaden the depth and width of trade-off and synergic relationships in ecosystem services and explore a set of technical processes involved in these relationships. With the Shibantang Karst watershed in China as the research site, we explore the trade-off and synergic relationships of net primary productivity (NPP), water yield, and sediment yield by coupling Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA), and simulating and evaluating these three ecosystem services between 2000 and 2010. Results of this study are as follows. (1) The annual average water yield decreased from 528mm in 2000 to 513mm in 2010, decreasing by 2.84%. (2) The annual average sediment yield decreased from 26.15t/ha in 2000 to 23.81t/ha in 2010, with an average annual reduction of 0.23t/ha. (3) The annual average NPP increased from 739.38gCm(-2)a(-1) in 2000 to 746.25gCm(-2)a(-1) in 2010, increasing by 6.87gCm(-2)a(-1) . (4) Water yield and sediment yield are in a synergic relationship. The increase of water yield can accumulate the soil erosion amount. NPP is in a trade-off relationship with water yield and sediment yield. The improvement of NPP is good for decreasing water yield and soil erosion amount and increasing soil conservation amount. This study provides policy makers and planners an approach to develop an integrated model, as well as design mapping and monitoring protocols for land use change and ecosystem service assessments. PMID:27265738

  1. Trade-offs among ecosystem services in a typical Karst watershed, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yichao; Wang, Shijie; Bai, Xiaoyong; Luo, Guangjie; Xu, Yan

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, most research results on ecosystem services in Karst areas are limited to a single function of an ecosystem service. Few scholars conduct a comparative study on the mutual relationships among ecosystem services, let alone reveal the trade-off and synergic relationships in typical Karst watershed. This research aims to understand and quantitatively evaluate the relationships among ecosystem services in a typical Karst watershed, broaden the depth and width of trade-off and synergic relationships in ecosystem services and explore a set of technical processes involved in these relationships. With the Shibantang Karst watershed in China as the research site, we explore the trade-off and synergic relationships of net primary productivity (NPP), water yield, and sediment yield by coupling Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA), and simulating and evaluating these three ecosystem services between 2000 and 2010. Results of this study are as follows. (1) The annual average water yield decreased from 528mm in 2000 to 513mm in 2010, decreasing by 2.84%. (2) The annual average sediment yield decreased from 26.15t/ha in 2000 to 23.81t/ha in 2010, with an average annual reduction of 0.23t/ha. (3) The annual average NPP increased from 739.38gCm(-2)a(-1) in 2000 to 746.25gCm(-2)a(-1) in 2010, increasing by 6.87gCm(-2)a(-1) . (4) Water yield and sediment yield are in a synergic relationship. The increase of water yield can accumulate the soil erosion amount. NPP is in a trade-off relationship with water yield and sediment yield. The improvement of NPP is good for decreasing water yield and soil erosion amount and increasing soil conservation amount. This study provides policy makers and planners an approach to develop an integrated model, as well as design mapping and monitoring protocols for land use change and ecosystem service assessments.

  2. [Control of Soil Nutrient Loss of Typical Reforestation Patterns Along the Three Gorges Reservoir Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong; Huang, Zhi-lin; Xiao, Wen-fa; Zeng, Li-xiong

    2015-10-01

    Annual soil nutrient loss characteristics on typical reforestation patterns in watershed along the Three Gorges Reservoir Area were studied based on runoff plot experiment. Runoff and sediment nutrition content from May to October 2014 of typical reforestation patterns including garden plot (tea garden), forest land (Chinese chestnut) and the original slope farmland were determined and then analyzed. The results showed that: (1) After the Returning Farmland to Forest Project the quantity of annual soil nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus, the sum of them in sediment and runoff) loss decreased. The output of total nitrogen (TN) was in the order of slope farmland (2 444.27 g x hm(-2)) > tea garden (998.70 g x hm(-2)) > Chinese chestnut forest (532.61 g x hm(-2)), and for total phosphorus (TP) loss was slope farmland (1 690.48 g x hm(-2)) > tea garden (488.06 g x hm(-2)) > Chinese chestnut forest (129.00 g x hm(-2)) . Compared with slope farmland, the load of TN and TP output of reforestation patterns decreased 68.68% and 81.75%, respectively. (2) Compared with slope farmland, available nitrogen loss decreased in reforestation patterns. Total nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) loss ranked in the order of slope farmland (113.79 g x hm(-2)) > tea garden (73.75 g x hm(-2)) > Chinese chestnut forest (56.06 g x hm(-2)) The largest amount of ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) was found in tea garden (69.34 g x hm(-2)), then in farmland (52.45 g x hm(-2)), and the least in Chinese chestnut forest (47.23 g x hm(-2)). (3) The main route of NO3(-)-N and NH4(+)-N loss was both through runoff, the quantity of NO3(-)-N and NH4(+)-N output in which accounted for 91.4% and 92.2% of the total, respectively. The quantity of TN and TP in sediment accounted for 86.6% and 98.4% of the total. TN and TP loss showed an extremely significant correlation with sediments, which showed that sediment output was the main approach of TN and TP loss. PMID:26841618

  3. Typical gait analysis of a six-legged robot in the context of metamorphic mechanism theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Ding, Xilun

    2013-07-01

    The equivalent mechanism of the system is often considered as one specific mechanism in most existing studies of multi-legged robots, however the equivalent mechanism is varying while the robot moves on the ground. Four typical tripod period gaits of a radial symmetrical six-legged robot are analyzed. Similar to the metamorphic mechanism, the locomotion of multi-legged robot is considered as a series of varying hybrid serial-parallel mechanisms by assuming the constraints of the feet on the ground with hinges. One gait cycle is divided into several periods, and in different walking period there is a specific equivalent mechanism corresponding to it, and the walking process of multi-legged robot is composed by these series of equivalent mechanisms. Walking performance can be got by analyzing these series of equivalent mechanisms. Kinematics model of the equivalent mechanism is established, workspaces of equivalent mechanisms are illustrated by simulation and a concept of static stability workspace is proposed to evaluate the static stability of these four gaits. A new method to calculate the stride length of multi-legged robots is presented by analyzing the relationship between the workspace of two adjacent equivalent parallel mechanisms in one gait cycle. The stride lengths of four gaits are given by simulations. Comparison of stride length and static stability among these four typical tripod gaits are given. It has been proved that mixed gait and insect-wave gait II have better static stability than mammal kick-off gait and insect-wave gait I. Insect-wave gait II displays its advantage on stride length while the height of robot body lower than 87 mm, mammal kick-off gait has superiority on stride length while the height of robot body higher than 115 mm, and insect-wave gait I shows its shortcoming in stride length. The proposed method based on metamorphic theory and combining the footholds and body height of robot provides a new method to comprehensive analyze the

  4. Household task participation of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy, Down syndrome and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Maíra Ferreira do; Drummond, Adriana de França; Coster, Wendy J; Mancini, Marisa Cotta

    2014-02-01

    This cross-sectional study compared patterns of household task participation (e.g., performance, assistance and independence) of youth with cerebral palsy (CP), Down syndrome (DS) and typical development (TD). Parents of 75 children and adolescents were interviewed to report on their youths' active engagement in daily self-care and family-care tasks, using the children helping out: responsibilities, expectations and supports (CHORES) questionnaire. Groups were equivalent in age (mean=9.3 years; SD=2.2 years), sex (male=39; female=36), respondent education, presence of maid, and number of siblings at home, but differed on child cognitive function and family socioeconomic status, with the DS and the CP groups scoring lower than the TD group but not different from each other. ANOVA revealed group differences on CHORES performance of self-care tasks (p=0.004), on total participation score (p=0.04) and on assistance scores (phome is not prevented by the presence of their disabilities.

  5. Sulfur use efficiency ofradish as affected by sulfur source and rate in typic ustifluvent soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Sriramachandrasekharan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Radish is one of the most popular root crops inthe tropical and temperate regions. Sulfurdeficiency is common in coarse textured soildue to leachingloss. Rootyieldof radishis reportedtoincreasewith sulfur application.Fieldexperiments was conducted in two seasons to study theeffect of sulfur(S rate and sourceon radish (Raphanus sativus L. nutrition, an experimentwas conducted in aPadugai sandy clay loam(TypicUstifluvents deficient in available sulfur. The treatmentsconsisted of four levels of S viz., 0, 25, 50and 100kg ha-1applied through four sources viz., ammonium sulfate,super phosphate, gypsum andpotassiumsulfateDatawererecordedonradishrootyield, Suptake, available S,Suptake efficiency (SUPE,S utilization efficiency (SUTE,S use efficiency (SUE,fertilizer Suptake efficiency (FSUPE,fertilizer Sutilization efficiency (FSUTE and fertilizer Suse efficiency (FSUE. The results revealed that addition of graded rate of S significantlyincreasedroot yield, S uptakeand available Sover the control. Application ofS at 100kg ha-1gave highest root yield of 33.5t ha-1 (season-I and 36.8t ha -1 (season-II and also sulfur uptake and available sulfur. AmongtheSsources, gypsumwas better thanthe other sources. IncreasedS-application increased SUPE and SUE. The SUTE was highest in control plants and decreasedwith Slevel.OntheotherhandFSUPEandFSUEwerehighest ata rateof50kgSha-1and FSUTE was highest at 25 kgS ha-1. Among S sources, gypsum had higherS use efficiency and its components compared to theother Ssources.

  6. [Wastewater Quantity and Quality Fluctuation Characteristics of Typical Area of Hybrid Sewage System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xun; Zhang, Ming-kai; Liu, Yan-chen; Shi, Han-chang

    2016-05-15

    The inflow and infiltration problems cause large fluctuation in wastewater quantity and quality in hybrid sewage system. This seriously challenges the operation and management of sewage system. A multi-point on-line simultaneous monitoring system was established in a typical hybrid sewage system. The key characteristic parameters and their variation features under different circumstances were studied. The result indicated that the daily variation rule was obvious and appeared synchronous among multiple points at normal water level under dry weather flow, but there was no synchronization in conductivity variation among multiple points at high water level under dry weather flow. The statistical distribution range of water level and conductivity was significantly impacted by the seasonal rainfall change under dry weather. The statistical distribution ranges of water level variation rate and conductivity variation rate in specific time were significantly impacted by the rainfall. The response features of water level and conductivity to rainfall intensity and pattern were significantly different under different circumstances. The response sensitivity of conductivity was higher than water level at normal water level and lower at high water level. The database which could support the optimization of operation and management in the hybrid sewage system was proposed based on the distribution law of wastewater quality and quantity fluctuation under dry and wet weather, as well as the variation rate features of wastewater quality and quantity during rainfall obtained using the multi-point on-line simultaneous monitoring system. PMID:27506039

  7. LBB evaluation for a typical Japanese PWR primary loop by using the US NRC approved methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swamy, S.A.; Bhowmick, D.C.; Prager, D.E. [Westinghouse Nuclear Technology Division, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The regulatory requirements for postulated pipe ruptures have changed significantly since the first nuclear plants were designed. The Leak-Before-Break (LBB) methodology is now accepted as a technically justifiable approach for eliminating postulation of double-ended guillotine breaks (DEGB) in high energy piping systems. The previous pipe rupture design requirements for nuclear power plant applications are responsible for all the numerous and massive pipe whip restraints and jet shields installed for each plant. This results in significant plant congestion, increased labor costs and radiation dosage for normal maintenance and inspection. Also the restraints increase the probability of interference between the piping and supporting structures during plant heatup, thereby potentially impacting overall plant reliability. The LBB approach to eliminate postulating ruptures in high energy piping systems is a significant improvement to former regulatory methodologies, and therefore, the LBB approach to design is gaining worldwide acceptance. However, the methods and criteria for LBB evaluation depend upon the policy of individual country and significant effort continues towards accomplishing uniformity on a global basis. In this paper the historical development of the U.S. LBB criteria will be traced and the results of an LBB evaluation for a typical Japanese PWR primary loop applying U.S. NRC approved methods will be presented. In addition, another approach using the Japanese LBB criteria will be shown and compared with the U.S. criteria. The comparison will be highlighted in this paper with detailed discussion.

  8. Mineralogical analysis of dust collected from typical recycling line of waste printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangfang; Zhao, Yuemin; Zhang, Tao; Duan, Chenlong; Wang, Lizhang

    2015-09-01

    As dust is one of the byproducts originating in the mechanical recycling process of waste printed circuit boards such as crushing and separating, from the viewpoints of resource reuse and environmental protection, an effective recycling method to recover valuable materials from this kind of dust is in urgent need. In this paper, detailed mineralogical analysis on the dust collected from a typical recycling line of waste printed circuit boards is investigated by coupling several analytical techniques. The results demonstrate that there are 73.1wt.% organic matters, 4.65wt.% Al, 4.55wt.% Fe, 2.67wt.% Cu and 1.06wt.% Pb in the dust, which reveals the dust is worthy of reuse and harmful to environment. The concentration ratios of Fe, Mn and Zn can reach 12.35, 12.33 and 6.67 respectively by magnetic separation. The yield of dust in each size fraction is nonuniform, while the yield of -0.75mm size fraction is up to 51.15wt.%; as the particle size decreases, the content of liberated metals and magnetic materials increase, and metals are mainly in elemental forms. The F, Cl and Br elements combing to C in the dust would make thermal treatment dangerous to the environment. Based on these results, a flowsheet to recycle the dust is proposed.

  9. Central cervical fibroid with a typical Lantern on top of St. Paul's cathedral appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarisha Bhandiwad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyoma of the uterus in one of the common benign gynecological conditions and one of the rare locations of a fibroid is from the cervix with an incidence of upto 2%. We are reporting a case of a 46 year old patient who came with complaints of mass per abdomen and with a history of retention of urine twice in the past one and half months. Abdominal examination revealed a firm mass of 24 weeks size gravid uterus with restricted mobility arising from the pelvis and a speculum examination, showed a mass protruding through the vagina with all the walls ballooned out and it appeared as if a head of the baby was protruding out in second stage of labor. It was a 1.9kg central cervical fibroid with a typical "Lantern on top of St. Paul's cathedral" appearance which was operated without any complications. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 924-926

  10. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in a Typical Rural Settlement in Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Banjoko

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In most rural settlements in Nigeria, access to clean and potable water is a great challenge, resulting in water borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some physical, chemical, biochemical and microbial water quality parameters in twelve hand – dug wells in a typical rural area (Igbora of southwest region of the country. Seasonal variations and proximity to pollution sources (municipal waste dumps and defecation sites were also examined. Parameters were determined using standard procedures. All parameters were detected up to 200 m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the rainy season over the dry periods, pointing to infiltrations from storm water. Coliform population, Pb, NO3- and Cd in most cases, exceeded the World Health Organization recommended thresholds for potable water. Effect of distance from pollution sources was more pronounced on fecal and total coliform counts, which decreased with increasing distance from waste dumps. The qualities of the well water samples were therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended.

  11. CT in nontraumatic acute thoracic aortic disease: typical and atypical features and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañer, Eva; Andreu, Marta; Gallardo, Xavier; Mata, Josep Maria; Cabezuelo, María Angeles; Pallardó, Yolanda

    2003-10-01

    Thoracic aortic dissection is the most frequent cause of aortic emergency, and unless it is rapidly diagnosed and treated, the result is death. Helical computed tomography (CT) permits the diagnosis of acute aortic dissection with a sensitivity and specificity of nearly 100%. This imaging modality also enables differentiation between proximal aortic dissection (type A in the Stanford classification) and distal aortic dissection (Stanford type B), which are treated differently and have different prognoses. In 70% of patients in whom nontraumatic acute thoracic aortic dissection is diagnosed after evaluation with helical CT, scans show the typical signs of aortic dissection, with rupture and displacement of the intima. CT also can depict other pathologic entities with similar clinical manifestations, such as intramural hematoma and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer. Awareness of the different radiologic appearances of these disease entities is essential for differential diagnosis. More than one-third of patients with aortic dissection show signs and symptoms indicative of systemic involvement. Because branch-vessel involvement may increase morbidity and mortality, in this group of patients it is important to evaluate the entire aorta so as to determine the distal extent of the dissection and detect any systemic involvement.

  12. [Analysis of sap flow characteristics of the Chinese pine in typical Loess Plateau Region of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han-dan; Wei, Wei; Chen, Li-ding; Yu, Yang; Yang, Lei; Jia, Fu-yan

    2015-01-01

    Transpiration is one of the major processes of water consumption. It is significant for nutrients transportation, plant development, drought stress alleviation and micro-climate amelioration. In this study, the artificially planted Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis) was selected as an example to explore its transpiration characteristics, water-use strategies and the adaptability of the living environment in a typical loess hilly area of China. The results showed that: the sap flow rates of Chinese pine varied obviously in different seasons. The minimum sap flow rate occurred in April, followed by October, September and August, which was 0.024, 0.057, 0.062 and 0.071 mL x (cm2 x min)(-1), respectively. The rule of the diurnal variation of sap flow rate was regular, higher in daytime than at night. The flow rate was low during nighttime, but not zero. In rainfall events, the proportion of sap flow during nighttime was significantly increased, which was 3.9 times of that on sunny days, with 31.8% decrease in daytime. Chinese pine had great adaptability to unexpected climates. The variation trend of flow rate in the clod was similar to that on rainy days. The sap flow velocity was in great relevance with meteorological factors, with a declining order of solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit, relative humidity, and atmospheric temperature.

  13. Impact of Climate and Grazing on Biomass Components of Eastern Russia Typical Steppe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ubugunov Leonid; Rupyshev Yuriy; Ubugunov Vasiliy; HOU Xiang-yang; Vishnyakova Oxana; Lavrentieva Irina; Ubugunova Vera; REN Wei-bo; DING Yong

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and structural characteristics of plant communities in the steppe ecosystems of the Baikal region, Russian Federation have been researched in connection with climate change and grazing. The present study, based on a total of 15 typical steppe sampling plots, investigated above-ground biomass (AGB), below-ground biomass (BGB), total biomass (TB) and root:shoot ratios (R:S) and their relationships with climatic factors and grazing. All biomass components varied widely depending on the climatic parameters and the degree of grazing affected transformation. A strong negative correlation between mean annual temperature (MAT) and total plant biomass was revealed for all study area. Mean annual precipitation (MAP) signiifcantly affected communities productivity increasing only in the south of the region. Due to the large and mountainous territory, the inlfuence of latitude and elevation (mountain) factors on the components of the biomass were studied. Although all studied plant steppe communities were transformed by uncontrolled grazing, their productivity is signiifcantly reduced only at plots with maximum digression. Vegetation shift is an indicator of climate change, as well as providing a diagnostic tool to build predictive models. Based on the complex index of effective precipitation, it was revealed that at the end of last century in the steppes of the Baikal region the structural and production processes will be affected by an arid climate trend.

  14. Nitrate in shallow groundwater in typical agricultural and forest ecosystems in China, 2004-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinyu Zhang; Zhiwei Xu; Xiaomin Sun; Wenyi Dong; Deborah Ballantine

    2013-01-01

    The nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N) concentrations from shallow groundwater wells situated in 29 of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network field stations,representing typical agro-and forest ecosystems,were assessed using monitoring data collected between 2004 and 2010.Results from this assessment permit a national scale assessment of nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater,and allow linkages between nitrate concentrations in groundwater and broad land use categories to be made.Results indicated that most of the NO3--N concentrations in groundwater from the agro-and forest ecosystems were below the Class 3 drinking water standard stated in the Chinese National Standard:Quality Standard for Ground Water (< 20 mg/L).Over the study period,the average NO3--N concentrations were significantly higher in agro-ecosystems (4.1 ±-0.33 mg/L) than in forest ecosystems (0.5 + 0.04 mg/L).NO3--N concentrations were relatively higher (> 10 mg N/L) in 10 of the 43 wells sampled in the agricultural ecosystems.These elevated concentrations occurred mainly in the Ansai,Yucheng,Linze,Fukang,Akesu,and Cele field sites,which were located in arid and semiarid areas where irrigation rates are high.We suggest that improvements in N fertilizer application and irrigation management practices in the arid and semi-arid agricultural ecosystems of China are the key to managing groundwater nitrate concentrations.

  15. Lemierre’s Syndrome: Recognising a Typical Presentation of a Rare Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Coultas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemierre’s syndrome is a rare complication following an acute oropharyngeal infection. The aetiological agent is typically anaerobic bacteria of the genus Fusobacterium. The syndrome is characterised by a primary oropharyngeal infection followed by metastatic spread and suppurative thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein. If left untreated, Lemierre’s syndrome carries a mortality rate of over 90%. Whilst relatively common in the preantibiotic era, the number of cases of Lemierre’s syndrome subsequently declined with the introduction of antibiotics. With the increase of antibiotic resistance and a greater reluctance to prescribe antibiotics for minor conditions such as tonsillitis, there are now concerns developing about the reemergence of the condition. This increasing prevalence in the face of an unfamiliarity of clinicians with the classical features of this “forgotten disease” may result in the misdiagnosis or delay in diagnosis of this potentially fatal illness. This case report illustrates the delay in diagnosis of probable Lemierre’s syndrome in a 17-year-old female, its diagnosis, and successful treatment which included the use of anticoagulation therapy. Whilst there was a positive outcome, the case highlights the need for a suspicion of this rare condition when presented with distinctive signs and symptoms.

  16. Comparison of Dissolved Gases in Mineral and Vegetable Insulating Oils under Typical Electrical and Thermal Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenmeng Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved gas analysis (DGA is attracting greater and greater interest from researchers as a fault diagnostic tool for power transformers filled with vegetable insulating oils. This paper presents experimental results of dissolved gases in insulating oils under typical electrical and thermal faults in transformers. The tests covered three types of insulating oils, including two types of vegetable oil, which are camellia insulating oil, Envirotemp FR3, and a type of mineral insulating oil, to simulate thermal faults in oils from 90 °C to 800 °C and electrical faults including breakdown and partial discharges in oils. The experimental results reveal that the content and proportion of dissolved gases in different types of insulating oils under the same fault condition are different, especially under thermal faults due to the obvious differences of their chemical compositions. Four different classic diagnosis methods were applied: ratio method, graphic method, and Duval’s triangle and Duval’s pentagon method. These confirmed that the diagnosis methods developed for mineral oil were not fully appropriate for diagnosis of electrical and thermal faults in vegetable insulating oils and needs some modification. Therefore, some modification aiming at different types of vegetable oils based on Duval Triangle 3 were proposed in this paper and obtained a good diagnostic result. Furthermore, gas formation mechanisms of different types of vegetable insulating oils under thermal stress are interpreted by means of unimolecular pyrolysis simulation and reaction enthalpies calculation.

  17. Effects of Urban Configuration on Human Thermal Conditions in a Typical Tropical African Coastal City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Lubango Ndetto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A long-term simulation of urban climate was done using the easily available long-term meteorological data from a nearby synoptic station in a tropical coastal city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The study aimed at determining the effects of buildings’ height and street orientations on human thermal conditions at pedestrian level. The urban configuration was represented by a typical urban street and a small urban park near the seaside. The simulations were conducted in the microscale applied climate model of RayMan, and results were interpreted in terms of the thermal comfort parameters of mean radiant (Tmrt and physiologically equivalent (PET temperatures. PET values, high as 34°C, are observed to prevail during the afternoons especially in the east-west oriented streets, and buildings’ height of 5 m has less effect on the thermal comfort. The optimal reduction of Tmrt and PET values for pedestrians was observed on the nearly north-south reoriented streets and with increased buildings’ height especially close to 100 m. Likewise, buildings close to the park enhance comfort conditions in the park through additional shadow. The study provides design implications and management of open spaces like urban parks in cities for the sake of improving thermal comfort conditions for pedestrians.

  18. Distribution of Chemical Forms for Co,Cr,Ni and V in Typical Soils of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAOXIAO-HOU; XINGGUANG-XI; 等

    1993-01-01

    Co,Ni,Cr and V in 25 typical soils of China were fractionated into exchangeable,carbonate bound (calcareous soils),Mn oxide bound,organically bound,amorphous Fe oxide bound,crystalline Fe oxide bound and residual forms using a seven-step sequential extraction procedure,so as to study the distribution of chemical forms of these metals as well as the effects of soil proiperties on the distribution.The results showed that most of soil Co,Ni,Cr and V were present in residual forms,and the distribution ratio averaged 48.2% for Co,53.0% for Ni,81.5% for Cr and 68.7% for V.The speciation of heavy metals was greatly influenced by soil physico-chemical properties and the chemistry of elements.The results also indicated that the recovery of metal elements by the sequential extraction procedure was satisfactory,with the relative difference between the sum of seven forms and the total content in soils averaging 9.5% for Co,12.8% for Ni,6.6% for Cr and 7.2% for V.

  19. Development of numerical processing in children with typical and dyscalculic arithmetic skills-a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerl, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Numerical processing has been demonstrated to be closely associated with arithmetic skills, however, our knowledge on the development of the relevant cognitive mechanisms is limited. The present longitudinal study investigated the developmental trajectories of numerical processing in 42 children with age-adequate arithmetic development and 41 children with dyscalculia over a 2-year period from beginning of Grade 2, when children were 7; 6 years old, to beginning of Grade 4. A battery of numerical processing tasks (dot enumeration, non-symbolic and symbolic comparison of one- and two-digit numbers, physical comparison, number line estimation) was given five times during the study (beginning and middle of each school year). Efficiency of numerical processing was a very good indicator of development in numerical processing while within-task effects remained largely constant and showed low long-term stability before middle of Grade 3. Children with dyscalculia showed less efficient numerical processing reflected in specifically prolonged response times. Importantly, they showed consistently larger slopes for dot enumeration in the subitizing range, an untypically large compatibility effect when processing two-digit numbers, and they were consistently less accurate in placing numbers on a number line. Thus, we were able to identify parameters that can be used in future research to characterize numerical processing in typical and dyscalculic development. These parameters can also be helpful for identification of children who struggle in their numerical development. PMID:23898310

  20. Direct radiative forcing of aerosols over a typical tropical urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosols reduce the surface reaching solar flux by scattering the incoming solar radiation out to space. Various model studies on climate change suggest that surface cooling induced by aerosol scattering is the largest source of uncertainty in predicting the future climate. In the present study measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its direct radiative forcing efficiency has been presented over a typical tropical urban environment namely Hyderabad during 2001 and 2002. Diurnal variation of AOD suggesting that AOD is high during afternoon hours. AOD decreases with increase in wavelength, i.e. maximum AOD observed at 380 nm. Average monthly variation of AOD at different wavelengths observed to be minimum in January, moderately high in February to March, maximum in April and decreasing in May. AOD has been observed to be high during 2002 compared to 2001. AOD showed positive correlation with air temperature and negative correlation with rainfall. A statistical fit between AOD (500 nm) and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR which is in the range of 400-700 nm solar spectrum) shows negative correlation. The present study suggests -23 W m-2 reduction in the ground reaching solar flux for every 0.1 increase in aerosol optical depth over the study area. (author)

  1. Behavior, distribution and environmental influence of arsenic in a typical lead smelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴立元; 史美清; 梁彦杰; 汤景文; 李青竹

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted to determine the behavior and distribution of arsenic during the pyrometallurgy process in a typical SKS (Shuikoushan) lead smelter in Hunan province, China. Environmental influences of arsenic in selected samples were evaluated. Arsenic contents in all input and output samples vary from 0.11%in raw lead to 6.66%in collected dust-2. More arsenic is volatilized in blast furnace and fuming furnace (73.02% of arsenic input) than bottom blowing furnace (10.29%of arsenic input). There are 78.97%, 13.69%, 7.31% of total arsenic distributed in intermediate materials, stockpiled materials and unorganized emissions, respectively. Matte slag-2, collected dust-1 and secondary zinc oxide are hazardous based on the arsenic concentrations of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. According to risk assessment code (RAC) guideline, arsenic in collected dust-1 poses a very serious risk to the surrounding environment, arsenic in speiss, matte slag-2, water-quenched slag and secondary zinc oxide show low risk, while arsenic in matte slag-1, collected dust-2 and post dust has no risk to the environment.

  2. Neuromagnetic vistas into typical and atypical development of frontal lobe functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot J Taylor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The frontal lobes are involved in many higher-order cognitive functions such as social cognition executive functions and language and speech. These functions are complex and follow a prolonged developmental course from childhood through to early adulthood. Magnetoencephalography (MEG is ideal for the study of development of these functions, due to its combination of temporal and spatial resolution which allows the determination of age-related changes in both neural timing and location. There are several challenges for MEG developmental studies: to design tasks appropriate to capture the neurodevelopmental trajectory of these cognitive functions, and to develop appropriate analysis strategies to capture various aspects of neuromagnetic frontal lobe activity. Here, we review our MEG research on social and executive functions, and speech in typically developing children and in two clinical groups – children with ASD and children born very preterm. The studies include facial emotional processing, inhibition, visual short-term memory, speech production and resting-state networks. We present data from event-related analyses as well as on oscillations and connectivity analyses and review their contributions to understanding frontal lobe cognitive development. We also discuss the challenges of testing young children in the MEG and the development of age-appropriate technologies and paradigms.

  3. Quality and change analysis of forest resource in typical Changbai Mountain forest region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUDe-yong; HAOZhan-qing; XlONGZai-ping; WANGDian-zhong; YANGXiu-ying

    2004-01-01

    The utilization and changes of forest resources were studied in the Lishuihe Forest Bureau. Based on remote sensing images in 1985 and 1999, changes of major forest resources were analyzed by statistical and overlap method and classified quantitatively. The results showed that in recent 15 years, logging spots and man-made young forest changed violently, which was due to human activities. Different forest management manners and harvesting intensity played an important role in forest resources change. Dongsheng and Xilinhe tree farms were typical cases of different forest status and management for the Bureau, where forest succession was intervened by either human or natural disturbance. Dongsheng Tree Farm underwent a lighth arvest intensity and maintained a unit stock volume of 536.27 m3. hm-2, as much as that of broadleaf/Korean pine forest of Changbai Mountain Natural Reserve; Xilinhe Tree Farm underwent an intense harvest and was composed of secondary forests,where mature forests just had a small percentage and the unit stock volume was low. The study was useful to guide future forest management. What's more, problems found in the research were also analyzed and reasonable advice was given to the local forest management.

  4. Colorimetric Assay for the Detection of Typical Biomarkers for Periodontitis Using a Magnetic Nanoparticle Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignarajah, Shayalini; Suaifan, Ghadeer A R Y; Bizzarro, Sergio; Bikker, Floris J; Kaman, Wendy E; Zourob, Mohammed

    2015-12-15

    Periodontitis is a chronic disease which affects at least 10% of the population. If untreated, periodontitis can lead to teeth loss. Unfortunately, current diagnostic tests are limited in their sensitivity and specificity. In this study, a novel multiplex hand-held colorimetric diagnostic biosensor, using two typical inflammatory salivary biomarkers, Human Neutrophil Elastase (HNE) and Cathepsin-G, was constructed as proof of concept to potentially detect periodontitis. The biosensing method was based on the measurement of proteolytic activity using specific proteases probes. These probes consist of specific proteases substrates covalently bound to a magnetic bead from one end and to the gold sensor surface by the other end. When intact, this renders the golden sensor black. Upon proteolysis, the cleaved magnetic beads will be attracted by an external magnet revealing the golden color of the sensor surface observable by the naked eye. The biosensor was capable of specific and quantitative detection of HNE and Cathepsin-G in solution and in spiked saliva samples with a lower detection limit of 1 pg/mL and 100 fg/mL for HNE and Cathepsin-G, respectively. Examination of periodontitis patients' sample and a healthy control showed the potential of the multiplex biosensor to detect the presence of HNE and Cathepsin-G activity in situ. This approach is anticipated to be a useful biochip array amenable to low-cost point-of-care devices.

  5. Extractable Fractions of Metals in Sewage Sludges from Five Typical Urban Wastewater Treatment Plants of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao; LI Xiao-Chen; WANG Pei-Fang; ZOU Li-Min; MA Hai-Tao

    2006-01-01

    Metal content and bioavailability are often the limiting factors for application of sewage sludge in agricultural fields.Sewage sludge samples were collected from five typical urban wastewater treatment plants in China to investigate their contents and distribution of various chemical fractions of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb and Mo by using the BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure. The sludges contained considerable amounts of organic matter (31.8%-48.0%), total N (16.3-26.4 g kg-1) and total P (15.1-23.9 g kg-1), indicating high potential agricultural benefits of their practical applications. However, total Zn and Ni contents in the sludge exceeded the values permitted in China's control standards for pollutants in sludges from agricultural use (GB 4284-1984). The residual fraction was the predominant fraction for Mo, Ni and Cr, the oxidizable fraction was the primary fraction for Cu and Pb, and the exchangeable and reducible fractions were principal for Zn. The distribution of different chemical fractions among the sludge samples reflected differences in their physicochemical properties, especially pH. The sludge pH was negatively correlated with the percentages of reducible fraction of Cu and exchangeable fraction of Zn. The sludges from these plants might not be suitable for agricultural applications due to their high contents of Zn, Ni and Cr, as well as high potential of mobility and bioavailability of Zn.

  6. Interventional treatment of WPW syndrome and typical atrial flutter in the patient with nonischemic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockeria O. L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial noncompaction is associated with the development of heart failure and different arrhythmias. There are no typical arrhythmias for myocardial noncompaction. Various arrhythmias are clinically relevant because they may aggravate heart failure, may favor thromboembolism, like atrial fibrillation or flutter, or may lead to syncope or sudden cardiac death. In accumulated data we didn’t find description of left ventricular myocardial noncompaction, atrial flutter and intermittent Wolff–Parkinson–White (WPW syndrome. During electrophysiology study in patient with intermittent WPW syndrome programmed ventricular stimulation S1 = 500 ms, S2 = 260 ms was performed. Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia was induced. Then as a result of stimulation S1 = 500 ms, S2 = 240 ms fast ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation was induced. Then ventricular fibrillation was spontaneously terminated and converted into atrial fibrillation transmitted through the bypass tract with self-termination in 40 s. Cardiac contrast-enhanced magnetic resonanse imaging revealed left ventricular (LV myocardial noncompaction in apical and anterior segments of LV. There is no specific management of left ventricular myocardial noncompaction. In the present state of knowledge, an implantable cardioverterdefibrillator (ICD should be implanted in patients with myocardial noncompaction presenting with syncope and symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias in order to prevent sudden cardiac death. In this case patient refused from implanting an ICD.

  7. The flux-E_p relation within GRB060218 in comparison with typical GRB pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The prompt gamma-ray/X-ray emission of gamma-ray burst(GRB) 060218 was simultaneously observed by the Burst Alert Telescope(BAT) and X-ray Telescope(XRT) onboard Swift.Its peak energy of the joint νfν spectrum(Ep) clearly evolves with time from tens of keV to-1 keV,crossing both the BAT and XRT bands.The best fit yields log Ep=(4.61± 0.23)+(-1.29±0.08) log t,with a correlation coefficient of 0.98 and a chance probability of p<10-4.We derive its bolometric flux(F)in the 0.01-10 4 keV band,and find that its F-Ep relation,with a power-law index of 0.37,is much shallower than that observed in typical GRB pulses.Discussion of this shallowness is presented.

  8. Total microbial biomass and metabolic state of microorganisms in a typical chernozem of Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunze, N. I.

    2013-04-01

    New data on the total microbial biomass and its metabolic state in a typical chernozem of Moldova were obtained. The carbon content of the microbial biomass in the arable chernozems varied from 419 to 1033 μg/g soil and from 1002 to 1432 μg C/g soil under the shelterbelts. The contents of the microbial biomass under the shelter belts was by 2.1-2.9, 1.6-2.2, and 1.2-1.3 times higher than that in the unfertilized and fertilized with mineral and organic nutrients chernozems, respectively. Crop rotations with and without lucerne were examined. The functional activity of the microbial communities in the chernozem was determined by their metabolic diversity, the ability to use alternative metabolic reactions, and the domination of r-strategists. The content of the active part of the microbial community in the natural ecosystems constituted approximately 1/3 (29.1% on the average) of the total microbial community; in the arable soils, it as lower (9.8-21.8%).

  9. Study on traffic characteristics for a typical expressway on-ramp bottleneck considering various merging behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Li, Zhipeng; Sun, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Recurring bottlenecks at freeway/expressway are considered as the main cause of traffic congestion in urban traffic system while on-ramp bottlenecks are the most significant sites that may result in congestion. In this paper, the traffic bottleneck characteristics for a simple and typical expressway on-ramp are investigated by the means of simulation modeling under the open boundary condition. In simulations, the running behaviors of each vehicle are described by a car-following model with a calibrated optimal velocity function, and lane changing actions at the merging section are modeled by a novel set of rules. We numerically derive the traffic volume of on-ramp bottleneck under different upstream arrival rates of mainline and ramp flows. It is found that the vehicles from the ramp strongly affect the pass of mainline vehicles and the merging ratio changes with the increasing of ramp vehicle, when the arrival rate of mainline flow is greater than a critical value. In addition, we clarify the dependence of the merging ratio of on-ramp bottleneck on the probability of lane changing and the length of the merging section, and some corresponding intelligent control strategies are proposed in actual traffic application.

  10. The Bicycle Drawing Test: What Does It Measure in Developmentally Typical Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannoni, Eleonora; Di Norcia, Anna; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Di Giunta, Laura

    2015-10-01

    To verify the dimensionality of Bicycle Drawing Test (BDT), we applied the coding system of Greenberg, Rodriguez, and Sesta to bicycle drawings made by 295 boys and 320 girls (6-10 years old) with typical development, and submitted the data to item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. These analyses confirmed only two of the original four dimensions of the BDT: spatial reasoning and visual-motor control. The scores in these two factors were correlated with the Colored Progressive Matrices, the Rey Complex Figure (Copy and Memory) and with the teachers' ratings in mathematics, language, and drawing. The correlations, albeit moderate in magnitude, were consistent with the hypothesized convergent and discriminant validity. After checking for measurement invariance across gender and age, we conducted two analyses of variance, the first of which showed a significant difference between younger children (6-8 years old) and older children (9-10 years old); the analysis of variance by gender did not yield significant differences. These data enhance the usefulness of the BDT as a measure of separate cognitive components, but do not support its use as a measure of mechanical reasoning. PMID:25336037

  11. Determination of multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shogo; Okada, Yukiko; Hirai, Shoji

    2003-08-01

    Multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material prepared at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan, in collaboration with the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) of Japan were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five samples (ca. 510-1000 mg) and comparative standards were irradiated for a short time (10 s) at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (pneumatic transfer) and for a long time (6 h) at a thermal neutron flux of 3.7 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (central thimble) in the Rikkyo University Research Reactor (TRIGA Mark-II, 100 kW). The irradiated samples were measured by conventional gama-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, and by anti-coincidence and coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry with a coaxial Ge detector and a well-type NaI(Tl) detector. The concentrations of 38 elements were determined by these methods. PMID:12945682

  12. Flow of kinetic parameters in a typical swimming pool type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations were performed to estimate the variation in kinetic parameters (delayed neutron fraction and prompt neutron generation time) in different core configurations of a typical swimming pool type research reactor. Pakistan research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) was employed for this study. The effect due to burnup of the core was also studied. Calculations were performed with the help of computer codes WIMSD/4 and CITATION. Precursors yield was modified according to the neutron flux averaging only. This is the simple way to calculate the precursor yield for a particular core. The kinetic parameters are different for different core configurations. The βeff decreases with 1.33 x 10-6/% burnup whereas prompt neutron generation time increases with 6.42 x 10-8 s/% burnup. The results were compared with safety analysis report and with published values and were found in good agreement. This study provides the confidence to understand the change in the kinetic parameters of research reactors with core change and also with burnup of the core

  13. A comparison of two typical multicyclic models used to forecast the world's conventional oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces two typical multicyclic models: the Hubbert model and the Generalized Weng model. The model-solving process of the two is expounded, and it provides the basis for an empirical analysis of the world's conventional oil production. The results for both show that the world's conventional oil (crude+NGLs) production will reach its peak in 2011 with a production of 30 billion barrels (Gb). In addition, the forecasting effects of these two models, given the same URR are compared, and the intrinsic characteristics of these two models are analyzed. This demonstrates that for specific criteria the multicyclic Generalized Weng model is an improvement on the multicyclic Hubbert model. Finally, based upon the resultant forecast for the world's conventional oil, some suggestions are proposed for China's policy makers. - Highlights: ► Hubbert model and Generalized Weng model are introduced and compared in this article. ► We conclude each model's characteristic and scopes and conditions of applicable. ► We get the same peak production and time of world's oil by applying two models. ► Multicyclic Generalized Weng model is proven slightly better than Hubbert model.

  14. Extra-medullary haematopoiesis: a pitcorial review of its typical and atypical locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extra-medullary haematopoiesis (EMH) occurs in many haematological disorders and is secondary to insufficient bone marrow function or ineffective erythropoiesis. It usually presents as haematopoietic masses in several typical and atypical body locations. This pictorial review briefly discusses the common EMH locations encountered in clinical practice, including the liver, spleen, lymph nodes and paravertebral regions. Unusual presentation as focal hepatic and splenic masses is also discussed. Some atypical EMH locations are then presented together with their pathophysiology and relevant illustrations. These include EMH in the intra-spinal canal, pre-sacral region, nasopharynx and paranasal sinuses. Intra-spinal EMH can cause cord compression and present with neurological symptoms. In these cases, urgent treatment may be required. Haematopoietic masses in the other atypical locations can present with obstructive symptoms or may be diagnosed incidentally on imaging. EMH in unusual locations need to be monitored with follow-up imaging to ensure their stability. In some circumstances, tissue biopsy is appropriate to confirm the diagnosis and exclude other sinister pathology (e.g. malignancy). Treatment is only required where symptoms are present. Management options include blood transfusion, radiotherapy, hydroxyurea or surgical resection in selected cases.

  15. Centrifugal compressor surge detecting method based on wavelet analysis of unsteady pressure fluctuations in typical stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmaylov, R.; Lebedev, A.

    2015-08-01

    Centrifugal compressors are complex energy equipment. Automotive control and protection system should meet the requirements: of operation reliability and durability. In turbocompressors there are at least two dangerous areas: surge and rotating stall. Antisurge protecting systems usually use parametric or feature methods. As a rule industrial system are parametric. The main disadvantages of anti-surge parametric systems are difficulties in mass flow measurements in natural gas pipeline compressor. The principal idea of feature method is based on the experimental fact: as a rule just before the onset of surge rotating or precursor stall established in compressor. In this case the problem consists in detecting of unsteady pressure or velocity fluctuations characteristic signals. Wavelet analysis is the best method for detecting onset of rotating stall in spite of high level of spurious signals (rotating wakes, turbulence, etc.). This method is compatible with state of the art DSP systems of industrial control. Examples of wavelet analysis application for detecting onset of rotating stall in typical stages centrifugal compressor are presented. Experimental investigations include unsteady pressure measurement and sophisticated data acquisition system. Wavelet transforms used biorthogonal wavelets in Mathlab systems.

  16. Comparison of Dissolved Air Flotation and Sedimentation in Treatment of Typical North China Source Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘善培; 王启山; 何文杰; 韩宏大; 樊雪红; 耿天甲

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of typical north China water by dissolved air flotation (DAF) and sedimentation process was examined. A pilot plant with a water treatment capacity of 120 m3/d constructed in the Jieyuan Water Treatment Plant (JWTP) of Tianjin, China, was utilized for the comparison of the two processes. The results show that during the pilot test, DAF process can remove particles and organic mater more efficiently than sedimentation process. The removal rate for turbidity by DAF process is 5.5% higher than that by sedimentation in normal turbidity period, and 40% higher in low turbidity period, it is 5%~10% higher for removals of algae, total organic carbon (TOC), trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) and bacteria in all periods. The removal rates for turbidity, TOC, THMFP, algae and bacteria by DAF process can reach 95%, 30%, 20%, 94% and 97% respectively. From the results of the pilot test, it can be concluded that DAF is a feasible clarification process, especially for source water with low turbidity and high algal blooming.

  17. (13)C-NMR-Based Metabolomic Profiling of Typical Asian Soy Sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Yuan, Bin; Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Maili

    2016-01-01

    It has been a strong consumer interest to choose high quality food products with clear information about their origin and composition. In the present study, a total of 22 Asian soy sauce samples have been analyzed in terms of (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Spectral data were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods in order to find out the important metabolites causing the discrimination among typical soy sauces from different Asian regions. It was found that significantly higher concentrations of glutamate in Chinese red cooking (CR) soy sauce may be the result of the manual addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in the final soy sauce product. Whereas lower concentrations of amino acids, like leucine, isoleucine and valine, observed in CR indicate the different fermentation period used in production of CR soy sauce, on the other hand, the concentration of some fermentation cycle metabolites, such as acetate and sucrose, can be divided into two groups. The concentrations of these fermentation cycle metabolites were lower in CR and Singapore Kikkoman (SK), whereas much higher in Japanese shoyu (JS) and Taiwan (China) light (TL), which depict the influence of climatic conditions. Therefore, the results of our study directly indicate the influences of traditional ways of fermentation, climatic conditions and the selection of raw materials and can be helpful for consumers to choose their desired soy sauce products, as well as for researchers in further authentication studies about soy sauce. PMID:27598115

  18. Construction aspects of containment structures of a typical large atomic power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Containment Structure of a Reactor Building in a Nuclear Power Plant is a very important structure as it houses the main reactor. The containment system has to be designed and constructed to withstand high pressures and temperatures released during postulated accidents in case of any accidents and to act as a biological shield against leakage of radiation. Construction of the Containment structure, which is a safety-related structure, is a key activity in the overall project implementation of a Nuclear Power Project. Typically in India, the containment system consists of a double containment structure with a part-spherical dome on top. Usually the inner containment is in prestressed concrete and the outer containment is in reinforced concrete. Special types of concrete such as High Performance Concrete with temperature control and Heavy Concrete are used in the construction. The need for accurately positioning many special embedded parts and through pipes at various locations poses a challenge. The construction methodologies, techniques for prestressing, special formwork systems etc need special attention. Other techniques such as mechanisation, use of automated climbing formwork system, increase in height of concrete pours after mock-ups, use of threaded couplers for rebars, etc also merit attention. The paper also discusses the various safety, quality and construction management systems used at site for better implementation of the projects. (authors)

  19. Experimental study on co-pyrolysis characteristics of typical medical waste compositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓娜; 崔文谦; 王维维; 张强; 张于峰; 马洪亭

    2014-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of 21 kinds of binary mixtures between typical medical compositions was investigated under nitrogen conditions by dynamic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at 25–800 °C. The weighed sum method (WSM) coupled with thermal analysis was applied to study the interaction between components. Then, co-pyrolysis kinetic model of the binary mixtures (tube for transfusion (TFT) and gauze) was established to verify the reliability of conclusions. The results show the follows. 1) Strong or weak interactions are shown between binary mixtures containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC),the main ingredient of TFT. The addition of other medical waste could enhance first stage decomposition of TFT. While, the secondary stage pyrolysis may be suppressed or enhanced or not affected by the addition. 2) There exists no interaction between catheter and other component, the DTG peak temperature representing CaCO3 decomposition in catheter fraction is obviously lower than that of pure catheter;while, the shape of DTG peak keeps unchanged. 3) No evident reaction occurs between the other mix-samples, it is considered that their co-pyrolysis characteristics are linear superposition of mono-component pyrolysis characteristics.

  20. Evidence base prioritisation of indoor comfort perceptions in Malaysian typical multi-storey hostels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlan, N.D.; Jones, P.J.; Alexander, D.K. [Welsh School of Architecture, Cardiff University, Bute Building, King Edward VII Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3NB (United Kingdom); Salleh, E. [Department of Architecture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang (Malaysia); Alias, J. [Department of Architecture, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

    2009-10-15

    This study focuses on assessing the effects of the indoor climate in typical multi-storey hostels in Malaysia on student occupants through objective, subjective and evidence based prioritisation measurements. The objective measurements consisted of operative temperature; daylight ratio; luminance and indoor noise level. The subjective measurements were sampled from the student occupants' thermal, visual, acoustics and overall indoor comfort votes. The prioritisation measurement using Multiple Linear Regression and Friedman Tests assessed the relationship between physical indoor thermal, visual and acoustics conditions and students' overall indoor comfort perception vote. Findings suggest that subjective sensor ratings were significantly more reliable than objective measurements at predicting overall indoor comfort. Moreover, students living in hostel rooms with projected balconies voted that they were more satisfied with their indoor condition than the ones living in rooms without projected balconies. The results of this study also provide evidence that student occupants were more concerned with their rooms' thermal condition then followed by acoustics and finally visual conditions. (author)

  1. Evolution of Surface Oxide Film of Typical Aluminum Alloy During Medium-Temperature Brazing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程方杰; 赵海微; 王颖; 肖兵; 姚俊峰

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the surface oxide film along the depth direction of typical aluminum alloy under medium-temperature brazing was investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For the alloy with Mg content below 2.0wt%, whether under cold rolling condition or during medium-temperature brazing process, the en-richment of Mg element on the surface was not detected and the oxide film was pure Al2O3. However, the oxide film grew obviously during medium-temperature brazing process, and the thickness was about 80 nm. For the alloy with Mg content above 2.0wt%, under cold rolling condition, the original surface oxide film was pure Al2O3. However, the Mg element was significantly enriched on the outermost surface during medium-temperature brazing process, and MgO-based oxide film mixed with small amount of MgAl2O4 was formed with a thickness of about 130 nm. The alloy-ing elements of Mn and Si were not enriched on the surface neither under cold rolling condition nor during medium-temperature brazing process for all the selected aluminum alloy, and the surface oxide film was similar to that of pure aluminum, which was almost entire Al2O3.

  2. Isotopic composition of Ethiopian rainfall waters: Observation on its typical signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the eastern Africa the major source of precipitation comes from Indian Ocean, and generally speaking, the isotopic composition is related to the regional circulation patterns; seasonal fluctuations correspond to the seasonal displacement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Ethiopia is located on the northern extreme of ITCZ. It is generally believed that, under the present conditions, the Ethiopian region is under the influence of North Indian Ocean in March and April and combined Atlantic and Indian Ocean monsoon in July-August depending of the position of the ITCZ. This generalization has been however subjected to debate but this complex situation probably explains the typical isotopic rainfall signature. As already observed by different authors, using the IAEA Addis Ababa time series, these rainfall regimes have distinct isotope signal. The March-April rainfall is characterized by enriched oxygen 18 and Deuterium compared to the July-August relatively depleted isotope values. In many part of the country rainfall in months of December, January and February is minimal and isotope signal usually tends to show influence of evaporation. Highly depleted values are also observed in some months of November since the start of the record. Another very important feature of the isotopic composition of the Ethiopian region is that irrespective of high altitude and lower mean annual temperature compared to other East African regions, the isotopic signature is enriched in Ethiopian rain waters. All non-evaporated rains and modern meteoric waters elsewhere in the country plot above the GMWL showing high deuterium excess

  3. Longitudinal mediators of achievement in mathematics and reading in typical and atypical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Marcia A; Raghubar, Kimberly P; English, Lianne; Williams, Jeffrey M; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Longitudinal studies of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed at or before birth and are associated with specific learning difficulties at school-age provide one method for investigating developmental precursors of later-emerging academic disabilities. Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with particular problems in mathematics, in contrast to well-developed word reading. Children with SBM (n=30) and typically developing children (n=35) were used to determine whether cognitive abilities measured at 36 and 60 months of age mediated the effect of group on mathematical and reading achievement outcomes at 8.5 and 9.5 years of age. A series of multiple mediator models showed that: visual-spatial working memory at 36 months and phonological awareness at 60 months partially mediated the effect of group on math calculations, phonological awareness partially mediated the effect of group on small addition and subtraction problems on a test of math fluency, and visual-spatial working memory mediated the effect of group on a test of math problem solving. Groups did not differ on word reading, and phonological awareness was the only mediator for reading fluency and reading comprehension. The findings are discussed with reference to theories of mathematical development and disability and with respect to both common and differing cognitive correlates of math and reading.

  4. Typical atmospheric aerosol behavior at the Cherenkov Telescope Array candidate sites in Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Piacentini, Rubén D; Micheletti, María I; Salum, Graciela M; Maya, Javier; Mancilla, Alexis; García, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols from natural and antropogenic sources are one of the atmospheric components that have the largest spacial-temporal variability, depending on the type (land or ocean) surface, human activity and climatic conditions (mainly temperature and wind). Since Cherenkov photons generated by the incidence of a primary ultraenergetic cosmic gamma photon have a spectral intensity distribution concentrated in the UV and visible ranges [Hillas AM. Space Science Reviews, 75, 17-30, 1996], it is important to know the aerosol concentration and its contribution to atmospheric radiative transfer. We present results of this concentration measured in typical rather calm (not windy) days at San Antonio de los Cobres (SAC) and El Leoncito/CASLEO proposed Argentinean Andes range sites for the placement of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). In both places, the aerosol concentration has a peak in the 2.5-5.0$\\mu$m range of the mean aerosol diameter and a very low mean total concentration of 0.097$\\mu$g/m$^3$ (0.365$\\mu$g/m$^...

  5. Dosimetric Evaluation of Thoron Exposure in the Three Typical Rural Indoor Environments of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brick houses, mud houses and caves are the three typical types of rural home in China, usually characterized by uncoated surfaces from where thoron gas is easily exhaled. In order to evaluate the dose from inhalation of thoron in these indoor environments, field measurements were carried out using portable devices for measuring the concentration and size distribution of thoron progeny. The dose conversion factor and annual doses from inhalation of thoron in these environments were calculated using dosimetric methods. When comparing the results with the those obtained in an urban indoor environment, it was found that the thoron progeny size distribution parameters for rural indoor environments (AMAD: 0.07652 μm; GSD: 2.73) were much lower than those for urban indoor environments (AMAD: 0.115 μm; GSD: 2.0), which makes the thoron exposure dose conversion coefficient for rural environments (307.37 nSv per Bq·m-3·h-1) much higher than that for urban indoor environments (113.44 nSv per Bq·m-3·h-1). (author)

  6. Rheological characterization and sensory evaluation of a typical soft ice cream made with selected food hydrocolloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BahramParvar, M; Razavi, S M A; Khodaparast, M H H

    2010-02-01

    The effect of two novel hydrocolloids known as Balangu seed gum (BSG) and palmate-tuber salep (PTS) with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the rheological characteristics of a typical soft ice cream was studied. The power law model well described the flow behavior of mixes with a high correlation coefficient (r). The flow behavior index was in the range of 0.450-1.154, while the consistency coefficient varied from 0.051 to 6.822 Pa s(n). All mixes showed a pseudoplastic behavior except the mix containing 0.3% PTS, which was found to have a slightly dilatant characteristic. An increase in the concentration was accompanied by an increase in the pseudoplasticity and consistency coefficient. The effect of selected gums on some sensory properties of a soft ice cream such as viscosity, coldness, firmness, degree of smoothness (coarseness), liquefying rate, body and texture and total acceptance has also been investigated in this work. The correlation between the apparent viscosity and sensory attributes has been determined because of the importance of viscosity in the quality evaluation of an ice cream. Taking into account the commercial ice cream properties, a 0.4% BSG gum concentration may be recommended. PMID:21339124

  7. Evaluation of the Land Development Suitability in the Typical Provincial Boundary Regions Based on GIS Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuping; FAN; Congkun; CHENG; Sike; XIANG; Hongmei; ZHANG; Dong; WANG

    2013-01-01

    To undertake the transfer of industry to promote the industry and its optimization of land use configuration as the research background,a typical provincial boundary region in Chuzhou City of eastern Anhui region was selected as an example from as two perspectives of resource constraint and development guidance.Land development suitability evaluation index system was constructed by using GIS spatial data mining,analysis,output display and other functions,panel data with 90×17 were formatted.multi-factor comprehensive evaluation method and logic quadrant model were used to complete the Chuzhou domain land development suitability evaluation,and the differentiated land use zoning countermeasures were proposed.The results show that priority development region covering the county area adjacent to town and surrounding area is the regional socio-economic development of better concentrated area;reserve development region focus on most of Tianchang,north Mingguang,south Quanjiao and other regions,other areas of sporadic distribution;restricted development area mainly distributed in Dingyuan and Fengyang plain area,as well as hilly area at the junction,and of Mingguang and Lai’an;coordinately development of region is the only district and the surrounding township,as well as towns including Dingcheng,Louqiang and Liuzhen.

  8. Nutrient Discharges from a Typical Watershed in the Hilly Area of Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Agriculture is still the biggest contributor of non-point source (NPS) pollution to water bodies andrunoff discharges of nutrients and other chemicals are one of the most important pathways. This studywas conducted during 1998~1999 in a typical watershed with complex agriculture and forestry systems aswell as dotted farmer villages, in a transitional region between the mid- and northern subtropical zones ofChina. Continuous sampling of stream water was performed regularly at a weekly frequency, with additionalsampling after all major rainfall events. The discharges of N and P nutrients and suspended materials weremeasured and the total and area-averaged annual discharges of all components were calculated. The resultsshowed an uneven seasonal distribution of nutrient discharges with summer storms contributing most tothe total fluxes. This study demonstrated a high dependence of runoff volume on rainfall but the overallrunoff coefficients were dependent on land use type and watershed size. The area-averaged annual dischargesvaried greatly among the sub-watersheds with different sizes and land use structures. This is the first studyestimating the area-averaged annual discharges of N and P in the hilly areas of subtropical China, which were1.5 g m-2 a-1 and 0.1 g m-2 a-1, respectively, providing important reference values for the assessment ofregional agricultural non-point source pollution.

  9. Anticipatory control and spatial cognition in locomotion and navigation through typical development and in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonti, Vittorio; Cioni, Giovanni; Berthoz, Alain

    2016-03-01

    Behavioural evidence, summarized in this narrative review, supports a developmental model of locomotor control based on increasing neural integration of spatial reference frames. Two consistent adult locomotor behaviours are head stabilization and head anticipation: the head is stabilized to gravity and leads walking direction. This cephalocaudal orienting organization aligns gaze and vestibula with a reference frame centred on the upcoming walking direction, allowing anticipatory control on body kinematics, but is not fully developed until adolescence. Walking trajectories and those of hand movements share many aspects, including power laws coupling velocity to curvature, and minimized spatial variability. In fact, the adult brain can code trajectory geometry in an allocentric reference frame, irrespective of the end effector, regulating body kinematics thereafter. Locomotor trajectory formation, like head anticipation, matures in early adolescence, indicating common neurocomputational substrates. These late-developing control mechanisms can be distinguished from biomechanical problems in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Children's performance on a novel navigation test, the Magic Carpet, indicates that typical navigation development consists of the increasing integration of egocentric and allocentric reference frames. In CP, right-brain impairment seems to reduce navigation performance due to a maladaptive left-brain sequential egocentric strategy. Spatial integration should be considered more in rehabilitation. PMID:27027604

  10. Valley Density Evaluation and Typical Development Pattern in Mountainous Areas of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Song-lin; ZHANG Yi-feng; WANG Kai-yong; TANG Cheng-cai; WANG Ling-en; LIU Yu

    2012-01-01

    Based on geographical differences and space differentiation, valley economy is a new pattern and new perspective for the development of mountainous areas, integrating ecological protection, industrial nurture, and village integration. On the basis of natural and geographical differentiation of valley, we give an overview of the spatial distribution of valley in mountainous areas of Beijing and spatial difference in valley density, and sum up the typical development pattern of valley economy, using DEM data. The results show that the spatial distribution of valley presents an asymmetric shape of inverted V or branch; Miyun, Yanqing, and Changping have high valley density, while Pinggu, Fangshan and Mentougou have low valley density; there is a significant positive relationship between valley density and the spatial distribution of river and reservoir. The development pattern of valley economy is divided into five types: leisure and high-end upgrade-based pattern, ecological development and transition demonstration-based pattern, folk culture and creation-driven pattern, scenic spots-driven and valley-linked pattern and leisure agriculture and specialty-led pattern.

  11. Superior room-temperature ductility of typically brittle quasicrystals at small sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu; Kuczera, Pawel; Sologubenko, Alla; Sumigawa, Takashi; Kitamura, Takayuki; Steurer, Walter; Spolenak, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of quasicrystals three decades ago unveiled a class of matter that exhibits long-range order but lacks translational periodicity. Owing to their unique structures, quasicrystals possess many unusual properties. However, a well-known bottleneck that impedes their widespread application is their intrinsic brittleness: plastic deformation has been found to only be possible at high temperatures or under hydrostatic pressures, and their deformation mechanism at low temperatures is still unclear. Here, we report that typically brittle quasicrystals can exhibit remarkable ductility of over 50% strains and high strengths of ∼4.5 GPa at room temperature and sub-micrometer scales. In contrast to the generally accepted dominant deformation mechanism in quasicrystals-dislocation climb, our observation suggests that dislocation glide may govern plasticity under high-stress and low-temperature conditions. The ability to plastically deform quasicrystals at room temperature should lead to an improved understanding of their deformation mechanism and application in small-scale devices. PMID:27515779

  12. Investigation on the toxic interaction of typical plasticizers with calf thymus DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaojing [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100, Shandong Province (China); Zong, Wansong, E-mail: gaocz@sdu.edu.cn [College of Population, Resources and Environment, Shandong Normal University, 88# East Wenhua Road, Jinan 250014 (China); Liu, Chunguang; Liu, Yang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100, Shandong Province (China); Gao, Canzhu, E-mail: rutaoliu@sdu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100, Shandong Province (China); Liu, Rutao [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100, Shandong Province (China)

    2015-05-15

    The interactions of typical plasticizers dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling. Experimental results indicated that the characteristic fluorescence intensity of phthalic acid rose with the increase of DNA concentration; while the characteristic fluorescence intensities of plasticizers decreased with the increase of DNA concentration. Experiments on native and denatured DNA determined that plasticizers interacted with DNA both in groove and electrostatic binding mode. The molecular modeling results further illustrated that there is groove binding between them; hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals interactions were the main forces. With the extension of branched-chains, the binding effects between plasticizers and DNA were weakened, which could be related to the increased steric hindrance. - Highlights: • This work established the binding mode of plasticizers with DNA on molecular level. • The mechanism was explored by fluorescence spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. • There are two kinds of binding mode between DMP, DEP, DBP and DNA, electrostatic and groove. • With the branched chain extension, the binding effect of plasticizers and DNA has been weakened.

  13. Deep subsoiling of a subsurface-compacted typical hapludult under citrus orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Medeiros

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil management practices which increase the root depth penetration of citrus are important to the longevity and yield maintenance of this plant, especially in regions where long periods of drought are common, even in soil conventionally subsoiled to a depth of 30-40 cm, when the orchard was first established. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of subsoiling on the physical and hydric properties of a Typical Hapludult and fruit yield in a 14-year-old citrus orchard located in Piracicaba, SP. The treatments consisted of: no-subsoiling (with no tilling of the soil after the orchard was planted; subsoiling on one side of the plant lines (SUB. 1; and subsoiling on both sides of the plant lines (SUB. 2. The subsoiling treatments were carried out 1.5 m from the plant lines and to a depth of 0.8 m. Soil samples were taken 120 days after this operation, at four depths, in order to determine physical and hydric properties. Fruit yield was evaluated 150 days after subsoiling. Subsoiling between the plant lines of an old established citrus orchard alters the physical and hydric properties of the soil, which is reflected in increased soil macroporosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, and reduced soil bulk density, critical degree-of-compactness and penetration resistance. The improvements in the physical and hydric properties of the soil were related to an increase in fruit number and orchard yield.

  14. Mineralogical analysis of dust collected from typical recycling line of waste printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangfang; Zhao, Yuemin; Zhang, Tao; Duan, Chenlong; Wang, Lizhang

    2015-09-01

    As dust is one of the byproducts originating in the mechanical recycling process of waste printed circuit boards such as crushing and separating, from the viewpoints of resource reuse and environmental protection, an effective recycling method to recover valuable materials from this kind of dust is in urgent need. In this paper, detailed mineralogical analysis on the dust collected from a typical recycling line of waste printed circuit boards is investigated by coupling several analytical techniques. The results demonstrate that there are 73.1wt.% organic matters, 4.65wt.% Al, 4.55wt.% Fe, 2.67wt.% Cu and 1.06wt.% Pb in the dust, which reveals the dust is worthy of reuse and harmful to environment. The concentration ratios of Fe, Mn and Zn can reach 12.35, 12.33 and 6.67 respectively by magnetic separation. The yield of dust in each size fraction is nonuniform, while the yield of -0.75mm size fraction is up to 51.15wt.%; as the particle size decreases, the content of liberated metals and magnetic materials increase, and metals are mainly in elemental forms. The F, Cl and Br elements combing to C in the dust would make thermal treatment dangerous to the environment. Based on these results, a flowsheet to recycle the dust is proposed. PMID:26117419

  15. Risk assessment of drought disaster in typical area of corn cultivation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Chunyi

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the risk of corn drought disaster in China under current climate conditions and builds a predictable relationship between drought disaster risk and yield losses. Two regions, Jilin and Henan, have been selected to represent two typical areas of corn cultivation. Risk is assessed from the aspects of hazard and vulnerability. Hazard presented as drought frequency and intensity. The sensitivity of corn to droughts that happened in different corn-growing stages and regional irrigation ability are used to reflect vulnerability. The results show that drought hazard and sensitivity in Jilin are much more serious than Henan, and irrigation ability is better in Henan. As a result, the drought disaster risk in Jilin is high; corn faces severe drought stress. The average corn yield loss rates during 1978-2010 in Jilin and Henan were 9.94 and 6.91 %, respectively. The correlation between corn yield losses and drought disaster risk is significant (r = 0.711). The results can help to guide future agriculture planning and drought adaptation polices.

  16. Genetic and environmental influences on female sexual orientation, childhood gender typicality and adult gender identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Burri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates--childhood gender typicality (CGT and adult gender identity (AGI. However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large sample of British female twins (N = 4,426 who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attraction, CGT and AGI. Univariate genetic models indicated modest genetic influences on sexual attraction (25%, AGI (11% and CGT (31%. For the multivariate analyses, a common pathway model best fitted the data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This indicated that a single latent variable influenced by a genetic component and common non-shared environmental component explained the association between the three traits but there was substantial measurement error. These findings highlight common developmental factors affecting differences in sexual orientation.

  17. Early socio-communicative forms and functions in typical Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D; Marschik, Peter B; Sigafoos, Jeff; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Kaufmann, Walter E; Grossmann, Tobias; Einspieler, Christa

    2013-10-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurological disorder characterized by a developmental regression in motor and speech-language domains. There is, however, limited research on socio-communicative development of affected children before the onset of regression. We analyzed audio-video recordings made by parents of six 9- to 12-month old girls later diagnosed with typical RTT, applying the Inventory of Potential Communicative Acts (IPCA) to identify early communicative forms and functions. Each girl used at least one communicative form (e.g., body movement, eye gaze, or vocalizations) to gain attention and answer, but none were observed to make choices or request information. Varying numbers of children were observed to perform other communicative functions according to the IPCA including social convention, rejecting or requesting an object. Non-verbal forms (e.g., reaching, moving closer, eye contact, smiling) were more common than non-linguistic verbal forms (e.g., unspecified vocalizations, pleasure vocalizations, crying). (Pre-)linguistic verbal forms (e.g., canonical or variegated babbling, proto-words) were not used for communicative purposes. These data suggest that atypical developmental patterns in the socio-communicative domain are evident prior to regression in young individuals later diagnosed with RTT.

  18. Age-specific average head template for typically developing 6-month-old infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa F Akiyama

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid anatomical changes that occur within the brain structure in early human development and the significant differences between infant brains and the widely used standard adult templates, it becomes increasingly important to utilize appropriate age- and population-specific average templates when analyzing infant neuroimaging data. In this study we created a new and highly detailed age-specific unbiased average head template in a standard MNI152-like infant coordinate system for healthy, typically developing 6-month-old infants by performing linear normalization, diffeomorphic normalization and iterative averaging processing on 60 subjects' structural images. The resulting age-specific average templates in a standard MNI152-like infant coordinate system demonstrate sharper anatomical detail and clarity compared to existing infant average templates and successfully retains the average head size of the 6-month-old infant. An example usage of the average infant templates transforms magnetoencephalography (MEG estimated activity locations from MEG's subject-specific head coordinate space to the standard MNI152-like infant coordinate space. We also created a new atlas that reflects the true 6-month-old infant brain anatomy. Average templates and atlas are publicly available on our website (http://ilabs.washington.edu/6-m-templates-atlas.

  19. Ecological Water Requirement Estimates for Typical Areas in the Huaihe Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xin; DU Pengfei; TONG Oingyuan; CHEN Jining

    2008-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems require ecological water allocation to prevent from being damaged by natural disasters and undue exploitation. This paper discusses and estimates the ecological water requirements (EWRs) of typical areas in the Huaihe Basin to determine rational allocations of water resources and pro-mote regional improvements of the ecological environment. The main river course, including Hongze Lake and Nansi Lake, was selected as the study subject. Calculational methods for the river and lake EWRs were based on the reasonableness of the results and data availability. The monthly guarantee rate method was used to calculate monthly, flood period, non-flood period, and annual EWRs for the main river course and the main tributaries at two different guarantee rates. The minimum water level method was used to calculate annual EWRs for Hongze Lake and the upper and lower Nansi Lake of 1.521×109 m3, 0.637×109 m3, and 0.306×109 m3. The results were used to evaluate the rationality of the quantity of water resources allocated to ecological uses in the Huaihe Basin during 1998-2003. The result shows that the present water resource allocations in the Huaihe Basin cannot satisfy the basic ecological requirements for some years, especially years with less precipitation.

  20. Energy and exergy performance evaluation of a typical solar photovoltaic module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Adarsh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the energy and exergy performance evaluation of heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT solar photovoltaic (SPV module for a particular day of different months of the year of a typical climatic zone of north India. The energy, exergy and power conversion efficiencies have been calculated and plotted against time based on hourly insolation. The variation in all the efficiencies has been observed with respect to variation in solar radiation and wind speed and found that all the efficiencies are higher in morning and evening time as compared to noon time which is due to the variation in temperature of module throughout the day. Performance of SPV module has been found to be the best in the month of February i.e. all the three efficiencies have been found to be the highest among all the months analysed and presented in the study for the month of February. The energy efficiency is found to be always higher than that power conversion and exergy efficiencies. However, exergy efficiency in some months like February, May, June, September, October and December has been found to be higher than that of power conversion efficiency, reverse is found in rest of the months.

  1. Development of novel metaphor and metonymy comprehension in typically developing children and Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herwegen, Jo; Dimitriou, Dagmara; Rundblad, Gabriella

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the development of novel metaphor and metonymy comprehension in both typically developing (TD) children and individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Thirty-one TD children between the ages of 3;09 and 17;01 and thirty-four individuals with WS between the ages of 7;01 and 44 years old were administered a newly developed task examining novel metaphor and metonymy comprehension, as well as a range of standardised tests that assess semantic knowledge. This age range and the background measures allowed construction of developmental trajectories to investigate whether chronological age or mental age, represented by word knowledge, relate to novel metaphor and metonymy comprehension. The results showed that comprehension of figurative language did not increase with chronological age in WS, in contrast to TD. Although there was no difference for the different types of metaphors, certain metonymy expressions were found to be easier than others in the TD group. In addition, semantic knowledge was a reliable predictor for novel metaphor and metonymy comprehension in the TD but only for metonymy in the WS group. In sum, development of novel metonymy in the WS group is only delayed while comprehension of novel metaphor is both delayed and atypical. However, future research should further investigate differences between sub-types, as well as what cognitive factors relate to novel metaphor comprehension in individuals with Williams syndrome.

  2. CFD Based Study of Heterogeneous Microclimate in a Typical Chinese Greenhouse in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-wei; LUO Jin-yao; LI Xiao-ping

    2013-01-01

    Indoor microclimate is important for crop production and quality in greenhouse cultivation. This paper focuses on microclimate study based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a typical plastic greenhouse (with a sector shape vertical cross-section) popularly used in central China. A radiation model is added into the CFD model so as to simulate coupling of convective transfers and radiative exchanges at the cover and the roof, instead of using the usual coupling approach based on energy balance. In addition, a fractal permeability model is innovatively adopted in the modeling of the crop canopy. Compared the numerical results with measured experimental data, the model simulation is proved with success. This model then is used to explore the microclimate variable distributions in the greenhouse. It shows that the airflow pattern, temperature and humidity profiles are different from those in a sawtooth Mediterranean-type greenhouse. The study suggests that this deliberately developed CFD model can be served as a useful tool in macroclimate research and greenhouse design investigating.

  3. Small worlds and semantic network growth in typical and late talkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckage, Nicole; Smith, Linda; Hills, Thomas

    2011-05-11

    Network analysis has demonstrated that systems ranging from social networks to electric power grids often involve a small world structure-with local clustering but global ac cess. Critically, small world structure has also been shown to characterize adult human semantic networks. Moreover, the connectivity pattern of these mature networks is consistent with lexical growth processes in which children add new words to their vocabulary based on the structure of the language-learning environment. However, thus far, there is no direct evidence that a child's individual semantic network structure is associated with their early language learning. Here we show that, while typically developing children's early networks show small world structure as early as 15 months and with as few as 55 words, children with language delay (late talkers) have this structure to a smaller degree. This implicates a maladaptive bias in word acquisition for late talkers, potentially indicating a preference for "oddball" words. The findings provide the first evidence of a link between small-world connectivity and lexical development in individual children.

  4. Small worlds and semantic network growth in typical and late talkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Beckage

    Full Text Available Network analysis has demonstrated that systems ranging from social networks to electric power grids often involve a small world structure-with local clustering but global ac cess. Critically, small world structure has also been shown to characterize adult human semantic networks. Moreover, the connectivity pattern of these mature networks is consistent with lexical growth processes in which children add new words to their vocabulary based on the structure of the language-learning environment. However, thus far, there is no direct evidence that a child's individual semantic network structure is associated with their early language learning. Here we show that, while typically developing children's early networks show small world structure as early as 15 months and with as few as 55 words, children with language delay (late talkers have this structure to a smaller degree. This implicates a maladaptive bias in word acquisition for late talkers, potentially indicating a preference for "oddball" words. The findings provide the first evidence of a link between small-world connectivity and lexical development in individual children.

  5. CRASH SAFETY OF A TYPICAL BAY TABLE IN A RAILWAY VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel MATSIKA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, urban and high speed trains are incorporating tables (workstations as common railway vehicle interior furniture because passengers prefer seating by bay tables. Among table design characteristics, the most challenging is meeting crashworthiness requirements. Past accident data and sled test results have shown that in the event of railway vehicle frontal impact, occupants located in the bay seating are exposed to chest and abdominal injuries upon contact with tables resulting from secondary collision. In some cases tables have tended to be structurally weak; they easily detach from the side walls and/or floor mounting. Subsequently these become unguided missiles that strike occupants, resulting in injuries. This paper presents an analysis of the crash performance of a typical bay table. The results provide some understanding of the table’s crash safety, giving an indication of its impact aggression. Table materials are characterised using quasi-static compressive tests. In addition, experimental dynamic (impact tests are conducted using a pendulum representing a body block (mass. The results provide information about the possible loading of the table on the occupant in the event of a crash. Contact forces are compared with chest and abdominal injury tolerance thresholds to infer the collision injury potential. Recommendations are then made on design of bay tables to meet the “functional-strength-and-safety balance”.

  6. Measurement results and experiences from an energy renovation of a typical Danish single-family house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2008-01-01

    Energy renovation of existing buildings has a large potential for cost effective energy savings. However, it is a major challenge to develop and implement the technologies for reducing the energy use in existing buildings to a very low level in combination with renovation of the buildings....../year corresponding to a 54 % reduction. The energy renovation project has proven that it is possible to renovate a typical Danish single-family house from the 1960/70’s in a cost efficient manner to roughly the energy performance standard of a new Danish single-family house. As a positive side effect the living....... To demonstrate how it could be done in small residential buildings a thorough retrofitting of a single-family house from 1972 was carried out. The house was brought up to the energy performance level of a new house. The energy renovation has reduced the net room heating consumption from 27.8 to 12.7 MWh...

  7. Formation potentials of typical DBPs and changes of genotoxicity for chlorinated tertiary effluent pretreated by ozone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Nan; MIAO Tingting; LI Kuixiao; ZHANG Yu; YANG Min

    2009-01-01

    The effects of ozonation on the formation potential of typical disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and the changes of genotoxicity during post chlorination of tertiary effluent from a sewage treatment plant were investigated. Ozonation enhanced the yields of all detected chlorine DBPs except CHCl3. At a chlorine dose of 5 mg/L, the three brominated THMs and five HAAs increased, while chloroform decreased with the increase of ozone dose from 0 to 10 mg/L (ozone dose in consumption base). At a chlorine dose of 10 mg/L, the two mixed bromochloro species THMs and two dominant HAAs (DCAA and TCAA) firstly increased and then decreased with the increase of ozone dose, with the turning point approximately occurring at an ozone dose of 5 mg/L. The genotoxicity detected using umu test, on the other hand, was removed from 7 μg 4-NQO/L to a negligible level by ozonation under an ozone dose of 5 mg/L. Chlorination could further remove the genotoxicity to some extent. It was found that SUVA (UV absorbance divided by DOC concentration) might be used as an indicative parameter for monitoring the removal of genotoxicity during the oxidation.

  8. Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Potassium Behavior in Typic Udic Ferrisol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The indirect influence of heavy metal contamination of soil on nutrient availability, an important aspect of soil quality, may need to be taken into consideration when determining overall effects of heavy metals. Alaboratory experiment was performed to study the effects of combined pollution of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd on soil K status as indicated by chemical fractions, adsorption-desorption and quantity/intensity (Q/I) relationship of K in a Typic Udic Ferrisol (generally called red soil), by employing uniform design and single factor design. Compared to the control, content of exchangeable K was decreased, but that of soluble K increased in the samples contaminated with heavy metals. Due to heavy metal pollution, potassium adsorption was reduced by 5% to 22%, whereas the desorption percentage of adsorbed K increased by 2% to 32%. The Q/I curves shifted downward, potassium buffering capacity (PBCK) decreased, and equilibrium activity ratio values (AROK) increased with increasing heavy metal pollution. These influences followed the sequences of Pb>Cu>Zn and combined pollution>single one. Displacement of K from cation exchange sites and decrease in soil CEC due to heavy metals should be responsible for the changes of soil K behaviours. The findings suggest that heavy metal pollution of soil might aggravate the degradation of soil K fertility by decreasing K adsorption and buffering capacity and increasing desorption.

  9. Effect of Heavy Metals on Phosphorus Retention by Typic Udic Ferrisols: Equilibrium and Kinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the effect of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd in combination or alone)on the equilibrium and kinetics of phosphorus (P) retention in typic udic ferrisols by using both equilibrium and flow techniques. Fourteen soil samples with varying artificial contamination of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd were prepared. Heavy metal pollution led to increases in retention capacity and maximum buffering capacity (MBC) of soil P. The rate of P retention was also increased and the time to reach equilibrium was advanced by heavy metals addition. The Elovich equation provided a satisfactory description of the P kinetic data.The influence of heavy metals on P retention was in the order of Pb>Cu>Zn, with greater effect in multiple metal pollution. These findings suggested that heavy metal pollution caused an increase in P fixation and thus a decline in P availability. Therefore, indirect influences of heavy metal contamination on soil nutrients may need more consideration when determining overall impact of heavy metals on soil environment.

  10. [Ability of typical greenery shrubs of Beijing to adsorb and arrest PM2.5 ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dan; Wang, Bin; Wang, Yun-qi; Zhang, Hui-lan; Yang, Song-nan; Li, Ang

    2014-09-01

    Four typical types of green shrubs of Beijing (Euonymus japonicus, Buxus microphylla, Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea, Taxus cuspidate cv. nana) were selected to study their capacities in adsorbing and arresting PM2.5 using both field observations and air chamber simulations. Concurrently, in order to analyze the pollution characteristics of Beijing in winter and spring, the PM2.5 concentrations of December 2012 to May 2013 were collected. Experimental results showed that: From the gas chamber experiments, the ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5 was in the order of Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea > Buxus microphylla > Taxus cuspidate cv. nana > Euonymus japonicus, mainly due to the differences in leaf characteristics; Outside measurement results showed that the ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5 was ranked as Buxus microphylla > Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea > Taxus cuspidate cv. nana > Euonymus japonicus. Chamber simulation and outdoor observation showed that Buxus microphylla and Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea had strong ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5; Meanwhile, the slight differences between the chamber simulation and outdoor observation results might be related to plant structure. Compared to tree species, the planting condition of shrub species was loose, and it greened quickly; By analyzing the Beijing PM2.5 concentration values in winter and spring, it was found that the PM2.5 concentration was particularly high in the winter of Beijing, and evergreen shrubs maintained the ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5. PMID:25518685

  11. Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Mazić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried out at room temperature until the media reached pH value of 5. Samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. In all media the target pH was reached after 68-71 hours of fermentation, depending on citrate level. Fermentation and the production of aroma compounds were more intensive in media that contained whey proteins compared to media with only casein. Increased citrate level had a positive influence on the aroma production. Citrate increased the initial pH of the media and acted as a buffer during fermentation, which lead to longer fermentation and prolonged production of aroma compounds. At pH around 5, the desired cultured aroma was the most intensive, whereas sour taste was less dominant. The substrate with 0.25% citrate and 0.1% whey proteins, at pH 5, was rated as best regarding its sensory characteristics.

  12. Models for the estimation of diffuse solar radiation for typical cities in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In solar energy applications, diffuse solar radiation component is required. Solar radiation data particularly in terms of diffuse component are not readily affordable, because of high price of measurements as well as difficulties in their maintenance and calibration. In this study, new empirical models for predicting the monthly mean diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface for typical cities in Turkey are established. Therefore, fifteen empirical models from studies in the literature are used. Also, eighteen diffuse solar radiation models are developed using long term sunshine duration and global solar radiation data. The accuracy of the developed models is evaluated in terms of different statistical indicators. It is found that the best performance is achieved for the third-order polynomial model based on sunshine duration and clearness index. - Highlights: • Diffuse radiation is given as a function of clearness index and sunshine fraction. • The diffuse radiation is an important parameter in solar energy applications. • The diffuse radiation measurement is for limited periods and it is very rare. • The new models can be used to estimate monthly average diffuse solar radiation. • The accuracy of the models is evaluated on the basis of statistical indicators

  13. Benefit Evaluation on the Control Mode for Typical Karst Rocky Desertification in Guizhou Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Control mode for typical karst rocky desertification in Guizhou Province,China is selected as the research object.The ecological benefit,the social and economic benefit and the popularization prospect of mode are selected as evaluation indices.Evaluation index system of control modebenefits for karst rocky desertification is established.The Dingtan mode and the Wangjiazhai-Yangchangdong small watershed control mode are se-lected as evaluation objects.Preliminary assessment on the two modes are carried out by Analytic Hierarchy Process,grading evaluation,and com-prehensive evaluation method.Result shows that comprehensive score of Dingtan mode is 3.81,which is higher than the score of Wangjiazhai-Yangchangdong small watershed control mode(3.11).In the aspects of ecological benefit and social and economic benefit,Dingtan mode(4.83and 3.258) is superior than the Wangjiazhai-Yangchangdong small watershed control mode(3.38 and 2.531).In the aspect of popularization pros-pect of mode,score of Dingtan mode(3) is lower than that of Wangjiazhai-Yangchangdong small watershed control mode(3.333).Therefore,theevaluation index system has certain science and offers reference and guidance for the karst rocky desertification control in southwest China.

  14. Perspectives on the rhythm-grammar link and its implications for typical and atypical language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Reyna L; Jacobs, Magdalene S; Schuele, C Melanie; McAuley, J Devin

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews the mounting evidence for shared cognitive mechanisms and neural resources for rhythm and grammar. Evidence for a role of rhythm skills in language development and language comprehension is reviewed here in three lines of research: (1) behavioral and brain data from adults and children, showing that prosody and other aspects of timing of sentences influence online morpho-syntactic processing; (2) comorbidity of impaired rhythm with grammatical deficits in children with language impairment; and (3) our recent work showing a strong positive association between rhythm perception skills and expressive grammatical skills in young school-age children with typical development. Our preliminary follow-up study presented here revealed that musical rhythm perception predicted variance in 6-year-old children's production of complex syntax, as well as online reorganization of grammatical information (transformation); these data provide an additional perspective on the hierarchical relations potentially shared by rhythm and grammar. A theoretical framework for shared cognitive resources for the role of rhythm in perceiving and learning grammatical structure is elaborated on in light of potential implications for using rhythm-emphasized musical training to improve language skills in children. PMID:25773612

  15. Investigation on the toxic interaction of typical plasticizers with calf thymus DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactions of typical plasticizers dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling. Experimental results indicated that the characteristic fluorescence intensity of phthalic acid rose with the increase of DNA concentration; while the characteristic fluorescence intensities of plasticizers decreased with the increase of DNA concentration. Experiments on native and denatured DNA determined that plasticizers interacted with DNA both in groove and electrostatic binding mode. The molecular modeling results further illustrated that there is groove binding between them; hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals interactions were the main forces. With the extension of branched-chains, the binding effects between plasticizers and DNA were weakened, which could be related to the increased steric hindrance. - Highlights: • This work established the binding mode of plasticizers with DNA on molecular level. • The mechanism was explored by fluorescence spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. • There are two kinds of binding mode between DMP, DEP, DBP and DNA, electrostatic and groove. • With the branched chain extension, the binding effect of plasticizers and DNA has been weakened

  16. Typical off-design analytical performances of internal combustion engine cogeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong HE; Ruixian CAI

    2009-01-01

    Based on experimental data, typical off-design characteristic curves with corresponding formulas of internal combustion engine (ICE) are summarized and investigated. In combination with analytical solution of single-pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and influence of ambient pressure on combined heat and power (CHP) system, off-design operation regularities of ICE cogeneration are analyzed. The approach temperature difference Ata , relative steam production and superheated steam temperature decrease with the decrease in engine load. The total energy efficiency, equivalent exergy efficiency and economic exergy efficiency first increase and then decrease. Therefore, there exists an optimum value, corresponding to ICE best efficiency operating condition. It is worth emphasizing that Ata is likely to be negative in low load condition with high design steam parameter and low ICE design exhaust gas temperature. Compared with single shaft gas turbine cogeneration, Ata in ICE cogeneration is more likely to be negative. The main reason for this is that the gas turbine has an increased exhaust gas flow with the decrease in load; while ICE is on the contrary. Moreover, ICE power output and efficiency decrease with the decrease in ambient pressure. Hence, approach temperature difference, relative steam production and superheated steam temperature decrease rapidly while the cogeneration efficiencies decrease slightly. It is necessary to consider the influence of ambient conditions, especially the optimization of ICE performances at different places, on cogeneration performances.

  17. Responses of Carbon Dynamics to Nitrogen Deposition in Typical Freshwater Wetland of Sanjiang Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nitrogen deposition (N-deposition on the carbon dynamics in typical Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland of Sanjiang Plain were studied by a pot-culture experiment during two continuous plant growing seasons. Elevated atmospheric N-deposition caused significant increases in the aboveground net primary production and root biomass; moreover, a preferential partition of carbon to root was also observed. Different soil carbon fractions gained due to elevated N-deposition and their response intensities followed the sequence of labile carbon > dissolved organic carbon > microbial biomass carbon, and the interaction between N-deposition and flooded condition facilitated the release of different carbon fractions. Positive correlations were found between CO2 and CH4 fluxes and liable carbon contents with N-deposition, and flooded condition also tended to facilitate CH4 fluxes and to inhibit the CO2 fluxes with N-deposition. The increases in soil carbon fractions occurring in the nitrogen treatments were significantly correlated with increases in root, aboveground parts, total biomass, and their carbon uptake. Our results suggested that N-deposition could enhance the contents of active carbon fractions in soil system and carbon accumulation in plant of the freshwater wetlands.

  18. [Sources and spatial distribution of typical heavy metal pollutants in soils in Xihu Scenic Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Zhen; Tang, Yu-Li; Lu, Jun; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Yun-Qian; Chen, Chuan; Zhao, Yun; Wang, Mei-E

    2014-04-01

    Due to the importance as a famous scenic area in China and its special geographical position, heavy metal pollution in soils in Xihu Scenic Area has attracted great concerns. Typical heavy metals in surface soils (0- 20 cm) in Xihu Scenic Area was investigated using the grid sampling method and statistical analysis and Aregis approaches. It was suggested that there were anthropogenic accumulations of Cu, Zn and Pb in soils, and they were the main heavy metal pollutants in Xihu Scenic Area. The contents of Cu, Zn, Pb in soils are in the ranges of 4.6-197 mg x kg(-1), 11.1-885 mg x kg(-1) and 11.7-346 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The area with the highest 25% of Cu, Pb and Zn content located in the north-east part of the scenic area, which had lower ratios of green land, dense traffic roads and was characterized with high urbanization. Results of multiple comparison among different land uses and spatial cluster and outlier analysis revealed that those three main heavy metal pollutants Cu, Pb and Zn in Xihu Scenic Area were from traffic emissions. The purpose of this study was to provide basic data and theoretical bases for the ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in urban soils and environmental management of urban soils. PMID:24946612

  19. Pyrolysis and gasification of typical components in wastes with macro-TGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Aihong; Chen, Shen; Long, Yanqiu; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Yanguo; Li, Qinghai

    2015-12-01

    The pyrolysis and gasification of typical components of solid waste, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were performed and compared in a macro thermogravimetric analyzer (macro-TGA). Three model biomasses, poplar stem, orange peel and Chinese cabbage, were applied to pyrolysis and gasification simulation by their components based on TG curves. Compared to those from TGA, peaks temperature of the differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves of each samples pyrolysis on macro-TGA delayed 30-55°C due to heat transferring effect. CO2 promoted the thermal decomposition of hemicellulose, lignin, starch, pectin and model biomasses significantly by Boudouard reaction, and enhanced slightly the decomposition of PET. The activation energy (AE) of biomass components pyrolysis on macro-TGA was 167-197 kJ/mol, while that of plastic samples was 185-235 kJ/mol. The activation energy of 351-377 kJ/mol was corresponding to the Boudouard reaction in CO2 gasification. All overlap ratios in pseudo-components simulation were higher than 0.98 to indicate that pseudo-components model could be applied to both pyrolysis and CO2 gasification, and the mass fractions of components derived from pyrolysis and gasification were slightly different but not brought in obvious difference in simulating curves when they were applied across.

  20. Comprehensive evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in typical highly urbanized regions across China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the occurrence of 36 PPCPs in urban river water samples collected from Beijing, Changzhou and Shenzhen. Twenty-eight compounds were detected. Compounds found with highest median concentrations included: sulfadimethoxine (164 ng/L), sulpiride (77.3 ng/L), atenolol (52.9 ng/L), and indomethacin (50.9 ng/L). Antibiotic was the predominant class detected and contributed about half of the overall PPCPs contamination level. Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were demonstrated to be the predominant pathways through which PPCPs entering into aquatic environment in all investigated areas. The ratio of persistent PPCPs like sulpiride and carbamazepine was identified to be feasible in tracing their contamination sources in rivers. Concentrations of most detected PPCPs showed significant positive correlations with total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Two groups of representative PPCPs were selected as the chemical indicators for predicting the overall PPCPs contamination, based on the significant correlations between PPCPs. - Highlights: • PPCPs were detected at high detection frequencies and average concentrations. • Antibiotics contributed about half of the overall PPCPs contamination level. • Wastewater treatment plant effluent was the dominant contributor to PPCPs residue. • Ratio of two persistent compounds was used in tracing contamination sources. • Two groups of representative PPCPs were selected as surrogate of overall PPCPs. - The occurrence, spatial distribution, sources, and surrogate of Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic environment of three typical cities across China were demonstrated