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Sample records for andisol typic hapludand

  1. KARAKTERISTIK TANAH ANDISOL PADA LAHAN KERING DI DESA BATUNGSEL, KECAMATAN PUPUAN, KABUPATEN TABANAN UNTUK BUDIDAYA KOPI DAN SALAK

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    IDA AYU SUTYADNYANI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Characteristics of Andisol on Dryland at Batungsel Village, Pupuan District, Tabanan Regency for Growing Coffe and Salacca The purpose of the research was to know the characteristics of Andisol on dryland at Batungsel village, Pupuan District, Tabanan Regency for growing coffea and salacca plant. Soil survey methods and laboratory analysis were used in this research. The parameters of soil characteristics were observed i.e. soil morphology in the fields, physical and chemical, and mineralogical properties. Soil classification was done based on Soil Taxonomy system by using Keys to Soil Taxonomy (2003. Soil characteristics were: soil colour was dark bown, solum depth was deep (>100 cm,CEC was high, base saturation was high, and had a good soil fertility.Based on Soil Taxonomy system, the soil families were Typic Hapludands, ashy, isohyperthermic. The land suitability was suitable enough for coffea and salacca.

  2. Adsorción de metales pesados en andisoles, vertisoles y ácidos húmicos

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    Luis Enrique Cortés Páez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la adsorción de los metales pesados cadmio (Cd, cobre (Cu, níquel (Ni, plomo (Pb y zinc (Zn en Andisoles (Typic Melanudand y Vertisoles (Epiaquert ústico arcilloso fino isohipertérmico 1% de Colombia y en ácidos húmicos (AH extraídos de muestras de leonardita tomadas en España. En todos los casos se determinaron las propiedades químicas y físicas: pH, capacidad de intercambio catiónico (CIC, carbono orgánico (%CO, bases intercambiables y contenido total de metales. La composición química de los AH se determinó empleando técnicas espectrométricas como ICP_MS, FTIR, UV-Vis, CPMAS 13C NMR y Py-GC/MS-THMA. Los resultados de adsorción de los metales ajustados al modelo de Freundlich mostraron un comportamiento diferente de los adsorbentes en relación con los metales estudiados, siendo la máxima capacidad de adsorción (K y la fuerza de retención (n de los metales diferente (P Pb > Cu > Ni > Zn; en Andisol: Pb > Cu > Cd > Zn > Ni; y en Vertisol: Cd > Pb > Cu > Ni > Z. Para n en ácidos húmicos: Pb > Zn > Cd > Cu > Ni; en Andisol: Cu > Ni > Zn > Pb > Cd, y en Vertisol: Zn > Ni > Cu > Pb > Cd.

  3. DINÁMICA DEL AGUA EN ANDISOLES BAJO CONDICIONES DE LADERA SOIL WATER DYNAMICS IN ANDISOLS UNDER HILLSLOPE CONDITIONS

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    Edgar Hincapié Gómez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El flujo de agua en el suelo es calificado como un proceso dinámico que regula reacciones químicas y eventos físicos y biológicos, que a su vez influyen en la nutrición, crecimiento y desarrollo de las plantas; es considerado de interés ambiental, ya que influye en la regulación hidrológica, en la distribución y transmisión de agua, solutos y contaminantes a través de la zona no saturada del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la dinámica de la humedad volumétrica y del potencial matricial del suelo a lo largo de un periodo de secado, en dos Andisoles, localizados en terrenos de ladera en los municipios de Chinchiná (Caldas y Quimbaya (Quindío - Colombia. En cada localidad se seleccionaron y aislaron tres monolitos de suelo de 1,5 m de ancho y 6,0 m de largo, con diferente grado de pendiente (20, 40 y 70%, en Chinchiná y 20, 40 y 75%, en Quimbaya. Se instalaron sensores de humedad y tensiómetros a diferentes profundidades y se monitoreó simultáneamente la humedad volumétrica y el potencial mátrico del suelo durante un periodo de 80 días y se obtuvieron las curvas de secamiento del suelo. El modelo potencial se ajustó mejor al comportamiento de la humedad volumétrica con relación al tiempo; en general, la humedad volumétrica se redujo drásticamente durante la primera etapa del drenaje (0-24 horas; posteriormente, le siguió un drenaje lento en el cual los cambios en la humedad volumétrica a través del tiempo fueron mínimos. La tasa de secamiento del suelo aumentó conforme se incrementó el ángulo de inclinación de la pendiente, lo que se atribuye a una refracción del flujo de agua, considerando que el potencial gravitacional está influido por la inclinación de la pendiente y a la vez indica que la pendiente del terreno afecta el movimiento del agua en el suelo.Abstract. Soil water flux is qualified as a dynamic processes that regulate soil chemical reactions, physical and biological events

  4. Changes in infiltration rate into Andisols for change of use (Tenerife, Canary I.); Influencia del cambio de uso en la tasa de infiltracion de Andisoles (Tenerife, I. Canarias)

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    Neris, J.; Fuentes, J.; Dorta, M. A.; Jimenez, C.; Tejedor, M.

    2009-07-01

    The volcanic island of Tenerife (Canary Islands) has a wide variety of Andisols which have formed on recent pyroclast materials (Udands, Ustands, Xerands and Vitrands. The Udands are situated on the nor then side of the island, at heights where condensation of the trade winds occurs (900-1600m), while the Ustands are also located mostly on this side, albeit at a lower attitudinal strip. Under natural conditions, these soils present favourable physical properties, with high structural stability and resistance to water erosion. (Author) 11 refs.

  5. A biological quality index for volcanic Andisols and Aridisols (Canary Islands, Spain): variations related to the ecosystem degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Cecilia María; Santana, Bayanor; Mora, Juan Luis; Notario, Jesús Santiago; Arbelo, Carmen Dolores; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2007-05-25

    The aim of this work is to identify indicators of biological activity in soils from the Canary Islands, by studying the variation of selected biological parameters related to the processes of deforestation and accelerated soil degradation affecting the Canarian natural ecosystems. Ten plots with different degrees of maturity/degradation have been selected in three typical habitats in the Canary Islands: laurel forest, pine forest and xerophytic scrub with Andisols and Aridisols as the most common soils. The studied characteristics in each case include total organic carbon, field soil respiration, mineralized carbon after laboratory incubation, microbial biomass carbon, hot water-extractable carbon and carboxymethylcellulase, beta-d-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities. A Biological Quality Index (BQI) has been designed on the basis of a regression model using these variables, assuming that the total soil organic carbon content is quite stable in nearly mature ecosystems. Total carbon in mature ecosystems has been related to significant biological variables (hot water-extractable carbon, soil respiration and carboxymethylcellulase, beta-d-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities), accounting for nearly 100% of the total variance by a multiple regression analysis. The index has been calculated as the ratio of the value calculated from the regression model and the actual measured value. The obtained results show that soils in nearly mature ecosystems have BQI values close to unit, whereas those in degraded ecosystems range between 0.24 and 0.97, depending on the degradation degree.

  6. Potential impacts of seasonal variation on atrazine and metolachlor persistence in andisol soil.

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    Jaikaew, Piyanuch; Boulange, Julien; Thuyet, Dang Quoc; Malhat, Farag; Ishihara, Satoru; Watanabe, Hirozumi

    2015-12-01

    To estimate the potential effect of seasonal variation on the fate of herbicides in andisol soil, atrazine and metolachlor residues were investigated through the summer and winter seasons during 2013 and 2014 under field condition. The computed half-lives of atrazine and metolachlor in soil changed significantly through the two seasons of the trial. The half-lives were shorter in summer season with 16.0 and 23.5 days for atrazine and metolachlor, respectively. In contrast, the half-lives were longer during the winter season with 32.7 and 51.8 days for atrazine and metolachlor, respectively. The analysis of soil water balance suggested that more pesticide was lost in deeper soil layers through infiltration in summer than in winter. In addition, during the summer season, metolachlor was more likely to leach into deeper soil layer than atrazine possibly due to high water solubility of metolachlor.

  7. VARIABILIDAD ESPACIAL DE LAS PROPIEDADES ÁNDICAS DE UN ANDISOL HIDROMÓRFICO DEL ORIENTE ANTIOQUEÑO (COLOMBIA SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF THE ANDIC PROPERTIES IN AN HYDROMORPHIC ANDISOL FROM THE ANTIOQUIA EAST (COLOMBIA

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    Daniel Francisco Jaramillo Jaramillo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la variabilidad espacial de las propiedades ándicas y de otras relacionadas con ellas, en el horizonte superficial de un Andisol de régimen de humedad ácuico. La mayoría de las propiedades presentaron alta variabilidad, asimetría y fuerte tendencia espacial en la distribución de sus valores. Pocas variables presentaron variabilidad espacial pero, donde se presentó, fue alta y de rango corto.The spatial variability of some andic properties of the surface horizon in an Andisol with aquic moisture regime was studied. Most of the properties presented high variability and asymmetry, and strong spatial tendency in their distribution values. Few variables presented spatial variability but, it was high and of short range where it was presented.

  8. Fire-induced risk in Andisols: An State-of-the-Art

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    Neris, Jonay; Cerdà, Artemi; Santamarta, Juan C.; Doerr, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires are increasingly recognized as the primary natural hazard affecting forests and woodlands (Pausas, 2004), and changing the soil properties due to the heat (Aznar et al., 2013). They are also the factor that determines the increase in soil and water losses (Cerdà, 1998a; Shakesby, 2011). Fire contributes to increase the surface runoff due to the water repellency (Mataix-Solera et al., 2004; Cerdà and Doerr, 2008) although a quick recovery is found when vegetation is recovered (Cerdà, 1988b; Guénon et al., 2013). Within the recovery process ash is the key factor once the vegetation is recovered (Bodí et al., 2011; León et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013). To reduce the impact of forest fires some strategies were developed (Prats et al., 2013). The fire direct and indirect impacts on ecosystems and the human population, infrastructures, supplies and goods have been increasing over the last decades due to climatic and socio-economic changes and are projected to increase further in the future. In the densely populated volcanic regions that are characterized by steep and fire-prone slopes, Andisols are the main soil type. Their mineralogical properties provide them with specific chemical and physical properties which strength their fertility and resistance to erosion but also differentiate their response to environmental disturbances such as land use change (Jiménez et al., 2006; Neris et al., 2012) but also forest fires and agricultural burning (Neris et al., 2013; Poulenard et al., 2001). Despite their relevance for human development and safety, little specific knowledge exists about them and papers addressing their singularities are limited. This works seeks to compile and review existing scientific works focused on the effects of fire on this particular type of soils, evaluate their response to this disturbance and identify knowledge gaps related to the fire-induced risk in Andisols in order to develop new lines of research. Acknowledgements This

  9. Fraccionamiento y cuantificación de la materia orgánica en Andisoles bajo diferentes sistemas de producción

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    Juan Carlos Montoya Salazar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En Andisoles de los municipios de Cajibío, departamento del Cauca y Sevilla, Valle del Cauca, Colombia, se evalúo el efecto del uso del suelo con sistemas de bosque; guadua (Guadua angustifolia K.; cultivo de café (Coffea arabiga var. Caturra a plena exposición, con sombra de guamo (Inga sp. y sombra de nogal (Cordia alliodora; y pastura de brachiaria (Brachiaria decumbens sobre diferentes formas de la materia orgánica (M.O.. Para el efecto en Cauca se tomaron muestras de un Typic Melanudand localizado a 1740 m.s.n.m. utilizado con los cinco primeros sistemas de cultivos, y en Sevilla de un Typic Haplustand en 1660 m.s.n.m en pasturas de brachiaria. Los suelos de ambos sitios fueron caracterizados por sus propiedades físicas (humedad higroscópica, densidad aparente, distribución de partículas, estabilidad de agregados y tamaño de arenas, y químicas (capacidad de intercambio catiónico, pH, % carbono orgánico. Las sustancias húmicas se obtuvieron con extracción secuencial en soluciones (0.1 N de tetraborato, pirofosfato e hidróxido de sodio, previa separación granulométrica por tamizado en húmedo; igualmente se purificaron y caracterizaron los ácidos húmicos y fúlvicos por diferentes técnicas analíticas y espectroscópicas. En ambos suelos, se encontraron diferencias (P 1 en ácidos húmicos y < 1 en fúlvicos. Los ácidos húmicos con mejor grado de condensación se encontraron en el Typic Melanudand.

  10. Using thermal analysis to evaluate the fire effects on organic matter content of Andisols

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    J. Neris

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic compounds play a relevant role in aggregate stability and thus, in the susceptibility of soils to erosion. Thermal analysis (N2 and air and chemical oxidation techniques (dichromate and permanganate oxidation were used to evaluate the effects of a forest fire on the organic matter of Andisols. Both thermal analysis and chemical methods showed a decrease in the organic matter content and an increase in the recalcitrance of the remaining organic compounds in the burned zones. Thermal analysis indicated an increase in the thermal stability of the organic compounds of fire-affected soils and a lower content of both labile and recalcitrant pools as a consequence of the fire. However, this decrease was relatively higher in the labile pool and lower in the recalcitrant one, indicative of an increase in the recalcitrance of the remaining organic compounds. Apparently, black carbon did not burn under our experimental conditions. Under N2, the results showed a lower labile and a higher recalcitrant and refractory contents in burned and some unburned soils, possibly due to the lower decomposition rate under N2 flux. Thermal analysis using O2 and the chemical techniques showed a positive relation, but noticeable differences in the total amount of the labile pool. Thermal analysis methods provide direct quantitative information useful to characterize the soil organic matter quality and to evaluate the effects of fire on soils.

  11. Water stable aggregates of Japanese Andisol as affected by hydrophobicity and drying temperature

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    Leelamanie D.A.L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobicity is a property of soils that reduces their affinity for water, which may help impeding the pressure build-up within aggregates, and reducing aggregate disruption. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of soil hydrophobicity and drying temperature to water stability of aggregates while preventing the floating of dry aggregates using unhydrophobized and hydrophobized surface Andisol. Soil was hydrophobized using stearic acid into different hydrophobicities. Hydrophobicity was determined using sessile drop contact angle and water drop penetration time (WDPT. Water stability of aggregates (%WSA was determined using artificially prepared model aggregates. The %WSA increased as the contact angle and WDPT increased. Contact angle and WDPT, which provided maximum %WSA showing less than 1 s of floating, was around 100° and 5 s, respectively. Although the %WSA gradually increased with increasing contact angle and WDPT above this level, high levels of hydrophobicity initiated aggregate floating, which would cause undesirable effects of water repellency. Heating at 50°C for 5 h d-1 significantly affected %WSA and hydrophobicity in hydrophobized samples, but did not in unhydrophobized samples. The results indicate that the contact angle and wetting rate (WDPT are closely related with the water stability of aggregates. The results further confirm that high levels of hydrophobicities induce aggregate floating, and the drying temperature has differential effects on hydrophobicity and aggregate stability depending on the hydrophobic materials present in the soil.

  12. Caracterización preliminar de los compuestos hidrofóbicos removidos de andisoles repelentes al agua de antioquia.

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    Jaramillo J. Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    En 15 muestras de Andisoles repelentes al agua se caracterizaron los compuestos orgánicos extraídos por mezclas de etanol - benceno, 1:2 y de isopropanol - amoniaco 7:3; se confirmó que los compuestos responsables de la hidrofobicidad del suelo extraídos son poco humificados, tienen una composición general de ácidos carboxílicos alifáticos de cadenas largas y que corresponden a humus tipo Rp.

  13. Caracterización química de Andisoles repelentes al agua del oriente Antioqueño.

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    Jaramillo J. Daniel F.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron algunas propiedades químicas de 76 Andisoles repelentes al agua, de lotes bajo cobertura de Pinus Patula muchas de las propiedades evaluadas presentaron coeficientes de variación con valores relativamente altos, mayores a 20%; sólo los pHs presentaron coeficientes de variación menores de 10%. Al interpretar los valores de las propiedades relacionadas con la fertilidad, puede decirse que estos suelos son de muy baja fertilidad, con muy bajos contenidos de nutrimientos, baja saturación con bases, alta saturación con aluminio, muy ácidos y con baja CICE.

  14. Caracterización preliminar de los compuestos hidrofóbicos removidos de Andisoles repelentes al agua de Antioquia.

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    Jaramillo J. Daniel F.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available En 15 muestras de Andisoles repelentes al agua se caracterizaron los compuestos orgánicos extraídos por mezclas de etanol - benceno, 1:2 y de isopropanol - amoniaco 7:3; se confirmó que los compuestos responsables de la hidrofobicidad del suelo extraídos son poco humificados, tienen una composición general de ácidos carboxílicos alifáticos de cadenas largas y que corresponden a humus tipo Rp.

  15. Entanglement typicality

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    Dahlsten, Oscar C. O.; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Serafini, Alessio

    2014-09-01

    We provide a summary of both seminal and recent results on typical entanglement. By ‘typical’ values of entanglement, we refer here to values of entanglement quantifiers that (given a reasonable measure on the manifold of states) appear with arbitrarily high probability for quantum systems of sufficiently high dimensionality. We shall focus on pure states and work within the Haar measure framework for discrete quantum variables, where we report on results concerning the average von Neumann and linear entropies as well as arguments implying the typicality of such values in the asymptotic limit. We then proceed to discuss the generation of typical quantum states with random circuitry. Different phases of entanglement, and the connection between typical entanglement and thermodynamics are discussed. We also cover approaches to measures on the non-compact set of Gaussian states of continuous variable quantum systems.

  16. RESPONSE OF POTATO TO POTASSIUM FERTILIZER SOURCES AND APPLICATION METHODS IN ANDISOLS OF WEST JAVA

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    Nikardi Gunadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment to determine the response of potato to potassium (K fertilizer sources and application methods in Andisols of West Java was conducted at a farmer’s field in the highland area of Pangalengan (1400 m asl., West Java from August to November 2004. The treatments consisted of two K fertilizer sources (potassium chloride-KCl and potassium sulphate-K2SO4, two K rates (150 and 250 kg K2O ha-1, and three application methods (single, split, and split combined with foliar application, were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. In the single application treatment, K was applied at planting, while in the split application treatment the K was applied half rate at planting and the rest at 6 weeks after planting (WAP. In the split combined with foliar application treatment, the K fertilizer was applied half rate at planting, a quarter rate at 6 WAP and another quarter rate by foliar spraying at 7, 8 and 9 WAP. The results showed that plant height was not significantly affected by the treatment (P >0.05. However, the sources and application methods of K fertilizer affected canopy cover, crop cover weeks (CCW, tuber dry weight (DW, and total plant DW at 10 WAP. Potatoes supplied with K2SO4 either in split or split combined with foliar application had significantly higher percent canopy cover, CCW, tuber DW, and total plant DW than those supplied with K fertilizer in single application. Potatoes supplied with K2SO4 had a higher tuber yield compared to those fertilized with KCl, especially under split or split combined with foliar application. To attain the same level of tuber yield as in the split combined with foliar application method, the rate of K2SO4 should be increased from 150 to 250 kg K2O ha-1 when using single application. It is therefore suggested that K2SO4 for potatoes should be used in split application combined with foliar application.

  17. Typical Protectionism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the middle of October,acting on a complaint from the United Steelworkers union,the Office of the U.S.Trade Representative initiated a Section 301 investigation into China's clean energy policies and practices.The move has aroused strong opposition from China.China's New Energy Association says the probe is neither well-founded nor responsible,and is typical trade protectionism.

  18. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on the composition of rhizobacterial communities of two Chilean Andisol pastures.

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    Jorquera, Milko A; Martínez, Oscar A; Marileo, Luis G; Acuña, Jacquelinne J; Saggar, Surinder; Mora, María L

    2014-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization on composition of rhizobacterial communities of volcanic soils (Andisols) from southern Chile at molecular level is poorly understood. This paper investigates the composition of rhizobacterial communities of two Andisols under pasture after 1- and 6-year applications of N (urea) and P (triple superphosphate). Soil samples were collected from two previously established sites and the composition of rhizobacterial communities was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The difference in the composition and diversity between rhizobacterial communities was assessed by nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis and the Shannon-Wiener index. In Site 1 (fertilized for 1 year), PCR-DGGE targeting 16S rRNA genes and MDS analysis showed that moderate N application (270 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)) without P significantly changed the composition of rhizobacterial communities. However, no significant community changes were observed with P (240 kg P ha(-1) year(-1)) and N-P application (270 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) plus 240 kg P ha(-1) year(-1)). In Site 2 (fertilized for 6 years with P; 400 kg P ha(-1) year(-1)), PCR-DGGE targeting rpoB, nifH, amoA and alkaline phosphatase genes and MDS analysis showed changes in rhizobacterial communities only at the highest rate of N application (600 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)). Quantitative PCR targeting 16S rRNA genes also showed higher abundance of bacteria at higher N application. In samples from both sites, the Shannon-Wiener index did not show significant difference in the diversity of rhizobacterial communities. The changes observed in rhizobacterial communities coincide in N fertilized pastures with lower soil pH and higher pasture yields. This study indicates that N-P application affects the soil bacterial populations at molecular level and needs to be considered when developing fertilizer practices for Chilean pastoral Andisols.

  19. Efecto del secado de las muestras sobre la extracción selectiva de Fe y A1 activos en Andisoles del norte de la cordillera central Colombiana.

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    Jaramillo J. Daniel F.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Muestras secadas al aire y sin secar de cinco perfiles de Andisoles del norte de la cordillera central colombiana fueron sometidas a extracción con oxalato ácido de amonio y con pirofosfato de sodio. En los extractos de oxalato se determinaron A1, Fe y Si y en los de pirofosfato A1 y Fe. El secado de las muestras redujo significativamente al 95% la cantidad de A1 y de Fe extraída con oxalato ácido, dificultando la clasificación de los suelos en el orden Andisol utilizando los parámetros de la taxonomía del USDA.

  20. The Characteristic and Activation of Mixed Andisol Soil/Bayat Clays/Rice Husk Ash as Adsorbent of Heavy Metal Chromium (Cr)

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    Pranoto; Sajidan; Suprapto, A.

    2017-02-01

    Chromium (Cr) concentration in water can be reduced by adsorption. This study aimed to determine the effect of Andisol soil composition/Bayat clay/husk ash, activation temperature and contact time of the adsorption capacity of Cr in the model solution; the optimum adsorption conditions and the effectiveness of ceramic filters and purifiers to reduce contaminant of Cr in the water. The mixture of Andisol soil, Bayat clay, and husk ash is used as adsorbent of metal ion of Cr(III) using batch method. The identification and characterisation of adsorbent was done with NaF test, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD). Cr metal concentrations were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Sorption isotherms determined by Freundlich equation and Langmuir. The optimum conditions of sorption were achieved at 150°C activation temperature, contact time of 30 minutes and a composition Andisol soil / Bayat clay / husk ash by comparison 80/10/10. The results show a ceramic filter effectively reduces total dissolved solids (TDS) and Chromium in the water with the percentage decrease respectively by 75.91% and 9.44%.

  1. Response of CO2 Concentration in Andisol to Rainfall Events by Using Buried Tubing Gas Monitoring System

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    Endo, Toshifumi; Tokida, Takeshi; Imoto, Hiromi; Nishimura, Taku; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi

    For the purpose of continuous soil CO2 gas monitoring, gas permeable resins were evaluated. Among polytetrafluoroethylen (PTFE), polyfluoroethylene propylene (PFEP) and silicone, the silicone rubber tube had highest permeability for oxygen gas. Buried Tubing Gas Monitoring System (BT-GMS) consisting of silicone rubber tube connected to a Non-diffuse infrared (NDIR) -CO2 gas and galvanic cell O2 gas sensors were constructed, and buried into an Andisol upland field at a depth of 20cm. Thermo-couples and EC-5 soil moisture sensors were inserted into 10 and 20cm deep layers. Soil CO2 gas concentration, temperature and moisture were continuously monitored for 5 months. Soil CO2 concentration was sensitive to rainfall events and soil moisture change. Responses were keen during summer until early autumn when soil temperature was higher than 20°C. Then, when soil temperature got lower the response tended to be dull. This suggested quick CO2 gas concentration change following a rainfall event was mostly due to enhancement in soil respiration with soil moisture rise.

  2. Changes in Temperature and Fate of Soil Organic Matter in an Andisol due to Soil Surface Burning

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    Obuchi, Atsuko; Nishimura, Taku; Mizoguchi, Masaru; Imoto, Hiromi; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi

    This is a print of a camera-ready Japanese manuscript for the Transactions of JSIDRE. This will provide an example and directions for the layout and font size/style to be used. Please refer to this when preparing the headings, figures/table and text of your manuscript. The manuscript should be submitted on A4 size. Changes in temperature, soil moisture, and carbon and nitrogen contents were measured in Andisol under soil surface burning. Soil samples were packed into an unglazed cylinder of 15 cm inner diameter and 30 cm high. Charcoal was burned for 6 hours on the surface of the soil column. During the burning soil surface temperature rose to between 600-700°C. In initially wet soil, rise in soil temperature was retarded for a while at around 95-100°C. On the other hand, in initially dry Toyoura sand showed more rapid temperature increase without retardation. The temperature retardation in the wet soil could be caused by consumption of latent heat by vaporization of soil water. Rate of proceeding of the 100°C front was proportional to square root of the burning time. This indicates that higher the initial volumetric water content, shallower the depth affected by burning. Soil samples suffered temperature above 500°C still had total carbon and nitrogen contents of over 20 and 1 g kg-1, respectively, whereas the soil that was heated up to over 500°C by muffle furnace contained less than 0.4 and 0.1 g kg-1 of the carbon and nitrogen.

  3. EVALUACIÓN DE LA ELECTRORREMEDIACIÓN DE ANDISOLES CONTAMINADOS, MEDIANTE EL ANÁLISIS DE LAS SOLUCIONES DE LAVADO

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    Juan A. Rodríguez V.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la composición de soluciones de lavado provenientes de las cámaras de electrodos de una celda de remediación a nivel de laboratorio. Se estudió el movimiento de iones nitrato y plomo como contaminantes de suelos de la región (Andisol.Para los estudios se analizaron conjuntamente medidas de pH, conductiVidad, turbidez, concentración de contaminantes y corriente dé electrólisis.Se comprueba que, para las condiciones experimentales empleadas, los iones nitrato se mueven libremente y son fácilmente removidos del suelo, mientras que el catión plomo es parcialmente retenido, y la cantidad de metal que se moviliza es obtenido finalmente bajo formas insolubles dado el valor de pH generado en la cámara del cátodo.

  4. Modeling typical performance measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekers, Anke Martine

    2009-01-01

    In the educational, employment, and clinical context, attitude and personality inventories are used to measure typical performance traits. Statistical models are applied to obtain latent trait estimates. Often the same statistical models as the models used in maximum performance measurement are appl

  5. HIDROFOBICIDAD EN ANDISOLES BAJO ROBLEDAL (Quercus humboldtii Y PLANTACIONES FORESTALES (Pinus patula y Cupressus lusitanica EN LA CUENCA DE LA QUEBRADA PIEDRAS BLANCAS (MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA HYDROPHOBICITY OF ANDISOLS OF OAK GROVES (Quercus humboldtii AND TREE PLANTATIONS (Pinus patula and Cupressus lusitanica IN THE PIEDRAS BLANCAS WATERSHED ( MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Raúl Duque Zapata

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En la cuenca de la quebrada Piedras Blancas se evaluó la persistencia de la repelencia al agua en el horizonte A de Andisoles bajo tres coberturas vegetales: Pinus patula, Cupressus lusitanica y Quercus humboldtii y en tres posiciones topográficas diferentes a lo largo de la vertiente de colinas bajas, mediante el método de WDPT, en muestras con la humedad de campo y secas al aire. En todas las coberturas se encontró repelencia al agua en los suelos. Además, cuando las muestras fueron secadas al aire, la persistencia de la repelencia al agua se incrementó. Se encontró diferencia significativa en la distribución de la persistencia de la repelencia al agua entre las coberturas y entre las posiciones en la vertiente de las colinas, sin que se presentara un comportamiento similar para las tres coberturas. Los suelos bajo cobertura de ciprés fueron los que presentaron los mayores valores de WDPT en todas las condiciones de medida, siendo este el primer reporte que se hace en la literatura, con un amplio respaldo muestral, de repelencia al agua en suelos bajo dicha cobertura vegetal. En ninguno de los casos, la humedad de las muestras fue el parámetro que explicara el comportamiento observado en la repelencia al agua de los suelos estudiados.The persistence of water repellency in the A horizon of Andisols was evaluated in the Piedras Blancas watershed under three vegetative covers: Pinus patula, Cupressus lusitanica, and Quercus humboldtii, and in three different topographic conditions across the slope of a low hill, using the WDPT method with samples containing field humidities and airdried samples. In all vegetative covers, water repellency of the soils was documented. Also, when the samples were air-dried, the persistency of the water repellency increased. A significant difference in the distribution of water repellency was documented among the different vegetative covers and topographic conditions, without a consistent pattern for the

  6. Typicals/Típicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vélez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Typicals is a series of 12 colour photographs digitally created from photojournalistic images from Colombia combined with "typical" craft textiles and text from guest writers. Typicals was first exhibited as photographs 50cm x 75cm in size, each with their own magnifying glass, at the Contemporary Art Space at Gorman House in Canberra, Australia, in 2000. It was then exhibited in "Feedback: Art Social Consciousness and Resistance" at Monash University Museum of Art in Melbourne, Australia, from March to May 2003. From May to June 2003 it was exhibited at the Museo de Arte de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Santa Fé Bogotá, Colombia. In its current manifestation the artwork has been adapted from the catalogue of the museum exhibitions. It is broken up into eight pieces corresponding to the contributions of the writers. The introduction by Sylvia Vélez is the PDF file accessible via a link below this abstract. The other seven PDF files are accessible via the 'Research Support Tool' section to the right of your screen. Please click on 'Supp. Files'. Please note that these files are around 4 megabytes each, so it may be difficult to access them from a dial-up connection.

  7. CO2 and N2O emissions from an Andisol in Chile under a no-till system using non-fixed closed chambers Emisiones de CO2 y N2O desde un Andisol de Chile bajo sistema de cero labranza usando cámaras cerradas no-fijas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Muñoz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chile has different types of soil and climate conditions that favor a wide range of agricultural activities that can generate potential atmospheric contamination like greenhouse gases (GHG. Nevertheless, the contribution of agricultural soils to atmospheric emissions has yet to be measured in Chile. The aim of this study was to assess seasonal variability of CO2 and N2O effluxes in situ from a volcanic ash-derived soil under different agronomic management practices. Gas samples were obtained from headspaces of non-fixed closed chambers in an annual crop rotation under a no-till system in an Andisol in southern Chile (36° S. Two N-sources (NH4+ and NO3- and ammonium fertilization plus two lime doses (0.5 and 1 Mg ha-1 were considered for soil treatments Effluxes of CO2 and N2O were determined periodically for 1 yr, and soil variables, such as temperature, water, and mineral N content, were recorded. Results showed that CO2 effluxes respond to a seasonal pattern. No effect was evidenced when considering crop management practices with a maximum of 53.2 ± 8.5 kg CO2-C ha-1 d-1 in the wet fall period and a minimum of 9.7 ± 2.1 kg CO2-C ha-1 d-1 for summer, fall dry period, and winter. N2O efflux was highly variable throughout the year and showed no influence of treatments or season variability with a mean of 0.95 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1. Soil mineral N variations are not related to GHG effluxes as a single variable. Results indicate that an Andisol under a no-till system in southern Chile has a low N2O emission potential, and higher CO2 emissions are mainly produced in wet seasons (wet fall and/or spring.Chile tiene diferentes tipos de suelo y condiciones climáticas que favorecen un amplio rango de actividades agrícolas, las cuales pueden generar contaminación atmosférica potencial como los gases de efecto invernadero (GHG. Sin embargo, mediciones de la contribución de los suelos agrícolas en las emisiones atmosféricas de estos gases no ha sido

  8. A Typical Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Thomas; Achten, Peter; Plasmeijer, Rinus

    We present a typical synergy between dynamic types (dynamics) and generalised algebraic datatypes (GADTs). The former provides a clean approach to integrating dynamic typing in a statically typed language. It allows values to be wrapped together with their type in a uniform package, deferring type unification until run time using a pattern match annotated with the desired type. The latter allows for the explicit specification of constructor types, as to enforce their structural validity. In contrast to ADTs, GADTs are heterogeneous structures since each constructor type is implicitly universally quantified. Unfortunately, pattern matching only enforces structural validity and does not provide instantiation information on polymorphic types. Consequently, functions that manipulate such values, such as a type-safe update function, are cumbersome due to boilerplate type representation administration. In this paper we focus on improving such functions by providing a new GADT annotation via a natural synergy with dynamics. We formally define the semantics of the annotation and touch on novel other applications of this technique such as type dispatching and enforcing type equality invariants on GADT values.

  9. Extracción de Sustancias Hidrofóbicas de Andisols Repelentes al Agua del Oriente Antioqueño, con Solventes Polares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaramillo J. Daniel F.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Muestras de Andisols repelentes al agua fueron sometidas a extracciones con mezclas de solventes orgánicos de diferentes polaridaddes; los lavados con mezclas de polaridades 5 y 6 removieron completamente la hidrofobicidad del suelo, sin importar el orden en el cual se hicieron. Del comportamiento del suelo frente a las secuencias de extracción se pudo concluir que los compuestos orgánicos del suelo se acumulan en él en forma de capas, las cuales pueden presentar alternancia de compuestos hidrofóbicos con compuestos hidrofílicos; además, los compuestos más hidrofóbicos son removidos por las mezclas de solventes de mayor grado de polaridad. Se plantea la existencia de dos tipos básicos de hidrofobicidad en los compuestos orgánicos del suelo: una "hidrofobicidad posible ": la que se manifiesta cuando la arena desarrolla repelencia al agua al recibir los extractos y que detecta la presencia de compuestos hidrofóbicos en ellos. La otra, la "hidrofobicidad activa": la que se produce en suelos humectables cuando reciben extractos hidrofóbicos y muestra, no sólo la presencia de los compuestos hidrofóbicos en ellos, sino también que se están presentando las condiciones para que ellos interactúen con los componentes originales del suelo y se desarrolle la hidrofobicidad en el mismo. Extractos obtenidos por lavado de raíces finas y acículas recién caídas de Pinus patula, con mezclas de polaridades 5 y 6, no indugeron repelencia apreciable al agua, ni en suelos humectables ni en arena lavada, cuando se aplicaron en concentraciones menores de 0.4%, lo que sugiere que estos materiales deben tener algún grado de transformación para que le impriman al suelo la hidrofobicidad; además, las raíces tienen una mayor hidrofobicidad potencial que las acículas.

  10. Effects of Nitrogen on Productivity, Grain Quality, and Optimal Nitrogen Rates in Winter Wheat cv. Kumpa-INIA in Andisols of Southern Chile Efecto del Nitrógeno en Productividad, Calidad del Grano y Dosis Óptimas de Nitrógeno en Trigo Invernal cv. Kumpa-INIA en Andisoles del Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Campillo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is one of the main inputs of the winter wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L. in southern Chile. Nitrogen efficient management is basic to optimizing its utilization while decreasing pollution risks and operational costs. Crop response and N use efficiency (NUE, defined as the ratio of yield to mineral N supply, regardless of source are important for evaluating N requirements of winter wheat, and reaching maximum and economic yields. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of N rate on grain yield, calculate the N rate that maximizes yield, and estimate the optimal grain yield rate and quality of high-yielding winter wheat cv. Kumpa-INIA. Five annual N rates were evaluated in a randomized complete block design during two successive winter wheat cropping seasons on a Vilcún series soil of the Pachic Melanudands family (Andisol in La Araucania Region, Chile, and subjected to intensive annual crop rotation. Significant effects (P ≤ 0.01 of N rate on grain yield and quality were found. The optimal physical N rate (OPR in both seasons ranged from 290 to 339 kg ha-1, whereas optimal economic N rate (OER ranged from 248 to 274 kg ha-1, with yields between 10.2 and 10.1 t ha-1. Nitrogen use efficiency associated to OER was high in both seasons (36.9 and 41.2 kg grain kg-1 N and fluctuated in similar ranges. Nitrogen rate increased hectoliter weight and grain protein, but decreased NUE.El N es uno de los principales insumos del cultivo de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. en Chile. Su manejo eficiente optimiza las dosis, disminuye los riesgos de contaminación y los costos de producción. La respuesta del cultivo y eficiencia de uso de N (NUE, definida como la razón de rendimiento y suministro de N mineral, independientemente de la fuente son importantes para evaluar los requerimientos de N y alcanzar rendimientos máximos y económicos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del N en la producción y las dosis que

  11. HUMEDAD CRÍTICA Y REPELENCIA AL AGUA EN ANDISOLES BAJO COBERTURA DE Cupressus lusitanica y Quercus humboldtii EN LA CUENCA DE LA QUEBRADA PIEDRAS BLANCAS (MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA CRITICAL MOISTURE AND WATER REPELLENCY ON ANDISOLS UNDER Cupressus lusitanica AND Quercus humboldtii COVER IN THE PIEDRAS BLANCAS WATERSHED ( MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA

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    Bibiana Caballero Mejía

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En dos vertientes de la cuenca de la quebrada Piedras Blancas (Medellín, Colombia se estudió la relación humedad - persistencia de la repelencia al agua en la parte superficial de andisoles bajo dos coberturas vegetales: Cupressus lusitanica (ciprés y Quercus humboldtii (roble, en tres posiciones a lo largo de la vertiente de colinas bajas: superior, media e inferior y en dos condiciones de humedad: con la humedad de campo y con la humedad adquirida al equilibrar al aire durante dos días muestras que habían sido secadas a 105 °C. En cada sitio de la vertiente se ubicó una parcela de 6 m x 5 m y en ella se tomaron 60 muestras de suelo en una malla de 1 m x 0,5 m. La persistencia de la repelencia al agua se evaluó con el método del WDPT en muestras tamizadas a 1 mm. Se presentó un alto número de muestras fuertemente repelentes al agua en todas las condiciones de trabajo, siendo mayor la frecuencia en ciprés que en roble. Tanto la repelencia al agua como la humedad presentaron comportamiento diferencial por cobertura y por posición en la vertiente dentro de la misma cobertura. No se pudo establecer una relación consistente entre el contenido de humedad de las muestras y la persistencia de la repelencia al agua que presentaron, así como tampoco se pudo definir una zona de transición de humedad crítica para que se manifestara la repelencia al agua en ellas, en ninguna de las dos coberturas vegetales y en ninguna posición en la vertiente.In two hillside of the Piedras Blancas watershed ( Medellín, Colombia was studied the relation humidity - persistence of the water repellency on the surface of the andisols under two vegetable covers: Cupressus lusitanica (cypress and Quercus humboldtii (oak groves. These were found in three different positions along the side of low hills: upper, middle and lower grounds, as well as in two conditions of humidity: with the humidity acquired when equilibrated with the air during two days (samples

  12. Efecto de la fertilización nitrogenada sobre la actividad microbial y rendimiento de avena forrajera en un suelo andisol del departamento de Nariño, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    COMPENDIO La investigación evaluó los cambios en la actividad microbial por efecto de la aplicación de tres fuentes nitrogenadas al suelo: nitrato de potasio (13% de N y 44% de K20), sulfato de amonio (21% de N y 24% de S) y colacteos (27% de N, 10% de K y 6% de P ), en tres épocas de aplicación (a la siembra, a los 45 días y fraccionado) y en tres dosis (25, 75 y 150 kg/ha), en un suelo Andisol de Pasto, Nariño, Colombia, localizado a 2820 msnm. y 12 0C. La actividad microbial se ...

  13. Influences of nitrogen fertilization on the evolution of CO2 and yield in oat in a soil of Chimangual (Andisol, of Nariño department of Colombia Influencia de la fertilización nitrogenada sobre la evolución de CO2 y rendimiento de avena en un suelo de Chimangual (Andisol, departamento de Nariño - Colombia

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    Menjivar Juan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of nitrogen fertilization on microbial activity and yield of oat crop in a soil of Chimangual (Andisol of Nariño department of Colombia was mesasured. The experiment was designed using a factorial design arranged in a CBD. The three N sources consisted of: potassium nitrate, 13%N, ammonium sulfate 21%N and colacteos 27%N (a local nitrogen fertilizer. Also, three doses (25,75 y 150 kg N ha-1 and three application times were used: at sowing time, total at 45 days an fractional, 50% at sowing and 50% at 45 days after sowing. The higher respiration values at week 2 and 7 were observed after the higher dose of N (75 and 150 kg N ha-1 and fractional application were done. Potassium nitrate, colacteos and ammonium sulfate caused the higher increments in soil respiration and yield of green forage these fertilizer were applied at sowing time fractional and at 45 days respectively. Respiration positively correlated with yields of the established crop. Key words: Fertilizatión, respiration, yield, microbial activity, oat Avena sativa.En un diseño factorial con arreglo en BCA se analizó el efecto de tres fuentes de nitrógeno (nitrato de potasio 13% de N, sulfato de amonio 21% de N y colácteos 27% de N, este es una fuente local de fertilización, tres dosis (25, 75 y 150 kg N ha-1 y tres épocas de aplicación (a la siembra, a los 45 días y fraccionado sobre la actividad microbial y rendimiento de Avena sativa. Se encontraron valores de respiración más altos en las semanas 2 y 7 siguientes a la incorporación de las dosis más altas (75 y 150 kg N ha-1 y con las aplicaciones fraccionadas de los fertilizantes. El nitrato de potasio, colácteos y sulfato de amonio ocasionaron mayores incrementos en los valores de respiración del suelo y rendimiento de forraje verde cuando se aplicaron a la siembra, fraccionado y a los 45 días respectivamente. La respiración correlacionó positivamente con los rendimientos del cultivo establecido

  14. Efecto de la fertilización nitrogenada sobre la actividad microbial y rendimiento de avena forrajera en un suelo andisol del departamento de Nariño, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva P Amanda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available COMPENDIO La investigación evaluó los cambios en la actividad microbial por efecto de la aplicación de tres fuentes nitrogenadas al suelo: nitrato de potasio (13% de N y 44% de K20, sulfato de amonio (21% de N y 24% de S y colacteos (27% de N, 10% de K y 6% de P , en tres épocas de aplicación (a la siembra, a los 45 días y fraccionado y en tres dosis (25, 75 y 150 kg/ha, en un suelo Andisol de Pasto, Nariño, Colombia, localizado a 2820 msnm. y 12 0C. La actividad microbial se incrementó con la aplicación del fertilizante a la siembra y a los 45 días y con las dosis altas, sin importar la fuente utilizada. La época de aplicación no afectó el número de bacterias, ni la población de hongos pero sí la de actinomicetos, cuyo número se incrementó con la aplicación del fertilizante al momento de la siembra. Las dosis altas de nitrato de potasio incrementaron las poblaciones de bacterias y actinomicetos. Los contenidos de materia seca se incrementaron cuando se aplicó todo el fertilizante en la siembra o a los 45 días, mientras que los máximos rendimientos en forraje fresco, materia seca y proteína se obtuvieron con 75 y 150 kg/ha. En cuanto a las fuentes los mayores rendimientos en forraje fresco, materia seca y proteína se obtuvieron, respectivamente, con nitrato de potasio, sulfato de amonio y colácteos. Palabras clave: Avena sativa, fuentes nitrogenadas, actividad microbial, población microbial, Nariño, rendimiento. ABSTRACT Effect of nitrogen fertilization on microbial activity and forage yield in oat in an andisol of Nariño department of Colombia. The effect of three nitrogen sources potassium nitrate (13% de N y 44% de K20, ammonium sulphate (21% de N y 24% de S and colácteos (27% de N, 10 % de K20 y 6% de P2O5, at three application time (at seeding time, total at 45 days and fractional, 50% at sowing and 50% at 45 days after sowing and three doses (25, 75 and 150 kg/ha, in an Andisol of Nariño, Colombia

  15. The typical behaviour of relays

    OpenAIRE

    Alamino, Roberto C.; Saad, David

    2007-01-01

    The typical behaviour of the relay-without-delay channel and its many-units generalisation, termed the relay array, under LDPC coding, is studied using methods of statistical mechanics. A demodulate-and-forward strategy is analytically solved using the replica symmetric ansatz which is exact in the studied system at the Nishimori's temperature. In particular, the typical level of improvement in communication performance by relaying messages is shown in the case of small and large number of re...

  16. Testing typicality in multiverse cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2015-05-01

    In extracting predictions from theories that describe a multiverse, we face the difficulty that we must assess probability distributions over possible observations prescribed not just by an underlying theory, but by a theory together with a conditionalization scheme that allows for (anthropic) selection effects. This means we usually need to compare distributions that are consistent with a broad range of possible observations with actual experimental data. One controversial means of making this comparison is by invoking the "principle of mediocrity": that is, the principle that we are typical of the reference class implicit in the conjunction of the theory and the conditionalization scheme. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the principle of mediocrity in a range of cosmological settings, employing "xerographic distributions" to impose a variety of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that for a fixed theory, the assumption that we are typical gives rise to higher likelihoods for our observations. If, however, one allows both the underlying theory and the assumption of typicality to vary, then the assumption of typicality does not always provide the highest likelihoods. Interpreted from a Bayesian perspective, these results support the claim that when one has the freedom to consider different combinations of theories and xerographic distributions (or different "frameworks"), one should favor the framework that has the highest posterior probability; and then from this framework one can infer, in particular, how typical we are. In this way, the invocation of the principle of mediocrity is more questionable than has been recently claimed.

  17. Testing typicality in multiverse cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Azhar, Feraz

    2015-01-01

    In extracting predictions from theories that describe a multiverse, we face the difficulty that we must assess probability distributions over possible observations, prescribed not just by an underlying theory, but by a theory together with a conditionalization scheme that allows for (anthropic) selection effects. This means we usually need to compare distributions that are consistent with a broad range of possible observations, with actual experimental data. One controversial means of making this comparison is by invoking the 'principle of mediocrity': that is, the principle that we are typical of the reference class implicit in the conjunction of the theory and the conditionalization scheme. In this paper, I quantitatively assess the principle of mediocrity in a range of cosmological settings, employing 'xerographic distributions' to impose a variety of assumptions regarding typicality. I find that for a fixed theory, the assumption that we are typical gives rise to higher likelihoods for our observations. I...

  18. Typical errors of ESP users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.; Korneva, Anna A.

    2004-07-01

    The paper presents analysis of the errors made by ESP (English for specific purposes) users which have been considered as typical. They occur as a result of misuse of resources of English grammar and tend to resist. Their origin and places of occurrence have also been discussed.

  19. Typicality, graded membership, and vagueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, James A

    2007-05-01

    This paper addresses theoretical problems arising from the vagueness of language terms, and intuitions of the vagueness of the concepts to which they refer. It is argued that the central intuitions of prototype theory are sufficient to account for both typicality phenomena and psychological intuitions about degrees of membership in vaguely defined classes. The first section explains the importance of the relation between degrees of membership and typicality (or goodness of example) in conceptual categorization. The second and third section address arguments advanced by Osherson and Smith (1997), and Kamp and Partee (1995), that the two notions of degree of membership and typicality must relate to fundamentally different aspects of conceptual representations. A version of prototype theory-the Threshold Model-is proposed to counter these arguments and three possible solutions to the problems of logical selfcontradiction and tautology for vague categorizations are outlined. In the final section graded membership is related to the social construction of conceptual boundaries maintained through language use.

  20. DISTRIBUCIÓN DE FRACCIONES DE TAMAÑOS MOLECULARES DE ÁCIDOS HÚMICOS Y FÚLVICOS EXTRAÍDOS DE ANDISOLES DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Herrera

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el análisis elemental y la distribución de tamaños moleculares de los ácidos húmicos (AH y fúlvicos (AF de los horizontes Ap y AB de dos perfiles de suelos clasificados como Typic Fulvudand (Marsella y Acrudoxic Melanudand (Combia, procedentes del municipio de Marsella, departamento deRisaralda, Colombia. Con tal fin se acopló la técnica de cromatografía de exclusión por tamaño con Sephadex (G-25, G-75 y G-100 con la ultracentrifugación con gradiente de densidad de sacarosa.Tanto los AF como los AH presentan mayor polidispersidad en el horizonte AB que en el Ap del suelo Marsella, donde los ácidos húmicos presentan menor tamaño molecular. En Ap, la mayorpolidispersidad se obtuvo en los ácidos húmicos en el intervalo de peso molecular >150.000 Daltons. Aunque los AH del horizonte Ap presentan menor E4/E6, y mayor tamaño molecular, son menos polidispersos que los AH del horizonte AB, lo que indica que en la distribución de fracciones moleculares influyen otros factores, diferentes al tamaño, como son las fuerzas de interacción inter e intramolecular. Los perfiles de polidispersidad por cromatografía deexclusión ponen en evidencia las diferencias entre los dos suelos en estudio  acordes con su clasificación a nivel de gran grupo.

  1. EFECTO DEL USO Y LA COBERTURA DEL SUELO SOBRE EL PERFIL DE POLIDISPERSIDAD DE ÁCIDOS HÚMICOS EXTRAÍDOS DE UN ANDISOL DEL DEPARTAMENTO DE CALDAS, COLOMBIA

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    Lizeth Manuela Avellaneda

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de conocer el posible efecto del uso y la cobertura del suelo, sobre el perfil de polidispersidadde los ácidos húmicos, se analizaron los horizontes A de tres muestras de suelo de un andisol (Melanudands del departamento de Caldas, Colombia, con diferentes condiciones de manejo y cobertura: bajo bosque de guadua, bajo café con sombrío de guamo y bajo café de libre exposición. Para ello, en la fracción inferior a 50 µm, se realizó la extracción secuencial de las sustancias húmicas con soluciones de tetraborato (Na2B4O7 0,05 M, pirofosfato (Na4P2O7 0,025 M e hidróxido de sodio (NaOH 0,1M y la separación y purificación de los respectivos ácidos húmicos. Para obtener los perfiles se acoplaron las técnicas de separación de cromatografía de exclusión por tamaño utilizando Sephadex G-75 y ultracentrifugación por gradiente de densidad con sacarosa y se elaboraron gráficas de distribución por tamaño (absorbancia (450 nm vs. volumen eluido. Se encontró que los ácidos húmicos extraídos con hidróxido de sodio presentaron en todas las muestras menor polidispersidad, mayor tamaño, peso y aromaticidad evaluada por la relación E4/E6. Los resultados no mostraron, en general, efecto drástico del uso y la cobertura del suelo, sobre el perfil de polidispersidad y el coeficiente de sedimentación de los ácidos húmicos, lo cual está relacionado con el tamaño, peso y densidad molecular de los mismos. Sin embargo, se encontró que los ácidos húmicos de las muestras de suelo bajo café con sombrío de guamo y café de libre exposición son muy similares entre sí y diferentes de la muestra bajo bosque de guadua, lo que se asoció con un inicio del efecto del uso y la cobertura del  suelo sobre el tamaño de los ácidos húmicos del suelo; se presume que a largo término este efecto podría acentuarse y eventualmente ser considerado como indicador de degradación del componente orgánico del suelo.

  2. SOIL PROPERTIES OF THE EASTERN TOPOSEQUENCE OF MOUNT KELIMUTU, FLORES ISLAND, EAST NUSA TENGGARA AND THEIR POTENTIAL FOR AGRICULTURAL USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmatullah Hikmatullah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kelimutu stratovolcano is one of the young volcanoes extensively found in Flores island. Studies on volcanic soil properties and their suitability for agricultural development in the whole island are lacking. The research was conducted to evaluate the relationship of elevation and soil properties,  and suitability for agricultural development. Five representative pedons at elevation of 550, 1,000, 1,200, 1,400, and 1,600 m above sea level (asl, respectively, were studied in the field, and 22 soil samples were analyzed in the laboratory. The results indicated that elevation significantly affected soil properties and degree of soil weathering. With decreasing elevation, sand content, amorphous material content, and phosphate retention decreased. Concomitantly, clay content, H2O-pH, exchangeable Ca and Mg, base saturation, and soil-CEC increased. A highly positive correlation was shown between P retention and NaFpH, Al, and (Al+0.5 Fe contents extracted by acid ammonium oxalate. Soil-CEC also showed significant positive correlation with clay and silt contents, organic carbon, and exchangeable Ca and Mg. Degree of weathering increased with decreasing elevation as reflected by decreasing silt/clay ratio. Soils developed from Entisols (Lithic Udorthents at 1,600 m asl, to Andisols (Typic Hapludands at 1,000-1,400 m asl, and Mollisols (Typic Hapludolls at lower elevation down to 550 m asl. Soils at 1,400-1,600 m asl are unsuitable for  agriculture. Soils at 1,000-1,200 m are moderately suitable for food crops, horticulture, and estate crops. Dominant limiting factors are steep slopes and P retention. Soils at 550 m asl are suitable for food and estate crops, and also lowland horticulture.

  3. Three Aspects of Typicality in Multiverse Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-01-01

    Extracting predictions from cosmological theories that describe a multiverse, for what we are likely to observe in our domain, is crucial to establishing the validity of these theories. One way to extract such predictions is from theory-generated probability distributions that allow for selection effects---generally expressed in terms of assumptions about anthropic conditionalization and how typical we are. In this paper, I urge three lessons about typicality in multiverse settings. (i) Because it is difficult to characterize our observational situation in the multiverse, we cannot assume that we are typical (as in the 'principle of mediocrity'): nor can we ignore the issue of typicality, for it has a measurable impact on predictions for our observations. (ii) There are spectra of assumptions about both conditionalization and typicality, which lead to coincident predictions for our observations, leading to problems of confirmation in multiverse cosmology. And moreover, (iii) when one has the freedom to consid...

  4. Some typical solid propellant rocket motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, B.T.C.

    2013-01-01

    Typical Solid Propellant Rocket Motors (shortly referred to as Solid Rocket Motors; SRM's) are described with the purpose to form a database, which allows for comparative analysis and applications in practical SRM engineering.

  5. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2014-02-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typicality translate to errors in the assessment of predictive power. We conjecture that this dependence on typicality is an integral feature of anthropic reasoning in broader cosmological contexts, and argue in favour of the explicit inclusion of measures of typicality in schemes invoking anthropic reasoning, with a view to extracting predictions from multiverse scenarios.

  6. How typical are 'typical' tremor characteristics? : Sensitivity and specificity of five tremor phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; Elting, J. W.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; van Laar, T.; Leenders, K. L.; Maurits, N. M.; Tijssen, M. Aj.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Distinguishing between different tremor disorders can be challenging. Some tremor disorders are thought to have typical tremor characteristics: the current study aims to provide sensitivity and specificity for five 'typical' tremor phenomena. Methods: Retrospectively, we examined 210 t

  7. What is typical is good: the influence of face typicality on perceived trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality's influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness judgments. Here, we argue that face typicality is an important factor for social perception because it affects trustworthiness judgments, which approximate the basic evaluation of faces. This effect has been overlooked because trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments have a high level of shared variance for most face samples. We show that for a continuum of faces that vary on a typicality-attractiveness dimension, trustworthiness judgments peak around the typical face. In contrast, perceived attractiveness increases monotonically past the typical face, as faces become more like the most attractive face. These findings suggest that face typicality is an important determinant of face evaluation.

  8. What is typical is good: The influence of face typicality on perceived trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, C.; Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Todorov, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality's influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  9. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Azhar, Feraz

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typi...

  10. Typical horticultural products between tradition and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenza Chessa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent EU and National policies for agriculture and rural development are mainly focused to foster the production of high quality products as a result of the increasing demand of food safety, typical foods and traditional processing methods. Another word very often used to describe foods in these days is “typicality” which pools together the concepts of “food connected with a specific place”, “historical memory and tradition” and “culture”. The importance for the EU and the National administrations of the above mentioned kind of food is demonstrated, among other things, by the high number of the PDO, PGI and TSG certificated products in Italy. In this period of global markets and economical crisis farmers are realizing how “typical products” can be an opportunity to maintain their market share and to improve the economy of local areas. At the same time, new tools and strategy are needed to reach these goals. A lack of knowledge has being recognized also on how new technologies and results coming from recent research can help in exploiting traditional product and in maintaining the biodiversity. Taking into account the great variety and richness of typical products, landscapes and biodiversity, this report will describe and analyze the relationships among typicality, innovation and research in horticulture. At the beginning “typicality” and “innovation” will be defined also through some statistical features, which ranks Italy at the first place in terms of number of typical labelled products, then will be highlighted how typical products of high quality and connected with the tradition and culture of specific production areas are in a strict relationship with the value of agro-biodiversity. Several different examples will be used to explain different successful methods and/or strategies used to exploit and foster typical Italian vegetables, fruits and flowers. Finally, as a conclusion, since it is thought that

  11. Modelling Typical Online Language Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…

  12. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty.

  13. What Is Typical Is Good : The Influence of Face Typicality on Perceived Trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality’s influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  14. Hail damage to typical aircraft surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayduk, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Severe structural damage can occur when aircraft collide with hailstones. Consequently, methods of predicting hail damage to airplane surfaces are needed by the aircraft designer. This paper describes an analytical method of predicting the dent depth and final deformed shape for simple structural components impacted by hailstones. The solution was accomplished by adapting the DEPROSS computer program to the problem of normal impact of hail on flat metallic sheets and spherical metallic caps. Experimental data and analytical predictions are presented for hail damage to typical aircraft surfaces along with a description of the hail gun and hail simulation technique used in the experimental study.

  15. Youth spare time: Typical patterns of behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanović Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have tried to identify typical patterns of young people's behavior in their spare time and to use these patterns in order to group our subjects regarding their interests and preferences. Main-component analysis showed that it was possible to find different patterns of secondary school students' behavior in spare time as well as that the identified models could be the criteria for grouping them. Five patterns have been identified describing youth orientations towards their free time: academic orientation, orientation towards sports, orientation towards entertainment, orientation towards spending time going out and orientation towards music and computers.

  16. A Psychoanalytic Approach to Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊

    2015-01-01

    Typical American is the representative work of Gish Jen, a famous Chinese American woman writer. This novel is based on the three youth, Ralph, Theresa, and Helen who came to America to study and then became American citizens. This thesis tries to analyze the special psychological state of them from the perspective of psychoanalysis according to Freud 's psychoanalytic theo-ry. Through the writing of this thesis, the author regards that their specific psychoanalytic state is a group features. To learn these special features can help us have a good understanding of people coming from different cultural backgrounds.

  17. Typical Women Figures in Hemingway's Fictional World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春会; 范璐

    2008-01-01

    Ernest Hemingway is widely regarded as a giant figure in American literature, but meantime he is often criticized for his prejudice against women. However, whether Ernest Hemingway is a misogynist writer or not, I believe is largely depended on readers' comprehension of his works. This paper launched an interesting study on typical women characters in Hemingway's fictional world. The study also reveals that fact that far from being a misogynist writer, Hemingway shows great concern to women as a group. Not only did he own strong insight on women but also expressed his sympathy towards women.

  18. On Typicality in Nonequilibrium Steady States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Denis J.; Williams, Stephen R.; Searles, Debra J.; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2016-08-01

    From the statistical mechanical viewpoint, relaxation of macroscopic systems and response theory rest on a notion of typicality, according to which the behavior of single macroscopic objects is given by appropriate ensembles: ensemble averages of observable quantities represent the measurements performed on single objects, because " almost all" objects share the same fate. In the case of non-dissipative dynamics and relaxation toward equilibrium states, " almost all" is referred to invariant probability distributions that are absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure. In other words, the collection of initial micro-states (single systems) that do not follow the ensemble is supposed to constitute a set of vanishing, phase space volume. This approach is problematic in the case of dissipative dynamics and relaxation to nonequilibrium steady states, because the relevant invariant distributions attribute probability 1 to sets of zero volume, while evolution commonly begins in equilibrium states, i.e., in sets of full phase space volume. We consider the relaxation of classical, thermostatted particle systems to nonequilibrium steady states. We show that the dynamical condition known as Ω T-mixing is necessary and sufficient for relaxation of ensemble averages to steady state values. Moreover, we find that the condition known as weak T-mixing applied to smooth observables is sufficient for ensemble relaxation to be independent of the initial ensemble. Lastly, we show that weak T-mixing provides a notion of typicality for dissipative dynamics that is based on the (non-invariant) Lebesgue measure, and that we call physical ergodicity.

  19. Typical object velocity influences motion extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, Alexis D J; Stewart, Andrew J; Poliakoff, Ellen

    2009-02-01

    Previous work indicates that extrapolation of object motion during occlusion is affected by the velocity of the immediately preceding trial. Here we ask whether longer-term velocity representations can also influence motion extrapolation. Red, blue or green targets disappeared behind an occluder. Participants pressed a button when they thought the target had reached the other side. Red targets were slower (10-20 deg/s), blue targets moved at medium velocities (14-26 deg/s) and green targets were faster (20-30 deg/s). We compared responses on a subset of red and green trials which always travelled at 20 deg/s. Although trial velocities were identical, participants responded as if the green targets moved faster (M = 22.64 deg/s) then the red targets (M = 19.72 deg/s). This indicates that motion extrapolation is affected by longer-term information about the typical velocity of different categories of stimuli.

  20. Manipulating decision making of typical agents

    CERN Document Server

    Yukalov, V I

    2014-01-01

    We investigate how the choice of decision makers can be varied under the presence of risk and uncertainty. Our analysis is based on the approach we have previously applied to individual decision makers, which we now generalize to the case of decision makers that are members of a society. The approach employs the mathematical techniques that are common in quantum theory, justifying our naming as Quantum Decision Theory. However, we do not assume that decision makers are quantum objects. The techniques of quantum theory are needed only for defining the prospect probabilities taking into account such hidden variables as behavioral biases and other subconscious feelings. The approach describes an agent's choice as a probabilistic event occurring with a probability that is the sum of a utility factor and of an attraction factor. The attraction factor embodies subjective and unconscious dimensions in the mind of the decision maker. We show that the typical aggregate amplitude of the attraction factor is $1/4$, and ...

  1. Typicity in Potato: Characterization of Geographic Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Manzelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-year study was carried out in three regions of Italy and the crop performance and the chemical composition of tubers of three typical potato varieties evaluated. Carbon and nitrogen tuber content was determined by means of an elemental analyzer and the other mineral elements by means of a spectrometer. The same determinations were performed on soil samples taken from experimental areas. The Principal Component Analysis, applied to the results of mineral element tuber analysis, permitted the classification of all potato tuber samples according to their geographic origin. Only a partial discrimination was obtained in function of potato varieties. Some correlations between mineral content in the tubers and in the soil were also detected. Analytical and statistical methods proved to be useful in verifying the authenticity of guaranteed geographical food denominations.

  2. Iron absorption from typical Latin American diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, A; Amar, M; Cornbluth-Szarfarc, S C; Dillman, E; Fosil, M; Biachi, R G; Grebe, G; Hertrampf, E; Kremenchuzky, S; Layrisse, M

    1984-06-01

    The availability and daily absorption of iron was determined by the extrinsic label method in typical lower middle to lower class diets consumed in regions of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. Differences in iron absorption from meals up to 7-fold, could be attributed to the varying contents of absorption enhancers, eg, in meat, and of inhibitors in tea, vegetables, and wheat or maize bread. The total iron available in the diets from four countries did not meet the physiological requirements for normal subjects but deficient subjects fulfilled their requirements absorbing from 1.0 to 2.1 mg/day. In five diets heme iron (6 to 24% of the total) provided 34 to 73% of the iron absorbed. These data suggest that such absorption and utilization studies may be used to correlate the prevalence of iron deficiency in a population with certain diets and to guide fortification programs.

  3. [Typical forms of schizophrenia in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, E; Konzewoi, V

    1978-01-01

    Aside from typical forms of late schizophrenia which generally conform to the definition given by M. Bleuler, there also are psychoses appearing in old age which differ significantly from the atypical symptoms and consequently present certain diagnostic difficulties. This report contains descriptions of late manifestations in schizophrenic psychoses, which develop with a continuous or assault-like course with a prevalence of parnoial disorders. Paranoid delusions, in such cases, are characterized by aging traits (concrete and short-term delusions, exaggeration of the degree of superficial persecution and prejudice, and a limited number of people involved in the delusions). The development of such forms of late schizophrenia takes a slowly progressing course. The results of these studies, especially the psychopathological symptomatology, the genetic-constitutional background and the development and outcome of these psychoses are analyzed in detail. The data permit to consider such forms of psychose as atypical variants of late schizophrenia.

  4. ONE TYPICAL EXTREMUM IN ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Goroshko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to attract attention of teachers, scientific personnel, engineers and students to one peculiarity of extremum seeking in different electrical problems. This feature lies in the fact that in many parts of electrical engineering extremum seeking comes to analysis one and the same mathematical structure (T-structure, but differences lie only in many symbols (designation.In one problems this structure appear in finale, the most simple form, but in others – T-structure is “veiled”, and as a rule  we need  elementary algebraic transformation to detect it.Taking into account high frequency of this structure appearing in electrical problems, in the first part of article the authors  carried out the investigation of extremum characteristics of T-structure and show the results in easy algorithms. To determine the typical T-structure there were taken five problems-examples for extremum seeking  from different parts of electrical engineering. The first and the second examples belong to the theory of electrical circuits.In the first example the problem of maximum active load power obtaining was considered, in the second we see the solution of problem for inductive coupled circuit adjustment in order to obtain the hump current. In the third example the band active filter, built on operating amplifier, is analyzed. According to these methods, taken in the first part of article, the frequency is determined, on which amplifier provides maximum  amplification factor. The forth example deals with analysis of efficiency of transformer. According to algorithm, the optimal efficiency of transformer’s load and also equation for its maximum was determined in this article. In the fifth example the mechanical characteristics of induction motor is analyzed. It is indicated how, on the basis of algorithms article, to obtain equations for critical slip and motor moment, and also the simple development of formula Klossa.The methods of

  5. TYPICAL ABSENCES: RESULTS OF OWN INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical absences (TA are brief primary generalized epileptic seizures characterized by sudden onset and termination. According to their definition, absences consist of impairment of consciousness that is synchronously accompanied by electroencephalographic (EEG changes as generalized spike–slow wave discharges of 3 or more Hz. The authors conducted an investigation of 1261 patients with different forms of epilepsy with onset of seizures from the first days of life to the age of 18 years. The patients were followed up from 1990 to 2010. Absence seizures were detected in 231 patients, which accounts for 18.3 % of all the epileptic patients. TA were found in 102 patients, which constitutes 8.1 % of all cases of epilepsy with onset of seizures beyond the age of 18 years. The paper provides a detailed analysis of a group of patients with TA in terms of anamnestic, clinical, electroencephalographic, and neuroimaging features and the results of therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. The age of onset of TA-associated epilepsy was from 9 months to 17 years (mean 9.4 ± 4.06 years. The disease occurred most frequently in young school-age children (41.2 %. Isolated TA as the only type of seizures were observed in the clinical picture of 28 (27.5 % patients. TA were concurrent with other types of seizures in other cases. The investigators have identified 4 types of seizures which TA (generalized convulsions, myoclonic seizures, febrile seizures, and eyelid myoclonia may be concurrent with. Neuroimaging stated there were no brain changes in 85.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. Moderate diffuse subatrophic changes were detected in other cases (14.7 %. Local cerebral structural abnormalities were absent. The use of antiepileptic therapy as both monotherapy and polytherapy using different combinations showed the high efficacy of AEDs. Complete remission was achieved in 84.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. An AED-induced reduction in the frequency of

  6. The typical mass ratio and typical final spin in supermassive black hole mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Gergely, László Á

    2012-01-01

    We prove that merging supermassive black holes (SMBHs) typically have neither equal masses, nor is their mass ratio too extreme. The majority of such mergers fall into the mass ratio range of 1:30 to 1:3, implying a spin flip during the inspiral. We also present a simple expression for the final spin $\\chi_{f}$ of the emerging SMBH, as function of the mass ratio, initial spin magnitudes, and orientation of the spins with respect to the orbital plane and each other. This formula approximates well more cumbersome expressions obtained from the fit with numerical simulations. By integrating over all equally likely orientations for precessing mergers we determine a lower approximant to the final spin distribution as function of the mass ratio alone. By folding this with the derived mass ratio dependent merger rate we derive a lower bound to the typical final spin value after mergers. We repeat the procedure deriving an upper bound for the typical spin in the case when the spins are aligned to the orbital angular m...

  7. Application of the"typical"in artistic creation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘臣臣

    2014-01-01

    Art in the creation of the"typical"is the typical art. Its meaning is often explained as: refers to artists through individual and nature created, some essence and law can reflect the reality of life, but also has the unique feature, which show some times people's aesthetic ideal, and showed the artists own unique aesthetic feeling of artistic image. Mainly refers to the character image, known as the "typical character" "typical character" or"typical character", but also refers to the environment or the event, called "a typical environment" or "typical events". Art was typical of image usually is the highly generalization is representative of the people or things in real life and the summary, the formation of artistic works in the image by retouching the, in fact typical art image is more vivid than reality, universal higher and the aesthetic value of richer.

  8. Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's.

  9. Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's.

  10. A Relationship between Typical Script Events and Positive Interpersonal Judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjafield, John; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the possibility that the extent to which people expect typical events to occur is correlated with the degree to which people make positive judgements about their acquaintances. Results supported this possibility and suggested that the typicality of scripts is indicative of the general positivity of a person's expectations. (Author/JAC)

  11. Three Typical Dermatological Cases Treated by Dr. Li Yueping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shaoqiong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Dr. Li Yueping has been engaged in dermatological clinic for more than 40 years, accumulating rich experience in treating dermatological diseases. The following is three typical cases she gave successful treatment.

  12. Evaluating propensity score balance measures in typical pharmacoepidemiological settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Mohammed S.; Groenwold, Rolf H. H.; Pestman, Wiebe R.; Belitser, S.; Hoes, Arno W.; Roes, Kit C. B.; De Boer, Anthonius; Klungel, Olaf H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several propensity score (PS) balance measures have been compared in simulated data with normally distributed covariates. Comparisons in data with binary or mixed covariate distributions and rare outcomes, typical of pharmacoepidemiologic data sets, are scarce. Objectives: To compare bal

  13. Gearbox Typical Failure Modes, Detection, and Mitigation Methods (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation was given at the AWEA Operations & Maintenance and Safety Seminar and focused on what the typical gearbox failure modes are, how to detect them using detection techniques, and strategies that help mitigate these failures.

  14. Food and Wine Tourism: an Analysis of Italian Typical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to focus the specific role of local food productions in spite of its relationship with tourism sector to valorization and promotion of the territorial cultural heritage. The modern agriculture has been and, in the recent years, several specific features are emerging referring to different territorials areas. Tourist would like to have a complete experience consumption of a destination, specifically to natural and cultural heritage and genuine food. This contribute addresses the topics connected to the relationship between typical productions system and tourism sector to underline the competitive advantages to local development. The typical productions are Designation of Protected Origin (Italian DOP, within wine certifications DOCG and DOC and Typical Geographical Indication (IGP and wine’s IGT. The aim is an analysis of the specialization of these kinds of production at Italian regional scale. The implication of the work has connected with defining a necessary and appropriate value strategies based on marketing principles in order to translate the benefit of typical productions to additional value for the local system. Thus, the final part of the paper describes the potential dynamics with the suitable accommodation typology of agriturismo and the typical production system of Italian Administrative Regions.

  15. Entanglement Dynamics in Typical Local- and Normal-Mode Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xi-Wen; WAN Ming-Fang; MA Zhong-Qi

    2007-01-01

    The entanglement dynamics of two stretching vibrations in theoretically typical local- and normal-mode molecules and realistic molecules H2O and SO2 in an algebraic model is studied in terms of the reduced-density linear entropy with initial entangled states taken to be two-mode squeezed vacuum states. It is shown that the behaviour of the entropy in theoretically typical molecules appears to be more regular than that in realistic ones, and that the entropy becomes irregular as the amplitude of two-mode squeezed vacuum states increases. For initial states with a small amplitude, it is demonstrated that the periodicity and the "classical" beat phenomenon of the entropy occur with the beat in theoretically typical molecules being more regular than that in realistic molecules H2O and SO2.

  16. Typical neuroleptic malignant syndrome presented in patient on maintenance quetiapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintan Madhusudan Raval

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is an acute, life-threatening medical complication caused by antipsychotics. It is commonly seen with typical antipsychotics and very rare with atypicals. Cases have been reported with quetiapine also, but this case is of special interest because it occurred in patient who was stable on maintenance quetiapine 200 mg/day for last 5 years.

  17. The Roots of Disillusioned American Dream in Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古冬华

    2016-01-01

    Typical American is one of Gish Jen’s notable novels catching attention of the American literary circle. The motif of disillusioned American dream can be seen clearly through the experiences of three main characters. From perspectives of the consumer culture and cultural conflicts, this paper analyzes the roots of the disillusioned American dream in the novel.

  18. Sonographic findings of typical and atypical scrotal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Daniel N; Jensen, Jeff

    2015-06-01

    This review article illustrates sonographic findings in the setting of accidental and nonaccidental scrotal trauma. Although sonographic findings may be irrespective of the type of trauma, the goals of sonographic evaluation are similar in both atypical and typical mechanisms of scrotal injury. Familiarity with findings such as disruption of testicular integrity or vascularity facilitates prompt diagnosis and plays a critical role in clinical management.

  19. Describing Typical Capstone Course Experiences from a National Random Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahe, Jon E.; Hauhart, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    The pedagogical value of capstones has been regularly discussed within psychology. This study presents results from an examination of a national random sample of department webpages and an online survey that characterized the typical capstone course in terms of classroom activities and course administration. The department webpages provide an…

  20. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  1. Fostering an Interest in Science in a Typically Underrepresented Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sarah F.; McEntire, Jennifer Cleveland; Sarakatsannis, James

    2007-01-01

    This "case study" details how food science was introduced into the classrooms of a typically underrepresented population. James Sarakatsannis, an 8th grade physical science teacher, was planning a unit that would use fast food to teach science to his classes, when he came across the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) website and a wealth of…

  2. Temperament Dimensions in Stuttering and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F.; Van den Bergh, Bea R. H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether children who stutter (CWS) and typically developing children (TDC) differ from each other on composite temperament factors or on individual temperament scales. Methods: Participants consisted of 116 age and gender-matched CWS and TDC (3.04-8.11). Temperament was assessed with a Dutch…

  3. BRONCHOSCOPIC THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH INTRALUMINAL TYPICAL BRONCHIAL CARCINOID

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SUTEDJA, TG; SCHREURS, AJ; VANDERSCHUEREN, RG; KWA, B; VANDERWERF, TS; POSTMUS, PE

    1995-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficacy of bronchoscopic therapy in patients with intraluminal typical bronchial carcinoid. Design: Retrospective analysis of the data of patients with bronchial carcinoid, treated primarily with bronchoscopic techniques such as Nd-YAG laser in various hospitals in the Nethe

  4. Stimulus Overselectivity in Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, William V.; Farber, Rachel S.; Mueller, Marlana R.; Grant, Eileen; Lorin, Lucy; Deutsch, Curtis K.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulus overselectivity refers to maladaptive narrow attending that is a common learning problem among children with intellectual disabilities and frequently associated with autism. The present study contrasted overselectivity among groups of children with autism, Down syndrome, and typical development. The groups with autism and Down syndrome…

  5. Typical School Day Experiences of Indian Children in Different Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, N.; Malar, G.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that India has experienced conditions that have lead to significant illiteracy, but that commitment to education can be found in lesser-known parts of India today. Profiles three schools in Tamil Nadu and describes a typical school day for a student with special needs, a student in a tribal setting, and a student in a rural setting. (TJQ)

  6. Typical Lexical and Syntactical Mistakes in Technical Treatises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Gedzevičienė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article suggests the analysis of typical mechanically made lexical and syntactical mistakes appearing in treatises. The article also provides the examples of mistakes found in this book. Causes for language mistakes (mistakes in using the wrong words, cases and prepositions and correction of errors are given.Article in Lithuanian

  7. The simulation study of three typical time frequency analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yifeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The principals and characteristics of three typical time frequency analysis methods that Short Time Furious transformation, wavelet transformation and Hilbert-Huang transformation are introduced, and the mathematical definition, characteristics and application ranges of these analysis methods and so on are pointed out, then their time-frequency local performance is made analysis and comparison through computer programming and simulation.

  8. 28 CFR 61.5 - Typical classes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Implementing Procedures § 61.5 Typical classes of action. (a) The NEPA.... These classes are: actions normally requiring environmental impact statements (EIS), actions normally...; (ii) Proposals for legislation developed by or with the significant cooperation and support of...

  9. Whittaker categories and strongly typical Whittaker modules for Lie superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Bagci, Irfan; Wiesner, Emilie

    2012-01-01

    Following analogous constructions for Lie algebras, we define Whittaker modules and Whittaker categories for finite-dimensional simple Lie superalgebras. Results include a decomposition of Whittaker categories for a Lie superalgebra according to the action of an appropriate sub-superalgebra; and, for basic classical Lie superalgebras of type I, a description of the strongly typical simple Whittaker modules.

  10. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  11. Realizing the Typical Gas Burning System' s Control by PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang,Hengcheng; Wang,Yanbin

    2003-01-01

    This Paper introduced the typical gas burning sys-tem's cemposing, analysesed and discussed its operation theoryand two different leak control methods in detail, investigatedconcretely the software and hardware design project of realizingcontrol and performed communication with upper computer bySiemens' s S7-300 Programmable Logical Controller.

  12. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Sung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu College of Medicine, Daegu 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk Jung [Department of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Yoon [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast.

  13. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-02-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each conditionalization scheme studied, we analyze how correlations between densities of different dark matter species affect the prediction, and explicate the effects of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that the effects of correlations can depend on the conditionalization scheme, and that in each case atypicality can significantly change the prediction. In doing so, we demonstrate the existence of overlaps in the predictions of different "frameworks" consisting of conjunctions of theory, conditionalization scheme and typicality assumption. This conclusion highlights the acute challenges involved in using such tests to identify a preferred framework that aims to describe our observational situation in a multiverse.

  14. Quantum typicality in spin network states of quantum geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Anzà, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we extend the so-called typicality approach, originally formulated in statistical mechanics contexts, to SU(2) invariant spin network states. Our results do not depend on the physical interpretation of the spin-network, however they are mainly motivated by the fact that spin-network states can describe states of quantum geometry, providing a gauge-invariant basis for the kinematical Hilbert space of several background independent approaches to quantum gravity. The first result is, by itself, the existence of a regime in which we show the emergence of a typical state. We interpret this as the prove that, in that regime there are certain (local) properties of quantum geometry which are "universal". Such set of properties is heralded by the typical state, of which we give the explicit form. This is our second result. In the end, we study some interesting properties of the typical state, proving that the area-law for the entropy of a surface must be satisfied at the local level, up to logarithmic c...

  15. Energy Renovation of a Typical Danish Single-family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    the effect of the new requirements for renovation is that existing buildings should be brought up to the energy performance level of new buildings in connection with larger renovations and other substantial changes in the buildings. To demonstrate how it could be done, a thorough energy efficient renovation...... of a typical Danish single-family house from the 1960/70’s with need of renovation has been initiated and the preliminary results are presented in this paper. It is worth noting that about 500,000 of a total of 1.1 million Danish detached single-family houses were erected in that time period. Specifically......, the purpose of the project was to demonstrate that energy efficient renovation of a typical single-family house would lead to large reductions in energy consumption in a cost efficient manner, and at the same time improve living conditions. The focus has also been on achieving a commonly acceptable design...

  16. Artificial bias typically neglected in comparisons of uncertain atmospheric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Mikko R. A.; Mikkonen, Santtu; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.; Lipponen, Antti; Arola, Antti

    2016-09-01

    Publications in atmospheric sciences typically neglect biases caused by regression dilution (bias of the ordinary least squares line fitting) and regression to the mean (RTM) in comparisons of uncertain data. We use synthetic observations mimicking real atmospheric data to demonstrate how the biases arise from random data uncertainties of measurements, model output, or satellite retrieval products. Further, we provide examples of typical methods of data comparisons that have a tendency to pronounce the biases. The results show, that data uncertainties can significantly bias data comparisons due to regression dilution and RTM, a fact that is known in statistics but disregarded in atmospheric sciences. Thus, we argue that often these biases are widely regarded as measurement or modeling errors, for instance, while they in fact are artificial. It is essential that atmospheric and geoscience communities become aware of and consider these features in research.

  17. [A case of disseminated gonococcal infection without typical skin rash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Kazuhisa; Gomi, Harumi; Morisawa, Yuji

    2011-07-01

    Few case reports have been published on disseminated gonococcal infection in Japan. We report such a non-HIV case without typical skin rash. A 49-year-old Japanese man living in Thailand on business was seen for fever and multiple arthralgia after returning to Japan. Given the travel history, differential diagnoses included endemic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dengue fever, and chikungunya. Diagnosis was based on right-knee arthrocentesis, and synovial fluid culture followed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The isolated strain was sensitive to penicillin. The man was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone and oral levofloxacin. Disseminated gonococcal infection should thus be considered when examining those with classical polyarthralgia symptoms even without a typical skin rash.

  18. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-01-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each condi...

  19. Diagnosis and management of typical and atypical lung carcinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusceddu, Sara; Lo Russo, Giuseppe; Macerelli, Marianna; Proto, Claudia; Vitali, Milena; Signorelli, Diego; Ganzinelli, Monica; Scanagatta, Paolo; Duranti, Leonardo; Trama, Annalisa; Buzzoni, Roberto; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Pastorino, Ugo; de Braud, Filippo; Garassino, Marina Chiara

    2016-04-01

    An estimated 20% to 30% of all neuroendocrine tumours originate in the bronchial tree and lungs. According to the 2015 World Health Organization categorization, these tumours are separated into four subtypes characterized by increasing biological aggressiveness: typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small-cell carcinoma. Although typical and atypical lung carcinoids account for less than 1-5% of all pulmonary malignancies, the incidence of these neoplasms has risen significantly in recent decades. Surgery is the treatment of choice for loco-regional disease but for advanced lung carcinoids there is no recognized standard of care and successful management requires a multidisciplinary approach. The aim of this review is to provide a useful guide for the clinical management of lung carcinoids.

  20. Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

  1. Memory for radio advertisements: the effect of program and typicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Luengo, Beatriz; Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of the type of radio program on the memory for radio advertisements. We also investigated the role in memory of the typicality (high or low) of the elements of the products advertised. Participants listened to three types of programs (interesting, boring, enjoyable) with two advertisements embedded in each. After completing a filler task, the participants performed a true/false recognition test. Hits and false alarm rates were higher for the interesting and enjoyable programs than for the boring one. There were also more hits and false alarms for the high-typicality elements. The response criterion for the advertisements embedded in the boring program was stricter than for the advertisements in other types of programs. We conclude that the type of program in which an advertisement is inserted and the nature of the elements of the advertisement affect both the number of hits and false alarms and the response criterion, but not the accuracy of the memory.

  2. Stimulus Overselectivity in Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, William V; Farber, Rachel S; Mueller, Marlana R; Grant, Eileen; Lorin, Lucy; Deutsch, Curtis K

    2016-05-01

    Stimulus overselectivity refers to maladaptive narrow attending that is a common learning problem among children with intellectual disabilities and frequently associated with autism. The present study contrasted overselectivity among groups of children with autism, Down syndrome, and typical development. The groups with autism and Down syndrome were matched for intellectual level, and all three groups were matched for developmental levels on tests of nonverbal reasoning and receptive vocabulary. Delayed matching-to-sample tests presented color/form compounds, printed words, photographs of faces, Mayer-Johnson Picture Communication Symbols, and unfamiliar black forms. No significant differences among groups emerged for test accuracy scores. Overselectivity was not statistically overrepresented among individuals with autism in contrast to those with Down syndrome or typically developing children.

  3. Verbal communication skills in typical language development: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Camila Mayumi; Bretanha, Andreza Carolina; Bozza, Amanda; Ferraro, Gyovanna Junya Klinke; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate verbal communication skills in children with typical language development and ages between 6 and 8 years. Participants were 10 children of both genders in this age range without language alterations. A 30-minute video of each child's interaction with an adult (father and/or mother) was recorded, fully transcribed, and analyzed by two trained researchers in order to determine reliability. The recordings were analyzed according to a protocol that categorizes verbal communicative abilities, including dialogic, regulatory, narrative-discursive, and non-interactive skills. The frequency of use of each category of verbal communicative ability was analyzed (in percentage) for each subject. All subjects used more dialogical and regulatory skills, followed by narrative-discursive and non-interactive skills. This suggests that children in this age range are committed to continue dialog, which shows that children with typical language development have more dialogic interactions during spontaneous interactions with a familiar adult.

  4. Performance of a commercial transport under typical MLS noise environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of a 747-200 automatic flight control system (AFCS) subjected to typical Microwave Landing System (MLS) noise is discussed. The performance is then compared with the results from a previous study which had a B747 AFCS subjected to the MLS standards and recommended practices (SARPS) maximum allowable noise. A glide slope control run with Instrument Landing System (ILS) noise is also conducted. Finally, a linear covariance analysis is presented.

  5. Typical Event Horizons in AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Avery, Steven G

    2015-01-01

    We consider the construction of local bulk operators in a black hole background dual to a pure state in conformal field theory. The properties of these operators in a microcanonical ensemble are studied. It has been argued in the literature that typical states in such an ensemble contain firewalls, or otherwise singular horizons. We argue this conclusion can be avoided with a proper definition of the interior operators.

  6. [Design of Electrocardiogram Signal Generator Based on Typical Electrocardiogram Database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuting; Wang, Xiaofei; Li, Dongshang; Liu, Guili

    2016-02-01

    Using LabVIEW programming and high-speed multifunction data acquisition card PCI-6251, we designed an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal generator based on Chinese typical ECG database. When the ECG signals are given off by the generator, the generator can also display the ECG information annotations at the same time, including waveform data and diagnostic results. It could be a useful assisting tool of ECG automatic diagnose instruments.

  7. CYBERCITY:CONCEPTION,TECHNICAL SUPPORTS AND TYPICAL APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper,the concepts about the CyberCity and the corresponding technique supports and typical applications are introduced.As the pilot projects,the applications of CCGIS software in CyberShenzhen and CyberShanghai are also presented.At last,some of key technologies such as the reconstruction of three dimensional city model,vast amount of data integration and its real time application of 3D animation are discussed.

  8. Dealing with typical values via Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmidt, Eulalia; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2010-07-01

    This paper is an improved and extended version of our previous work2 on typicality in terms of Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets (to be called A-IFSs, for short)3. We follow the line of reasoning known from psychological and cognitive sciences, in particular from linguistic experiments, and verify how those results work in the case of classification - a typical problem in computer science, decision sciences, etc. Our considerations concentrate on a typical example discussed in cognitive sciences - we investigate to which extent a linguistic representation in a psychological space (we start from nominal data - names are assigned to objects as labels) succeeds in predicting categories via A-IFSs. First, we consider a model of categories with a geometrical centroid model in which the similarity is defined in terms of a distance to centroids. Next, we verify if the extreme ideals, which are important in cognitive processes when categories are learnt in the presence of the alternative (contrast) category, give comparative results. Finally, we discuss if the 'reachable extreme ideals' and 'dominating frequency centres' give comparative results. We show that A-IFSs make it possible to reflect a positive and negative information via the concept of membership and non-membership. Although the paper presents ongoing research, the results obtained are promising and point out the usefulness and strength of A-IFSs as a tool to account for more aspects of vague data and information. Based on 'On Some Typical Values for A-IFS', by E. Szmidt and J. Kacprzyk which appeared in the Proceedings of the 4th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Systems IS'08, pp. 13-2-13-7. There is currently a discussion on the appropriateness of the name IFS introduced by Dubois et al. (2005), and also Atanassov's (2005) response. This is, however, beyond the scope of this paper which will not be dealing with this issue.

  9. Rural Tourism and Local Development: Typical Productions of Lazio

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2014-01-01

    The local development is based on the integration of the tourism sector with the whole economy. The rural tourism seems to be a good occasion to analyse the local development: consumption of "tourist products" located in specific local contexts. Starting from the food and wine supply chain and the localization of typical productions, the aim of the present work will be analyse the relationship with local development, rural tourism sustainability and accommodation system, referring to Lazio. W...

  10. [Interferon alpha antibodies show no cross reactions with typical autoantibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görg, S; Klouche, M; Wilhelm, D; Kirchner, H

    1993-04-01

    Patients treated with natural human interferon alpha develop anti-interferon antibodies (IFN-AB) only in very rare cases. By contrast, patients with autoimmune disorders are able to generate high-titered IFN-AB against endogenous interferon alpha. One explanation for the development of auto-IFN-AB could be cross-reactivity with typical autoimmune antigens. We investigated the cross-reactivity of 3 high-titered IgG IFN-AB of female autoimmune patients (aged 32, 36, 74 years; two severe cases of SLE, one case of autoimmune thyroiditis) as well as 25 low-titered natural IgM IFN-AB of healthy blood donors (aged 19-48 years). Typical autoimmune antigens including dsDNA, ENA, as well as natural interferon beta and recombinant interferon gamma are not able to inhibit binding of IFN-AB to interferon alpha in an ELISA test system. Preincubation of sera containing either dsDNA antibodies (dsDNA-AB) (24 patients), thyroid peroxidase (TPO-AB) (9 patients) or thyroglobulin (TG-AB) (12 patients) with interferon alpha resulted in no change in the respective autoantibody titer. These data suggest that there is no cross-reactivity between IFN-alpha-AB and dsDNA-AB, TPO-AB or TG-AB. Thus, an explanation for the occurrence of IFN-AB in autoimmune disorders cannot be found in a cross-reaction between interferon alpha with typical autoimmune antigens.

  11. Rural Tourism and Local Development: Typical Productions of Lazio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The local development is based on the integration of the tourism sector with the whole economy. The rural tourism seems to be a good occasion to analyse the local development: consumption of "tourist products" located in specific local contexts. Starting from the food and wine supply chain and the localization of typical productions, the aim of the present work will be analyse the relationship with local development, rural tourism sustainability and accommodation system, referring to Lazio. Which are the findings to create tourism local system based on the relationship with touristic and food and wine supply chain? Italian tourism is based on accommodation system, so the whole consideration of the Italian cultural tourism: tourism made in Italy. The touristic added value to specific local context takes advantage from the synergy with food and wine supply chain: made in Italy of typical productions. Agritourism could be better accommodation typology to rural tourism and to exclusivity of consumption typical productions. The reciprocity among food and wine supply chain and tourism provides new insights on the key topics related to tourism development and to the organization of geographical space as well and considering its important contribution nowadays to the economic competitiveness.

  12. Narrative versus Style: Effect of Genre Typical Events versus Genre Typical Filmic Realizations on Film Viewers' Genre Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genretypical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization cues are similar to stylistic surface cues of a film sequence. It was predicted that genre recognition of short film fragments is cued more by filmic realization cues than by event cues. The results...

  13. Volatile S-nitrosothiols and the typical smell of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Wolfgang

    2015-03-09

    An unconventional approach to investigations into the identification of typical volatile emissions during illnesses gives rise to the proposal of a new class of cancer markers. Until now, cancer markers seem not to have been conclusively identified, though the obvious behavior of dogs points to their existence. The focus has been directed towards molecules containing sulfurous functionalities. Among such compounds, S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) are known to be involved in important physiological processes in living organisms and they are described as being typically elevated in cancer. Volatile SNOs (vSNOs) are proposed to be the source of the significant smell of cancer. Synthetic vSNOs are known to have lifetimes of between some minutes and several hours, which may be the main reason as to why they have been ignored until now, and also for the inability of analytics to detect them in vivo. Based on typical structures occurring in the volatile sulfur organics being emitted from human breath, four vSNOs have been synthesized and characterized by tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Simulating the relatively fatty consistency of cancer tissue by diluting the samples in n-decane, surprisingly reduces their tendency to decompose to lifetimes of weeks even at room temperature. A sniffer dog was trained with the synthetic vSNOs, and the results of the tests indicate that synthetic and cancer smells are very similar or even the same. The findings can be a clue for further target-oriented systematic optimization of existing sensitive measurement methods to prove vSNOs as cancer emissions and finally establish future methods for cancer diagnosis based on screening for this new class of volatile illness markers.

  14. Typical exposure of children to EMF: exposimetry and dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valič, Blaž; Kos, Bor; Gajšek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A survey study with portable exposimeters, worn by 21 children under the age of 17, and detailed measurements in an apartment above a transformer substation were carried out to determine the typical individual exposure of children to extremely low- and radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. In total, portable exposimeters were worn for >2400 h. Based on the typical individual exposure the in situ electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) values were calculated for an 11-y-old female human model. The average exposure was determined to be low compared with ICNIRP reference levels: 0.29 μT for an extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic field and 0.09 V m(-1) for GSM base stations, 0.11 V m(-1) for DECT and 0.10 V m(-1) for WiFi; other contributions could be neglected. However, some of the volunteers were more exposed: the highest realistic exposure, to which children could be exposed for a prolonged period of time, was 1.35 μT for ELF magnetic field and 0.38 V m(-1) for DECT, 0.13 V m(-1) for WiFi and 0.26 V m(-1) for GSM base stations. Numerical calculations of the in situ electric field and SAR values for the typical and the worst-case situation show that, compared with ICNIRP basic restrictions, the average exposure is low. In the typical exposure scenario, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.03 % and the RF exposure <0.001 % of the corresponding basic restriction. In the worst-case situation, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.11 % and the RF exposure <0.007 % of the corresponding basic restrictions. Analysis of the exposures and the individual's perception of being exposed/unexposed to an ELF magnetic field showed that it is impossible to estimate the individual exposure to an ELF magnetic field based only on the information provided by the individuals, as they do not have enough knowledge and information to properly identify the sources in their vicinity.

  15. Lipomatosis of the sciatic nerve: typical and atypical MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Bernadette Zhi Ying [Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); University College London, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London (United Kingdom); Amrami, Kimberly K.; Wenger, Doris E. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Dyck, P. James B. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurology, Rochester, MN (United States); Scheithauer, Bernd W. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Pathology, Rochester, MN (United States); Spinner, Robert J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurologic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedics, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Lipomatosis of nerve, also known as fibrolipomatous hamartoma, is a rare condition of nerve, usually affecting the median nerve. The MRI appearance is characteristic. We describe two cases of lipomatosis of nerve involving the sciatic nerve, an extremely unusual location for this lesion, in patients with sciatic neuropathy. These cases share the typical features previously described in the literature for other nerves, but also contain atypical features not previously highlighted, relating to the variability in distribution and extent of the fatty deposition. Recognition of the MRI appearance of this entity is important in order to avoid unnecessary attempts at surgical resection of this lesion. (orig.)

  16. Formation of disinfection byproducts in typical Chinese drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbo Liu; Yanmei Zhao; Christopher WK Chow; Dongsheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Eight typical drinking water supplies in China were selected in this study.Both source and tap water were used to investigate the occurrence of chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), and seasonal variation in the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) of seven water sources was compared.The results showed that the pollution level for source water in China, as shown by DBP formation potential, was low.The most encountered DBPs were chloroform, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and chiorodibromoacetic acid.The concentration of every THMs and haloacetic acid (HAA) compound was under the limit of standards for drinking water quality.The highest total THMs concentrations were detected in spring.

  17. Conditioned place preference successfully established in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Leah Ticker; Takata, Sandy; Thompson, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Affective processing, known to influence attention, motivation, and emotional regulation is poorly understood in young children, especially for those with neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by language impairments. Here we faithfully adapt a well-established animal paradigm used for affective processing, conditioned place preference (CPP) for use in typically developing children between the ages of 30-55 months. Children displayed a CPP, with an average 2.4 fold increase in time spent in the preferred room. Importantly, associative learning as assessed with CPP was not correlated with scores on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), indicating that CPP can be used with children with a wide range of cognitive skills.

  18. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.J.; Schewe, E.C.; Maslenikov, O.R.

    1984-04-01

    The Simplified Methods project of the US NRC-funded Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has as its goal the development of a methodology to perform routine seismic probabilistic risk assessments of commercial nuclear power plants. The study reported here develops calibration factors to relate best estimate response to design values accounting for approximations and simplifications in SSI analysis procedures. Nineteen cases were analyzed and in-structure response compared. The structure of interest was a typical shear wall structure. 6 references, 44 figures, 22 tables.

  19. Typical and unusual cases of female genital tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchavenya, E; Dubrovina, S

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a disease with myriad presentations and manifestations; it can affect any organ or tissue, excluding only hair and nails. Doctors who are not familiar with extrapulmonary tuberculosis often overlook this disease. Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) is the second most common form of TB in countries with severe epidemic situation and the third most common form in regions with low incidence of TB. The term "Urogenital tuberculosis" includes kidney tuberculosis; male and female tuberculosis and urinary tract tuberculosis as complication of kidney tuberculosis. We describe rarest case of tuberculosis of a placenta in young woman, suffered from genital tuberculosis, which was overlooked before delivery, as well as typical tubo-ovarian tuberculomas.

  20. Monte Carlo based radial shield design of typical PWR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul, Anas; Khan, Rustam; Qureshi, M. Ayub; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Raza, S.A. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Stummer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Atominst.

    2016-11-15

    Neutron and gamma flux and dose equivalent rate distribution are analysed in radial and shields of a typical PWR type reactor based on the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNP5. The ENDF/B-VI continuous energy cross-section library has been employed for the criticality and shielding analysis. The computed results are in good agreement with the reference results (maximum difference is less than 56 %). It implies that MCNP5 a good tool for accurate prediction of neutron and gamma flux and dose rates in radial shield around the core of PWR type reactors.

  1. Formation of disinfection byproducts in typical Chinese drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbo; Zhao, Yanmei; Chow, Christopher W K; Wang, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Eight typical drinking water supplies in China were selected in this study. Both source and tap water were used to investigate the occurrence of chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), and seasonal variation in the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) of seven water sources was compared. The results showed that the pollution level for source water in China, as shown by DBP formation potential, was low. The most encountered DBPs were chloroform, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and chlorodibromoacetic acid. The concentration of every THMs and haloacetic acid (HAA) compound was under the limit of standards for drinking water quality. The highest total THMs concentrations were detected in spring.

  2. Typical magnitude and spatial extent of crowding in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyberg, Jan; Robertson, Caroline E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced spatial processing of local visual details has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC), and crowding is postulated to be a mechanism that may produce this ability. However, evidence for atypical crowding in ASC is mixed, with some studies reporting a complete lack of crowding in autism and others reporting a typical magnitude of crowding between individuals with and without ASC. Here, we aim to disambiguate these conflicting results by testing both the magnitude and the spatial extent of crowding in individuals with ASC (N = 25) and age- and IQ-matched controls (N = 23) during an orientation discrimination task. We find a strong crowding effect in individuals with and without ASC, which falls off as the distance between target and flanker is increased. Both the magnitude and the spatial range of this effect were comparable between individuals with and without ASC. We also find typical (uncrowded) orientation discrimination thresholds in individuals with ASC. These findings suggest that the spatial extent of crowding is unremarkable in ASC, and is therefore unlikely to account for the visual symptoms reported in individuals with the diagnosis.

  3. A study on prioritizing typical women’s entrepreneur characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Ramezani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is one of the main pivot of progress and growth of every country. The spread of entrepreneurship particularly the role of women in this category has speeded up today more than any other times. Many of researchers believe that attention to women entrepreneurship plays remarkable role in soundness and safety of nation’s economy. Maybe in Iran less attention has been paid to this matter in proportion to other countries and due to various reasons, there are not many entrepreneur woman. However, employing typical entrepreneur women in various fields of productivity, industrial, commercial, social and cultural and even higher than these, in country’s political issue proves that women’s role is magnificent and in many cases they enjoy higher abilities in portion to men. In this paper, using additive ratio assessment (ARAS as a prioritizing method, eleven entrepreneur women were chosen for prioritizing criteria for measuring a typical women’s entrepreneurship characteristics. The results show that the balance between work and family among criteria are propounded as the highest weight and fulfilling different jobs simultaneously as the lowest weight.

  4. Flux measurement and modeling in a typical mediterranean vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Serena; Bellucco, Veronica; Pyles, David R.; Falk, Matthias; Sirca, Costantino; Duce, Pierpaolo; Snyder, Richard L.; Tha Paw U, Kyaw; Spano, Donatella

    2014-05-01

    Vineyard ecosystems are typical in the Mediterranean area, since wine is one of the most important economic sectors. Nevertheless, only a few studies have been conducted to investigate the interactions between this kind of vegetation and the atmosphere. These information are important both to understand the behaviour of such ecosystems in different environmental conditions, and are crucial to parameterize crop and flux simulation models. Combining direct measurements and modelling can obtain reliable estimates of surface fluxes and crop evapotranspiration. This study would contribute both to (1) directly measure energy fluxes and evapotranspiration in a typical Mediterranean vineyard, located in the South of Sardinia (Italy), through the application of the Eddy Covariance micrometeorological technique and to (2) evaluate the land surface model ACASA (Advanced-Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm) in simulating energy fluxes and evapotranspiration over vineyard. Independent datasets of direct measurements were used to calibrate and validate model results during the growing period. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate model performance and accuracy in predicting surface fluxes. Results will be showed as well as the model capability to be used for future studies to predict energy fluxes and crop water requirements under actual and future climate.

  5. A Case of Typical Carcinoid of the Larynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Sato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report herein a rare case of typical carcinoid occurring primarily in the epiglottis. The patient was a 70-year-old man. On initial examination, a polypoid lesion with irregular surface near the center right-hand side of the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis was observed, and a biopsy was performed. Pathological examination of the specimen suggested the possibility of adenocarcinoma. Surgical excision was performed by means of laryngomicrosurgery. A Weerda-type laryngoscope was used to open the larynx, supplemented by rigid nasal sinus surgery endoscopes, and the right-hand half of the epiglottis were excised was ensured using a CO2 laser. Postoperative pathological diagnosis was negative for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell cancer; typical carcinoid was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization criteria. Aspiration occurred postoperatively, swallowing training was therefore provided, and the patient was discharged from hospital 2 months after surgery when he was able to eat normally. As of 4 years after surgery, the patient remains under follow-up observation by means of PET-CT and neck, thoracic, and abdominal CT administered at appropriate intervals, but no findings indicating obvious recurrence or metastasis have been observed, and the patient displays good swallowing function.

  6. The experimental investigation of microcracks nucleation in typical tectonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The evolution and nucleation of microcracks in typical tectonics are investigated in the experiment of fracture of marble specimen. The change of state during nucleation of microcracks is observed. The controlling effect of tectonics on evolution of microcracks is analyzed by using the damage mechanics theory. These characteristics can be analogized to kilometer meters as the first effect of earthquake precursors. These studies may be helpful to interpret the foreshock or general foreshock in the moderate or short stage before strong earthquakes. The other physical precursors are second or third effect. The local density of microcracks increasing abruptly may be helpful to interpret the phenomenon that part precursor records appear catastrophic jump. The part out of nucleation where some microcracks heal and the density change reversibly may be helpful to interpret the phenomenon that some precursors records appear reverse change. The area difference of microcracks accumulation and evolution in different part of typical tectonics is studied. This difference may be helpful to interpret the characteristics (including the area) of earthquake preparation of different tectonics, and further to interpret the difference of the precursors between plate edge and intraplate. These differences may be introduced by the scholars with different points of view as to discuss about the existence of precursors before earthquakes. However, when the precursor records are studied, one must notice the geology background in different areas.

  7. Diversity of amino acids in a typical chernozem of Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunze, N. I.

    2014-12-01

    The content and composition of the amino acids in typical chernozems were studied. The objects of the study included a reference soil under an old fallow and three variants under fodder crop rotations: not fertilized, with mineral fertilizers, and with organic fertilizers. The contents of 18 amino acids were determined in these soils. The amino acids were extracted by the method of acid hydrolysis and identified by the method of ion-exchange chromatography. The total content of most of the amino acids was maximal in the reference soil; it was much lower in the cultivated soils and decreased in the following sequence: organic background > mineral background > no fertilization. The diversity of amino acids was evaluated quantitatively using different parameters applied in ecology for estimating various aspects of the species composition of communities (Simpson, Margalef, Menhinick, and Shannon's indices). The diversity and contribution of different amino acids to the total pool of amino acids also varied significantly in the studied variants. The maximum diversity of amino acids and maximum evenness of their relative abundance indices were typical of the reference chernozem; these parameters were lower in the cultivated soils. It was concluded that the changes in the structure of the amino acids under the impact of agricultural loads are similar to those that are usually observed under stress conditions.

  8. Recommended Concentration Limits of Typical Indoor Air Contaminants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV Chao; JIANG Yun-tao; ZHAO Jia-ning

    2009-01-01

    From the view of both objective and subjective factors.the indoor air quality(IAQ)evaluation was considered.Carbon dioxide (CO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) were selected as the typical contaminants of indoor air,and the evaluation method of logarithmic index was adopted as the evaluation means of IAQ.Then the recommended limits (RL) of typical contaminants CO2 and HCHO were given through analysis and calcula-tion.The limits of CO2 and HCHO in Indoor Air Quahty Standard of China or other existing standards probably correspond to the level of PD=25(%).The result shows that the existing standards fail to meet the require-ment of the definition of"acceptable indoor air quality",that is to say,less than 20% of the people express dis-satisfaction.When PD=20%,RL of CO2 and HCHO are 728×10-6 and 0.068×10-6 respectively,which are stricter than the limits in the existing standards.The method proposed in this paper is applicable to 13.1%≤PD≤86.7%.

  9. Comparison of Energy Performance of Different HVAC Systems for a Typical Office Room and a Typical Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    the energy consumption for buildings with cooling demand in cold seasons. In this way, the building system can operate at a very low energy use all the year round. The main purpose of this task is to investigate the energy performance of different HVAC systems used in the office room and the classroom......, and find the potential of energy saving for the proposed new system solution. In this report, a typical room is selected according to the previous study, but the occupation is different for the purpose of the office and the classroom. Energy performance of these two types of room under different internal...

  10. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viganò

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  11. Estimating typical multiple sclerosis disability progression speed from clinical observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray G Brown

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic disease of the central nervous system. Estimates of MS natural history (NH disability progression speed from clinical observations vary worldwide. This may reflect, in part, variance in censoring-bias (missing observations and assumptions about when irreversible disability progression events occurred. We test whether estimates of progression speed which assume midpoint survival time at irreversible disability endpoints are significantly faster than estimates which assume maximum survival time, and are more stable across study groups and time periods. METHODS: Our Nova Scotia NH study population includes 2,240 definite relapsing-onset multiple sclerosis (R-MS natural history patients with 18,078 Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS clinical observations in study period 1979-2010. Progression speed is measured by rate-of-change in range EDSS 0-6 and by survival time at irreversible endpoints EDSS 1-9. Midpoint censoring-bias-reduction methods are applied to clinical observations. FINDINGS: Typical EDSS increase per year in range EDSS 0-6, assuming midpoint survival time, is estimated to be 0.168 for all R-MS, 0.204 for eventually-DMD-treated patients and 0.155 for never-DMD-treated patients. Estimates assuming midpoint rather than maximum survival time are significantly faster: 16% faster for all R-MS natural history patients, 6% faster for eventually-DMD-treated patients, and 21% faster for never-DMD-treated patients. The variability of estimates across study groups and time periods decreased when midpoint survival time was assumed. CONCLUSIONS: Estimates of typical disease progression speed from 1979-2010 Nova Scotia clinical observations are sensitive to censoring-bias and to analysts' survival time assumptions. Censoring-bias-adjusted estimates of typical natural history disability progression speed in relapsing-onset multiple sclerosis patients are significantly faster, and less variable

  12. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervasio Antonelli

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  13. Infiuence of Bicycle Traffic on Capacity of Typical Signalized Intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaoming; SHAO Chunfu; YUE Hao

    2007-01-01

    Bicycle traffic has a significant effect on the capacity of signalized intersections. This paper divides the influence of bicyclists on vehicular flow into four types with the time durations estimated based on probability, shock wave, and gap acceptance theory. Vehicular saturation flow rate is predicted for various conditions on the basis of the speed-flow curve for the capacity of typical intersections influenced by bicycle traffic.The model overcomes the limitations of the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM, 2000) method for left-turns due to data collection, and takes into account the effect of trapped bicycles on the through vehicular traffic.The numerical results show that the left-turn and through capacities predicted by the model are lower than those of the HCM method. The right-turn capacity is close to that of the HCM method at Iow bicycle volumes and higher than that of the HCM method at high bicycle volumes.

  14. Conditioned place preference successfully established in typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah T Hiller

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Affective processing, known to influence attention, motivation and emotional regulation is poorly understood in young children, especially for those with neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by language impairments. Here we faithfully adapt a well-established animal paradigm used for affective processing, conditioned place preference for use in typically developing children between the ages of 30-55 months. Children displayed a conditioned place preference, with an average 2.4 fold increase in time spent in the preferred room. Importantly, associative learning as assessed with conditioned place preference was not correlated with scores on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, indicating that conditioned place preference can be used with children with a wide range of cognitive skills.

  15. GENERATION OF A TYPICAL METEOROLOGICAL YEAR FOR PORT HARCOURT ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OGOLOMA O.B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data for the typical meteorological year (TMY for the Port Harcourt climatic zone based on the hourly meteorological data recorded during the period 1983–2002, using the Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method. The data are the global solar radiation, wind velocity, dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, and others. The HVAC outside design conditions for the Port Harcourt climatic zone (latitude 4.44oN, longitude 7.1oE, elevation 20 m were found to be 26.7oC, 78.6% and 3.5 m/s for the dry bulb temperature, relative humidity and wind speed, respectively, and 13.5 MJ/m2/day for the global solar radiation. The TMY data for the zone are shown to be sufficiently reliable for engineering practice.

  16. The Sun. A typical star in the solar neighborhood?

    CERN Document Server

    Melendez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The Sun is used as the fundamental standard in chemical abundance studies, thus it is important to know whether the solar abundance pattern is representative of the solar neighborhood. Albeit at low precision (0.05 - 0.10 dex) the Sun seems to be a typical solar-metallicity disk star, at high precision (0.01 dex) its abundance pattern seems abnormal when compared to solar twins. The Sun shows a deficiency of refractory elements that could be due to the formation of terrestrial planets. The formation of giant planets may also introduce a signature in the chemical composition of stars. We discuss both planet signatures and also the enhancement of neutron-capture elements in the solar twin 18 Sco.

  17. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  18. Typical duration of good seeing sequences at Concordia

    CERN Document Server

    Fossat, Eric; Agabi, Karim; Bondoux, Erick; Challita, Zalpha; Jeanneaux, Francois; Mekarnia, Djamel

    2010-01-01

    Context: The winter seeing at Concordia is essentially bimodal, excellent or quite poor, with relative proportions that depend on altitude above the snow surface. This paper studies the temporal behavior of the good seeing sequences. Aims: An efficient exploitation of extremely good seeing with an adaptive optics system needs long integrations. It is then important to explore the temporal distribution of the fraction of time providing excellent seeing. Methods: Temporal windows of good seeing are created by a simple binary process. Good or bad. Their autocorrelations are corrected for those of the existing data sets, since these are not continuous, being often interrupted by technical problems in addition to the adverse weather gaps. At the end these corrected autocorrelations provide the typical duration of good seeing sequences. This study has to be a little detailed as its results depend on the season, summer or winter. Results: Using a threshold of 0.5 arcsec to define the "good seeing", three characteris...

  19. Porokeratosis ptychotropica: a rare manifestation with typical histological exam*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Dalapicola, Monique Coelho; Lellis, Rute Facchini; Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Manzione, Thiago da Silveira; Rodrigues, Maria Clarissa de Faria Soares

    2016-01-01

    Porokeratosis is a disorder of epidermal keratinization characterized clinically by a distinctive ridge-like border, and histologically by cornoid lamellae. The known clinical variants of porokeratosis are: classic porokeratosis of Mibelli, disseminated superficial (actinic) porokeratosis (DSAP), porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata, linear porokeratosis and punctate porokeratosis. In 1995, a seventh form was described as porokeratosis ptychotropica: a verrucous form resembling psoriasis involving the gluteal cleft presenting on the histological exam multiple cornoid lamellae. There are very few reports in the literature of this clinical variant. The present study describes the case of a healthy male presenting gluteal hyperkeratotic plaques for 22 years. He had been to several dermatologists, none of them had achieved a definitive diagnosis. We present a typical clinical presentation and its dermoscopy findings, in addition to histological examination that confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27579746

  20. Design of a Typical Offshore Transportation System for External Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shittu, A. A

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The external corrosion assessment of a typical offshore transportation system has been presented. Cathodic protection design was carried out for the pipeline and it was found that a bracelet square weld on anode of L = 195, G =101.6 , Thickness = 70, M = 149.75 , ∅ = 1.2235, N = 128 and s = 300was found to be satisfactory in providing secondary/ backup protection for the 48inchespipeline in the external environment provided. The external anticorrosion coating selected is the Three layer polyethylene (3LPE coating based on the dimensions of the pipeline and the design temperature of 80℃. The 3LPE external corrosioncoating will comprise of an inner layer fusion bond epoxy, a middle layer: adhesive and an outer layer: High density polyethylene (HDPE base with additives.

  1. Analysis and Comparison of Typical Models within Distribution Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jacob; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    are covered in the categorisation include fixed vs. general networks, specialised vs. general nodes, linear vs. nonlinear costs, single vs. multi commodity, uncapacitated vs. capacitated activities, single vs. multi modal and static vs. dynamic. The models examined address both strategic and tactical planning...... for educational purposes. Furthermore, the paper can be seen as a practical introduction to network design modelling as well as a being an art manual or recipe when constructing such a model.......This paper investigates the characteristics of typical optimisation models within Distribution Network Design. During the paper fourteen models known from the literature will be thoroughly analysed. Through this analysis a schematic approach to categorisation of distribution network design models...

  2. A Modal Model to Simulate Typical Structural Dynamic Nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacini, Benjamin Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mayes, Randall L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roettgen, Daniel R [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Some initial investigations have been published which simulate nonlinear response with almost traditional modal models: instead of connecting the modal mass to ground through the traditional spring and damper, a nonlinear Iwan element was added. This assumes that the mode shapes do not change with amplitude and there are no interactions between modal degrees of freedom. This work expands on these previous studies. An impact experiment is performed on a structure which exhibits typical structural dynamic nonlinear response, i.e. weak frequency dependence and strong damping dependence on the amplitude of vibration. Use of low level modal test results in combination with high level impacts are processed using various combinations of modal filtering, the Hilbert Transform and band-pass filtering to develop response data that are then fit with various nonlinear elements to create a nonlinear pseudo-modal model. Simulations of forced response are compared with high level experimental data for various nonlinear element assumptions.

  3. [Injury patterns and typical stress situations in paragliding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnsack, M; Schröter, E

    2005-05-01

    Paragliding is known as a high risk sport with a substantial rate of severe and fatal injuries. Analysis of typical injury mechanisms and statistics showed that the total rate of paragliding injuries has decreased in recent years for an increasing number of pilots. In 2003, the rate of severe and fatal injuries in paragliding was less than that of other air sports and motorcycling. Through the introduction of a spine protector system in Germany and Austria, the number of vertebral fractures decreased significantly between 2000 and 2003. Most other injuries, especially of the lower extremities, could be avoided by adequate and farsighted flight behavior. Qualified instruction with regular training, standardized development of safety equipment and consequent analysis of paragliding injuries will help to improve the safety status in paragliding.

  4. Typical and unusual cases of female genital tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kulchavenya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a disease with myriad presentations and manifestations; it can affect any organ or tissue, excluding only hair and nails. Doctors who are not familiar with extrapulmonary tuberculosis often overlook this disease. Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB is the second most common form of TB in countries with severe epidemic situation and the third most common form in regions with low incidence of TB. The term “Urogenital tuberculosis” includes kidney tuberculosis; male and female tuberculosis and urinary tract tuberculosis as complication of kidney tuberculosis. We describe rarest case of tuberculosis of a placenta in young woman, suffered from genital tuberculosis, which was overlooked before delivery, as well as typical tubo-ovarian tuberculomas.

  5. Anthropic reasoning and typicality in multiverse cosmology and string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Steven [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Philosophy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2006-06-21

    Anthropic arguments in multiverse cosmology and string theory rely on the weak anthropic principle (WAP). We show that the principle is fundamentally ambiguous. It can be formulated in one of two ways, which we refer to as WAP{sub 1} and WAP{sub 2}. We show that WAP{sub 2}, the version most commonly used in anthropic reasoning, makes no physical predictions unless supplemented by a further assumption of 'typicality', and we argue that this assumption is both misguided and unjustified. WAP{sub 1}, however, requires no such supplementation; it directly implies that any theory that assigns a non-zero probability to our universe predicts that we will observe our universe with probability one. We argue, therefore, that WAP{sub 1} is preferable, and note that it has the benefit of avoiding the inductive overreach characteristic of much anthropic reasoning.

  6. Processing relative clauses by Hungarian typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, Bence; Lukács, Agnes

    2012-05-01

    Hungarian is a language with morphological case marking and relatively free word order. These typological characteristics make it a good ground for testing the crosslinguistic validity of theories on processing sentences with relative clauses. Our study focussed on effects of structural factors and processing capacity. We tested 43 typically developing children in two age groups (ages of 4;11-7;2 and 8;2-11;4) in an act-out task. Differences in comprehension difficulty between different word order patterns and different head function relations were observed independently of each other. The structural properties causing difficulties in comprehension were interruption of main clauses, greater distance between the verb and its arguments, accusative case of relative pronouns, and SO head function relations. Importantly, analyses of associations between working memory and sentence comprehension revealed that structural factors made processing difficult by burdening components of working memory. These results support processing accounts of sentence comprehension in a language typologically different from English.

  7. Shielding of gamma radiation by typical European houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckbach, Reinhard; Jacob, Peter; Paretzke, Herwig G.

    1987-03-01

    The shielding of gamma radiation by typical European houses has been investigated using a Monte Carlo photon transport code. Sources of the gamma radiation are activity deposited on the building and its surroundings and air-borne radionuclides in an semi-infinite cloud. Results are given for different source energies and at various locations inside and outside of the buildings. The effects of deposition on nearby trees and of shielding by neighbouring buildings was investigated. A comparison has been made with results obtained for the same buildings by the point kernel buildup factor method. More than an order of magnitude underestimations by the point kernel method are shown to arise in certain cases.

  8. Space and Language in Williams syndrome: Insights from typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Barbara; Ferrara, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    One of the holy grails of cognitive science is to understand the causal chain that links genes and cognition. Genetic syndromes accompanied by cognitive effects offer natural experiments that can uniquely inform our understanding of this chain. In this article, we discuss the case of Williams syndrome (WS), which is characterized by a set of missing genes on chromosome 7q11.23, and presents with a unique cognitive profile that includes severe spatial impairment along with strikingly fluent and well-structured language. An early inference from this profile was the idea that a small group of genes could directly target one cognitive system while leaving others unaffected. Recent evidence shows that this inference fails. First, the profile within the spatial domain is varied, with relative strength in some aspects of spatial representation but severe impairment in others. Second, some aspects of language may fail to develop fully, raising the question of how to compare the resilience and fragility of the two key cognitive domains in this syndrome. Third, much research on the profile fails to place findings in the context of typical developmental trajectories. We explore these points and propose a new hypothesis that explains the unusual WS cognitive profile by considering normal mechanisms of cognitive development that undergo change on an extremely prolonged timetable. This hypothesis places the elements of the WS cognitive profile in a new light, refocuses the discussion of the gene-cognition causal chain for WS and other disorders, and more generally, underlines the importance of understanding cognitive structure in both typical and atypical development.

  9. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lanteri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  10. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Rao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  11. Specific Heat in a Typical Metallic Glass Former

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Hai-Bo; ZHAO Zuo-Feng; WEN Ping; WANG Wei-Hua

    2012-01-01

    The specific heat in a typical Pd40Ni10Cu30P20 metallic glass forming system is investigated.It is found that the specific heat of the metallic liquid is around 4.7R (R is the gas constant) and that it is almost independent of temperature.The glass transition observed during cooling is accompanied by a decrease in the specific heat of 1.5R.The specific heat of the metallic glass is similar to that of its crystalline phases,contributed mainly from atomic vibrations.Combined with the results of the structural relaxation and diffusivities,we demonstrate an intrinsic connection between the atomic motion and the specific heat in the metallic glass-forming liquid.The results support the idea that glass transition is a process accompanied by the freezing of most of the atomic transitional motions in a metallic supercooled liquid during cooling.%The specific heat in a typical Pd40 Ni10 Cu30 P20 metallic glass forming system is investigated. It is found that the specific heat of the metallic liquid is around 4.7R (R is the gas constant) and that it is almost independent of temperature. The glass transition observed during cooling is accompanied by a decrease in the specific heat of 1.5R. The specific heat of the metallic glass is similar to that of its crystalline phases, contributed mainly from atomic vibrations. Combined with the results of the structural relaxation and diffusivities, we demonstrate an intrinsic connection between the atomic motion and the specific heat in the metallic glass-forming liquid. The results support the idea that glass transition is a process accompanied by the freezing of most of the atomic transitional motions in a metallic supercooled liquid during cooling.

  12. Artificial bias typically neglected in comparisons of uncertain atmospheric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Mikko R. A.; Mikkonen, Santtu; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.; Arola, Antti

    2016-04-01

    Researchers in atmospheric sciences frequently disregard data uncertainty in their choice of methods for data analysis and visualisation. Such methods include the widely used standard least squares line fitting in combination with some variations of scatter plots when comparing two different data sets of the same physical quantity. When using these methods, random data uncertainty (eg. measurement uncertainty) causes artificial systematic bias in the comparison between the extreme values of the data sets, which is then often interpreted falsely as a consequence of some true physical phenomenon or instrument misbehavior. This artificial bias is recognized as regression to the mean (RTM), that is a known effect in the field of statistics, but mostly disregarded in atmospheric sciences and not acknowledged at all in the vast majority of publications in our field. All kinds of data comparisons are subject to the bias, as long as uncertainty is present in the data. This work introduces the concept of RTM bias and demonstrates the necessity of considering the RTM effect in comparisons of data with uncertainties. We not only visualize the RTM effect with synthetic data but also use simulations based on real atmospheric data to estimate the magnitude of RTM bias in data comparisons common in our field. Typically, RTM bias is greater when the reference data (often on the x-axis) has greater uncertainty. For example, mid-visible aerosol optical thickness determined using a sun photometer may have a fairly low uncertainty of +-0.01 and, thus the RTM effect is small when using it as reference data. On the other hand UV index measurements with a broadband instrument may have an uncertainty of 10 % and higher, and the bias caused by RTM becomes larger. The bias caused by RTM is typically greatest for the extreme values of the data sets, emphasizing the need to account for RTM bias when comparing and interpreting these cases.

  13. [Typical dishes consumed in Sonora: regionalization and nutrient contribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardines, R P; Bermúdez, M C; Wong, P; León, G

    1985-12-01

    This study deals with the development of a method to identify typical food dishes, successfully applied in the State of Sonora, Mexico. The State was divided into six regions considering the size of the territory and existence of different physical, economic and sociocultural conditions, and how they influence the consumption patterns. A list of 66 regional food dishes was prepared by interviewing housewives from different parts of Sonora who now lived in the city of Hermosillo. From this list, 47 dishes were identified as regionally consumed, and a State-wide survey was performed to determine their frequency of consumption. Based on the categories of "very frequently", "frequently" and "less frequently", a group of 15 dishes (2 per region, plus 3 dishes throughout the State) was selected. A questionnaire was used to obtain the different ways they had of preparing them. The "typical recipe" for each dish was also determined, using the mode as statistical parameter. Samples of these food dishes were prepared at the laboratory following the selected home recipes for proximal analysis and determination of their vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, phosphorus and iron content. The results showed that a portion of "gallina pinta" contributed more than 25% of the daily recommended intake established by the National Institute of Nutrition "Salvador Zubirán" (INNSZ) for an adult man for energy, protein, iron, niacin and 24.3% thiamine and 21.0% calcium. The "chivichangas de queso", for example, contributed 45.2% of the calcium requirement, and the "tamales de carne", 36% iron.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in autism and typical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigge, Molly B. D.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Zygmunt, Kristen M.; Travers, Brittany G.; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders remains unclear. Cross-sectional studies have identified regional abnormalities in brain volume and cortical thickness in autism, although substantial discrepancies have been reported. Preliminary longitudinal studies using two time points and small samples have identified specific regional differences in cortical thickness in the disorder. To clarify age-related trajectories of cortical development, we examined longitudinal changes in cortical thickness within a large mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal sample of autistic subjects and age- and gender-matched typically developing controls. Three hundred and forty-five magnetic resonance imaging scans were examined from 97 males with autism (mean age = 16.8 years; range 3–36 years) and 60 males with typical development (mean age = 18 years; range 4–39 years), with an average interscan interval of 2.6 years. FreeSurfer image analysis software was used to parcellate the cortex into 34 regions of interest per hemisphere and to calculate mean cortical thickness for each region. Longitudinal linear mixed effects models were used to further characterize these findings and identify regions with between-group differences in longitudinal age-related trajectories. Using mean age at time of first scan as a reference (15 years), differences were observed in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis and pars triangularis, right caudal middle frontal and left rostral middle frontal regions, and left frontal pole. However, group differences in cortical thickness varied by developmental stage, and were influenced by IQ. Differences in age-related trajectories emerged in bilateral parietal and occipital regions (postcentral gyrus, cuneus, lingual gyrus, pericalcarine cortex), left frontal regions (pars opercularis, rostral middle frontal and frontal pole), left supramarginal gyrus, and right transverse temporal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and

  15. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in typically developing children: Laterality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to elucidate the dACC laterality in typically developing children and their sex/age-related differences with a sample of 84 right-handed children (6–16 years, 42 boys. We first replicated the previous finding observed in adults that gray matter density asymmetry in the dACC was region-specific: leftward (left > right in its superior part, rightward (left < right in its inferior part. Intrinsic connectivity analysis of these regions further revealed region-specific asymmetric connectivity profiles in dACC as well as their sex and age differences. Specifically, the superior dACC connectivity with frontoparietal network and the inferior dACC connectivity with visual network are rightward. The superior dACC connectivity with the default network (lateral temporal cortex was more involved in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the inferior dACC connectivity with the default network (anterior medial prefrontal cortex was more lateralized towards the right hemisphere. The superior dACC connectivity with lateral visual cortex was more distinct across two hemispheres in girls than that in boys. This connection in boys changed with age from right-prominent to left-prominent asymmetry whereas girls developed the connection from left-prominent to no asymmetry. These findings not only highlight the complexity and laterality of the dACC but also provided insights into dynamical structure–function relationships during the development.

  16. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in typically developing children: Laterality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Yang, Ning; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Han; Yan, Chao-Gan; Zang, Yu-Feng; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to elucidate the dACC laterality in typically developing children and their sex/age-related differences with a sample of 84 right-handed children (6-16 years, 42 boys). We first replicated the previous finding observed in adults that gray matter density asymmetry in the dACC was region-specific: leftward (left > right) in its superior part, rightward (left lateral temporal cortex) was more involved in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the inferior dACC connectivity with the default network (anterior medial prefrontal cortex) was more lateralized towards the right hemisphere. The superior dACC connectivity with lateral visual cortex was more distinct across two hemispheres in girls than that in boys. This connection in boys changed with age from right-prominent to left-prominent asymmetry whereas girls developed the connection from left-prominent to no asymmetry. These findings not only highlight the complexity and laterality of the dACC but also provided insights into dynamical structure-function relationships during the development.

  17. Dependence of gait parameters on height in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Valentina; Nascimbeni, Alberto; Di Nardo, Francesco; Fioretti, Sandro; Burattini, Laura; Knaflitz, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In clinical gait analysis is fundamental to have access to normative data, to be used as a reference in the interpretation of pathological walking. In a paediatric population this may be complicated by the dependence of gait parameters on child growth. The aim of this work is to provide the correlations of spatial-temporal gait parameters with children's height. We obtained the regression lines of cadence, double support, and gait phases, with respect to height, from a sample of 85 normally typically developing children aged 6 to 11. Our analysis of gait phases was not limited to the traditional analysis of stance and swing, but rather focused on the sub-phases of stance - heel contact, flat foot contact, push off - which proved to be an innovative approach to gait analysis. Heel contact decreased, flat foot contact increased and push off remained essentially unchanged with respect to children's height. These results may be useful in the interpretation of gait data in developing children, and the regression lines obtained may be used to normalize their gait parameters.

  18. Typical distribution of the solar erythemal UV radiation over Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pribullová

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Maps of the solar erythemal ultraviolet (UV radiation daily doses were created for every month with horizontal resolution of 500 m at geographical domain 47.15 N–49.86 N×16.94 E–22.81 E covering the territory of Slovakia. Cloud modification factor for the UV radiation (cmfUV was modelled utilizing relation between the cmf of total and UV radiation.

    The maps of the cmf factor of the UV radiation were created utilizing measurements of total radiation performed at 9 observatories during 1995–2004 period and the model of cmf dependence on altitude. Maps of clear-sky UV radiation daily dose and UV radiation daily dose affected by average cloudiness were constructed for mean monthly total ozone, their upper and lower monthly limits, for two probability levels of snow cover occurrence as criterion for the snow effect incorporation in the model and for 1 day representing typical values of every month. The map-set can be considered as an atlas of the solar erythemal UV radiation over Slovakia.

  19. Typical distribution of the solar erythemal UV radiation over Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chmelík

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Maps of solar erythemal ultraviolet (EUV irradiance daily doses were created for every month with a horizontal resolution of 500 m at the geographical domain 47.15 N–49.86 N×16.94 E–22.81 E covering the territory of Slovakia. The cloud modification factor for the EUV radiation (cmfUV was modeled utilizing the relation between the cloud modification factor of global and EUV radiation. The maps of the cmfUV factor were created by utilizing measurements of global irradiance performed at nine observatories during the period 1995–2004 and modeling of the cmfUV dependence on altitude. Maps of the EUV irradiance daily dose corresponded to clear-sky conditions and EUV irradiance daily dose affected by average cloudiness were constructed for mean monthly total ozone, its upper and lower monthly limits, for two probability levels of snow cover occurrence as criteria for the snow effect incorporation in the model and for one day representing typical values for every month. The map-set can be regarded as an atlas of solar EUV radiation over Slovakia.

  20. New typical meterological years and solar radiation data manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A new solar radiation data manual and new typical meterological years (TMYs) were developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Analytic Studies Division under the Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project. These tasks were funded and monitored by the Photovoltaics Branch of the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The new manual and the new TMYs were derived from the 1961-1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). The new manual is entitled Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors. It provides designers and engineers of solar-energy-related systems with average monthly and yearly solar radiation values for various types of collectors for 239 stations in the United States and its territories. The new TMY data sets are referred to as TMY2s. This distinguishes them from earlier TMY data sets derived from the 1952-1975 SOLMET/ERSATZ data base. This paper describes the new data manual and the new TMY2s.

  1. Typical application of Rogowski coils in inspection of electrobath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭红; 贾正春

    2004-01-01

    During the aluminum electrolytic roasting process, each component of the electrobath of aluminum performs unsteadily when the electrolytic bath is in the pre-roasting stage. It is important to monitor the currents of the anodes and the cathodes of the aluminum electrobath at regular intervals. Both practice and investigation indicate that Rogowski coil can be adopted to measure heavy direct current of the anodes and the cathodes of the aluminum electrobath. The paper not only introduces the typical application of the Rogowski coil to inspect the state of aluminum electrobath in the roasting process, but also analyzes the principles of the coil sensor including its dynamic properties and some important measurement results respectively. The optimal parameters of the coil can be simulated by means of an advanced simulation tool: simulink tools based on MATLAB soft environment. Based on the gathered current data, an even-current coefficient has been introduced, and the current curve can be drawn. Since they are applied in AL-Electrolyzing, it is possible to distinguish the anode of which the current is not evenly distributed, and to take adjusting measures over a period of time to ensure that the current is evenly distributed.

  2. INDIVIDUAL TYPICAL FEATURES OF MICROCIRCULATION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anosov I. P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the question of primary school age children`s blood microcirculation in dependence on their individual typical features. We examined some 120 healthy children of 6-9 years, which were the students of secondary schools of the city of Melitopol. Anthropometric survey was conducted by the standard measurement scheme of longitudinal chest and weight parameters of the bodies of children. Diagnosis of body type (somatotype was conducted by the method of M. Chernorutskiy. According to the index of physical development - Pine index (PI, the children were divided into three somatic type: asthenic with IP> 30 gipersteni at PI <10 and normostenic type at 10

  3. Characterisation of lab in typical Salento Pecorino cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, M S; Laddomada, B; Poltronieri, P; Zacheo, G

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-nine strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria isolated from the typical Pecorino cheese of the Salento area of Italy, were identified and grouped according to their genetic similarity. A preliminary characterisation of the strains was conducted by means of morphological and biochemical analysis, but molecular approaches were necessary for the clear identification of the species. For the species detection, the amplification and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene was employed In addition, restriction analysis of amplified rDNA (ARDRA) and PCR and AFLP fingerprinting enabled inter- and intra-specific variation to be estimated UPGMA cluster analysis was used to divide the strains into distinct clusters which corresponded with the species delineation obtained by molecular identification. The data obtained show that the community of lactobacilli responsible for the fermentation and aging of Pecorino cheese is composed of a limited number of species. The main identified strains were Lactobacillus brevis, L. plantarum, L. casei, L. sakei, L. pentosus, L. farciminis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides.

  4. [Effect of Three Typical Disinfection Byproducts on Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Lu; Zhang, Meng-lu; Wang, Chun-ming; Lin, Hui-rong; Yu, Xin

    2015-07-01

    The effect of typical disinfection byproducts (DBPs) on bacterial antibiotic resistance was investigated in this study. chlorodibromomethane (CDBM), iodoacetic acid (IAA) and chloral hydrate (CH) were selected, which belong to trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and aldehydes, respectively. After exposure to the selected DBPs, the resistance change of the tested strains to antibiotics was determined. As a result, all of the three DBPs induced Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to gain increased resistance to the five antibiotics tested, and the DBPs ranked as IAA > CH > CDBM according to their enhancement effects. Multidrug resistance could also be enhanced by treatment with IAA. The same result was observed in Escherichia coli K12, suggesting that the effect of DBPs on antibiotic resistance was a common phenomenon. The mechanism was probably that DBPs stimulated oxidative stress, which induced mutagenesis. And the antibiotic resistance mutation frequency could be increased along with mutagenesis. This study revealed that the acquisition of bacterial antibiotic resistance might be related to DBPs in drinking water systems. Besides the genotoxicological risks, the epidemiological risks of DBPs should not be overlooked.

  5. Comparison of typical mega cities in China using emergy synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. X.; Chen, B.; Yang, Z. F.; Chen, G. Q.; Jiang, M. M.; Liu, G. Y.

    2009-06-01

    An emergy-based comparison analysis is conducted for three typical mega cities in China, i.e., Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, from 1990 to 2005 in four perspectives including emergy intensity, resource structure, environmental pressure and resource use efficiency. A new index of non-renewable emergy/money ratio is established to indicate the utilization efficiency of the non-renewable resources. The results show that for the three mega urban systems, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the total emergy inputs were 3.76E+23, 3.54E+23, 2.52E+23 sej in 2005, of which 64.88%, 91.45% and 72.28% were imported from the outsides, respectively. As to the indicators of emergy intensity involving the total emergy use, emergy density and emergy use per cap, three cities exhibited similar overall increase trends with annual fluctuations from 1990 to 2005. Shanghai achieved the highest level of economic development and non-renewable resource use efficiency, and meanwhile, lower proportion of renewable resource use and higher environmental pressure compared to those of Beijing and Guangzhou. Guangzhou has long term sustainability considering an amount of local renewable resources used, per capita emergy used, energy consumption per unit GDP and the ratio of waste to renewable emergy. It can be concluded that different emergy-based evaluation results arise from different geographical locations, resources endowments, industrial structures and urban orientations of the concerned mega cities.

  6. Emergence of typical entanglement in two-party random processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlsten, O C O; Plenio, M B

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the entanglement within a system undergoing a random, local process. We find that there is initially a phase of very fast generation and spread of entanglement. At the end of this phase the entanglement is typically maximal. In previous work we proved that the maximal entanglement is reached to a fixed arbitrary accuracy within $O(N^3)$ steps, where $N$ is the total number of qubits. Here we provide a detailed and more pedagogical proof. We demonstrate that one can use the so-called stabilizer gates to simulate this process efficiently on a classical computer. Furthermore, we discuss three ways of identifying the transition from the phase of rapid spread of entanglement to the stationary phase: (i) the time when saturation of the maximal entanglement is achieved, (ii) the cut-off moment, when the entanglement probability distribution is practically stationary, and (iii) the moment block entanglement scales exhibits volume scaling. We furthermore investigate the mixed state and multipartite sett...

  7. Structure of executive functions in typically developing kindergarteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, Sébastien; Bigras, Marc; Lafrenière, Marc-André

    2015-12-01

    Whereas studies of the past 10 years have shown the executive functions (EFs) in adults to be differentiated into at least three principal components (working memory, inhibition, and flexibility), EF structure in children is far less well understood despite a large body of research on the subject. A study was undertaken to test different structural models of EFs through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on a large sample of typically developing kindergarteners (N = 272). The method employed sought to remedy the shortcomings of past research in this field such as absence of CFA, insufficient number of EF components tested, insufficient number of indicators per latent variable, and absence of control on processing speed. Children were assessed using a battery of EF tasks developed by the researchers to measure working memory (WM), flexibility, and inhibition (backward word span, backward block span, fruit Stroop, day-night test, hand Stroop, Trails-P, card sort, face sort, and verbal fluency shift). CFA results show the best-fitting model to comprise two factors, namely, an inhibition factor and a WM-flexibility factor. Invariance analyses suggest that this structure is the same for girls and boys and that latent variable means do not differ by sex. These results support the hypothesis of EF differentiation during development. The researchers formulate other hypotheses regarding neurophysiological development.

  8. Mechanical Response of Typical Cement Concrete Pavements under Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Fei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the mechanical response of cement concrete pavements under impact loading, four types of typical cement concrete pavement structures are investigated experimentally and numerically under an impact load. Full-scale three-dimensional pavement slots are tested under an impact load and are monitored for the mechanical characteristics including the deflection of the pavement surface layer, the strain distribution at the bottom of the slab, and the plastic damage and cracking under the dynamic impact load. Numerical analysis is performed by developing a three-dimensional finite element model and by utilizing a cement concrete damage model. The results show that the calculation results based on the cement concrete damage model are in reasonable agreement with the experimental results based on the three-dimensional test slot experiment. The peak values of stress and strain as monitored by the sensors are analyzed and compared with the numerical results, indicating that the errors of numerical results from the proposed model are mostly within 10%. The rationality of the finite element model is verified, and the model is expected to be a suitable reference for the analysis and design of cement concrete pavements.

  9. Food Poisioning Typicality in Food Safety Vulnerable Area of Indonesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AdilBasukiAhza

    2001-01-01

    Food poisoning characteristics and patterns were studied in six vulnerable provinces of Indonesia to identify the typicality of food poisonings.Units of analysis were district level,gender,type of food,and place of events,using the data of incidence of food poisoning from 1987to 1998 period(ten year),Multivariate analysis and bi-plot technique were used to characterize the vulnerability of the areas based on the following variables:(1) time of symptom perceived,(2) number of cases for each kind of poison,(3) incidence of chemicals poisoning,and (4)incidence the microbial poisonings,It was found that the three provinces most vulnerable to food poisoning are Central Java,West Java and Jogyakarta.The causes of food poisoning incidence are microbial poisonings(49.36%),chemicals(24.50%),natural toxicant(4.66%),and other causes or indications(21.37%),The poisoning symptoms were perceived within 1.0-144 hrs with incubation time of 0.08 to 33.00 hrs after food intake,depedn on the type of poison.The type of foods that caused poisoning are family prepared foods(30.57%),preserved food(industrial products) (29.94%),food from catering services(21.66%),traditional foods(10.83%) and street foods(7.00%),WOmen are more vulnerable(67.84)than men(32.16%),The most vulnerable places for food poisoning are respectively at home(family)(44.16%),at workplaces (16.23%),party venue(14.29%),school(12.99%),and in public places(12.34%).The results lead to the urgent needs of a better formulation,more stringent food control policy and regulation at district levels,the use of different approach towards a more locally oriented food poisoning safety measures and actions.

  10. Do Typical Galaxies in Adolescence Already Host Growing Black Holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    This archival grism proposal achieves a 100-fold gain in high-quality {5+sigma} information for discovering which properties of adolescent {0.7typical mass and SFR are linked to AGN activity. We propose to analyze 147 WFC3 G141 and 111 ACS 800L pointings of 2-orbit grism data in the CANDELS fields, for a sample of 3000 galaxies reaching SFR 5 Msun/yr and stellar masses of log{M*/Msun} 9 at z 1.5. We will leverage spatially-resolved line ratios to uniquely distinguish a nuclear AGN from extended low-metallicity or shocked gas. Compared to our 30-galaxy published sample that hints at AGNs in low-mass z 2 galaxies {Trump et al. 2011}, this 3000 galaxy sample enables a 100-fold gain in divisions by galaxy morphology, SFR, and stellar mass to discover which galaxy properties correlate most with rapid SMBH growth. We will stack the deep {0.8-4 Ms} Chandra data available in these fields as an independent check of the grism AGN/SF diagnostics. The unique ancillary data in these fields also include ACS+WFC3 imaging for morphologies, deep multiwavelength data for well-sampled SEDs and stellar masses, and previous optical {and future near-IR} spectroscopy to supplement the G141 coverage. Based on discussions with the GOODS-N and 3D-HST teams, our proposed AGN science does not overlap with their proposed or funded science goals. As a value-added product for the community we will release, via the public Rainbow-CANDELS database server, an atlas of spatial maps of emission lines and line ratios {and associated errors} for the entire sample of 3000 galaxies.

  11. TYPICAL HOT WATER DRAW PATTERNS BASED ON FIELD DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Jim; Melody, Moya

    2012-11-08

    There is significant variation in hot water use and draw patterns among households. This report describes typical hot water use patterns in single-family residences in North America. We found that daily hot water use is highly variable both among residences and within the same residence. We compared the results of our analysis of the field data to the conditions and draw patterns established in the current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure for residential water heaters. The results show a higher number of smaller draws at lower flow rates than used in the test procedure. The data from which the draw patterns were developed were obtained from 12 separate field studies. This report describes the ways in which we managed, cleaned, and analyzed the data and the results of our data analysis. After preparing the data, we used the complete data set to analyze inlet and outlet water temperatures. Then we divided the data into three clusters reflecting house configurations that demonstrated small, medium, or large median daily hot water use. We developed the three clusters partly to reflect efforts of the ASHRAE standard project committee (SPC) 118.2 to revise the test procedure for residential water heaters to incorporate a range of draw patterns. ASHRAE SPC 118.2 has identified the need to separately evaluate at least three, and perhaps as many as five, different water heater capacities. We analyzed the daily hot water use data within each cluster in terms of volume and number of hot water draws. The daily draw patterns in each cluster were characterized using distributions for volume of draws, duration of draws, time since previous draw, and flow rates.

  12. Integrated SNG Production in a Typical Nordic Sawmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennai Mesfun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced biomass-based motor fuels and chemicals are becoming increasingly important to replace fossil energy sources within the coming decades. It is likely that the new biorefineries will evolve mainly from existing forest industry sites, as they already have the required biomass handling infrastructure in place. The main objective of this work is to assess the potential for increasing the profit margin from sawmill byproducts by integrating innovative downstream processes. The focus is on the techno-economic evaluation of an integrated site for biomass-based synthetic natural gas (bio-SNG production. The option of using the syngas in a biomass-integrated gasification combined cycle (b-IGCC for the production of electricity (instead of SNG is also considered for comparison. The process flowsheets that are used to analyze the energy and material balances are modelled in MATLAB and Simulink. A mathematical process integration model of a typical Nordic sawmill is used to analyze the effects on the energy flows in the overall site, as well as to evaluate the site economics. Different plant sizes have been considered in order to assess the economy-of-scale effect. The technical data required as input are collected from the literature and, in some cases, from experiments. The investment cost is evaluated on the basis of conducted studies, third party supplier budget quotations and in-house database information. This paper presents complete material and energy balances of the considered processes and the resulting process economics. Results show that in order for the integrated SNG production to be favored, depending on the sawmill size, a biofuel subsidy in the order of 28–52 €/MWh SNG is required.

  13. Albanian typical products as a tool towards sustainable rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBAN JAUPI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The turn of consumers towards quality, healthy and safe food products results in a new definition of quality that refers to: i. their geographical origin ii. their freshness and seasonality; iii the environmentally friendly or healthy production techniques; iv. the producers themselves, since societal relationships play an important role between producer and consumer [2]. Thus, there exist certified agro-food products of a spatial character such as the Protected Designations of Origin (PDOs and the Protected Geographical Indications (PGIs and certified agro-food products of an a-spatial character such as the organic products [11].The main goal of our case study is the identification of Korça typical products, PDO and PGI potential products and their contribution to the sustainable rural development in order to designing the policy intervention framework in the future. This study is based on a structured survey with the: i. farmers/producers (381 interviews, ii. working personnel in various public agencies, iii. the businessmen and businesswomen. Moreover, a number of secondary data by public agencies of Korça region, farmers associations, etc., but also by University papers and studies and scientific journals have been used. A series of elements regarding perceptions and attitudes among consumers was measured, using basic descriptive statistics analysis to describe the responses of the sample under study.According to this study, most consumers prefer their products based on origin that brings to a conclusion that PDOs or PGIs, or Traditional Specialty Guaranteed (TSGs must be promoted through a Public Private partnership.

  14. Typical tumors of the petrous bone; Typische Tumoren des Felsenbeins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Mueller, U. [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Institut fuer Radiologie, Baden (Switzerland); Ulmer, S. [Medizinisch-Radiologisches Institut, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2014-04-15

    In the region of the petrous bone, inner acoustic canal and cerebellopontine angle, a variety of different tissues can be found, such as bony, epithelial, neural and vascular structures. Tumorous or tumor-like lesions, vascular or bony malformations or other pathologies can therefore be found in all of these areas. We discuss various frequently occurring tumorous or tumor-like pathologies including congential lesions, such as mucoceles, inflammatory disorders including osteomyelitis, pseudotumors and Wegener's granulomatosis. Benign non-neoplastic lesions, such as cholesteatoma, cholesterol granuloma, epidermoid and benign neoplastic tumors, such as the most commonly found vestibular schwannoma, meningeoma, paraganglioma, vascular pathologies and finally malignant lesions, such as metastasis, chordoma or chondrosarcoma and endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) are also discussed. The emphasis of this article is on the appearance of these entities in computed tomography (CT) and more so magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it provides key facts and typical images and discusses possibilities how to distinguish these pathologies. (orig.) [German] In der Region des Felsenbein, inneren Gehoerkanals und Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels findet sich eine Vielzahl an unterschiedlichen Gewebearten inklusive knoechernes, epitheliales, nervales und vaskulaeres Gewebe. Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Laesionen, ossaere oder vaskulaere Pathologien koennen entsprechend dort gefunden werden. Wir diskutieren verschiedene Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Pathologien inklusive angeborene Laesionen wie Muko- und Meningozelen, entzuendliche Veraenderungen wie die Osteomyelitis, Pseudotumoren, die Wegener-Granulomatose, nichtneoplastische Tumoren wie das Epidermoid, Cholesteatom oder Cholesterolgranulom und gutartige neoplastische Tumoren wie das am haeufigsten zu findende Vestibularisschwannom, das Paragangliom und das Meningeom, Gefaessprozesse/-pathologien und schliesslich maligne Laesionen wie Metastasen

  15. Physical Composition, Nutrients and Contaminants of Typical Waste Dumping Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Meuser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The composition of wastes is quite variable depending upon the generating source and mode of collection. Most of the material from the domestic activities will be organic in nature and contains essential plant nutrients, whereas the dumping material of commercial and industrial wastes usually contains appreciable amounts of heavy and potentially toxic metals and organic pollutants. Approach: Objective of the present study was to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the waste material and the distribution and extent of toxic pollutants in three selected typical dumping sites in the state of Haryana, India. Results: 62-65% of the waste fine material consisted of mineral particles and biodegradable organic waste, 20-25% consisted of construction and demolition waste and the remaining 10-15% were other materials such as study, plastic, metals, glass and timber, with an amount of polyethene of 3.4-5.7%. The ratio of the plant available concentrations of P, K and S and their total amounts were 3-7% for P and 1-4% for S, whereas the macronutrient potassium reached values of 29-39%. Metals As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were present in all samples (total concentration in aqua regia extract. As, Ba, Ni and Pb did not show clear differences between the three investigates sites. Cd, Cr and Zn concentrations were high but different at the different sites (Cu maximum: 1,964 mg kg−1, Zn maximum: 2,200 mg kg−1. The mobility of the metals was calculated as the ratio of DTPA/aqua regia extraction. Cd showed the highest ratio (18-22%, while the other calculated metals showed much lower ratios (Cu 6.7, Pb 7.9 Ni 2.1, Zn 3.6 and Cr 0.5%. In general, PAH and benzo(apyrene concentrations fell below the detection limit. Also the phenol index did not exceed the detection limit of 1.2 mg kg−1 (with two exceptions. In 14 out of 36 samples a GC-MS screening was conducted in order to get an overview of the organic

  16. A Typical Case Study: Solid Waste Management in Petroleum Refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadea S. Alshammari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current environmental concerns have forced developed and developing countries to reduce air, water and land pollution for sustainable growth. Solid refinery waste is cocktail of hydrocarbons, water, heavy metal and fine solids and is substantial in quantity. The principal processes of waste management focus mainly on waste source reduction, reusing, recycling, composting, incineration with or without energy recovery, fuel production and land filling. Waste management models have a common approach of assignment of generating sources to landfills, transfer stations sitting, site selection for landfills, etc. but recently new integrated models have been developed and applied. Waste management system in an industrial complexes uses multi-objective mixed integer programming approach for the running of existing facilities in dynamic net work flow models with nonlinear costs of management. The latest multi-objective mixed integer programming techniques are applied to resolve the potential conflict between environmental and economic goals and to evaluate sustainable strategies for waste management. In this approach, material recycling in an economic sense exhibits huge indirect benefits, although the emphasis of environmental quality as a major objective in decision-making drives the optimal solution toward pro-recycling programs. The use of grey and fuzzy system theories as uncertainty analysis tools as an enhancement of this modeling analysis proves to be highly profitable. A multi-objective optimization model based on the goal programming approach has been developed and tested in this study for passable management of solid waste generated by a typical petroleum refining industry in the state of Kuwait. The analytic hierarchy process, a decision-making approach, including qualitative and quantitative aspects of a problem, has been integrated in the model to prioritize the conflicting goals existing in the waste management problems of the petroleum

  17. Canonical Typicality

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Tumulka, Roderich; Zanghi, Nino

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that a system, S, weakly coupled to a heat bath, B, is described by the canonical ensemble when the composite, S+B, is described by the microcanonical ensemble corresponding to a suitable energy shell. This is true both for classical distributions on the phase space and for quantum density matrices. Here we show that a much stronger statement holds for quantum systems. Even if the state of the composite corresponds to a single wave function rather than a mixture, the reduced ...

  18. 'Most advanced, yet acceptable': typicality and novelty as joint predictors of aesthetic preference in industrial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekkert, Paul; Snelders, Dirk; van Wieringen, Piet C W

    2003-02-01

    Typicality and novelty have often been shown to be related to aesthetic preference of human artefacts. Since a typical product is rarely new and, conversely, a novel product will not often be designated as typical, the positive effects of both features seem incompatible. In three studies it was shown that typicality (operationalized as 'goodness of example') and novelty are jointly and equally effective in explaining the aesthetic preference of consumer products, but that they suppress each other's effect. Direct correlations between both variables and aesthetic preference were not significant, but each relationship became highly significant when the influence of the other variable was partialed out. In Study 2, it was furthermore demonstrated that the expertise level of observers did not affect the relative contribution of novelty and typicality. It was finally shown (Study 3) that a more 'objective' measure of typicality, central tendency - operationalized as an exemplar's average similarity to all other members of the category - yielded the same effect of typicality on aesthetic preference. In sum, all three studies showed that people prefer novel designs as long as the novelty does not affect typicality, or, phrased differently, they prefer typicality given that this is not to the detriment of novelty. Preferred are products with an optimal combination of both aspects.

  19. Feeding and Eating Behaviors in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Yolanda; Young, Robyn L.; Robson, Danielle C.

    2008-01-01

    Mothers of children aged 2-12 years completed an exhaustive questionnaire assessing feeding and eating behaviors for both themselves and their children with autism, and typically developing siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (where available), or typically developing children with no sibling with a disability. Results indicate that…

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children Attending Special and Typical Education Greek Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, D.; Malliou, P.; Kofotolis, N.; Vlachopoulos, S. P.; Kellis, E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine parental perceptions about Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of typical education and special education students in Greece. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) was administered to the parents of 251 children from typical schools, 46 students attending integration classes (IC) within a…

  1. Typical and atypical development of reaching and postural control in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2013-01-01

    Successful reaching requires postural control, either by active regulation or by postural support. The present paper reviews literature on typical and atypical development of reaching and postural control during infancy. Typically, reaching movements end in grasping around 4 months of age. Initially

  2. On the role of object knowledge in reference production : Effects of color typicality on content determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerbeek, H.G.W.; Koolen, R.M.F.; Maes, A.A.; Bello, Paul; Guarini, Marcello; McShane, Marjorie; Scassellati, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In two language production experiments, we investigated whether stored knowledge of the typical color of objects affects spoken reference. In experiment 1, human speakers referred to objects with colors ranging from very typical (e.g., red tomato) to very atypical (e.g., blue pepper). The probabilit

  3. Impact of Typical Aging and Parkinson's Disease on the Relationship among Breath Pausing, Syntax, and Punctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan; Francis, Elaine J.; Zhang, Dabao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examines the impact of typical aging and Parkinson's disease (PD) on the relationship among breath pausing, syntax, and punctuation. Method: Thirty young adults, 25 typically aging older adults, and 15 individuals with PD participated. Fifteen participants were age- and sex-matched to the individuals with PD.…

  4. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  5. Typical and Atypical Development of Basic Numerical Skills in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerl, Karin; Kolle, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in basic numerical processing have been identified as a central and potentially causal problem in developmental dyscalculia; however, so far not much is known about the typical and atypical development of such skills. This study assessed basic number skills cross-sectionally in 262 typically developing and 51 dyscalculic children in…

  6. An Analysis of Ralph's Fate in Typical American from the Perspective of Cultural Adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨

    2016-01-01

    Ralph, the hero of Typical American written by Gish Jen, is originally a Chinese man who goes to America for PhD but finally becomes a typical American after a series of cultural crisis and adaptation. This paper is intended to analyze the fate of Ralph from the perspective of Lysgaard's U-curve cultural adaptation theory.

  7. Using Typical Infant Development to Inform Music Therapy with Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Barbara L.; Stultz, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates some ways in which observations of typically-developing infants can inform music therapy and other work with children with disabilities. The research project that is described examines typical infant development with special attention to musical relatedness and communication. Videotapes of sessions centering on musical…

  8. Motor Skill Performance by Low SES Preschool and Typically Developing Children on the PDMS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Hoffmann, Chelsea; Hamilton, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor skill performance of preschool children from low socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds to their age matched typically developing peers using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Sixty-eight children (34 low SES and 34 typically developing; ages 3-5) performed the PDMS-2. Standard scores…

  9. 42 CFR 137.294 - What is the typical IHS environmental review process for construction projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.294 What is the typical IHS environmental review... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the typical IHS environmental review... impact on the environment, and therefore do not require environmental impact statements (EIS)....

  10. Clasificación taxonómica de los suelos del altiplano de San Félix, departamentos de Caldas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaramillo J. Daniel F.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available En 5 perfiles de suelos derivados de piroclastos de la secuencia El Cedral, en el altiplano de San Félix, Municipio de Satamina (Caldas, se estudiaron las propiedades ándicas y espódicas de sus materiales, con el fin de clasificarlos taxonómicamente según el sistema del USDA (Soil Survey Staff, SSS, 1998. Con ayuda de la propuesta de ajuste de Shoji et al (1996. Ninguno de los suelos cumple todos los requisitos para materiales espódicos o ándicos pero por sus características fueron clasificados en el orden Andisol; sus propiedades quimcas los ubicaron en el subgrupo Acrudoxic de los grandes grupos Fluviales (3 de 5 perfiles y Hapludand, familia medial isomésica. Se sugiere incluir en la clasificación del subgrupo, la partícula Thaptic para resaltar la presencia de un horizonte Ab, cuando el límite superior de éste presente dentro de los 100 cm superiores del suelo, aún si no se cumple estrictamente los requerimientos de calor.

  11. The contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging to distinguishing typical from atypical meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakyemez, Bahattin [Uludag University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Bursa State Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bursa (Turkey); Yildirim, Nalan; Gokalp, Gokhan; Erdogan, Cuneyt; Parlak, Mufit [Uludag University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey)

    2006-08-15

    Atypical/malignant meningiomas recur more frequently then typical meningiomas. In this study, the contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging to the differentiation of atypical/malignant and typical meningiomas and to the determination of histological subtypes of typical meningiomas was investigated. The study was performed prospectively on 39 patients. The signal intensity of the lesions was evaluated on trace and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images. ADC values were measured in the lesions and peritumoral edema. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Mean ADC values in atypical/malignant and typical meningiomas were 0.75{+-}0.21 and 1.17{+-}0.21, respectively. Mean ADC values for subtypes of typical meningiomas were as follows: meningothelial, 1.09{+-}0.20; transitional, 1.19{+-}0.07; fibroblastic, 1.29{+-}0.28; and angiomatous, 1.48{+-}0.10. Normal white matter was 0.91{+-}0.10. ADC values of typical meningiomas and atypical/malignant meningiomas significantly differed (P<0.001). However, the difference between peritumoral edema ADC values was not significant (P>0.05). Furthermore, the difference between the subtypes of typical meningiomas and atypical/malignant meningiomas was significant (P<0.001). Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings of atypical/malignant meningiomas and typical meningiomas differ. Atypical/malignant meningiomas have lower intratumoral ADC values than typical meningiomas. Mean ADC values for peritumoral edema do not differ between typical and atypical meningiomas. (orig.)

  12. [Research on developping the spectral dataset for Dunhuang typical colors based on color constancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Wan, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Zhen; Li, Chan; Liang, Jin-Xing

    2013-11-01

    The present paper aims at developping a method to reasonably set up the typical spectral color dataset for different kinds of Chinese cultural heritage in color rendering process. The world famous wall paintings dating from more than 1700 years ago in Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes was taken as typical case in this research. In order to maintain the color constancy during the color rendering workflow of Dunhuang culture relics, a chromatic adaptation based method for developping the spectral dataset of typical colors for those wall paintings was proposed from the view point of human vision perception ability. Under the help and guidance of researchers in the art-research institution and protection-research institution of Dunhuang Academy and according to the existing research achievement of Dunhuang Research in the past years, 48 typical known Dunhuang pigments were chosen and 240 representative color samples were made with reflective spectral ranging from 360 to 750 nm was acquired by a spectrometer. In order to find the typical colors of the above mentioned color samples, the original dataset was devided into several subgroups by clustering analysis. The grouping number, together with the most typical samples for each subgroup which made up the firstly built typical color dataset, was determined by wilcoxon signed rank test according to the color inconstancy index comprehensively calculated under 6 typical illuminating conditions. Considering the completeness of gamut of Dunhuang wall paintings, 8 complementary colors was determined and finally the typical spectral color dataset was built up which contains 100 representative spectral colors. The analytical calculating results show that the median color inconstancy index of the built dataset in 99% confidence level by wilcoxon signed rank test was 3.28 and the 100 colors are distributing in the whole gamut uniformly, which ensures that this dataset can provide reasonable reference for choosing the color with highest

  13. On Medical Care Interpreting:Basic Requirements and Solutions to Typical Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晶晶

    2013-01-01

      Based on Pöchhacker, Kadric and Tebble’s theory on interpreting requirements, this paper suggested the basic require⁃ments for medical care interpreters. Through a practical analysis on three typical scenarios, this paper discussed typical problems and their solutions in medical care interpreting, including long instructions, patients asking for advice and unexpected reaction from patients. The research showed that the basic requirements of interpreting are the keys to solving the typical problems and proved the importance of understanding of the barriers in cross-culture communication.

  14. Contamination profile on typical printed circuit board assemblies vs soldering process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper was to analyse typical printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) processed by reflow, wave or selective wave soldering for typical levels of process-related residues, resulting from a specific or combination of soldering processes. Typical solder flux residue...... structure was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, while the concentration was measured using ion chromatography, and the electrical properties of the extracts were determined by measuring the leak current using a twin platinum electrode set-up. Localized extraction of residue was carried...

  15. Sizing and Costing Optimisation of a Typical Wind/PV Hybrid Electricity Generation System for a Typical Residential Building in Urban Armidale NSW, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data obser...

  16. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data obser...

  17. ASSESSMENT OF RESISTANCE OF THE BROWN TYPICAL SOIL OF THE UTRISH NATIONAL RESERVE TO CHEMICAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mospanenko A. F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an assessment of resistance of the brown typical soil of the Utrish national reserve to pollution with heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and oil on biological indicators

  18. Attention and word learning in autistic, language delayed and typically developing children

    OpenAIRE

    Tenenbaum, Elena J.; Amso, Dima; Abar, Beau; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that patterns of social attention hold predictive value for language development in typically developing infants. The goal of this research was to explore how patterns of attention in autistic, language delayed, and typically developing children relate to early word learning and language abilities. We tracked patterns of eye movements to faces and objects while children watched videos of a woman teaching them a series of new words. Subsequent test trials measure...

  19. The "lecithotrophic" sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma lacks typical yolk platelets and yolk glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, L B; Lennarz, W J; Raff, R A; Wray, G A

    1990-03-01

    The sea urchin Heliocidaris tuberculata undergoes typical development, forming an echinoid pluteus larva, whereas H. erythrogramma undergoes direct development via a highly modified, nonfeeding larva. Using a polyclonal antibody prepared against yolk glycoproteins from the typical developer Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus, we found that H. tuberculata contains cross-reactive proteins in abundance, but H. erythrogramma does not. In addition, we used immunoelectron microscopy to demonstrate that unfertilized eggs of H. tuberculata contain yolk platelets, but those of H. erythrogramma do not.

  20. Typical flutter ablation as an adjunct to catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipen Shah

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Typical atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation are frequently observed to coexist(1 .  In the current context of interventional electrophysiology, curative or at least definitive ablation is available for both arrhythmias. Despite their coexistence, it is not clear whether typical flutter ablation is necessary in all patients undergoing catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. The following review explores the pathophysiology of both arrhythmias, their interrelationships and the available data pertaining to this theme.

  1. Inspiration of Direct Grain Production Subsidy System in Typical Countries and Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunqiang; SUN; Lu; CHEN; Ya; LI

    2014-01-01

    Through comparison of direct grain production subsidy system in typical countries and regions,such as the United States,EU,Japan and South Korea,this paper evaluated the performance of direct grain production subsidy system. On the basis of comparison and analysis,it summed up experience of the direct grain production subsidy system in typical countries and regions. Finally,it came up with countermeasures and recommendations for improving the direct grain production subsidy system in China.

  2. Typical rank of coin-toss power-law random matrices over GF(2)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Random linear systems over the Galois Field modulo 2 have an interest in connection with problems ranging from computational optimization to complex networks. They are often approached using random matrices with Poisson-distributed or finite column/row-sums. This technical note considers the typical rank of random matrices belonging to a specific ensemble wich has genuinely power-law distributed column-sums. For this ensemble, we find a formula for calculating the typical rank in the limit of...

  3. Association of typical versus atypical antipsychotics with symptoms and quality of life in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Fujimaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several reports on patients with chronic schizophrenia suggest that atypical versus typical antipsychotics are expected to lead to better quality of life (QOL and cognitive function. Our aim was to examine the association of chronic treatment with typical or atypical antipsychotics with cognitive function, psychiatric symptoms, QOL, and drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms in long-hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised (HDS-R, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale, translated into Japanese (JSQLS, and the Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS were used to evaluate cognitive function, psychiatric symptoms, QOL, and drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms. We examined the correlation between the dose of antipsychotics and each measure derived from these psychometric tests. The student t-test was used to compare scores obtained from psychometric tests between patients receiving typical and atypical antipsychotics. Results showed significant correlations between chlorpromazine (CPZ-equivalent doses of typical antipsychotics and atypical antipsychotics, and the total BPRS score and BPRS subscale scores for positive symptoms. CPZ-equivalent doses of typical antipsychotics were correlated with the JSQLS subscale score for dysfunction of psycho-social activity and DIEPSS score. Furthermore, the total BPRS scores, BPRS subscale score for positive symptoms, the JSQLS subscale score for dysfunction of psycho-social activity, and the DIEPSS score were significantly higher in patients receiving typical antipsychotics than atypical antipsychotics. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that long-term administration of typical antipsychotics has an unfavorable association with feelings of difficulties mixing in social situations in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

  4. Time to discontinuation of atypical versus typical antipsychotics in the naturalistic treatment of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Marvin

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an ongoing debate over whether atypical antipsychotics are more effective than typical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. This naturalistic study compares atypical and typical antipsychotics on time to all-cause medication discontinuation, a recognized index of medication effectiveness in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods We used data from a large, 3-year, observational, non-randomized, multisite study of schizophrenia, conducted in the U.S. between 7/1997 and 9/2003. Patients who were initiated on oral atypical antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, or ziprasidone or oral typical antipsychotics (low, medium, or high potency were compared on time to all-cause medication discontinuation for 1 year following initiation. Treatment group comparisons were based on treatment episodes using 3 statistical approaches (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, Cox Proportional Hazards regression model, and propensity score-adjusted bootstrap resampling methods. To further assess the robustness of the findings, sensitivity analyses were performed, including the use of (a only 1 medication episode for each patient, the one with which the patient was treated first, and (b all medication episodes, including those simultaneously initiated on more than 1 antipsychotic. Results Mean time to all-cause medication discontinuation was longer on atypical (N = 1132, 256.3 days compared to typical antipsychotics (N = 534, 197.2 days; p Conclusion In the usual care of schizophrenia patients, time to medication discontinuation for any cause appears significantly longer for atypical than typical antipsychotics regardless of the typical antipsychotic potency level. Findings were primarily driven by clozapine and olanzapine, and to a lesser extent by risperidone. Furthermore, only clozapine and olanzapine therapy showed consistently and significantly longer treatment duration compared to perphenazine, a medium

  5. Typical Versus Atypical Anorexia Nervosa Among Adolescents: Clinical Characteristics and Implications for ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silén, Yasmina; Raevuori, Anu; Jüriloo, Elisabeth; Tainio, Veli-Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2015-09-01

    There is scant research on the clinical utility of differentiating International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10 diagnoses F50.0 anorexia nervosa (typical AN) and F50.1 atypical anorexia. We reviewed systematically records of 47 adolescents who fulfilled criteria for ICD-10 F50.0 (n = 34) or F50.1 (n = 13), assessing the impact of diagnostic subtype, comorbidity, background factors and treatment choices on recovery. Atypical AN patients were significantly older (p = 0.03), heavier (minimum body mass index 16.7 vs 15.1 kg/m(2) , p = 0.003) and less prone to comorbidities (38% vs 71%, p = 0.04) and had shorter, less intensive and less costly treatments than typical AN patients. The diagnosis of typical versus atypical AN was the sole significant predictor of treatment success: recovery from atypical AN was 4.3 times (95% confidence interval [1.1, 17.5]) as likely as recovery from typical AN. Overall, our findings indicate that a broader definition of AN may dilute the prognostic value of the diagnosis, and therefore, ICD-11 should retain its distinction between typical and atypical AN.

  6. Study on the three-station typical network deployments of workspace Measurement and Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi; Zhu, J. G.; Xue, B.; Ye, Sh. H.; Xiong, Y.

    2013-10-01

    As a novel network coordinate measurement system based on multi-directional positioning, workspace Measurement and Positioning System (wMPS) has outstanding advantages of good parallelism, wide measurement range and high measurement accuracy, which makes it to be the research hotspots and important development direction in the field of large-scale measurement. Since station deployment has a significant impact on the measurement range and accuracy, and also restricts the use-cost, the optimization method of station deployment was researched in this paper. Firstly, positioning error model was established. Then focusing on the small network consisted of three stations, the typical deployments and error distribution characteristics were studied. Finally, through measuring the simulated fuselage using typical deployments at the industrial spot and comparing the results with Laser Tracker, some conclusions are obtained. The comparison results show that under existing prototype conditions, I_3 typical deployment of which three stations are distributed in a straight line has an average error of 0.30 mm and the maximum error is 0.50 mm in the range of 12 m. Meanwhile, C_3 typical deployment of which three stations are uniformly distributed in the half-circumference of an circle has an average error of 0.17 mm and the maximum error is 0.28 mm. Obviously, C_3 typical deployment has a higher control effect on precision than I_3 type. The research work provides effective theoretical support for global measurement network optimization in the future work.

  7. EVALUATION OF TROQUE VS CLOSURE BOLT PRELOAD FOR A TYPICAL CONTAINMENT VESSEL UNDER SERVICE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.

    2010-02-16

    Radioactive material package containment vessels typically employ bolted closures of various configurations. Closure bolts must retain the lid of a package and must maintain required seal loads, while subjected to internal pressure, impact loads and vibration. The need for insuring that the specified preload is achieved in closure bolts for radioactive materials packagings has been a continual subject of concern for both designers and regulatory reviewers. The extensive literature on threaded fasteners provides sound guidance on design and torque specification for closure bolts. The literature also shows the uncertainty associated with use of torque to establish preload is typically between 10 and 35%. These studies have been performed under controlled, laboratory conditions. The ability to insure required preload in normal service is, consequently, an important question. The study described here investigated the relationship between indicated torque and resulting bolt load for a typical radioactive materials package closure using methods available under normal service conditions.

  8. Sensitivity to general and specific numerical features in typical achievers and children with mathematics learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotem, Avital; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    We examined the development of sensitivity to general and specific numerical features in typical achievers and in 6th and 8th graders with mathematics learning disability (MLD), using two effects in mental multiplication: operand-relatedness (i.e., difficulty in avoiding errors that are related to the operands via a shared multiplication row) and decade-consistency (i.e., difficulty in avoiding errors that are operand related and also share a decade with the true result). Responses to decade-consistent products were quick but erroneous. In line with the processing sequence in adults, children first became sensitive to the general numerical feature of operand-relatedness (typical achievers--from 3rd grade; children with MLD in 8th grade) and only later to the specific feature of decade-consistency (typical achievers--from 4th grade, but only from 6th grade in a mature pattern). Implications of the numerical sensitivity in children with MLD are discussed.

  9. Contribution of discourse and morphosyntax skills to reading comprehension in Chinese dyslexic and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chik, Pakey Pui-man; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Yeung, Pui-sze; Wong, Yau-kai; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Lo, Lap-yan

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed at identifying important skills for reading comprehension in Chinese dyslexic children and their typically developing counterparts matched on age (CA controls) or reading level (RL controls). The children were assessed on Chinese reading comprehension, cognitive, and reading-related skills. Results showed that the dyslexic children performed significantly less well than the CA controls but similarly to RL controls in most measures. Results of multiple regression analyses showed that word-level reading-related skills like oral vocabulary and word semantics were found to be strong predictors of reading comprehension among typically developing junior graders and dyslexic readers of senior grades, whereas morphosyntax, a text-level skill, was most predictive for typically developing senior graders. It was concluded that discourse and morphosyntax skills are particularly important for reading comprehension in the non-inflectional and topic-prominent Chinese system.

  10. Predictors of reading comprehension in children with cerebral palsy and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbell, Shana; Donders, Jacobus; Van Tubbergen, Marie; Warschausky, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Predictors of reading comprehension were evaluated in 41 children with cerebral palsy and 74 typically developing children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the relative contributions of measures of phonemic awareness, receptive vocabulary, and general reasoning to variance in reading comprehension. All three independent variables were statistically significant predictors of reading comprehension in both groups of participants. The impact of phonemic awareness on reading comprehension was moderated by age, but only in the typically developing group. Within the group with cerebral palsy, there was an indirect effect of functional expressive ability on reading comprehension, mediated by phonemic awareness. It is concluded that largely the same variables predict reading comprehension in children with cerebral palsy as in typically developing children, but that children with cerebral palsy continue to rely on phonological processing for a more protracted period of time.

  11. Anticipatory coarticulation and stability of speech in typically fluent speakers and people who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Stefan A; Maxfield, Nathan; Belmont, Alissa

    2016-01-01

    This project replicates and extends previous work on coarticulation in velar-vowel sequences in English. Coarticulatory data for 46 young adult speakers, 23 who stutter and 23 who do not stutter show coarticulatory patterns in young adults who stutter that are no different from typical young adults. Additionally, the stability of velar-vowel production is analysed in token-to-token variability found in multiple repetitions of the same velar-vowel sequence. Across participants, identical patterns of coarticulation were found between people who do and do not stutter, but decreased stability was found in velar closure production in a significant subset of people who stutter. Other people who stutter appeared no different than typical speakers. Outcomes of this study suggest that articulatory maturation in young adults who stutter is, on average, no different from typical young adults, but that some young adults who stutter could be viewed as having less stably activated articulatory sub-systems.

  12. Effects of Gender Color-Coding on Toddlers' Gender-Typical Toy Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wang I; Hines, Melissa

    2015-07-01

    Gender color-coding of children's toys may make certain toys more appealing or less appealing to a given gender. We observed toddlers playing with two gender-typical toys (a train, a doll), once in gender-typical colors and once in gender-atypical colors. Assessments occurred twice, at 20-40 months of age and at 26-47 months of age. A Sex × Time × Toy × Color ANOVA showed expected interactions between Sex and Toy and Sex and Color. Boys played more with the train than girls did and girls played more with the doll and with pink toys than boys did. The Sex × Toy × Color interaction was not significant, but, at both time points, boys and girls combined played more with the gender-atypical toy when its color was typical for their sex than when it was not. This effect appeared to be caused largely by boys' preference for, or avoidance of, the doll and by the use of pink. Also, at both time points, gender differences in toy preferences were larger in the gender-typical than in the gender-atypical color condition. At Time 2, these gender differences were present only in the gender-typical color condition. Overall, the results suggest that, once acquired, gender-typical color preferences begin to influence toy preferences, especially those for gender-atypical toys and particularly in boys. They thus could enlarge differences between boys' and girls' toy preferences. Because boys' and girls' toys elicit different activities, removing the gender color-coding of toys could encourage more equal learning opportunities.

  13. Hospitalization and cost after switching from atypical to typical antipsychotics in schizophrenia patients in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonlue, Tuanthon; Subongkot, Suphat; Dilokthornsakul, Piyameth; Kongsakon, Ronnachai; Pattanaprateep, Oraluck; Suanchang, Orabhorn; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2016-01-01

    Background Several clinical practice guidelines suggest using atypical over typical antipsychotics in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, cost-containment policy urged restricting usage of atypical antipsychotics and switching from atypical to typical antipsychotics. Objective This study aimed to evaluate clinical and economic impacts of switching from atypical to typical antipsychotics in schizophrenia patients in Thailand. Methods From October 2010 through September 2013, a retrospective cohort study was performed utilizing electronic database of two tertiary hospitals. Schizophrenia patients aged 18 years or older and being treated with atypical antipsychotics were included. Patients were classified as atypical antipsychotic switching group if they switched to typical antipsychotics after 180 days of continual atypical antipsychotics therapy. Outcomes were schizophrenia-related hospitalization and total health care cost. Logistic and Poisson regression were used to evaluate the risk of hospitalization, and generalized linear model with gamma distribution was used to determine the health care cost. All analyses were adjusted by employing propensity score and multivariable analyses. All cost estimates were adjusted according to 2013 consumer price index and converted to US$ at an exchange rate of 32.85 Thai bahts/US$. Results A total of 2,354 patients were included. Of them, 166 (7.1%) patients switched to typical antipsychotics. The adjusted odds ratio for schizophrenia-related hospitalization in atypical antipsychotic switching group was 1.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23–2.83). The adjusted incidence rate ratio was 2.44 (95% CI 1.57–3.79) for schizophrenia-related hospitalizations. The average total health care cost was lower in patients with antipsychotic switching (−$64; 95% CI −$459 to $332). Conclusion Switching from atypical to typical antipsychotics is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia-related hospitalization

  14. Segmental omental infarction in childhood: a typical case diagnosed by CT allowing successful conservative treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulier, Bruno [Clinique St. Luc, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Bouge (Belgium)

    2006-02-01

    Segmental omental infarction (SOI) is an uncommon cause of right lower quadrant pain in children that is often misdiagnosed as appendicitis. During the last decade, imaging findings of SOI have proved to be sufficiently typical to avoid unnecessary surgery in the majority of reported adult patients. The condition has a spontaneous favourable evolution under medical treatment. In children the surgical option remains controversial. We report a typical case of SOI in a 10-year-old boy. The diagnosis was suspected by sonography, unambiguously confirmed by multidetector CT and successfully treated conservatively. This report emphasizes the use of CT in selected acute abdominal situations, peculiarly in obese children, to avoid unnecessary surgery. (orig.)

  15. Analysis of partial discharge Ultrasonic wave characteristic on typical Defects in GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jing Gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For analyzing partial discharge ultrasonic wave characteristic on typical defects in SF6 gas insulation switchgear (GIS, a 110 kV GIS was taken as an object to design and simulate the typical partial discharge models in GIS. There are point electrode model on bus and cavity of GIS, floating electrode model, air interstice model in insulator, metal particle and iron core electromagnetic shock models. PD signals on different defects were thus detected with the ultrasonic method. The experimental results indicated that the ultrasonic signals of different defects showed different characteristics in waveform, amplitude and phase resolved partial discharge chart, which is helpful in PD pattern recognition for GIS.

  16. Breaking soliton equations and negative-order breaking soliton equations of typical and higher orders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ABDUL-MAJID WAZWAZ

    2016-11-01

    We develop breaking soliton equations and negative-order breaking soliton equations of typical and higher orders. The recursion operator of the KdV equation is used to derive these models.We establish the distinctdispersion relation for each equation. We use the simplified Hirota’s method to obtain multiple soliton solutions for each developed breaking soliton equation. We also develop generalized dispersion relations for the typical breaking soliton equations and the generalized negative-order breaking soliton equations. The results provide useful information on the dynamics of the relevant nonlinear negative-order equations.

  17. Cerebellar abnormalities typical of methylmercury poisoning in a fledged saltmarsh sparrow, Ammodramus caudacutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoville, Sheila A; Lane, Oksana P

    2013-05-01

    A fledged, 12-15 day-old saltmarsh sparrow, Ammodramus caudacutus, was collected from an accidental kill on Cinder Island, Long Island, NY, USA. The sparrow was assessed for feather mercury levels and the brain analyzed for cerebellar abnormalities by microscopic examination. In humans, fetal Minamata disease is caused by maternal ingestion of mercury. It is characterized by disrupted and disordered cerebellar neuronal migration in the fetus or infant. Results from this sparrow show cerebellar abnormalities typical of Minamata disease. It is the first known avian or mammalian specimen taken from the wild to show the abnormalities typical of the human fetal syndrome.

  18. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data observed at weather station belongs to the Australian bureau of meteorology in Armidale town over a fourteen years period from 1997–2010. Simulation of solar photovoltaic panels and wind turbines were conducted to obtain the optimal hybrid system sizing and best efficient with lowest cost. Correlations between the solar and wind power data were carried out on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis. It is shown that the hybrid system can be applied for the efficient and economic utilization of wind and solar renewable energy sources.

  19. Anxiety, Depression, and Irritability in Children with Autism Relative to Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Ahuja, Meesha; Smith, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal ratings of anxiety, depression, and irritability were analyzed in 1390 children (6-16 years of age), including 233 children with high functioning autism (HFA, IQ greater than or equal to 80), 117 children with low functioning autism (LFA, IQ less than 80), 187 typical children, and 853 children with other disorders. As a group, children…

  20. Theory of Mind and Children's Trait Attributions about Average and Typically Stigmatized Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapan, Candace; Boseovski, Janet J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicates that children hold negative beliefs about peers with foreign accents, physical disabilities, and people who are obese. The current study examined skills associated with individual differences in children's social judgements about these typically stereotyped groups. Theory of mind, memory, and cognitive inhibition were…

  1. Peer Social Skills and Theory of Mind in Children with Autism, Deafness, or Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida; Slaughter, Virginia; Moore, Chris; Wellman, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    Consequences of theory of mind (ToM) development for daily social lives of children are uncertain. Five to 13-year-olds (N = 195) with typical development, autism, or deafness (both native and late signers) took ToM tests and their teachers reported on their social skills for peer interaction (e.g., leadership, group entry). Groups differed in…

  2. Factorial temperament structure in stuttering, voice-disordered, and typically developing children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F; Van den Bergh, B.R.H.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the underlying temperamental structure of the Dutch Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ; B. Van den Bergh & M. Ackx, 2003) was identical for children who stutter (CWS), typically developing children (TDC), and children with vocal nodules

  3. The Association between Graphomotor Tests and Participation of Typically Developing Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Limor

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between graphomotor tests--VMI, ROCF, SWT--and the measures of a child's participation. Seventy-five typically developing children aged 4 to 9 years were individually evaluated using the graphomotor tests and their parents completed a participation questionnaire. After controlling for child's age, the…

  4. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1610 - An Example of a Typical Indicator Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false An Example of a Typical Indicator Finger 4 Figure 4 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Part...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1610 - An Example of a Typical Gas Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false An Example of a Typical Gas Shield 5 Figure 5 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part...

  6. Decision-Tree Models of Categorization Response Times, Choice Proportions, and Typicality Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Daniel; Lacouture, Yves; Cohen, Andrew L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present 3 decision-tree models of categorization adapted from T. Trabasso, H. Rollins, and E. Shaughnessy (1971) and use them to provide a quantitative account of categorization response times, choice proportions, and typicality judgments at the individual-participant level. In Experiment 1, the decision-tree models were fit to…

  7. Characterization of typical chemical background interferences in atmospheric pressure ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Xinghua; Bruins, Andries P.; Covey, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    The structures and origins of typical chemical background noise ions in positive atmospheric pressure ionization liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (API LC/MS) are investigated and summarized in this study. This was done by classifying chemical background ions using precursor and product ion sc

  8. When any Worx looks typical to you: global relative to local processing increases prototypicality and liking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Förster, J.; Denzler, M.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies examine novelty categorization theory's (Förster, Marguc & Gillebaart, 2010) assumption that global compared to local processing styles enhance typicality judgments of atypical objects and thereby enhance liking. We used an artificial category of figures for an alleged computer game incl

  9. Dyslexic and typical-reading children use vowel digraphs as perceptual units in reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinus, E.; de Jong, P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Digraphs are graphemes that are composed of two letters like the "ou" in "soup". We hypothesized that the serial-reading strategy of dyslexic readers might interfere with the processing of digraphs. We used a letter-detection task to compare the processing of vowel digraphs in dyslexic and typical-r

  10. Factorial Temperament Structure in Stuttering, Voice-Disordered, and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F.; Van den Bergh, Bea R. H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the underlying temperamental structure of the Dutch Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ; B. Van den Bergh & M. Ackx, 2003) was identical for children who stutter (CWS), typically developing children (TDC), and children with vocal nodules (CWVN). Method: A principal axis factor…

  11. Comparison of Sedentary Behaviors between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah M.; Curtin, Carol; Anderson, Sarah E.; Maslin, Melissa; Lividini, Keith; Bandini, Linda G.

    2014-01-01

    Time spent in sedentary behavior is largely due to time spent engaged with electronic screen media. Little is known about the extent to which sedentary behaviors for children with autism spectrum disorder differ from typically developing children. We used parental report to assess and compare time spent in sedentary behaviors for 53 children with…

  12. Swahili Speech Development: Preliminary Normative Data from Typically Developing Pre-School Children in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangji, Nazneen; Pascoe, Michelle; Smouse, Mantoa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Swahili is widely spoken in East Africa, but to date there are no culturally and linguistically appropriate materials available for speech-language therapists working in the region. The challenges are further exacerbated by the limited research available on the typical acquisition of Swahili phonology. Aim: To describe the speech…

  13. Textese and use of texting by children with typical language development and Specific Language Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.B.T.; van Dijk, Chantal; Vasic, Nada; van Witteloostuijn, Merel; Avrutin, S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate texting and textese, which is the special register used for sending brief text messages, across children with typical development (TD) and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Using elicitation techniques, texting and spoken language messages

  14. Sample diversity and premise typicality in inductive reasoning: evidence for developmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Brickman, Daniel; Gelman, Susan A

    2008-08-01

    Evaluating whether a limited sample of evidence provides a good basis for induction is a critical cognitive task. We hypothesized that whereas adults evaluate the inductive strength of samples containing multiple pieces of evidence by attending to the relations among the exemplars (e.g., sample diversity), six-year-olds would attend to the degree to which each individual exemplar in a sample independently appears informative (e.g., premise typicality). To test these hypotheses, participants were asked to select between diverse and non-diverse samples to help them learn about basic-level animal categories. Across various between-subject conditions (N=133), we varied the typicality present in the diverse and non-diverse samples. We found that adults reliably selected to examine diverse over non-diverse samples, regardless of exemplar typicality, six-year-olds preferred to examine samples containing typical exemplars, regardless of sample diversity, and nine-year-olds were somewhat in the midst of this developmental transition.

  15. 47 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart N of... - Typical Audio Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Typical Audio Wave 2 Figure 2 to Subpart N of Part 2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO... Audio Wave EC03JN91.006...

  16. Typical Plan: The Architecture of Labor and the Space of Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marullo, F.

    2014-01-01

    In a short essay dealing with the repetitive homogeneity of the Manhattan’s office layouts, Rem Koolhaas defined the term Typical Plan as one of the purest American architectural archetypes. A plan stripped of all its qualities and reduced to a calculated relation between discreet standardised eleme

  17. Cognitive State Verbs and Complement Clauses in Children with SLI and Their Typically Developing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horne, Amanda J. Owen; Lin, Shanju

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of cognitive state verbs (CSVs) and complement clauses in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. In Study 1, conversational samples from 23 children with SLI (M = 6;2), 24 age-matched TD children (M = 6;2) and 21 vocabulary-matched TD children (M = 4;9) were…

  18. Sustained Attention and Social Competence in Typically Developing Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Laura M. Bennett; Laurie-Rose, Cynthia; Brinkman, Tara M.; McNamara, Kelly A.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examines the relationship between sustained attention and social competence in preschool children. While studies demonstrate that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit poor social competence, less is known about typically developing children. Since children with ADHD have associated behavior…

  19. Effects of Semantic Elaboration and Typicality on Picture Naming in Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Claudia A.; Altmann, Lori J. P.; Kendall, Diane; Fischler, Ira; Heilman, Kennneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with probable Alzheimer disease (pAD) are frequently impaired at picture naming. This study examined whether a semantic elaboration task would facilitate naming in pAD, and whether training either semantically typical or atypical stimulus items facilitated generalized improvement in picture naming and category generation…

  20. Attention and word learning in autistic, language delayed and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Elena J; Amso, Dima; Abar, Beau; Sheinkopf, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that patterns of social attention hold predictive value for language development in typically developing infants. The goal of this research was to explore how patterns of attention in autistic, language delayed, and typically developing children relate to early word learning and language abilities. We tracked patterns of eye movements to faces and objects while children watched videos of a woman teaching them a series of new words. Subsequent test trials measured participants' recognition of these novel word-object pairings. Results indicated that greater attention to the speaker's mouth was related to higher scores on standardized measures of language development for autistic and typically developing children (but not for language delayed children). This effect was mediated by age for typically developing, but not autistic children. When effects of age were controlled for, attention to the mouth among language delayed participants was negatively correlated with standardized measures of language learning. Attention to the speaker's mouth and eyes while she was teaching the new words was also predictive of faster recognition of those words among autistic children. These results suggest that language delays among children with autism may be driven in part by aberrant social attention, and that the mechanisms underlying these delays may differ from those in language delayed participants without autism.

  1. Language Learning of Children with Typical Development Using a Deductive Metalinguistic Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In the current study, the author aimed to determine whether 4- to 6-year-old typically developing children possess requisite problem-solving and language abilities to produce, generalize, and retain a novel verb inflection when taught using an explicit, deductive teaching procedure. Method: Study participants included a cross-sectional…

  2. Brain bases of reading fluency in typical reading and impaired fluency in dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Joanna A; Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Lymberis, John; Saxler, Patricia K; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Triantafyllou, Christina; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-01-01

    Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates.

  3. Anxiety and Depression in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, Reading Disabilities, or Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Irene C.; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were…

  4. Macrostructure in the Narratives of Estonian Children with Typical Development and Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodla, Piret; Kikas, Eve

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the macrostructure in Estonian children's narratives according to the story grammar (SG) model. The study's aims were to determine whether differences exist in narrative macrostructure between Estonian- and English-speaking children, among typically developed (TD) children, and between children with and without…

  5. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Characterisation of N-Alkyl Quaternary Ammonium Salts Typical Precursors of Cyanines

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, P; Reis, L. V.; SANTOS, P.F.; Ramos, S. S.; Pardal, A. C.

    2002-01-01

    The synthesis and spectroscopic characterisation of some representative N-alkylsubstituted quaternary ammonium salts derived from benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzoselenazole, indole and quinoline are described. These heterocyclic salts, bearing an activated methyl group in the 2-position in relation to the nitrogen atom and N-methyl, -pentyl, -hexyl and -decyl chains, are typical precursors of cyanine dyes.

  6. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Characterisation of N-Alkyl Quaternary Ammonium Salts Typical Precursors of Cyanines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Almeida

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and spectroscopic characterisation of some representative N-alkylsubstituted quaternary ammonium salts derived from benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzoselenazole, indole and quinoline are described. These heterocyclic salts, bearing an activated methyl group in the 2-position in relation to the nitrogen atom and N-methyl, -pentyl, -hexyl and -decyl chains, are typical precursors of cyanine dyes.

  7. Attenuation of typical sex differences in 800 adults with autism vs. 3,900 controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Baron-Cohen

    Full Text Available Sex differences have been reported in autistic traits and systemizing (male advantage, and empathizing (female advantage among typically developing individuals. In individuals with autism, these cognitive-behavioural profiles correspond to predictions from the "extreme male brain" (EMB theory of autism (extreme scores on autistic traits and systemizing, below average on empathizing. Sex differences within autism, however, have been under-investigated. Here we show in 811 adults (454 females with autism and 3,906 age-matched typical control adults (2,562 females who completed the Empathy Quotient (EQ, the Systemizing Quotient-Revised (SQ-R, and the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ, that typical females on average scored higher on the EQ, typical males scored higher on the SQ-R and AQ, and both males and females with autism showed a shift toward the extreme of the "male profile" on these measures and in the distribution of "brain types" (the discrepancy between standardized EQ and SQ-R scores. Further, normative sex differences are attenuated but not abolished in adults with autism. The findings provide strong support for the EMB theory of autism, and highlight differences between males and females with autism.

  8. Analysis of Steroid Hormones in a Typical Dairy Waste Disposal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The environmental loading of steroid hormones contained in dairy wastes may cause a potential adversely affect on the aquatic species. This work was to investigate the profile of steroid hormones in a typical dairy waste operation system and assess the potential risk of hormone contaminations result...

  9. Brain bases of reading fluency in typical reading and impaired fluency in dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna A Christodoulou

    Full Text Available Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates.

  10. Chaotic Solutions of a Typical Nonlinear Oscillator in a Double Potential Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jian-Shu

    2003-01-01

    We have obtained a general unstable chaotic solution of a typical nonlinear oscillator in a double potential trap with weak periodic perturbations by using the direct perturbation method. Theoretical analysis reveals that the stable periodic orbits are embedded in the Melnikov chaotic attractors. The corresponding chaotic region and orbits in parameter space are described by numerical simulations.

  11. Television, Video Game and Social Media Use among Children with ASD and Typically Developing Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Wenstrup, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the nature of television, video game, and social media use in children (ages 8-18) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, n = 202) compared to typically developing siblings (TD, n = 179), and relative to other activities. Parents completed measures assessing children's screen-based and other extracurricular activities. Children…

  12. Objective color harmony assessment for visible and infrared color fusion images of typical scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shaoshu; Jin, Weiqi; Wang, Lingxue

    2012-11-01

    For visible and infrared color fusion images of three typical scenes, color harmony computational models are proposed to evaluate the color quality of fusion images without reference images. The models are established based on the color-combination harmony model and focus on the influence of the color characteristics of typical scenes and the color region sizes in the fusion image. For the influence of the color characteristics of typical scenes, color harmony adjusting factors for natural scene images (green plants, sea, and sky) are defined by measuring the similarity between image colors and corresponding memory colors, and that for town and building images are presented based on the optimum colorfulness range suited for a human. Simultaneously, considering the influence of color region sizes, the weight coefficients are established using areas of the color regions to optimize the color harmony model. Experimental results show that the proposed harmony models are consistent with human perception and that they are suitable to evaluate the color harmony for color fusion images of typical scenes.

  13. Postural Sway Patterns in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared with Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memari, Amir Hossein; Ghanouni, Parisa; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Eghlidi, Jandark; Ziaee, Vahid; Moshayedi, Pouria

    2013-01-01

    Postural control is a fundamental building block of each child's daily activities. The aim of this study was to compare patterns of postural sway in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with typically developing children (TD). We recruited 21 schoolchildren diagnosed with ASD aged 9-14 and 30 TD pupils aged 8-15. Postural sway parameters…

  14. VMI-VI and BG-II KOPPITZ-2 for Youth with HFASDs and Typical Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christin A.; Volker, Martin A.; Lopata, Christopher; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Lee, Gloria K.; Lipinski, Alanna M.; Dua, Elissa H.; Schiavo, Audrey M.; Bain, Fabienne; Nelson, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    The visual-motor skills of 90 youth with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) and 51 typically developing (TD) youth were assessed using the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, Sixth Edition (VMI-VI) and Koppitz Developmental Scoring System for the Bender-Gestalt Test-Second Edition (KOPPITZ-2).…

  15. Does Nutritional Intake Differ between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Children with Typical Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Alison C.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Johnson, Susan L.; Leiferman, Jenn; Reynolds, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Consumption of macro- and micronutrients and food group servings by children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; n = 46) and typical development (n = 31) were compared using 3-day diet records. Children with ASDs consumed significantly more vitamin B6 and E and non-dairy protein servings, less calcium, and fewer dairy servings (p less than…

  16. Does the absence of cointegration explain the typical findings in long horizon regressions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R-P. Berben; D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOne of the stylized facts in financial and international economics is that of increasing predictability of variables such as exchange rates and stock returns at longer horizons. This fact is based upon applications of long horizon regressions, from which the typical findings are that the

  17. Bridge Building and Other Possible Metaphors for Patching over Discrepancies between Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The next several pages are intended as a "Commentary" on the six target articles bundled together as a Special Issue of the "Journal of Cognition and Development"--literature reviews and research reports all intended to "build bridges" between the study of cognitive development in typical and atypical populations.

  18. The Development of Metaphorical Language Comprehension in Typical Development and in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Van Duuren, Mike; Purser, Harry R. M.; Mareschal, Denis; Ansari, Daniel; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2010-01-01

    The domain of figurative language comprehension was used to probe the developmental relation between language and cognition in typically developing individuals and individuals with Williams syndrome. Extending the work of Vosniadou and Ortony, the emergence of nonliteral similarity and category knowledge was investigated in 117 typically…

  19. The Effectiveness of Contextually Supported Play Date Interactions between Children with Autism and Typically Developing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, Robert L.; Werner, Grace A.; Vismara, Laurie A.; Koegel, Lynn Kern

    2005-01-01

    Difficulties with social interaction are characteristic of autism. This study presents data illustrating the use of motivational strategies in play dates to improve the quality of social interactions between children with autism and their typically developing peers. Specifically, a multiple baseline design across participants shows how a…

  20. Attention and Word Learning in Autistic, Language Delayed and Typically Developing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eTenenbaum

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has demonstrated that patterns of social attention hold predictive value for language development in typically developing infants. The goal of this research was to explore how patterns of attention in autistic, language delayed, and typically developing children relate to early word learning and language abilities. We tracked patterns of eye movements to faces and objects while children watched videos of a woman teaching them a series of new words. Subsequent test trials measured participants’ recognition of these novel word-object pairings. Results indicated that greater attention to the speaker’s mouth was related to higher scores on standardized measures of language development for autistic and typically developing children (but not for language delayed children. This effect was mediated by age for typically developing, but not autistic children. When effects of age were controlled for, attention to the mouth among language delayed participants was negatively correlated with standardized measures of language learning. Attention to the speaker’s mouth and eyes while she was teaching the new words was also predictive of faster recognition of the newly learned words among autistic children. These results suggest that language delays among children with autism may be driven in part by aberrant social attention, and that the mechanisms underlying these delays may differ from those in language delayed participants without autism.

  1. A Case Study on Procedural Modeling of Geo-Typical Southern Afghasistan Terrain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelik, R.M.; Kraker, J.K. de; Tutenel, T.; Bidarra, R.

    2009-01-01

    A cost-effective method of military training is game-based training, for which custom geo-typical terrain models are often most suitable. However, for training instructors, scenario preparation is seriously slowed down by the complexity of current terrain modeling tools and methods. They would benef

  2. Daytime Sleep Patterns in Preschool Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Tang, Karen; Anders, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined daytime sleep patterns in 3 groups of preschool-aged children: children with autism, children with developmental delay, and children who were developing typically. Sleep was assessed in 194 children via actigraphy and parent-report sleep diaries for 7 consecutive days on 3 separate occasions over 6 months. Children with…

  3. Sleep Patterns in Preschool-Age Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates sleep disorders by assessing the quantity and quality of sleep in preschool children with autism and comparing them with developmental delay without autism, and typical development. The results prove that sleep patterns are different in preschool children across all three categories.

  4. Characterization of one typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxin gene of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Parra-Unda, Ricardo; Landa, Abraham

    2009-09-01

    The Taenia genus is capable of living for long periods within its hosts. Reports have shown that this successful establishment is related to its efficient defense mechanisms against host immune response and its high tolerance to oxidative stress. In this work, we describe the genomic sequences of one Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Ts2-CysPrx, Tc2-CysPrx) genes, which are 94% identical in primary sequence with the typical 2-Cys Prxs catalytic motifs. Both genes have the same genomic architecture, showing a TATA box and Initiator (Inr) sequence in their proximal promoter, two exons split by a 67-bp type III intron and one unique transcription start site located inside the Inr. We show that T. crassiceps cysticerci are highly tolerant to H(2)O(2) presenting a lethal concentration 50 of 3.0 mM and demonstrate that the typical Tc2-CysPrx gene is not induced by H(2)O(2), showing a behavior of an antioxidant housekeeping gene. This study describes for first time the gene structure of a typical 2-Cys Prx in the Taenia genus.

  5. Dietary Patterns and Body Mass Index in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E. Whitney; Must, Aviva; Anderson, Sarah E.; Curtin, Carol; Scampini, Renee; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether dietary patterns (juice and sweetened non-dairy beverages, fruits, vegetables, fruits and vegetables, snack foods, and kid's meals) and associations between dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) differed between 53 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 58 typically developing children, ages 3-11, multivariate…

  6. Simulation studies of laser wakefield acceleration based on typical 100 TW laser facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大章; 高杰; 朱雄伟; 何安

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, 2-D Particle-In-Cell simulations are made for Laser Wakefield Accelerations (LWFA). As in a real experiment, we perform plasma density scanning for typical 100 TW laser facilities. Several basic laws for self-injected acceleration in a bubb

  7. Development of Novel Metaphor and Metonymy Comprehension in Typically Developing Children and Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herwegen, Jo; Dimitriou, Dagmara; Rundblad, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of novel metaphor and metonymy comprehension in both typically developing (TD) children and individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Thirty-one TD children between the ages of 3;09 and 17;01 and thirty-four individuals with WS between the ages of 7;01 and 44 years old were administered a newly developed task…

  8. The Development of Product Parity Sensitivity in Children with Mathematics Learning Disability and in Typical Achievers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotem, Avital; Henik, Avishai

    2013-01-01

    Parity helps us determine whether an arithmetic equation is true or false. The current research examines the development of sensitivity to parity cues in multiplication in typically achieving (TA) children (grades 2, 3, 4 and 6) and in children with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD, grades 6 and 8), via a verification task. In TA children…

  9. Participation of Children with Intellectual Disability Compared with Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Matthew; Shields, Nora; Imms, Christine; Black, Monique; Ardern, Clare

    2013-01-01

    We compared participation in out-of-school activities between children with intellectual disability and children with typical development using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment and Preferences for Activities of Children questionnaires. Thirty-eight pairs of children were matched for age (mean age 12.3 plus or minus 2.7…

  10. Fundamental Frequency Development in Typically Developing Infants and Infants with Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2008-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on the development of suprasegmental characteristics of vocalizations in typically developing infants (TDI) and the role of audition in the development of these characteristics. The purpose of the present study was to examine the longitudinal development of fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) in eight TDI and…

  11. Maternal Functional Speech to Children: A Comparison of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, P.; de Falco, S.; Esposito, G.; Zaninelli, M.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2012-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities benefit from their language environment as much as, or even more than, typically developing (TD) children, but maternal language directed to developmentally delayed children is an underinvestigated topic. The purposes of the present study were to compare maternal functional language directed to children…

  12. Adolescent alcohol exposure and persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood: a mini-review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Linda Patia; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is typically initiated during adolescence, which, along with young adulthood, is a vulnerable period for the onset of high-risk drinking and alcohol abuse. Given across-species commonalities in certain fundamental neurobehavioral characteristics of adolescence, studies in laboratory animals such as the rat have proved useful to assess persisting consequences of repeated alcohol exposure. Despite limited research to date, reports of long-lasting effects of adolescent ethanol exposure are emerging, along with certain common themes. One repeated finding is that adolescent exposure to ethanol sometimes results in the persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood. Instances of adolescent -like persistence have been seen in terms of baseline behavioral, cognitive, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical characteristics, along with the retention of adolescent-typical sensitivities to acute ethanol challenge. These effects are generally not observed after comparable ethanol exposure in adulthood. Persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes is not always evident, and may be related to regionally-specific ethanol influences on the interplay between CNS excitation and inhibition critical for the timing of neuroplasticity. PMID:24813805

  13. Social-Emotional Inhibition of Return in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder versus Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antezana, Ligia; Mosner, Maya G.; Troiani, Vanessa; Yerys, Benjamin E.

    2016-01-01

    In typical development there is a bias to orient visual attention to social information. Children with ASD do not reliably demonstrate this bias, and the role of attention orienting has not been well studied. We examined attention orienting via the inhibition of return (IOR) mechanism in a spatial cueing task using social-emotional cues; we…

  14. Mealtime Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Typically Developing Siblings: A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, Genevieve; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann; Dunn, Winnie; Gisel, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have mealtime problems. Diagnosis and the social environment may influence eating behaviours. We examined whether children with ASD have more mealtime problems than their typically developing siblings, and whether age and sex are associated with mealtime problems. Forty-eight families participated…

  15. Working Hard and Working Smart: Motivation and Ability during Typical and Maximum Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klehe, Ute-Christine; Anderson, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The distinction between what people "can" do (maximum performance) and what they "will" do (typical performance) has received considerable theoretical but scant empirical attention in industrial-organizational psychology. This study of 138 participants performing an Internet-search task offers an initial test and verification of P. R. Sackett, S.…

  16. Reading under the Skin: Physiological Activation during Reading in Children with Dyslexia and Typical Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Valentina; Bonifacci, Paola; Ottaviani, Cristina; Borsato, Thomas; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate physiological activation during reading and control tasks in children with dyslexia and typical readers. Skin conductance response (SCR) recorded during four tasks involving reading aloud, reading silently, and describing illustrated stories aloud and silently was compared for children with dyslexia (n =…

  17. Sleep Problems among Taiwanese Children with Autism, Their Siblings and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Miao-Chun; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Wu, Yu-Yu; Lee, Ju-Chin; Wong, Ching-Ching; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    The current study compared the sleep schedules, sleep problems among children with autism, their siblings and typically developing children, and to explore other associated factors with sleep problems. We conducted a case-control study consisting 110 children with autistic disorder, 125 unaffected siblings, and 110 age-, sex-, and parental…

  18. Bridging the Gaps in the Study of Typical and Atypical Cognitive Development: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Susan A.; Madigan, Sheri

    2016-01-01

    The articles in this special issue of the "Journal of Cognition and Development" examine the cognitive development of children who are following typical and atypical developmental pathways. The articles offer a mixture of theory-based considerations, reviews of the literature, and new empirical data addressing fundamental aspects of…

  19. Clinicopathological and molecular genetic analysis of 4 typical Chinese HNPCC families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Cai; Meng-Hong Sun; Hong-Fen Lu; Tai-Ming Zhang; Shan-Jing Mo; Ye Xu; San-Jun Cai; Xiong-Zeng Zhu; Da-Ren Shi

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the clinicopathological and molecular genetic characteristics of typical Chinese hereditary nonpolyposis cotorectal cancer (HNPCC) families. METHODS: Four typical Chinese HNPCC families were analyzed using microdissection, microsatellite instability analysis, immunostaining of hMSH2 and hMLH1 proteins and direct DNA sequencing of hMSH2 and hMLH1 genes. RESULTS: All five tumor tissues of 4 probands from the 4typical Chinese HNPCC families showed microsatellite instability at more than two loci (MSI-H or RER +phenotype). Three out of the 4 cases lost hMSH2 protein expression and the other case showed no hMLH1 protein expression. Three pathological germline mutations (2 in hMSH2 and 1 in hMLH1 ), which had not been reported previously, were identified. The same mutations were also found in otler affected members of two HNPCC families,respectively. CONCLUSION: Typical Chinese HNPCC families showed relatively frequent germline mutation of mismstch repair genes. High-level microsateliita instability and loss of expression of mismatch repair genes correlated closely with germline mutation of mismatch repair genes. Microsatellite instability analysis and immunostaining of miamstch repair gens might serve as effective screening methods before direct DNA sequencing. It is necessary to establish clinical criteria and molecular diagnostic strategies more suitable for Chinese HNPCC families.

  20. Mechanism for the Environmental Process & Ecological Effects of Typical Chemical Pollutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiaobai; WANG Liansheng; DAI Shugui; HUANG Yuyao

    2007-01-01

    @@ Principally being engaged in the field of earth sciences, this research project explores the mechanism which governs the environmental process of some typical chemical contaminants and their eco-toxic effects at various levels. The research project features the following achievements:

  1. Web Image Search Re-ranking with Click-based Similarity and Typicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaopeng; Mei, Tao; Zhang, Yong Dong; Liu, Jie; Satoh, Shin'ichi

    2016-07-20

    In image search re-ranking, besides the well known semantic gap, intent gap, which is the gap between the representation of users' query/demand and the real intent of the users, is becoming a major problem restricting the development of image retrieval. To reduce human effects, in this paper, we use image click-through data, which can be viewed as the "implicit feedback" from users, to help overcome the intention gap, and further improve the image search performance. Generally, the hypothesis visually similar images should be close in a ranking list and the strategy images with higher relevance should be ranked higher than others are widely accepted. To obtain satisfying search results, thus, image similarity and the level of relevance typicality are determinate factors correspondingly. However, when measuring image similarity and typicality, conventional re-ranking approaches only consider visual information and initial ranks of images, while overlooking the influence of click-through data. This paper presents a novel re-ranking approach, named spectral clustering re-ranking with click-based similarity and typicality (SCCST). First, to learn an appropriate similarity measurement, we propose click-based multi-feature similarity learning algorithm (CMSL), which conducts metric learning based on clickbased triplets selection, and integrates multiple features into a unified similarity space via multiple kernel learning. Then based on the learnt click-based image similarity measure, we conduct spectral clustering to group visually and semantically similar images into same clusters, and get the final re-rank list by calculating click-based clusters typicality and withinclusters click-based image typicality in descending order. Our experiments conducted on two real-world query-image datasets with diverse representative queries show that our proposed reranking approach can significantly improve initial search results, and outperform several existing re-ranking approaches.

  2. Integrated Prevention and Control System for Soil Erosion in Typical Black Soil Region of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-ying; CAI Qiang-guo; CHEN Sheng-yong; HE Ji-jun

    2012-01-01

    The black soil region of Northeast China is one of the most important food production bases and commodity grain bases in China. However, the continual loss and degradation of precious black soil resources has led to direct threats to national food security and regional sustainable development. Therefore, it is necessary to summarize integrated prevention and control experience of small watersheds in black soil region of Northeast China. Tongshuang small watershed, a typical watershed in rolling hills of typical black soil areas in Northeast China, is selected as the study area. Based on nearly 50 years’ experience in prevention and control of soil and water loss, the structures and overall benefits of an integrated prevention and control system for soil and water loss are investigated. Then, the ’three defense lines’ tri-dimensional protection system with reasonable allocation of different types of soil and water control measures from the hill top to gully is systematically analyzed. The first line on the top hill can weaken and block uphill runoff and sediment, hold water resources and improve soil property. The second line on the hill can truncate slope length, slow down the runoff velocity and reduce erosion energy. The third line in the gully is mainly composed of waterfall engineering, which can inhibit soil erosion and restore land resources. The ’three defense lines’ system is feasible for soil and water loss control of small watersheds in the typical black soil region of Northeast China. Through the application of the in Tongshuang small watershed, There are effective improvements in ecological conditions in Tongshuang small watershed after the application of ’three defense lines’ soil and water control system. Moreover, the integrated treatment paradigm for soil and water loss in typical black soil region is compared with that in loess region. The results of this study could offer references and experiences for other small watersheds in

  3. IMPACTO DEL PASTOREO CON GANADO HOLSTEIN Y JERSEY SOBRE LA DENSIDAD APARENTE DE UN ANDISOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo WingChing-Jones

    2009-01-01

    momento del pastoreo (antes y después y potrero, fueron significativas para la cuantificación del cambio en la densidad aparente. Los valores de ¿a antes de que entrara el ganado a los apartos variaron entre 0,47 y 0,58 Mg/m3, con un promedio de 0,52 Mg/m3, mientras que después del paso del ganado variaron entre 0,52 y 0,77 Mg/m3, con un promedio de 0,64 Mg/m3. Cuando el pastoreo se realizó con ganado Jersey, la ¿a aumentó a valores entre 0,52 y 0,72 Mg/m3, con un promedio de 0,62 Mg/m3y con pastoreo de ganado Holstein entre 0,62 y 0,77 Mg/m3, con un valor promedio de 0,69 Mg/m3. El cambio en la densidad aparente producto del pisoteo en un suelo con cobertura permanente de pasto kikuyo, con las condiciones que prevalecieron durante este trabajo varió entre 14 y 31%.

  4. Survivel, growth, and nutrition of tree seedlings fertilized at planting on Andisol soils in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Hreinn; Sigurgeirsson, Adalsteinn; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    Ledeb. and Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. After six growing seasons, seedlings provided with controlled-release-fertilizer (Osmocote®: 25 g per seedling) or smaller amounts of easily soluble nitrogen–phosphorus fertilizer (e.g. 1.2 g N per seedling and 1.4 g P per seedling) showed significantly improved...

  5. SMEs Development Strategy for Competitive and Sustainable Typical Local Snacks of Banten Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawarni Hasibuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs for snacks in Indonesia currently has a good growth rate on one hand; but on the other hand, its level of competition is also quite high.  Growth in sales volume of the Indonesian snack industry, both in modern and traditional markets in 2012, was recorded at 10-15 percent far beyond the growth of other manufacturing industries.  However, the level of competition in the snack industry is also relatively high. Business people in the snacks sector do not only compete with fellow local business people but also with imported products, both legal and illegal.  Currently, Banten Province is indeed not known as a culinary destination with a variety of distinctively local foods. The growth  of the food industry in Banten Province is not as rapid as other manufacturing industries. However, in Banten, some types of food produced in small and medium scales (SMEs are also known.  Therefore, efforts to develop and empower typical local snack SMEs in Banten Province needs to be conducted to be able to increase its competitiveness in facing the globalization era and the ASEAN free market in 2015.  The purpose of this reseach is to map the performance profile of Banten typical local snack SMEs and to provide recommendation on SME development strategies for competitive and sustainable Banten typical local snacks.  The research method used combines the descriptive research method, IPA (Importance Performance Analysis, and SWOT analysis.  The performance level measurement for Banten typical local snack SMEs is based on stakeholder perceptions on the condition of the existing 16 attributes compared to the perception on the development expectation of each of these attributes.  Results of SWOT matrix mapping puts  the products of Banten typical local snack SMEs in quadran II.  The strategy prioritized is the quality attribute maintenance strategy for superior products, as well as product diversification to expand market share

  6. Perception and Processing of Faces in the Human Brain Is Tuned to Typical Feature Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, D. Samuel; Alvarez, Ivan; Lawson, Rebecca P.; Henriksson, Linda; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Faces are salient social stimuli whose features attract a stereotypical pattern of fixations. The implications of this gaze behavior for perception and brain activity are largely unknown. Here, we characterize and quantify a retinotopic bias implied by typical gaze behavior toward faces, which leads to eyes and mouth appearing most often in the upper and lower visual field, respectively. We found that the adult human visual system is tuned to these contingencies. In two recognition experiments, recognition performance for isolated face parts was better when they were presented at typical, rather than reversed, visual field locations. The recognition cost of reversed locations was equal to ∼60% of that for whole face inversion in the same sample. Similarly, an fMRI experiment showed that patterns of activity evoked by eye and mouth stimuli in the right inferior occipital gyrus could be separated with significantly higher accuracy when these features were presented at typical, rather than reversed, visual field locations. Our findings demonstrate that human face perception is determined not only by the local position of features within a face context, but by whether features appear at the typical retinotopic location given normal gaze behavior. Such location sensitivity may reflect fine-tuning of category-specific visual processing to retinal input statistics. Our findings further suggest that retinotopic heterogeneity might play a role for face inversion effects and for the understanding of conditions affecting gaze behavior toward faces, such as autism spectrum disorders and congenital prosopagnosia. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Faces attract our attention and trigger stereotypical patterns of visual fixations, concentrating on inner features, like eyes and mouth. Here we show that the visual system represents face features better when they are shown at retinal positions where they typically fall during natural vision. When facial features were shown at typical (rather

  7. Fishy Fishes: The Typicality of Object Stimuli Used to Assess Children's Language in the Reynell Development Language Scales--III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrnyk, Corinne; Meints, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies show clear evidence that children display typicality effects during early word learning. However, little is known of the typicality of stimuli used by standardized language tests to assess children's language development. Aims: To examine the typicality of stimuli used by the Reynell Developmental Language Scales--III…

  8. Pattern recognition of typical defects in high-voltage storage capacitors based on DC partial discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU GuangNing; BIAN ShanShan; ZHOU LiRen; ZHANG XueQin; RAN HanZheng; YU ChengLong

    2009-01-01

    High-voltage storage capacitors(hereinafter call capacitors for short)have been widely used in pulsed power technology.In accordance with the actual work conditions of capacitors,direct current partial discharge(DCPD)detection was put forward.The whole test system was based on the impedance balance circuit characterized by good configuration and anti-interference ability.Through DCPD detection on capacitors which contained four typical defects respectively,test results revealed that DCPD signals could well reflect the state of capacitor insulation.DCPD distribution spectra of capacitors containing four typical defects were obviously different.Defects in capacitors could be exactly judged by computer-aided pattern recognition based on support vector machine(SVM).

  9. Scoliosis associated with typical Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K; Esham, R H; Thorneycroft, I

    2000-02-01

    Disorders that cause congenital scoliosis include Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome. We present the case of a 46-year-old karyotypical (XX) woman with müllerian agenesis (MRKH type A, typical form), a rudimentary bicornate uterus, a blind vaginal pouch, and adenocarcinoma of both ovaries with subsequent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. She also had scoliosis of the thoracic and lumbar spine, an association thus far seen only among patients with type B (atypical) MRKH. We describe typical and atypical forms of MRKH and emphasize how these various anomalies associated with müllerian agenesis have affected the classification of the syndrome. We also outline possible embryologic etiologies of müllerian agenesis.

  10. Pattern recognition of typical defects in high-voltage storage capacitors based on DC partial discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    High-voltage storage capacitors(hereinafter call capacitors for short)have been widely used in pulsed power technology.In accordance with the actual work conditions of capacitors,direct current partial discharge(DCPD)detection was put forward.The whole test system was based on the impedance balance circuit characterized by good configuration and anti-interference ability.Through DCPD detection on capacitors which contained four typical defects respectively,test results revealed that DCPD signals could well reflect the state of capacitor insulation.DCPD distribution spectra of capacitors containing four typical defects were obviously different.Defects in capacitors could be exactly judged by computer–aided pattern recognition based on support vector machine(SVM).

  11. Selective extraction of isolated mitotic apparatus. Evidence that typical microtubule protein is extracted by organic mercurial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibring, T; Baxandall, J

    1971-02-01

    Mitotic apparatus isolated from sea urchin eggs has been treated with meralluride sodium under conditions otherwise resembling those of its isolation. The treatment causes a selective morphological disappearance of microtubules while extracting a major protein fraction, probably consisting of two closely related proteins, which constitutes about 10% of mitotic apparatus protein. Extraction of other cell particulates under similar conditions yields much less of this protein. The extracted protein closely resembles outer doublet microtubule protein from sea urchin sperm tail in properties considered typical of microtubule proteins: precipitation by calcium ion and vinblastine, electrophoretic mobility in both acid and basic polyacrylamide gels, sedimentation coefficient, molecular weight, and, according to a preliminary determination, amino acid composition. An antiserum against a preparation of sperm tail outer doublet microtubules cross-reacts with the extract from mitotic apparatus. On the basis of these findings it appears that microtubule protein is selectively extracted from isolated mitotic apparatus by treatment with meralluride, and is a typical microtubule protein.

  12. Comparison study of typical algorithms for reconstructing time series from the recurrence plot of dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jie; Shi Shu-Ting; Zhao Jun-Chan

    2013-01-01

    The three most widely used methods for reconstructing the underlying time series via the recurrence plots (RPs) of a dynamical system are compared with each other in this paper.We aim to reconstruct a toy series,a periodical series,a random series,and a chaotic series to compare the effectiveness of the most widely used typical methods in terms of signal correlation analysis.The application of the most effective algorithm to the typical chaotic Lorenz system verifies the correctness of such an effective algorithm.It is verified that,based on the unthresholded RPs,one can reconstruct the original attractor by choosing different RP thresholds based on the Hirata algorithm.It is shown that,in real applications,it is possible to reconstruct the underlying dynamics by using quite little information from observations of real dynamical systems.Moreover,rules of the threshold chosen in the algorithm are also suggested.

  13. Reading under the skin: physiological activation during reading in children with dyslexia and typical readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Valentina; Bonifacci, Paola; Ottaviani, Cristina; Borsato, Thomas; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate physiological activation during reading and control tasks in children with dyslexia and typical readers. Skin conductance response (SCR) recorded during four tasks involving reading aloud, reading silently, and describing illustrated stories aloud and silently was compared for children with dyslexia (n = 16) and a control group of typical readers (n = 16). Children's school wellness was measured through self- and parent-proxy reports. Significantly lower SCR was found for dyslexic children in the reading-aloud task, compared to the control group, whereas all participants showed similar physiological reactions to the other experimental conditions. SCR registered during reading tasks correlated with "Child's emotional difficulties," as reported by parents. Possible interpretations of the lower activation during reading aloud in dyslexic children are discussed.

  14. Typical and atypical bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors: a clinicopathologic and KI-67-labeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, V; Marty-Ané, C; Picot, M C; Serre, I; Pujol, J L; Mary, H; Baldet, P

    1995-07-01

    Expression of a proliferating antigen by KI-67 immunohistochemistry was analyzed with a SAMBA 2005 computer-assisted image processor (Traitement de l'Information for des Techniques Nouvelles, Grenoble, France) in 47 surgically resected bronchopulmonary carcinoids embedded in paraffin. The clinicopathologic characteristics and KI-67 labeling, expressed in percentage of stained nuclear surface relative to the total nuclear surface, of 31 typical carcinoids and 16 atypical carcinoids were compared and assessed with respect to patient survival. The proliferation status was significantly higher in histologically atypical than in typical carcinoids. Moreover, using a 4% cutoff, we observed a significant difference for the 4-year overall survival rate. Semiquantitative analysis of the proliferation index by KI-67 immunostaining seemed to be an effective means of identifying high risk subsets among patients with histologically atypical carcinoids and for whom adjuvant chemotherapy could be proposed.

  15. The representation of category typicality in the frontal cortex and its cross-linguistic variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Tardif, Twila; Wu, Haiyan; Monk, Christopher S; Luo, Yue-Jia; Mai, Xiaoqin

    2013-12-01

    When asked to judge the membership of typical (e.g., car) vs. atypical (e.g., train) pictures of a category (e.g., vehicle), native English (N=18) and native Chinese speakers (N=18) showed distinctive patterns of brain activity despite showing similar behavioral responses. Moreover, these differences were mainly due to the amount and pervasiveness of category information linguistically embedded in the everyday names of the items in the respective languages, with important differences across languages in how pervasive category labels are embedded in item-level terms. Nonetheless, the left inferior frontal gyrus and the bilateral medial frontal gyrus are the most consistent neural correlates of category typicality that persist across languages and linguistic cues. These data together suggest that both cross- and within-language differences in the explicitness of category information have strong effects on the nature of categorization processes performed by the brain.

  16. Caregivers' suffix frequencies and suffix acquisition by language impaired, late talking, and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlaumont, Anne S; Jarmulowicz, Linda

    2012-11-01

    Acquisition of regular inflectional suffixes is an integral part of grammatical development in English and delayed acquisition of certain inflectional suffixes is a hallmark of language impairment. We investigate the relationship between input frequency and grammatical suffix acquisition, analyzing 217 transcripts of mother-child (ages 1 ; 11-6 ; 9) conversations from the CHILDES database. Maternal suffix frequency correlates with previously reported rank orders of acquisition and with child suffix frequency. Percentages of children using a suffix are consistent with frequencies in caregiver speech. Although late talkers acquire suffixes later than typically developing children, order of acquisition is similar across populations. Furthermore, the third person singular and past tense verb suffixes, weaknesses for children with language impairment, are less frequent in caregiver speech than the plural noun suffix, a relative strength in language impairment. Similar findings hold across typical, SLI and late talker populations, suggesting that frequency plays a role in suffix acquisition.

  17. TYPICAL WEATHER CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH AIR POLLUTION IN HONG KONG AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xun-lai; FAN Shao-jia; LI Jiang-nan; LIU Ji; WANG An-yu; FONG Soi-kun

    2008-01-01

    With the hourly data of Air Pollution Index (API) by Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (HKEPD) during the 6 years of 2000 - 2005 and NCEP / NCAR reanalysis data of 2.5°×2.5° wind and pressure fields, the characteristics of API in Hong Kong area and the impacts of typical weather characteristics on the air pollution in Hong Kong have been studied. The results are shown as follows. (1) The API exhibits obvious seasonal variability as the number of air pollution days increases by the year. For most of the local monitoring stations, it is the most from January to March, a little less from July to September and the least from April to June. (2) There are four typical types of weather situations that are responsible for the air pollution in Hong Kong: tropical cyclones, continental cold highs, transformed highs that have moved out to sea and low pressure troughs.

  18. Learning word meanings during reading by children with language learning disability and typically-developing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Sara C; Watkins, Ruth V

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated whether children with language learning disability (LLD) differed from typically-developing peers in their ability to learn meanings of novel words presented during reading. Fifteen 9-11-year-old children with LLD and 15 typically-developing peers read four passages containing 20 nonsense words. Word learning was assessed through oral definition and multiple-choice tasks. Variables were position of informative context, number of exposures, part of speech, and contextual clues. The LLD group scored lower than same-aged peers on oral definition (p < .001) and multiple-choice (p < .001) tasks. For both groups, there was no effect for position of informative context (p = .867) or number of exposures (p = .223). All children benefitted from contextual clues. The findings suggested difficulty inferring and recalling word meanings during reading and pointed to the need for vocabulary intervention in the upper elementary years for children with LLD.

  19. Late talking, typical talking, and weak language skills at middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Gerard H; Miller, Carol A

    2013-08-01

    To better understand early predictors of weak language and academic abilities, we identified children with and without weak abilities at age 8. We then looked back at age 2 vocabulary and word combining, and evaluated these measures as predictors of age 8 outcomes. More than 60% of children with weak oral language abilities at 8 were not late talkers at 2. However, no word combining at 2 was a significant risk factor for poor oral language, reading comprehension, and math outcomes at 8. The association of no word combining with age 8 reading comprehension and math ability was mediated by age 8 oral language ability. The findings indicate that children take different developmental pathways to weak language abilities in middle childhood. One begins with a delayed onset of language. A second begins with language measures in the typical range, but ends with language ability falling well below typical peers.

  20. The relationship between species richness and productivity in four typical grasslands of northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Wenhong

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between plant species richness and primary productivity has long been acentral topic in biodiversity research.In this paper,we examine the relationship between species richness and productivity in four typical grasslands of Northern China at different spatial scales.At the community scale,a positive correlation was found for six of seven communities.A unimodal pattern was found only for one community (Stipa glareosa community),while at a large scale (vegetation type or landscape/region),the relationship was also found significantly positive.Species richness ranged from 4 to 35 species,and community aboveground productiand aboveground productivity were found in alpine meadow,followed by meadow steppe,typical steppe and desert steppe.

  1. SYNCHROTRON ORIGIN OF THE TYPICAL GRB BAND FUNCTION—A CASE STUDY OF GRB 130606B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Briggs, Michael S. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Connaughton, Valerie, E-mail: binbin.zhang@uah.edu [Science and Technology Institute, Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2016-01-10

    We perform a time-resolved spectral analysis of GRB 130606B within the framework of a fast-cooling synchrotron radiation model with magnetic field strength in the emission region decaying with time, as proposed by Uhm and Zhang. The data from all time intervals can be successfully fit by the model. The same data can be equally well fit by the empirical Band function with typical parameter values. Our results, which involve only minimal physical assumptions, offer one natural solution to the origin of the observed GRB spectra and imply that, at least some, if not all, Band-like GRB spectra with typical Band parameter values can indeed be explained by synchrotron radiation.

  2. The effect of familiarity of conversation partners on conversation turns contributed by augmented and typical speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Ju

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this current research was to determine the effect of familiarity of conversation partners on contributed conversation turns to dyadic conversation between individuals who use AAC and typically speaking conversation partners. Three groups (G1-G3) participated in this study. Each group contained seven participants, including an individual who used a speech-generating device (SGD) and familiar and unfamiliar conversation partners. Each 20-min dyadic conversation was video-recorded for analysis of contributed conversation turns. The findings of the current study showed that the asymmetries of contributed conversation turns exist in both familiar and unfamiliar dyadic conversation between AAC users and typically speaking conversation partners. In addition, the asymmetry in the familiar dyadic conversation did not differ from that in the unfamiliar dyadic conversation.

  3. Using Brain Connectivity Measure of EEG Synchrostates for Discriminating Typical and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    CERN Document Server

    Jamal, Wasifa; Maharatna, Koushik; Kuyucu, Doga; Sicca, Federico; Billeci, Lucia; Apicella, Fabio; Muratori, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we utilized the concept of stable phase synchronization topography - synchrostates - over the scalp derived from EEG recording for formulating brain connectivity network in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and typically-growing children. A synchronization index is adapted for forming the edges of the connectivity graph capturing the stability of each of the synchrostates. Such network is formed for 11 ASD and 12 control group children. Comparative analyses of these networks using graph theoretic measures show that children with autism have a different modularity of such networks from typical children. This result could pave the way to a new modality for possible identification of ASD from non-invasively recorded EEG data.

  4. Difficulties in making career decisions in students with mild intellectual disability and their typically developing peers

    OpenAIRE

    Radić-Šestić, Marina; Milanović-Dobrota, Biljana; Radovanović, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Making career decisions is an important task for young people, which intensifies at the end of primary school when they assess their working abilities with regard to the requirements of their future vocation. The general aim of this research is to determine whether there is a difference between students with mild intellectual disability (MID) and typically developing (TD) students in making career decisions, and if there is, what the nature of that difference is. The influence of age, gender,...

  5. Evaluation of starch noodles made from three typical Chinese sweet-potato starches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Legger, A.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    The physical properties of starches from 3 typical Chinese sweet potato varieties (SuShu2, SuShu8, and XuShu18) were studied in relation to their noodle-making performance. The starch gel properties of SuShu2 differed from those of SuShu8 and XuShu18. As determined by both instrumental and sensory a

  6. An analytical study on electronic transport of typical nanotubes with square structure network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Rabani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the electronic conductance of two typical single-wall nanotubes with square lattice by using Green’s function method in tight-binding approximation. Then the effect of various factors such as presence of symmetrical bond defects, the distance between two defects and the nanotube hopping energies was studied on the system electronic conductance. The square and rhombic nanotubes showed metallic and insulator/semiconductor behaviors, respectively.

  7. A Typical Production and Elimination Process of Particles in Beijing during Early 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to discuss he produce and elimination rules of particles in Beijing during early 2008 Olympic Games. [Method] Based on the analysis of particulate matter online observation data and meteorological data during the corresponding period in Chinese environmental science college, Hysplit Back trace model and Numerical weather prediction graphs, and combined with the different analytical methods on meteorological flow fields, a typical process of particles in Beijing during early 2008 Olym...

  8. Thermodynamical state space measure and typical entanglement of pure Gaussian states

    CERN Document Server

    Serafini, A; Plenio, M B; Dahlsten, Oscar C.O.; Plenio, Martin B.; Serafini, Alessio

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a 'microcanonical' measure (complying with the "general canonical principle") over the second moments of pure Gaussian states under an energy constraint. We apply the defined measure to investigate the statistical properties of the bipartite entanglement of pure Gaussian states. Under the proposed measure, the distribution of the entanglement concentrates around a finite value at the thermodynamical limit and, in general, the typical entanglement of Gaussian states with maximal energy E is not close to the maximum allowed by E.

  9. Does the absence of cointegration explain the typical findings in long horizon regressions?

    OpenAIRE

    Berben, R-P.; Dijk, Dick van

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOne of the stylized facts in financial and international economics is that of increasing predictability of variables such as exchange rates and stock returns at longer horizons. This fact is based upon applications of long horizon regressions, from which the typical findings are that the point estimates of the regression parameter, the associated t-statistic, and the regression R^2 all tend to increase as the horizon increases. Such long horizon regression analyses implicitly assu...

  10. Structure Analysis of Typical Fuzzy Controllers with Unequally Spaced Fuzzy Sets for Input and Output Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xingzhe; ZHANG Naiyao; LINing

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a kind of typical fuzzycontrollers is defined, which have two inputs (e and△c) and one output (△u); triangular, symmetric andfull-overlapped membership functions for input vari-ables; singleton and symmetric membership func-tions for output variable; linear fuzzy control rules;Sum-Product inference method, and weighted meanmethod for defuzzification. For this kind of typicalfuzzy controllers we have analyzed their analyticalstructure, limiting structure and local stability.

  11. The Spectrum of Hormone Immunoreactivity in Typical and Atypical Pituitary Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim ERTAN

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to assess the spectrum of hormone immunoreactivity in our pituitary adenoma cases and discuss the diagnostic parameters of atypical pituitary adenomas.Material and Methods: A total of 166 pituitary adenoma cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2008 in our department were included in the present study. Hematoxylin-eosin stained and immunohistochemistry performed slides (ACTH, PRL, GH, TSH, FSH, LH, Ki-67, and p53 were evaluated. Cases having more than two mitoses on 10 high power fields besides more than 3% Ki-67 index were accepted in the atypical group.Results: Histologically, 159 cases were typical pituitary adenoma and 7 were atypical pituitary adenoma. Of the atypical pituitary adenoma cases, one case was ACTH, one GH and one both GH and prolactin hormone immunoreactive pituitary adenomas. Four cases were hormone immunonegative adenomas. Of the typical pituitary adenoma cases, 39 cases were GH, 19 ACTH, 17 prolactin, 10 FSH, 8 LH and one TSH immunreactive pituitary adenomas. Fourty-seven cases were hormone immunonegative adenomas.Twenty-two of the all pitutary adenoma cases had recurrence. Of these cases, 18 were typical adenoma and four were atypical adenoma.Conclusion: The ratio of prolactin immunoreactive pituitary adenoma cases in the surgical material of neuropathology is decreasing due to medical therapy. Atypical pituitary adenomas are not the sole factor affecting the recurrence mechanism but these tumors have higher recurrence rate compared with typical pituitary adenomas and we think the proliferation index might be the principal approach in the diagnosis of these lesions.

  12. Sleep Lab Adaptation in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Typically Developing Children

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith Bessey; Jennifer Richards; Penny Corkum

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Research has shown inconsistencies across studies examining sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is possible that these inconsistencies are due to sleep lab adaptation. The goal of the current study was to investigate the possibility that children with ADHD adapt differently to the sleep lab than do typically developing (TD) children. Patients and Methods. Actigraphy variables were compared between home and the sleep lab. Sleep lab ad...

  13. Simulations of a typical CMOS amplifier circuit using the Monte Carlo method

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Jacques Cousteau da Silva

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper of Microelectronics, some simulations of a typical circuit of amplification, using a CMOS transistor, through the computational tools were performed. At that time, PSPICE® was used, where it was possible to observe the results, which are detailed in this work. The imperfections of the component due to manufacturing processes were obtained from simulations using the Monte Carlo method. The circuit operating point, mean and standard deviation were obtained and the influence...

  14. Estimating and Measuring Application Latency of Typical Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS)-Based Simulation Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Bottazzi & Salati, 1991). A variant of the model-view-controller ( MVC ) design pattern is typically used to create these types of multithreaded... pattern . The thread rates of the software design play a significant role in determining the state data consistency and are the focus of this...act as a means to find several of the performance metrics. Note that in Figure 6, as 31 drawn, there is a symmetric pattern for all the timestamps

  15. Family Functioning and School Variables in Typically-Developing Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hassenfeldt, Tyler Anne

    2016-01-01

    Findings related to the adjustment of typically-developing (TD) siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been inconsistent, but suggest that most function well over time. The current mixed methods study investigated the relationship between family factors, especially disruptions to family routines, and academic functioning of TD siblings. Measures of family functioning, parenting stress, and parenting daily hassles were collected from parents (n = 20); an additional 19 ...

  16. Social analogical reasoning in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Kenworthy, Lauren; Gallagher, Natalie M; Antezana, Ligia; Mosner, Maya G; Krieg, Samantha; Dudley, Katherina; Ratto, Allison; Yerys, Benjamin E

    2017-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is an important mechanism for social cognition in typically developing children, and recent evidence suggests that some forms of analogical reasoning may be preserved in autism spectrum disorder. An unanswered question is whether children with autism spectrum disorder can apply analogical reasoning to social information. In all, 92 children with autism spectrum disorder completed a social content analogical reasoning task presented via photographs of real-world social interactions. Autism spectrum disorder participants exhibited performance that was well above chance and was not significantly worse than age- and intelligence quotient-matched typically developing children. Investigating the relationship of social content analogical reasoning performance to age in this cross-sectional dataset indicated similar developmental trajectories in the autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children groups. These findings provide new support for intact analogical reasoning in autism spectrum disorder and have theoretical implications for analogy as a metacognitive skill that may be at least partially dissociable from general deficits in processing social content. As an initial study of social analogical reasoning in children with autism spectrum disorder, this study focused on a basic research question with limited ecological validity. Evidence that children with autism spectrum disorder can apply analogical reasoning ability to social content may have long-range applied implications for exploring how this capacity might be channeled to improve social cognition in daily life.

  17. Typical and atypical development of reaching and postural control in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2013-11-01

    Successful reaching requires postural control, either by active regulation or by postural support. The present paper reviews literature on typical and atypical development of reaching and postural control during infancy. Typically, reaching movements end in grasping around 4 months of age. Initially, reaches are characterized by large variation, including many trajectory corrections. During the first year, the movements get increasingly straight and smooth. Reaching in low-risk preterm infants is initially characterized by advanced development, but minor impairments may emerge in the second half of infancy. In high-risk preterm infants, development of reaching is characterized by delay and non-optimal reaching performance. Typical development of postural adjustments is characterized by variation and an increasing ability to adapt the variable repertoire to the specifics of the situation. The latter is facilitated by an increasing role of anticipatory mechanisms in the second half of infancy. Atypically developing infants may have a reduced repertoire and usually have difficulties in adapting postural adjustments. In infancy, most reaching movements are performed during sitting. The postural challenge of sitting may interfere in particular with the development of reaching in atypically developing infants. The practical implications of this suggestion are discussed.

  18. The design of a microscopic system for typical fluorescent in-situ hybridization applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dingrong; Xie, Shaochuan

    2013-12-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a modern molecular biology technique used for the detection of genetic abnormalities in terms of the number and structure of chromosomes and genes. The FISH technique is typically employed for prenatal diagnosis of congenital dementia in the Obstetrics and Genecology department. It is also routinely used to pick up qualifying breast cancer patients that are known to be highly curable by the prescription of Her2 targeted therapy. During the microscopic observation phase, the technician needs to count typically green probe dots and red probe dots contained in a single nucleus and calculate their ratio. This procedure need to be done to over hundreds of nuclei. Successful implementation of FISH tests critically depends on a suitable fluorescent microscope which is primarily imported from overseas due to the complexity of such a system beyond the maturity of the domestic optoelectrical industry. In this paper, the typical requirements of a fluorescent microscope that is suitable for FISH applications are first reviewed. The focus of this paper is on the system design and computational methods of an automatic florescent microscopy with high magnification APO objectives, a fast spinning automatic filter wheel, an automatic shutter, a cooled CCD camera used as a photo-detector, and a software platform for image acquisition, registration, pseudo-color generation, multi-channel fusing and multi-focus fusion. Preliminary results from FISH experiments indicate that this system satisfies routine FISH microscopic observation tasks.

  19. Pollution characteristics and environmental risk assessment of typical veterinary antibiotics in livestock farms in Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Guo, Xinyan; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiangji; Gao, Shixiang; Shan, Zhengjun

    2014-01-01

    Scientific interest in pollution from antibiotics in animal husbandry has increased during recent years. However, there have been few studies on the vertical exposure characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in different exposure matrices from different livestock farms. This study explores the distribution and migration of antibiotics from feed to manure, from manure to soil, and from soil to vegetables, by investigating the exposure level of typical antibiotics in feed, manure, soil, vegetables, water, fish, and pork in livestock farms. A screening environmental risk assessment was conducted to identify the hazardous potential of veterinary antibiotics from livestock farms in southeast China. The results show that adding antibiotics to drinking water as well as the excessive use of antibiotic feed additives may become the major source of antibiotics pollution in livestock farms. Physical and chemical properties significantly affect the distribution and migration of various antibiotics from manure to soil and from soil to plant. Simple migration models can predict the accumulation of antibiotics in soil and plants. The environmental risk assessment results show that more attention should be paid to the terrestrial eco-risk of sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlorotetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin, and to the aquatic eco-risk of chlorotetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin. This is the first systematic analysis of the vertical pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in livestock farms in southeast China. It also identifies the ecological and human health risk of veterinary antibiotics.

  20. Non-alcoholic acute Wernicke's encephalopathy: Role of MRI in non typical cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elefante, Andrea, E-mail: aelefant@unina.it [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Puoti, Gianfranco [I Division of Neurology, General Medicine Department, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Senese, Rossana [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Coppola, Cinzia [I Division of Neurology, General Medicine Department, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Russo, Carmela [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Tortora, Fabio [Department of Neuroradiology, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Divitiis, Oreste de [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Brunetti, Arturo [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Aim: Acute Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a severe neurological disorder caused by thiamine deficiency, most commonly found in chronic alcoholics. It is not so easy to suspect acute WE when the clinical picture does not include all the typical symptoms and alcohol abuse is not reported. Three rare cases of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) in non-alcoholic patients are reported. Cases presentation: Two patients developed the disease following prolonged intravenous feeding, the third was carrying a gastric lymphoma. None of them presented with the classic clinical triad of WE (ophtalmoplegia/nystagmus, ataxia and consciousness disturbance), showing just one or two of the typical symptoms. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represented the key tool to suspect and define WE diagnosis, showing a picture characterized by bilaterally altered signal of the thalamic pulvinar, mesencephalic cup, mammillary bodies, periaqueductal grey matter and floor of fourth ventricle. All patients dramatically improved within 48 h after administration of thiamine. Conclusion: We emphasize that WE should be suspected in all patients showing typical MRI features presenting with at least one of the clinical triad of WE.

  1. Ecosystem responses to warming and watering in typical and desert steppes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Hou, Yanhui; Zhang, Lihua; Liu, Tao; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2016-10-01

    Global warming is projected to continue, leading to intense fluctuations in precipitation and heat waves and thereby affecting the productivity and the relevant biological processes of grassland ecosystems. Here, we determined the functional responses to warming and altered precipitation in both typical and desert steppes. The results showed that watering markedly increased the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in a typical steppe during a drier year and in a desert steppe over two years, whereas warming manipulation had no significant effect. The soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the soil respiration (SR) were increased by watering in both steppes, but the SR was significantly decreased by warming in the desert steppe only. The inorganic nitrogen components varied irregularly, with generally lower levels in the desert steppe. The belowground traits of soil total organic carbon (TOC) and the MBC were more closely associated with the ANPP in the desert than in the typical steppes. The results showed that the desert steppe with lower productivity may respond strongly to precipitation changes, particularly with warming, highlighting the positive effect of adding water with warming. Our study implies that the habitat- and year-specific responses to warming and watering should be considered when predicting an ecosystem’s functional responses under climate change scenarios.

  2. Self-concept in children with spina bifida compared with typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nora; Taylor, Nicholas F; Dodd, Karen J

    2008-10-01

    The literature was systematically reviewed to determine if children with spina bifida have lower self-concept compared with their peers with typical development. Relevant trials were identified by searching electronic databases, supplemented by citation tracking. Of 803 papers initially identified, 15 met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis revealed children with spina bifida scored significantly lower than children with typical development for the domains of global self-worth (d=-0.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.65 to -0.12); physical appearance (d=-0.26, 95% CI -0.46 to -0.06); athletic competence (d=-0.45, 95% CI -0.67 to -0.22); social acceptance (d=-0.33, 95% CI -0.55 to -0.11); and scholastic competence (d=-0.43, 95% CI -0.66 to -0.21). There was no difference between the groups for the behavioural conduct domain. Children with spina bifida on average have a lower self-concept than their peers with typical development. Clinicians need to take account of this information in planning the assessment and treatment of this group.

  3. Typical Features of Amelogenesis Imperfecta in Two Patients with Bartter’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercílio Martelli-Júnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI is due to many inherited defects of enamel formation that affect the quantity and quality of enamel, leading to delay in tooth eruption and cosmetic consequences. AI has been described in association with nephrocalcinosis, which is called the enamel-renal syndrome. The aim of this case report is to describe typical features of AI in 2 patients with Bartter’s syndrome (BS for the first time. Methods: -Eight patients with confirmed BS were systematically screened for dental abnormalities as part of protocol. Those with suggestive clinical features of AI were submitted to panoramic X-ray and decayed teeth were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Results: Typical features of AI were detected in 2 girls with BS. These 2 patients showed nephrocalcinosis, and diagnosis and adequate clinical control were delayed. Genetic analysis detected the mutation responsible for BS in 1 of these patients. In this case, BS was due to a homozygous mutation of exon 5 of the KCNJ1 gene resulting in a substitution of valine for alanine at the codon 214 (A214V. Conclusions: The finding of typical features of AI in BS might constitute preliminary evidence that abnormalities of the biomineralization process found in patients with renal tubular disorders might also affect calcium deposition in dental tissues.

  4. Effects of circumferential rigid wrist orthoses in rehabilitation of patients with radius fracture at typical site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Aleksandar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of orthoses is a questionable rehabilitation method for patients with the distal radius fracture at typical site. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the rehabilitation on patients with radius fracture at the typical site, who wore circumferential static wrist orthoses, with those who did not wear them. Methods. Thirty patients were divided into 3 equal groups, 2 experimental groups, and 1 control group. The patients in the experimental groups were given the rehabilitation program of wearing serially manufactured (off-the-shelf, as well as custom-fit orthoses. Those in the control group did not wear wrist orthoses. Evaluation parameters were pain, edema, the range of the wrist motion, the quality of cylindrical, spherical, and pinch-spherical grasp, the strength of pinch and hand grasp, and patient's assessment of the effects of rehabilitation. Results. No significant difference in the effects of rehabilitation on the patients in experimental groups as opposed to control group was found. Patients in the first experimental group, and in control group were more satisfied with the effects of rehabilitation, as opposed to the patients in the second experimental group (p<0,05. Conclusion. The effects of circumferential static wrist orthoses in the rehabilitation of patients with distal radius fracture at the typical site were not clinically significant. There was no significant difference between the custom and off-the-shelf orthoses.

  5. Ecosystem responses to warming and watering in typical and desert steppes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Hou, Yanhui; Zhang, Lihua; Liu, Tao; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is projected to continue, leading to intense fluctuations in precipitation and heat waves and thereby affecting the productivity and the relevant biological processes of grassland ecosystems. Here, we determined the functional responses to warming and altered precipitation in both typical and desert steppes. The results showed that watering markedly increased the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in a typical steppe during a drier year and in a desert steppe over two years, whereas warming manipulation had no significant effect. The soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the soil respiration (SR) were increased by watering in both steppes, but the SR was significantly decreased by warming in the desert steppe only. The inorganic nitrogen components varied irregularly, with generally lower levels in the desert steppe. The belowground traits of soil total organic carbon (TOC) and the MBC were more closely associated with the ANPP in the desert than in the typical steppes. The results showed that the desert steppe with lower productivity may respond strongly to precipitation changes, particularly with warming, highlighting the positive effect of adding water with warming. Our study implies that the habitat- and year-specific responses to warming and watering should be considered when predicting an ecosystem’s functional responses under climate change scenarios. PMID:27721480

  6. Early deictic but not other gestures predict later vocabulary in both typical development and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçalışkan, Şeyda; Adamson, Lauren B; Dimitrova, Nevena

    2016-08-01

    Research with typically developing children suggests a strong positive relation between early gesture use and subsequent vocabulary development. In this study, we ask whether gesture production plays a similar role for children with autism spectrum disorder. We observed 23 18-month-old typically developing children and 23 30-month-old children with autism spectrum disorder interact with their caregivers (Communication Play Protocol) and coded types of gestures children produced (deictic, give, conventional, and iconic) in two communicative contexts (commenting and requesting). One year later, we assessed children's expressive vocabulary, using Expressive Vocabulary Test. Children with autism spectrum disorder showed significant deficits in gesture production, particularly in deictic gestures (i.e. gestures that indicate objects by pointing at them or by holding them up). Importantly, deictic gestures-but not other gestures-predicted children's vocabulary 1 year later regardless of communicative context, a pattern also found in typical development. We conclude that the production of deictic gestures serves as a stepping-stone for vocabulary development.

  7. Sulfur cycle in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jingshuang; LI Xinhua

    2008-01-01

    The sulfur cycle and its compartmental distribution within an atmosphere-plant-soil system was studied using a compartment model in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland in the Sanjiang Plain Northeast China. The results showed that in the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem, soil was the main storage compartment and current hinge of sulfur in which 98.4% sulfur was accumulated, while only 1.6% sulfur was accumulated in the plant compartment. In the plant subsystem, roots and litters were the main storage compartment of sulfur and they remained 83.5% of the total plant sulfur. The calculations of sulfur turnover through the compartments of the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem demonstrated that the above-ground component took up 0.99 gS/m2 from the root, of which 0.16 gS/m2 was translocated to the roots and 0.83 gS/m2 to the litter. The roots took in 1.05 gS/m2 from the soil, subsequent translocation back to the soil accounted for 1.31 gS/m2, while there was 1.84 gS/m2 in the litter and the net transfer of sulfur to the soil was more than 0.44 gS/(m2·a). The emission of H2S from the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem to the atmosphere was 1.83 mgS/(m2·a), while carbonyl sulfide (COS) was absorbed by the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem from the atmosphere at the rate of 1.76 mgS/(m2·a). The input of sulfur by the rainfall to the ecosystem was 4.85 mgS/m2 during the growing season. The difference between input and output was 4.78 mgS/m2, which indicated that sulfur was accumulated in the ecosystem and may cause wetland acidify in the future.

  8. Sulfur cycle in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang plain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingshuang; Li, Xinhua

    2008-01-01

    The sulfur cycle and its compartmental distribution within an atmosphere-plant-soil system was studied using a compartment model in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland in the Sanjiang Plain Northeast China. The results showed that in the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem, soil was the main storage compartment and current hinge of sulfur in which 98.4% sulfur was accumulated, while only 1.6% sulfur was accumulated in the plant compartment. In the plant subsystem, roots and litters were the main storage compartment of sulfur and they remained 83.5% of the total plant sulfur. The calculations of sulfur turnover through the compartments of the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem demonstrated that the above-ground component took up 0.99 gS/m2 from the root, of which 0.16 gS/m2 was translocated to the roots and 0.83 gS/m2 to the litter. The roots took in 1.05 gS/m2 from the soil, subsequent translocation back to the soil accounted for 1.31 gS/m2, while there was 1.84 gS/m2 in the litter and the net transfer of sulfur to the soil was more than 0.44 gS/(m2 x a). The emission of H2S from the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem to the atmosphere was 1.83 mgS/(m2 x a), while carbonyl sulfide (COS) was absorbed by the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem from the atmosphere at the rate of 1.76 mgS/(m2 x a). The input of sulfur by the rainfall to the ecosystem was 4.85 mgS/m2 during the growing season. The difference between input and output was 4.78 mgS/m2, which indicated that sulfur was accumulated in the ecosystem and may cause wetland acidify in the future.

  9. Hospitalization and cost after switching from atypical to typical antipsychotics in schizophrenia patients in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonlue T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuanthon Boonlue,1,2 Suphat Subongkot,1,2 Piyameth Dilokthornsakul,3,4 Ronnachai Kongsakon,5 Oraluck Pattanaprateep,6 Orabhorn Suanchang,7 Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk3,8–10 1Clinical Pharmacy Division, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 2The College of Pharmacotherapy of Thailand, Nonthaburi, Thailand; 3Center of Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 4Center for Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO, USA; 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 6Department of Health Informatics, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 7Department of Pharmacy, Somdet Chaopraya Institute of Psychiatry, Bangkok, Thailand; 8School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 9School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; 10School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA Background: Several clinical practice guidelines suggest using atypical over typical antipsychotics in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, cost-containment policy urged restricting usage of atypical antipsychotics and switching from atypical to typical antipsychotics. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate clinical and economic impacts of switching from atypical to typical antipsychotics in schizophrenia patients in Thailand. Methods: From October 2010 through September 2013, a retrospective cohort study was performed utilizing electronic database of two tertiary hospitals. Schizophrenia patients aged 18 years or older and being treated with atypical antipsychotics were included. Patients were classified as atypical antipsychotic switching group if they switched to typical antipsychotics after 180 days of continual

  10. Development of an online database of typical food portion sizes in Irish population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jacqueline; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The Irish Food Portion Sizes Database (available at www.iuna.net) describes typical portion weights for an extensive range of foods and beverages for Irish children, adolescents and adults. The present paper describes the methodologies used to develop the database and some key characteristics of the portion weight data contained therein. The data are derived from three large, cross-sectional food consumption surveys carried out in Ireland over the last decade: the National Children's Food Survey (2003-2004), National Teens' Food Survey (2005-2006) and National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008-2010). Median, 25th and 75th percentile portion weights are described for a total of 545 items across the three survey groups, split by age group or sex as appropriate. The typical (median) portion weights reported for adolescents and adults are similar for many foods, while those reported for children are notably smaller. Adolescent and adult males generally consume larger portions than their female counterparts, though similar portion weights may be consumed where foods are packaged in unit amounts (for example, pots of yoghurt). The inclusion of energy under-reporters makes little difference to the estimation of typical portion weights in adults. The data have wide-ranging applications in dietary assessment and food labelling, and will serve as a useful reference against which to compare future portion size data from the Irish population. The present paper provides a useful context for researchers and others wishing to use the Irish Food Portion Sizes Database, and may guide researchers in other countries in establishing similar databases of their own.

  11. The emergence of typical entanglement in two-party random processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlsten, O C O [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Prince' s Gate, South Kensington London, SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Oliveira, R [Instituto Nacional de Matematica Pura e Aplicada-IMPA Estrada Dona Castorina, 110 Jardim Botanico 22460-320, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Plenio, M B [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Prince' s Gate, South Kensington London, SW7 2PG (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-13

    We investigate the entanglement within a system undergoing a random, local process. We find that there is initially a phase of very fast generation and spread of entanglement. At the end of this phase the entanglement is typically maximal. In Oliveira et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 130502) we proved that the maximal entanglement is reached to a fixed arbitrary accuracy within O(N{sup 3}) steps, where N is the total number of qubits. Here we provide a detailed and more pedagogical proof. We demonstrate that one can use the so-called stabilizer gates to simulate this process efficiently on a classical computer. Furthermore, we discuss three ways of identifying the transition from the phase of rapid spread of entanglement to the stationary phase: (i) the time when saturation of the maximal entanglement is achieved, (ii) the cutoff moment, when the entanglement probability distribution is practically stationary, and (iii) the moment block entanglement exhibits volume scaling. We furthermore investigate the mixed state and multipartite setting. Numerically, we find that the mutual information appears to behave similarly to the quantum correlations and that there is a well-behaved phase-space flow of entanglement properties towards an equilibrium. We describe how the emergence of typical entanglement can be used to create a much simpler tripartite entanglement description. The results form a bridge between certain abstract results concerning typical (also known as generic) entanglement relative to an unbiased distribution on pure states and the more physical picture of distributions emerging from random local interactions.

  12. Multivariate analyses of CT findings in typical schizophrenia and atypical psychosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Takuji; Watanabe, Toyonobu; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Sekine, Takeo (Aichi Medical Univ., Nagakute (Japan))

    1992-09-01

    In order to investigate the brain morphological differences between typical schizophrenia and atypical psychosis, the brain CTs of 41 patients with typical schizophrenia, 27 patients with atypical psychosis (ATP), and 20 controls were examined. The schizophrenics had larger values for 9 CT indices, i.e., interhemispheric fissure (IHF) index, VBR, 2 lateral ventricles (L-V) and 3rd venricle (III-V) indices, and 4 sylvian fissure (SF) indices, while the values of ATP patients for 3 SF indices were greater than for the controls. Moreover, the schizophrenics had greater III-V and L-V indices than the ATP patients. The correlation matrix of CT indices indicates that the III-V index correlated well with the other CT indices, whereas the VBR, IHF and right SF indices did not. Therefore, it was speculated that there might be 3 subgroups, each of which has a main focus of alteration in the above-mentioned regions. Therefore, all the cases were divided by means of a cluster analysis into 5 groups. Group I, which contained mainly normal controls, and Group II, which consisted mainly of atypical psychosis patients, had no abnormal CT findings. Group III, which comprised mainly ATP pateints and paranoid type schizophrenics, had right SF enlargement. Group IV, which showed significant IHF enlargement, and the residue group, which had larger VBR and significant left SF enlargement, consisted mostly of schizophrenics. Thus, our results suggest that the classification by CT data corresponds on the whole to our clinical diagnosis, according to which schizophrenic psychosis is divided into typical schizophrenia and atypical psychosis, and that each of the two psychosis groups may be further classified into distinct subgroups. (author).

  13. Typical versus averaged overlap distribution in spin glasses: Evidence for droplet scaling theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monthus, Cécile; Garel, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    We consider the statistical properties over disordered samples (J) of the overlap distribution PJ(q) which plays the role of an order parameter in spin glasses. We show that near zero temperature (i) the typical overlap distribution is exponentially small in the central region of -1models in which the notion of length does not exist); (ii) the rescaled variable v=-[lnPJ(q)]/Nθ remains an O(1) random positive variable describing sample-to-sample fluctuations; (iii) the averaged distribution PJ(q)¯ is nontypical and dominated by rare anomalous samples. Similar statements hold for the cumulative overlap distribution IJ(q0)≡∫0q0dqPJ(q). These results are derived explicitly for the spherical mean-field model with θ=1/3, ϕ(q)=1-q2, and the random variable v corresponds to the rescaled difference between the two largest eigenvalues of Gaussian orthogonal ensemble random matrices. Then we compare numerically the typical and averaged overlap distributions for the long-ranged one-dimensional Ising spin glass with random couplings decaying as J(r)∝r-σ for various values of the exponent σ, corresponding to various droplet exponents θ(σ), and for the mean-field Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model (corresponding formally to the σ=0 limit of the previous model). Our conclusion is that future studies on spin glasses should measure the typical values of the overlap distribution Ptyp(q) or of the cumulative overlap distribution Ityp(q0)=elnIJ(q0)¯ to obtain clearer conclusions on the nature of the spin-glass phase.

  14. Typical types and formation mechanisms of haze in an eastern Asia megacity, Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Huang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An intensive aerosol and gases campaign has been performed at Shanghai in the Yangtze River Delta region over Eastern China from late March to early June 2009. This study provided a complementary picture of typical haze types and formation mechanisms in megacities over China by using a synergy of ground-based monitoring, satellite observation and lidar inversion. During the whole study period, several extreme low visibility periods were observed with distinct characteristics, and three typical haze types were identified, i.e. secondary inorganic pollution, dust, and biomass burning. Sulfate, nitrate and ammonium accounted for a major part of PM2.5 mass during the secondary inorganic pollution, and the good correlation between SO2/NOx/CO and PM2.5 indicated that coal burning and vehicle emission were the major sources. Large-scale regions with high AOD and low Ångström exponent were detected by remote-sensing observation during the dust pollution episode, and this episode corresponded to coarse particles rich in mineral components such as Al and Ca with mineral aerosol contributing 76.8 % to TSP. The relatively low Ca/Al ratio of 0.75 combined with the air mass backward trajectory analysis suggested the dust source from Gobi Desert. Typical tracers for biomass burning from satellite observation (column CO and HCHO and from ground measurement (CO, particulate K+, OC, and EC were greatly enhanced during the biomass burning pollution episode. The exclusive linear correlation between CO and PM2.5 corroborated that organic aerosol dominated aerosol chemistry during biomass burning, and the high concentration and enrichment degree of arsenic (As could be also partly derived from biomass burning. Aerosol optical profile observed by lidar demonstrated that aerosol was mainly constrained below the boundary layer and comprised of spheric aerosol (depolarization ratio <5 % during the

  15. Coincidence and Upgrade:A Typical Case Study of Rural Ecotourism Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Degang; Huang Xiaoting

    2006-01-01

    At present, internal rural tourism is at the stage of upgrading and renewing, and ecotourism has been considered to be the main direction. This paper discussed the concepts and criteria of rural tourism and ecotourism, analyzed a typical case of Nongke Village of Chengdu City-being considered to be the first rural tourism site in China, went deep into the problems of the contents and criteria of the development of rural ecotourism, and tried to probe into the principles of the development of rural ecotourism both theoretically and practically so as to understand the rules of the development of rural ecotourism.

  16. Research on Fuel Consumption of Hybrid Bulldozer under Typical Duty Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiang; Wang, Wen-Jun; Jia, Chao; Yao, You-Liang; Wang, Sheng-Bo

    The hybrid drive bulldozer adopts a dual-motor independent drive system with engine-generator assembly as its power source. The mathematical model of the whole system is constructed on the software platform of MATLAB/Simulink. And then according to the velocity data gained from a real test experiment, a typical duty cycle is build up. Finally the fuel consumption of the bulldozer is calculated under this duty-cycle. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional mechanical one, the hybrid electric drive system can save fuel up to 16% and therefore indicates great potential for lifting up fuel economy.

  17. Classroom Management in Young Learners English Teaching——Typical Problems and Effective Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗基萍

    2009-01-01

    Classroom management is the orchestration of classroom life:planning curriculum,organizing procedures and rcsources,arranging the environment to maximize efficiency,monitoring progress,dealing with existent problems.Successful clasgroonl management looked like magic shows because students in these classrooms seem to glide from one activity to the next.Successful classroom management contributes to students' good achievement.Effective classroom management is one of the key elements of importance for efficient school education.However,almost all English teachers face a same problem-classroom management.In this paper,some typical problems and effective solutions in classroom management will be described.defined,or characterized.

  18. A typical example of a photomagnetic study carried out on a spin-crossover material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jean-François Létard; Chiara Carbonera; Emilie Courcot; José Sanchez Costa

    2006-11-01

    The light-induced excited spin state trapping (LIESST) is a well known phenomenon in an iron(II) spin-crossover (SCO) material which offers some interesting prospects in data storage. In this work, we present a typical investigation of the photomagnetic properties of a SCO material. At the surface of the sample, the light-induced phenomenon is investigated by using a home-built reflectivity set up and in bulk material by using a quantum design SQUID magnetometer coupled to a light source.

  19. Object-based mental rotation and visual perspective-taking in typical development and Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Hannah J; Farran, Emily K; Tolmie, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Object-based (OB) rotation and Visual Perspective-Taking (VPT) abilities in Williams syndrome (WS) compared to typically developing (TD) 5-10-year-olds. Extensive difficulties with both types of imagined rotation were observed in WS; WS performance was in line with the level of ability observed in TD 5-year-olds. However, an atypical pattern of errors on OB and VPT tasks was observed in WS compared to TD groups. Deficits in imagined rotations are consistent with known atypical cortical development in WS. Such difficulties in updating the position of the self following movement in WS may have implications for large-scale spatial navigation.

  20. Internal hemorrhoids - their typical radiological appearance and differential diagnosis to carcinoma of rectum and anus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, V.; Koester, R.

    1984-11-01

    The main indication for colon barium enema examination is occult bleeding or bleeding noticed by the patient himself. The radiologist has to take into account all clinical details that could lead to bleeding and to document them. The most frequent causes of rectal bleeding are hemorrhoids and diverticulosis/itis which in marked cases may have a tumor-like appearance. A good double-contrast examination of the colon must not only exclude tumors, polyps or inflammatary diseases but also demonstrate other causes of bleeding. The presented paper describes typical roentgen signs and gives criteria to differentiate hemorrhoids from deeply situated cancer of the rectum or anus.

  1. Seismic response of a typical fixed platform foundation under earthquake loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Feng; Wang Jun

    2013-01-01

    Offshore platforms in seismically active areas should be designed to service severe earthquake excitations with no global structural failure.This paper summarizes the dynamic analysis of a typical fixed platform under the earthquake loading in the seismically active area.The dynamic analysis includes interpretation of dynamic design parameters based on the available site-specific data,together with foundation design recommendations for earthquake loading conditions,which include free-field site response analyses,liquefaction analyses and soil-pile interaction analyses.

  2. CRESDA APPLICATION SYSTEM OF CBERS-1, RESULTS AND TYPICAL EXAMPLES OF APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    CRESDA Application System of CBERS-1 was established in 1999. During the operation of the system for more than two years, about 240 000 scenes of CBERS-1 Level 0 data have been archived and more than 13 000 scenes of Level 2 products have been ordered by end users from different application fields.In this paper, the typical examples of applications in crop yield estimation,calamity alleviation, resources survey and protection, environment monitoring and continuable development, and urban planning are mainly described.

  3. Executive functions for reading and writing in typical literacy development and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemeier, Leah E; Abbott, Robert D; Berninger, Virginia W

    2008-07-01

    Experiment 1: Hierarchical linear modeling of growth trajectories of three executive functions (inhibition; rapid automatic switching, RAS; and combined inhibition/switching) in typical readers and writers showed steady improvement of inhibition but leveling of RAS and inhibition/switching about fourth grade. In multiple regressions, RAS, entered after inhibition, contributed uniquely to literacy outcomes at every grade. Improvement of executive functions over the first four grades predicted literacy outcomes at fourth grade. Experiment 2: For children with dyslexia, executive functions explained less variance in literacy outcomes, and boys were worse in inhibition and inhibition/switching. Developmental, educational, and clinical significance of findings are discussed.

  4. Simulation studies of laser wakefield acceleration based on typical 100 TW laser facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Da-Zhang; GAO Jie; ZHU Xiong-Wei; HE An

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,2-D Particle-In-Cell simulations are made for Laser Wakefield Accelerations(LWFA).As in a real experiment,we perform plasma density scanning for typical 100 TW laser facilities.Several basic laws for self-injected acceleration in a bubble regime are presented.According to these laws,we choose a proper plasma density and then obtain a high quality quasi-monoenergetic electron bunch with arms energy of more than 650 MeV and a bunch length of less than 1.5 μn.

  5. Simulations of a typical CMOS amplifier circuit using the Monte Carlo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges, Jacques Cousteau da Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper of Microelectronics, some simulations of a typical circuit of amplification, using a CMOS transistor, through the computational tools were performed. At that time, PSPICE® was used, where it was possible to observe the results, which are detailed in this work. The imperfections of the component due to manufacturing processes were obtained from simulations using the Monte Carlo method. The circuit operating point, mean and standard deviation were obtained and the influence of the threshold voltage Vth was analyzed.

  6. Foregrounded Beauty:A Brief Analysis of Cummings’Typical Poems from the Perspective of Stylistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文荣

    2014-01-01

    E. E. Cummings is one of the representatives of American modern experimental poets whose poems are well-known for the unique style. Cummings endeavors to make his poems be different from other poets’. He broke the traditional way of writing poems, invented in the changing of lines of the poem and the spelling of the words in the poem, thus to make his personal poem style distinctive. Therefore, standing on the stylistic point of view, this paper makes a brief analysis on Cummings’typical poems from foregrounding perspective.

  7. The organization of attention in typical development: a new preschool attention test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenridge, Kate; Braddick, Oliver; Atkinson, Janette

    2013-09-01

    This article introduces a new battery of attention tests for typically developing and atypically developing children with a mental age of 3-6 years. In the light of adult and child studies supporting a model of distinct networks for specific attentional operations, tests in the current battery were selected with the aim of measuring functions of selective attention, sustained attention and attentional control (executive function). Normative data were collected from 154 typically developing children aged 3-6 years and examined using exploratory factor analysis to determine latent constructs underlying test performance. This analysis suggested increasing differentiation of attention functions over the age range, with support for the hypothesized three-factor model only after 4½ years of age. Additional analyses supported the validity of the new attention battery with respect to (1) parent/teacher report measures of everyday attention behaviour and (2) later performance on the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch), a battery designed for children aged 6-16 years. The results show the developing differentiation of attention functions and support the ecological and predictive validity of the battery as providing early performance-based measures of attention and an attention 'profile' for each individual child, which may aid characterization and remediation of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  8. Movement and variation of four typical glaciers in the Qilian Mountains, northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZheFan Jing; Kun Wang; Li Liu

    2015-01-01

    We selected four typical glaciers in the Qilian Mountains and investigated their movements and variation using advanced technologies such as remote sensing, photographic measurements, and global positioning systems. The velocity of glacier movements in the Qilian Mountains is relatively low, and there has been no significant variation during the past 50 years. Glacier motion has maintained a normal style. The movement velocity of Laohugou Glacier No. 12 presented a decreasing trend (by 48%) from 1960 to 2012. The movement velocity of the Qiyi Glacier also presented a decreasing trend (by 48.1%) from 1958 to 2012; it decreased by 29.4% from 1958 to 1977 and by 26.5% from 1977 to 2012. Therefore, the Qiyi Glacier's movement velocity varied greatly over the earlier 20 years (1958–1977), but presented a small decreasing trend during the latter 30 years (1977–2012). By comparing the movement velocity variation of these typical glaciers, we de-termined that the extent of variation was consistent among large glaciers (such as Laohugou Glacier No. 12) and small glaciers (such as the Qiyi Glacier and Yanglonghe Glacier No. 5), despite their different sizes.

  9. Social cognition, face processing, and oxytocin receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms in typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylissa M. Slane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has provided evidence of a link between behavioral measures of social cognition (SC and neural and genetic correlates. Differences in face processing and variations in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene have been associated with SC deficits and autism spectrum disorder (ASD traits. Much work has examined the qualitative differences between those with ASD and typically developing (TD individuals, but very little has been done to quantify the natural variation in ASD-like traits in the typical population. The present study examines this variation in TD children using a multidimensional perspective involving behavior assessment, neural electroencephalogram (EEG testing, and OXTR genotyping. Children completed a series of neurocognitive assessments, provided saliva samples for sequencing, and completed a face processing task while connected to an EEG. No clear pattern emerged for EEG covariates or genotypes for individual OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. However, SNPs rs2254298 and rs53576 consistently interacted such that the AG/GG allele combination of these SNPs was associated with poorer performance on neurocognitive measures. These results suggest that neither SNP in isolation is risk-conferring, but rather that the combination of rs2254298(A/G and rs53576(G/G confers a deleterious effect on SC across several neurocognitive measures.

  10. Residual stress relaxation in typical weld joints and its effect on fatigue and crack growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangbi LI; Zhengquan WAN; Zili WANG; Chunyan JI

    2009-01-01

    Many factors influence the fatigue and crack growth behavior of welded joints. Some structures often undergo fairly large static loading before they enter service or variable amplitude cyclic loading when they are in service. The combined effect of both applied stress and high initial residual stress is expected to cause the residual stresses relaxation. Only a few papers seem to deal with appropriate procedures for fatigue analysis and crack growth by considering the combined effect of variable amplitude cyclic loading with residual stresses relaxation. In this article, some typical welded connections in ship-shaped structures are investigated with 3-D elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The effect of residual stress relaxation, initial residual stress, and the applied load after variable amplitude cyclic loading is revealed, and a formula for predicting the residual stress at hot spot quantitatively is proposed. Based on the formula, an improved fatigue procedure is introduced. Moreover, crack growth of typical weld joints considering residual stresses relaxation is studied.

  11. Structure and coherence of reasoning ability in Down Syndrome adults and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsopoulo, D; Christou, C; Koutselini, M; Raftopoulos, A; Karefillidou, C

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigates the ability of Down Syndrome (DS) adults to reason: (a) deductively with transitivity (linear and reverse relations) and categorical syllogisms (all-some relations); (b) inductively with classical verbal analogies and non-verbal analogical reasoning (Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices); and (c) to retain information in short-term memory. The results have shown that: (i) The Down Syndrome adults did not differ from typically developing children, matched on expressive and verbal ability, in transitivity and non-verbal analogical thinking; (ii) they differed in categorical reasoning, classical verbal analogies and short-term memory. Application of a structural model demonstrated that, despite differences in slope means in the three measures, the structure of functioning within-and-across all domains of cognition tests and its growth pattern, equally reliable and coherent, goes in parallel for the Down Syndrome adults and the typically developing children. The results are discussed within the context of the two-group developmental and difference approach.

  12. Material characteristics and construction methods for a typical research reactor concrete containment in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimia, Mahsa; Suha, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eghbalic, Rahman; Jahan, Farzaneh Asadi malek [School of Architecture and Urbanism, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Generally selecting an appropriate material and also construction style for a concrete containment due to its function and special geometry play an important role in applicability and also construction cost and duration decrease in a research reactor (RR) project. The reactor containment enclosing the reactor vessel comprises physical barriers reflecting the safety design and construction codes, regulations and standards so as to prevent the community and the environment from uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. It is the third and the last barrier against radioactivity release. It protects the reactor vessel from such external events as earthquake and aircraft crash as well. Thus, it should be designed and constructed in such a manner as to withstand dead and live loads, ground and seismic loads, missiles and aircraft loads, and thermal and shrinkage loads. This study aims to present a construction method for concrete containment of a typical RR in Iran. The work also presents an acceptable characteristic for concrete and reinforcing re bar of a typical concrete containment. The current study has evaluated the various types of the RR containments. The most proper type was selected in accordance with the current knowledge and technology of Iran.

  13. [Modeling Study of A Typical Summer Ozone Pollution Event over Yangtze River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Zhu, Bin; Gao, Jin-hui; Kang, Han-qing; Yang, Peng; Wang, Hong-lei; Li, Yue-e; Shao, Ping

    2015-11-01

    WRF/Chem model was used to analyze the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics and physical and chemical mechanism of a typical summer ozone pollution event over Yangtze River Delta (YRD). The result showed that the model was capable of reproducing the temporal and spatial distribution and evolution characteristics of the typical summer ozone pollution event over YRD. The YRD region was mainly affected by the subtropical high-pressure control, and the weather conditions of sunshine, high temperature and small wind were favorable for the formation of photochemical pollution on August 10-18, 2013. The results of simulation showed that the spatial and temporal distribution of O3 was obviously affected by the meteorological fields, geographic location, regional transport and chemical formation over YRD. The sensitivity experiment showed that the O3 concentration affected by maritime airstream was low in Shanghai, but the impact of Shanghai emissions on the spatial and temporal distribution of O3 concentration over YRD was significant; The main contribution of the high concentration of O3 in Nanjing surface was chemical generation ( alkene and aromatic) and the vertical transport from high-altitude O3, whereas the main contribution of the high concentration of O3 in Hangzhou and Suzhou was physics process. The influence of the 15:00 peak concentration of O3 over YRD was very obvious when O3 precursor was reduced at the maximum O3 formation rate (11-13 h).

  14. The formation and assembly of a typical star-forming galaxy at z~3

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Daniel P; Ellis, Richard S; Dye, Simon; Smail, Ian R; Richard, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies of galaxies ~2-3 Gyr after the Big Bang have revealed large, turbulent rotating systems. The existence of well-ordered rotation in galaxies during this peak epoch of cosmic star formation may suggest that gas accretion through cold streams is likely to be the dominant mode by which most star-forming galaxies at high redshift since major mergers can completely disrupt the observed velocity fields. However poor spatial resolution and sensitivity have hampered this interpretation, limiting the study to the largest and most luminous galaxies, which may have fundamentally different modes of assembly than more typical star forming galaxies. Here we report observations of a typical star forming galaxy at z=3.07 with a linear resolution of ~100 parsec. This spatial sampling is made possible by the combination of gravitational lensing and laser guide star adaptive optics. We find a well-ordered compact source in which molecular gas is being converted efficiently into stars, likely assembling a spheroida...

  15. Chemical and Microbiological Characterization for PDO Labelling of Typical East Piedmont (Italy Salami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gianotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the characterisation of typical salami produced in Alessandria province (North West of Italy. Seventeen small or medium salami producers from this area were involved in the study and provided the samples investigated. The aim is double and consists in obtaining a screening of the characteristics of different products and following their evolution along ripening. The study involved five types of typical salami that were characterised for aroma components and nutritional features. This approach could provide a basis for a possible PDO or PGI label request. Principal Component Analysis and cluster analysis were used as multivariate statistical tools for data treatment. The overall results obtained point out that the products investigated do not deviate from analogous European products and show the possibility of characterising by specific parameters three main groups of samples: Salamini di Mandrogne, Muletta, and Nobile Giarolo; moreover some considerations can also be drawn with respect to the nutritional characterization considering the biogenic amines profile.

  16. Borderline typical symptoms in adult patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, Alexandra; Feige, Bernd; Hesslinger, Bernd; Scheel, Corinna; Ebert, Dieter; Matthies, Swantje; Limberger, Matthias F; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Bohus, Martin; Lieb, Klaus

    2009-05-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) share several clinical features, e.g. emotional lability and impulsivity. This study aimed to delineate differences and similarities between ADHD and BPD with respect to borderline typical symptomatology and gender specifics. Borderline symptomatology was assessed in 60 adult patients with ADHD with the borderline symptom list (BSL) and compared to both 60 gender- and age-matched BPD patients and control subjects. The BSL is a standardized instrument including 95 items on 7 subscales (self-perception, affect regulation, self-destruction, dysphoria, loneliness, intrusions and hostility). Adult ADHD patients showed significantly higher BSL total scores and all of the seven subscales compared to healthy controls (p ADHD and BPD patients were found with respect to self-destruction (d = 1.12) and affect dysregulation (d = 0.90), whereas the smallest difference was found with respect to loneliness (d = 0.36). In females, the BSL subscales "loneliness" and "hostility" did not differentiate between BPD and ADHD. Borderline typical symptoms are common in adult patients with ADHD but seem to be less pronounced than in patients with BPD. Females with ADHD and BPD share more clinical features than males. However, symptoms of self-destruction and affect dysregulation appear to be more severe in BPD patients.

  17. Dealing with consumer differences in liking during repeated exposure to food; typical dynamics in rating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Nanetti, Luca; Renken, Remco J; de Wijk, René A; Ter Horst, Gert J

    2014-01-01

    Consumers show high interindividual variability in food liking during repeated exposure. To investigate consumer liking during repeated exposure, data is often interpreted on a product level by averaging results over all consumers. However, a single product may elicit inconsistent behaviors in consumers; averaging will mix and hide possible subgroups of consumer behaviors, leading to a misinterpretation of the results. To deal with the variability in consumer liking, we propose to use clustering on data from consumer-product combinations to investigate the nature of the behavioral differences within the complete dataset. The resulting behavioral clusters can then be used to describe product acceptance. To test this approach we used two independent data sets in which young adults were repeatedly exposed to drinks and snacks, respectively. We found that five typical consumer behaviors existed in both datasets. These behaviors differed both in the average level of liking as well as its temporal dynamics. By investigating the distribution of a single product across typical consumer behaviors, we provide more precise insight in how consumers divide in subgroups based on their product liking (i.e. product modality). This work shows that taking into account and using interindividual differences can unveil information about product acceptance that would otherwise be ignored.

  18. GPU-based ray tracing algorithm for high-speed propagation prediction in typical indoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lixin; Guan, Xiaowei; Liu, Zhongyu

    2015-10-01

    A fast 3-D ray tracing propagation prediction model based on virtual source tree is presented in this paper, whose theoretical foundations are geometrical optics(GO) and the uniform theory of diffraction(UTD). In terms of typical single room indoor scene, taking the geometrical and electromagnetic information into account, some acceleration techniques are adopted to raise the efficiency of the ray tracing algorithm. The simulation results indicate that the runtime of the ray tracing algorithm will sharply increase when the number of the objects in the single room is large enough. Therefore, GPU acceleration technology is used to solve that problem. As is known to all, GPU is good at calculation operation rather than logical judgment, so that tens of thousands of threads in CUDA programs are able to calculate at the same time, in order to achieve massively parallel acceleration. Finally, a typical single room with several objects is simulated by using the serial ray tracing algorithm and the parallel one respectively. It can be found easily from the results that compared with the serial algorithm, the GPU-based one can achieve greater efficiency.

  19. Longitudinal Heschl's gyrus growth during childhood and adolescence in typical development and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigge, Molly D; Bigler, Erin D; Fletcher, P Thomas; Zielinski, Brandon A; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Anderson, Jeffrey; Froehlich, Alyson; Abildskov, Tracy; Papadopolous, Evangelia; Maasberg, Kathryn; Nielsen, Jared A; Alexander, Andrew L; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet

    2013-04-01

    Heightened auditory sensitivity and atypical auditory processing are common in autism. Functional studies suggest abnormal neural response and hemispheric activation to auditory stimuli, yet the neurodevelopment underlying atypical auditory function in autism is unknown. In this study, we model longitudinal volumetric growth of Heschl's gyrus gray matter and white matter during childhood and adolescence in 40 individuals with autism and 17 typically developing participants. Up to three time points of magnetic resonance imaging data, collected on average every 2.5 years, were examined from individuals 3-12 years of age at the time of their first scan. Consistent with previous cross-sectional studies, no group differences were found in Heschl's gyrus gray matter volume or asymmetry. However, reduced longitudinal gray matter volumetric growth was found in the right Heschl's gyrus in autism. Reduced longitudinal white matter growth in the left hemisphere was found in the right-handed autism participants. Atypical Heschl's gyrus white matter volumetric growth was found bilaterally in the autism individuals with a history of delayed onset of spoken language. Heightened auditory sensitivity, obtained from the Sensory Profile, was associated with reduced volumetric gray matter growth in the right hemisphere. Our longitudinal analyses revealed dynamic gray and white matter changes in Heschl's gyrus throughout childhood and adolescence in both typical development and autism.

  20. The comparison of laterality pattern of language perception in Down Syndrome and typical children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    جهانگیری / روحی جهانگیری / روحی

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is the comparison of the pattern of language perception in Down Syndrome (DS children and typical children. To achieve the objective, nine subjects with DS (whose mental ages were 72-78 months and were drawn from five center of special education in the city of Mashhad and five typical children with the same mental ages were selected through random sampling; and after the controlling of the associated variables. In this study after the selecting right-handed children by using the Annet Handedness Questionnaire, Electroencephalogram (EEG technique was employed for investigating the laterality pattern of language perception through recording of the voltage of brain waves in brain cortex (temporal regions in two states: resting and listening to a story. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results indicated that the mean voltage of brain waves in cerebral hemispheres is different between two groups in each of the two states. Keywords: Laterality, speech auditory perception, Down Syndrome, Electroencephalogram.

  1. Multimodal imaging of temporal processing in typical and atypical language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovelman, Ioulia; Wagley, Neelima; Hay, Jessica S F; Ugolini, Margaret; Bowyer, Susan M; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee; Brennan, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    New approaches to understanding language and reading acquisition propose that the human brain's ability to synchronize its neural firing rate to syllable-length linguistic units may be important to children's ability to acquire human language. Yet, little evidence from brain imaging studies has been available to support this proposal. Here, we summarize three recent brain imaging (functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and magnetoencephalography (MEG)) studies from our laboratories with young English-speaking children (aged 6-12 years). In the first study (fNIRS), we used an auditory beat perception task to show that, in children, the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) responds preferentially to rhythmic beats at 1.5 Hz. In the second study (fMRI), we found correlations between children's amplitude rise-time sensitivity, phonological awareness, and brain activation in the left STG. In the third study (MEG), typically developing children outperformed children with autism spectrum disorder in extracting words from rhythmically rich foreign speech and displayed different brain activation during the learning phase. The overall findings suggest that the efficiency with which left temporal regions process slow temporal (rhythmic) information may be important for gains in language and reading proficiency. These findings carry implications for better understanding of the brain's mechanisms that support language and reading acquisition during both typical and atypical development.

  2. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis: typical patterns of bone involvement in whole-body bone scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikgoz, Gunsel; Averill, Lauren W

    2014-08-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an autoinflammatory bone disease of unknown etiology. It affects children and adolescents predominantly and occurs mostly in the female population. It is characterized by the insidious onset of pain and swelling, with a fluctuating clinical course of relapses and remissions. Typically, several bones are affected, either synchronously or metachronously, and bilateral involvement is common. CRMO most commonly affects the metaphysis of long bones, especially the tibia, femur, and clavicle. The spine, pelvis, ribs, sternum, and mandible may also be affected. Although lesions are mostly multiple, patients may present with a single symptomatic focus. Radiographic findings may be negative early in the course of the disease. Bone scintigraphy is useful in determining the presence of abnormality and the extent of disease. The imaging and clinical features of CRMO overlap with those of infectious osteomyelitis, bone malignancy, and inflammatory arthritis. Nonetheless, CRMO can be confidently diagnosed with the recognition of typical imaging patterns in the appropriate clinical setting. This article reviews imaging findings with special emphasis on bone scintigraphy and specific disease sites.

  3. Hypotheses about Typical General Human Strategic Behavior in a Concrete Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagiew, Rustam

    This work is about typical human behavior in general strategic interactions called also games. This work is not about modelling best human performance in well-known games like chess or poker. It tries to answer the question 'How can we exactly describe what we typically do, if we interact strategically in games we have not much experience with?' in a concrete case. This concrete case is a very basic scenario - a repeated zero sum game with imperfect information. Rational behavior in games is best studied by game theory. But, numerous experiments with untrained subjects showed that human behavior in strategic interactions deviates from predictions of game theory. However, people do not behave in a fully indescribable way. Subjects deviate from game theoretic predictions in the concrete scenario presented here. As results, a couple of regularities in the data is presented first which are also reported in related work. Then, the way of using machine learning for describing human behavior is given. Machine learning algorithms provide automatically generated hypotheses about human behavior. Finally, designing a formalism for representing human behavior is discussed.

  4. Amyloid β Enhances Typical Rodent Behavior While It Impairs Contextual Memory Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Salgado-Puga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is associated with an early hippocampal dysfunction, which is likely induced by an increase in soluble amyloid beta peptide (Aβ. This hippocampal failure contributes to the initial memory deficits observed both in patients and in AD animal models and possibly to the deterioration in activities of daily living (ADL. One typical rodent behavior that has been proposed as a hippocampus-dependent assessment model of ADL in mice and rats is burrowing. Despite the fact that AD transgenic mice show some evidence of reduced burrowing, it has not been yet determined whether or not Aβ can affect this typical rodent behavior and whether this alteration correlates with the well-known Aβ-induced memory impairment. Thus, the purpose of this study was to test whether or not Aβ affects burrowing while inducing hippocampus-dependent memory impairment. Surprisingly, our results show that intrahippocampal application of Aβ increases burrowing while inducing memory impairment. We consider that this Aβ-induced increase in burrowing might be associated with a mild anxiety state, which was revealed by increased freezing behavior in the open field, and conclude that Aβ-induced hippocampal dysfunction is reflected in the impairment of ADL and memory, through mechanisms yet to be determined.

  5. Visual scan paths and recognition of facial identity in autism spectrum disorder and typical development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Ellie Wilson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD have impaired facial identity recognition, and also exhibit abnormal visual scanning of faces. Here, two hypotheses accounting for an association between these observations were tested: i better facial identity recognition is associated with increased gaze time on the Eye region; ii better facial identity recognition is associated with increased eye-movements around the face. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eye-movements of 11 children with ASD and 11 age-matched typically developing (TD controls were recorded whilst they viewed a series of faces, and then completed a two alternative forced-choice recognition memory test for the faces. Scores on the memory task were standardized according to age. In both groups, there was no evidence of an association between the proportion of time spent looking at the Eye region of faces and age-standardized recognition performance, thus the first hypothesis was rejected. However, the 'Dynamic Scanning Index'--which was incremented each time the participant saccaded into and out of one of the core-feature interest areas--was strongly associated with age-standardized face recognition scores in both groups, even after controlling for various other potential predictors of performance. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: In support of the second hypothesis, results suggested that increased saccading between core-features was associated with more accurate face recognition ability, both in typical development and ASD. Causal directions of this relationship remain undetermined.

  6. Typicality of normal numbers with respect to the Cantor series expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Mance, Bill

    2010-01-01

    A sequence of integer $Q=\\{q_n\\}_{n=1}^\\infty$ is a {\\it basic sequence} if $q_n$ is greater than or equal to $2$ for all $n$. In this paper, we improve upon results by J. Galambos and F. Schweiger showing that almost every (in the sense of Lebesgue measure) real number in $[0,1)$ is $Q$-normal with respect to the $Q$-Cantor series expansion for basic sequences $Q$ that satisfy a certain condition. We also provide asymptotics describing the number occurrences of blocks of digits in the $Q$-Cantor series expansion of a typical number. The notion of strong $Q$-normality, that satisfies a similar typicality result, is introduced. Both of these notions are equivalent for the $b$-ary expansion, but strong normality is stronger than normality for the Cantor series expansion. In order to show this, we provide an explicit construction of a basic sequence $Q$ and a real number that is $Q$-normal, but not strongly $Q$-normal. We use the results in this paper to show that under a mild condition on the basic sequence $Q$...

  7. Generalized multiband typical medium dynamical cluster approximation: Application to (Ga,Mn)N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Nelson, R.; Siddiqui, Elisha; Tam, K.-M.; Yu, U.; Berlijn, T.; Ku, W.; Vidhyadhiraja, N. S.; Moreno, J.; Jarrell, M.

    2016-12-01

    We generalize the multiband typical medium dynamical cluster approximation and the formalism introduced by Blackman, Esterling, and Berk so that it can deal with localization in multiband disordered systems with both diagonal and off-diagonal disorder with complicated potentials. We also introduce an ansatz for the momentum-resolved typical density of states that greatly improves the numerical stability of the method while preserving the independence of scattering events at different frequencies. Starting from the first-principles effective Hamiltonian, we apply this method to the diluted magnetic semiconductor Ga1 -xMnxN , and find the impurity band is completely localized for Mn concentrations x 10 the impurity band has delocalized states but the chemical potential resides at or above the mobility edge. So, the system is always insulating within the experimental compositional limit (x ≈0.10 ) due to Anderson localization. However, for 0.03 10 hole doping could make the system metallic, allowing double-exchange mediated, or enhanced, ferromagnetism. The developed method is expected to have a large impact on first-principles studies of Anderson localization.

  8. Simulation and evaluation of the quality and availability of typical GLI ocean image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    ADEOS-II satellite will be launched in the near future. It collocates many remote sensing instruments in the same platform. Among them, Global Image (GLI) is considered to be a main sensor which will play a key role. In order to understand the characteristics of future GLI ocean color images, a simulation and evaluation of the quality and availability of GLI typical ocean image has been done. In the paper, we first introduce the simulation models briefly, and simulate typical cases of radiance images at visible channels, in which the radiance distribution is based on geographic location, the satellite orbital parameters and sensor properties. A method, complex signal noise ratio (CSNR) to evaluate the image quality and availability, is developed according to the characteristics of image. Meanwhile, a series of CSNR images are generated from the simulated radiance components for different cases, which can be used to evaluate the quality and availability of GLI images before the ADEOS-II is placed in orbit. Finally, the quality and availability of GLI images are quantitatively analyzed by the simulated CSNR data. The results will be beneficial to the people who are in charge of GLI mission or plan to use the data from GLI.

  9. Association between Blood Omega-3 Index and Cognition in Typically Developing Dutch Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge S. M. van der Wurff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13–15 years is investigated. Baseline data from Food2Learn, a double-blind and randomized placebo controlled krill oil supplementation trial in typically developing adolescents, were used for the current study. The Omega-3 Index was determined with blood from a finger prick. At baseline, participants finished a neuropsychological test battery consisting of the Letter Digit Substitution Test (LDST, D2 test of attention, Digit Span Forward and Backward, Concept Shifting Test and Stroop test. Data were analyzed with multiple regression analyses with correction for covariates. The average Omega-3 Index was 3.83% (SD 0.60. Regression analyses between the Omega-3 Index and the outcome parameters revealed significant associations with scores on two of the nine parameters. The association between the Omega-3 Index and both scores on the LDST (β = 0.136 and p = 0.039, and the number of errors of omission on the D2 (β = −0.053 and p = 0.007. This is a possible indication for a higher information processing speed and less impulsivity in those with a higher Omega-3 Index.

  10. A change will do us good: threats diminish typical preferences for male leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth R; Diekman, Amanda B; Schneider, Monica C

    2011-07-01

    The current research explores role congruity processes from a new vantage point by investigating how the need for change might shift gender-based leadership preferences. According to role congruity theory, favorability toward leaders results from alignment between what is desired in a leadership role and the characteristics stereotypically ascribed to the leader. Generally speaking, these processes lead to baseline preferences for male over female leaders. In this research, the authors propose that a shift in gender-based leadership preferences will emerge under conditions of threat. Because the psychological experience of threat signals a need for change, individuals will favor candidates who represent new directions in leadership rather than consistency with past directions in leadership. Specifically, they find that threat evokes an implicit preference for change over stability (Experiment 1) and gender stereotypes align women with change but men with stability (Experiments 2a and 2b). Consequently, the typical preference for male leaders is diminished, or even reversed, under threat (Experiments 3 and 4). Moreover, the shift away from typical gender-based leadership preferences occurs especially among individuals who highly legitimize the sociopolitical system (Experiment 4), suggesting that these preference shifts might serve to protect the underlying system.

  11. ALMA Reveals Weak [NII] Emission in "Typical" Galaxies and Intense Starbursts at z=5-6

    CERN Document Server

    Pavesi, Riccardo; Capak, Peter L; Carilli, Christopher L; Sharon, Chelsea E; Stacey, Gordon J; Karim, Alexander; Scoville, Nicholas Z; Smolcic, Vernesa

    2016-01-01

    We report interferometric measurements of [NII] 205 um fine-structure line emission from a representative sample of three galaxies at z=5-6 using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). These galaxies were previously detected in [CII] and far-infrared continuum emission and span almost two orders of magnitude in star formation rate (SFR). Our results show at least two different regimes of ionized inter-stellar medium properties for galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time, separated by their L_[CII]/L_[NII] ratio. We find extremely low [NII] emission compared to [CII] (L_ [CII]/L_[NII]=68 [+200/-28]) from a "typical" L*_UV star-forming galaxy, likely directly or indirectly (by its effect on the radiation field) related to low dust abundance and low metallicity. The infrared-luminous modestly star-forming Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG) in our sample is characterized by an ionized-gas fraction (L_[CII]/L_[NII]<=20) typical of local star-forming galaxies and shows evidence for spatial variations i...

  12. [Chlorination byproducts formation potentials of typical nitrogenous organic compounds in water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Xu, Bin; Qin, Cao; Xia, Sheng-Ji; Gao, Nai-Yun; Tian, Fu-Xiang; Li, Da-Peng

    2011-07-01

    Twelve typical nitrogenous organic compounds including herbicides, pesticides, amino acids, industrial products etc in polluted raw water were selected to investigate formation of typical carbonaceous and nitrogenous DBPs during chlorination and chloramination. To indentify the formation mechanism of carbonaceous and nitrogenous disinfection byproducts from nitrogenous chemicals, chlorination and chloroamination of urea herbicides, triazine herbicides, amino acid, and other compounds were investigated. As a result, the potential precursors for different DBPs were defined as well. It has been identified that widely used urea herbicides could produce as many as 9 specific DBPs. The chlorotoluron shows highest reactivity and yields chloroform (CF), monochloroacetic acid (MCAA), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), 1,1-dichloro-acetone (1,1-DCP), 1,1,1-trichloro-acetone (1,1,1-TCP), chloropicrin (NTCM), dichloro-acetonitrile (DCAN), dimethylnitrosamine (NDMA). The results indicated that aldicarb and dinoseb are important precursors of CF, DCAA, MCAA, NTCM as well. High concentrations of CF and DCAA were found during L-tryptophan chlorination. Furthermore, DBPs formation pathways and mechanisms were suggested during chlorination and chloramination of chlorotoluron, ametryn, dinoseb L-tryptophan.

  13. Association between Blood Omega-3 Index and Cognition in Typically Developing Dutch Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wurff, Inge S M; von Schacky, Clemens; Berge, Kjetil; Zeegers, Maurice P; Kirschner, Paul A; de Groot, Renate H M

    2016-01-02

    The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13-15 years is investigated. Baseline data from Food2Learn, a double-blind and randomized placebo controlled krill oil supplementation trial in typically developing adolescents, were used for the current study. The Omega-3 Index was determined with blood from a finger prick. At baseline, participants finished a neuropsychological test battery consisting of the Letter Digit Substitution Test (LDST), D2 test of attention, Digit Span Forward and Backward, Concept Shifting Test and Stroop test. Data were analyzed with multiple regression analyses with correction for covariates. The average Omega-3 Index was 3.83% (SD 0.60). Regression analyses between the Omega-3 Index and the outcome parameters revealed significant associations with scores on two of the nine parameters. The association between the Omega-3 Index and both scores on the LDST (β = 0.136 and p = 0.039), and the number of errors of omission on the D2 (β = -0.053 and p = 0.007). This is a possible indication for a higher information processing speed and less impulsivity in those with a higher Omega-3 Index.

  14. Typical rise and fall of troponin in(peri-procedural) myocardial infarction:A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianne van Beek; Bas van Zaane; Marjolein Looije; Linda Peelen; Wilton van Klei

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To identify the typical shape of the rise and fall curve of troponin(Tn) following the different types of myocardial infarction(MI). METHODS: We conducted a systematic search in PubM ed and Embase including all studies which focused on the kinetics of Tn in MI type 1, type 4 and type 5. Tn levels were standardized using the 99 th percentile, a pooled mean with 95%CI was calculated from the weighted means for each time point until 72 h. RESULTS: A total of 34 of the 2528 studies identified in the systematic search were included. The maximum peak level of the Tn was seen after 6 h after successful reperfusion of an acute MI, after 12 h for type 1 MI and after 72 h for type 5 MI. In type 1 MI there were additional smaller peaks at 1 h and at 24 h. After successful reperfusion of an acute MI there was a second peak at 24 h. There was not enough data available to analyze the Tn release after MI associated with percutaneous coronary intervention(type 4).CONCLUSION: The typical rise and fall of Tn is different for type 1 MI, successful reperfusion of an acute MI and type 5 MI, with different timing of the peak levels and different slopes of the fall phase.

  15. Ground reaction forces and lower-limb joint kinetics of turning gait in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Philippe C; Stebbins, Julie; Theologis, Tim; Zavatsky, Amy B

    2014-11-28

    Turning is a common locomotor task essential to daily activity; however, very little is known about the forces and moments responsible for the kinematic adaptations occurring relative to straight-line gait in typically developing children. Thus, the aims of this study were to analyse ground reaction forces (GRFs), ground reaction free vertical torque (TZ), and the lower-limb joint kinetics of 90° outside (step) and inside (spin) limb turns. Step, spin, and straight walking trials from fifty-four typically developing children were analysed. All children were fit with the Plug-in Gait and Oxford Foot Model marker sets while walking over force plates embedded in the walkway. Net internal joint moments and power were computed via a standard inverse dynamics approach. All dependent variables were statistically analysed over the entire curves using the mean difference 95% bootstrap confidence band approach. GRFs were directed medially for step turns and laterally for spin turns during the turning phase. Directions were reversed and magnitudes decreased during the approach phase. Step turns showed reduced ankle power generation, while spin turns showed large TZ. Both strategies required large knee and hip coronal and transverse plane moments during swing. These kinetic differences highlight adaptations required to maintain stability and reorient the body towards the new walking direction during turning. From a clinical perspective, turning gait may better reveal weaknesses and motor control deficits than straight walking in pathological populations, such as children with cerebral palsy, and could potentially be implemented in standard gait analysis sessions.

  16. Benzodiazepines, benzodiazepine-like drugs, and typical antipsychotics impair manual dexterity in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Daimei; Hori, Hiroaki; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hattori, Kotaro; Ota, Miho; Matsuo, Junko; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Okazaki, Mitsutoshi; Arima, Kunimasa; Amano, Naoji; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    Impaired dexterity is a major psychomotor deficit reported in patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, the Purdue pegboard test was used to compare the manual dexterity in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. We also examined the influence of antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, and benzodiazepine-like drugs on manual dexterity. Subjects were 93 patients with schizophrenia and 93 healthy controls, matched for sex and age distributions. Control subjects scored significantly higher on all scores of Purdue pegboard than patients with schizophrenia. Age, PANSS negative symptom scale, typical antipsychotic dose, and use of benzodiazepines and/or benzodiazepine-like drugs were negatively correlated with the pegboard scores in patients with schizophrenia. The present results indicate that patients with schizophrenia have impaired gross and fine fingertip dexterity compared to healthy controls. The use of typical antipsychotics and benzodiazepines and/or benzodiazepine-like drugs, but not atypical antipsychotics, had significant negative impact on dexterity in patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatrists should be aware that some psychotropic medications may enhance the disability caused by the impairment of dexterity in patients with schizophrenia.

  17. Investigation of Flow Field in a Typical Hypersonic Wind Tunnel over a Standard Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fata mohammadifard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to start designing a new hypersonic wind tunnel, it is important to have a pre-view about physical phenomena in a typical Hypersonic Wind Tunnel (HWT. In present research, it is tried to view phenomenologically the aerodynamics of flow in a typical HWT by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The considered HWT consists of a curved nozzle in nominal Mach number 12, free-jet type test section, a test model and a convergent-divergent diffuser. Aerodynamics of flow in the nozzle exit and test section, conical shock wave system in the diffuser and flow over a standard model (HB-2 are investigated. A method is introduced for numerical simulation of capturing the free shear layer in free-jet test section based on the vorticity distribution of flow. The aerodynamics behavior of HB-2 model is investigated in various Mach numbers and flow domains. The results make a better view of some aerodynamic phenomena in a free-jet type test section of wind tunnel that are rarely considered. This research is conducted towards the project of designing and manufacturing the industrial hypersonic wind tunnel for Qadr Aerodynamic research Center.

  18. Mechanical reliability of double clad fibers in typical fiber laser deployment conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walorny, Michael; Abramczyk, Jaroslaw; Jacobson, Nick; Tankala, Kanishka

    2016-03-01

    With the rapid acceptance of fiber lasers and amplifiers for various materials processing and defense applications the long term optical and mechanical reliability of the fiber laser, and therefore the components that make up the laser, is of significant interest to the industrial and defense communities. The double clad fiber used in a fiber laser is a key component whose lifetime in typical deployment conditions needs to be understood. The optical reliability of double clad fiber has recently been studied and a predictive model of fiber lifetime has been published. In contrast, a rigorous model for the mechanical reliability of the fiber and an analysis of the variables affecting the lifetime of the fiber in typical deployment conditions has not been studied. This paper uses the COST-218 model which is widely used for analyzing the mechanical lifetime of fiber used in the telecom industry. The factors affecting lifetime are analyzed to make the reader aware of the design choices a laser manufacturer can make, and the information they must seek from fiber suppliers, to ensure excellent lifetime for double clad fiber and consequently for the fiber laser. It is shown that the fiber's stress corrosion susceptibility, its proof strength, the coil diameter and the length of fiber coiled to achieve good beam quality all have important implications on fiber lifetime.

  19. The formation and assembly of a typical star-forming galaxy at redshift z approximately 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Daniel P; Swinbank, A Mark; Ellis, Richard S; Dye, Simon; Smail, Ian R; Richard, Johan

    2008-10-09

    Recent studies of galaxies approximately 2-3 Gyr after the Big Bang have revealed large, rotating disks, similar to those of galaxies today. The existence of well-ordered rotation in galaxies during this peak epoch of cosmic star formation indicates that gas accretion is likely to be the dominant mode by which galaxies grow, because major mergers of galaxies would completely disrupt the observed velocity fields. But poor spatial resolution and sensitivity have hampered this interpretation; such studies have been limited to the largest and most luminous galaxies, which may have fundamentally different modes of assembly from those of more typical galaxies (which are thought to grow into the spheroidal components at the centres of galaxies similar to the Milky Way). Here we report observations of a typical star-forming galaxy at z = 3.07, with a linear resolution of approximately 100 parsecs. We find a well-ordered compact source in which molecular gas is being converted efficiently into stars, likely to be assembling a spheroidal bulge similar to those seen in spiral galaxies at the present day. The presence of undisrupted rotation may indicate that galaxies such as the Milky Way gain much of their mass by accretion rather than major mergers.

  20. Typical Scenario of Preparation, Implementation, and Aftershock Sequence of a Large Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    We have tried here to construct and examine the typical scenario of a large earthquake occurrence. The Harvard seismic moment GCMT catalog was used to construct the large earthquake generalized space-time vicinity (LEGV) and to investigate the seismicity behavior in LEGV. LEGV was composed of earthquakes falling into the zone of influence of any of the considerable number (100, 300, or 1,000) of largest earthquakes. The LEGV construction is aimed to enlarge the available statistics, diminish a strong random component, and to reveal in result the typical features of pre- and post-shock seismic activity in more detail. In result of the LEGV construction the character of fore- and aftershock cascades was examined in more detail than it was possible without of the use of the LEGV approach. It was shown also that the mean earthquake magnitude tends to increase, and the b-values, mean mb/mw ratios, apparent stress values, and mean depth tend to decrease. Amplitudes of all these anomalies increase with an approach to a moment of the generalized large earthquake (GLE) as a logarithm of time interval from GLE occurrence. Most of the discussed anomalies agree well with a common scenario of development of instability. Besides of such precursors of common character, one earthquake-specific precursor was found. The revealed decrease of mean earthquake depth during large earthquake preparation testifies probably for the deep fluid involvement in the process. The revealed in LEGV typical features of development of shear instability agree well with results obtained in laboratory acoustic emission (AE) study. Majority of the revealed anomalies appear to have a secondary character and are connected mainly with an increase in a mean earthquake magnitude in LEGV. The mean magnitude increase was shown to be connected mainly with a decrease of a portion of moderate size events (Mw 5.0 - 5.5) in a closer GLE vicinity. We believe that this deficit of moderate size events hardly can be

  1. Inconsistency of speech in children with childhood apraxia of speech, phonological disorders, and typical speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuzzini, Jenya

    There is a lack of agreement on the features used to differentiate Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) from Phonological Disorders (PD). One criterion which has gained consensus is lexical inconsistency of speech (ASHA, 2007); however, no accepted measure of this feature has been defined. Although lexical assessment provides information about consistency of an item across repeated trials, it may not capture the magnitude of inconsistency within an item. In contrast, segmental analysis provides more extensive information about consistency of phoneme usage across multiple contexts and word-positions. The current research compared segmental and lexical inconsistency metrics in preschool-aged children with PD, CAS, and typical development (TD) to determine how inconsistency varies with age in typical and disordered speakers, and whether CAS and PD were differentiated equally well by both assessment levels. Whereas lexical and segmental analyses may be influenced by listener characteristics or speaker intelligibility, the acoustic signal is less vulnerable to these factors. In addition, the acoustic signal may reveal information which is not evident in the perceptual signal. A second focus of the current research was motivated by Blumstein et al.'s (1980) classic study on voice onset time (VOT) in adults with acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) which demonstrated a motor impairment underlying AOS. In the current study, VOT analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between age and group with the voicing distribution for bilabial and alveolar plosives. Findings revealed that 3-year-olds evidenced significantly higher inconsistency than 5-year-olds; segmental inconsistency approached 0% in 5-year-olds with TD, whereas it persisted in children with PD and CAS suggesting that for child in this age-range, inconsistency is a feature of speech disorder rather than typical development (Holm et al., 2007). Likewise, whereas segmental and lexical inconsistency were

  2. Two typical structure patterns in jammed monodisperse disk packings at high densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Jin, Weiwei; Liu, Lufeng; Li, Shuixiang

    2016-11-01

    We generate a large number of monodisperse disk packings in two dimensions via geometric-based packing algorithms including the relaxation algorithm and the Torquato-Jiao algorithm. Using the geometric-structure approach, a clear boundary of the geometrical feasible region in the order map is found which quite differs from that of the jammed region. For a certain packing density higher than 0.83, the crystalline degree varies in different packing samples. We find that the local hexatic order may increase in two fairly different ways as the system densifies. Therefore, two typical non-equilibrium jammed patterns, termed polycrystal and distorted crystal, are defined at high packing densities. Furthermore, their responses to isotropic compression are investigated using a compression-relaxation molecular dynamic protocol. The distorted crystal pattern is more stable than the polycrystal one with smaller displacements despite its low occurrence frequency. The results are helpful in understanding the structure and phase transition of disk packings.

  3. Intelligence and handedness: Meta-analyses of studies on intellectually disabled, typically developing, and gifted individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta; Tomprou, Dimitra-Maria

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the relationship between cerebral laterality and intelligence is important in elucidating the neurological underpinnings of individual differences in cognitive abilities. A widely used, behavioral indicator for cerebral laterality, mainly of language, is handedness. A number of studies have compared cognitive abilities between groups of left- and right-handers, while others have investigated the handedness prevalence between groups of different cognitive abilities. The present study comprises five meta-analyses of studies that have assessed the handedness prevalence in (a) individuals with intellectual disability (ID) of unknown/idiopathic nature compared to typically developing (TD) individuals, and (b) individuals with intellectual giftedness (IG) compared to TD individuals. Nineteen data sets totaling 16,076 participants (5795 ID, 8312 TD, and 1969 IG) were included in the analyses. Elevated levels of atypical handedness were found to be robust only for the ID to TD comparison. Findings constrain the range of acceptable theories on the handedness distribution for different intelligence levels.

  4. What are typical sources of error in rotational rheometry of polymer melts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Florian J.

    2014-08-01

    Rheometers have made giant leaps in terms of usability, sensitivity, and versatility. This leads to the illusion that a rheometer can be used as a fool-proof device for measuring rheological properties. The article will focus on typical problems that are encountered in rheological practice when measuring polymer melts. Emphasis is put on problems related to measurement artefacts stemming from the rheometer as well as from the material itself. Furthermore, possibilities to eliminate rheometer related artefacts mostly related to the following phenomena - geometry inertia, thermal expansion, torque resolution, and environmental control - will be discussed. The sample related artefacts vary significantly from sample to sample and include: thermal degradation, nonlinear shear deformation, centrifugal forces, slip and shear banding, as well as miscibility, orientation, and distribution of different phases, of which only the ones occurring in homogeneous polymer melts are discussed here.

  5. Experimental study on drying of typical MSW under incinerator-like conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; YanGuo; CHEN; MeiQian; MENG; AiHong; LI; QingHai; CHEN; YunXuan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a series of experiments were conducted to investigate the drying of typical municipal solid wastes (MSW) in a muffle incinerator. From the experimental drying characteristic curves, the effects of temperature on drying process were observed to be more obvious in the low temperature region than in the high temperature region in muffle incinerator. At a specified drying temperature, drying time was highly dependent upon the packed waste thickness, having an exponent relation with the thickness. When the drying temperature increased or the thickness of potato bulks was diminished, the maximum drying rate reduced. Based on the first-order reaction, activation energy (Ea), and factor A of potato and cabbage were determined.

  6. [Typical and atypical ocular manifestations of Behçet's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübiger, N; Pleyer, U

    2012-06-01

    The first ocular symptom in 50-87% of patients with Behçet's disease (BD) is unilateral anterior uveitis. As a characteristic sign of ocular BD the appearance of hypopyon iritis was originally described by Adamantiades and Behçet, but nowadays, probably due to an earlier and more aggressive treatment, this rarely occurs. In the further course of the disease up to 75% of BD patients develop a bilateral chronic relapsing form of posterior uveitis or panuveitis. In addition occlusive retinal vasculitis, which involves arteries as well as veins, is frequently present. A typical complication consists of a cystoid macular edema, which is, besides the retinal vasculitis, responsible for the limited prognosis of visual acuity.

  7. Weather data analysis based on typical weather sequence analysis. Application: energy building simulation

    CERN Document Server

    David, Mathieu; Garde, Francois; Boyer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In building studies dealing about energy efficiency and comfort, simulation software need relevant weather files with optimal time steps. Few tools generate extreme and mean values of simultaneous hourly data including correlation between the climatic parameters. This paper presents the C++ Runeole software based on typical weather sequences analysis. It runs an analysis process of a stochastic continuous multivariable phenomenon with frequencies properties applied to a climatic database. The database analysis associates basic statistics, PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and automatic classifications. Different ways of applying these methods will be presented. All the results are stored in the Runeole internal database that allows an easy selection of weather sequences. The extreme sequences are used for system and building sizing and the mean sequences are used for the determination of the annual cooling loads as proposed by Audrier-Cros (Audrier-Cros, 1984). This weather analysis was tested with the datab...

  8. A comparative analysis of the two typical farmland transfer models in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖轶; 魏朝富; 尹珂; 罗光莲

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to conduct a comparative analysis of the two typical farmland transfer models introduced by Chongqing in its comprehensive coordinated reform experiment for balanced urban and rural development: i) the "pooling of land as shares" in Qilin village, Changshou district; and ii) the "homestead/house swap, contracted land/ social security swap" in Jiulongpo district. It is estimated that the former model offers lower land appreciation benef its than the latter; the former faces greater operational risks, whereas the latter can to a certain extent mitigate risks by boosting regulatory control and reasonable government guidance. The homestead/house swap, contracted land/social security swap model is therefore the preferred choice. It can solve a series of social security problems that arise after peasants are divorced from land and enable peasants to garner higher land appreciation benefits through farmland transfer.

  9. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyuan Wu

    Full Text Available The behavior of rope-guided conveyances is so complicated that the rope-guided hoisting system hasn't been understood thoroughly so far. In this paper, with user-defined functions loaded, ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 was employed to simulate lateral motion of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts. With rope-guided mine elevator and mine cages taken into account, results show that the lateral aerodynamic buffeting force is much larger than the Coriolis force, and the side aerodynamic force have the same order of magnitude as the Coriolis force. The lateral aerodynamic buffeting forces should also be considered especially when the conveyance moves along the ventilation air direction. The simulation shows that the closer size of the conveyances can weaken the transverse aerodynamic buffeting effect.

  10. Structural and chemical modifications of typical South African biomasses during torrefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafu, Lihle D; Neomagus, Hein W J P; Everson, Raymond C; Carrier, Marion; Strydom, Christien A; Bunt, John R

    2016-02-01

    Torrefaction experiments were carried out for three typical South African biomass samples (softwood chips, hardwood chips and sweet sorghum bagasse) to a weight loss of 30 wt.%. During torrefaction, moisture, non-structural carbohydrates and hemicelluloses were reduced, resulting in a structurally modified torrefaction product. There was a reduction in the average crystalline diameter (La) (XRD), an increase in the aromatic fraction and a reduction in aliphatics (substituted and unsubstituted) (CPMAS (13)C NMR). The decrease in the aliphatic components of the lignocellulosic material under the torrefaction conditions also resulted in a slight ordering of the carbon lattice. The degradation of hemicelluloses and non-structural carbohydrates increased the inclusive surface area of sweet sorghum bagasse, while it did not change significantly for the woody biomasses.

  11. Outdoor performances of four photovoltaic technologies under four typical meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenounou, A.; Aillerie, M.; Malek, A.; Triki, A.; Oulebsir, A.; Smara, Z.; Mahrane, A.; Chikh, M.

    2016-07-01

    We present a comparative study of the behavior and performance undervarious weather conditions of four PV modules of different technologies recorded in four typical daysin summer and winter. The study is based on the simultaneous and continuous testing of PV modules under natural conditions of a site located in a coastal area of southern Mediterranean. We essentially interested to the fill factor, the conversion efficiency and the energy performance. A brief description of the experimental set up and the originally method is given after the introductive paragraph. All obtained graphical results allow, at first, the validation of the approach and at second, point out that the daily evolution curves of the fill factor and the efficiency of the PV modules adopt different paces depending on the PV technology. In addition, the results of the energy study showthat the performance ratios of the different technologies aredifferently influenced by weather environment and seasons.

  12. Running a typical ROOT HEP analysis on Hadoop MapReduce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, S. A.; Pinamonti, M.; Cobal, M.

    2014-06-01

    We evaluate how a typical ROOT High Energy Physics (HEP) analysis can be executed on Hadoop MapReduce. We take into account several aspects and we propose a method to perform the analysis in a completely transparent way to ROOT, the data and the user: the goal is to let ROOT run without any modifications and to store the data in its original format. The solutions which has been found to solve the encountered problems can be easily ported to any HEP code, and in general to any code working on binary data relying on independent sub-problems like HEP particle collision events. We tested the method by running an analysis code for the top quark pair production cross section measurement with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in the CERN laboratory.

  13. Early phonetic development in typically developing children: A longitudinal investigation from Cypriot-Greek child data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petinou, Kakia; Theodorou, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the acquisition of consonantal singleton segments in Cypriot-Greek. The study's aims were: (a) to determine the acquisition of segments for manner and place of articulation as a function of age and word position, (b) to provide preliminary normative data, and (c) to further support the cross-linguistic data pool regarding developmental phonology patterns. Participants were 14 Cypriot-Greek speaking typically developing toddlers, examined at ages 24, 28, 32 and 36 months. Spontaneously produced and elicited glossable utterances were used in constructing each child's inventory. Findings revealed an increase of segmental acquisition across all age levels. Group trend analysis for manner and place of articulation indicated bilabial and alveolar stops and nasals to be among the earlier segments to develop. A word medial position advantage was also evident. The findings are discussed in terms of phonological universals and language-specific factors. Implications for early evidence-based phonetic assessment are discussed.

  14. Comparing phonology of dyads of children with typical development and protracted development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubasik, Virginia L; Ingram, David

    2013-09-01

    This study compares data from three functionally monolingual Spanish-speaking children with protracted phonological development (PPD; Chávez-Peón et al., 2012) and three language- and age-matched children with typical development (TD) at two time points to highlight similarities and differences in patterns of production. Spanish data were analyzed using an adapted version of Ingram and Ingram's Basic Analysis and an assessment of phonological similarity. Results indicate that children differed with regard to phonology at both time points. Children with PPD evidenced less developed skills at both time points and varying development across aspects. Differences within and between children were highlighted when examining scores over time. Aspects of the children's phonologies at Time 1 showed varying degrees of positive change at Time 2. These data are consistent with previous research, and additionally offer specific information gleaned from innovative analyses, which may prove to be useful in future research.

  15. Unravelling the mystery of reality : typical Canadian elements in the short stories of Alice Munro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kustec

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary Canadian short story has a specific place among literary genres in Canadian literature. It culminated in the sixties of this century, when the Canadians looked to their literature with greater interest. Canadian short story writers started to write in a different tone, and showed special interest for new themes. After 1960 authors, such as Henry Kreisel, Norman Levine, Anne Hebert, Mavis Gallant, Ethel Wilson, Joyce Marshall, Hugh Hood, Hugh Garner, Margaret Laurence, Audrey Callahan Thomas, Mordecai Richler, and Alice Munro, refused to use the traditional plot, and showed more interest for characterisation. By using a typical Canadian setting, their stories began to reflect social events of their time. A new awareness of identity stepped forward, and above all their stories became a reflection of the diversity of life in all Canadian provinces. The contemporary Canadian short story writers began to overstep the boundaries of their imagination.

  16. Experimental researches on mass and heat transfer in new typical cross-flow rotating packed bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Haihui; ZENG Yingying; GAO Wenshuai

    2006-01-01

    New typical cross-flow Rotating Packed Bed(RPB)called multi-pulverizing RPB was manufactured.There is enough void in multi-pulverizing RPB,where liquid easily flows and is repeatedly pulverized by light packing,which decreases the material consumed,lightens the weight,and compacts the structure.Mass and heat transfer property in the new type PRB were studied by two experimental models.In the mass transfer model,the axial fan pumping gas press is only 100 Pa,mass transfer coefficient and volumetric mass transfer coefficient are similar to countercurrent RPB,which are an order quantity lager than that in the conventional packed tower.In the heat transfer experiment,the axial fan pumping gas press is only 120 Pa;volumetric heatwhich especially suits the treatment of large gas flow and lower gas pressure drop.

  17. Elliptic Grid Generation of Spiral-Bevel Pinion Gear Typical of OH-58 Helicopter Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Upender K.; Huff, Edward M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the source term treatment in the numerical solution of elliptic partial differential equations for an interior grid generation problem in generalized curvilinear coordinates. The geometry considered is that of a planar cross-section of a generic spiral-bevel gear tooth typical of a pinion in the OH-58 helicopter transmission. The source terms used are appropriate for an interior grid domain where all the boundaries are prescribed via a combination of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. New constraints based on the Green's Theorem are derived which uniquely determine the coefficients in the source terms. These constraints are designed for boundary clustered grids where gradients in physical quantities need to be resolved adequately. However, it is seen that the present formulation works satisfactorily for mild clustering also. Thus, a fully automated elliptic grid generation technique is made possible where there is no need for a parametric study of these parameters since the new relations fix these free parameters uniquely.

  18. Simulation of maximum light use efficiency for some typical vegetation types in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Maximum light use efficiency (εmax) is a key parameter for the estimation of net primary productivity (NPP) derived from remote sensing data. There are still many divergences about its value for each vegetation type. The εmax for some typical vegetation types in China is simulated using a modified least squares function based on NOAA/AVHRR remote sensing data and field-observed NPP data. The vegetation classification accuracy is introduced to the process. The sensitivity analysis of εmax to vegetation classification accuracy is also conducted. The results show that the simulated values of εmax are greater than the value used in CASA model, and less than the values simulated with BIOME-BGC model. This is consistent with some other studies. The relative error of εmax resulting from classification accuracy is -5.5%―8.0%. This indicates that the simulated values of εmax are reliable and stable.

  19. DISTRIBUTION OF MERCURY IN TYPICAL WETLAND PLANTS IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ru-hai; WANG Qi-chao; WANG Yan; ZHANG Lei; SHAO Zhi-guo

    2003-01-01

    Total mercury concentration of typical wetland plants was analyzed in this paper. There were great differences of total mercury concentration among different plants: moss>hydrophyte>sedge>herbage>shrub. Total mercury concentrations show an increasing trend from vascular plants to bryophytes, and from dry to wet lands. The mercury concentration of wetland plants was higher than that of crops. The wetland soil was the source of mercury in the air close to the ground, so it affected the concentration of mercury in the plant. In different parts of a plant, mer-cury concentration was in the order of: dead stand>root>leaf>stem. Mercury concentration increased at the initial stage and decreased in the end of the growing season. According to the mercury content and biomass, mercury stock of plants was 39.4μg/m2 above ground in Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland and 35.8μg/m2 in Carex lasiocarpa wet-land.

  20. Spatio-temporal parameters and lower-limb kinematics of turning gait in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Philippe C; Stebbins, Julie; Theologis, Tim; Zavatsky, Amy B

    2013-09-01

    Turning is a requirement for most locomotor tasks; however, knowledge of the biomechanical requirements of successful turning is limited. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the spatio-temporal and lower-limb kinematics of 90° turning. Seventeen typically developing children, fitted with full body and multi-segment foot marker sets, having performed both step (outside leg) and spin (inside leg) turning strategies at self-selected velocity, were included in the study. Three turning phases were identified: approach, turn, and depart. Stride velocity and stride length were reduced for both turning strategies for all turning phases (pphases (pgait. Many spatio-temporal differences between turn conditions and phases were also found (pgait disorders in pathological populations, such as children with cerebral palsy.

  1. Typicality in Ensembles of Quantum States: Monte Carlo Sampling vs Analytical Approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Fresch, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Random Quantum States are presently of interest in the fields of quantum information theory and quantum chaos. Moreover, a detailed study of their properties can shed light on some foundational issues of the quantum statistical mechanics such as the emergence of well defined thermal properties from the pure quantum mechanical description of large many body systems. When dealing with an ensemble of pure quantum states, two questions naturally arise: what is the probability density function on the parameters which specify the state of the system in a given ensemble? And, does there exist a most typical value of a function of interest in the considered ensemble? Here two different ensembles are considered: the Random Pure State Ensemble (RPSE) and the Fixed Expectation Energy Ensemble (FEEE). By means of a suitable parameterization of the wave function in terms of populations and phases, we focus on the probability distribution of the populations in such ensembles. A comparison is made between the distribution i...

  2. Measurement and analysis of typical motion error traces from a circular test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The circular test provides a rapid and efficient way of measuring the contouring accuracy of a machine tool.To get the actual point coordinate in the work plane,an improved measurement instrument - a new ball bar test system - is presented in this paper to identify both the radial error and the rotation angle error when the machine is manipulated to move in circular traces.Based on the measured circular error,a combination of Fourier components is chosen to represent the systematic form error that fluctuates in the radial direction.The typical motion errors represented by the corresponding Fourier components can thus be identified.The values for machine compensation can be calculated and adjusted until the desired results are achieved.

  3. [Differential geometry expression and analysis of regionalized variables of typical pollutants concentration in terrestrial environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Han-Feng; Guo, Shu-Hai; Wu, Bo; Wang, Yan-Hu

    2009-10-01

    Based on the basic concepts of differential geometry in analyzing environmental data and establishing related models, the methodology for differential geometry expression and analysis of pollutants concentration in terrestrial environment was presented. As a kind of regionalized variables, the spatial distribution pattern of the pollutants concentration was transformed into 3-dimension form, and fitted with conicoid. This approach made it possible to analyze the quantitative relationships between the regionalized variables and their spatial structural attributes. For illustration purpose, several sorts of typical space fabrics, such as convexity, concavity, ridge, ravine, saddle, and slope, were calculated and characterized. It was suggested that this approach was feasible for analyzing the regionalized variables of pollutants concentration in terrestrial environment.

  4. Typical performance of regular low-density parity-check codes over general symmetric channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki [Department of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Saad, David [Neural Computing Research Group, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2003-10-31

    Typical performance of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over a general binary-input output-symmetric memoryless channel is investigated using methods of statistical mechanics. Relationship between the free energy in statistical-mechanics approach and the mutual information used in the information-theory literature is established within a general framework; Gallager and MacKay-Neal codes are studied as specific examples of LDPC codes. It is shown that basic properties of these codes known for particular channels, including their potential to saturate Shannon's bound, hold for general symmetric channels. The binary-input additive-white-Gaussian-noise channel and the binary-input Laplace channel are considered as specific channel models.

  5. Effect of tea on iron absorption from the typical Tunisian meal 'couscous' fed to healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdaoui, M; Hedhili, A; Doghri, T; Tritar, B

    1994-01-01

    Black and green tea decoctions are popular beverages in Tunisia, especially after eating. Our study was performed to examine the effect of graded amounts of black and green tea decoction prepared under realistic Tunisian conditions on nonheme iron absorption from a typical Tunisian meal, 'couscous', by extrinsic radioiron labeling in rats. Concentrations of 300, 200 and 100 micrograms/ml of black tea decreased dramatically nonheme iron bioavailability from couscous, but 50 micrograms/ml did not influence iron absorption. The inhibition of nonheme iron from couscous varied from 36 to 61% with black tea and 30.5% with green tea. Taken together, our findings show that the tea decoction in Tunisia has a great inhibitory power and may constitute an important factor for the development of iron deficiency anemia throughout Tunisia.

  6. Defining the typical aroma of sherry vinegar: sensory and chemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, Raquel M; Morales, M Lourdes; Ferreira, Antonio C Silva; Troncoso, Ana M

    2008-09-10

    The aroma of the three different classes of Sherry vinegar was evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC-O). GC-O was employed to identify substances responsible for aromatic notes associated with the selected descriptors of the typical aroma of Sherry vinegar and odor activity values (OAV) calculated to measure the single impact effect of different compounds selected by GC-O. Diacetyl, isoamyl acetate, ethyl isobutyrate, isovaleric acid, sotolon, and ethyl acetate reached high OAVs, turning out to be characteristic odor active compounds in Sherry vinegars. A total of 58 compounds were quantified, among them, 7 had not been previously reported in Sherry wine vinegars: ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, ethyl heptanoate, ethyl furoate, and ethyl benzoate, acetophenone, nonanoic acid, and sotolon. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) reveals that using aroma compounds as variables, we can classify Sherry vinegars with 100% correct scores as different from red wine vinegars.

  7. Statistical Study of Trace Elemental Concentrations in Major Types of Organisms from Typical Chinese Coastal Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭卫东; 胡明辉; 石谦; 杨逸萍

    2004-01-01

    Frequency distribution characteristics of trace elements Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu. Sr and Ba are studied for the marine organisms collected from typical Chinese coastal waters and compared with those of major elements Ca and Mg. Nearly all the distributions for trace elements in macroalgae, benthic molluscs, crustaceans, cephalopods and different tissues of fish ( muscle, liver and bone ) are found to show some degree of positive skewness, indicating a relatively large number of marine organisms with low concentrations for a particular element and only a few organisms with disproportionately high concentrations. Their distribution types are generally logarithmic normal distribution or nearly logarithmic normal distribution. Distribution of Ca is similar to that of trace elements, while Mg shows normal distribution. Average elemental concentrations of major types of organisms are calculated based on their frequency distributions.

  8. Thermogravimetric characteristics of typical municipal solid waste fractions during co-pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Long, YanQiu; Meng, AiHong; Li, QingHai; Zhang, YanGuo

    2015-04-01

    The interactions of nine typical municipal solid waste (MSW) fractions during pyrolysis were investigated using the thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). To compare the mixture results with the calculation results of superposition of single fractions quantitatively, TG overlap ratio was introduced. There were strong interactions between orange peel and rice (overlap ratio 0.9736), and rice and poplar wood (overlap ratio 0.9774). The interactions of mixture experiments postponed the peak and lowered the peak value. Intense interactions between PVC and rice, poplar wood, tissue paper, wool, terylene, and rubber powder during co-pyrolysis were observed, and the pyrolysis at low temperature was usually promoted. The residue yield was increased when PVC was blended with rice, poplar wood, tissue paper, or rubber powder; while the residue yield was decreased when PVC was blended with wool.

  9. RUNOFF GENERATION CHARACTERISTICS IN TYPICAL EROSION REGIONS ON THE LOESS PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li CHEN; Qingquan LIU; Jiachun LI

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a process-based model for runoff generation on slopes. One dimensional kinematic wave theory combined with the revised Green-Ampt infiltration formula is applied in the model. According to the characteristics of soil and rainfall in the Loess Plateau area, six types of storm are defined, and among them three typical erosion zones that have different values of representative parameters are chosen to simulate the runoff generation processes. The primary hydraulic characteristics of the runoff generation, such as unit discharge, runoff depth, flow velocity, shear stress and ratio of runoff generation, are obtained and analyzed. The results demonstrate that the different erosion characteristics are related to different runoff generation zones.

  10. [Anesthesia for geriatric patients. Part 1: age, organ function and typical diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herminghaus, A; Löser, S; Wilhelm, W

    2012-02-01

    Due to demographic changes in the population of industrial nations the number of elderly patients undergoing elective or emergency procedures will rise significantly in the coming years. Anesthesia for geriatric patients is challenging for the anesthesiologist in many ways: with increasing age numerous physiological changes occur which all lead to a subsequent reduction of physical performance and compensatory capacity of the organism, in many cases additionally aggravated by chronic illness. Subsequently, these age-dependent changes (with or without chronic illness) increase the risk for admission to intensive care units, perioperative death, treatment costs and a prolonged length of hospital stay. Therefore, subtle preoperative assessment and tailored anesthetic management are essential in elderly patients. Part 1 of this continuous education article covers the influence of age on organ functions and describes typical comorbidities which are of high relevance for the perioperative care of geriatric patients. The special features of anesthetic agents and anesthesia management in the elderly will be presented in part 2.

  11. [Effects of fuel properties on the performance of a typical Euro IV diesel engine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-miao; Wang, Jian-xin; Shuai, Shi-jin

    2008-09-01

    With the purpose of establishing diesel fuel standard for China National 4th Emission Standard, as one part of Beijing "Auto-Oil" programme, engine performance test has been done on a typical Euro IV diesel engine using eight diesel fuels with different fuel properties. Test results show that, fuel properties has little effect on power, fuel consumption, and in-cylinder combustion process of tested Euro IV diesel engine; sulfate in PM and gaseous SO2 emissions increase linearly with diesel sulfur content increase; cetane number increase cause BSFC and PM reduce and NOx increase; T90 decrease cause NOx reduce while PM shows trend of reduce. Prediction equations of tested Euro IV diesel engine's ESC cycle NOx and PM emissions before SCR response to diesel fuel sulfur content, cetane number, T90 and aromatics have been obtained using linear regression method on the base of test results.

  12. A case study and mechanism investigation of typical mortars used on ancient architecture in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Yuyao [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhang Bingjian [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)], E-mail: zbj@mail.hz.zj.cn; Liang Xiaolin [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2008-07-10

    Mortars sampled from Dutifulness Monument, where typical ancient China mortar formulas and manufacturing processes were used, were analyzed by starch-iodine test, FTIR, DSC-TG, SEM and XRD methods. Several modeling samples were then made according to historical records of Chinese ancient mortar formulas and analyzed with the same techniques. The modeling formulas also were used to consolidate loose specimens. The results show that sticky rice plays a crucial role in the microstructure and the consolidation properties of lime mortars. A possible mechanism was suggested that biomineralization may occur during the carbonation of calcium hydroxide, where the sticky rice functions as a template and controls the growth of calcium carbonate crystal. The organic-inorganic materials formed based on this mechanism will be more favorable for consolidating the loose samples both in strength improvement and durability.

  13. A Case Study of a Typical Dust Storm Event over the Loess Plateau of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Xiao-Lu; GUO Wei-Dong; ZHAO Qian-Fei; ZHANG Bei-Dou

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced observational meteorological elements, energy fluxes, and the concentration of dust aerosols collected from the Semi-Arid Climate Observatory and Laboratory (SACOL) during a typical dust storm period in March 2010 at Lanzhou were used in this paper to investigate the impact of dust aerosols on near surface atmospheric variables and energy budgets. The results show that the entire dust storm event was associated with high wind velocities and decreasing air pressure, and the air changed from cold and wet to warm and dry and then recovered to its initial state. The response of energy fluxes occurred behind meteorological elements. At high dust concentration periods, the net radiation was significantly less in the daytime and higher at night, while the heat fluxes displayed the same trend, indicating the weakening of the land-atmosphere energy exchange. The results can be used to provide verification for numerical model results in semi-arid areas.

  14. Self-locomotion and spatial language and spatial cognition: insights from typical and atypical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Rivière, James

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have shown that occurrence of locomotion in infancy is correlated with the development of spatial cognitive competencies. Recent evidence suggests that locomotor experience might also be important for the development of spatial language. Together these findings suggest that locomotor experience might play a crucial role in the development of linguistic-cognitive spatial skills. However, some studies indicate that, despite their total deprivation of locomotor experience, young children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have the capacity to acquire and use rich spatial representations including good spatial language. Nonetheless, we have to be cautious about what the striking performances displayed by SMA children can reveal on the link between motor and spatial development, as the dynamics of brain development in atypically developing children are different from typically developing children.

  15. Quenchant Characterization System Based on Application of Thermal Probes of Typical Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-ting; ZHANG Li-wen; PEI Ji-bin; WANG Fu-gang; YU Cheng-xin

    2004-01-01

    A system was developed to identify characteristics of quenchants. It consists of computerized hardware,temperature acquisition software as well as changeable probes of steels. The feature of the ability to use probes made of any metallic material enables evaluation of hardening power of quenchants. Three thermal couples located on the same cross-section plane in the middle of probe's length give cooling curves that present cooling behavior at different depths from the surface of probe. Microstructure and hardness of the quenched probes on the same plane in the middle of probe's length from surface to center was investigated to estimate hardening effect. A number of quenchants were tested by this characterization system with several thermal probes of typical steels. Experimental data were stored in QuenDB quenchant database, which was designed for quenchants identification and hardness distribution storage.

  16. Greenhouse Gas Inventory of a Typical High-End Industrial Park in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change caused by greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, which severely limits the development of human society and threatens the survival of humanity, has drawn the international community's long-term attention. Gathering the most important production factors in the region, an industrial park usually represents the development level of specific industries in the region. Therefore, the industrial park should be regarded as the base unit for developing a low-carbon economy and reducing GHG emissions. Focusing on a typical high-end industrial park in Beijing, we analyze the carbon sources within the system boundary and probe into the emission structure in view of life-cycle analysis. A GHG inventory is thereby set up to calculate all GHG emissions from the concerned park. Based on the results, suggestions are presented to guide the low-carbon development of the high-end industrial park.

  17. The role of morphological awareness in reading comprehension among typical and learning disabled native Arabic speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Abdessatar; Elbeheri, Gad; Al-Rashidi, Mousa; Everatt, John

    2010-01-01

    This work examines the role of morphological awareness in contrast to phonological processing in reading comprehension amongst two groups of native Arabic children: a group with learning disabilities (LD) and a mainstream group who were matched to the LD group in age or reading level. Measures of reading comprehension fluency, phonological skills, and morphological ability were given to both groups in addition to tests of nonverbal ability. For the mainstream children, unique variability in comprehension was predicted by the morphological measures over that of the measures of phonological skills and general nonverbal ability. In contrast, for the LD data, variability in comprehension was not predicted by morphological ability even though the children with LD performed the morphology task as well as their typically developing peers did. These findings are discussed in terms of theories of reading acquisition across languages as well as recommendations for literacy teaching and LD intervention in Arabic.

  18. Predictors of token-to-token inconsistency in preschool children with typical speech-language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, Toby; Sosa, Anna V

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine potential concurrent predictors and replicate rates of token-to-token inconsistency (inconsistency in repeated productions of the same word) in 43 children with typical speech-language development, ages 2;6 to 4;2. A standard linear regression was used to determine which variables, if any, among age, expressive and receptive vocabulary, and speech sound production abilities predicted token-to-token inconsistency. Inconsistency rates in children from one research site, reported elsewhere, were compared to rates in children from a second research site. The results revealed that expressive vocabulary was the only significant predictor of token-to-token inconsistency in these children. Furthermore, inconsistency rates were similarly high across the two research sites. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for our theoretical understanding of token-to-token inconsistency and its role in the differential diagnosis of speech sound disorders in children.

  19. Non-Smooth Morphologies of Typical Plant Leaf Surfaces and Their Anti-Adhesion Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-quan Ren; Shu-jie Wang; Xi-mei Tian; Zhi-wu Han; Lin-na Yan; Zhao-mei Qiu

    2007-01-01

    The micromorphologies of surfaces of several typical plant leaves were investigated by scanning electron microscopy(SEM).Different non-smooth surface characteristics were described and classified.The hydrophobicity and anti-adhesion of non-smooth leaf surfaces were quantitatively measured.Results show that the morphology of epidermal cells and the morphology and distribution density of epicuticular wax directly affect the hydrophobicity and anti-adhesion.The surface with uniformly distributed convex units shows the best anti-adhesion,and the surface with regularly arranged trellis units displays better anti-adhesion.In contrast,the surface with randomly distributed hair units performs relatively bad anti-adhesion.The hydrophobic models of papilla-ciliary and fold-setal non-smooth surfaces were set up to determine the impacts of geometric parameters on the hydrophobicity.This study may provide an insight into surface machine molding and apparent morphology design for biomimetics engineering.

  20. Superior room-temperature ductility of typically brittle quasicrystals at small sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu; Kuczera, Pawel; Sologubenko, Alla; Sumigawa, Takashi; Kitamura, Takayuki; Steurer, Walter; Spolenak, Ralph

    2016-08-01

    The discovery of quasicrystals three decades ago unveiled a class of matter that exhibits long-range order but lacks translational periodicity. Owing to their unique structures, quasicrystals possess many unusual properties. However, a well-known bottleneck that impedes their widespread application is their intrinsic brittleness: plastic deformation has been found to only be possible at high temperatures or under hydrostatic pressures, and their deformation mechanism at low temperatures is still unclear. Here, we report that typically brittle quasicrystals can exhibit remarkable ductility of over 50% strains and high strengths of ~4.5 GPa at room temperature and sub-micrometer scales. In contrast to the generally accepted dominant deformation mechanism in quasicrystals--dislocation climb, our observation suggests that dislocation glide may govern plasticity under high-stress and low-temperature conditions. The ability to plastically deform quasicrystals at room temperature should lead to an improved understanding of their deformation mechanism and application in small-scale devices.

  1. Television, video game and social media use among children with ASD and typically developing siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O; Wenstrup, Colleen

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the nature of television, video game, and social media use in children (ages 8-18) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, n = 202) compared to typically developing siblings (TD, n = 179), and relative to other activities. Parents completed measures assessing children's screen-based and other extracurricular activities. Children with ASD spent approximately 62% more time watching television and playing video games than in all non-screen activities combined. Compared with TD siblings, children with ASD spent more hours per day playing video games (2.4 vs. 1.6 for boys, and 1.8 vs. 0.8 for girls), and had higher levels of problematic video game use. In contrast, children with ASD spent little time using social media or socially interactive video games.

  2. Effect of climatic change on surface environments in the typical region of Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The town of Agura,a typical region in Horqin Sandy Land,was selected as the study area in this paper.Using 12 remote sensing images and climatic data from the past 20 years,the effects of climate change on surface environments were analyzed.The impact indices of climatic factors,along with their corresponding ranks,were used to characterize the responses of different types of surface environments to climate change.Results show that in the past 20 years,the surface environments of the study area have been deteriorating.Furthermore,there is a positive relationship between the changes in surface environments and those in climatic factors.Various climatic factors influence surface environments in different ways and at different levels.The most sensitive factor is relative humidity,followed by precipitation and evaporation.Overall,moisture is the key factor that affects the changes in surface environments of arid and semi-arid areas.

  3. Lightening the load: perceptual load impairs visual detection in typical adults but not in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Anna M; Swettenham, John G; Lavie, Nilli

    2012-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research portrays a mixed picture of attentional abilities with demonstrations of enhancements (e.g., superior visual search) and deficits (e.g., higher distractibility). Here we test a potential resolution derived from the Load Theory of Attention (e.g., Lavie, 2005). In Load Theory, distractor processing depends on the perceptual load of the task and as such can only be eliminated under high load that engages full capacity. We hypothesize that ASD involves enhanced perceptual capacity, leading to the superior performance and increased distractor processing previously reported. Using a signal-detection paradigm, we test this directly and demonstrate that, under higher levels of load, perceptual sensitivity was reduced in typical adults but not in adults with ASD. These findings confirm our hypothesis and offer a promising solution to the previous discrepancies by suggesting that increased distractor processing in ASD results not from a filtering deficit but from enhanced perceptual capacity.

  4. Atmospheric emissions of typical toxic heavy metals from open burning of municipal solid waste in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Cheng, Ke; Wu, Weidong; Tian, Hezhong; Yi, Peng; Zhi, Guorui; Fan, Jing; Liu, Shuhan

    2017-03-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) contains considerable hazardous components and the widely-distributed open MSW burning in heavily-populated urban areas can cause direct exposure of hazardous materials to citizens. By determining the best available representation of composition-varying and time-varying emission factors with fuzzy mathematics method and S-shape curves, a comprehensive atmospheric emission inventories of 9 typical toxic heavy metals (THMs, e.g. mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni)) from open MSW burning activities in China is established during the period of 2000-2013 for the first time. Further, the emissions in 2013 are allocated at a high spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° grid by surrogate indexes. The results show that 9 typical THMs emissions from open MSW burning are estimated at 21.25 t for Hg, 131.52 t for As, 97.12 t for Pb, 10.12 t for Cd, 50.58 t for Cr, 81.95 t for Se, 382.42 t for Cu, 1790.70 t for Zn, and 43.50 t for Ni, respectively. In terms of spatial variation, the majority of emissions are concentrated in relatively developed and densely-populated regions, especially for the eastern, central and southern regions. Moreover, future emissions are also projected for the period of 2015-2030 based on different scenarios of the independent and collaborative effects of control proposals including minimizing waste, improving MSW incineration ratio, and enhancing waste sorting and recycling, etc. The collaborative effect of the above proposals is expected to bring the most effective reduction to THMs emissions from open MSW burning in China except for Hg. The results will be supplementary to all anthropogenic emissions and useful for relevant policy-making and the improvement of urban air quality as well as human health.

  5. Motor skills in Brazilian children with developmental coordination disorder versus children with motor typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Ana Amélia; Magalhães, Livia Castro; Rezende, Marcia Bastos

    2014-12-01

    The aims of the study were to compare the performance of children with probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and motor typically developing peers on items from the Assessment of Motor Coordination and Dexterity (AMCD), to determine whether age, gender and type of school had significant impact on the scores of the AMCD items, to estimate the frequency of DCD among Brazilian children ages 7 and 8 years and to investigate whether children with DCD exhibit more symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder than children with motor typical development. A total of 793 children were screened by the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire - Brazilian version (DCDQ-Brazil); 90 were identified as at risk for DCD; 91 matched controls were selected from the remaining participants. Children in both groups were evaluated with the AMCD, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-II) and Raven's coloured progressive matrices. Thirty-four children were classified as probable DCD, as defined by a combination of the DCDQ-Brazil and MABC-II scores (fifth percentile). The final frequency of DCD among children ages 7 and 8 years was 4.3%. There were significant differences between children with and without DCD on the majority of AMCD items, indicating its potential for identifying DCD in Brazilian children. The use of a motor test (MABC-II) that is not validated for the Brazilian children is a limitation of the present study. Further studies should investigate whether the AMCD is useful for identifying DCD in other age groups and in children from different regions of Brazil. The application of the AMCD may potentially contribute in improving occupational therapy practice in Brazil and in identifying children that could benefit from occupational therapy services.

  6. Functioning of peripheral Ia pathways in infants with typical development: responses in antagonist muscle pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Caroline; Ulrich, Beverly D; Martin, Bernard

    2011-02-01

    In muscle responses of proprioceptive origin, including the stretch/tendon reflex (T-reflex), the corresponding reciprocal excitation and irradiation to distant muscles have been described from newborn infants to older adults. However, the functioning of other responses mediated primarily by Ia-afferents has not been investigated in infants. Understanding the typical development of these multiple pathways is critical to determining potential problems in their development in populations affected by neurological disease, such as spina bifida or cerebral palsy. Hence, the goal of the present study was to quantify the excitability of Ia-mediated responses in lower limb muscles of infants with typical development. These responses were elicited by mechanical stimulation applied to the distal tendons of the gastrocnemius-soleus (GS), tibialis anterior (TA) and quadriceps (QAD) muscles of both legs in twelve 2- to 10-month-old infants and recorded simultaneously in antagonist muscle pairs by surface EMG. Tendon taps alone elicited responses in either, both or neither muscle. The homonymous response (T-reflex) was less frequent in the TA than the GS or QAD muscle. An 80 Hz vibration superimposed on tendon taps induced primarily an inhibition of monosynaptic responses; however, facilitation also occurred in either muscle of the recorded pair. These responses were not influenced significantly by age or gender. Vibration alone produced a tonic reflex response in the vibrated muscle (TVR) and/or the antagonist muscle (AVR). However, for the TA muscle the TVR was more frequently elicited in older than younger infants. High variability was common to all responses. Overall, the random distribution and inconsistency of muscle responses suggests that the gain of Ia-mediated feedback is unstable. We propose that during infancy the central nervous system needs to learn to set stable feedback gain, or destination of proprioceptive assistance, based on their use during functional

  7. Egocentric and allocentric navigation strategies in Williams syndrome and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Hannah J; Farran, Emily K; Tolmie, Andy

    2014-11-01

    Recent findings suggest that difficulties on small-scale visuospatial tasks documented in Williams syndrome (WS) also extend to large-scale space. In particular, individuals with WS often present with difficulties in allocentric spatial coding (encoding relationships between items within an environment or array). This study examined the effect of atypical spatial processing in WS on large-scale navigational strategies, using a novel 3D virtual environment. During navigation of recently learnt large-scale space, typically developing (TD) children predominantly rely on the use of a sequential egocentric strategy (recalling the sequence of left-right body turns throughout a route), but become more able to use an allocentric strategy between 5 and 10 years of age. The navigation strategies spontaneously employed by TD children between 5 and 10 years of age and individuals with WS were analysed. The ability to use an allocentric strategy on trials where spatial relational knowledge was required to find the shortest route was also examined. Results showed that, unlike TD children, during spontaneous navigation the WS group did not predominantly employ a sequential egocentric strategy. Instead, individuals with WS followed the path until the correct environmental landmarks were found, suggesting the use of a time-consuming and inefficient view-matching strategy for wayfinding. Individuals with WS also presented with deficits in allocentric spatial coding, demonstrated by difficulties in determining short-cuts when required and difficulties developing a mental representation of the environment layout. This was found even following extensive experience in an environment, suggesting that - unlike in typical development - experience cannot contribute to the development of spatial relational processing in WS. This atypical presentation of both egocentric and allocentric spatial encoding is discussed in relation to specific difficulties on small-scale spatial tasks and known

  8. Modeling a typical winter-time dust event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, S.

    2013-02-20

    We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ?2.4 Tg day-1 and ?1.5 Tg day-1, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground-and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3-4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W m-2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  9. Attenuation of MK-801-induced behavioral perseveration by typical and atypical antipsychotic pretreatment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuplin, Erin W; Stocco, Marlaina R; Holahan, Matthew R

    2015-08-01

    The noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [a,d] cyclohepten-5-10-imine maleate (MK-801) has been shown to increase the probability of operant responding during extinction and reduce infralimbic prefrontal cortical activation, possibly modeling the cognitive dysfunction symptomology, and underlying cause, in patients with schizophrenia. The present study sought to determine if typical and/or atypical antipsychotics would attenuate the MK-801-induced behavioral perseveration and whether this would be associated with concomitant changes in phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) labeling in the infralimbic cortex (IL). Male, Long Evans rats were pretreated with the typical antipsychotic, Flupenthixol (0, 0.125, 0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg) or the atypical antipsychotic, aripiprazole (0, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg), then given 0.1 mg/kg MK-801 followed by a 60-min appetitive operant extinction session. Flupenthixol produced a dose-dependent decrease in MK-801-induced bar pressing behavior and locomotor activity and a dose-dependent increase in IL pERK1/2 labeling. Aripiprazole produced a U-shaped dose-response curve on MK-801-induced bar pressing behavior, a dose-dependent decrease in locomotor activity but no changes in IL pERK1/2 labeling. The attenuation of the MK-801-induced behavioral (bar pressing, locomotion) profile by Flupenthixol indicates a clear dopaminergic contribution to this behavior. The behavioral effect of aripiprazole may be due to its a) binding to presynaptic dopamine receptors at the midrange dose decreasing dopamine output and b) binding to postsynaptic dopamine receptors at the higher dose increasing dopamine tone. While both classes of antipsychotics can normalize perseverative behavioral symptoms, the underlying prefrontal cortical dysregulation seems to persist.

  10. Acquisition of contrastive voicing in typically developing American English-speaking children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Elaine Russo

    This study was an investigation of voicing acquisition in typically developing children. The research was motivated by the contradictory findings in the literature regarding the acquisition of contrastive voicing. In general, researchers have disagreed about the age at which children develop distinctive voicing categories. Some of the inconsistencies in the voicing literature may have been the result of differences in methodology and data analysis approaches. Therefore, in this study, an attempt was made to re-examine the acquisition of distinct voicing categories, the role of methodology, and the influence of type of data analysis used to determine results. The voicing acquisition of 10 typically developing English-speaking 2-year-old children was examined. The children were recorded every 2 weeks for from 4 to 6 months. Multiple repetitions were elicited for 4 target utterances containing initial /b p d t/. Frequency distributions as well as measures of central tendency and skewness were calculated for each recording session of each child. Additional criteria for assessment of contrastive voicing, including range size, accuracy of VOT productions, overshoot, and discreteness, were also calculated for summary data and full data sets. Overall, the children in this study displayed continuous progress toward the production of distinct voicing categories characterized by a sum reduction in range size, increased accuracy, decreased overshoot overall per target phoneme, and increased discreteness among the voicing categories. The findings of this study support the presence of an overshoot for /p/ and /t/, as previously suggested in the literature, as well as the presence of overshoot for /b/ and many inaccurate /d/ distributions, a characteristic not commonly noted in the existing literature. Furthermore, the differences in findings resulting from the use of mean VOT values or summary statistics in comparison with full data sets, reveals the need to use additional

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis in psoriasis patients: typical, delayed, and non-interacting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Quaranta

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is characterized by an apoptosis-resistant and metabolic active epidermis, while a hallmark for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD is T cell-induced keratinocyte apoptosis. Here, we induced ACD reactions in psoriasis patients sensitized to nickel (n = 14 to investigate underlying mechanisms of psoriasis and ACD simultaneously. All patients developed a clinically and histologically typical dermatitis upon nickel challenge even in close proximity to pre-existing psoriasis plaques. However, the ACD reaction was delayed as compared to non-psoriatic patients, with a maximum intensity after 7 days. Whole genome expression analysis revealed alterations in numerous pathways related to metabolism and proliferation in non-involved skin of psoriasis patients as compared to non-psoriatic individuals, indicating that even in clinically non-involved skin of psoriasis patients molecular events opposing contact dermatitis may occur. Immunohistochemical comparison of ACD reactions as well as in vitro secretion analysis of lesional T cells showed a higher Th17 and neutrophilic migration as well as epidermal proliferation in psoriasis, while ACD reactions were dominated by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and a Th2 signature. Based on these findings, we hypothesized an ACD reaction directly on top of a pre-existing psoriasis plaque might influence the clinical course of psoriasis. We observed a strong clinical inflammation with a mixed psoriasis and eczema phenotype in histology. Surprisingly, the initial psoriasis plaque was unaltered after self-limitation of the ACD reaction. We conclude that sensitized psoriasis patients develop a typical, but delayed ACD reaction which might be relevant for patch test evaluation in clinical practice. Psoriasis and ACD are driven by distinct and independent immune mechanisms.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis in psoriasis patients: typical, delayed, and non-interacting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Maria; Eyerich, Stefanie; Knapp, Bettina; Nasorri, Francesca; Scarponi, Claudia; Mattii, Martina; Garzorz, Natalie; Harlfinger, Anna T; Jaeger, Teresa; Grosber, Martine; Pennino, Davide; Mempel, Martin; Schnopp, Christina; Theis, Fabian J; Albanesi, Cristina; Cavani, Andrea; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B; Ring, Johannes; Eyerich, Kilian

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is characterized by an apoptosis-resistant and metabolic active epidermis, while a hallmark for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is T cell-induced keratinocyte apoptosis. Here, we induced ACD reactions in psoriasis patients sensitized to nickel (n = 14) to investigate underlying mechanisms of psoriasis and ACD simultaneously. All patients developed a clinically and histologically typical dermatitis upon nickel challenge even in close proximity to pre-existing psoriasis plaques. However, the ACD reaction was delayed as compared to non-psoriatic patients, with a maximum intensity after 7 days. Whole genome expression analysis revealed alterations in numerous pathways related to metabolism and proliferation in non-involved skin of psoriasis patients as compared to non-psoriatic individuals, indicating that even in clinically non-involved skin of psoriasis patients molecular events opposing contact dermatitis may occur. Immunohistochemical comparison of ACD reactions as well as in vitro secretion analysis of lesional T cells showed a higher Th17 and neutrophilic migration as well as epidermal proliferation in psoriasis, while ACD reactions were dominated by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and a Th2 signature. Based on these findings, we hypothesized an ACD reaction directly on top of a pre-existing psoriasis plaque might influence the clinical course of psoriasis. We observed a strong clinical inflammation with a mixed psoriasis and eczema phenotype in histology. Surprisingly, the initial psoriasis plaque was unaltered after self-limitation of the ACD reaction. We conclude that sensitized psoriasis patients develop a typical, but delayed ACD reaction which might be relevant for patch test evaluation in clinical practice. Psoriasis and ACD are driven by distinct and independent immune mechanisms.

  13. Process analysis of typical summertime ozone episodes over the Beijing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Yuanhang; Fu, Joshua S; Zheng, Shaoqing; Wang, Wei

    2008-07-25

    The 2008 Summer Olympic Games will be held in Beijing; however, summer is the season in which Beijing is marked by frequent high-O(3) episodes. Observation analysis reveals that the urban plume is transported by a southerly wind and undergoes chemical reaction during propagation, resulting in the common occurrence of high O(3) concentrations in the urban downwind area; this is the typical scenario of the formation of high summertime O(3) levels over the Beijing area. The typical high-O(3) episode is well reproduced by the 3-dimensional air-quality model CMAQ-MADRID (Community Multi-scale Air-Quality Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization, and Dissolution). Radical cycle analysis reveals that the Beijing urban area was in a VOC-limited regime for O(3) formation, while the urban downwind area changed gradually to a NO(x)-limited condition. The urban downwind area, Dingling, is readily affected by intrusion of the urban plume. Detailed process analysis indicated that although the O(3) peaks reached the same level on 26 and 27 June 2000, the dominant process contributing to the O(3) increase was different on each day. On 26 June, the major contributor to the O(3) peak at Dingling was the arrival of high O(3) levels with propagation of the urban plume; in contrast, on 27 June O(3) precursors were transported rapidly to the urban downwind area by strong transportation processes that occurred earlier than those on the previous day, resulting in O(3) production by local photochemistry becoming the major contributor to the high-O(3) episode.

  14. Identification of key odorants related to the typical aroma of oxidation-spoiled white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Ferreira, Antonio César; Hogg, Timothy; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2003-02-26

    The oxidative degradation of white wines rapidly leads to a loss of their sensorial qualities. The identification of the most important descriptors related with oxidation-spoiled wine was performed by a trained sensory panel. The terms selected were "honey-like", "farm-feed", "hay", and "woody-like". By gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis three aromatic zones related to these descriptors in the oxidation-spoiled white wines could be determined. Comparison of the aroma extract dilution analysis aromagrams of oxidation-spoiled white wines and a nonspoiled wine showed the highest values of dilution factors were attributed to 3-(methylthio)propionaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN), and 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon). A "forced aging" experiment was implemented to simulate the typical oxidation-spoiled aroma. Samples rated with the highest score in the ranking test were also those that presented the highest concentration of these four molecules. To test the sensory impact of these substances, a normal wine (unspoiled) was spiked with these molecules (with the exception of TDN) singly and in combination, and the similarity value (SV) between samples and the oxidation-spoiled white wines was then determined. The highest value from the similarity tests was 5.4 when the three compounds were added simultaneously; 3-(methylthio)propionaldehyde alone was found to be responsible for 3.6, suggesting that, among the molecules studied, it is the most important contributor to the typical aroma of an oxidation-spoiled white wine.

  15. Patterns of consonant deletion in typically developing children aged 3 to 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Deborah G H; van Doorn, Jan; McLeod, Sharynne; Esterman, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Children with and without speech, language and/or literacy impairment, delete consonants when they name pictures to elicit single words. Consonant deletion seems to be more frequent in long words (words of three or more syllables) than in short words (words of one or two syllables). However, it may be missed in long words because they are not routinely assessed and, even if they are, there is little normative data about them. The study aims were (1) to determine if a relationship exists between consonant deletion and the number of syllables in words, (2) delimit variation in the numbers of children using it, its frequency of occurrence and the words it affects and (3) to discuss the application of these data to clinical practice. The participants were 283 typically developing children, aged 3;0 to 7;11 years, speaking Australian English with proven normal language, cognition and hearing. They named pictures, yielding 166 selected words that were varied for syllable number, stress and shape and repeatedly sampled all consonants and vowels of Australian English. Almost all participants (95%) used consonant deletion. Whilst a relationship existed between consonant deletion frequency and the number of syllables in words, the syllable effect was interpreted as a proxy of an interaction of segmental and prosodic features that included two or more syllables, sonorant sounds, non-final weak syllables, within-word consonant sequences and/or anterior-posterior articulatory movements. Clinically, two or three deletions of consonants across the affected words may indicate typical behaviour for children up to the age of 7;11 years but variations outside these tolerances may mark impairment. These results are further evidence to include long words in routine speech assessment.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging DTI-FT study on schizophrenic patients with typical negative first symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chengyu; Zhang, Ying; Wei, Fuquan; Cheng, Yougen; Cao, Yulin; Hou, Hongtao

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) together with a white matter fiber tracking (FT) technique was used to assess different brain white matter structures and functionalities in schizophrenic patients with typical first negative symptoms. In total, 30 schizophrenic patients with typical first negative symptoms, comprising an observation group were paired 1:1 according to gender, age, right-handedness, and education, with 30 healthy individuals in a control group. Individuals in each group underwent routine MRI and DTI examination of the brain, and diffusion-tensor tractography (DTT) data were obtained through whole brain analysis based on voxel and tractography. The results were expressed by fractional anisotropy (FA) values. The schizophrenic patients were evaluated using a positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) as well as a Global Assessment Scale (GAS). The results of the study showed that routine MRIs identified no differences between the two groups. However, compared with the control group, the FA values obtained by DTT from the deep left prefrontal cortex, the right deep temporal lobe, the white matter of the inferior frontal gyrus and part of the corpus callosum were significantly lower in the observation group (Pnegative scale averaged 46.6±5.9, while the general psychopathology scale averaged 65.4±10.3, and GAS averaged 53.8±19.2. The Pearson statistical analysis, the left deep prefrontal cortex, the right deep temporal lobe, the white matter of the inferior frontal gyrus and the FA value of part of the corpus callosum in the observation group was negatively correlated with the negative scale (Pnegative symptoms and the application of MRI DTI-FT can improve diagnostic accuracy.

  17. [Analysis of XRD spectral characteristics of soil clay mineral in two typical cultivated soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Luo, Xiang-Li; Jiang, Hai-Chao; Li, Qiao; Shen, Cong-Ying; Liu, Hang; Zhou, Ya-Juan; Zhao, Lan-Po; Wang, Ji-Hong

    2014-07-01

    The present paper took black soil and chernozem, the typical cultivated soil in major grain producing area of Northeast, as the study object, and determinated the soil particle composition characteristics of two cultivated soils under the same climate and location. Then XRD was used to study the composition and difference of clay mineral in two kinds of soil and the evolutionary mechanism was explored. The results showed that the two kinds of soil particles were composed mainly of the sand, followed by clay and silt. When the particle accumulation rate reached 50%, the central particle size was in the 15-130 microm interval. Except for black soil profile of Shengli Xiang, the content of clay showed converse sequence to the central particle in two soils. Clay accumulated under upper layer (18.82%) in black soil profile while under caliche layer (17.41%) in chernozem profile. Clay content was the least in parent material horizon except in black profile of Quanyanling. Analysis of clay XRD atlas showed that the difference lied in not only the strength of diffraction peak, but also in the mineral composition. The main contents of black soil and chernozem were both 2 : 1 clay, the composition of black soil was smectite/illite mixed layer-illite-vermiculite and that of chernozem was S/I mixture-illite-montmorillonite, and both of them contained little kaolinite, chlorite, quartz and other primary mineral. This paper used XRD to determine the characteristics of clay minerals comprehensively, and analyzed two kinds of typical cultivated soil comparatively, and it was a new perspective of soil minerals study.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from rural household biomass burning in a typical Chinese village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NGUYEN; Thi; Kim; Oanh

    2008-01-01

    Biomass energy sources are still popular in the rural areas of developing countries for cooking and space heating. Since the incomplete combustion of agricultural residues in home-made ranges might lead to both outdoor and indoor air pollution and cause potential health threat to the rural population, we monitored the ambient levels of 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a typical rural site. Ambient particulate PAH samples (PM2.5 and PM10) were taken during both cooking and non-cooking periods. Source emission monitoring was also conducted for both improved and tra- ditional cooking stoves used in the area. Ambient PAHs had a significant increase during the cooking periods and varied from 72.1 to 554.4 ng/m3. The highest total PAH levels were found during the supper cooking time, in which five- and six-ring species accounted for a large proportion. The observed PAH levels during cooking periods at this rural site were even higher than those in urban areas. A good correlation was found between the benzo[a]pyrene level and the total PAH concentration (r=0.98), making benzo[a]pyrene a potential molecular marker for PAH pollution in the rural areas, where bio- mass burning is typical. The profiles of the particulate PAHs in both ambient air and source emissions showed a high proportion of high molecular-mass PAHs. In addition, emission factors of 16 PAHs from an improved household stove were found to be significantly lower than those from traditional stoves used in China and in other Asian countries.

  19. Modeling a typical winter-time dust event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalenderski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ~2.4 Tg day−1 and ~1.5 Tg day−1, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground- and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3–4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W m−2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  20. Soil fractal features of typical forest stands in Jinyun Mountain, Chongqing City, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Chen; WANG Yujie; WANG Yunqi; PAN Yujuan

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore the forest soil physical property in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas,the fractal theory was adopted to study the soil fractal features of the four typical forest stands(mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forests,evergreen broadleaved forests,Phyllostachyspubescens forests and evergreen broadleaved shrub forests)in Jinyun Mountain,Chongqing City,and they were compared with arable land.It has been proposed that the model can be used for the analysis of the relationship between the fractal dimensions and the properties of forest soil.The impacts of fractal dimensions on the soil properties were analyzed with the elasticity analysis and marginal yield analysis.Results showed that the fractal dimension of particle size distribution(PSD),the micro-aggregate size distribution(ASD)and the soil pore size distribution(SPD)can be used as the indices to evaluate the soil structure.In the typical stands of Jinyun Mountain,the fractal dimension of PSD is 2.7-2.9,the ASD is 2.5-2.8,and the SPD is 2.3-2.8.The soil structure of evergreen broadleaved shrub forests performed best in PSD,ASD and SPD,and the soil of P.pubescens forests is the worst.There were some relationships among the PSD,ASD,SPD and some soil properties in the different forests and farmland.The related coefficients are over 0.5.Based on the elasticity analysis and marginal yield analysis,the effect of PSD was more than those of ASD and SPD.Obviously,the further study on the fractal theory application in soil structure and soil properties has important significance.

  1. A Preliminary Report on the English Phonology of Typically Developing English-Mandarin Bilingual Preschool Singaporean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    En, Lydea Gn Wei; Brebner, Chris; McCormack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are no published data on typical phonological development for Singaporean children. There is therefore the risk that children's speech in Singapore may be misdiagnosed or that clinicians may set goals erroneously. Aims: This paper reports a preliminary study on the English phonology of typically developing 4;0-4;5-year-old…

  2. A Study of the Familial and Career Attitudes of College Women Enrolled in Typical and Atypical Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marian L.

    A study was conducted to determine if a disparity exists between the familial and occupational attitudes of women in typical and atypical careers. Questionnaire responses of 225 undergraduate women in three typical careers (home economics, nursing, and elementary education) and three atypical careers (engineering, pharmacy, and agriculture)…

  3. Mealtime Behaviors of Preschool Children: Comparison of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Children with Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Beth; Crowe, Terry K.; Osbourn, Patricia L.; McClain, Catherine; Skipper, Betty J.

    2010-01-01

    This study identified mealtime behaviors of young children (3-6 years old) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and compared these behaviors to children with typical development matched for age, gender, and ethnicity. The parents of children with ASD (n = 24) and children with typical development (n = 24) completed a mealtime survey to assess early…

  4. The Batavian Revolution: typical French, typical Dutch or typical Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jourdan, A.

    2007-01-01

    With the exception of Simon Schama's monograph on Dutch Patriots and French 'Liberators', the Batavian Revolution (1795-1806) has usually been interpreted as French-inspired and thus as 'alien' to the Netherlands. The original Dutch revolutionary achievements are underestimated as are those in the P

  5. Chronic lymphocytic-leukemia with pleomorphic lymphocytes (cll-pleo) - a comparative-study with typical cll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batata, A; Shen, B; Batata, S

    1994-05-01

    Cell suspensions from the peripheral brood of 21 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with pleomorphic lymphocytes (CLL-pleo) and 155 cases of typical CLL were analyzed to define the phenotype of the former and compare it with the phenotype of the latter. CLL-pleo was characterized by weak fluorescence intensity of surface immunoglobulin (mean channel number on flow cytometry <200), positive mouse rosettes and CD5, and negative CD22 and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase. Comparison of the positive rates of the markers and of the mean percentages of marker-expressing cells showed no statistical difference between CLL-pleo and typical CLL. CLL-pleo constitutes a morphological variant of typical CLL bearing the same membrane phenotype as typical CLL, although the mean absolute lymphocyte count in CLL-pleo was significantly higher than that of typical CLL.

  6. Typical and atypical symptoms of gastro esophageal reflux disease: Does Helicobacter pylori infection matter?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurino; Grossi; Antonio; Francesco; Ciccaglione; Leonardo; Marzio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyze whether the presence of Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) infection could affect the quality of symptoms in gastro-esophageal reflux disease(GERD) patients. METHODS: one hundred and forty-four consecutive patients referred to our Unit for suspected GERD were recruited for the study. All patients underwent esophageal p H-metric recording. For those with a positive test, C13 urea breath test was then performed to assess the H. pylori status. GERD patients were stratified according to the quality of their symptoms and classified as typical, if affected by heartburn and regurgitation, and atypical if complaining of chest pain, respiratory and ears, nose, and throat features. H. pylori-negative patients were also asked whether they had a previous diagnosis of H. pylori infection. If a positive response was given, on the basis of the time period after successful eradication, patients were considered as "eradicated"(E) if H. pylori eradication occurred more than six months earlier or "recently eradicated" if the therapy had been administered within the last six months. Patients without history of infection were identified as "negative"(N). χ2 test was performed by combining the clinical aspects with the H. pylori status.RESULTS: one hundred and twenty-nine of the 144 patients, including 44 H. pylori-positive and 85 H. pylori-negative(41 negative, 21 recently eradicated, 23 eradicated more than 6 mo before), were eligible for the analysis. No difference has been found between H. pylori status and either the number of reflux episodes(138 ± 23 vs 146 ± 36, respectively, P = 0.2, not significant) or the percentage of time with pH values < 4(6.8 ± 1.2 vs 7.4 ± 2.1, respectively, P = 0.3, not significant). The distribution of symptoms was as follows: 13 typical(30%) and 31 atypical(70%) among the 44 H. pylori-positive cases; 44 typical(52%) and 41 atypical(48%) among the 85 H. pylori-negative cases,(P = 0.017 vs H. pylori +; OR = 2.55, 95%CI: 1

  7. Development of proprioceptive acuity in typically developing children: normative data on forearm position sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Mae Holst-Wolf

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study mapped the development of proprioception in healthy, typically developing children by objectively measuring forearm position sense acuity. We assessed position sense acuity in a cross-sectional sample of 308 children (5-17 y/o; M/F = 127/181 and a reference group of 26 healthy adults (18-25 y/o; M/F = 12/14 using a body-scalable bimanual manipulandum that allowed forearm flexion/extension in the horizontal plane. The non-dominant forearm was passively displaced to one of three target positions. Then participants actively matched the target limb position with their dominant forearm. Each of three positions was matched five times. Position error (PE, calculated as the mean difference between the angular positions of the matching and reference arms, measured position sense bias or systematic error. The respective standard deviation (SDPdiff indicated position sense precision or random error. The main results are as follows: First, systematic error, measured as PE, did not change significantly from early childhood to late adolescence (Median PE at 90º target: -2.85º in early childhood; -2.28º in adolescence; 1.30º in adults. Second, response variability as measured by SDPdiff significantly decreased with age (Median SDPdiff at 90º target: 9.66º in early childhood; 5.30º in late adolescence; 3.97º in adults. The data of this large cross-sectional sample of children document that proprioceptive development in typically developing children is characterized as an age-related improvement in precision, not as a development or change in bias. In other words, it is the reliability of the perceptual response that improves between early childhood and adulthood. This study provides normative data against which position sense acuity in pediatric patient populations can be compared. The underlying neurophysiological processes that could explain the observed proprioceptive development include changes in the tuning of muscle spindles at the

  8. Comprehensive molecular etiology analysis of nonsyndromic hearing impairment from typical areas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Dongyang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every year, 30,000 babies are born with congenital hearing impairment in China. The molecular etiology of hearing impairment in the Chinese population has not been investigated thoroughly. To provide appropriate genetic testing and counseling to families, we performed a comprehensive investigation of the molecular etiology of nonsyndromic deafness in two typical areas from northern and southern China. Methods A total of 284 unrelated school children with hearing loss who attended special education schools in China were enrolled in this study, 134 from Chifeng City in Inner Mongolia and the remaining 150 from Nangtong City in JiangSu Province. Screening was performed for GJB2, GJB3, GJB6, SLC26A4, 12S rRNA, and tRNAser(UCN genes in this population. All patients with SLC26A4 mutations or variants were subjected to high-resolution temporal bone CT scan to verify the enlarged vestibular aqueduct. Results Mutations in the GJB2 gene accounted for 18.31% of the patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss, 1555A>G mutation in mitochondrial DNA accounted for 1.76%, and SLC26A4 mutations accounted for 13.73%. Almost 50% of the patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss in these typical Chinese areas carried GJB2 or SLC26A4 mutations. No significant differences in mutation spectrum or prevalence of GJB2 and SLC26A4 were found between the two areas. Conclusion In this Chinese population, 54.93% of cases with hearing loss were related to genetic factors. The GJB2 gene accounted for the etiology in about 18.31% of the patients with hearing loss, SLC26A4 accounted for about 13.73%, and mtDNA 1555A>G mutation accounted for 1.76%. Mutations in GJB3, GJB6, and mtDNA tRNAser(UCN were not common in this Chinese cohort. Conventionally, screening is performed for GJB2, SLC26A4, and mitochondrial 12S rRNA in the Chinese deaf population.

  9. Trade-offs among ecosystem services in a typical Karst watershed, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yichao; Wang, Shijie; Bai, Xiaoyong; Luo, Guangjie; Xu, Yan

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, most research results on ecosystem services in Karst areas are limited to a single function of an ecosystem service. Few scholars conduct a comparative study on the mutual relationships among ecosystem services, let alone reveal the trade-off and synergic relationships in typical Karst watershed. This research aims to understand and quantitatively evaluate the relationships among ecosystem services in a typical Karst watershed, broaden the depth and width of trade-off and synergic relationships in ecosystem services and explore a set of technical processes involved in these relationships. With the Shibantang Karst watershed in China as the research site, we explore the trade-off and synergic relationships of net primary productivity (NPP), water yield, and sediment yield by coupling Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA), and simulating and evaluating these three ecosystem services between 2000 and 2010. Results of this study are as follows. (1) The annual average water yield decreased from 528mm in 2000 to 513mm in 2010, decreasing by 2.84%. (2) The annual average sediment yield decreased from 26.15t/ha in 2000 to 23.81t/ha in 2010, with an average annual reduction of 0.23t/ha. (3) The annual average NPP increased from 739.38gCm(-2)a(-1) in 2000 to 746.25gCm(-2)a(-1) in 2010, increasing by 6.87gCm(-2)a(-1) . (4) Water yield and sediment yield are in a synergic relationship. The increase of water yield can accumulate the soil erosion amount. NPP is in a trade-off relationship with water yield and sediment yield. The improvement of NPP is good for decreasing water yield and soil erosion amount and increasing soil conservation amount. This study provides policy makers and planners an approach to develop an integrated model, as well as design mapping and monitoring protocols for land use change and ecosystem service assessments.

  10. N dynamics of Inner Mongolia typical steppe as affected by grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, M.; Gao, Y. Z.; Brueck, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2012-04-01

    For large areas of Inner Mongolian semi-arid grasslands, as for many regions of the Eurasian steppe belt, substantial land degradation was reported as a consequence of excessive overgrazing during the last decades. Nitrogen is considered as a key element for ecosystem functions and therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the system's N balance and cycle as affected by land-use change is of fundamental importance to maintain, improve or restore ecosystem services such as forage production, carbon sequestration and diversity conservation. In this comprehensive case study of a Chinese typical steppe, we present an in-depth analysis of N dynamics including the balance of N gains and losses, and N cycling. N pools and fluxes were simultaneously quantified on three grassland sites of contrasting grazing intensity. Our N balances indicated the ungrazed site as N sink with annual net N input of up to 3 g N m-2, mainly due to N input by dust deposition, whereas the heavily grazed site must be considered as N source with net losses of up to 1.7 g m-2. Mayor N losses occurred via dust emissions and excrement export from grazing sites, the latter as a consequence of the common practice of keeping sheep in paddocks overnight. Compared to these fluxes, gaseous N losses, export of animal products (live weight and wool) and biological N2 fixation were of minor relevance. Heavy grazing reduced pool sizes of both topsoil organic N, and above- and belowground biomass N. Furthermore, grazing reduced N fluxes with regard to N uptake, decomposition, gross microbial N turnover, and immobilization. Most N-related processes were more intensive in seasons of higher water availability indicating complex interactions between land-use intensity and climate variability. The projected increase of annual atmospheric N wet deposition and changes in rainfall pattern will likely affect the N sink-source pathways and N flux dynamics, indicating high potential impact of future N enrichment and climate

  11. Typical gait analysis of a six-legged robot in the context of metamorphic mechanism theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Ding, Xilun

    2013-07-01

    The equivalent mechanism of the system is often considered as one specific mechanism in most existing studies of multi-legged robots, however the equivalent mechanism is varying while the robot moves on the ground. Four typical tripod period gaits of a radial symmetrical six-legged robot are analyzed. Similar to the metamorphic mechanism, the locomotion of multi-legged robot is considered as a series of varying hybrid serial-parallel mechanisms by assuming the constraints of the feet on the ground with hinges. One gait cycle is divided into several periods, and in different walking period there is a specific equivalent mechanism corresponding to it, and the walking process of multi-legged robot is composed by these series of equivalent mechanisms. Walking performance can be got by analyzing these series of equivalent mechanisms. Kinematics model of the equivalent mechanism is established, workspaces of equivalent mechanisms are illustrated by simulation and a concept of static stability workspace is proposed to evaluate the static stability of these four gaits. A new method to calculate the stride length of multi-legged robots is presented by analyzing the relationship between the workspace of two adjacent equivalent parallel mechanisms in one gait cycle. The stride lengths of four gaits are given by simulations. Comparison of stride length and static stability among these four typical tripod gaits are given. It has been proved that mixed gait and insect-wave gait II have better static stability than mammal kick-off gait and insect-wave gait I. Insect-wave gait II displays its advantage on stride length while the height of robot body lower than 87 mm, mammal kick-off gait has superiority on stride length while the height of robot body higher than 115 mm, and insect-wave gait I shows its shortcoming in stride length. The proposed method based on metamorphic theory and combining the footholds and body height of robot provides a new method to comprehensive analyze the

  12. Metabolic disorders with typical alterations in MRI; Stoffwechselstoerungen mit typischen Veraenderungen im MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmuth-Metz, M. [Klinikum der Universitaet Wuerzburg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The classification of metabolic disorders according to the etiology is not practical for neuroradiological purposes because the underlying defect does not uniformly transform into morphological characteristics. Therefore typical MR and clinical features of some easily identifiable metabolic disorders are presented. Canavan disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, Alexander disease, X-chromosomal adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenomyeloneuropathy, mitochondrial disorders, such as MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) and Leigh syndrome as well as L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria are presented. (orig.) [German] Die Einteilung von Stoffwechselstoerungen nach ihrer Aetiologie ist fuer den diagnostischen Neuroradiologen nicht sinnvoll, da sich aus der zugrunde liegenden Stoerung keine Rueckschluesse auf die zu erwartende MR-Morphologie ziehen lassen. Deshalb sollen anhand typischer bildmorphologischer Veraenderungen in Zusammenschau mit den jeweiligen klinischen Charakteristika einige leicht einzuordnende Stoffwechselstoerungen dargestellt werden. Es handelt sich um den Morbus Canavan, Morbus Pelizaeus-Merzbacher, Morbus Alexander, die X-chromosomal vererbte Adrenoleukodystrophie und Adrenomyeloneuropathie, die mitochondrialen Stoerungen MELAS (mitochondriale Enzephalomyopathie, Laktazidose und Stroke-like-Episoden) und Leigh-Syndrom sowie die L-2-Hydroxyglutarazidurie. (orig.)

  13. Black Phosphorus Quantum Dots for Hole Extraction of Typical Planar Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Kaiwen; Wang, Yao; Feng, Xiyuan; Liao, Zhenwu; Su, Qicong; Lin, Xinnan; He, Zhubing

    2017-02-02

    Black phosphorus, famous as two-dimensional (2D) materials, shows such excellent properties for optoelectronic devices such as tunable direct band gap, extremely high hole mobility (300-1000 cm(2)/(V s)), and so forth. In this Letter, facile processed black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs) were successfully applied to enhance hole extraction at the anode side of the typical p-i-n planar hybrid perovskite solar cells, which remarkably improved the performance of devices with photon conversion efficiency ramping up from 14.10 to 16.69%. Moreover, more detailed investigations by c-AFM, SKPM, SEM, hole-only devices, and photon physics measurements discover further the hole extraction effect and work mechanism of the BPQDs, such as nucleation assistance for the growth of large grain size perovskite crystals, fast hole extraction, more efficient hole transfer, and suppression of energy-loss recombination at the anode interface. This work definitely paves the way for discovering more and more 2D materials with high electronic properties to be used in photovoltaics and optoelectronics.

  14. Acquisition of Motor and Cognitive Skills through Repetition in Typically Developing Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Magallón

    Full Text Available Procedural memory allows acquisition, consolidation and use of motor skills and cognitive routines. Automation of procedures is achieved through repeated practice. In children, improvement in procedural skills is a consequence of natural neurobiological development and experience.The aim of the present research was to make a preliminary evaluation and description of repetition-based improvement of procedures in typically developing children (TDC. Ninety TDC children aged 6-12 years were asked to perform two procedural learning tasks. In an assembly learning task, which requires predominantly motor skills, we measured the number of assembled pieces in 60 seconds. In a mirror drawing learning task, which requires more cognitive functions, we measured time spent and efficiency. Participants were tested four times for each task: three trials were consecutive and the fourth trial was performed after a 10-minute nonverbal interference task. The influence of repeated practice on performance was evaluated by means of the analysis of variance with repeated measures and the paired-sample test. Correlation coefficients and simple linear regression test were used to examine the relationship between age and performance.TDC achieved higher scores in both tasks through repetition. Older children fitted more pieces than younger ones in assembling learning and they were faster and more efficient at the mirror drawing learning task.These findings indicate that three consecutive trials at a procedural task increased speed and efficiency, and that age affected basal performance in motor-cognitive procedures.

  15. Quality and change analysis of forest resource in typical Changbai Mountain forest region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUDe-yong; HAOZhan-qing; XlONGZai-ping; WANGDian-zhong; YANGXiu-ying

    2004-01-01

    The utilization and changes of forest resources were studied in the Lishuihe Forest Bureau. Based on remote sensing images in 1985 and 1999, changes of major forest resources were analyzed by statistical and overlap method and classified quantitatively. The results showed that in recent 15 years, logging spots and man-made young forest changed violently, which was due to human activities. Different forest management manners and harvesting intensity played an important role in forest resources change. Dongsheng and Xilinhe tree farms were typical cases of different forest status and management for the Bureau, where forest succession was intervened by either human or natural disturbance. Dongsheng Tree Farm underwent a lighth arvest intensity and maintained a unit stock volume of 536.27 m3. hm-2, as much as that of broadleaf/Korean pine forest of Changbai Mountain Natural Reserve; Xilinhe Tree Farm underwent an intense harvest and was composed of secondary forests,where mature forests just had a small percentage and the unit stock volume was low. The study was useful to guide future forest management. What's more, problems found in the research were also analyzed and reasonable advice was given to the local forest management.

  16. Simulation of sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers: Some typical responses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amlan Das; Bithin Datta

    2001-08-01

    Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is generally three dimensional (3-D) in nature. In the literature, there is a general lack of reported results on 3-D simulations. This paper presents some typical example simulations of 3-D seawater intrusion process for a specified hypothetical study area. The simulation results presented in this paper are based on the density-dependent miscible flow and transport modelling approach for simulation of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers. A nonlinear optimization-based simulation methodology was used in this study. Various steady state simulations are performed for a specified study area. Response evaluations consider the effects of vertical recharge on seawater intrusion, effects of boundary conditions, and effects of spatially varying pumping from the aquifer. The 3-D simulations demonstrate the viability of using a planned strategy of spatially varying withdrawals from the aquifer to manage seawater intrusion. It is demonstrated that series of pumps near the ocean-face boundary induce a hydraulic head distribution that can be effectively used for controlling seawater intrusion.

  17. Rheological characterization and sensory evaluation of a typical soft ice cream made with selected food hydrocolloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BahramParvar, M; Razavi, S M A; Khodaparast, M H H

    2010-02-01

    The effect of two novel hydrocolloids known as Balangu seed gum (BSG) and palmate-tuber salep (PTS) with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the rheological characteristics of a typical soft ice cream was studied. The power law model well described the flow behavior of mixes with a high correlation coefficient (r). The flow behavior index was in the range of 0.450-1.154, while the consistency coefficient varied from 0.051 to 6.822 Pa s(n). All mixes showed a pseudoplastic behavior except the mix containing 0.3% PTS, which was found to have a slightly dilatant characteristic. An increase in the concentration was accompanied by an increase in the pseudoplasticity and consistency coefficient. The effect of selected gums on some sensory properties of a soft ice cream such as viscosity, coldness, firmness, degree of smoothness (coarseness), liquefying rate, body and texture and total acceptance has also been investigated in this work. The correlation between the apparent viscosity and sensory attributes has been determined because of the importance of viscosity in the quality evaluation of an ice cream. Taking into account the commercial ice cream properties, a 0.4% BSG gum concentration may be recommended.

  18. Postural analysis of workers in a typical meat processing company in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Wemerton Luis; de Fátima Tinoco, Ilda; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José; da Costa Baeta, Fernando; da Silva, Emilia Pio; de Oliveira, Luciana Aparecida

    2012-01-01

    Companies have increasingly sought strategies that will ensure a more competitive position in the marketplace. Among these strategies adopted by companies include the health and welfare of the worker, factors currently valued by consumers, especially those of most demanding market. Thus, the postural analysis is of great importance and interest because it is the study of positioning related to body parts like head, torso and limbs, capable of producing loads that may be excessive or insufficient causing disturbances in the muscle skeletal system worker. The aim of this study was to perform a postural analysis of the main sectors of workers (slaughter, cutting room, special cuts, packaging and dispatch) of a typical refrigerator pig industry in Brazil during the execution of their daily activities as well as developing proposals to minimize and/or eliminate the diseases and accidents. The study followed the safety norms of Brazilian Ministry of Labor and Employment. The posture analysis used the OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analyzing System) methodology. The postures assumed by workers in the sector of packaging were as the most in need of emergency and quick action.

  19. Experimental study on co-pyrolysis characteristics of typical medical waste compositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓娜; 崔文谦; 王维维; 张强; 张于峰; 马洪亭

    2014-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of 21 kinds of binary mixtures between typical medical compositions was investigated under nitrogen conditions by dynamic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at 25–800 °C. The weighed sum method (WSM) coupled with thermal analysis was applied to study the interaction between components. Then, co-pyrolysis kinetic model of the binary mixtures (tube for transfusion (TFT) and gauze) was established to verify the reliability of conclusions. The results show the follows. 1) Strong or weak interactions are shown between binary mixtures containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC),the main ingredient of TFT. The addition of other medical waste could enhance first stage decomposition of TFT. While, the secondary stage pyrolysis may be suppressed or enhanced or not affected by the addition. 2) There exists no interaction between catheter and other component, the DTG peak temperature representing CaCO3 decomposition in catheter fraction is obviously lower than that of pure catheter;while, the shape of DTG peak keeps unchanged. 3) No evident reaction occurs between the other mix-samples, it is considered that their co-pyrolysis characteristics are linear superposition of mono-component pyrolysis characteristics.

  20. Impact of Climate and Grazing on Biomass Components of Eastern Russia Typical Steppe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ubugunov Leonid; Rupyshev Yuriy; Ubugunov Vasiliy; HOU Xiang-yang; Vishnyakova Oxana; Lavrentieva Irina; Ubugunova Vera; REN Wei-bo; DING Yong

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and structural characteristics of plant communities in the steppe ecosystems of the Baikal region, Russian Federation have been researched in connection with climate change and grazing. The present study, based on a total of 15 typical steppe sampling plots, investigated above-ground biomass (AGB), below-ground biomass (BGB), total biomass (TB) and root:shoot ratios (R:S) and their relationships with climatic factors and grazing. All biomass components varied widely depending on the climatic parameters and the degree of grazing affected transformation. A strong negative correlation between mean annual temperature (MAT) and total plant biomass was revealed for all study area. Mean annual precipitation (MAP) signiifcantly affected communities productivity increasing only in the south of the region. Due to the large and mountainous territory, the inlfuence of latitude and elevation (mountain) factors on the components of the biomass were studied. Although all studied plant steppe communities were transformed by uncontrolled grazing, their productivity is signiifcantly reduced only at plots with maximum digression. Vegetation shift is an indicator of climate change, as well as providing a diagnostic tool to build predictive models. Based on the complex index of effective precipitation, it was revealed that at the end of last century in the steppes of the Baikal region the structural and production processes will be affected by an arid climate trend.

  1. Development of postural adjustments during reaching in typically developing infants from 4 to 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Balen, Lieke C; Dijkstra, Linze Jaap; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2012-07-01

    Knowledge on the development of postural adjustments during infancy, in particular on the development of postural muscle coordination, is limited. This study aimed at the evaluation of the development of postural control during reaching in a supported sitting condition. Eleven typically developing infants participated in the study and were assessed at the ages of 4, 6, 10 and 18 months. We elicited reaching movements by presenting small toys at an arm's length distance, whilst activity of multiple arm, neck and trunk muscles was recorded using surface EMG. A model-based computer algorithm was used to detect the onset of phasic muscle activity. The results indicated that postural muscle activity during reaching whilst sitting supported is highly variable. Direction-specific postural activity was inconsistently present from early age onwards and increased between 10 and 18 months without reaching a 100 % consistency. The dominant pattern of activation at all ages was the 'complete pattern', in which all direction-specific muscles were recruited. At 4 months, a slight preference for top-down recruitment existed, which was gradually replaced by a preference for bottom-up recruitment. We conclude that postural control during the ecological task of reaching during supported sitting between 4 and 18 months of age is primarily characterized by variation. Already from 4 months onwards, infants are-within the variation-sometimes able to select muscle recruitment strategies that are optimal to the task at hand.

  2. Social environment elicits lateralized navigational paths in two populations of typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Gillian S; Crawley, Molly; Palmer, Casey

    2014-11-01

    The current study provides the first evidence of human lateralized navigation of a social space within a naturalistic environment. We employed a quantitative, observational approach and report on a detailed set of nearly 700 independent navigational routes from two separate child populations consisting of over 300 typically developing children, aged five to fourteen years. The navigational path was considered across the sagittal plane (left, right) around three distinct target types (peer, adult and object). Both child populations expressed a significant bias for choosing a rightward navigational path around a human target (e.g., peer, adult) and no lateral preference for navigation around fixed, inanimate objects. A rightward navigational path provides an advantage for the left visual field and the right hemisphere, facilitating both the production and perception of social-emotion stimuli. The findings are consistent with evidence from studies of non-human animal species demonstrating that the social environment elicits predictable lateralized behavior, and support an early evolutionary delineation of functional processing by the two hemispheres.

  3. Measurement results and experiences from an energy renovation of a typical Danish single-family house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2008-01-01

    Energy renovation of existing buildings has a large potential for cost effective energy savings. However, it is a major challenge to develop and implement the technologies for reducing the energy use in existing buildings to a very low level in combination with renovation of the buildings....../year corresponding to a 54 % reduction. The energy renovation project has proven that it is possible to renovate a typical Danish single-family house from the 1960/70’s in a cost efficient manner to roughly the energy performance standard of a new Danish single-family house. As a positive side effect the living....... To demonstrate how it could be done in small residential buildings a thorough retrofitting of a single-family house from 1972 was carried out. The house was brought up to the energy performance level of a new house. The energy renovation has reduced the net room heating consumption from 27.8 to 12.7 MWh...

  4. Relationships Between Agronomic and Environmental Soil Test Phosphorus in Three Typical Cultivated Soils in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-Min; JIE Xiao-Lei; ZHU Yong-Guan; HOU Yan-Lin; ZHANG Tie-Quan

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the relationships between agronomic soil test P and environmental soil test P in three soils predominately distributing in three typical agricultural production areas of China. Soil P was analyzed using Bray-1 (BP), Oisen (OP), and Mehlich-3 (MP) methods as agronomic tests, and using Fe-oxide impregnated filter paper (FeP), anion-exchange resin membrane (RP), and water (WP) as environmental tests. There were linear relationships between soil P extractable with all the tests evaluated. The regression coefficients, R2, ranged from 0.8164 to 0.9409 between each two of thc agronomic soil test P, and ranged from 0.4702 to 0.8990 between each two of the environmental soil test P, when the three soils were considered separately. When soil test P was analyzed across all the three soils, the highest regression R2 was found between OP and MP (0.7940) amongst agronomic soil test P, and between FeP and RP amongst environmental soil test P (0.8842). While all of the three agronomic soil test P was linearly related to each of the environmental soil test P across the three soils, strongest relationships were found between OP and environmental soil test P. Agronomic OP may be adopted as an analytical tool for environmental prediction of soil P.

  5. Effect of Oxalic Acid on Potassium Release from Typical Chinese Soils and Minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Shu-Xin; GUO Zhi-Fen; SUN Jin-He

    2007-01-01

    Oxalic acid plays an important role in improving the bioavailability of soil nutrients. Batch experiments were employed to examine the influences of oxalic acid on extraction and release kinetics of potassium (K) from soils and minerals along with the adsorption and desorption of soil K+. The soils and minerals used were three typical Chinese soils, black soil (Mollisol), red soil (Ultisol), and calcareous alluvial soil (Entisol), and four K-bearing minerals, biotite, phlogopite, muscovite, and microcline. The results showed that soil K extracted using 0.2 mol L-1 oxalic acid was similar to that using 1 mol L-1 boiling HNO3. The relation between K release (y) and concentrations of oxalic acid (c) could be best described logarithmically as y=a+blogc, while the best-fit kinetic equation of K release was y=a +b√t, where a and b are the constants and t is the elapsed time. The K release for minerals was ranked as biotite> phlogopite>> muscovite> microcline and for soils it was in the order: black soil> calcareous alluvial soil> red soil. An oxalic acid solution with low pH was able to release more K from weathered minerals and alkaline soils. Oxalic acid decreased the soil K+ adsorption and increased the soil K+ desorption, the effect of which tended to be greater at lower solution pH, especially in the red soil.

  6. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Qiong; Gao, Rutai; Hou, Haobo; Tan, Wenbing; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Minda; Ma, Lina; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    The Wangyang River (WYR) basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g-1 dw to 0.457 μg g-1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g-1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP) concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed.

  7. Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Mazić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried out at room temperature until the media reached pH value of 5. Samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. In all media the target pH was reached after 68-71 hours of fermentation, depending on citrate level. Fermentation and the production of aroma compounds were more intensive in media that contained whey proteins compared to media with only casein. Increased citrate level had a positive influence on the aroma production. Citrate increased the initial pH of the media and acted as a buffer during fermentation, which lead to longer fermentation and prolonged production of aroma compounds. At pH around 5, the desired cultured aroma was the most intensive, whereas sour taste was less dominant. The substrate with 0.25% citrate and 0.1% whey proteins, at pH 5, was rated as best regarding its sensory characteristics.

  8. Structural Influence on Superatomic Orbitals of Typical Gold Nanostructure Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wanrun; Gao, Yang; Xu, Dexuan; Liu, Fang; Wang, Zhigang

    2016-10-01

    We compared superatomic orbitals mainly contributed by 6s atomic orbitals among spherical core-shell cluster Au13, hexagonal plane Au7 and a (5,5) nanotube segment Au35 through first-principles density functional theory calculations. The compatibility between geometry and orbital morphology influences both the presence and the energy level order of particular superatomic orbitals. Taking Au13 as a reference, which possesses a regular configuration of 1S 21P 61D 5, the hexagonal Au7 in 1S 21P 41D 1 lacks the 1P occupied superatomic orbital which is distributed out of the structural plane. Different from the nearly degenerated five occupied 1D orbitals in Au13, Au35 in 1S 21P 61D 101F 101G 61H 1 shows energy separations over 4.0 eV between split 1D regions and 1F regions according to the preference of tubular geometry to different orbital morphologies. The structural reliance of the electronic structure revealed by these typical building blocks might be informative for bottom-up design and fabrication of nanoscale devices based on a gold nanostructure and contributes to the variety and operability of nanoscale materials.

  9. 13C-NMR-Based Metabolomic Profiling of Typical Asian Soy Sauces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa Kamal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been a strong consumer interest to choose high quality food products with clear information about their origin and composition. In the present study, a total of 22 Asian soy sauce samples have been analyzed in terms of 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Spectral data were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods in order to find out the important metabolites causing the discrimination among typical soy sauces from different Asian regions. It was found that significantly higher concentrations of glutamate in Chinese red cooking (CR soy sauce may be the result of the manual addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG in the final soy sauce product. Whereas lower concentrations of amino acids, like leucine, isoleucine and valine, observed in CR indicate the different fermentation period used in production of CR soy sauce, on the other hand, the concentration of some fermentation cycle metabolites, such as acetate and sucrose, can be divided into two groups. The concentrations of these fermentation cycle metabolites were lower in CR and Singapore Kikkoman (SK, whereas much higher in Japanese shoyu (JS and Taiwan (China light (TL, which depict the influence of climatic conditions. Therefore, the results of our study directly indicate the influences of traditional ways of fermentation, climatic conditions and the selection of raw materials and can be helpful for consumers to choose their desired soy sauce products, as well as for researchers in further authentication studies about soy sauce.

  10. (13)C-NMR-Based Metabolomic Profiling of Typical Asian Soy Sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Yuan, Bin; Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Maili

    2016-09-02

    It has been a strong consumer interest to choose high quality food products with clear information about their origin and composition. In the present study, a total of 22 Asian soy sauce samples have been analyzed in terms of (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Spectral data were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods in order to find out the important metabolites causing the discrimination among typical soy sauces from different Asian regions. It was found that significantly higher concentrations of glutamate in Chinese red cooking (CR) soy sauce may be the result of the manual addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in the final soy sauce product. Whereas lower concentrations of amino acids, like leucine, isoleucine and valine, observed in CR indicate the different fermentation period used in production of CR soy sauce, on the other hand, the concentration of some fermentation cycle metabolites, such as acetate and sucrose, can be divided into two groups. The concentrations of these fermentation cycle metabolites were lower in CR and Singapore Kikkoman (SK), whereas much higher in Japanese shoyu (JS) and Taiwan (China) light (TL), which depict the influence of climatic conditions. Therefore, the results of our study directly indicate the influences of traditional ways of fermentation, climatic conditions and the selection of raw materials and can be helpful for consumers to choose their desired soy sauce products, as well as for researchers in further authentication studies about soy sauce.

  11. Submarine groundwater discharge into typical tropical lagoons: A case study in eastern Hainan Island, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xilong; Du, Jinzhou

    2016-11-01

    Assessing submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into lagoons and bays can be helpful to understand biogeochemical processes, especially nutrient dynamics. In the present paper, radium (Ra) isotopes were used to quantify SGD in two typical tropical lagoons (Laoye Lagoon (LY Lagoon) and Xiaohai Lagoon (XH Lagoon)) of eastern Hainan Island, China. The Ra mass balance model provided evidence that SGD plays an important role in the hydrology of the LY Lagoon and the XH Lagoon, delivering average SGD fluxes of 1.7 × 106 (94 L m-2 d-1) and 1.8 × 106 (41 L m-2 d-1) m3 d-1, respectively. Tidal pumping was one of the important driving forces for SGD fluxes in the LY and the XH Lagoons. Tidal-driven SGD into the tidal channels of both lagoons can account for approximately 10% of the total SGD flux into the lagoons. In addition, the dissolved inorganic nutrient budgets were reassessed in the LY Lagoon and the XH Lagoon, which showed that SGD was the major source of nutrients entering the LY Lagoon and that the LY Lagoon behaved as a source for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and as a sink for dissolved silicate (DSi). Nutrient loads in the XH Lagoon were mainly derived from riverine inputs and SGD, and the XH Lagoon behaved as a source for DIP, but a sink for DIN and DSi.

  12. Effect of Heavy Metals on Phosphorus Retention by Typic Udic Ferrisols: Equilibrium and Kinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the effect of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd in combination or alone)on the equilibrium and kinetics of phosphorus (P) retention in typic udic ferrisols by using both equilibrium and flow techniques. Fourteen soil samples with varying artificial contamination of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd were prepared. Heavy metal pollution led to increases in retention capacity and maximum buffering capacity (MBC) of soil P. The rate of P retention was also increased and the time to reach equilibrium was advanced by heavy metals addition. The Elovich equation provided a satisfactory description of the P kinetic data.The influence of heavy metals on P retention was in the order of Pb>Cu>Zn, with greater effect in multiple metal pollution. These findings suggested that heavy metal pollution caused an increase in P fixation and thus a decline in P availability. Therefore, indirect influences of heavy metal contamination on soil nutrients may need more consideration when determining overall impact of heavy metals on soil environment.

  13. Evolution of Surface Oxide Film of Typical Aluminum Alloy During Medium-Temperature Brazing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程方杰; 赵海微; 王颖; 肖兵; 姚俊峰

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the surface oxide film along the depth direction of typical aluminum alloy under medium-temperature brazing was investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For the alloy with Mg content below 2.0wt%, whether under cold rolling condition or during medium-temperature brazing process, the en-richment of Mg element on the surface was not detected and the oxide film was pure Al2O3. However, the oxide film grew obviously during medium-temperature brazing process, and the thickness was about 80 nm. For the alloy with Mg content above 2.0wt%, under cold rolling condition, the original surface oxide film was pure Al2O3. However, the Mg element was significantly enriched on the outermost surface during medium-temperature brazing process, and MgO-based oxide film mixed with small amount of MgAl2O4 was formed with a thickness of about 130 nm. The alloy-ing elements of Mn and Si were not enriched on the surface neither under cold rolling condition nor during medium-temperature brazing process for all the selected aluminum alloy, and the surface oxide film was similar to that of pure aluminum, which was almost entire Al2O3.

  14. Thermalization and Canonical Typicality in Translation-Invariant Quantum Lattice Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Markus P.; Adlam, Emily; Masanes, Lluís; Wiebe, Nathan

    2015-12-01

    It has previously been suggested that small subsystems of closed quantum systems thermalize under some assumptions; however, this has been rigorously shown so far only for systems with very weak interaction between subsystems. In this work, we give rigorous analytic results on thermalization for translation-invariant quantum lattice systems with finite-range interaction of arbitrary strength, in all cases where there is a unique equilibrium state at the corresponding temperature. We clarify the physical picture by showing that subsystems relax towards the reduction of the global Gibbs state, not the local Gibbs state, if the initial state has close to maximal population entropy and certain non-degeneracy conditions on the spectrumare satisfied.Moreover,we showthat almost all pure states with support on a small energy window are locally thermal in the sense of canonical typicality. We derive our results from a statement on equivalence of ensembles, generalizing earlier results by Lima, and give numerical and analytic finite size bounds, relating the Ising model to the finite de Finetti theorem. Furthermore, we prove that global energy eigenstates are locally close to diagonal in the local energy eigenbasis, which constitutes a part of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis that is valid regardless of the integrability of the model.

  15. Valley Density Evaluation and Typical Development Pattern in Mountainous Areas of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Song-lin; ZHANG Yi-feng; WANG Kai-yong; TANG Cheng-cai; WANG Ling-en; LIU Yu

    2012-01-01

    Based on geographical differences and space differentiation, valley economy is a new pattern and new perspective for the development of mountainous areas, integrating ecological protection, industrial nurture, and village integration. On the basis of natural and geographical differentiation of valley, we give an overview of the spatial distribution of valley in mountainous areas of Beijing and spatial difference in valley density, and sum up the typical development pattern of valley economy, using DEM data. The results show that the spatial distribution of valley presents an asymmetric shape of inverted V or branch; Miyun, Yanqing, and Changping have high valley density, while Pinggu, Fangshan and Mentougou have low valley density; there is a significant positive relationship between valley density and the spatial distribution of river and reservoir. The development pattern of valley economy is divided into five types: leisure and high-end upgrade-based pattern, ecological development and transition demonstration-based pattern, folk culture and creation-driven pattern, scenic spots-driven and valley-linked pattern and leisure agriculture and specialty-led pattern.

  16. Characterization of typical taste and odor compounds formed by Microcystis aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kejia Zhang; Tsair Fuh Lin; Tuqiao Zhang; Cong Li; Naiyun Gao

    2013-01-01

    Production and characteristics of typical taste and odor (T&O) compounds by Microcystis aeruginosa were investigated.A few terpenoid chemicals,including 2-MIB,β-cyclocitral,and β-ionone,and a few sulfur compounds,such as dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl trisulfide,were detected.β-Cyclocitral and β-carotene concentrations were observed to be relevant to the growth phases of Microcystis.During the stable growth phase,41-865 fg/cell of β-cyclocitral were found in the laboratory culture.β-Cyclocitral concentrations correlated closely with β-carotene concentrations,with the correlation coefficient R2 =0.96,as it is formed from the cleavage reaction of β-carotene.For dead cell cases,a high concentration of dimethyl trisulfide was detected at 3.48-6.37 fg/cell.Four T&O compounds,including β-cyclocitral,β-ionone,heptanal and dimethyl trisulfide,were tested and found to be able to inhibit and damage Microcystis cells to varying degrees.Among these chemicals,β-cyclocitral has the strongest ability to quickly rupture cells.

  17. Typical zirconium alloys microstructures in nuclear components; Typische Mikrostrukturen von Zirconiumlegierungen in Komponenten kerntechnischer Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Alejandra Viviana; Gomez, Adrian Guillermo; Juarez, Gabriel Alejandro [Dept. de Tecnologia de Aleaciones de Circonio, CAE, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2014-10-01

    The different microstructures typically found in nuclear components made of zirconium alloys are discussed in this paper. These include material in a variety of thermo-mechanical conditions, e. g., cold rolled, stress relieved, recrystallized, welded, biphasic, together with minority second phases belonging to the original material or incorporated due to in-service conditions. The anisotropic crystalline structure of zirconium is exploited in microscopical observations by means of polarizer filters that enhance the contrast between different grains, and greatly aid the identification in most microstructures. Most microstructural variations across a wide range of length-scales, such as those produced by welding processes, can be effectively resolved by traditional optical microscopy (OM). However, some finer microstructures like those found in CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor pressure tube material, or some minority second phase particles like the Zr(Fe,Cr){sub 2} precipitates in Zircaloy-4 cannot be completely resolved by this technique. Thus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are required in such cases. For SEM observations we show the valuable issue of the scale in specific microstructural studies, which allows quantifying microstructural parameters using image analysis. For TEM observations, we have greatly benefited from the electron diffraction diagrams, which have allowed us to investigate the crystalline structure of irradiated second phase particles, which would remain unnoticed to both, OM or SEM observations.

  18. Degradation of typical antibiotics during human feces aerobic composting under different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Honglei; Wang, Xiaochang C; Li, Qian; Jiang, Shanqing

    2016-08-01

    Four typical antibiotics were added to human feces for aerobic composting using batch reactors with sawdust as the bulk matrix. Under three composting temperatures (room temperature, 35 ± 2 °C and 55 ± 2 °C), decreases in the extractable concentrations of antibiotics in the compost were monitored for 20 days. As a result, the removals of extractable tetracycline and chlortetracycline were found to be more temperature-dependent than the removals of sulfadiazine and ciprofloxacin. However, more than 90 % of all of the extractable antibiotics were removed at 55 ± 2 °C. Three specific experiments were further conducted to identify the possible actions for antibiotic removal, including self-degradation in aqueous solution, composting with a moist sterile sawdust matrix without adding feces and composting with human feces and moist sterile sawdust. As a result, it was found that the removal of tetracycline and chlortetracycline was mainly due to chemical degradation in water, whereas the removal of sulfadiazine was mainly attributed to adsorption onto sawdust particles. The microbial activity of compost varied with temperature to a certain extent, but the differences were insignificant among different antibiotics. Although microbial action is important for organic matter decomposition, its contribution to antibiotic degradation was small for the investigated antibiotics, except for ciprofloxacin, which was degraded by up to 20 % due to microbial action.

  19. [Spatiotemporal variations of aboveground biomass and leaf area index of typical grassland in tower flux footprint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Li, Gui-cai; Wang, Jun-bang

    2011-03-01

    By using cyclic sampling method, the aboveground biomass and leaf area index (LAI) of typical grassland in tower flux footprint were measured at three growth stages, i.e., early July (July 2-7), late July (July 20-26), and late August (Aug. 25-30), with their spatial patterns analyzed by geostatistics. At the three stages, the aboveground biomass of the grassland kept rising, while the LAI decreased after an initial increase. Both the two variables had good spatial autocorrelation, with similar spatial pattern and temporal evolution trend, and changed from stripe to patch. From early July to late August, the C0/(C0+C) of the aboveground biomass and LAI all decreased significantly, indicating that the spatial autocorrelation of the two variables changed from medium to high. The change ranges of the two variables gradually decreased, presenting the decrease of spatial continuity. The fractal dimension (D) also decreased gradually, suggesting the increase of spatial dependence. Topography and field management were the main factors affecting the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass and LAI, which induced the spatial variability of water and heat, and further, affected the grass growth.

  20. Centrifugal compressor surge detecting method based on wavelet analysis of unsteady pressure fluctuations in typical stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmaylov, R.; Lebedev, A.

    2015-08-01

    Centrifugal compressors are complex energy equipment. Automotive control and protection system should meet the requirements: of operation reliability and durability. In turbocompressors there are at least two dangerous areas: surge and rotating stall. Antisurge protecting systems usually use parametric or feature methods. As a rule industrial system are parametric. The main disadvantages of anti-surge parametric systems are difficulties in mass flow measurements in natural gas pipeline compressor. The principal idea of feature method is based on the experimental fact: as a rule just before the onset of surge rotating or precursor stall established in compressor. In this case the problem consists in detecting of unsteady pressure or velocity fluctuations characteristic signals. Wavelet analysis is the best method for detecting onset of rotating stall in spite of high level of spurious signals (rotating wakes, turbulence, etc.). This method is compatible with state of the art DSP systems of industrial control. Examples of wavelet analysis application for detecting onset of rotating stall in typical stages centrifugal compressor are presented. Experimental investigations include unsteady pressure measurement and sophisticated data acquisition system. Wavelet transforms used biorthogonal wavelets in Mathlab systems.

  1. Typical Geochemical Elements in Loess Deposit in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau and Its Paleoclimatic Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Widespread and thick loess deposit in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau records paleoclimatic changes over the Quaternary period. In this study, we investigate a loess section located in a high terrace of the Huangshui River in the Xining Basin, and collect samples at 20-cm intervals by digging a well of 16-m depth (including paleosol S1 and S0 and several loess interlayers over the last glacial-interglacial cycle and the Holocene). Concentration of some active elements (Sr and Ca) and inert elements (Rb, Zr, Ti) in these loess samples are measured. The results show that ratios of those elements (oxide), such as Rb/Sr, Ti/Sr, and Zr/CaO ratios, would indicate sensitively paleoclimatic changes, especially the history of precipitation over the last glacial-interglacial and the Holocene.Moreover, the curves of Rb/Sr, Ti/Sr, and Zr/CaO ratios had almost the same variable trends from the bottom to the top and also closely correlated with values of magnetic susceptibility and the global marine δ18O record. But compared with the curves of magnetic susceptibility, the changes of ratios of these elements (oxide) are clearer and easy to understand. Therefore, the ratios of these typical chemical elements in the loess deposit may be used as an excellent index to investigate the history of paleoclimate, particularly precipitation changes in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau.

  2. On Corrosion of Ferrous Metals in Typical Indian Soils Part I : Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajendra Nath Tripathi

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrodibility of cast iron in ten typical Indian soils, employing Schwerdtfeger's soil corrosion cell procedure and the physico-chemical properties of the soils responsible for their corrosivity have been determined. The results have been statistically analysed, interpreted and correlated with various factors. Corrosion of cast iron in non acidic soils (p/supH4-10 proceeds through electro-chemical mechanism. Usually the rate of corrosion is maximum at the beginning and with development of the film of corrosion products, the rate gradually decrease with time until it becomes more or less constant, 'Even' general corrosion is observed on most of the cases. The maximum penetration is directly proportional corrodibility. The corrosivity of soils in situ is directly poroportional to the moisture equivalent or, in turn, to the clay content. The corrosivity of soils increases with the concentration at soluble electrolytes. Ferric oxide present in a laterite soil functions as a cathodic depolariser and hence increases its corrosivity. In an acidic soil, the corrosion mainly proceeds through the mechanism of direct chemical reaction.

  3. Formation potentials of typical DBPs and changes of genotoxicity for chlorinated tertiary effluent pretreated by ozone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Nan; MIAO Tingting; LI Kuixiao; ZHANG Yu; YANG Min

    2009-01-01

    The effects of ozonation on the formation potential of typical disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and the changes of genotoxicity during post chlorination of tertiary effluent from a sewage treatment plant were investigated. Ozonation enhanced the yields of all detected chlorine DBPs except CHCl3. At a chlorine dose of 5 mg/L, the three brominated THMs and five HAAs increased, while chloroform decreased with the increase of ozone dose from 0 to 10 mg/L (ozone dose in consumption base). At a chlorine dose of 10 mg/L, the two mixed bromochloro species THMs and two dominant HAAs (DCAA and TCAA) firstly increased and then decreased with the increase of ozone dose, with the turning point approximately occurring at an ozone dose of 5 mg/L. The genotoxicity detected using umu test, on the other hand, was removed from 7 μg 4-NQO/L to a negligible level by ozonation under an ozone dose of 5 mg/L. Chlorination could further remove the genotoxicity to some extent. It was found that SUVA (UV absorbance divided by DOC concentration) might be used as an indicative parameter for monitoring the removal of genotoxicity during the oxidation.

  4. Evidence base prioritisation of indoor comfort perceptions in Malaysian typical multi-storey hostels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlan, N.D.; Jones, P.J.; Alexander, D.K. [Welsh School of Architecture, Cardiff University, Bute Building, King Edward VII Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3NB (United Kingdom); Salleh, E. [Department of Architecture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang (Malaysia); Alias, J. [Department of Architecture, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

    2009-10-15

    This study focuses on assessing the effects of the indoor climate in typical multi-storey hostels in Malaysia on student occupants through objective, subjective and evidence based prioritisation measurements. The objective measurements consisted of operative temperature; daylight ratio; luminance and indoor noise level. The subjective measurements were sampled from the student occupants' thermal, visual, acoustics and overall indoor comfort votes. The prioritisation measurement using Multiple Linear Regression and Friedman Tests assessed the relationship between physical indoor thermal, visual and acoustics conditions and students' overall indoor comfort perception vote. Findings suggest that subjective sensor ratings were significantly more reliable than objective measurements at predicting overall indoor comfort. Moreover, students living in hostel rooms with projected balconies voted that they were more satisfied with their indoor condition than the ones living in rooms without projected balconies. The results of this study also provide evidence that student occupants were more concerned with their rooms' thermal condition then followed by acoustics and finally visual conditions. (author)

  5. Central cervical fibroid with a typical Lantern on top of St. Paul's cathedral appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarisha Bhandiwad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyoma of the uterus in one of the common benign gynecological conditions and one of the rare locations of a fibroid is from the cervix with an incidence of upto 2%. We are reporting a case of a 46 year old patient who came with complaints of mass per abdomen and with a history of retention of urine twice in the past one and half months. Abdominal examination revealed a firm mass of 24 weeks size gravid uterus with restricted mobility arising from the pelvis and a speculum examination, showed a mass protruding through the vagina with all the walls ballooned out and it appeared as if a head of the baby was protruding out in second stage of labor. It was a 1.9kg central cervical fibroid with a typical "Lantern on top of St. Paul's cathedral" appearance which was operated without any complications. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 924-926

  6. Response characteristics of soil fractal features to different land uses in typical purple soil watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-lin Luo

    Full Text Available As a fundamental characteristic of soil physical properties, the soil Particle Size Distribution (PSD is important in the research on soil moisture migration, solution transformation, and soil erosion. In this research, the PSD characteristics with distinct methods in different land uses are analyzed. The results show that the upper bound of the volume domain of the clay domain ranges from 5.743 μm to 5.749 μm for all land-use types. For the silt domain of purple soil, the value ranges among 286.852~286.966 μm. For all purple soil land-use types, the order of the volume domain fractal dimensions is D clayD silt(U>D sand (U>D sand and D silt>D silt(U>D sand>D sand(U, respectively. As it is compared with all Dvi, the D silt has the most significant correlativity to the soil texture and organic matter in different land uses of the typical purple soil watersheds. Therefore, Dsilt will be a potential indictor for evaluating the proportion of fine particles in the PSD, as well as a key measurement in soil quality and productivity studies.

  7. Behavior, distribution and environmental influence of arsenic in a typical lead smelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴立元; 史美清; 梁彦杰; 汤景文; 李青竹

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted to determine the behavior and distribution of arsenic during the pyrometallurgy process in a typical SKS (Shuikoushan) lead smelter in Hunan province, China. Environmental influences of arsenic in selected samples were evaluated. Arsenic contents in all input and output samples vary from 0.11%in raw lead to 6.66%in collected dust-2. More arsenic is volatilized in blast furnace and fuming furnace (73.02% of arsenic input) than bottom blowing furnace (10.29%of arsenic input). There are 78.97%, 13.69%, 7.31% of total arsenic distributed in intermediate materials, stockpiled materials and unorganized emissions, respectively. Matte slag-2, collected dust-1 and secondary zinc oxide are hazardous based on the arsenic concentrations of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. According to risk assessment code (RAC) guideline, arsenic in collected dust-1 poses a very serious risk to the surrounding environment, arsenic in speiss, matte slag-2, water-quenched slag and secondary zinc oxide show low risk, while arsenic in matte slag-1, collected dust-2 and post dust has no risk to the environment.

  8. [Quantitative input of atmospheric nitrogen to an agro-ecosystem in a typical red soil region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; Zhou, Jing; Yang, Hao; Liang, Jia-ni; Liu, Xiao-li

    2009-08-15

    The atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition flux and dry deposition N velocities (Vd) were estimated using big leaf resistance analogy model by observations of onflow and factors of farmland microclimate, analysis of nitrides from the atmosphere and rain in an agro-ecosystem, a typical red soil region on Experiment Station of Red Earth Ecology, Chinese Academy (Yingtan, Jiangxi) of Sciences in 2005. The results showed that the dry deposition N was 82.63 kg x hm(-2), accounting for 67.94% of the total N, which was 132.6 kg x hm(-2) in the whole year (2005). In N dry deposition progress, NH3-N and NO3- -N were the main settlement for gas and particle, respectively. NH3-N was made up 43.02% to 89.89% (mean value, 71.05%) of the gaseous N deposition while NO3- -N was accounted for 33.67% to 94.54% (mean value, 61.01%) of the particle N deposition. The N wet deposition fluxes were 0.50-8.45 kg x hm(-2) per month and reached the higher value in July and November.

  9. CT in nontraumatic acute thoracic aortic disease: typical and atypical features and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañer, Eva; Andreu, Marta; Gallardo, Xavier; Mata, Josep Maria; Cabezuelo, María Angeles; Pallardó, Yolanda

    2003-10-01

    Thoracic aortic dissection is the most frequent cause of aortic emergency, and unless it is rapidly diagnosed and treated, the result is death. Helical computed tomography (CT) permits the diagnosis of acute aortic dissection with a sensitivity and specificity of nearly 100%. This imaging modality also enables differentiation between proximal aortic dissection (type A in the Stanford classification) and distal aortic dissection (Stanford type B), which are treated differently and have different prognoses. In 70% of patients in whom nontraumatic acute thoracic aortic dissection is diagnosed after evaluation with helical CT, scans show the typical signs of aortic dissection, with rupture and displacement of the intima. CT also can depict other pathologic entities with similar clinical manifestations, such as intramural hematoma and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer. Awareness of the different radiologic appearances of these disease entities is essential for differential diagnosis. More than one-third of patients with aortic dissection show signs and symptoms indicative of systemic involvement. Because branch-vessel involvement may increase morbidity and mortality, in this group of patients it is important to evaluate the entire aorta so as to determine the distal extent of the dissection and detect any systemic involvement.

  10. [Analysis of sap flow characteristics of the Chinese pine in typical Loess Plateau Region of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han-dan; Wei, Wei; Chen, Li-ding; Yu, Yang; Yang, Lei; Jia, Fu-yan

    2015-01-01

    Transpiration is one of the major processes of water consumption. It is significant for nutrients transportation, plant development, drought stress alleviation and micro-climate amelioration. In this study, the artificially planted Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis) was selected as an example to explore its transpiration characteristics, water-use strategies and the adaptability of the living environment in a typical loess hilly area of China. The results showed that: the sap flow rates of Chinese pine varied obviously in different seasons. The minimum sap flow rate occurred in April, followed by October, September and August, which was 0.024, 0.057, 0.062 and 0.071 mL x (cm2 x min)(-1), respectively. The rule of the diurnal variation of sap flow rate was regular, higher in daytime than at night. The flow rate was low during nighttime, but not zero. In rainfall events, the proportion of sap flow during nighttime was significantly increased, which was 3.9 times of that on sunny days, with 31.8% decrease in daytime. Chinese pine had great adaptability to unexpected climates. The variation trend of flow rate in the clod was similar to that on rainy days. The sap flow velocity was in great relevance with meteorological factors, with a declining order of solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit, relative humidity, and atmospheric temperature.

  11. Small worlds and semantic network growth in typical and late talkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckage, Nicole; Smith, Linda; Hills, Thomas

    2011-05-11

    Network analysis has demonstrated that systems ranging from social networks to electric power grids often involve a small world structure-with local clustering but global ac cess. Critically, small world structure has also been shown to characterize adult human semantic networks. Moreover, the connectivity pattern of these mature networks is consistent with lexical growth processes in which children add new words to their vocabulary based on the structure of the language-learning environment. However, thus far, there is no direct evidence that a child's individual semantic network structure is associated with their early language learning. Here we show that, while typically developing children's early networks show small world structure as early as 15 months and with as few as 55 words, children with language delay (late talkers) have this structure to a smaller degree. This implicates a maladaptive bias in word acquisition for late talkers, potentially indicating a preference for "oddball" words. The findings provide the first evidence of a link between small-world connectivity and lexical development in individual children.

  12. Small worlds and semantic network growth in typical and late talkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Beckage

    Full Text Available Network analysis has demonstrated that systems ranging from social networks to electric power grids often involve a small world structure-with local clustering but global ac cess. Critically, small world structure has also been shown to characterize adult human semantic networks. Moreover, the connectivity pattern of these mature networks is consistent with lexical growth processes in which children add new words to their vocabulary based on the structure of the language-learning environment. However, thus far, there is no direct evidence that a child's individual semantic network structure is associated with their early language learning. Here we show that, while typically developing children's early networks show small world structure as early as 15 months and with as few as 55 words, children with language delay (late talkers have this structure to a smaller degree. This implicates a maladaptive bias in word acquisition for late talkers, potentially indicating a preference for "oddball" words. The findings provide the first evidence of a link between small-world connectivity and lexical development in individual children.

  13. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of acrylamide in typical Spanish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudo, E; Moyano, E; Puignou, L; Galceran, M T

    2008-07-15

    This paper describes the use of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of acrylamide in several typical foods produced and consumed in Spain. Christmas sweets, olives, traditionally made potato crisps, pastry products, sweet fritters ("churros") and one of Spain's most famous dishes, Spanish omelette, were selected. Using the mass spectra information provided by an ion trap analyzer in combination with the accurate mass measurements from time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometry a co-extractive interference present in some potato products was identified as valine. A porous graphitic carbon column, which enabled the co-extractive and acrylamide to be separated, and ion trap or triple quadrupole analyzers, depending on the acrylamide concentration, were used to determine this genotoxic compound in foodstuffs. The highest values were found in potato products, sweet fritters, Christmas sweets and pastry products, with values ranging between 70 and 2000 microg/g. Spanish omelette presented relatively low levels, similar to those obtained for dried fruits.

  14. Comparison of Dissolved Gases in Mineral and Vegetable Insulating Oils under Typical Electrical and Thermal Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenmeng Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved gas analysis (DGA is attracting greater and greater interest from researchers as a fault diagnostic tool for power transformers filled with vegetable insulating oils. This paper presents experimental results of dissolved gases in insulating oils under typical electrical and thermal faults in transformers. The tests covered three types of insulating oils, including two types of vegetable oil, which are camellia insulating oil, Envirotemp FR3, and a type of mineral insulating oil, to simulate thermal faults in oils from 90 °C to 800 °C and electrical faults including breakdown and partial discharges in oils. The experimental results reveal that the content and proportion of dissolved gases in different types of insulating oils under the same fault condition are different, especially under thermal faults due to the obvious differences of their chemical compositions. Four different classic diagnosis methods were applied: ratio method, graphic method, and Duval’s triangle and Duval’s pentagon method. These confirmed that the diagnosis methods developed for mineral oil were not fully appropriate for diagnosis of electrical and thermal faults in vegetable insulating oils and needs some modification. Therefore, some modification aiming at different types of vegetable oils based on Duval Triangle 3 were proposed in this paper and obtained a good diagnostic result. Furthermore, gas formation mechanisms of different types of vegetable insulating oils under thermal stress are interpreted by means of unimolecular pyrolysis simulation and reaction enthalpies calculation.

  15. Numerical and Experimental Investigations on the Aerodynamic Characteristic of Three Typical Passenger Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yiping wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical simulation and wind tunnel experiment were employed to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of three typical rear shapes: fastback, notchback and squareback. The object was to investigate the sensibility of aerodynamic characteristic to the rear shape, and provide more comprehensive experimental data as a reference to validate the numerical simulation. In the wind tunnel experiments, the aerodynamic six components of the three models with the yaw angles range from -15 and 15 were measured. The realizable k-ε model was employed to compute the aerodynamic drag, lift and surface pressure distribution at a zero yaw angle. In order to improve the calculation efficiency and accuracy, a hybrid Tetrahedron-Hexahedron-Pentahedral-Prism mesh strategy was used to discretize the computational domain. The computational results showed a good agreement with the experimental data and the results revealed that different rear shapes would induce very different aerodynamic characteristic, and it was difficult to determine the best shape. For example, the fastback would obtain very low aerodynamic drag, but it would induce positive lift which was not conducive to stability at high speed, and it also would induce bad crosswind stability. In order to reveal the internal connection between the aerodynamic drag and wake vortices, the turbulent kinetic, recirculation length, position of vortex core and velocity profile in the wake were investigated by numerical simulation and PIV experiment.

  16. Typical off-design analytical performances of internal combustion engine cogeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong HE; Ruixian CAI

    2009-01-01

    Based on experimental data, typical off-design characteristic curves with corresponding formulas of internal combustion engine (ICE) are summarized and investigated. In combination with analytical solution of single-pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and influence of ambient pressure on combined heat and power (CHP) system, off-design operation regularities of ICE cogeneration are analyzed. The approach temperature difference Ata , relative steam production and superheated steam temperature decrease with the decrease in engine load. The total energy efficiency, equivalent exergy efficiency and economic exergy efficiency first increase and then decrease. Therefore, there exists an optimum value, corresponding to ICE best efficiency operating condition. It is worth emphasizing that Ata is likely to be negative in low load condition with high design steam parameter and low ICE design exhaust gas temperature. Compared with single shaft gas turbine cogeneration, Ata in ICE cogeneration is more likely to be negative. The main reason for this is that the gas turbine has an increased exhaust gas flow with the decrease in load; while ICE is on the contrary. Moreover, ICE power output and efficiency decrease with the decrease in ambient pressure. Hence, approach temperature difference, relative steam production and superheated steam temperature decrease rapidly while the cogeneration efficiencies decrease slightly. It is necessary to consider the influence of ambient conditions, especially the optimization of ICE performances at different places, on cogeneration performances.

  17. Threshold Research on Highway Length under Typical Landscape Patterns Based on Drivers’ Physiological Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The appropriately landscaped highway scenes may not only help improve road safety and comfort but also help protect ecological environment. Yet there is very little research data on highway length threshold with consideration of distinctive landscape patterns. Against this backdrop, the paper aims to quantitatively analyze highway landscape’s effect on driving behavior based on drivers’ physiological performance and quantify highway length thresholds under three typical landscape patterns, namely, “open,” “semiopen,” and “vertical” ones. The statistical analysis was based on data collected in a driving simulator and electrocardiograph. Specifically, vehicle-related data, ECG data, and supplemental subjective stress perception were collected. The study extracted two characteristic indices, lane deviation and LF/HF, and extrapolated the drivers’ U-shaped physiological response to landscape patterns. Models on highway length were built based on LF/HF’s variation trend with highway length. The results revealed that the theoretical highway length threshold tended to increase when the landscape pattern was switched to open, semiopen, and vertical ones. And the reliability and accuracy of the results were validated by questionnaires and field operational tests. Findings from this research will assist practitioners in taking active environmental countermeasures pertaining to different roadside landscape patterns.

  18. Adaptive face space coding in congenital prosopagnosia: typical figural aftereffects but abnormal identity aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Romina; Rivolta, Davide; Wilson, C Ellie; Jeffery, Linda

    2011-12-01

    People with congenital prosopagnosia (CP) report difficulty recognising faces in everyday life and perform poorly on face recognition tests. Here, we investigate whether impaired adaptive face space coding might contribute to poor face recognition in CP. To pinpoint how adaptation may affect face processing, a group of CPs and matched controls completed two complementary face adaptation tasks: the figural aftereffect, which reflects adaptation to general distortions of shape, and the identity aftereffect, which directly taps the mechanisms involved in the discrimination of different face identities. CPs displayed a typical figural aftereffect, consistent with evidence that they are able to process some shape-based information from faces, e.g., cues to discriminate sex. CPs also demonstrated a significant identity aftereffect. However, unlike controls, CPs impression of the identity of the neutral average face was not significantly shifted by adaptation, suggesting that adaptive coding of identity is abnormal in CP. In sum, CPs show reduced aftereffects but only when the task directly taps the use of face norms used to code individual identity. This finding of a reduced face identity aftereffect in individuals with severe face recognition problems is consistent with suggestions that adaptive coding may have a functional role in face recognition.

  19. Investigation on the toxic interaction of typical plasticizers with calf thymus DNA

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    Sun, Xiaojing [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100, Shandong Province (China); Zong, Wansong, E-mail: gaocz@sdu.edu.cn [College of Population, Resources and Environment, Shandong Normal University, 88# East Wenhua Road, Jinan 250014 (China); Liu, Chunguang; Liu, Yang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100, Shandong Province (China); Gao, Canzhu, E-mail: rutaoliu@sdu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100, Shandong Province (China); Liu, Rutao [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100, Shandong Province (China)

    2015-05-15

    The interactions of typical plasticizers dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling. Experimental results indicated that the characteristic fluorescence intensity of phthalic acid rose with the increase of DNA concentration; while the characteristic fluorescence intensities of plasticizers decreased with the increase of DNA concentration. Experiments on native and denatured DNA determined that plasticizers interacted with DNA both in groove and electrostatic binding mode. The molecular modeling results further illustrated that there is groove binding between them; hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals interactions were the main forces. With the extension of branched-chains, the binding effects between plasticizers and DNA were weakened, which could be related to the increased steric hindrance. - Highlights: • This work established the binding mode of plasticizers with DNA on molecular level. • The mechanism was explored by fluorescence spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. • There are two kinds of binding mode between DMP, DEP, DBP and DNA, electrostatic and groove. • With the branched chain extension, the binding effect of plasticizers and DNA has been weakened.

  20. Initial circulatory response to active standing in Parkinson's disease without typical orthostatic hypotension

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    Guillermo Delgado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While the circulatory response to orthostatic stress has been already evaluated in Parkinson's disease patients without typical orthostatic hypotension (PD-TOH, there is an initial response to the upright position which is uniquely associated with active standing (AS. We sought to assess this response and to compare it to that seen in young healthy controls (YHC. Method In 10 PD-TOH patients (8 males, 60±7 years, Hoehn and Yahr ≤3 the changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP and heart rate that occur in the first 30 seconds (sec of standing were examined. Both parameters were non-invasively and continuously monitored using the volume-clamp method by Peñáz and the Physiocal criteria by Wesseling. The choice of sample points was prompted by the results of previous studies. These sample points were compared to those of 10 YHC (8 males, 32±8 years. Results The main finding of the present investigation was an increased time between the AS onset and SBP overshoot in PD-TOH group (24±4 vs. 19±3 sec; p<0.05. Conclusion This delay might reflect a prolonged latency in the baroreflex-mediated vascular resistance response, but more studies are needed to confirm this preliminary hypothesis.