Sample records for andira fraxinifolia benthan

  1. Comparison of essential oil components of wild and field grown Salvia cryptantha Montbert & Aucher ex Benthan, in Turkey


    İpek, Arif; GÜRBÜZ**, Bilal; BİNGÖL, M. Ümid; GEVEN, Fatmagül; AKGÜL, Gençay


    Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of naturally growing and field grown plants of Salvia cryptantha Montbert & Aucher ex Benthan were analyzed by GC-MS. Furthermore, the chemical components of naturally growing and cultured plants in 2 consecutive years (2007-2008) were compared. The essential oils of plant materials investigated ranged from 1.20% up to 1.52%. Nine for naturally growing and 22 components for both 2007-08 field grown crops were characterize...

  2. Purification of a thermostable antinociceptive lectin isolated from Andira anthelmia. (United States)

    Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Nascimento, Francisco Lucas Faustino do; Silva, Mayara Torquato Lima; Nobre, Camila Bezerra; Moreira, Cleane Gomes; Brizeno, Luiz André Cavalcante; da Ponte, Edson Lopes; Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio; Cavada, Benildo Sousa


    Andira anthelmia (tribe Dalbergieae), a plant from Brazilian Amazon, possesses a seed lectin that was purified by affinity chromatography in sepharose-mannose. This novel Dalbergieae lectin, named AAL, agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes treated with trypsin. The hemagglutinating activity of AAL was maintained after incubation at a wide range of temperature (40 to 70 °C) and pH, was shown to be dependent on divalent cations, and was inhibited by d-mannose and d-sucrose. AAL showed an electrophoretic profile in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis similar to other lectins of the tribe Dalbergieae, presenting a double band of molecular weight with approximately 20 kDa and other minor bands of 17, 15, and 13 kDa, being the smaller fragment glycosylated. AAL injected by intravenous route in mice showed antinociceptive activity in two behavioral tests (writhing and formalin). In the writhing test induced by acetic acid, AAL showed inhibitory effect at 0.01 mg/kg (68%), 0.1 mg/kg (46%) and 1 mg/kg (74%). In the formalin test, AAL (0.1 mg/kg) inhibited by 48% the licking time in the inflammatory phase, an effect that was recovered by the lectin association with mannose. In conclusion, AAL presents analgesic effect involving the lectin domain via peripheral mechanisms of inflammatory nociception. This activity highlights the importance of lectins as tools to be used for understanding the interaction of protein-carbohydrate in processes associated to inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26638121

  3. Observações preliminares do "Angelim" (Andira nitida Mart. ex Benth para uso na arborização urbana

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    Sérgio Soares Martins


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem o objetivo de analisar as qualidades estéticas e funcionais do Angelim (Andira nitida a fim de verificar as potencialidades e limitações dessa espécie para o uso na arborização urbana. Foram analisadas características como: altura da árvore, copa, floração, frutificação, altura do primeiro esgalhamento e sistema radicular. Também foram feitos plantios em sementeira a fim de obter informações como: percentagem de germinação, desenvolvimento da espécie, e característica da muda.The objective of this paper was to analize the functional and aesthetic qualities of "angelim" (Andira nitida to verify the potential of this species as am urban landscape plant. The analyzed characteristics were: height, crown form, flowering season, frutification, trunk height and root system. The percentage of germination and the seedling development and characteristics were also evaluate.

  4. Abordagem anatomica, quimico-qualitativa e botanica da bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benthan) e suas variedades populares


    Fabrowski, Fernando José, 1969-


    Esta pesquisa objetivou comparar as variedades populares de bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham): bracatinga-branca, bracatinga-vermelha e bracatinga-argentina, além de contribuir na ampliação das alternativas de utilização da espécie. A bracatinga é nativa da região Sul do Brasil, destacando-se pela abundância e rápido crescimento, sendo sua madeira, utilizada, principalmente, como fonte de biomassa, lenha e carvão. Para a realização deste trabalho, foram coletadas árvores com idades entre ...

  5. Germinação de sementes de Cynometra bauhiniifolia Benthan (jutairana em função do dessecamento e da manutenção sob condição úmida Germination of Cynometra bauhiniifolia Benthan (jutairana seeds in terms of desiccation and maintenance under humid conditions

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    Patrícia Nazário


    Full Text Available Jutairana (Cynometra bauhiniifolia é uma espécie, normalmente, encontrada nas margens de rios, lagos e igarapés, que atualmente vem sendo utilizada na arborização urbana da cidade de Manaus (AM. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a viabilidade e o vigor de sementes de Cynometra bauhiniifolia em função da secagem e da manutenção em água de frutos e sementes. Foram desenvolvidos dois ensaios independentes. No primeiro, avaliou-se o efeito do período de secagem (0 a 10 dias, ou do grau de umidade, sobre a germinação e o vigor das sementes, em experimento inteiramente casualizado. No outro, avaliou-se a germinação e o vigor das sementes em função do acondicionamento de frutos, ou de sementes, em água ou ambiente natural, durante o período de 30 dias. Neste, o delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 (condição da semente: no fruto ou isolada x 2 (ambiente de condicionamento: na água e em ambiente natural x 7 (período de acondicionamento: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 dias. As sementes de Cynometra bauhiniifolia são dispersas com alto grau de umidade (54,1 % e perdem a viabilidade quando desidratadas. O teor de água crítico situou-se entre 46,6 % e 41,4 %, enquanto o grau de umidade letal ficou entre 28,2 % e Jutairana (Cynometra bauhiniifolia is a species normally found in river banks, lakes and streams, and is currently being usedfor urban tree planting in the city of Manaus(AM, because of its visual and, or, aesthetic appearance. The object of this study was to evaluate the viability and the vigor of Cynometra bauhinnifolia seeds in terms of drying and maintenanceof fruits and seeds in water. This wasundertaken in two independent experiments. In the first, the effect of the drying period (0 to 10 days, or of moisture content in thegermination and vigor of seeds, wasevaluated in an entirely randomized experiment, with 11 treatments and 4 repetitions. In the other,seed germination and vigor was evaluatedin terms of fruit or seed conservation in water or in natural environment, during one month. In this, the delineation was entirely randomized, in factorial 2 (condition of the seed: in the fruit or isolated X 2 (surrounding of conditioning X 7 (period of conservation: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days, with four repetitions. The Cynometra bauhinnifolia seeds were dispersed with high moisture content (54,1 % and their viability decreased when dehydrated. The critical moisture content was 46,6 % to 41,4 %, while the lethal moisture content was between 28,6 % and <23,9 %, which is a typical characteristic of recalcitrant seeds. The conditioning of fruits, or seeds, in aerated water was satisfactory for the maintenance of theseed viability for 30 days.

  6. Traditionell gegen Malaria eingesetzte Arzneipflanzen


    Kraft, Carola


    This work describes the evaluation of crude extracts from several plant species, traditionally used against malaria, regarding their in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Of the 18 species investigated, four were selected for further phytochemical and pharmacological studies. The stems and leaves of Andira inermis (W.Wright) H.B.K., Fabaceae (Panama), the aerial parts of Artemisia afra Jacq., the leaves of Vernonia colorata (Wild.) Drake, Asteraceae (Zimbabwe) and the root b...

  7. Molecular systematics of the Amazonian genus Aldina, a phylogenetically enigmatic ectomycorrhizal lineage of papilionoid legumes. (United States)

    Ramos, Gustavo; de Lima, Haroldo Cavalcante; Prenner, Gerhard; de Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci; Zartman, Charles E; Cardoso, Domingos


    Aldina (Leguminosae) is among the very few ecologically successful ectomycorrhizal lineages in a family largely marked by the evolution of nodulating symbiosis. The genus comprises 20 species predominantly distributed in Amazonia and has been traditionally classified in the tribe Swartzieae because of its radial flowers with an entire calyx and numerous free stamens. The taxonomy of Aldina is complicated due to its poor representation in herbaria and the lack of a robust phylogenetic hypothesis of relationship. Recent phylogenetic analyses of matK and trnL sequences confirmed the placement of Aldina in the 50-kb inversion clade, although the genus remained phylogenetically isolated or unresolved in the context of the evolutionary history of the main early-branching papilionoid lineages. We performed maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of combined chloroplast datasets (matK, rbcL, and trnL) and explored the effect of incomplete taxa or missing data in order to shed light on the enigmatic phylogenetic position of Aldina. Unexpectedly, a sister relationship of Aldina with the Andira clade (Andira and Hymenolobium) is revealed. We suggest that a new tribal phylogenetic classification of the papilionoid legumes should place Aldina along with Andira and Hymenolobium. These results highlight yet another example of the independent evolution of radial floral symmetry within the early-branching Papilionoideae, a large collection of florally heterogeneous lineages dominated by papilionate or bilaterally symmetric flower morphology. PMID:26748266

  8. O critério utilitarista será adequado para situação de risco? Is the utilitarian criterion appropriate for situations of risk?

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    Dalva Alves das Neves


    Full Text Available O utilitarismo difere das teorias éticas que fazem o caráter de bom ou mau de uma ação depender do agente, pois, de acordo com o utilitarismo, é possível que uma ação boa venha resultar de uma motivação ruim no indivíduo. Antes de Jeremy Benthan, fundador do utilitarismo, e Stuart Mill, um dos maiores defensores desta teoria, darem forma ao utilitarismo, o pensamento utilitarista já existia na filosofia antiga inspirado na formulação do princípio da utilidade. Partilhavam a ideia de construir uma ciência positiva dos fatos sociais, afastando-se de qualquer pretensão de encontrar princípios ou verdades absolutas.Utilitarianism differs from ethical theories in which good or evil depend on the agent, since, according to utilitarian thinkers, a good action may result from bad intentions. Before Jeremy Bentham, the founder of the theory, and John Stuart Mill, its strongest advocate, gave utilitarianism its modern form, such kinds of thinking based on the principle of utility had already existed in the philosophy of the ancients. They shared the idea of building up a positive science of social facts, devoid of any quest for first principles or absolute truths.

  9. Extraction and evaluation of condensed tannins from bark of eleven species of trees from Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is made regarding the nature and the amount of condensed tannin which can extract of bark from 11 tree species present in Costa Rica: guanacaste (Enterolobium cyclocarpum), cork oak (Licania arborea), jobo (Spondias mombin), pochote (Pachira quinata), loquat (Manilkara chicle), almond (Andira inermis), oak (Tabebuia rosea), cedar (Cedrela odorata), cenizaro (Samanea saman), pine (Pinus caribaea) and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica). The cortex samples were prepared, dried and extracted with ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were analyzed for condensed tannin content through the number of Stiasny, and characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The species with the highest proportion of extracted material were: guanacaste (9.5841% w/w), pochote (15.0066% w/w), pine (19.3400% w/w) and cypress (10.5300% w/w). The extracts with a higher proportion of condensed tannins have been: cork oak (61.9% w/w), jobo (66.1% w/w), pochote (72.8% w/w), loquat (50.5% w/w), cedar (72.7% w/w) and pine (70.7% w/w). (author)

  10. Caracterização fitofisionômica e levantamento florístico preliminar no Pantanal dos Rios Mortes-Araguaia, Cocalinho, Mato Grosso, Brasil Vegetation types and preliminary floristic survey in the Mortes-Araguaia Pantanal, Cocalinho, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Beatriz Schwantes Marimon


    Full Text Available O presente estudo realizou-se no Pantanal dos Rios Mortes-Araguaia, extensa planície inundável localizada no municípo de Cocalinho, nordeste de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Efetuou-se uma caracterização fitofisionômica e um levantamento florístico preliminar da região. Foram selecionados três Sítios, com fitofisionomias representativas: proximidades do Rio das Mortes (12° 37'S; 50° 55'W, foz do Rio das Mortes com o Araguaia (11° 54'S; 50° 48'W e porção mediana do Rio Cristalino (12° 52'S; 50° 49'W. O método de amostragem adotado foi o de levantamentos rápidos. Foram identificadas oito fitofisionomias: Mata Inundável, Caapão, Babaçual, Cerradão, Cerrado stricto sensu, Campo de Murunduns, Campo de Byrsonima orbignyana e Campo Cerrado de Vochysia rufa. Foram levantadas 248 espécies de árvores, arbustos, sub-arbustos e lianas, distribuídas em 158 gêneros e 62 famílias. As fitofisionomias apresentaram um padrão heterogêneo, sendo que nenhuma das espécies ocorreu em todas elas. Porém, Alibertia edulis (L. Rich. A. Rich., Andira cuyabensis Benth., Maprounea guianensis (Aubl. M. Arg., entre outras, ocorreram em seis das oito fitofisionomias. As famílias com maior riqueza foram: Caesalpiniaceae, Annonaceae e Myrtaceae. Ocorreram algumas semelhanças florísticas com o Pantanal do Rio Paraguai, porém, são necessários estudos mais aprofundados para confirmar. Os padrões de heterogeneidade fitofisionômica indicam que a área estudada necessita de medidas conservacionistas.This study was carried out in the Pantanal of the Mortes and Araguaia rivers, a flooded plain located in Cocalinho, northeastern Mato Grosso, Brazil. The objectives of this study were to conduct a preliminary survey of the flora and to characterize the vegetation types. Three representative sites were selected: one near Rio das Mortes (12° 37'S; 50° 55'W, one at the mouth of Araguaia and Mortes rivers (11° 54'S; 50° 48'W and one in the middle portion of

  11. Extracción y evaluación de taninos condensados a partir de la corteza de once especies maderables de Costa Rica Extraction and evaluation of condensed tannins from bark of eleven species of trees from Costa Rica

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    Jorge Aguilar López


    Full Text Available La naturaleza química de los taninos condensados los convierte en una fuente natural de compuestos orgáni- cos, con una aplicación potencialmente amplia para usos medicinales e industriales. La extracción y análisis de este tipo de metabolitos a partir de la flora de diversas regiones del planeta ha sido el objetivo del estudio de diversos grupos de trabajo, y en este caso se ha querido hacer un aporte al estado del conocimiento actual, realizando un estudio sobre la natu- raleza y la cantidad del tanino condensado que se puede extraer de la corteza de 11 especies arbóreas presentes en Costa Rica: guanacaste (Enterolobium cyclocarpum, alcornoque (Licania arborea, jobo (Spondias mom- bin, pochote (Pachira quinata, níspero (Manilkara chicle, almendro (Andira inermis, roble (Tabebuia rosea, cedro (Cedrela odorata, cenízaro (Samanea saman, pino (Pinus caribaea y ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica. Las muestras de corteza fueron preparadas, secadas y extraídas con etanol. Se analizaron los extractos etanóli- cos para determinar el contenido de taninos condensa- dos a través del número de Stiasny, y se caracterizaron mediante espectroscopía infrarroja (FT-IR. Las especies con mayor proporción de material extraído fueron guanacaste (9.5841% m/m, pochote (15.0066% m/m, pino (19.3400% m/m y ciprés (10.5300% m/m, mientras que los extractos con una mayor proporción de taninos condensados correspondieron a alcornoque (61.9% m/m, jobo (66.1% m/m, pochote (72.8% m/m, níspero (50.5% m/m, cedro (72.7% m/m y pino (70.7% m/m.The chemical nature of condensed tannins offers a natural source of such organic compounds, with potential application to medicinal and industrial uses. The extraction and analysis of this type of metabo- lites from plants of many regions of the world have been the objective of researching groups. In this case, it is desired to contribute to present knowledge, establishing the nature and amounts of condensed tannins extracted

  12. Zinc and Liming Effects on the Development of Cerrado Forest Species (United States)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Soares, M. R.; Moraes, M. I. M.


    The Brazilian Cerrado is considered priority area for conservation of biodiversity. The biome has covered approximately 33% of the territory of the State of São Paulo, but, currently, there are isolated fragments of Cerrado that correspond to less than 7% of its original area. One of the consequences of the natural vegetation removal and soil degradation is the loss of fertility, reduction the nutrient content. There is limited knowledge of the nutritional requirements of native forest species from Cerrado, especially about micronutrients. The aims of this work are: (i) verify the influence of four levels of Zn in soil and three levels of liming on development of six forest species native to the Cerrado biome; (ii) assess Zn deficiency symptoms in native species of Savannah. The treatments were four levels of Zn (0.0; 2.0; 4.0;-1 6.0 kg ha of Zn) and three levels of base saturation (V% = natural, V% = 50% and V% = 70%), cultivated in green house. The forest species studied have different responses to soil correction and fertilization, and were not observed responses regarding biometric parameters (growth in height and dry matter) with respect to the correction of base saturation and soil fertilization with Zn, for seedlings of Tabebuia aurea, Eugenia dysenterica and Astronium graveolens, showing that these species are highly adapted to the conditions of low fertility and showing efficient physiology for Zn absorption, since there was satisfactory growth in conditions of low base saturation (36%), very low content of Zn in soil (0.3 mg dm-3 ) and ideal supply of other nutrients. The species Andira cuyabensis and Anacardium giganteum responded well to fertilization and soil remediation. The omission of Zn resulted in visual symptoms of nutritional deficiency only for the species Tabebuia aurea, Astronium graveolens and Anacardium giganteum. The content of Zn presented significance interaction between Zn doses and V% for species Hymenaea courbaril, Tabebuia aurea and

  13. Planck early results. XIX. All-sky temperature and dust optical depth from Planck and IRAS. Constraints on the "dark gas" in our Galaxy (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chiang, C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Dame, T. M.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Dobashi, K.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fukui, Y.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Grenier, I. A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kawamura, A.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Onishi, T.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paradis, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Poutanen, T.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Reach, W. T.; Reinecke, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, P.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torre, J.-P.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.


    An all sky map of the apparent temperature and optical depth of thermal dust emission is constructed using the Planck-HFI (350μm to 2 mm) andIRAS(100μm) data. The optical depth maps are correlated with tracers of the atomic (Hi) and molecular gas traced by CO. The correlation with the column density of observed gas is linear in the lowest column density regions at high Galactic latitudes. At high NH, the correlation is consistent with that of the lowest NH, for a given choice of the CO-to-H2 conversion factor. In the intermediate NH range, a departure from linearity is observed, with the dust optical depth in excess of the correlation. This excess emission is attributed to thermal emission by dust associated with a dark gas phase, undetected in the available Hi and CO surveys. The 2D spatial distribution of the dark gas in the solar neighbourhood (|bII| > 10°) is shown to extend around known molecular regions traced by CO. The average dust emissivity in the Hi phase in the solar neighbourhood is found to be τD/NHtot = 5.2×10-26 cm2 at 857 GHz. It follows roughly a power law distribution with a spectral index β = 1.8 all the way down to 3 mm, although the SED flattens slightly in the millimetre. Taking into account the spectral shape of the dust optical depth, the emissivity is consistent with previous values derived fromFIRAS measurements at high latitudes within 10%. The threshold for the existence of the dark gas is found at NHtot = (8.0±0.58)×1020 H cm-2 (AV = 0.4mag). Assuming the same high frequency emissivity for the dust in the atomic and the molecular phases leads to an average XCO = (2.54 ± 0.13) × 1020 H2 cm-2/(K km s-1). The mass of dark gas is found to be 28% of the atomic gas and 118% of the CO emitting gas in the solar neighbourhood. The Galactic latitude distribution shows that its mass fraction is relatively constant down to a few degrees from the Galactic plane. A possible explanation for the dark gas lies in a dark molecular phase, where