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Sample records for andino vultur gryphus

  1. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador: Geographic Distribution, Population Size and Extinction Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveda-Rodríguez, Adrián; Vargas, Félix Hernán; Kohn, Sebastián; Zapata-Ríos, Galo

    2016-01-01

    The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA) for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation.

  2. Sympatric occurrence of four Cathartid vultures in the dry forests of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dry forests of north-western Peru. Robert S R Williams. Frankfurt Zoological Society and Asociación TuTierra. rob@szfperu.org. This photograph, taken with a cameratrap, shows four species of Cathartid vultures: Andean Condor Vultur gryphus, King. Vulture Sarcoramphus papa, Turkey. Vulture Cathartes aura and Black ...

  3. Cape Vulture usurps Bearded Vulture nest | Crowson | Vulture News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cape Vulture usurps Bearded Vulture nest. John Crowson, Sonja Krüger. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  4. VULTURE NEWS 55.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-09-02

    Sep 2, 2006 ... Does the King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa use a sense of smell to locate food? Ibis 126: 67-69. Houston, D.C. 1986. Scavenging efficacy of Turkey Vultures in Tropical Forest. Condor 88: 318-323. Stager, K.E. 1964. The role of olfaction in food location by the Turkey Vulture. Contrib. Sci. (Los Ang.) 8: 1.

  5. Trade in Andean Condor Vulture gryphus feathers and body parts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    commitments under international conventions and act immediately to stop this illegal trade, which is further threatening a species that is already in a precarious situation. Resumen. La venta de ... level (IUCN 2011) and Endangered in Peru.

  6. Trade in Andean Condor Vulture gryphus feathers and body parts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    body parts in the city of Cusco and the Sacred Valley,. Cusco region, Peru. Robert S. R. ... The sale of Andean Condor feathers and body parts is undertaken openly in the tourist markets of Cusco and the Sacred .... and shops. Prices in local currency – Nuevo Sol and US Dollar equivalent given in parentheses). Feather.

  7. VULTURE NEWS 55.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Hooded Vulture Neophron monachus occurs naturally in most of Zambia's rural areas, especially around large cattle farms and human habitations. Being next to a large game farm, The Meintjes have a number of Hooded Vultures on their farm, Kamfinsa Dairy Farm. About seven years ago they slaughtered a sheep.

  8. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  9. Vulture updates - October 2016 - Around the World of Vultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    2016-10-17

    Oct 17, 2016 ... The CMS Africa-Eurasian Vulture. Multi-species Action Plan ... a novel success there. African roundup: The 2nd. Pan-. African Vulture Summit was integrated with Africa's regional contribution to the CMS Vulture. MsAP and was held as part of .... The movements of those birds have generated considerable ...

  10. VULTURE NEWS 55.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-09-02

    Sep 2, 2006 ... this predatory behaviour had a profound impact on chick mortality rates. Even after the chicks fledged and began flying around the pan, the vultures persisted with predation. In earlyMay many of the juvenile birds had already joined the adult population in the remaining waters in the northern section of Sua ...

  11. VULTURE NEWS 55.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Education Environnementale et de. Protection des Oiseaux au Maroc) has produced a poster on the Griffon Vulture. Gyps fulvus, in collaboration with the. HCEFLCD (Haut Commissariat au. Eaux et Forêts et à la Lutte Contre la. Désertification) and ...

  12. VULTURE NEWS 55.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-09-02

    Sep 2, 2006 ... trapping expedition* to Chhep district,. Preah Vihear province ... Our trap had been baited the previous evening with a young cow, and within two hours of sunrise had attracted a mixed flock of 54 vultures. The birds strung themselves out in the trees above the bait ... patterns and to locate nest locations. As.

  13. Vultures and honeybees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZeldaH

    in the Ganab area of the Namib-Naukluft. Park, Namibia, we came across an unusual occurrence: When we reached the chick in the nest, we found honeybees Apis mellifera, crowded over and covering the eyes of the young vulture. The Namib-Naukluft Park (NNP),. 49,785 km², is the largest conservation area in Namibia ...

  14. Need and seek for dietary micronutrients: endogenous regulation, external signalling and food sources of carotenoids in new world vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Blanco

    Full Text Available Among birds, vultures show low concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to the combination of their large size, general dull colouration and a diet based on carrion. We recorded the concentration of each carotenoid type present in plasma of the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus according to age and sex, that determine colour signalling and dominance hierarchies in the carcasses. We compared the carotenoid profile in wild condors with that of captive condors fed with a controlled diet of flesh to test the hypothesis that wild individuals could acquire extra carotenoids from vegetal matter contained in carcass viscera and fresh vegetation. Wild American black vultures (Coragyps atratus were also sampled to evaluate the potential influence of colouration in the integument on absorption and accumulation patterns of plasma carotenoids. A remarkably higher concentration of lutein than β-carotene was found in wild condors, while the contrary pattern was recorded in American black vultures and captive condors. We found a consistent decrease in all plasma carotenoids with age, and a lower concentration of most xanthophylls in male compared to female wild condors. Positive correlations of all carotenoids indicated general common absorption and accumulation strategies or a single dietary source containing all pigments found in plasma. The comparatively low total concentration of carotenoids, and especially of lutein rather than β-carotene, found in captive condors fed with a diet restricted to flesh supports the hypothesis that Andean condors can efficiently acquire carotenoids from vegetal matter in the wild. Andean condors seem to be physiologically more competent in the uptake or accumulation of xanthophylls than American black vultures, which agrees with the use of colour-signalling strategies in sexual and competitive contexts in the Andean condor. This study suggests that vultures may use dietary vegetal supplements that provide pigments and

  15. Need and Seek for Dietary Micronutrients: Endogenous Regulation, External Signalling and Food Sources of Carotenoids in New World Vultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Guillermo; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Lambertucci, Sergio A.; Bautista, Luis M.; Wiemeyer, Guillermo; Sanchez-Zapata, José A.; Garrido-Fernández, Juan; Hiraldo, Fernando; Donázar, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Among birds, vultures show low concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to the combination of their large size, general dull colouration and a diet based on carrion. We recorded the concentration of each carotenoid type present in plasma of the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) according to age and sex, that determine colour signalling and dominance hierarchies in the carcasses. We compared the carotenoid profile in wild condors with that of captive condors fed with a controlled diet of flesh to test the hypothesis that wild individuals could acquire extra carotenoids from vegetal matter contained in carcass viscera and fresh vegetation. Wild American black vultures (Coragyps atratus) were also sampled to evaluate the potential influence of colouration in the integument on absorption and accumulation patterns of plasma carotenoids. A remarkably higher concentration of lutein than β-carotene was found in wild condors, while the contrary pattern was recorded in American black vultures and captive condors. We found a consistent decrease in all plasma carotenoids with age, and a lower concentration of most xanthophylls in male compared to female wild condors. Positive correlations of all carotenoids indicated general common absorption and accumulation strategies or a single dietary source containing all pigments found in plasma. The comparatively low total concentration of carotenoids, and especially of lutein rather than β-carotene, found in captive condors fed with a diet restricted to flesh supports the hypothesis that Andean condors can efficiently acquire carotenoids from vegetal matter in the wild. Andean condors seem to be physiologically more competent in the uptake or accumulation of xanthophylls than American black vultures, which agrees with the use of colour-signalling strategies in sexual and competitive contexts in the Andean condor. This study suggests that vultures may use dietary vegetal supplements that provide pigments and micronutrients that are

  16. In South Asia, it's cattle vs vultures | Ganguli | Vulture News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Asia, it's cattle vs vultures. Ishani Ganguli. Abstract. No Abstract. Vulture News Vol. 55, 2006: 50-51. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  17. Vulture News - Vol 66 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of urbanization and agricultural development on vultures in El Salvador · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Michael O'Neal Campbell, 16-28 ...

  18. Vulture News - Vol 55 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First record of Himalayan Griffon vulture Gyps himalyensis in Chhep, Preah Vihear, northern Cambodia · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Martin Gilbert, Song Chansocheat, Nadia Sureda, 4-5 ...

  19. Vulture News - Vol 56 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radio-satelllite telemetry of a territorial bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus in the Caucasus · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Gavashelishvili, MJ McGrady, 4-13 ...

  20. The microbiome of New World vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggenbuck, Michael; Bærholm Schnell, Ida; Blom, Nikolaj; Bælum, Jacob; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Pontén, Thomas Sicheritz; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Graves, Gary R; Hansen, Lars H

    2014-11-25

    Vultures are scavengers that fill a key ecosystem niche, in which they have evolved a remarkable tolerance to bacterial toxins in decaying meat. Here we report the first deep metagenomic analysis of the vulture microbiome. Through face and gut comparisons of 50 vultures representing two species, we demonstrate a remarkably conserved low diversity of gut microbial flora. The gut samples contained an average of 76 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per specimen, compared with 528 OTUs on the facial skin. Clostridia and Fusobacteria, widely pathogenic to other vertebrates, dominate the vulture's gut microbiota. We reveal a likely faecal-oral-gut route for their origin. DNA of prey species detectable on facial swabs was completely degraded in the gut samples from most vultures, suggesting that the gastrointestinal tracts of vultures are extremely selective. Our findings show a strong adaption of vultures and their bacteria to their food source, exemplifying a specialized host-microbial alliance.

  1. The microbiome of New World vultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roggenbuck, Michael; Schnell, Ida Baerholm; Blom, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    Vultures are scavengers that fill a key ecosystem niche, in which they have evolved a remarkable tolerance to bacterial toxins in decaying meat. Here we report the first deep metagenomic analysis of the vulture microbiome. Through face and gut comparisons of 50 vultures representing two species, we...... demonstrate a remarkably conserved low diversity of gut microbial flora. The gut samples contained an average of 76 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per specimen, compared with 528 OTUs on the facial skin. Clostridia and Fusobacteria, widely pathogenic to other vertebrates, dominate the vulture's gut...... microbiota. We reveal a likely faecal-oral-gut route for their origin. DNA of prey species detectable on facial swabs was completely degraded in the gut samples from most vultures, suggesting that the gastrointestinal tracts of vultures are extremely selective. Our findings show a strong adaption of vultures...

  2. Mighty vulture back from near extinction | Nickerson | Vulture News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. Vulture News Vol. 56 () 2007: pp.104-105. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

  3. Vulture worries stalk activists on Uttarayan | Anon | Vulture News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vulture News. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 56 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web ...

  4. Vulture worries stalk activists on Uttarayan | Anon | Vulture News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. Vulture News Vol. 56 () 2007: pp.103-103. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

  5. Vulture News - Vol 60 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    second count of vultures at carcasses in Uganda, and a revised proposal for a standardised method · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. D Pomeroy, A Byaruhangab, G Kaphu, M Opige, M Masiko, B Lutuk, 15-21 ...

  6. Vulture News - Vol 58 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scavenging and predation by Black Vultures Coragyps atratus at a South American sea lion breeding colony · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. HJ Pavés, RP Schlatter, CI Espinoza, 4-15 ...

  7. Nandankanan zoo to house vultures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of epidemics by eating the carcasses before they rot and are known to feed on rotting flesh without any adverse effect on them. The Indian White-backed. Vulture in 1992 number was more than 100 times than the 2003 number. Although they hang out in smelly places and eat carcasses, research shows that if given a choice ...

  8. Chick success for Asian vultures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-02

    Mar 2, 2007 ... of international zoo programmes, said the society had been heavily involved in the centre since the late 1990s. “It was established with a UK government ... about the extinction of the vultures,” he warned. “The communities that use this drug can be remote; cattle are literally found in their millions and people ...

  9. The microbiome of New World vultures

    OpenAIRE

    Roggenbuck, Michael; Schnell, Ida Baerholm; Blom, Nikolaj; Bælum, Jacob; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Graves, Gary R.; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Vultures are scavengers that fill a key ecosystem niche, in which they have evolved a remarkable tolerance to bacterial toxins in decaying meat. Here we report the first deep metagenomic analysis of the vulture microbiome. Through face and gut comparisons of 50 vultures representing two species, we demonstrate a remarkably conserved low diversity of gut microbial flora. The gut samples contained an average of 76 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per specimen, compared with 528 OTUs on the fa...

  10. Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus and African White-backed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basic ecological information is still lacking for many species of African vultures. The Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus is known as a rare breeding resident in north-eastern South Africa. This study set out to monitor the nests of Hooded Vultures and, secondarily, White-backed Vultures Gyps africanus in the Olifants ...

  11. Significant population of Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus population in Morocco has undergone a marked decline since the 1980s to the point of nearing local extinction in the twenty-first century. A field study of some possible sites for Egyptian Vultures was carried out over six days during June 2014 in the Middle Atlas Mountains, ...

  12. Vulture worries stalk activists on Uttarayan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-01

    Mar 1, 2007 ... Vulture worries stalk activists on Uttarayan. Anon. Ahmedabad – When kites take to the skies on Uttarayan, animal activists will be biting their nails in apprehension. Their main concern is the White-rumped. Vulture, a highly endangered species, of which only 137 birds are left in the city, according to figures ...

  13. Collision vulnerability of vultures at established windfarms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    Acquisition (SCADA) systems. (Davenport et al. 2011) as well as the strategic positioning of vulture restaurants to draw vultures away from these areas (Martin et al. 2012). Acknowledgements. An unknown reviewer is thanked for comments on a previous draft of this note. References. Baidya Roy, S., Pacala, S.W. & Walko, ...

  14. Dallas Zoo hunts for escaped vulture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shows eating off the antelopes that lions kill and everything,” Mr Brown said. The African White-backed vultures have been at the zoo since August. They're expected to be part of an exhibit that is undergoing renovations. Mr Brown said vultures are hardy, resourceful animals. When the missing bird becomes hungry,.

  15. Visitors to nests of Hooded Vultures Necrosyrtes monachus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We recommend expanding the Hooded Vulture nest monitoring programme to include more pairs. Keywords: Alopochen aegyptiaca, Chacma Baboon, Egyptian Goose, Hooded Vulture, Kruger-to-Canyons Biosphere Region, Martial Eagle, Necrosyrtes monachus, nest visitors, Papio ursinus, Polemaetus bellicosus ...

  16. Removal (and attempted removal) of material from a Hooded Vulture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relatively little is documented about nest material theft in vultures. We used camera traps to monitor Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus nests for a year. We report camera trap photographs of a starling Lamprotornis sp. removing what appeared to be dung from an inactive Hooded Vulture nest on Cleveland Game ...

  17. Ecology and behaviour of Palm-nut Vultures Gypohierax angolensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Populations of many vulture species have undergone substantial declines. In Africa, 82% are threatened and although research on vultures has increased, the biology and ecology of several species is still poorly known. The Palm-nut Vulture Gypohierax angolensis has peculiar ecological characteristics, feeding on palm ...

  18. The impact of urbanization and agricultural development on vultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methodology uses point count surveys of vulture species density along an urban to forest gradient (dense downtown areas, suburbs, rural villages and farms, mixed uninhabited savanna, open and closed forests). The very common Black Vulture and the slightly less common Turkey Vulture were most often recorded in ...

  19. VULTURES: EXEGESIS OF A SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Andreoni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the different cultures and historical periods, vultures have been considered both impure or sacred. But, since they usually do not prey upon living animals, their symbolic dimension, associated to the idea of purification, is present in many myths, religions, burial praxis of ancient populations and remains in some religions today.In the ancient Mediterranean civilizations, they have been carved in some of the most ancient bas-reliefs of the history by stone age people; were sacred to Egyptians, who even took them as symbol of gods; in the classical times they were supposed to be all feminine and breed by parthenogenesis, and therefore appreciated by some early Christian authors, who came to comparing them even to the Virgin Mary; they have been studied and described by ancient scientists, naturalists, philosophers, playwrights; involved in many of the most enduring Greek and Roman myths and legends; many parts of their body were considered as a medicine or even a talisman for happiness; and they were so proverbial for Romans to become even one of the symbols of the founding of Rome itself.But they were also so fragile that perfumes, myrrh and pomegranates were supposed to be lethal for them ….

  20. Homesick vulture moves into retirement village

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-01

    Mar 1, 2007 ... contact him on (031) 785-2981. Raptor. Rescue is based at the newly opened. African Bird of Prey Centre on the Lion. Park road where other vultures and many species of hawks, owls and eagles are on display. This is also where Hoffman's wife, Shannon, and her team, present daily flying demonstrations.

  1. Avian Pox in Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    Vulture Cathartes aura meridionalis was captured for wing-tagging on San. Francisco, Zulia state, Venezuela. (10°32'15"N, -71°38'10"W). Nodular cutaneous lesions were observed on the head (Figure 1A). Sections of the skin were removed and fixed in 10% buffer formalin and submitted to. Laboratorio de. Diagnostico.

  2. Congregations of wintering Egyptian Vultures Neophron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nearly half of the birds were adults and the majority roosted on bird-safe types of electric pylons. Most of the Egyptian Vultures were found below 500 m above sea level, in bare areas, open savannas or grasslands, and their abundance was negatively related to the amount of cover of bush vegetation. The distribution of ...

  3. Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, J T; Bildstein, K L; Bohrer, G; Winkler, D W

    2008-12-09

    We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change.

  4. Dropping dead: causes and consequences of vulture population declines worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L; Keesing, Felicia; Virani, Munir Z

    2012-02-01

    Vultures are nature's most successful scavengers, and they provide an array of ecological, economic, and cultural services. As the only known obligate scavengers, vultures are uniquely adapted to a scavenging lifestyle. Vultures' unique adaptations include soaring flight, keen eyesight, and extremely low pH levels in their stomachs. Presently, 14 of 23 (61%) vulture species worldwide are threatened with extinction, and the most rapid declines have occurred in the vulture-rich regions of Asia and Africa. The reasons for the population declines are varied, but poisoning or human persecution, or both, feature in the list of nearly every declining species. Deliberate poisoning of carnivores is likely the most widespread cause of vulture poisoning. In Asia, Gyps vultures have declined by >95% due to poisoning by the veterinary drug diclofenac, which was banned by regional governments in 2006. Human persecution of vultures has occurred for centuries, and shooting and deliberate poisoning are the most widely practiced activities. Ecological consequences of vulture declines include changes in community composition of scavengers at carcasses and an increased potential for disease transmission between mammalian scavengers at carcasses. There have been cultural and economic costs of vulture declines as well, particularly in Asia. In the wake of catastrophic vulture declines in Asia, regional governments, the international scientific and donor communities, and the media have given the crisis substantial attention. Even though the Asian vulture crisis focused attention on the plight of vultures worldwide, the situation for African vultures has received relatively little attention especially given the similar levels of population decline. While the Asian crisis has been largely linked to poisoning by diclofenac, vulture population declines in Africa have numerous causes, which have made conserving existing populations more difficult. And in Africa there has been little

  5. Effects of vulture exclusion on carrion consumption by facultative scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jacob E; DeVault, Travis L; Beasley, James C; Rhodes, Olin E; Belant, Jerrold L

    2018-03-01

    Vultures provide an essential ecosystem service through removal of carrion, but globally, many populations are collapsing and several species are threatened with extinction. Widespread declines in vulture populations could increase the availability of carrion to other organisms, but the ways facultative scavengers might respond to this increase have not been thoroughly explored. We aimed to determine whether facultative scavengers increase carrion consumption in the absence of vulture competition and whether they are capable of functionally replacing vultures in the removal of carrion biomass from the landscape. We experimentally excluded 65 rabbit carcasses from vultures during daylight hours and placed an additional 65 carcasses that were accessible to vultures in forested habitat in South Carolina, USA during summer (June-August). We used motion-activated cameras to compare carrion use by facultative scavenging species between the experimental and control carcasses. Scavenging by facultative scavengers did not increase in the absence of competition with vultures. We found no difference in scavenger presence between control carcasses and those from which vultures were excluded. Eighty percent of carcasses from which vultures were excluded were not scavenged by vertebrates, compared to 5% of carcasses that were accessible to vultures. At the end of the 7-day trials, there was a 10.1-fold increase in the number of experimental carcasses that were not fully scavenged compared to controls. Facultative scavengers did not functionally replace vultures during summer in our study. This finding may have been influenced by the time of the year in which the study took place, the duration of the trials, and the spacing of carcass sites. Our results suggest that under the warm and humid conditions of our study, facultative scavengers would not compensate for loss of vultures. Carcasses would persist longer in the environment and consumption of carrion would likely shift from

  6. Observations of White-backed Vultures eating plant material in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    campbell

    small quantities of the green leaves and eagerly feed on dried leaves after the first winter frost without obvious negative effects (H. Stehn, pers. obs.). On being informed of the incident, NT was intrigued, as he had never heard of vultures eating plant material and as White-backed. Vultures eat primarily soft body parts and do ...

  7. Vultures have flown under radar Population boom inspires scientists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-02

    Mar 2, 2007 ... Page 1 ... age structure is.” USDA researchers are fitting 16 vultures with satellite transmitters this month to document movements and behavioural patterns of vultures near the Marine Corps Air. Station in Beaufort, S.C. The project will ... emergency landing at Merritt Island. Airport. “You're always constantly ...

  8. The impact of traditional use on vultures in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    are betting and gambling, for improved business success, and intelligence in school children. Vulture is ... some 59,000 consumption events of vulture pieces. The total ... spirits (Berglund 1976). For this ... plants and animals to earn a living .... relationship with traders / Traditional. Healers at ..... through enhanced policy and.

  9. Population and breeding success of Red-headed Vulture Sarcogyps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    the population trends of Red-headed and Egyptian Vultures in Nepal, where this study was undertaken. Large-scale surveys of domestic ungulate carcasses (the principal food source of vultures in South Asia) across India indicate that 10-11% of carcasses are contaminated with diclofenac (Cuthbert et al. 2011b).

  10. Coprophagy of African Wild Dog faeces by Hooded Vultures in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    Coprophagy by vertebrates is rare, especially among birds and species that consume the faeces of other species (Soave & Brand 1991,. Hirakawa 2001, Shimada 2012). While New World Vultures practice coprophagy (Del Hoyo et al. 1994,. Buckley 1999, Blanco et al. 2013), the only Old World vulture we could find that ...

  11. Lappet-faced Vulture (Torgos tracheliotos) breeding in Ithala Game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predator simulation, re-colonization, KwaZulu-Natal. African White-backed Vulture Gyps africanus, Lappet-faced. Vulture Torgos tracheliotos. Authors' addresses: Ian Rushworth & James Wakelin, Ezemvelo KwaZulu-Natal. Wildlife, P.O. Box 13053, Cascades 3202, KwaZulu-Natal,. South Africa; Gary Bawden, Ithala Game ...

  12. Vulture significance in Ogoni Culture | Saale | AFRREV LALIGENS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explained the spiritual and social significance of vulture in Ogoni culture. It also explained how the use of vulture to refer to human beings and its characteristics became sources of social relations and conflicts in Ogoni culture. It adopted both the anthropological and sociological approaches. Findings from the ...

  13. Tree-nesting Rüppells Griffon vultures | Rondeau | Vulture News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guy Rondeau, Phlippe Pilard, Bernard Ahon, Moussa Coundé. Abstract. No Abstract. Vulture News Vol. 55, 2006: 14-22. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  14. The vultures at the crossroads of biodiversity, politics, tourism, the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZeldaH

    ... (Orabi 2011), or by consuming carcasses of cattle treated ... in the functioning of communities (Choisy. 2003). ... eaten by vultures at small feeding sites operated by ... water supplies can be polluted. The ..... The integrated biogeographic and.

  15. EL español andino. II parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Arboleda Toro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En el número 13 de esta revista (nov. del 2000 se publicó una primera parte del estudio sobre el español andino. Presentamos ahora una segunda parte que comprende aspectos histórico-geográficos de Nariño y Putumayo andinos, región de Colombia donde se habla esa variedad, y una descripción general de su realidad lingüística. Esperamos que sean objeto de otra publicación la descripción de los rasgos dialectales del español andino, parte nuclear del trabajo, y la presentación de la metodología y el corpus. En esto nos encontramos trabajando. Incluimos no obstante un inventario de rasgos más amplio que el presentado en la primera parte. Pero por ahora se trata de eso, de un inventario ilustrativo, no del análisis en el que estamos empeñados, en el marco del contacto de lenguas, el cambio lingüístico y la relación entre la norma y las posibilidades del sistema. Para contextualizar esta segunda parte, incluimos, a manera de introducción, un resumen de la primera.

  16. Fine-scale assessment of home ranges and activity patterns for resident black vultures (Coragyps atratus and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Holland

    Full Text Available Knowledge of black vulture (Coragyps atratus and turkey vulture (Cathartes aura spatial ecology is surprisingly limited despite their vital ecological roles. Fine-scale assessments of space use patterns and resource selection are particularly lacking, although development of tracking technologies has allowed data collection at finer temporal and spatial resolution. Objectives of this study were to conduct the first assessment of monthly home range and core area sizes of resident black and turkey vultures with consideration to sex, as well as elucidate differences in monthly, seasonal, and annual activity patterns based on fine-scale movement data analyses. We collected 2.8-million locations for 9 black and 9 turkey vultures from June 2013 -August 2015 using solar-powered GSM/GPS transmitters. We quantified home ranges and core areas using the dynamic Brownian bridge movement model and evaluated differences as a function of species, sex, and month. Mean monthly home ranges for turkey vultures were ~50% larger than those of black vultures, although mean core area sizes did not differ between species. Turkey vulture home ranges varied little across months, with exception to a notable reduction in space-use in May, which corresponds with timing of chick-rearing activities. Black vulture home ranges and core areas as well as turkey vulture core areas were larger in breeding season months (January-April. Comparison of space use between male and female vultures was only possible for black vultures, and space use was only slightly larger for females during breeding months (February-May. Analysis of activity patterns revealed turkey vultures spend more time in flight and switch motion states (between flight and stationary more frequently than black vultures across temporal scales. This study reveals substantive variability in space use and activity rates between sympatric black and turkey vultures, providing insights into potential behavioral mechanisms

  17. Some statistics from the 2012 Lappet-faced Vulture chick ringing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    The long and the short of it: Some statistics from the 2012. Lappet-faced Vulture chick ringing in the Namib. Holger Kolberg1 and Peter Bridgeford2. Vultures Namibia, P.O. Box 3699, Walvis Bay, Namibia. 1 email: holgerk@mweb.com.na, 2 email: pmbridge@iway.na. Vultures Namibia once again ringed. Lappet-faced.

  18. Comoé National Park – a refuge for critically endangered vulture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    vulture nests to assess the status of the different species in the south- west of the park;. 2. To capture two White- headed Vultures or White-backed. Vultures to equip them with satellite tags;. 3. To introduce the project to the park-authorities of the Office. Ivorien des Parcs et Reserves. (OIPR), to the Deutsche Gesellschaft.

  19. Removing the threat of diclofenac to critically endangered Asian vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Swan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary use of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID drug diclofenac in South Asia has resulted in the collapse of populations of three vulture species of the genus Gyps to the most severe category of global extinction risk. Vultures are exposed to diclofenac when scavenging on livestock treated with the drug shortly before death. Diclofenac causes kidney damage, increased serum uric acid concentrations, visceral gout, and death. Concern about this issue led the Indian Government to announce its intention to ban the veterinary use of diclofenac by September 2005. Implementation of a ban is still in progress late in 2005, and to facilitate this we sought potential alternative NSAIDs by obtaining information from captive bird collections worldwide. We found that the NSAID meloxicam had been administered to 35 captive Gyps vultures with no apparent ill effects. We then undertook a phased programme of safety testing of meloxicam on the African white-backed vulture Gyps africanus, which we had previously established to be as susceptible to diclofenac poisoning as the endangered Asian Gyps vultures. We estimated the likely maximum level of exposure (MLE of wild vultures and dosed birds by gavage (oral administration with increasing quantities of the drug until the likely MLE was exceeded in a sample of 40 G. africanus. Subsequently, six G. africanus were fed tissues from cattle which had been treated with a higher than standard veterinary course of meloxicam prior to death. In the final phase, ten Asian vultures of two of the endangered species (Gyps bengalensis, Gyps indicus were dosed with meloxicam by gavage; five of them at more than the likely MLE dosage. All meloxicam-treated birds survived all treatments, and none suffered any obvious clinical effects. Serum uric acid concentrations remained within the normal limits throughout, and were significantly lower than those from birds treated with diclofenac in other studies. We conclude that

  20. Vulture rescue and rehabilitation in South Africa: An urban perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naidoo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available SouthAfrica is home to 9 vulture species, of which 7 are endangered. While the cause of the population declines remains largely speculative, a vast amount of effort has been dedicated towards the protection of populations by ensuring sustainable and safe food sources for the various colonies. Limited focus was placed in the past on efforts related to the rescue and/or rehabilitation (R&R of injured birds and the release of these birds back into the wild. This paper provides an overview of the causes, the impact and success of 3 organisations involved in R&R efforts of vultures in the Magaliesberg mountain range and surrounding areas over a period of 10 years. Study material included 162 Cape griffon (CGV and 38 African white-backed (AWBV vultures. Datasets include the number, sex and age of birds received, the reason the vultures were brought in for R&R, surgical interventions performed and outcomes of rescue efforts. The CGV dominated the rehabilitation attempts. Results further show that a large number of apparently healthy birds were presented for veterinary treatment. The R&R data clearly indicate that the major cause of injuries was birds colliding with overhead pylons, as a high number of soft tissue and skeletal injuries were observed. The study also shows that successful releases of rescued birds are possible. It is concluded that urbanisation has had a major negative impact on vultures around the Magaliesberg mountain range.

  1. LA EVIDENCIALIDAD EN EL CASTELLANO ANDINO NARIÑENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ómar Andrés Portilla Melo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En este texto se hace una descripción de un fenómeno de transferencia semánticopragmática a nivel modal del quechua al castellano andino de la región nariñense. El trabajo está organizado de la siguiente manera: en primer lugar, se introduce el concepto de evidencialidad; después, se hace una breve descripción histórica del quechua y una introducción a su tipología, y, finalmente, se explica la manera en que el contacto lingüístico quechua-español le dio al castellano andino nariñense los aspectos que lo caracterizan. La metodología usada fue la entrevista etnográfica. Como resultado se obtuvo que la influencia del quechua en el castellano del departamento de Nariño no se dio solamente a nivel léxico o sintáctico, sino que alcanzó niveles más profundos.

  2. La evidencialidad en el castellano andino nariñense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portilla Melo Omar Andrés

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este texto se hace una descripción de un fenómeno de transferencia semánticopragmática a nivel modal del quechua al castellano andino de la región nariñense. El trabajo está organizado de la siguiente manera: en primer lugar, se introduce el concepto de evidencialidad; después, se hace una breve descripción histórica del quechua y una introducción a su tipología, y, finalmente, se explica la manera en que el contacto lingüístico quechua-español le dio al castellano andino nariñense los aspectos que lo caracterizan. La metodología usada fue la entrevista etnográfica. Como resultado se obtuvo que la influencia del quechua en el castellano del departamento de Nariño no se dio solamente a nivel léxico o sintáctico, sino que alcanzó niveles más profundos.

  3. La evidencialidad en el castellano andino nariñense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ómar Andrés Portilla Melo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este texto se hace una descripción de un fenómeno de transferencia semánticopragmática a nivel modal del quechua al castellano andino de la región nariñense. El trabajo está organizado de la siguiente manera: en primer lugar, se introduce el concepto de evidencialidad; después, se hace una breve descripción histórica del quechua y una introducción a su tipología, y, finalmente, se explica la manera en que el contacto lingüístico quechua-español le dio al castellano andino nariñense los aspectos que lo caracterizan. La metodología usada fue la entrevista etnográfica. Como resultado se obtuvo que la influencia del quechua en el castellano del departamento de Nariño no se dio solamente a nivel léxico o sintáctico, sino que alcanzó niveles más profundos.

  4. Metabolism of aceclofenac in cattle to vulture-killing diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galligan, T H; Taggart, M A; Cuthbert, R J; Svobodova, D; Chipangura, J; Alderson, D; Prakash, V M; Naidoo, V

    2016-10-01

    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac is highly toxic to Gyps vultures, and its recent widespread use in South Asia caused catastrophic declines in at least 3 scavenging raptors. The manufacture of veterinary formulations of diclofenac has since been banned across the region with mixed success. However, at least 12 other NSAIDs are available for veterinary use in South Asia. Aceclofenac is one of these compounds, and it is known to metabolize into diclofenac in some mammal species. The metabolic pathway of aceclofenac in cattle, the primary food of vultures in South Asia, is unknown. We gave 6 cattle the recommended dose of aceclofenac (2 mg/kg), collected blood thereafter at intervals for up to 12 h, and used liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry in a pharmacokinetic analysis of aceclofenac and diclofenac in the plasma. Nearly all the aceclofenac administered to the cattle was very rapidly metabolized into diclofenac. At 2 h, half the aceclofenac had been converted into diclofenac, and at 12 h four-fifths of the aceclofenac had been converted into diclofenac. Therefore, administering aceclofenac to livestock poses the same risk to vultures as administering diclofenac to livestock. This, coupled with the risk that aceclofenac may replace diclofenac in the veterinary market, points to the need for an immediate ban on all aceclofenac formulations that can be used to treat livestock. Without such a ban, the recovery of vultures across South Asia will not be successful. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. The decline of an urban Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Likely causes are (1) exponential urbanisation resulting in loss of feeding sites and reduced food availability, (2) increased poisoning of feral dogs with strychnine sulphate due to an upsurge of rabies and (3) increased disappearance of suitable trees for nesting and roosting. Keywords: cutting of trees, Hooded Vulture, ...

  6. Observation of a population of Egyptian Vultures Neophron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour 49:227- 267. Baral, N., R. Gautam & B. Tamang .2005. Population status and breeding ecology of White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis in Rampur Valley,. Nepal. Forktail 21: 87-91. Brandl, R., Utschick, H & Schmidtke, K. 1985. Raptors and land-use systems.

  7. Devil's Claw – a natural substitute for diclofenac? | Mundy | Vulture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vulture News. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 67, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your ...

  8. Traditional medicine trade in vulture parts in northern Nigeria | Saidu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report findings on the vulture trade in northern Nigeria, where it is commonly practised especially to supply the traditional medicine industry. We administered an open-ended questionnaire to 113 traditional, predominantly Hausa medicinal traders in 39 markets within eight states in northern Nigeria. Of the interviewed ...

  9. Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres caught in gin trap

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    campbell

    its right foot fly into its nest situated on a cliff face and containing a large chick. The chain used to tether the trap to the ground could be clearly seen dangling below the flying bird. We have no way of knowing whether the deployment of this trap was accidental or intentional relative to its having caught a Cape Vulture.

  10. Observation of a population of Egyptian Vultures Neophron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    Forest between 2013 and 2014 in Karnataka, southern India. ... could affect other animals and humans (Ogada ... Nepal (Cuthbert et al. .... most people are Hindu and therefore .... Bathing behavior and waterhole importance of white-rumped vulture ... strategies in a flock-living bird: movement and social cohesion of hooded.

  11. Report on Kwando (Botswana) Vulture poisoning investigation 16 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    2013-11-16

    Nov 16, 2013 ... and only two white-back vulture remains were found. Although no tusks were present, we saw no evidence of chopping of the maxilla on this elephant skull. It is possible that all three carcasses were poisoned, but the majority of the dead birds were found at Carcass 1 and 2. Both carcasses were further ...

  12. The impact of urbanization and agricultural development on vultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    along an urban to forest gradient (dense downtown areas, suburbs, rural villages and farms ... negatively on many species, including .... landuse, this having more animals ..... behavior of black and turkey vultures: implications for reducing bird– .... Brazil: species richness and abundance and the influence of the survey.

  13. Comparison of eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of new world vultures (Aves: Cathartidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisney, Thomas J.; Stecyk, Karyn; Kolominsky, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Vultures are highly reliant on their sensory systems for the rapid detection and localization of carrion before other scavengers can exploit the resource. In this study, we compared eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of New World vultures (Cathartidae), turkey vultures (Cathartes...... aura), with a highly developed olfactory sense, and black vultures (Coragyps atratus), with a less developed sense of olfaction. We found that eye size relative to body mass was the same in both species, but that black vultures have larger corneas relative to eye size than turkey vultures. However......, the overall retinal topography, the total number of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer, peak and average cell densities, cell soma area frequency distributions, and the theoretical peak anatomical spatial resolving power were the same in both species. This suggests that the visual systems of these two...

  14. Not in wilderness: African vulture strongholds remain in areas with high human density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granadeiro, José Pedro; Monteiro, Hamilton; Nuno, Ana; Lecoq, Miguel; Cardoso, Paulo; Regalla, Aissa; Catry, Paulo

    2018-01-01

    Vultures constitute an important functional group in many ecosystems, providing crucial ecosystem services both in natural and humanized environments. These scavengers are facing massive declines worldwide, but in several African countries virtually nothing is known on populations’ status and threats, hampering the development of adequate conservation strategies. In Guinea-Bissau, globally important populations of Hooded Necrosyrtes monachus and African white-backed vultures Gyps africanus were recently reported. Using the country as a study area, we aim to characterize human-vulture interactions in West Africa applying a multidisciplinary approach. We assessed the status and distribution of vulture populations using data from 1711 km of roadside transects, examined predictors of their distribution, and produced a nationwide population estimate for the Hooded Vulture, using an innovative method based on the relationship between the size of human population in settlements and vulture numbers. We conducted 47 stakeholder interviews to assess perceived roles played by vultures, and to investigate potential anthropogenic threats. Hooded vultures were strongly associated with high human population densities, whereas no relation was found between African white-backed and Rüppell’s vultures and any of the tested predictors, which included cattle density, precipitation and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, among others. We estimate a national population of 43347 Hooded vultures, the largest population reported in the species range. Respondents were generally aware of the services provided by vultures, especially waste and carcass removal, including in urban areas. Hunting for witchcraft and traditional medicine was the most frequently recognised threat, while poisoning was ranked as having the highest impact. We hypothesise that poisoning-related mortality may be affecting African white-backed and Rüppell’s vultures’ distribution and explain their scarcity

  15. Molecular sexing of threatened Gyps vultures: an important strategy for conservation breeding and ecological studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorpade, Prabhakar B; Gupta, Praveen K; Prakash, Vibhu; Cuthbert, Richard J; Kulkarni, Mandar; Prakash, Nikita; Das, Asit; Sharma, Anil K; Saini, Mohini

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades populations of three resident species of Gyps vulture have declined dramatically and are now threatened with extinction in South Asia. Sex identification of vultures is of key importance for the purpose of conservation breeding as it is desirable to have an equal sex ratio in these monogamous species which are housed together in large colony aviaries. Because vultures are monomorphic, with no differences in external morphology or plumage colour between the sexes, o...

  16. Scavenging efficiency and red fox abundance in Mediterranean mountains with and without vultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Reyes, Zebensui; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.; Sebastián-González, Esther; Botella, Francisco; Carrete, Martina; Moleón, Marcos

    2017-02-01

    Vertebrate scavenging assemblages include two major functional groups: obligate scavengers (i.e., vultures), which depend totally on carrion and are undergoing severe declines around the globe, and facultative scavengers, which exploit carrion opportunistically and are generally ubiquitous. Our goal was to investigate the hypothesis that vultures can indirectly regulate the abundance of mesopredators (i.e., facultative scavengers) through modulating their access to carrion resources. We studied scavenging efficiency and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) abundance in two neighbouring areas of South-eastern Spain where vultures (mainly griffon vultures Gyps fulvus) are present (Cazorla) and absent (Espuña). To do so, we monitored ungulate carcasses consumption during winter and summer, and counted red fox scats along walking transects as a proxy of fox density. Our results confirmed that scavenging efficiency was higher in Cazorla and in carcasses visited by vultures. This resulted in increasing scavenging opportunities for facultative scavengers where vultures were absent. Accordingly, mean red fox abundance was higher in Espuña. These results suggest the existence of a vulture-mediated mesopredator release (i.e., an increase of mesopredator numbers following vulture loss), which could trigger important indirect ecological effects. Also, our study demonstrates that facultative scavengers are hardly able to functionally replace vultures, mainly because the former exploit carrion on a slower time scale.

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , ... Vol 53 (2005), Poisoning of seventeen Eurasian Griffons by ... may help save critically endangered Asian vultures, Abstract PDF ... Vol 61 (2011), Trade in Andean Condor Vulture gryphus feathers and body parts in the ...

  18. SOVEREIGN DEBT RESTRUCTURING AND “VULTURE FUNDS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Defining sovereign debt - debt issued or guaranteed by a public entity: central and / or regional public authorities, central banks, public institutions or enterprises - must include the risks that its management may generate, mainly the risk of default. If an medium period of time - 3-5 years – the macroeconomic growth of a state, and as the result the increase of the public revenues constantly lies below the growth of sovereign debt, these will cause an insolvability risk to cover it, and that state should proceed to restructure its debt. Financial stability of public authorities and sovereign debt occurred since the beginning of the creation of democratic states, and instruments for debt restructuring have been continuously adapted to economic and social conjuncture. Initially, states faced a necessity of funding were borrowed from foreign governments and / or large consortia bank, and when their debts had to be restructured it has been created the international institutional framework to negotiate between debtor countries and public creditors - Paris Club - and to coordinate negotiations between public authorities and major debtor consortia - London Club. In the last decade 'vulture funds' occurred, which are hedge funds acquiring from the secondary financial market debt the securities, including public debt, to a much lower share nominal value. Subsequently, vulture funds claim states issuing debt repayment at values close or equal to the face value - in this way can make a profit of more than 100% of the financial investment they made it on the secondary market. If these countries do not comply, generally being unable to honor their public debt, vultures funds act the countries in international courts, which usually prevails because vultures funds’ action is legal under current conditions.

  19. Vulture News 71 November 2016 61 The Editor The Hindu Daily ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    2016-11-17

    Nov 17, 2016 ... governments, Non-Governmental Organizations and researchers to rescue vulture populations from the brink of extinction. Vultures play a very important role in ecosystems and biodiversity conservation by scavenging on dead animals thereby protecting humans from potentially lethal zoonotic diseases.

  20. Natural mortality factors for African White-backed Vultures in Namibia?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-02

    Sep 2, 2007 ... September 2007. Vulture News 57. 63. Figure 2. Lightning damage to the bark of the above camel thorn tree (photographer: Ann Scott). Figure 1. Carcass of an African White-backed Vulture below a nest in a camel thorn tree in the Kalahari Desert, Namibia (photographer: Ann Scott).

  1. Natural mortality factors for African White-backed Vultures in Namibia?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural mortality factors for African White-backed Vultures in Namibia? A Scott, M Scott, P Bridgeford, M Bridgeford. Abstract. No Abstract. Vulture News Vol. 57 2007: pp. 62-64. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Using wind tunnels to predict bird mortality in wind farms: the case of griffon vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucas, Manuela; Ferrer, Miguel; Janss, Guyonne F E

    2012-01-01

    Wind farms have shown a spectacular growth during the last 15 years. Avian mortality through collision with moving rotor blades is well-known as one of the main adverse impacts of wind farms. In Spain, the griffon vulture incurs the highest mortality rates in wind farms. As far as we know, this study is the first attempt to predict flight trajectories of birds in order to foresee potentially dangerous areas for wind farm development. We analyse topography and wind flows in relation to flight paths of griffon vultures, using a scaled model of the wind farm area in an aerodynamic wind tunnel, and test the difference between the observed flight paths of griffon vultures and the predominant wind flows. Different wind currents for each wind direction in the aerodynamic model were observed. Simulations of wind flows in a wind tunnel were compared with observed flight paths of griffon vultures. No statistical differences were detected between the observed flight trajectories of griffon vultures and the wind passages observed in our wind tunnel model. A significant correlation was found between dead vultures predicted proportion of vultures crossing those cells according to the aerodynamic model. Griffon vulture flight routes matched the predominant wind flows in the area (i.e. they followed the routes where less flight effort was needed). We suggest using these kinds of simulations to predict flight paths over complex terrains can inform the location of wind turbines and thereby reduce soaring bird mortality.

  3. Using wind tunnels to predict bird mortality in wind farms: the case of griffon vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela de Lucas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wind farms have shown a spectacular growth during the last 15 years. Avian mortality through collision with moving rotor blades is well-known as one of the main adverse impacts of wind farms. In Spain, the griffon vulture incurs the highest mortality rates in wind farms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As far as we know, this study is the first attempt to predict flight trajectories of birds in order to foresee potentially dangerous areas for wind farm development. We analyse topography and wind flows in relation to flight paths of griffon vultures, using a scaled model of the wind farm area in an aerodynamic wind tunnel, and test the difference between the observed flight paths of griffon vultures and the predominant wind flows. Different wind currents for each wind direction in the aerodynamic model were observed. Simulations of wind flows in a wind tunnel were compared with observed flight paths of griffon vultures. No statistical differences were detected between the observed flight trajectories of griffon vultures and the wind passages observed in our wind tunnel model. A significant correlation was found between dead vultures predicted proportion of vultures crossing those cells according to the aerodynamic model. CONCLUSIONS: Griffon vulture flight routes matched the predominant wind flows in the area (i.e. they followed the routes where less flight effort was needed. We suggest using these kinds of simulations to predict flight paths over complex terrains can inform the location of wind turbines and thereby reduce soaring bird mortality.

  4. Vulture numbers are cut to the bone Extinction fears for a scavenger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-01

    Mar 1, 2007 ... gives them the gift to see the future. – are eating vulture meat to acquire the power of clairvoyance. ... Asia over the past five years, the use of the painkiller diclofenac in cattle has wiped out three species ... need for vulture flesh to satisfy markets for traditional medicines, their links with clairvoyance, hunting ...

  5. The impact of traditional use on vultures in South Africa | McKean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main drivers of demand for these uses are betting and gambling, for improved business success, and intelligence in school children. Vulture is also prescribed by traditional healers for various ailments, including headaches. It is estimated that 160 vultures are sold per annum in eastern South Africa, with some 59,000 ...

  6. Some Important Observations on the Populations of Hooded Vultures Necrosyrtes monachus in Urban Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Gbogbo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite major declines in the population of vultures around the world, noticeable increases were reported in the populations of Hooded Vultures Necrosyrtes monachus over the past decade in Accra—an important vulture habitat in Ghana. In recent times, however, there is a growing concern that the vulture numbers are decreasing even though scientific data to support this is nonexisting. As a vital zoogeographical and conservation tool, it is important to keep an up-to-date knowledge about urban bird populations amidst rapid urbanization and associated changes. Using a combination of field data, literature review, and stakeholder consultations, it was indicative that severe decline might have indeed occurred in the populations of Hooded Vultures in Accra. Evidence suggests the killing of vultures for consumption, traditional medicine, and black magic in an undercover trade with possible transboundary connections as important underlying factor. Additional factors suspected to underlie the declines include changes in management of urban facilities and destruction of roosting and nesting trees. The implications of interspecific competition with Pied Crows Corvus albus on Hooded Vultures however remain unclear. There is an urgent need for conservation campaign and education to save the Hooded Vulture in Ghana.

  7. Blood lead levels in White-Backed Vultures (Gyps africanus) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    Currently vulture populations in sub-. Saharan Africa are dramatically declining due to direct and indirect poisoning with pesticides (Ogada. 2014, Virani 2011). During a tagging and radio telemetry study from 2012 thru 2015 involving several species of vultures in. Botswana, the Denver Zoological. Foundation in ...

  8. A mass poisoning of White-Backed and Lappet-Faced Vultures in Gonarezhou National Park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groom, R.J.; Gandiwa, E.; Gandiwa, P.; Westhuizen, H.F.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we report a mass poisoning of vultures in the Gonarezhou National Park in Zimbabwe. This was one of the largest mass killings of vultures ever recorded and the largest recorded in Zimbabwe. On many of the carcasses the upper beaks were removed, suggesting the involvement of

  9. White-backed Vulture Gyps africanus parental care and chick growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persistent vulture declines across Africa are a cause for concern as the number of species threatened with extinction increases. The White-backed Vulture Gyps africanus was, until recently, considered abundant but has been declining rapidly in recent years due to various threats including decreasing food availability.

  10. El impacto del TLC frente al derecho comunitario andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Tangarife Torres

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta conferencia analiza el impacto del Tratado de Libre Comercio que se celebrará entre la República de Colombia y los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica frente al Derecho Comunitario Andino, con gran importancia en los temas relacionados con la propiedad intelectual. Adicional a lo anterior se suma un aspecto trascendental y es la supervivencia de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones y en este sentido se cuestiona la coexistencia de las normas comunitarias en relación con las previstas en el Tratado de Libre Comercio. De esta manera, se examina el marco constitucional del Tratado de Libre Comercio y del Acuerdo de Cartagena, para así determinar las características que tienen esta clase de tratados y con ello establecer el nivel jerárquico que le corresponden dentro del ordenamiento jurídico Colombiano. Finalmente se observa la prevalencía de las normas del Acuerdo de Cartagena y el Tratado de Libre Comercio o viceversa, para con ello encontrar soluciones frente a los posibles conflictos de normas que se pueden presentar por la coexistencia de dichas normatividades.

  11. Himalayan Vultures in Khodpe, far-west Nepal: is there any threat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Joshi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that Himalayan Vulture Gyps himalayensis is susceptible to the veterinary drug diclofenac, which is responsible for the decline of other Gyps species across South Asia.  Unlike other Gyps species, there is little quantitative data to assess Himalayan Vultures population.  Based on observation, we analyzed the flock size and breeding success of the Himalayan Vultures on two cliffs of Khodpe in Baitadi District, far-west Nepal.  The mean flock size of Himalayan Vulture was 25.83±6.33.  Overall breeding success was 90.9% based on active nests.  We also conducted a questionnaire survey to assess the perceived threats in the view of local people to vultures and these threats include loss of food, veterinary drug, lack of proper nest sites, and lack of public awareness.  Additionally, 76% of the respondents felt that vultures were decreasing in the area, 94.7% were not aware of the toxicity of diclofenac to vultures, and very few (2% knew about the availability of meloxicam as a safe alternative drug.  The colony we studied is one of the few remaining known breeding populations, which provide baseline information from far-west Nepal, thus we recommend for conservation and continuous monitoring of this species to understand their population change and breeding biology. 

  12. Comparison of eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of New World vultures (Aves: Cathartidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisney, Thomas J; Stecyk, Karyn; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Graves, Gary R; Wylie, Douglas R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2013-12-01

    Vultures are highly reliant on their sensory systems for the rapid detection and localization of carrion before other scavengers can exploit the resource. In this study, we compared eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of New World vultures (Cathartidae), turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), with a highly developed olfactory sense, and black vultures (Coragyps atratus), with a less developed sense of olfaction. We found that eye size relative to body mass was the same in both species, but that black vultures have larger corneas relative to eye size than turkey vultures. However, the overall retinal topography, the total number of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer, peak and average cell densities, cell soma area frequency distributions, and the theoretical peak anatomical spatial resolving power were the same in both species. This suggests that the visual systems of these two species are similar and that vision plays an equally important role in the biology of both species, despite the apparently greater reliance on olfaction for finding carrion in turkey vultures. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The first whole genome and transcriptome of the cinereous vulture reveals adaptation in the gastric and immune defense systems and possible convergent evolution between the Old and New World vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Oksung; Jin, Seondeok; Cho, Yun Sung; Lim, Jeongheui; Kim, Hyunho; Jho, Sungwoong; Kim, Hak-Min; Jun, JeHoon; Lee, HyeJin; Chon, Alvin; Ko, Junsu; Edwards, Jeremy; Weber, Jessica A; Han, Kyudong; O'Brien, Stephen J; Manica, Andrea; Bhak, Jong; Paek, Woon Kee

    2015-10-21

    The cinereous vulture, Aegypius monachus, is the largest bird of prey and plays a key role in the ecosystem by removing carcasses, thus preventing the spread of diseases. Its feeding habits force it to cope with constant exposure to pathogens, making this species an interesting target for discovering functionally selected genetic variants. Furthermore, the presence of two independently evolved vulture groups, Old World and New World vultures, provides a natural experiment in which to investigate convergent evolution due to obligate scavenging. We sequenced the genome of a cinereous vulture, and mapped it to the bald eagle reference genome, a close relative with a divergence time of 18 million years. By comparing the cinereous vulture to other avian genomes, we find positively selected genetic variations in this species associated with respiration, likely linked to their ability of immune defense responses and gastric acid secretion, consistent with their ability to digest carcasses. Comparisons between the Old World and New World vulture groups suggest convergent gene evolution. We assemble the cinereous vulture blood transcriptome from a second individual, and annotate genes. Finally, we infer the demographic history of the cinereous vulture which shows marked fluctuations in effective population size during the late Pleistocene. We present the first genome and transcriptome analyses of the cinereous vulture compared to other avian genomes and transcriptomes, revealing genetic signatures of dietary and environmental adaptations accompanied by possible convergent evolution between the Old World and New World vultures.

  14. Breeding Biology of Critically Endangered Long-billed Vulture (Gyps indicus at a Unique Site in Telangana State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikanth Manchiryala

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Out of nine species of vultures, the population of three Gyps species, White-backed Vulture (Gyps bengalensis, Slender-billed Vulture (Gyps tenuirostris and Long-billed Vulture (Gyps indicus has declined drastically by 99% over the past decade (Prakash, 1999. The Gyps vultures' population declined in India by 97% and by 92% in Pakistan (Virani, 2006, Prakash et al., 2012. Possibly the widespread usage of Diclofenac drug in the animal led to the rapid population decline for these Vultures (Green et al., 2004. The Long-billed Vulture G. indicus is a bald headed vulture with very broad wings and short tail feathers, having no sexual dimorphism. In Malabar hills region of India the breeding season of Long-billed Vultures was noted to be November to May where it breed mainly on cliffs (Edward, 1915. Presently, it is in the most critical category of endangerment, listed in Schedule-I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act-1972 followed by IUCN, 2015 (http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22729731/0. The Andhra Pradesh State Biodiversity Board, Hyderabad announced that vultures are already 'Extinct' in the state (Medicheti, 2013.

  15. Do power lines and protected areas present a catch-22 situation for Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, W Louis; Wolter, Kerri; Michael, Michael D; MacTavish, Lynne M; Yarnell, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    Cape vulture Gyps coprotheres populations have declined across their range due to multiple anthropogenic threats. Their susceptibility to fatal collisions with the expanding power line network and the prevalence of carcasses contaminated with illegal poisons and other threats outside protected areas are thought to be the primary drivers of declines in southern Africa. We used GPS-GSM units to track the movements and delineate the home ranges of five adult (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area = 121,655±90,845 km(2)) and four immature (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area = 492,300±259,427 km(2)) Cape vultures to investigate the influence of power lines and their use of protected areas. The vultures travelled more than 1,000 km from the capture site and collectively entered five different countries in southern Africa. Their movement patterns and core foraging ranges were closely associated with the spatial distribution of transmission power lines and we present evidence that the construction of power lines has allowed the species to extend its range to areas previously devoid of suitable perches. The distribution of locations of known Cape vulture mortalities caused by interactions with power lines corresponded to the core ranges of the tracked vultures. Although some of the vultures regularly roosted at breeding colonies located inside protected areas the majority of foraging activity took place on unprotected farmland. Their ability to travel vast distances very quickly and the high proportion of time they spend in the vicinity of power lines and outside protected areas make Cape vultures especially vulnerable to negative interactions with the expanding power line network and the full range of threats across the region. Co-ordinated cross-border conservation strategies beyond the protected area network will therefore be necessary to ensure the future survival of threatened vultures in Africa.

  16. African vultures don't follow migratory herds: scavenger habitat use is not mediated by prey abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne J Kendall

    Full Text Available The ongoing global decline in vulture populations raises major conservation concerns, but little is known about the factors that mediate scavenger habitat use, in particular the importance of abundance of live prey versus prey mortality. We test this using data from the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem in East Africa. The two hypotheses that prey abundance or prey mortality are the main drivers of vulture habitat use provide alternative predictions. If vultures select areas based only on prey abundance, we expect tracked vultures to remain close to herds of migratory wildebeest regardless of season. However, if vultures select areas where mortality rates are greatest then we expect vultures to select the driest regions, where animals are more likely to die of starvation, and to be attracted to migratory wildebeest only during the dry season when wildebeest mortality is greatest. We used data from GSM-GPS transmitters to assess the relationship between three vulture species and migratory wildebeest in the Mara-Serengeti ecosystem. Results indicate that vultures preferentially cluster around migratory herds only during the dry season, when herds experience their highest mortality. Additionally during the wet season, Ruppell's and Lappet-faced vultures select relatively dry areas, based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, whereas White-backed vultures preferred wetter areas during the wet season. Differences in habitat use among species may mediate coexistence in this scavenger guild. In general, our results suggest that prey abundance is not the primary driver of avian scavenger habitat use. The apparent reliance of vultures on non-migratory ungulates during the wet season has important conservation implications for vultures in light of on-going declines in non-migratory ungulate species and use of poisons in unprotected areas.

  17. Effects of Vehicle Speed on Flight Initiation by Turkey Vultures: Implications for Bird-Vehicle Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Travis L.; Blackwell, Bradley F.; Seamans, Thomas W.; Lima, Steven L.; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The avoidance of motorized vehicles is a common challenge for birds in the modern world. Birds appear to rely on antipredator behaviors to avoid vehicles, but modern vehicles (automobiles and aircraft) are faster than natural predators. Thus, birds may be relatively ill-equipped, in terms of sensory capabilities and behaviors, to avoid vehicles. We examined the idea that birds may be unable to accurately assess particularly high speeds of approaching vehicles, which could contribute to miscalculations in avoidance behaviors and ultimately cause collisions. We baited turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) to roads with animal carcasses and measured flight initiation distance and effective time-to-collision in response to a truck driving directly towards vultures from a starting distance of 1.13 km and at one of three speeds: 30, 60, or 90 kph (no vultures were struck). Flight initiation distance of vultures increased by a factor of 1.85 as speed increased from 30 to 90 kph. However, for 90-kph approaches there was no clear trend in flight initiation distance across replicates: birds appeared equally likely to initiate escape behavior at 40 m as at 220 m. Time-to-collision decreased by a factor of 0.62 with approach speeds from 30 to 90 kph. Also, at 90 kph, four vehicle approaches (17%) resulted in near collisions with vultures (time-to-collision ≤1.7 s), compared to none during 60 kph approaches and one during 30 kph approaches (4%). Our findings suggest that antipredator behaviors in turkey vultures, particularly stimulus processing and response, might not be well tuned to vehicles approaching at speeds ≥90 kph. The possible inability of turkey vultures to react appropriately to high-speed vehicles could be common among birds, and might represent an important determinant of bird-vehicle collisions. PMID:24503622

  18. A breeding site record of Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus (Aves: Accipitriformes: Accipitridae from Bejjur Reserve Forest, Telangana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Stotrabhashyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus is, Critically Endangered with few known breeding sites in peninsular India.  We present a previously undocumented Long-billed Vulture breeding site in Bejjur Reserve Forest, Adilabad District, northern Telangana.

  19. Naturally acquired antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in vultures of southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C.B. Turnbull

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available TURNBULLP, P.C.B. DIEKMANNM,M., KILIAN, J.W., VERSFELDW, W.,DE VOS, V., ARNTZENL, L.,WOLTER, K., BARTELS, P. & KOTZE, A. 2008.N aturally acquired antibodies to Bacillusa nthracisp rotective antigeni n vultureso f southern Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, T5:95-102 Sera from 19 wild caught vultures in northern Namibia and 15 (12 wild caught and three captive bred but with minimal histories in North West Province, South Africa, were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbenats say( ELISAf or antibodiesto the Bacillus anthracis toxin protective antigen (PA. As assessed from the baseline established with a control group of ten captive reared vultures with well-documented histories, elevated titres were found in 12 of the 19 (63% wild caught Namibian birds as compared with none of the 15 South African ones. There was a highly significant difference between the Namibian group as a hole and the other groups (P 0.05. Numbers in the Namibian group were too small to determine any significances in species-, sex- or age-related differences within the raw data showing elevated titres in four out of six Cape Vultures, Gyps coprotheress, six out of ten Whitebacked Vultures, Gyps africanus, and one out of three Lappet-faced Vultures, Aegypiust racheliotus, or in five of six males versus three of seven females, and ten of 15 adults versus one of four juveniles. The results are in line with the available data on the incidence of anthrax in northern Namibia and South Africa and the likely contact of the vultures tested with anthrax carcasses. lt is not known whether elevated titre indicates infection per se in vultures or absorption of incompletely digested epitopes of the toxin or both. The results are discussed in relation to distances travelled by vultures as determined by new tracking techniques, how serology can reveal anthrax activity in an area and the issue of the role of vultures in transmission of anthrax.

  20. The effect of wind farms on vultures in northern Spain - fatalities behaviour and correction measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camina, Alvaro

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Spain is one of the leading countries on wind energy, accounting for 20,155 MW installed by 2010. The study has been made in a large area, 300 km long and 50 km width, extending over eight provinces accounting for 170 wind farms and 4605 turbines. 89 wind farms were sampled between 2001 and 2009 for bird fatalities. Collisions involved 2191 griffon vultures Gyps fulvus, the most affected species with 75% of them being adult birds. Other species colliding were the cinereous vulture Aegypius monachus (2 individuals) and the Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus (4 individuals). Around 5-10% of turbines caused up to 60% of fatalities and mortality was temporally clumped and related with the species biology. It was lower in January- February while griffons are incubating, increasing in March when hatching. Then, it was reduced until September with a new increase at November-December. In order to explain causes in detail and reduce mortality a pilot study was carried out in a portion of this area (10 wind farms and 267 turbines) from 2005 to the present. Due to high mortality rates on griffons, 33 turbines were shut down by authorities in June 2008. Relationships between flight altitude at turbines area with both weather conditions and landscape features were analysed by means of statistical parametric GLM models. Results included air temperature; turbine features such as its slope and time of the year as significant variables. On the other side, the European policy against the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) also contributed to increase both mortality and vulture.s crossings through the turbines. Closure of vulture restaurants and carcass removal in the area caused food lacking for these birds. Then, they were forced to feed from a rubbish dump close to the turbines. Correction measures such as opening vulture restaurants since June 2009 and ceasing droppings at the rubbish dump significantly reduced flying rates of griffons to previous levels. In

  1. Molecular sexing of threatened Gyps vultures: an important strategy for conservation breeding and ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorpade, Prabhakar B; Gupta, Praveen K; Prakash, Vibhu; Cuthbert, Richard J; Kulkarni, Mandar; Prakash, Nikita; Das, Asit; Sharma, Anil K; Saini, Mohini

    2012-12-01

    During the last two decades populations of three resident species of Gyps vulture have declined dramatically and are now threatened with extinction in South Asia. Sex identification of vultures is of key importance for the purpose of conservation breeding as it is desirable to have an equal sex ratio in these monogamous species which are housed together in large colony aviaries. Because vultures are monomorphic, with no differences in external morphology or plumage colour between the sexes, other methods are required for sex identification. Molecular methods for sex identification in birds rely on allelic length or nucleotide sequence discrimination of the chromohelicase-DNA binding (CHD) gene located on male and female chromosomes ZZ and ZW, respectively. We characterized the partial sequences of CHD alleles from Gyps indicus, Gyps bengalensis, Gyps himalayensis and Aegypius monachus and analysed the applicability of five molecular methods of sex identification of 46 individual vultures including 26 known-sex G. bengalensis and G. indicus. The results revealed that W-specific PCR in combination with ZW-common PCR is a quick, accurate and simple method, and is ideal for sex identification of vultures. The method is also suitable to augment ecological studies for identifying sex of these endangered birds during necropsy examinations especially when gonads are not apparent, possibly due to regression during non-breeding seasons.

  2. Cinereous Vulture Nesting Ecology in Ikh Nartyn Chuluu Nature Reserve, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Reading

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Cinereous vultures ( Aegypius monachus are the largest raptors in Eurasia. Little is known about the species, especially in Mongolia. We studied the nesting ecology of cinereous vultures in Ikh Nartyn Chuluu Nature Reserve, Dornogobi Aimag. To assess reproductive success, we located active nests and periodically checked to determine if they remained active. We measured nest sizes and, periodically, nestling sizes and weights. We located 42 active cinereous vulture nests (27 on rocks and 15 on trees in 2003 and 19 nests (14 on rocks and 5 on trees in 2004. Mean volume of active nests was 3.92 ± 0.39 m 3 ( n = 36. Most nests failed prior to egg hatching, but after hatching nesting success rates increased dramatically. Following hatching, cinereous vulture chicks grew linearly until leveling off just prior to fledging. We generated growth curves for chicks that allowed us to determine the average size of chicks on specific dates. Improving the prospects for successful cinereous vulture conservation likely requires a better understanding of nesting ecology. As such, we plan to improve the quality of our data by monitoring nests more intensively to determine incubation and fledging lengths, as well as causes of nest failures.

  3. Maintenance of syntenic groups between Cathartidae and Gallus gallus indicates symplesiomorphic karyotypes in new world vultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella M. Tagliarini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Similarities between New World and Old World vultures have been interpreted to reflect a close relationship and to suggest the inclusion of both in Accipitridae (Falconiformes. However, deeper analyses indicated that the placement of the New World vultures (cathartids in this Order is uncertain. Chromosome analysis has shown that cathartids retained a karyotype similar to the putative avian ancestor. In order to verify the occurrence of intrachromosomal rearrangements in cathartids, we hybridized whole chromosome probes of two species (Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis onto metaphases of Cathartes aura. The results showed that not only were the syntenic groups conserved between Gallus and C. aura, but probably also the general gene order, suggesting that New World vultures share chromosomal symplesiomorphies with most bird lineages.

  4. Effects of heavy metals on biomarkers for oxidative stress in Griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; Jiménez, Pedro; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J.

    2014-01-01

    Metals are involved in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which may result in metal-related oxidative stress that can lead to oxidative damage to lipids, DNA and proteins. It is necessary to understand the mechanisms of metal toxicity in wild birds, and the concentrations that cause effects on oxidative stress biomarkers. The aim of this study is to assess the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) with regards to oxidative stress in blood samples of 66 Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from two areas of the Autonomous Community of Valencia (East of Spain). The two study areas (Alcoy n=36 and Cinctorres n=30) were selected as random locations of interest that had not yet been studied, and are feeding stations where supplementary food, mainly of pork origin, is provided for vultures. Given that the two study areas are not considered polluted sites, we expected to find low metal concentrations. However, there are no known threshold concentrations at which metals can affect antioxidant systems, and low metal levels may have an effect on antioxidant biomolecules. In this study, since sampling was done at the beginning of the hunting season, the low Pb levels found in most Griffon vultures from Alcoy and Cinctorres (median=12.37 and 16.26 μg/dl, respectively) are suggestive of background levels usually found in vultures that feed on pork carcasses all year round. The ingestion of game meat with bullet fragments in carcasses or with Pb shots embedded in the flesh could be the cause of the high blood Pb concentrations found in three vultures from Cinctorres (83, 290 and 362 μg/dl). Griffon vultures feeding in Cinctorres had enhanced CAT and GST activities and tGSH concentrations, which may be interpreted as protective response against the higher TBARS levels. This study provides threshold concentrations at which metals affect antioxidant system derived from 66 samples of Griffon vulture. Blood Cd concentrations

  5. Effects of heavy metals on biomarkers for oxidative stress in Griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espín, Silvia, E-mail: silvia.espin@um.es [Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Martínez-López, Emma, E-mail: emmaml@um.es [Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Jiménez, Pedro, E-mail: pjjm@um.es [Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); María-Mojica, Pedro, E-mail: pmmojica@um.es [Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); “Santa Faz” Wildlife Recovery Centre, Comunidad Valenciana, Alicante (Spain); García-Fernández, Antonio J., E-mail: ajgf@um.es [Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain)

    2014-02-01

    Metals are involved in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which may result in metal-related oxidative stress that can lead to oxidative damage to lipids, DNA and proteins. It is necessary to understand the mechanisms of metal toxicity in wild birds, and the concentrations that cause effects on oxidative stress biomarkers. The aim of this study is to assess the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) with regards to oxidative stress in blood samples of 66 Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from two areas of the Autonomous Community of Valencia (East of Spain). The two study areas (Alcoy n=36 and Cinctorres n=30) were selected as random locations of interest that had not yet been studied, and are feeding stations where supplementary food, mainly of pork origin, is provided for vultures. Given that the two study areas are not considered polluted sites, we expected to find low metal concentrations. However, there are no known threshold concentrations at which metals can affect antioxidant systems, and low metal levels may have an effect on antioxidant biomolecules. In this study, since sampling was done at the beginning of the hunting season, the low Pb levels found in most Griffon vultures from Alcoy and Cinctorres (median=12.37 and 16.26 μg/dl, respectively) are suggestive of background levels usually found in vultures that feed on pork carcasses all year round. The ingestion of game meat with bullet fragments in carcasses or with Pb shots embedded in the flesh could be the cause of the high blood Pb concentrations found in three vultures from Cinctorres (83, 290 and 362 μg/dl). Griffon vultures feeding in Cinctorres had enhanced CAT and GST activities and tGSH concentrations, which may be interpreted as protective response against the higher TBARS levels. This study provides threshold concentrations at which metals affect antioxidant system derived from 66 samples of Griffon vulture. Blood Cd concentrations

  6. Foraging range and habitat use by Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres from the Msikaba colony, Eastern Cape province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan B. Pfeiffer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the extent of subsistence farmland in Africa, little is known about endangered species that persist within them. The Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres is regionally endangered in southern Africa and at least 20% of the population breeds in the subsistence farmland area previously known as the Transkei in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. To understand their movement ecology, adult Cape Vultures (n = 9 were captured and fitted with global positioning system/global system for mobile transmitters. Minimum convex polygons (MCPs,and 99% and 50% kernel density estimates (KDEs were calculated for the breeding and non breeding seasons of the Cape Vulture. Land use maps were constructed for each 99% KDE and vulture locations were overlaid. During the non-breeding season, ranges were slightly larger(mean [± SE] MCP = 16 887 km2 ± 366 km2 than the breeding season (MCP = 14 707 km2 ± 2155 km2. Breeding and non-breeding season MCPs overlapped by a total of 92%. Kernel density estimates showed seasonal variability. During the breeding season, Cape Vultures used subsistence farmland, natural woodland and protected areas more than expected. In the non-breeding season, vultures used natural woodland and subsistence farmland more than expected, and protected areas less than expected. In both seasons, human-altered landscapes were used less, except for subsistence farmland. Conservation implications: These results highlight the importance of subsistence farm land to the survival of the Cape Vulture. Efforts should be made to minimise potential threats to vultures in the core areas outlined, through outreach programmes and mitigation measures.The conservation buffer of 40 km around Cape Vulture breeding colonies should be increased to 50 km.

  7. An analysis of bones and other materials collected by Cape Vultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We compared bones and non-faunal items collected by Cape Vultures at the Blouberg and Kransberg colonies. Bones from the base of the nesting cliffs were on average longer than those from the crops and stomachs of birds. Bones from the Blouberg cliff base were on average shorter than those from the Kransberg.

  8. Diclofenac disposition in Indian cow and goat with reference to Gyps vulture population declines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taggart, M.A. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); School of Biological Sciences, Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Cuthbert, R. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: richard.cuthbert@rspb.org.uk; Das, D. [Bombay Natural History Society, Hornbill House, Mumbai, 400023 (India); Sashikumar, C. [Bombay Natural History Society, Hornbill House, Mumbai, 400023 (India); Pain, D.J. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Green, R.E. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Conservation Biology Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom); Feltrer, Y. [Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regent' s Park, London, NW1 4RY (United Kingdom); Shultz, S. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regent' s Park, London, NW1 4RY (United Kingdom); Cunningham, A.A. [Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regent' s Park, London, NW1 4RY (United Kingdom); Meharg, A.A. [School of Biological Sciences, Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    Gyps vultures across India are declining rapidly and the NSAID diclofenac has been shown to be the major cause. Vultures scavenge livestock carcasses that have been treated with diclofenac within the days preceding death. We present data on diclofenac disposition in Indian cow and goat, and field data on the prevalence of diclofenac in carcases in the environment. In the disposition experiment, animals were treated with a single intramuscular injection of diclofenac at 1000 {mu}g kg{sup -1} bw. In cow, diclofenac was detectable in liver, kidney and intestine up to 71 h post-treatment; in plasma, half-life was 12.2 h. In goat, tissue residues were undetectable after 26 h. Prevalence of diclofenac in liver from 36 dead livestock collected in the field was 13.9%. Data suggest that diclofenac residues in Indian cow and goat are short-lived, but diclofenac prevalence in carcasses available to vultures may still be very high. - Residual diclofenac in livestock carcasses in India poses a continuing risk to Gyps vultures.

  9. A survey of White-rumped Vultures Gyps bengalensis in Gujarat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-02

    Sep 2, 2007 ... During the field survey, 73.1% of the vultures were found soaring, 13.7% were perching on trees and/or the ground, while 13.2% were observed feeding on ..... A Pictorial Guide to the Birds of the Indian subcontinent. Bombay ...

  10. Diclofenac disposition in Indian cow and goat with reference to Gyps vulture population declines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taggart, M.A.; Cuthbert, R.; Das, D.; Sashikumar, C.; Pain, D.J.; Green, R.E.; Feltrer, Y.; Shultz, S.; Cunningham, A.A.; Meharg, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Gyps vultures across India are declining rapidly and the NSAID diclofenac has been shown to be the major cause. Vultures scavenge livestock carcasses that have been treated with diclofenac within the days preceding death. We present data on diclofenac disposition in Indian cow and goat, and field data on the prevalence of diclofenac in carcases in the environment. In the disposition experiment, animals were treated with a single intramuscular injection of diclofenac at 1000 μg kg -1 bw. In cow, diclofenac was detectable in liver, kidney and intestine up to 71 h post-treatment; in plasma, half-life was 12.2 h. In goat, tissue residues were undetectable after 26 h. Prevalence of diclofenac in liver from 36 dead livestock collected in the field was 13.9%. Data suggest that diclofenac residues in Indian cow and goat are short-lived, but diclofenac prevalence in carcasses available to vultures may still be very high. - Residual diclofenac in livestock carcasses in India poses a continuing risk to Gyps vultures

  11. Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology to breed vultures for Parsis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hyderabad – Parsis worried about the growing pile of bodies in their 'Towers of Silence' can take heart. The Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology. (CCMB) has decided to take up, on an express basis, the job of breeding vultures, which can later be transported to various parts of the country. Though the problem of ...

  12. El poblamiento en el siglo XVI. Contrastes entre el Caribe y el interior andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Herrera Ángel

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Hablar de poblamiento en el Caribe o en el interior andino y, en general, en América en el siglo XVI, desde la perspectiva de la población que lo habitaba, resulta en buena medida un contrasentido, ya que lo que tuvo lugar en la mayor parte de este continente a lo largo del siglo XVI y buena parte del XVII , como consecuencia de la invasión europea. fue un intenso y continuado proceso de despoblamiento. Ese proceso, en todo caso, no significó la desaparición de la población nativa que, por lo menos hasta finales del siglo XVII y comienzos del siglo XVIII, continuó siendo la población mayoritaria en buena parte del territorio. Pero además, es de resaltar que en las llanuras del Caribe colombiano, así como en el interior andino, al igual que en muchas otras partes del territorio americano, el proceso de despoblamiento que tuvo lugar desde finales del siglo XV no fue compensado por el arribo de pobladores de otros continentes.

  13. Lead toxicosis of captive vultures: case description and responses to chelation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Lead, a serious threat for raptors, can hamper the success of their conservation. This study reports on experience with accidental lead intoxication and responses to chelation therapy in captive Cinereous (Aegypius monachus) and Egyptian (Neophron percnopterus) Vultures. Results Soil contamination by lead-based paint sanded off the steel aviary resulted in poisoning of eight Cinereous and two Egyptian Vultures. A male Egyptian Vulture developed signs of apathy, polydipsia, polyuria, regurgitation, and stupor, and died on the next day. Liver, kidney and blood lead concentrations were 12.2, 8.16 and 2.66 μg/g, respectively. Laboratory analyses confirmed severe liver and kidney damage and anaemia. Blood Pb levels of Pb-exposed Cinereous Vultures were 1.571 ± 0.510 μg/g shortly after intoxication, decreased to 0.530 ± 0.165 μg/g without any therapy in a month and to 0.254 ± 0.097 μg/g one month after CaNa2EDTA administration. Eight months later, blood lead levels decreased to close to the background of the control group. Blood parameters of healthy Pb-non-exposed Cinereous Vultures were compared with those of the exposed group prior to and after chelation therapy. Iron levels in the lead-exposed pre-treatment birds significantly decreased after chelation. Haematocrit levels in Pb-exposed birds were significantly lower than those of the controls and improved one month after chelation. Creatine kinase was higher in pre-treatment birds than in the controls but normalised after therapy. Alkaline phosphatase increased after chelation. A marked increase in the level of lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive species was demonstrated in birds both prior to and after chelation. The ferric reducing antioxidant power was significantly lower in pre-treatment vultures and returned to normal following chelation therapy. Blood metallothionein levels in lead-exposed birds were higher than in controls. Reduced glutathione dropped after

  14. Lead toxicosis of captive vultures: case description and responses to chelation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikula, Jiri; Hajkova, Pavlina; Bandouchova, Hana; Bednarova, Ivana; Adam, Vojtech; Beklova, Miroslava; Kral, Jiri; Ondracek, Karel; Osickova, Jitka; Pohanka, Miroslav; Sedlackova, Jana; Skochova, Hana; Sobotka, Jakub; Treml, Frantisek; Kizek, Rene

    2013-01-16

    Lead, a serious threat for raptors, can hamper the success of their conservation. This study reports on experience with accidental lead intoxication and responses to chelation therapy in captive Cinereous (Aegypius monachus) and Egyptian (Neophron percnopterus) Vultures. Soil contamination by lead-based paint sanded off the steel aviary resulted in poisoning of eight Cinereous and two Egyptian Vultures. A male Egyptian Vulture developed signs of apathy, polydipsia, polyuria, regurgitation, and stupor, and died on the next day. Liver, kidney and blood lead concentrations were 12.2, 8.16 and 2.66 μg/g, respectively. Laboratory analyses confirmed severe liver and kidney damage and anaemia. Blood Pb levels of Pb-exposed Cinereous Vultures were 1.571 ± 0.510 μg/g shortly after intoxication, decreased to 0.530 ± 0.165 μg/g without any therapy in a month and to 0.254 ± 0.097 μg/g one month after CaNa(2)EDTA administration. Eight months later, blood lead levels decreased to close to the background of the control group. Blood parameters of healthy Pb-non-exposed Cinereous Vultures were compared with those of the exposed group prior to and after chelation therapy. Iron levels in the lead-exposed pre-treatment birds significantly decreased after chelation. Haematocrit levels in Pb-exposed birds were significantly lower than those of the controls and improved one month after chelation. Creatine kinase was higher in pre-treatment birds than in the controls but normalised after therapy. Alkaline phosphatase increased after chelation. A marked increase in the level of lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive species was demonstrated in birds both prior to and after chelation. The ferric reducing antioxidant power was significantly lower in pre-treatment vultures and returned to normal following chelation therapy. Blood metallothionein levels in lead-exposed birds were higher than in controls. Reduced glutathione dropped after CaNa(2)EDTA therapy, while

  15. Levels of blood lead in Griffon vultures from a Wildlife Rehabilitation Center in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Fernando; López, Irene; Suarez, Laura; Moraleda, Virginia; Rodríguez, Casilda

    2017-09-01

    Lead is considered a highly toxic contaminant with important impacts to bird wildlife. Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) are a sensitive indicator of the level of environmental contamination due to their position at the top of the food chain and their dependence on human activities. The aim of this study was to assess susceptibility to lead intoxication in Griffon vultures admitted to Wildlife Rehabilitation Centers (WRC), measuring blood lead levels and determining if blood lead concentrations are related to clinical signs, hematological, biochemical or radiographic findings. Also, the influence of age, gender, body condition, season and primary cause of admission were evaluated. This study was realized in all Griffon vultures admitted during a period of one year in the Rehabilitation Center GREFA. Blood lead levels are measured by using anodic stripping voltammetry. In Griffon vultures, we observed that 26% of the analyzed birds presented lead levels above 20µg/dL with 74% below 20µg/dL ([Pb] lead according to sex, season of admission to the center and body condition. A negative correlation was found between levels of metal and hematocrit. No association was found between clinical signs and blood lead levels in Griffon vultures, except for digestive signs as stasis and weight loss. On numerous occasions, the intoxication in this specie is related to ingestion of lead ammunition; however, we have not detected radiographic lead in our vultures. Compared with other studies, we generally found low levels of lead in blood of Griffon vultures but the blood of all birds admitted to WRC presented detectable lead concentrations. This species apparently presents a higher sensibility to the toxic effects of this metal than that described by other authors. It have been observed that there is some evidence that suggests that subclinical levels of lead could be related with a predisposition to injury or diseases, even though these birds might be admitted for other causes. The

  16. Assessing species habitat using Google Street View: a case study of cliff-nesting vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P Olea

    Full Text Available The assessment of a species' habitat is a crucial issue in ecology and conservation. While the collection of habitat data has been boosted by the availability of remote sensing technologies, certain habitat types have yet to be collected through costly, on-ground surveys, limiting study over large areas. Cliffs are ecosystems that provide habitat for a rich biodiversity, especially raptors. Because of their principally vertical structure, however, cliffs are not easy to study by remote sensing technologies, posing a challenge for many researches and managers working with cliff-related biodiversity. We explore the feasibility of Google Street View, a freely available on-line tool, to remotely identify and assess the nesting habitat of two cliff-nesting vultures (the griffon vulture and the globally endangered Egyptian vulture in northwestern Spain. Two main usefulness of Google Street View to ecologists and conservation biologists were evaluated: i remotely identifying a species' potential habitat and ii extracting fine-scale habitat information. Google Street View imagery covered 49% (1,907 km of the roads of our study area (7,000 km². The potential visibility covered by on-ground surveys was significantly greater (mean: 97.4% than that of Google Street View (48.1%. However, incorporating Google Street View to the vulture's habitat survey would save, on average, 36% in time and 49.5% in funds with respect to the on-ground survey only. The ability of Google Street View to identify cliffs (overall accuracy = 100% outperformed the classification maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs (62-95%. Nonetheless, high-performance DEM maps may be useful to compensate Google Street View coverage limitations. Through Google Street View we could examine 66% of the vultures' nesting-cliffs existing in the study area (n = 148: 64% from griffon vultures and 65% from Egyptian vultures. It also allowed us the extraction of fine-scale features of

  17. Assessing species habitat using Google Street View: a case study of cliff-nesting vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, Pedro P; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of a species' habitat is a crucial issue in ecology and conservation. While the collection of habitat data has been boosted by the availability of remote sensing technologies, certain habitat types have yet to be collected through costly, on-ground surveys, limiting study over large areas. Cliffs are ecosystems that provide habitat for a rich biodiversity, especially raptors. Because of their principally vertical structure, however, cliffs are not easy to study by remote sensing technologies, posing a challenge for many researches and managers working with cliff-related biodiversity. We explore the feasibility of Google Street View, a freely available on-line tool, to remotely identify and assess the nesting habitat of two cliff-nesting vultures (the griffon vulture and the globally endangered Egyptian vulture) in northwestern Spain. Two main usefulness of Google Street View to ecologists and conservation biologists were evaluated: i) remotely identifying a species' potential habitat and ii) extracting fine-scale habitat information. Google Street View imagery covered 49% (1,907 km) of the roads of our study area (7,000 km²). The potential visibility covered by on-ground surveys was significantly greater (mean: 97.4%) than that of Google Street View (48.1%). However, incorporating Google Street View to the vulture's habitat survey would save, on average, 36% in time and 49.5% in funds with respect to the on-ground survey only. The ability of Google Street View to identify cliffs (overall accuracy = 100%) outperformed the classification maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs) (62-95%). Nonetheless, high-performance DEM maps may be useful to compensate Google Street View coverage limitations. Through Google Street View we could examine 66% of the vultures' nesting-cliffs existing in the study area (n = 148): 64% from griffon vultures and 65% from Egyptian vultures. It also allowed us the extraction of fine-scale features of cliffs

  18. Veinte años del Régimen Andino de Acceso a Recursos Genéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Ribadeneira Sarmiento

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available El artículo buscar contribuir al conocimiento del régimen legal andino de acceso a recursos genéticos, cuyo instrumento central es la Decisión Andina 391, promulgada en 1996. Se analiza la norma y se presentan sus más evidentes virtudes y limitaciones. Se incluye información sobre la evolución nacional de la decisión en cada uno de los países andinos. El artículo contiene un apartado referido al futuro de la norma en el actual escenario de reingeniería del Sistema Andino de Integración (SAI. Se han consultado documentos, fuentes oficiales, artículos de expertos y entrevistas. El artículo se estructura de la siguiente manera: los orígenes de la norma; el análisis y contenido de la norma andina; el proceso de reglamentación en los países andinos; las virtudes y limitaciones; la coyuntura y el futuro, y, por último, las conclusiones.

  19. DESPUÉS DE LA MUERTE EN EL MUNDO ANDINO. UNA APROXIMACIÓN ANTROPOLÓGICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Sánchez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina las principales miradas que subsisten sobre la posibilidad de una vida ultraterrena, más allá de la muerte. El autor tiene una posición definida al respecto que, en muchos sentidos, sintoniza con la cosmovisión elaborada por el hombre andino a lo largo de los miles de años comprendidos en su desarrollo cultural. A pesar de la forzada evangelización cristiana soportada del siglo XVI en adelante, una buena parte del discurso andino prehispánico sobre los muertos continúa dando sentido a la existencia humana y al orden social en muchas comunidades quechuas y aimaras de los Andes centrales y meridionales. El hombre andino no está afectado de angustia ante la muerte, y establece, por el contrario, relaciones de reciprocidad con sus ancestros. Por sobre la costumbre de conservación a la espera de un día en que los cuerpos resuciten, los andinos tienen el convencimiento de que los muertos, de cualquier tiempo o espacio, tienen la misma vida que anima al cosmos en su conjunto.

  20. 78 FR 23286 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ...-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), from the captive herd maintained at their facility, for the purpose of...) African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) Rothschild's starling (Leucopsar rothschildi) Radiated tortoise...) Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) Harpy...

  1. Effects of habitat and time of day on flock size of Turkey Vultures in Cuba (Cathartes aura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Tryjanowski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural landscapes, the Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura feeds mainly on carcases of domestic animals. In spring 2017, data on 214 flocks of Turkey vultures were collected in a road survey in Cuba (in total 2384 km. Turkey Vultures were found to be common accross Cuba, but flock size varied between habitats, reaching a maximum of 43 in valleys and 31 in agricultural landscapes with domestic animal farms. Vultures were active throughout the day, but the time of day did not significantly affect flock size. This study corroborates previous studies which suggested that carrion resources located in agricultural habitats and river valleys is crucial for the continued survival of this still abundant species. Changes in Cuba’s socio-political system in the near future will likely impact agricultural practices, and this in turn will likely affect Turkey Vultures. Our study may serve as a baseline against which future population changes and flocking behaviour of Turkey Vultures can be compared.

  2. COMUNEROS ANDINOS EN LA ADMINISTRACIÓN CHILENA (ARICA, 1880-1929

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO DÍAZ ARAYA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Se evalúa el impacto generado en los sectores rurales andinos de Arica por la implementación de la estructura y burocracia administrativa chilena post Guerra del Pacífico. A través de registros documentales se hace explícita la participación de comuneros indígenas en la trama estatal chilena en un período de conflicto político y de identidades nacionales. Palabras claves: Comunidad andina – administración chilena – Arica y Tacna. Abstract Assesses the impact generated in the rural Andes Arica for implementing the administrative structure and bureaucracy in Chile after the Pacific War. Through documentary record makes explicit the participation of indigenous community members in the plot Chilean state over a period of political and national identities. Keywords : Andean Community - Chilean government - Arica and Tacna.

  3. La dimensión jurídica del derecho comunitario andino

    OpenAIRE

    Rodero García, Radday

    2015-01-01

    En ningún lugar se hace tan patente la urgencia de una superación de la tradicional vinculación del Derecho Público al Estado-nación, como en el caso de la región andina. Tanto quienes se dedican a la teoría como a la práctica del Derecho Público en nuestra región son testigos, y frecuentemente actores, del formidable desarrollo del Derecho Público nacido en paralelo a la integración comunitaria andina. Así, este nuevo Derecho público andino aparece como la dimensión jurídico-pública de un es...

  4. Lo andino en los murales de Jesús Flores Walpaq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Leandro Arce De Piero

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo exploramos los modos en que lo andino se construye en la producción muralística del artista plástico Jesús Flores Walpq. Nos enfocamos en la definición de rasgos que configuran el centro representacional de lo andino y el proceso de deslizamientos semánticos y retóricos en la enunciación. A medida que el artista fue construyéndose como enunciador autorizado, la construcción del relato en el mural fue variando considerablemente. Si bien no se registran diferencias radicales en el empleo del color, la forma, la línea, etc. sí es significativa la variación en cuanto a la retórica que incorpora al indio en el discurso pictórico. El recorrido parte de la observación de los cambios en la construcción del yo-artista, que parte de la problematización del rol de productor de arte académico hasta plantear rol de “obrero del arte” comprometido con su contexto político, ideológico y artístico. Esto significó para Flores Walpaq adherir a las luchas reivindicatorias por los derechos indígenas. En conjunto, este texto nos lleva a problematizar sobre las condiciones de producción de la pregunta por la identidad en este contexto y las respuestas que los sujetos ensayan y modifican.

  5. Bird-strike of a Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    Bird-strike of a Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus in the Balearic Islands, Spain. Alvaro Camiña1* and Joan ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/vulnew.v71i1.3. On 15 September 2016 a Lufthansa flight en route from Munich ... nautical miles from runway 24L. Considering the altitude of the area of around 100 meters, the bird ...

  6. Griffon vulture mortality at wind farms in southern Spain: Distribution of fatalities and active mitigation measures

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Manuela de; Ferrer, Miguel; Bechard, Mark J.; Muñoz, Antonio R.

    2012-01-01

    Wind is increasingly being used as a renewable energy source around the world. Avian mortality is one of the negative impacts of wind energy and a new technique that reduces avian collision rates is necessary. Using the most frequently-killed species, the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), we studied its mortality at 13 wind farms in Tarifa, Cadiz, Spain, before (2006-2007) and after (2008-2009) when selective turbine stopping programs were implemented as a mitigation measure. Ten wind farms (tot...

  7. Using Wind Tunnels to Predict Bird Mortality in Wind Farms: The Case of Griffon Vultures

    OpenAIRE

    de Lucas, Manuela; Ferrer, Miguel; Janss, Guyonne F. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Wind farms have shown a spectacular growth during the last 15 years. Avian mortality through collision with moving rotor blades is well-known as one of the main adverse impacts of wind farms. In Spain, the griffon vulture incurs the highest mortality rates in wind farms. Methodology/Principal Findings: As far as we know, this study is the first attempt to predict flight trajectories of birds in order to foresee potentially dangerous areas for wind farm development. We analyse topo...

  8. Transnacionalismo andino

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pærregaard, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    Formålet med kapitlet er at analyse den transnationale relation mellem to migrantkollektiver i USA og deres oprindelseslandsbyer i Perus højland. Analytisk koncentrerer kapitlet sig om, hvad som motiverer migranterne til at investere tid og penge i deres hjemlandsbyer, og hvordan dette engagement...

  9. How cheap is soaring flight in raptors? A preliminary investigation in freely-flying vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriez, Olivier; Kato, Akiko; Tromp, Clara; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Sarrazin, François; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the costs of soaring, gliding and flapping flight in raptors is challenging, but essential for understanding their ecology. Among raptors, vultures are scavengers that have evolved highly efficient soaring-gliding flight techniques to minimize energy costs to find unpredictable food resources. Using electrocardiogram, GPS and accelerometer bio-loggers, we report the heart rate (HR) of captive griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus and G. himalayensis) trained for freely-flying. HR increased three-fold at take-off (characterized by prolonged flapping flight) and landing (>300 beats-per-minute, (bpm)) compared to baseline levels (80-100 bpm). However, within 10 minutes after the initial flapping phase, HR in soaring/gliding flight dropped to values similar to baseline levels, i.e. slightly lower than theoretically expected. However, the extremely rapid decrease in HR was unexpected, when compared with other marine gliders, such as albatrosses. Weather conditions influenced flight performance and HR was noticeably higher during cloudy compared to sunny conditions when prolonged soaring flight is made easier by thermal ascending air currents. Soaring as a cheap locomotory mode is a crucial adaptation for vultures who spend so long on the wing for wide-ranging movements to find food.

  10. Cholos, incas y fusionistas: El nuevo Perú y la globalización de lo andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelou Ypeij

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:   Cholos, incas and fusionistas: The New Peru and the Globalization of 'Lo Andino'This Exploration deals with the cultural changes in Peru from the year 2000. Peru has become a society with more economic, political, social and global opportunities. Within this context, significant cultural changes can be noted. This essay explores cultural expressions such as the weaving associations of the women of Chinchero, the Peruvian cuisine and the rock band Uchpa. All have in common that they reinterpret 'lo andino', or what it is to be Andean, and that they integrate globalized elements. Based on this, a new identity becomes apparent which surpasses the known categories of ethnicity and class.Resumen:Esta exploración trata sobre los cambios culturales en Perú a partir del año 2000. Perú se ha convertido en una sociedad con más oportunidades económicas, políticas, sociales y globales. En este contexto se pueden notar cambios culturales significantes. El ensayo explora expresiones culturales como las asociaciones de tejidos de las mujeres de Chinchero, la gastronomía peruana y la banda de rock Uchpa. Todas tienen en común que reinterpretan lo andino y que integran elementos globalizados. Basándose en ello, surge una nueva identidad que sobrepasa las conocidas categorías de etnicidad y de clase.

  11. The population decline of Gyps vultures in India and Nepal has slowed since veterinary use of diclofenac was banned.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhu Prakash

    Full Text Available Populations of oriental white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis, long-billed vulture (Gyps indicus and slender-billed vulture (Gyps tenuirostris crashed during the mid-1990s throughout the Indian subcontinent. Surveys in India, initially conducted in 1991-1993 and repeated in 2000, 2002, 2003 and 2007, revealed that the population of Gyps bengalensis had fallen by 2007 to 0.1% of its numbers in the early 1990s, with the population of Gyps indicus and G. tenuirostris combined having fallen to 3.2% of its earlier level. A survey of G. bengalensis in western Nepal indicated that the size of the population in 2009 was 25% of that in 2002. In this paper, repeat surveys conducted in 2011 were analysed to estimate recent population trends. Populations of all three species of vulture remained at a low level, but the decline had slowed and may even have reversed for G. bengalensis, both in India and Nepal. However, estimates of the most recent population trends are imprecise, so it is possible that declines may be continuing, though at a significantly slower rate. The degree to which the decline of G. bengalensis in India has slowed is consistent with the expected effects on population trend of a measured change in the level of contamination of ungulate carcasses with the drug diclofenac, which is toxic to vultures, following a ban on its veterinary use in 2006. The most recent available information indicates that the elimination of diclofenac from the vultures' food supply is incomplete, so further efforts are required to fully implement the ban.

  12. Niveles de satisfacción de los usuarios del Hospital Andino Alternativo de Chimborazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basantes-Avalos, René

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To be competitive in the present world, it should be offered goods and services of quality, therefore the efforts of enterprises should be focused on the customer, by knowing their needs, providing value-added solutions and a level of excellence that satisfies them, and thus ensure their loyalty. Alternative Andino Hospital of Chimborazo, Ecuador, which is a new institution in the area of health, performs procedures for continuous improvement when providing their service, but it does not know for sure what the opinions of its customers about the quality of the received service are. That is why, a research that analyzes the perceptions of customers, using the SERVPERF model was made, this model owes its name to the exclusive attention paid to performance assessment to measure the quality of service, although it consists of the same items and dimensions as SERVQUAL, the only difference is that it eliminates the part that refers to expectations of customers. Once analyzed the items of security, empathy, tangibility, reliability and responsiveness; the best one is safety, followed closely by reliability.

  13. Estudio de la Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp., cultivo andino con propiedades terapéuticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Sifuentes-Penagos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La maca es un producto originario de los Andes Centrales del Perú, resistente a granizadas, heladas y sequías prolongadas. Se cultiva desde la época incaica en altitudes comprendidas entre los 3800 a 4500 m.s.n.m. Esta planta herbácea, presenta no sólo un alto valor nutricional sino también es valorada por su papel medicinal. Entre los componentes químicos de este cultivo andino que se han relacionado con sus acciones terapéuticas como el aumento de la fertilidad, niveles de energía, acción antioxidante, mejora del deseo sexual y la tasa de crecimiento, destacan: los glucosinolatos, esteroles, ácidos grasos (macaeno y sus respectivas amidas (macamidas, alcaloides (lepidilinas A y B, macaridina y polifenoles. El objetivo de este trabajo fue, recopilar las diferentes investigaciones que se han llevado a cabo sobre las propiedades terapéuticas de la maca y los compuestos responsables de las mismas.

  14. Estados sin nación. El discurso nacionalista y el evolucionismo andino, 1890-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Juan Montoya Vásquez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to analyze the relationship between the nationalist pronouncements in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, and the debate center on European evolutionism at the end of the 19th and 20th centuries. The essay, introductory in nature, presents some aspects of the recent debate on the genealogic discourse of nationalism as well as some important bibliographic references concerning these issues.//El artículo propone un análisis de las relaciones entre el discurso nacionalista en los países centro andinos (Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia y el debate en torno a las tesis del evolucionismo europeo, a fines del siglo XIX e inicios del XX, centrado en el problema de la “integración de las mayorías” a la vida o dinámica nacional. Por ser de carácter introductorio se avoca a presentar algunos elementos del debate reciente sobre el discurso genealógico del nacionalismo así como parte importante de la bibliografía dedicada al tema en los referidos medios.

  15. Testing the goodness of supplementary feeding to enhance population viability in an endangered vulture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Oro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human-predator conflicts are directly or indirectly threatening many species with extinction. Thus, biologists are urged to find simple solutions to complex situations while avoiding unforeseen conservation outcomes. The provision of supplementary food at artificial feeding sites (AFS is frequently used in the conservation of scavenger bird populations currently suffering from indirect poisoning, although no scientific studies on its effectiveness have been conducted. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a long-term data set of 95 individually marked birds from the largest European core of the endangered bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus to test the long-term effects of specific AFS for bearded vultures on their survival rates (by CMR models and population dynamics (by Monte Carlo simulations in an area where fatalities derived from illegal poisoning and the use of other toxics like veterinary drugs have increased over the last several years. Our data support the positive relationship between the use of AFS and survival. However, contrary to theoretical predictions (e.g. high and more stable adult survival among long-lived species, the use of AFS increased only survival of pre-adults. Moreover, AFS buffered the effects of illegal poisoning on this age-class, while adult survival decreased over years. Our simulations predicted a maximum value of extinction probability over a time horizon of 50 years. Population projections run with survival rates expected in scenarios without poisoning predicted the situation of least conservation concern, while including only AFS can maintain a large floater surplus that may delay population decline but fails to reduce poisoning risk among adults. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although AFS are not effective to save bearded vultures from an expected population decline, they delay population extinction and can be a useful tool for prolonging population viability while combating illegal and indirect

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Williams, RSR. Vol 61 (2011) - Articles Trade in Andean Condor Vulture gryphus feathers and body parts in the city of Cusco and the Sacred Valley, Cusco region, Peru Abstract PDF · Vol 61 (2011) - Articles Sympatric occurrence of four Cathartid vultures in the dry forests of north-western Peru Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1606- ...

  17. The importance of the nutritive value of old bones in the diet of Bearded vultures Gypaetus barbatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalida, Antoni; Villalba, Daniel

    2017-08-14

    Vultures are central-place foragers and need to optimize their foraging behaviour to offset travel costs by increasing their energy gain. This process is more obvious in certain vulture species that do not feed their young by regurgitation and so must carry food items back to the nest. The Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus is the only species with a bone-diet based. We analysed the chemical composition of bones and the age-related changes in their nutritive value to assess the differences in energy content between bones of differing age, body part and species. We found differences between specific anatomical parts, species and the age of the bones. Fresh bones contain 108% as much energy as fresh meat and, interestingly, dry bones retain 90% of the protein found in fresh bones. Dry femurs weighing 140 g retain enough protein to be comparable to 111 g of fresh meat, in energy terms. Compared to meat-eating species, the specialized osteophagous diet of the Bearded Vulture seems to have certain advantages. A better understanding of nutrient levels in food remains could help to improve theoretical foraging models, assist in conservation management, and even improve our understanding of the use of bones by early hominids.

  18. Effectiveness of Action in India to Reduce Exposure of Gyps Vultures to the Toxic Veterinary Drug Diclofenac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Richard; Taggart, Mark A.; Prakash, Vibhu; Saini, Mohini; Swarup, Devendra; Upreti, Suchitra; Mateo, Rafael; Chakraborty, Soumya Sunder; Deori, Parag; Green, Rhys E.

    2011-01-01

    Contamination of their carrion food supply with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac has caused rapid population declines across the Indian subcontinent of three species of Gyps vultures endemic to South Asia. The governments of India, Pakistan and Nepal took action in 2006 to prevent the veterinary use of diclofenac on domesticated livestock, the route by which contamination occurs. We analyse data from three surveys of the prevalence and concentration of diclofenac residues in carcasses of domesticated ungulates in India, carried out before and after the implementation of a ban on veterinary use. There was little change in the prevalence and concentration of diclofenac between a survey before the ban and one conducted soon after its implementation, with the percentage of carcasses containing diclofenac in these surveys estimated at 10.8 and 10.7%, respectively. However, both the prevalence and concentration of diclofenac had fallen markedly 7–31 months after the implementation of the ban, with the true prevalence in this third survey estimated at 6.5%. Modelling of the impact of this reduction in diclofenac on the expected rate of decline of the oriental white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis) in India indicates that the decline rate has decreased to 40% of the rate before the ban, but is still likely to be rapid (about 18% year−1). Hence, further efforts to remove diclofenac from vulture food are still needed if the future recovery or successful reintroduction of vultures is to be feasible. PMID:21589920

  19. Environmental drivers of variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) in North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Somayeh; Bohrer, Gil; Bildstein, Keith; Davidson, Sarah C; Weinzierl, Rolf; Bechard, Marc J; Barber, David; Kays, Roland; Brandes, David; Han, Jiawei; Wikelski, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Variation is key to the adaptability of species and their ability to survive changes to the Earth's climate and habitats. Plasticity in movement strategies allows a species to better track spatial dynamics of habitat quality. We describe the mechanisms that shape the movement of a long-distance migrant bird (turkey vulture, Cathartes aura) across two continents using satellite tracking coupled with remote-sensing science. Using nearly 10 years of data from 24 satellite-tracked vultures in four distinct populations, we describe an enormous amount of variation in their movement patterns. We related vulture movement to environmental conditions and found important correlations explaining how far they need to move to find food (indexed by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and how fast they can move based on the prevalence of thermals and temperature. We conclude that the extensive variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures, facilitated by their energetically efficient thermal soaring, suggests that this species is likely to do well across periods of modest climate change. The large scale and sample sizes needed for such analysis in a widespread migrant emphasizes the need for integrated and collaborative efforts to obtain tracking data and for policies, tools and open datasets to encourage such collaborations and data sharing.

  20. Ochre Bathing of the Bearded Vulture: A Bio-Mimetic Model for Early Humans towards Smell Prevention and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Tributsch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since primordial times, vultures have been competing with man for animal carcasses. One of these vultures, the once widespread bearded vulture ( Gypaetus barbatus , has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide - ochre - tainted water puddles. Why? Primitive man may have tried to find out and may have discovered its advantages. Red ochre, which has accompanied human rituals and everyday life for more than 100,000 years, is not just a simple red paint for decoration or a symbol for blood. As modern experiments demonstrate, it is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. In this way, ochre can in sunlight sterilize and clean the skin to provide health and comfort and make it scentless, a definitive advantage for nomadic meat hunters. This research thus also demonstrates a sanitary reason for the vulture’s habit of bathing in red ochre mud. Prehistoric people have therefore included ochre use into their rituals, especially into those in relation to birth and death. Significant ritual impulses during evolution of man may thus have developed bio-mimetically, inspired from the habits of a vulture. It is discussed how this health strategy could be developed to a modern standard helping to fight antibiotics-resistant bacteria in hospitals.

  1. ¿ES EL COMPORTAMIENTO RELIGIOSO ANDINO PRODUCTO DE FACTORES ECONÓMICOS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmín Tavera Colonna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sudamérica atravesada por los Andes presenta un contexto rico en diversidad pero incierto. Los fuertes cambios climáticos y terremotos han determinado cambios drásticos en la cosmogonía andina, así las primeras culturas andinas desarrolladas a orillas del mar le dan la espalda y reorientan sus dioses a los nevados de la cordillera. La escritura por su poder de comunicación en el tiempo ha revestido un cierto poder mágico para diferentes culturas. Las gracias impresas son agradecimientos a Dios o a los Santos por los favores concedidos. Al evaluar para Perú, el impacto de variables macroeconómicas sobre la cantidad de gracias por motivos económicos en sectores de clase media, encontramos que sólo los factores que reflejan el animismo andino guardan un impacto significativo. Ello sería el reflejo de un marco institucional débil en el que un individuo encuentra en la religión una institucionalidad legítima que le ofrece respuestas a necesidades básicas para su supervivencia como tal. El sincretismo religioso logró establecer el catolicismo en la Sudamérica andina, pero con una interesante reinterpretación, en la que la naturaleza y los ancestros siguen ocupando un lugar preponderante, sus señales son más claras que la de las instituciones que norman su sociedad.

  2. Cuando pobreza y género confluyen en el contexto educativo rural andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Alvarado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de haberse expandido las oportunidades educativas en el Perú andino durante las dos últimas décadas, la educación rural aún presenta problemas crónicos como una inadecuada inclusión de la niña y la joven en el sistema educativo. El mercado laboral tampoco les ofrece un panorama esperanzador luego de culminar la escuela, si tienen la posibilidad de hacerlo. Este artículo analiza los factores socio-económicos y educativos que impactan la permanencia o fracaso escolar de la joven andina en el Perú rural. Se señalan tres temas emergentes en el análisis y reflexión de esta realidad: brechas de género en el contexto educativo, pobreza y ruralidad así como políticas sensibles al género. Se concluye con sugerencias concretas para la toma de acciones inmediatas que tengan en cuenta la inclusión de todas las voces en la sociedad. Despite the fact that Andean Peru has expanded educational opportunities during the last two decades, rural education still presents serious problems as an inappropriate inclusion of girls and young women into the system of education. Moreover, the labor market does not offer to them an encouraging panorama after graduating from school, even if they have the chance to do so. This article analyzes the educational and socioeconomic factors that strike the permanence or school failure of young women´s in Peruvian rural. Three emerging topics are analyzed and considered on this context: gender gaps in the educational context, poverty and rurality, and gender-sensitive policies. The article draws some conclusions providing concrete recommendations for an urgent action-taking for the inclusion of all the voices in the society.

  3. How do colonial Eurasian Griffon Vultures prevent extra-pair mating?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Bertran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In colonial breeding species, preventive measures to reduce the risks of extra-pair copulations (EPCs should reflect the actual risk perceived by males (e.g., proximity of neighbors, intrusions into the nest mainly during the fertile period. In colonial vultures, specific studies examining the preventive measures that minimize the risks of EPCs occurring within the competitive context of colonial breeding have not been conducted. Here we tested at Eurasian Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus nesting sites the intensity of paternity assurance behavior, shown as frequency and duration of within-pair copulations (WPCs, potential mate vigilance or nest attendance, and levels of aggressivity. This was measured according to the frequency of territorial intrusions and comparison of the fertile vs. the non-fertile period. Our findings suggest that the frequency of WPCs and their duration increased significantly during the presumed fertile period, regarded as the period when Griffon pairs spent significantly more time together at their nests. In addition, low levels of territorial intrusions were observed, an aggressive response of pairs towards intruders, and a relatively high presence of pairs at the nests during the fertile period. Thus, although nesting sites are subject to low exposure to EPC attempts, the increased frequency and duration of copulations during the fertile period suggests that, under pressure from the colonial breeding system, a higher rate of copulations is the most effective preventive mechanism against relative uncertainty of paternity.

  4. New Data About Breeding of the Cinereous Vulture in the Republic of Altai, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Snayder

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new step in our knowledge on Cinereous Vulture spreading in Altai was done at the end of July of 2015 when a new breeding colony was found in the canyon of river Kyziilshin that belongs to the basin of Chagan-Uzun River. In total, we found four nest – two of them were empty, but the other two possessed the signs of being used by the vultures in the present year. Checking of the one of those nests yielded us a nice views on a full-fledged nestling. The four newly-found nests located in a row along the river. The distance between the neighboring nests were 0.26 km, 0.16 km and 0.43 km respectively. The spacing between the occupied nests was 0.43 km. The distance between the newly found colony in the canyon of Kyziilshin and the old one in the canyon of Chagan-Uzun is 4.62 km average.

  5. Spatial and temporal movements in Pyrenean bearded vultures (Gypaetus barbatus): Integrating movement ecology into conservation practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalida, Antoni; Pérez-García, Juan Manuel; Afonso, Ivan; Moreno-Opo, Rubén

    2016-10-25

    Understanding the movement of threatened species is important if we are to optimize management and conservation actions. Here, we describe the age and sex specific spatial and temporal ranging patterns of 19 bearded vultures Gypaetus barbatus tracked with GPS technology. Our findings suggest that spatial asymmetries are a consequence of breeding status and age-classes. Territorial individuals exploited home ranges of about 50 km 2 , while non-territorial birds used areas of around 10 000 km 2 (with no seasonal differences). Mean daily movements differed between territorial (23.8 km) and non-territorial birds (46.1 km), and differences were also found between sexes in non-territorial birds. Daily maximum distances travelled per day also differed between territorial (8.2 km) and non-territorial individuals (26.5 km). Territorial females moved greater distances (12 km) than males (6.6 km). Taking into account high-use core areas (K20), Supplementary Feeding Sites (SFS) do not seem to play an important role in the use of space by bearded vultures. For non-territorial and territorial individuals, 54% and 46% of their home ranges (K90), respectively, were outside protected areas. Our findings will help develop guidelines for establishing priority areas based on spatial use, and also optimize management and conservation actions for this threatened species.

  6. Bioética y justicia ambiental en la salud de los pobladores andinos de Perú

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara Zapata, Diana E.; Mazzei Pimental, Marinella

    2018-01-01

    Este artículo intenta plasmar el panorama bioético-ambiental de la salud del poblador que habita en la sierra peruana, remarcando la inequidad en el acceso a los servicios de salud que existe en esta región y reflexionando sobre las posibles causas contextuales, históricas y actuales que han originado diferencias entre el poblador andino del incanato y el poblador andino actual, el cambio de cosmovisón sobre el ambiente y los recursos, el deterioro del enfoque de justicia, solidaridad, bienestar y respeto hacia el ser humano y la naturaleza. Además, se describe la salud desde el escenario histórico de esta región, donde la salud pública tiene y tendrá como desafío la aplicación de programas que respondan a las necesidades específicas de esta población, con un enfoque dirigido hacia lo ambiental. PMID:29708219

  7. Las dinámicas de comercialización de la quinua en los países andinos: ¿qué oportunidades y retos para la agricultura familiar campesina?

    OpenAIRE

    Baudoin, Andrea; Lacroix, Pierril; Bazile, Didier; Chia, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    La revalorización de la quinua despierta muchos intereses tanto en los países andinos como europeos y americanos. Este producto andino antes marginado y circunscrito al autoconsumo ha entrado en la dieta de la población urbana de los países andinos y su consumo se difunde en EEUU, Europa y en otras partes del mundo. En los Andes los precios en chacra aumentan y el sector quinuero ha pasado a ser un sector atractivo para las inversiones. De esta chenopodiácea se está comercializando una gran v...

  8. Propuesta de mejoramiento tecnológico de techos verdes para el clima tropical andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gómez Cubillos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available La gestión de riesgos por el aumento de la escorrentía superficial en zonas urbanas requiere intervención desde múltiples enfoques, ambientales, sanitarios, sociales y económicas. La infraestructura verde aporta soluciones de creciente interés por sus beneficios ambientales y potencial aprovechamiento económico. Este artículo propone un mejoramiento tecnológi-co para la adaptación de los techos verdes al clima tropical andino, en términos de su com-portamiento hidrológico, para lo cual se desarrolló un montaje experimental con seis módu-los de techos verdes extensivos y un módulo testigo (solo cubierta. El montaje experimental permitió la obtención de datos de 21 eventos de precipitación, modificando la configuración de dos factores experimentales, tipo de planta con seis variaciones y altura de sustrato con tres variaciones y tres eventos más para verificar el efecto de la variación de la pendiente de la cubierta, como tercer factor. Los datos obtenidos se procesaron para el cálculo de las va-riables hidrológicas de interés (precipitación, escorrentía, duración del evento, tiempo ante-rior seco, que expresan las características del evento y los indicadores del comportamiento hidrológico (coeficientes de escorrentía basado en volumen Cv y en el caudal pico Cp y tiem-po de retraso K y su análisis estadístico permitió identificar cuáles factores experimentales tienen o no influencia significativa en dichos indicadores. Finalmente, se desarrollaron herramientas para la simulación de variables e indicadores hidrológicos a partir de series de precipitación externas y su implementación en una herramienta de diseño que seleccione las configuraciones de techos verdes que presenten el mejor comportamiento hidrológico.

  9. Diclofenac toxicity in Gyps vulture is associated with decreased uric acid excretion and not renal portal vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, V; Swan, G E

    2009-04-01

    Diclofenac (DF), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is largely regarded as one of the most devastating environmental toxicant in recent times, after accidental exposure via their food-chain lead to massive mortalities in three vulture species on the Asian subcontinent. Although the use of diclofenac was recently banned on the Indian subcontinent, following the favourable safety profile of meloxicam, its mechanism of toxicity remains unknown. In an attempt to establish this mechanism, we test three hypotheses using models established from either the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) or the African White-backed vulture (Gyps africanus). We demonstrate that both DF and meloxicam are toxic to renal tubular epithelial (RTE) cells following 12 h of exposure, due to an increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which could be temporarily ameliorated by pre-incubation with uric acid (UA). When cultures were incubated with either drug for only 2 h, meloxicam showed no toxicity in contrast to diclofenac. In both cases no increase in ROS production was evident. In addition, diclofenac decreased the transport of uric acid, by interfering with the p-amino-hippuric acid (PAH) channel. We conclude that vulture susceptibility to diclofenac results from a combination of an increased ROS, interference with UA transport and the duration of exposure.

  10. Vulture News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... underutilized samples for detecting organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisoning in raptors · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Ngaio Richards, Irene Zorrilla, Joseph Lalah, Peter Otieno, Isabel Fernandez, Monica Calvino, Joaquin Garcia ...

  11. Food safety in scavenger conservation: Diet-associated exposure to livestock pharmaceuticals and opportunist mycoses in threatened Cinereous and Egyptian vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Guillermo; Junza, Alexandra; Barrón, Dolores

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals from veterinary treatments may enter terrestrial food webs when medicated livestock are available to wildlife in supplementary feeding stations aimed at the conservation of endangered scavengers. Here, we hypothesized that the exposure risk to livestock fluoroquinolones, as indicators of pharmaceutical burden in food, is related to the variable reliance of scavengers on domestic versus wild animal carcasses. Since the misuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics is a major predisposing factor for opportunistic mycoses, we evaluated disease signs potentially associated with diet-dependent drug exposure in nestlings of two threatened vultures. A greater occurrence (100%, n=14) and concentration of fluoroquinolones (mean±SD=73.0±27.5µgL -1 , range=33.2-132.7), mostly enrofloxacin, were found in Cinereous vultures, Aegypius monachus, due to their greater dependence on livestock carcasses than Egyptian vultures, Neophron percnopterus (fluoroquinolones occurrence: 44%, n=16, concentration: 37.9±16.6µgL -1 , range=11.5-55.9), which rely much more on carcasses of wild animals (42% of remains vs. 23% in the cinereous vulture). The chaotic, chronic and pulsed ingestion of these drugs throughout nestling development is proposed as one of the most plausible explanations for the high occurrence and intensity of oral Candida-like lesions in nestling vultures. The high occurrence of fluoroquinolone residues and disease hindered the probing of a cause-effect relationship between both factors in individual vultures. This relationship could be evaluated through a population-based approach by sampling vultures not exposed to these drugs. The high dependence of vultures on domestic animals today compared to past decades and the growing intensification of livestock farming, imply an expected increase in the impact of pharmaceuticals on scavenger populations. This requires further evaluation due to potential consequences in biodiversity conservation and environmental health

  12. Pathology and proposed pathophysiology of diclofenac poisoning in free-living and experimentally exposed oriental white-backed vultures (Gyps bengalensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, C.U.; Rideout, B.A.; Gilbert, M.; Shivaprasad, H.L.; Oaks, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Oriental white-backed vultures (Gyps bengalensis; OWBVs) died of renal failure when they ingested diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), in tissues of domestic livestock. Acute necrosis of proximal convoluted tubules in these vultures was severe. Glomeruli, distal convoluted tubules, and collecting tubules were relatively spared in the vultures that had early lesions. In most vultures, however, lesions became extensive with large urate aggregates obscuring renal architecture. Inflammation was minimal. Extensive urate precipitation on the surface and within organ parenchyma (visceral gout) was consistently found in vultures with renal failure. Very little is known about the physiologic effect of NSAIDs in birds. Research in mammals has shown that diclofenac inhibits formation of prostaglandins. We propose that the mechanism by which diclofenac induces renal failure in the OWBV is through the inhibition of the modulating effect of prostaglandin on angiotensin II-mediated adrenergic stimulation. Renal portal valves open in response to adrenergic stimulation, redirecting portal blood to the caudal vena cava and bypassing the kidney. If diclofenac removes a modulating effect of prostaglandins on the renal portal valves, indiscriminant activation of these valves would redirect the primary nutrient blood supply away from the renal cortex. Resulting ischemic necrosis of the cortical proximal convoluted tubules would be consistent with our histologic findings in these OWBVs.

  13. Globalización, nuevas dinámicas urbanas y estrategias de integración de migrantes andinos indocumentados en Suiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Stienen

    2003-01-01

    integración de migrantes indocumentados. En este estudio de caso sobre migrantes indocumentados de países andinos, se discuten los diferentes patrones de su integración social y económica en Suiza, relacionándolos con la aparición de territorios urbanos contestatarios durante los años 80 y el auge de una nueva clase media urbana durante los 90.

  14. Relación del gradiente interior-borde de fragmentos de bosque andino sobre la comunidad de murciélagos en Encino (Santander, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aída Otálora Ardila

    2005-01-01

    área total y tienen una densidad de 0,39 parches/ha. Los índices calculados revelan que los bosques andinos tienen un menor proceso de fragmentación que los subandinos representado en fragmentos más grandes y más cercanos. El paisaje ha sido muy transformado pues el 90,4% de los fragmentos son

  15. Head color and caruncles of sympatric Cathartes vultures (Aves Cathartidae) in Guyana and their possible function in intra- and interspecific signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Gary R.

    2016-01-01

    The naked heads of Cathartes vultures are widely believed to be adaptations for temperature regulation and to reduce plumage fouling during carrion feeding. Bright head color and the elaborate pattern of caruncles on the head and neck skin have a likely function in intra- and interspecific...... signaling. These integumentary characters have been difficult to study because of extensive postmortem color fading and shrinkage in museum specimens. Here I provide the first detailed description of head color and caruncles of the Greater Yellow-headed Vulture (C. melambrotus) from freshly collected...

  16. The Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Carprofen, Flunixin and Phenylbutazone in the Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres following Oral Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamsyn Fourie

    Full Text Available The following study evaluates the overt toxic potential of carprofen (CRP, flunixin (FXN and phenylbutazone (PBZ in Old world vultures in relation to historic toxicity data for diclofenac and ketoprofen, with the Cape vulture (Gyps coprotheres being the indicator species. The toxic potential of a single oral dose of CRP (11.5 mg/kg, FXN (1 mg/kg,PBZ (1.7 mg/kg or water was evaluated by means of a four-way parallel study (n = 2, as means of ascertaining if these drugs were as toxic as diclofenac in the vulture. No unscheduled deaths or pathological lesions were noted following exposure. Clinical signs of lethargy and depression were, however, noted in one CRP, two FXN and one PBZ treated birds. Mild reversible inhibition of UA excretion was evident in all three groups, although UA remained within the population reference interval in contrast to the effects previously described for diclofenac and ketoprofen. All treatment groups had a drug concentration responsive increase in alanine transferase activity. CRP, FXN and PBZ were characterised by a maximum plasma concentration (Cmax of 1051.8 ± 620.7 ng/ml, 335.9 ± 36.3 ng/ml and 11150 ± 2474.9 ng/ml at 4 ± 4.3, 0.45 ± 0.02 and 5.3 ± 5.2 hours (Tmax respectively and a half-life of elimination of 13.3 ±5, 1.8±1 and 18.7 ±11.4 hours respectively. While we could not demonstrate a lethal effect of the tested substances, the presence of toxic clinical signs, clinical pathological changes and/or long half-lives of elimination suggests that all three drugs have a potential for toxicity in a larger population or on repeat administration. In conclusion while the studied substances were not as overtly toxic as diclofenac, they are of safety concern.

  17. The Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Carprofen, Flunixin and Phenylbutazone in the Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres) following Oral Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Tamsyn; Cromarty, Duncan; Duncan, Neil; Wolter, Kerri; Naidoo, Vinny

    2015-01-01

    The following study evaluates the overt toxic potential of carprofen (CRP), flunixin (FXN) and phenylbutazone (PBZ) in Old world vultures in relation to historic toxicity data for diclofenac and ketoprofen, with the Cape vulture (Gyps coprotheres) being the indicator species. The toxic potential of a single oral dose of CRP (11.5 mg/kg), FXN (1 mg/kg),PBZ (1.7 mg/kg) or water was evaluated by means of a four-way parallel study (n = 2), as means of ascertaining if these drugs were as toxic as diclofenac in the vulture. No unscheduled deaths or pathological lesions were noted following exposure. Clinical signs of lethargy and depression were, however, noted in one CRP, two FXN and one PBZ treated birds. Mild reversible inhibition of UA excretion was evident in all three groups, although UA remained within the population reference interval in contrast to the effects previously described for diclofenac and ketoprofen. All treatment groups had a drug concentration responsive increase in alanine transferase activity. CRP, FXN and PBZ were characterised by a maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of 1051.8 ± 620.7 ng/ml, 335.9 ± 36.3 ng/ml and 11150 ± 2474.9 ng/ml at 4 ± 4.3, 0.45 ± 0.02 and 5.3 ± 5.2 hours (Tmax) respectively and a half-life of elimination of 13.3 ±5, 1.8±1 and 18.7 ±11.4 hours respectively. While we could not demonstrate a lethal effect of the tested substances, the presence of toxic clinical signs, clinical pathological changes and/or long half-lives of elimination suggests that all three drugs have a potential for toxicity in a larger population or on repeat administration. In conclusion while the studied substances were not as overtly toxic as diclofenac, they are of safety concern.

  18. Susceptibility to infection and immune response in insular and continental populations of Egyptian vulture: implications for conservation.

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    Laura Gangoso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A generalized decline in populations of Old World avian scavengers is occurring on a global scale. The main cause of the observed crisis in continental populations of these birds should be looked for in the interaction between two factors -- changes in livestock management, including the increased use of pharmaceutical products, and disease. Insular vertebrates seem to be especially susceptible to diseases induced by the arrival of exotic pathogens, a process often favored by human activities, and sedentary and highly dense insular scavengers populations may be thus especially exposed to infection by such pathogens. Here, we compare pathogen prevalence and immune response in insular and continental populations of the globally endangered Egyptian vulture under similar livestock management scenarios, but with different ecological and evolutionary perspectives. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult, immature, and fledgling vultures from the Canary Islands and the Iberian Peninsula were sampled to determine a the prevalence of seven pathogen taxa and b their immunocompetence, as measured by monitoring techniques (white blood cells counts and immunoglobulins. In the Canarian population, pathogen prevalence was higher and, in addition, an association among pathogens was apparent, contrary to the situation detected in continental populations. Despite that, insular fledglings showed lower leukocyte profiles than continental birds and Canarian fledglings infected by Chlamydophila psittaci showed poorer cellular immune response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A combination of environmental and ecological factors may contribute to explain the high susceptibility to infection found in insular vultures. The scenario described here may be similar in other insular systems where populations of carrion-eaters are in strong decline and are seriously threatened. Higher susceptibility to infection may be a further factor contributing decisively to the extinction

  19. Análisis de la industria cultural en el pacto de integración sub-regional andino

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    Nilo Fernández

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de la presente investigacion fue realizar un analisis de la industria cultural en el pacto de la integracion Sub-regional Andino, destancado el papel fundamental de esta industria como entidad de comunicacion que se construye y se modela a travez de signos culturales que se encuentran en la cotidianidad, en el discurso social y surgidas de realidades entrelazadas, siendo los medios de comunicacion los que hacen percibirlo de otra manera. Las bases teoricas describen como algunos elementos tento del contexto multidimensional de la region andina como elemento socio-juridicos y culturales influyen los aportes de autores tales como: Lorena Rincon, Lucrecia Morales, German Rey, Bernardo Klisberg, Marcelino Bisbal y Nestor Garcia Canclini, entre otros. El tipo de investigacion que se selecciono fue la descriptiva documental; para la cual se utilizo como instrumento de analisis una guia de observacion que permitio ubicar las principales categoria, sub-categorias y las unidades de analisis, de ocho (8 documentos (convenios, acuerdos y declaraciones que constituyeron en una muestra intencional de un total de 16 documentos seleccionados como poblacion inicial que conforman las bases de los pactos que ha suscrito la comunidad Andina de Naciones. Con referencia al analisis e interpretacion de los resultados, se constituyem en hallazgos los planteamientos ubicados en cada uno de los documentos estudiados confirmandose el papel central que juega la industria cultural para la integracion Sub-regional Andina, a pesar de no ser explico en algunos de los documentos.

  20. Roles of survival and dispersal in reintroduction success of Griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gouar, Pascaline; Robert, Alexandre; Choisy, Jean-Pierre; Henriquet, Sylvain; Lecuyer, Philippe; Tessier, Christian; Sarrazin, François

    2008-06-01

    The success of reintroduction programs greatly depends on the amount of mortality and dispersal of the released individuals. Although local environmental pressures are likely to play an important role in these processes, they have rarely been investigated because of the lack of spatial replicates of reintroduction. In the present study, we analyzed a 25-year data set encompassing 272 individuals released in five reintroduction programs of Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus) in France to examine the respective roles of survival and dispersal in program successes and failures. We use recent developments in multi-strata capture-recapture models to take into account tag loss in survival estimates and to consider and estimate dispersal among release areas. We also examined the effects of sex, age, time, area, and release status on survival, and we tested whether dispersal patterns among release areas were consistent with habitat selection theories. Results indicated that the survival of released adults was reduced during the first year after release, with no difference between sexes. Taking into account local observations only, we found that early survival rates varied across sites. However when we distinguished dispersal from mortality, early survival rates became equal across release sites. It thus appears that among reintroduction programs difference in failure and success was due to differential dispersal among release sites. We revealed asymmetrical patterns of dispersal due to conspecific attraction: dispersers selected the closest and the largest population. We showed that mortality can be homogeneous from one program to another while, on the contrary, dispersal is highly dependent on the matrix of established populations. Dispersal behavior is thus of major interest for metapopulation restoration and should be taken into account in planning reintroduction designs.

  1. Differential range use between age classes of southern African Bearded Vultures Gypaetus barbatus.

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    Sonja Krüger

    Full Text Available Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus movements were investigated in southern Africa to determine whether an individual's age, sex or breeding status influenced its ranging behaviour and to provide the information required to guide conservation activities. Data from satellite transmitters fitted to 18 individuals of four age classes were used to determine range size and use. Because of the nature of the movements of marked individuals, these data could be used to determine the overall foraging range of the entire population, which was estimated to be 51 767 km(2. Although juvenile, immature and sub-adult birds used different parts of the overall range, their combined foraging range was 65% (33 636 km(2 of the overall range. Average adult home ranges (286 km(2 were only around 1% the size of the average foraging ranges of non-adults (10 540 -25 985 km(2, with those of breeding adults being even smaller (95 km(2. Home ranges of breeding adults did not vary in size between seasons but adults utilized their home range more intensively whilst breeding, moving greater distances during the incubation and chick hatching period. Range size and use increased as non-adults aged. Immatures and sub-adults had larger range sizes during winter, but range use of non-adults did not vary seasonally. Range size and use did not differ between the sexes in any of the age classes. Information on home range size and use enables specific areas within the species' range to be targeted for management planning, education and conservation action.

  2. The shikimic acid: an important metabolite for the Aglianico del Vulture wines

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    Pasquale Tamborra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Shikimic acid is a precursor for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids and flavonoids (anthocyanins, tannins and flavonols. In the pharmaceutical industry, it is obtained by extraction of star anise from China, and at a yield of 3-7% it is used for the production of antiviral drug, e.g. oseltamivir. Unlike flavonoids which are only present in the grape skins, shikimic acid is present in the juice together with hydroxycinnamil tartaric acids (caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acid. Therefore, their content in white wines may not be negligible and their presence may explain the epidemiological studies that showed a reduced incidence of cardiovascular diseases also in people with moderate white wine consumption. The content of shikimic acid has been used to characterize wines. In southern Italy it has been used to distinguish Aglianico grape, which holds medium-high content, from Negroamaro, Primitivo and Uva di Troia grapes who have rather lower levels. It could be useful also to distinguish Fiano di Avellino (high value from Fiano Minutolo (low value. However, results of a recent work showed that the shikimic acid content decreases significantly during the ripening of the grapes and therefore its content in wine is strongly influenced by the harvest period. Finally, in a recent paper it was highlighted the increase in shikimic acid content at the end of fermentation in an Aglianico del Vulture wine, produced in the area of Rapolla (PZ, Italy municipality during the 2013 harvest. These last experimental results explain why the values of shikimic acid were lower in grapes and surprisingly higher in wines produced in the 2011 and 2012 harvest.

  3. Características de la avifauna en un gradiente altitudinal de un bosque nublado andino en La Paz, Bolivia

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    Omar Martínez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza la diversidad y composición de la avifauna en tres localidades ubicadas dentro del Parque Nacional y Área Natural de Manejo Integrado de Cotapata, La Paz, Bolivia. Las tres localidades se distribuyeron en gradiente altitudinal y tres tipos de bosques húmedos andinos (ceja de monte a 3170 m, bosque nublado a 2620 m y bosque nublado secundario a 1850 m de la zona Yungas. Se realizó un esfuerzo total de 3286 horas-red niebla, 324 horas de caminatas y 216 horas de conteos por puntos en los tres lugares de estudio. Un total de 220 especies fueron registradas, la mayoría capturadas en redes (100 spp., 45%. Veinticinco familias fueron representadas en las capturas por redes y 42 mediante los censos. Tyrannidae y Thraupidae fueron las más representativas mediante ambos métodos. Las curvas acumulativas de especies fueron similares en todos los sitios. La riqueza de especies para la ceja de monte, bosque nublado y bosque secundario a partir de las capturas y censos fueron de 44, 40, 44 especies y 69, 57, 86 especies, respectivamente. Un total de 16 especies de rango restringido fueron registradas (p.e. Odontophorus balliviani, Andigena cucullata. La diversidad para la ceja de monte fue H´= 1,41; para el bosque nublado (H´= 0,98 y el bosque nublado secundario (H´= 0,96. La diversidad beta fue 0,74 basada en datos de capturas con redes y 0,79 basada en datos de censos en las tres alturas.

  4. Procesos de transformación de los bosques andinos en la microcuenca del río Guacha, Encino, Santander (1978-1994-2006.

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    Wilson Fernando Gómez Anaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, los ecosistemas andinos presentan fuerte intervención demográfica y económica, por consiguiente los paisajes naturales son transformados y fragmentados en el tiempo. El presente artículo profundiza en la escala local sobre los procesos de transformación del paisaje mediante un estudio integrado del mismo y su evolución durante los últimos 28 años. Los resultados identifican 28 geosistemas en la microcuenca, de los cuales doce contienen un paisaje antrópico y trece conservan un grado de naturalidad alto, así mismo se registró una tendencia a la estabilidad de los procesos de cambio. Los bosques andinos presentan una pérdida de 7,37 ha por año o una tasa de 0,23 %, y las zonas con mayor intervención están asociadas a áreas núcleo, por ende aumentan los efectos de borde y fragmentación. Los resultados permitirán planificar la microcuenca a partir de los procesos históricos de uso y la condición del paisaje, para así facilitar la construcción de alternativas de uso y conservación de los geosistemas.

  5. LAS ELECCIONES DIRECTAS EN EL PARLAMENTO ANDINO. UN CAMINO PARA FORTALECER SU PAPEL COMO INSTITUCIÓN PROMOTORA DE LA INTEGRACIÓN

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    Silvana Insignares Cera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parlamento Andino atraviesa por una serie de inconvenientes que le impiden cumplir su papel como órgano fundamental e institución promotora de la integración andina. A pesar de los intentos plasmados en los tratados constitutivos de la Comunidad, no se ha podido lograr que irradie su identidad legitimadora y fortalezca el carácter democrático fundamental para la evolución del proceso de integración en la Comunidad Andina. Las elecciones directas son una herramienta para que el Parlamento Andino se convierta en un pilar a nivel de las instituciones comunitarias, que permita reforzar el concepto de ciudadanía andina, así como la participación política de los pueblos de los Estados miembros, para que no continúen de espaldas al proceso unificador y se conviertan en pueblo unitario, actor relevante de la comunidad internacional.

  6. Alcance del principio de eficacia directa del derecho comunitario andino en el ámbito de la propiedad industrial y del derecho del consumidor en el ordenamiento jurídico colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Pachón Guerrero, Juan Sebastián

    2017-01-01

    Tesis sobre el alcance del principio de eficacia directa del derecho comunitario andino en el ámbito de la propiedad industrial y del derecho del consumidor en el ordenamiento jurídico colombiano Thesis related to the scope of the principle of direct effectiveness of andean community law in the field of industrial property and consumer law in the Colombian legal system

  7. Uneven large-scale movement patterns in wild and reintroduced pre-adult bearded vultures: conservation implications.

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    Antoni Margalida

    Full Text Available After the quasi-extinction of much of the European vertebrate megafauna during the last few centuries, many reintroduction projects seek to restore decimated populations. However, the future of numerous species depends on the management scenarios of metapopulations where the flow of individuals can be critical to ensure their viability. This is the case of the bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus, an Old World, large body-sized and long-lived scavenger living in mountain ranges. Although persecution in Western Europe restrained it to the Pyrenees, the species is nowadays present in other mountains thanks to reintroduction projects. We examined the movement patterns of pre-adult non-breeding individuals born in the wild population of the Pyrenees (n = 9 and in the reintroduced populations of the Alps (n = 24 and Andalusia (n = 13. Most birds were equipped with GPS-GSM radio transmitters, which allowed accurate determination of individual dispersal patterns. Two estimators were considered: i step length (i.e., the distance travelled per day by each individual, calculated considering only successive days; and ii total dispersal distance (i.e., the distance travelled between each mean daily location and the point of release. Both dispersal estimators showed a positive relationship with age but were also highly dependent on the source population, birds in Andalusia and Alps moving farther than in Pyrenees. Future research should confirm if differences in dispersal distances are the rule, in which case the dynamics of future populations would be strongly influenced. In summary, our findings highlight that inter-population differences can affect the flow of individuals among patches (a key aspect to ensure the viability of the European metapopulation of the endangered bearded vulture, and thus should be taken into account when planning reintroduction programs. This result also raises questions about whether similar scenarios may occur in other

  8. Detecting diclofenac in livestock carcasses in India with an ELISA: A tool to prevent widespread vulture poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Mohini; Taggart, Mark A.; Knopp, Dietmar; Upreti, Suchitra; Swarup, Devendra; Das, Asit; Gupta, Praveen K.; Niessner, Reinhard; Prakash, Vibhu; Mateo, Rafael; Cuthbert, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), has caused catastrophic vulture declines across the Indian sub-continent. Here, an indirect ELISA is used to detect and quantify diclofenac in 1251 liver samples from livestock carcasses collected across India between August 2007 and June 2008, one to two years after a ban on diclofenac manufacture and distribution for veterinary use was implemented. The ELISAs applicability was authenticated with independent data obtained using LC–ESI/MS. Of 1251 samples, 1150 (91.9%) were negative for diclofenac using both methods, and 60 (4.8%) were positive at 10–4348 and 10–4441 μg kg −1 when analysed by ELISA and LC–ESI/MS, respectively. The residue level relationship in the 60 positive samples was highly significant (p 2 = 0.644). Data suggest that this immunological assay could be used not only for cost effective sample screening, but also for residue level semi-quantification. - Highlights: ► An ELISA is validated for use in diclofenac monitoring. ► We compare ELISA and LC–ESI/MS data for 1251 samples. ► Results indicate the ELISA can be reliably used for screening and semi-quantification. ► In 2007–2008, in India, around 1 in 20 ungulate carcasses contained detectable diclofenac. - The prevalence of diclofenac in carcasses available to vultures in India has declined from around 1:10 to 1:20 since restrictions on veterinary use were first put in place in 2006.

  9. Effect of methodological and ecological approaches on heterogeneity of nest-site selection of a long-lived vulture.

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    Rubén Moreno-Opo

    Full Text Available The application of scientific-based conservation measures requires that sampling methodologies in studies modelling similar ecological aspects produce comparable results making easier their interpretation. We aimed to show how the choice of different methodological and ecological approaches can affect conclusions in nest-site selection studies along different Palearctic meta-populations of an indicator species. First, a multivariate analysis of the variables affecting nest-site selection in a breeding colony of cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus in central Spain was performed. Then, a meta-analysis was applied to establish how methodological and habitat-type factors determine differences and similarities in the results obtained by previous studies that have modelled the forest breeding habitat of the species. Our results revealed patterns in nesting-habitat modelling by the cinereous vulture throughout its whole range: steep and south-facing slopes, great cover of large trees and distance to human activities were generally selected. The ratio and situation of the studied plots (nests/random, the use of plots vs. polygons as sampling units and the number of years of data set determined the variability explained by the model. Moreover, a greater size of the breeding colony implied that ecological and geomorphological variables at landscape level were more influential. Additionally, human activities affected in greater proportion to colonies situated in Mediterranean forests. For the first time, a meta-analysis regarding the factors determining nest-site selection heterogeneity for a single species at broad scale was achieved. It is essential to homogenize and coordinate experimental design in modelling the selection of species' ecological requirements in order to avoid that differences in results among studies would be due to methodological heterogeneity. This would optimize best conservation and management practices for habitats and species in

  10. Pathologic bone tissues in a Turkey vulture and a nonavian dinosaur: implications for interpreting endosteal bone and radial fibrolamellar bone in fossil dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsamy, Anusuya; Tumarkin-Deratzian, Allison

    2009-09-01

    We report on similar pathological bone microstructure in an extant turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and a nonavian dinosaur from Transylvania. Both these individuals exhibit distinctive periosteal reactive bone deposition accompanied by endosteal bone deposits in the medullary cavity. Our findings have direct implications on the two novel bone tissues recently described among nonavian dinosaurs, radial fibrolamellar bone tissue and medullary bone tissue. On the basis of the observed morphology of the periosteal reactive bone in the turkey vulture and the Transylvanian dinosaur, we propose that the radial fibrolamellar bone tissues observed in mature dinosaurs may have had a pathological origin. Our analysis also shows that on the basis of origin, location, and morphology, pathologically derived endosteal bone tissue can be similar to medullary bone tissues described in nonavian dinosaurs. As such, we caution the interpretation of all endosteally derived bone tissue as homologous to avian medullary bone. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus in south-eastern Europe.

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    Dimitris P Vasilakis

    Full Text Available Wind farm development can combat climate change but may also threaten bird populations' persistence through collision with wind turbine blades if such development is improperly planned strategically and cumulatively. Such improper planning may often occur. Numerous wind farms are planned in a region hosting the only cinereous vulture population in south-eastern Europe. We combined range use modelling and a Collision Risk Model (CRM to predict the cumulative collision mortality for cinereous vulture under all operating and proposed wind farms. Four different vulture avoidance rates were considered in the CRM. Cumulative collision mortality was expected to be eight to ten times greater in the future (proposed and operating wind farms than currently (operating wind farms, equivalent to 44% of the current population (103 individuals if all proposals are authorized (2744 MW. Even under the most optimistic scenario whereby authorized proposals will not collectively exceed the national target for wind harnessing in the study area (960 MW, cumulative collision mortality would still be high (17% of current population and likely lead to population extinction. Under any wind farm proposal scenario, over 92% of expected deaths would occur in the core area of the population, further implying inadequate spatial planning and implementation of relevant European legislation with scant regard for governmental obligations to protect key species. On the basis of a sensitivity map we derive a spatially explicit solution that could meet the national target of wind harnessing with a minimum conservation cost of less than 1% population loss providing that the population mortality (5.2% caused by the operating wind farms in the core area would be totally mitigated. Under other scenarios, the vulture population would probably be at serious risk of extinction. Our 'win-win' approach is appropriate to other potential conflicts where wind farms may cumulatively threaten

  12. A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, D. Philip; Kati, Vassiliki

    2017-01-01

    Wind farm development can combat climate change but may also threaten bird populations’ persistence through collision with wind turbine blades if such development is improperly planned strategically and cumulatively. Such improper planning may often occur. Numerous wind farms are planned in a region hosting the only cinereous vulture population in south-eastern Europe. We combined range use modelling and a Collision Risk Model (CRM) to predict the cumulative collision mortality for cinereous vulture under all operating and proposed wind farms. Four different vulture avoidance rates were considered in the CRM. Cumulative collision mortality was expected to be eight to ten times greater in the future (proposed and operating wind farms) than currently (operating wind farms), equivalent to 44% of the current population (103 individuals) if all proposals are authorized (2744 MW). Even under the most optimistic scenario whereby authorized proposals will not collectively exceed the national target for wind harnessing in the study area (960 MW), cumulative collision mortality would still be high (17% of current population) and likely lead to population extinction. Under any wind farm proposal scenario, over 92% of expected deaths would occur in the core area of the population, further implying inadequate spatial planning and implementation of relevant European legislation with scant regard for governmental obligations to protect key species. On the basis of a sensitivity map we derive a spatially explicit solution that could meet the national target of wind harnessing with a minimum conservation cost of less than 1% population loss providing that the population mortality (5.2%) caused by the operating wind farms in the core area would be totally mitigated. Under other scenarios, the vulture population would probably be at serious risk of extinction. Our ‘win-win’ approach is appropriate to other potential conflicts where wind farms may cumulatively threaten wildlife

  13. Dualidad y diálogo postcolonial: desmarginalización de la lengua popular y del pensamiento andino en Rosa Cuchillo, de Óscar Colchado Lucio

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    Víctor Quiroz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo examinaremos cómo se inscribe la dualidad, aspecto fundamental de la racionalidad andina, en un texto literario. De este modo, estudiaremos la presencia activa de la dualidad tanto en el plano del contenido (el mundo representado cuanto en el plano de la expresión (el lenguaje y los mecanismos discursivos de Rosa Cuchillo (1997, la novela más importante del escritor peruano Óscar Colchado Lucio. Planteamos que la actualización de la dualidad en este texto contribuye a la desmarginalización y descolonización de la racionalidad andina con el fin de proponerla como un modo de pensamiento alternativo desde el que se pueden replantear los términos del diálogo entre lo occidental y lo andino más allá de las jerarquías coloniales.

  14. LA EVIDENCIALIDAD EN EL CASTELLANO ANDINO NARIÑENSE EVIDENTIALITY IN THE CASTILIAN SPANISH OF THE ANDEAN REGION OF NARIÑO

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    Ómar Andrés Portilla Melo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En este texto se hace una descripción de un fenómeno de transferencia semánticopragmática a nivel modal del quechua al castellano andino de la región nariñense. El trabajo está organizado de la siguiente manera: en primer lugar, se introduce el concepto de evidencialidad; después, se hace una breve descripción histórica del quechua y una introducción a su tipología, y, finalmente, se explica la manera en que el contacto lingüístico quechua-español le dio al castellano andino nariñense los aspectos que lo caracterizan. La metodología usada fue la entrevista etnográfica. Como resultado se obtuvo que la influencia del quechua en el castellano del departamento de Nariño no se dio solamente a nivel léxico o sintáctico, sino que alcanzó niveles más profundos.Abstract The article describes a phenomenon of semantic-pragmatic transfer at the modal level from Quechua into the Castilian Spanish of the Andean region of Nariño. The article is organized as follows: first it introduces the concept of evidentiality, next it provides a brief historical description of Quechua and an introduction to its typology, and, finally, it explains how the linguistic contact between Quechua and Spanish gave the Castilian Spanish of the Andean region of Nariño its characteristic aspects. The methodology used was the ethnographic interview. The results obtained show that the influence of Quechua on the Castilian Spanish of the department of Nariño occurred not only at the lexical or syntactic levels, but also at deeper levels.

  15. Anfibios andinos del Perú fuera de Áreas Naturales Protegidas: amenazas y estado de conservación

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    César Aguilar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos una lista actualizada de los anfibios presentes en Perú y para las especies andinas (con distribución altitudinal sobre los 1000 m de altitud se informa sobre su categoría según la UICN, los endémicos de Perú, sus amenazas y su presencia dentro del SINANPE. Hasta el año 2010 se conocen 538 especies de anfibios; 110 especies fueron registradas entre el año 2003 y el 2010; aproximadamente una especie descrita por mes. De las 110 especies descritas desde el 2003, 77 fueron andinas y 64% de éstas se encuentran fuera del SINANPE. En total son reconocidas 235 especies andinas, el 80% son endémicas de Perú y 58% de éstas se encuentran fuera del SINANPE. Noventaiun especies andinas están en categorías de amenaza y en la categoría de Casi Amenazado, y 53% de éstas se encuentran fuera del SINANPE. Los géneros Telmatobius y Atelopus, así como las familias Centrolenidae y Strabomantidae, presentan los porcentajes más altos de especies andinas con categorías de amenaza y Casi Amenazado. Para 83 (36% especies de anfibios andinos presentes en Perú, la principal amenaza es la pérdida del hábitat. Otras amenazas que se presentan en menores porcentajes son la quitridiomicosis, degradación del hábitat y sobrexplotación. Se recomienda el fomento de áreas de conservación privadas para las especies de anfibios andinos presentes en Perú con categorías de amenaza, endémicas y que no están dentro del SINANPE.

  16. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to investigate habitat suitability of the Cape Vulture in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Griffin, R.; Estes, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    As the global urban population rapidly increases, many wild species lose habitat to human development. The Western Cape of South Africa contains one of Earth's 35 biodiversity hotspots, with remarkably high levels of species richness and endemism. Understanding the relationship between anthropogenic changes and key species in this region is crucial for conservation of its threatened ecosystems. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect that climate change and urbanization each have on habitat suitability of the Cape Vulture. This research utilized NASA satellite data and crowdsourced species sightings to model past, current, and future habitat suitability for this key species in the Western Cape. Data used from NASA Earth Observations included: Landsat 8- derived Land Cover, Modis Land Surface Temperature, Digital Elevation Models from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, and precipitation data which integrated in-situ stations with Infrared data. Species observations were sourced from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility online database. A geospatial modelling framework was used to generate maps of present, past and future suitable habitats for analysis and comparison. Changes in precipitation and temperature may be a factor in the extreme loss of habitat since 1995, and predict even more drastic loss in the future. This research provides insights on anthropogenic effects on a species' range which may be used to inform discussions of conservation as an element of environmentally sustainable development.

  17. Vultures of the seas: hyperacidic stomachs in wandering albatrosses as an adaptation to dispersed food resources, including fishery wastes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Grémillet

    Full Text Available Animals are primarily limited by their capacity to acquire food, yet digestive performance also conditions energy acquisition, and ultimately fitness. Optimal foraging theory predicts that organisms feeding on patchy resources should maximize their food loads within each patch, and should digest these loads quickly to minimize travelling costs between food patches. We tested the prediction of high digestive performance in wandering albatrosses, which can ingest prey of up to 3 kg, and feed on highly dispersed food resources across the southern ocean. GPS-tracking of 40 wandering albatrosses from the Crozet archipelago during the incubation phase confirmed foraging movements of between 475-4705 km, which give birds access to a variety of prey, including fishery wastes. Moreover, using miniaturized, autonomous data recorders placed in the stomach of three birds, we performed the first-ever measurements of gastric pH and temperature in procellariformes. These revealed surprisingly low pH levels (average 1.50±0.13, markedly lower than in other seabirds, and comparable to those of vultures feeding on carrion. Such low stomach pH gives wandering albatrosses a strategic advantage since it allows them a rapid chemical breakdown of ingested food and therefore a rapid digestion. This is useful for feeding on patchy, natural prey, but also on fishery wastes, which might be an important additional food resource for wandering albatrosses.

  18. Diferenciación étnica y redes de larga distancia entre migrantes andinos: el caso de Sanka y Colcha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available DIFFERENTIATION ETHNIQUE ET RESEAUX DE LONGUE DISTANCE CHEZ LES MIGRANTS ANDINS : LE CAS DE “SANKA” ET “COLCHA”. Les migrants andins ne limitent pas leurs réseaux sociaux d’interaction au milieu urbain. La réorientation spatiale des migrants devient notable au moment de l’aggravation de la crise nationale au Pérou qui affecte avec une particulière dureté la population liménienne. La formation de nouveaux réseaux de longue distance entre migrants est déterminée historiquement par l’espace géographique que couvre l’histoire de leur migration. De tels réseaux d’interaction impliquent un mécanisme spécifique de reproduction sociale des migrants andins et constituent un facteur important de changement social. Los migrantes andinos en Lima no limitan sus redes sociales de interacción al centro urbano. Sobre todo con la agudización de la crisis nacional en el Perú, que afecta con particular dureza a la población limeña, comienza una notable reorientación espacial de los migrantes. La formación de nuevas redes de larga distancia entre migrantes es históricamente determinada por el espacio geográfico que cubre su historia migracional. Tales redes de interacción significan un mecanismo específico de reproducción social de migrantes andinos y son factor importante del cambio social. ETHNIC DIFFERENTIATION AND LONG-DISTANCE-NETWORKS BETWEEN ANDEAN MIGRANTS: THE CASE OF “SANKA” AND “COLCHA”. The andean migrants in Lima do not limit their social networks of interaction on the urban center. Together with the aggravation of the national crisis in Peru, which affects the urban population of Lima particularly hard, is emerging a remarkable spatial reorientation of those migrants. The formation of long-distance-networks between migrants is historically determined by the geographical space, which covers their migration history. Such networks of interaction suggest a specific form of social reproduction of the andean migrants

  19. Blood lead levels for Eurasian black vultures (Aegypius monachus migrating between Mongolia and the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kenny

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, we have been determining blood lead levels (BLLs for Eurasian black vulture (EbVs, Aegypius monachus in Mongolia. Since EbVs migrated from Mongolia to the Republic (R. of Korea in 2012, we started comparing BLLs from Mongolia to Korean birds [Mongolia; mean=2.72±0.09 μg/dL standard error (SE, n=181, R. of Korea; mean=6.68±0.58 μg/dL SE, n=124]. In Korea we also analyzed birds by comparing BLLs for free-ranging birds (mean=7.54±0.50 μg/dL SE, n=44 to rehabilitation center birds (mean=6.21±0.86 μg/dL SE, n=80, and for birds fed rescued water deer (Hydropotes inermis (mean=11.26±1.66 μg/dL SE, n=7 to birds fed livestock (mean=1.97±0.27 μg/dL, n=4. Finally, we analyzed BLLs from Mongolia and the R. of Korea according to the following categories: background=<10.0 μg/dL (Mongolia 100%, n=181; R. of Korea 83.1%, exposure=≥10.0 μg/dL to <45.0 μg/dL (Mongolia 0%; R. of Korea 16.1%, n=20, and diagnostic=≥45.0 μg/dL (Mongolia 0%; R. of Korea 0.8%, n=1. Our research indicates that EbVs are acquiring lead while migrating to the R. of Korea.

  20. RELACIÓN ENTRE LA BIOMASA Y ALGUNAS CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS DE LAS BROMELIAS FITOTELMATAS DE UN BOSQUE ALTO ANDINO COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaza Carolina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron algunas características morfológicas para seis especies de bromelias fitotelmata (Guzmania gloriosa, Racinaea tetrantha, Tillandsia biflora, T. complanata, T. fendleri y T. turneri con el fin de establecer cuales características podrían utilizarse como estimadores indirectos de la biomasa total de la planta. El estudio se realizó en un bosque alto andino de la Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia, ubicado a 2900 m de altitud. Para cada especie se recolectaron entre 32 y 64 individuos en diferentes estadios de crecimiento, a cada uno de los cuales se le registró: 1 el número de hojas por roseta; 2 el perímetro de la base de la roseta; 3 la cobertura de la planta; 4 el largo de la lámina foliar; 5 la altura de la roseta; y 6 la biomasa total. Los resultados de la prueba Wilcoxon muestran que la cobertura fue la variable que más se relacionó con la biomasa. Una prueba de ajuste de curva mostró que la línea recta es la que más explica la relación entre la cobertura y la biomasa, permitiendo hacer estimaciones a partir de la ecuación sin ser necesario un muestreo destructivo.

  1. Su majestad quiere saber. Información oficial y reformismo borbónico: el mundo andino bajo la mirada de la ilustración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Marchena Fernández

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Estudio dedicado a analizar el proceso de recolección de información burocrática que la Corona española requirió de sus posesiones americanas, durante las últimas décadas del siglo XVIII. La monarquía española demandó información sobre una variedad de aspectos que incluían producción, población, rentas, impuestos, doctrinas, costumbres, etc. El estudio escudriña, de manera específica, las vicisitudes que marcaron el cumplimiento de esta disposición real en el espacio andino. Se analizan las mediaciones sociales, políticas y culturales locales que estuvieron presentes en el proceso de recolección de la información. Por un lado, se subraya la distancia existente entre las premisas reformistas ilustradas que animaban los intereses de la monarquía española, y por otro, las maneras cómo reaccionaron la burocracia colonial y las sociedades andinas locales.

  2. Nuevas evidencias de la presencia del Oso Andino (Tremarctos ornatus en las Yungas de Puno, el registro más austral de Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisella Márquez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El oso de anteojos Tremarctos ornatus es el único representante de la familia Ursidae en Suramérica. La población más grande y de distribución continua del oso andino en el Perú, se localiza en la ladera oriental de la cordillera oriental, incluyendo al departamento de Puno, donde casi todos los registros de esta especie provienen solamente de encuestas. Se describe aquí dos registros indirectos de la presencia del oso en el departamento de Puno, obtenidos en agosto del año 2009. El primer registro corresponde a una feca, con semillas perteneciente a la familia Lauraceae, encontrada en Yanacocha; y el segundo registro corresponde a unas marcas de garras del oso hallado en Challohuma. Este último representa el registro más austral con- firmado para la distribución del oso de anteojos en el Perú. Nuestros registros evidencian una continuidad en la distribución de esta especie en la vertiente oriental de la cordillera andina, desde el sur del Perú hasta el noroeste de Bolivia. Estos registros se hallan también muy próximos al Parque Nacional Bahuaja Sonene (PNBS, uno de los corredores de conservación más importantes en el mundo, y muestran la importancia de establecer estrategias de conservación tanto dentro como fuera de la zona de amortiguamiento del PNBS.

  3. Relaciones entre democracia y desarrollo en los países andinos. Una reflexión desde la economía política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncayo Jiménez, Édgard

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En los países andinos, la gobernabilidad democrática de los dos últimos decenios contrasta agudamente con los bajos niveles de crecimiento económico y el aumento del desempleo y la pobreza. Este artículo plantea que el nudo gordiano de esa paradoja es la gran desigualdad en la distribución del ingreso. Causa y consecuencia del mal funcionamiento del sistema político y de la economía, porque las élites económicas controlan el poder político, y crean instituciones y políticas que reflejan el interés de los dueños de la riqueza y no el interés común. Así se crea un círculo vicioso en el que la democracia ¿controlada¿ reproduce y amplía las desigualdades que la engendraron.

  4. La transformación del Estado en América Latina: una perspectiva económica desde los países andinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Moncayo Jiménez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A juicio de muchos analistas, el Estadonación —piedra angular de la organización política del mundo desde la suscripción del Tratado de Wesfalia, en 1968— está experimentando una profunda crisis. En esta visión, el poder efectivo de dicha entidad política se está desbordando en tres direcciones: hacia arriba, por la globalización y la supranacionalización; horizontalmente, por el desmonte del Estado de bienestar, la privatización y la desregulación; y hacia abajo, por la descentralización y la devolución de autonomías a las polis regionales y locales. La acción conjunta de estas tendencias estaría determinando el vaciamiento (hollowing out del Estado-nación, en la medida en que muchas de sus competencias tradicionales se están transfiriendo hacia arriba, a las instituciones internacionales y supranacionales; hacia los lados, al mercado, las empresas privadas y las transnacionales; y hacia abajo, a las entidades de orden subnacional. En este artículo analizaremos el impacto de tales tendencias en los países andinos

  5. Indicios indirectos de la presencia del oso andino (Tremarctos ornatus Cuvier, 1825 en el noroeste de Argentina Indirect evidence on the presence of the Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus Cuvier, 1825 in northwestern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fernando Del Moral

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de osos andinos (Tremarctos ornatus en Argentina ha sido muy discutida debido a la ausencia de evidencia confirmativa. Muchos expertos en el oso dudan actualmente de su presencia en el país. No obstante, la Selva Tucumano-Boliviana o de Yungas es un ecosistema típico donde se puede encontrar esta especie; particularmente en el área estudiada, el hábitat parece ser de alta calidad para los osos. Entre los años 2001 y 2006, se recopilaron 23 casos de evidencia sobre la presencia de osos andinos en las provincias de Salta y Jujuy. Se registraron huellas, restos alimenticios y heces. Adicionalmente, se entrevistó a nativos, agricultores y cazadores para colectar otros datos sobre la especie. Se concluye que las selvas de Yungas del extremo noroeste de Argentina, deben ser consideradas un área con alta probabilidad de mantener una población residente de osos andinos. Aunque posiblemente esta sea una población aislada y pequeña, la presencia permanente de osos andinos en el noroeste de Argentina no debería ser puesta en duda.The presence of Andean bears (Tremarctos ornatus in Argentina has been disputed due to the absence of confirming evidence. Many Andean bear experts currently doubt on their presence in this country. Nevertheless, the Tucuman-Bolivian Forest or Yungas is a typical ecosystem where this species can be found, particularly in the studied area, in which the habitat appears to be of high quality for bears. Between 2001 and 2006, 23 cases of evidence on the presence of Andean bears in the provinces of Salta and Jujuy were recorded. Footprints, food remains and scats were found. In addition, natives, farmers, and hunters where interviewed to collect new data of this species. The conclusion is that the Yungas Forest of northwestern Argentina must be considered an area with high probability of maintaining a resident population of Andean bears. Although this is probably a small and perhaps isolated population, the

  6. Caracterización de la circulación atmosférica y la temperatura superficial del mar asociadas a extremos de caudal de ríos andinos y su variabilidad en baja frecuencia

    OpenAIRE

    Araneo, Diego C.

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo principal del presente trabajo se centra en determinar los mecanismos asociados a la variabilidad de los caudales de los ríos andinos en relación con la circulación atmosférica y la Temperatura Superficial del Mar (TSM) como forzante del sistema climático. Para la circulación atmosférica el estudio se extiende desde la escala sinóptica a la climática. A lo largo de la Cordillera de los Andes se identifican dos zonas en las cuales el comportamiento de los caudales de los ríos muest...

  7. Determinación de la capacidad antioxidante y compuestos fenólicos de cereales andinos: quinua (Chenopodium quinoa), kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule) y kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Repo de Carrasco, Ritva; Encina Zelada, Christian Rene

    2008-01-01

    Se realizó la extracción de compuestos hidrofílicos y lipofílicos de cereales andinos, siendo el de mayor contenido en ambos casos la muestra de kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule variedad cupi), siguiendo la de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa ecotipo marrón) y finalmente la kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus ecotipo negra). Se realizó la determinación del contenido de compuestos fenólicos en quince variedades de quinua, siendo la de mayor contenido la variedad PIQ031046 con 139,94 mg ácido gálico/100 g; ...

  8. Evaluación ambiental del proceso de urbanización de las cuencas del piedemonte andino de Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Romero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Las cuencas son complejos sistemas ambientales en que se desarrollan procesos geomorfológicos, hidrológicos, climáticos y ecológicos, que son impactados por la urbanización. En este trabajo se estudian seis cuencas del piedemonte andino de la ciudad de Santiago que se encuentran en diferentes fases del proceso de urbanización, variando entre Macul-San Ramón, en donde casi el 40% de su superficie ha sido incorporada a la ciudad, y Pirque, que mantiene aún sus características agrícolas y rurales. Empleando Sistemas de Información Geográfica, se analiza el impacto de la urbanización sobre indicadores ambientales, tales como productividad vegetal, biomasa, humedad en el suelo y temperaturas superficiales de los territorios ocupados por las cuencas. Las Áreas Totales de Impermeabilización, los Coeficientes de Escorrentía y las Áreas Sensitivas Ambientales, permiten estimar el estado de las cuencas y su contribución a la salud ambiental de la ciudad de SantiagoWatersheds are complex environmental systems, where geomorphologic, hydrologic, climatic and ecological processes take place, and which are severely impacted by urbanisation. In this paper, six Santiago Andean piedmont watersheds have been researched, according with the degree of urbanisation that they reach, which varies between Macul-San Ramón, where about 40% of their land covers has been already urbanised, until Pirque, where agricultural and rural features are still dominants. Using geographical information systems, the impact of urbanization on several ecological indicators, such as vegetative productivity, biomass, soil moisture and surface temperature are analysed. Total Imperviousness Areas, Runoff Coefficients and Environmentally Sensitive Areas allow the estimation of the state of the watersheds ant their contribution to the environmental health of Santiago city

  9. La televisión social en los países andinos. Análisis de los medios sociales en informativos y magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Suing

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Los países andinos transitan hacia la televisión digital al mismo tiempo en que se consolidan los medios sociales que otorgan a la audiencia la capacidad de interactuar en tiempo real, ello deriva en interrogantes como ¿existe integración de los medios sociales en la televisión?, ¿la audiencia participa en la definición de la televisión digital? y ¿estamos frente a la televisión social? La investigación pretende responder a las preguntas señaladas mediante el estudio de los programas de noticias y magazines de las estaciones de televisión líderes del área andina, en razón de que sus contenidos se emiten en tiempo real cuando se generaría el mayor interés de la audiencia. La metodología empleada es cuantitativa y cualitativa a partir del análisis de cuentas en Facebook y Twitter de las estaciones. Las hipótesis son que la televisión social gana aceptación en los países del área andina y que los canales de televisión no explotan los medios sociales. Se concluye que las estaciones privadas muestran más actividad que las públicas, que existe diferencia entre los informativos y el entretenimiento en seguidores y actividad en la red y que estamos en el inicio de la televisión social pero demanda más esfuerzos para integrar pantallas y medios sociales.

  10. Géneros y formatos para la televisión digital. Análisis en los países andinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Suing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de la investigación es analizar los formatos de televisión vigentes en la transición hacia la televisión digital terrestre en los países andinos e identificar alternativas para la televisión local. La investigación se justifica en razón del apagón analógico entre el 2018 y 2020. La metodología es cualitativa y cuantitativa; los instrumentos son análisis de contenidos y entrevistas semiestructuradas. Los resultados permiten concluir que los contenidos de producción nacional están vinculados con la actualidad. Los elementos que influyen en la creación de contenidos están relacionados con factores de identidad, recursos económicos, talento humano y narrativas. La hibridación de formatos que promuevan la cultura es una opción para las estaciones locales. The purpose of the research is to analyze the current television formats in the transition to digital terrestrial television in the Andean countries, and to identify alternatives for the local television. The research is justified in view of the analog blackout that will occur between 2018 and 2020. The methodology is both qualitative and quantitative; the instruments are content analyses and semi-structured interviews. The results allow concluding that the local production contents are linked to current events. The elements that influence the creation of contents are related to factors of identity, economic resources, human talent and narratives. The hybridization of formats promoting culture is an option for the local stations.

  11. Using Africa's protected area network to estimate the global population of a threatened and declining species: a case study of the Critically Endangered White-headed Vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murn, Campbell; Mundy, Peter; Virani, Munir Z; Borello, Wendy D; Holloway, Graham J; Thiollay, Jean-Marc

    2016-02-01

    The White-headed Vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis (WhV) is uncommon and largely restricted to protected areas across its range in sub-Saharan Africa. We used the World Database on Protected Areas to identify protected areas (PAs) likely to contain White-headed Vultures. Vulture occurrence on road transects in Southern, East, and West Africa was adjusted to nests per km(2) using data from areas with known numbers of nests and corresponding road transect data. Nest density was used to calculate the number of WhV nests within identified PAs and from there extrapolated to estimate the global population. Across a fragmented range, 400 PAs are estimated to contain 1893 WhV nests. Eastern Africa is estimated to contain 721 nests, Central Africa 548 nests, Southern Africa 468 nests, and West Africa 156 nests. Including immature and nonbreeding birds, and accounting for data deficient PAs, the estimated global population is 5475 - 5493 birds. The identified distribution highlights are alarming: over 78% (n = 313) of identified PAs contain fewer than five nests. A further 17% (n = 68) of PAs contain 5 - 20 nests and 4% (n = 14) of identified PAs are estimated to contain >20 nests. Just 1% (n = 5) of PAs are estimated to contain >40 nests; none is located in West Africa. Whilst ranging behavior of WhVs is currently unknown, 35% of PAs large enough to hold >20 nests are isolated by more than 100 km from other PAs. Spatially discrete and unpredictable mortality events such as poisoning pose major threats to small localized vulture populations and will accelerate ongoing local extinctions. Apart from reducing the threat of poisoning events, conservation actions promoting linkages between protected areas should be pursued. Identifying potential areas for assisted re-establishment via translocation offers the potential to expand the range of this species and alleviate risk.

  12. DEVOCIONES DE INMIGRANTES: INDÍGENAS ANDINOS Y PLURIETNICIDAD URBANA EN LA CONFORMACIÓN DE COFRADÍAS COLONIALES (SANTIAGO DE CHILE, SIGLO XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Valenzuela Márquez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En los orígenes de Chile colonial nos encontramos con numerosos indígenas andinos que sirvieron a los españoles, se asentaron y se integraron en los espacios laborales y sociales de este “nuevo mundo” periférico; formaron redes y parentescos locales, tuvieron descendencia, varios se transformaron en artesanos y algunos dictaron testamentos o dejaron huellas en documentos eclesiásticos y notariales que nos permiten observar su participación en las cofradías de la capital chilena. Estas corporaciones, por su parte, si bien remiten a una finalidad eminentemente religiosa, también actúan como un canal privilegiado para la inserción y movilidad de población diversa. Bajo esta perspectiva, nuestro artículo analiza las principales cofradías en las cuales participaron estos inmigrantes, vinculando prácticas religiosas, redes sociales y espacios laborales. Las cofradías estudiadas se revelan, entonces, como instancias representativas de la diversidad de orígenes geográficos y étnicos de sus integrantes, así como de la pluralidad de referentes identitarios que circulaban e interactuaban en un escenario urbano colonial como Santiago de Chile.In the origins of colonial Chile it is possible to find numerous Andean Indians who worked for Spaniards, settled and were integrated in labor and social spaces of this peripheral “new world”. They established local nets and relationships, and had descendants. Many became craftmen and some left wills or traces on ecclesiastic and notarial documents that allow us to observe their participation in brotherhoods created in Chile’s capital. These corporations had a religious aim, but worked as privileged channels for the insertion and mobility of diverse people. Under this premise, this article analyzes the main brotherhoods in which these immigrants participated, linking religious practices with their social nets and working spaces. The brotherhoods studied reveal themselves as instances that

  13. Tagged vulture causes concerns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-09-15

    Sep 15, 2008 ... Italy, Croatia, Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia,. Macedonia, Turkey, Jordan, Sinai and even from Saudi Arabia. Together with. Orr Spiegel we fit 40 GPS-loggers (these are not transmitters) as part of a feeding and demography study, in addition to a smaller number of GPS/PTT transmitters received from Argos.

  14. VULTURE NEWS 55.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-09-02

    Sep 2, 2006 ... area in eastern Mali (Rondeau et al. in prep), along with the Gandamia colony of Gourma, Mali – once the largest in West Africa (Elósegui 1975) that is now virtually abandoned (Rondeau &. Thiollay 2004, Thiollay 2006), there is no overpopulation, nor lack of suitable cliffs, to explain the tree-nesting ...

  15. Vulture News: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  16. VULTURE NEWS 55.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-30

    Jan 30, 2006 ... extensive visceral gout (a buildup of uric acid crystals in the internal organs associated with renal failure). The birds often appeared sick and lethargic, some showed prolonged severe neck drooping, before collapsing—sometimes from their perches. Intensive testing failed to implicate infectious disease ...

  17. VULTURE NEWS 55.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    introduced veterinary pharmaceuticals. Diclofenac is a non steroidal anti- inflammatory (NSAID) drug administered to livestock on the Indian subcontinent. Diclofenac is administered for many of the same reasons that a human might take aspirin or ibuprofen, it masks nominal pain and discomfort and gets us back on our feet ...

  18. Vulture News: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On first mention in all articles, the generally accepted English common name of a species should be followed by the scientific binomial. Thereafter the English name should be used. Scientific names and all non-English words, with the exception of those adopted into the English language, should be in italics. Journal names ...

  19. VULTURE NEWS 55.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-06-18

    Jun 18, 2006 ... near San Lucas, but the marksmen didn't use non-lead ammunition. Condors eat only carrion – dead carcasses – and are highly susceptible to lead poisoning if they ingest lead bullet ... came in and started eating everything,”. Petersen said. News of the ... And yet the state refuses to act.” Earlier this.

  20. VULTURE NEWS 55.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-09-02

    Sep 2, 2006 ... to scan the hills with binoculars. To my shock, just 20 feet away, I found myself looking into the ruby eyes of a condor. It was perched on the brink of a cliff, just beyond a guard rail, overlooking. Sea Lion Cove and the Pacific Ocean. The condor stared straight at me as if wondering when I might be ready for.

  1. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA ACUMULACIÓN DE CARBONO EN PEQUEÑOS HUMEDALES ANDINOS EN LA CUENCA ALTA DEL RÍO BARBAS (QUINDÍO, COLOMBIA)

    OpenAIRE

    María Cecilia Roa-García; Sandra Brown

    2016-01-01

    Se caracterizó el proceso de acumulación de carbono en pequeños humedales andinos de la cuenca alta del río Barbas, en el municipio de Filandia, departamento del Quindío, Colombia. El método de bolsas de descomposición se usó para estimar las tasas de acumulación de materia orgánica y las constantes de descomposición en el corto plazo. La pérdida por ignición y la datación con carbono 14 se usaron para calcular las tasas de acumulación de carbono en el largo plazo. Los 52 humedales ocupan un ...

  2. La delegación del Poder Tributario en el Poder Ejecutivo, su regulación en el Perú y en otros países andinos

    OpenAIRE

    Urquizo Maggia, Daniel Fernando

    2009-01-01

    La presente tesis que lleva por título “La delegación del Poder Tributario en el Poder Ejecutivo, su regulación en el Perú y en otros países andinos” trata sobre la delegación legislativa tributaria regulada en los artículos 74 y 104 de la Carta del Perú aprobada en el año 1993, y en los países andinos de Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador y Venezuela. La doctrina admite que el poder tributario ya no es atribución exclusiva del Poder Legislativo, que originariamente gozaba de esta facu...

  3. Arquitectura y vivienda campesina en tres pueblos andinos: Yanque, Lari y Coporaque en el valle del río Colca, Arequipa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1994-01-01

    hasta el presente. Este trabajo aporta un testimonio histórico y antropológico que podría ser un modelo valioso para realizar un análisis comparativo con los pueblos en otros valles andinos. ARCHITECTURE AND PEASANT HOMES IN THREE ANDEAN VILLAGES: YANQUE, LARI AND COPORAQUE IN THE COLCA VALLEY, PERU. This essay discusses the civil architecture in Yanque, Lari and Coporaque, three of the 16 'Indians villages' founded in the Colca Valley of southern Peru in the 1570s, during the rule of Viceroy Francisco de Toledo. The first part of the article describes the general layout of the villages and their architectural characteristics. The second part enters more fully into the technology and use of villagers' homes and compares traditional 'modern' styles and building materials. Contemporary historical and anthropological literature offers little information on the subject of peasant housing in peruvian mountain villages. Hopefully, this essay will be of value for comparative research in other Andean villages.

  4. Aportes amazonicos al formativo andino*

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Chocano, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN La tesis de J.C Tello sobre los orígenes amazónicos de la cultura Chavín ha tenido en la iconografía amazónica presente en Chavin sus argumentos mas fuertes, sin embargo, falta mucho por investigar el aspecto ideológico que representan esos iconos como el jaguar, las cabezas trofeo y el uso de alucinógenos, los cuales indudablemente se vinculan al chamanismo amazónico.

  5. Cadenas productivas promisorias para la seguridad alimentaria e inclusión económica en familias pobres rurales : caso del proyecto Desarrollo sostenible de granos andinos y papas nativas en comunidades rurales altoandinas de la región Ayacucho implementado por CARE Perú 2009-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Nishikawa Menacho, Julio

    2016-01-01

    En la perspectiva de aportar en el desarrollo de políticas de inclusión social y económica, basada en evidencias, se ha desarrollado el presente trabajo de investigación cualitativa tomando como base la experiencia desarrollada por CARE PERU a través del proyecto “Desarrollo Sostenible de Granos Andinos y Papas Nativas en Comunidades Rurales Altoandinas” en el Departamento de Ayacucho. El objetivo central de la investigación fue identificar los principales factores de éxito que han contri...

  6. Conflictos por acceso biotecnológico de los recursos genéticos y conocimientos tradicionales en la región andino-amazónica : los casos de patentes de la maca, el yacón y la sangre de drago

    OpenAIRE

    Pohlenz de Tavira, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Este estudio indaga acerca de si la intervención de las actividades biotecnológicas, que aprovecha el conocimiento tradicional, deviene en conflictos socioambientales. De ahí que se revise el por qué ocurren confrontaciones entre las empresas biotecnológicas y las comunidades indígenas. Específicamente, se investigaron tres casos de etnobioprospección en la región andino-amazónica, mediante los cuales se puede entender los modos de operar de la industria biotecnológica, además del sistema de ...

  7. Teoría de las restricciones (TOC) y la mecánica del Throughput Accounting (TA) Una aproximación a un modelo gerencial para toma de decisiones: caso compañía de Cementos Andino S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    González G., Patricia; Universidad del Valle; Escobar V., John Willmer; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es explicar a los lectores cómo a partir del modelo de decisión propuesto por la TOC y el TA, los gerentes pueden tomar las mejores decisiones orientadas a maximizar las utilidades del negocio. Para el logro del objetivo propuesto se empleó un caso centrado en la compañía Cementos Andino S.A., en el cual se desarrolló la metodología del TA, cuyos resultados fueron confrontados con los obtenidos a partir del costeo variable, de tal forma que los throughput obtenid...

  8. Indígenas andinos en Chile Colonial: Inmigración, inserción espacial, integración económica y movilidad social (Santiago, Siglos XVI-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela Márquez, Jaime

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with the 16th century conquering expeditions, many Andean natives who served the Spaniards arrived in Chile, where they settled in and integrated in the work and social areas of this outlying «New World»; they formed local networks and relationships, had offspring; a number of them became artisans and some drafted wills or left their mark in ecclesiastical or notarized documents that provide us with an idea of their mobility and local integration. This work offers a background and reveals the principle hubs of a process resembling a medullar structure, in order to understand how the early Chilean colonial society was made up. At the same time, it provides insights into the phenomena of movement, uprooting and settlement of the indigenous population in the southern Peruvian viceroyalty.

    Desde las expediciones de conquista del siglo XVI llegaron a Chile numerosos indígenas andinos que sirvieron a los españoles, se asentaron y se integraron en los espacios laborales y sociales de este «nuevo mundo» periférico; formaron redes y parentescos locales, tuvieron descendencia, varios se transformaron en artesanos y algunos dictaron testamentos o dejaron huellas en documentos eclesiásticos y notariales que nos permiten observar su movilidad e inserción local. Este trabajo aporta antecedentes y desvela los principales ejes de un proceso que aparece como medular para entender la formación de la sociedad colonial chilena temprana y, a la vez, para dar cuenta de fenómenos de circulación, desarraigo y asentamiento de población indígena en el virreinato peruano meridional.

  9. Mighty vulture back from near extinction | Nickerson | Vulture News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 56 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  10. Egyptian Vultures and the principle of subspecies in vultures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    “abnormal pigmentation” (Porter &. Suleiman 2012). (ii) an adult was photographed in northern Ethiopia (410E) in December. 2010, and was noted as “considerably ... Cramp & Simmons 1980) has provided some real data on percnopterus skins from museums, to compare against the average of ginginianus from literature.

  11. Vulture populations in Pakistan and the Gyps Vulture Restoration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    near 50%, suggesting that extinction, at least across most of the range for these. March 2008 ... (approximately 90 km north-west of. Multan), were extinct by the 2003/2004 breeding season. .... Worldwide: Proceedings of the VI World Conference on Birds of Prey and Owls,. Budapest, Hungary, 18-23 May 2003. Chancellor ...

  12. Vulture News - Vol 53 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poisoning of seventeen Eurasian Griffons by carbofuran on the Island of Rab, Croatia, in December 2004 · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Gordana Pavokovic, Goran Susic, 24-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/vulnew.v53i1.37632 ...

  13. Book Reviews | Mundy | Vulture News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (2015) Ministry of Environment and Tourism, and Namibia Nature Foundation, Windhoek. 320pp. ISBN 978-9-9945-0082-6. Book Review 3. Book Title: The 2015 Eskom Red Data Book of birds of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Book Authors: M.R. Taylor, F Peacock & R.M. Wanless (Eds.) (2015) BirdLife South Africa, ...

  14. Vulture News - Vol 72 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... but underutilized samples for detecting organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisoning in raptors · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Ngaio Richards, Irene Zorrilla, Joseph Lalah, Peter Otieno, Isabel Fernandez, Monica Calvino, Joaquin Garcia ...

  15. Ecological niche models and patterns of richness and endemism of the southern Andean genus Eurymetopum (Coleoptera, Cleridae Modelos de nicho ecológico y patrones de riqueza y endemismo del género andino austral Eurymetopum (Coleoptera, Cleridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Escalante

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eurymetopum is an Andean clerid genus with 22 species. We modeled the ecological niches of 19 species with Maxent and used them as potential distributional maps to identify patterns of richness and endemicity. All modeled species maps were overlapped in a single map in order to determine richness. We performed an optimality analysis with NDM/VNDM in a grid of 1º latitude-longitude in order to identify endemism. We found a highly rich area, located between 32º and 41º south latitude, where the richest pixels have 16 species. One area of endemism was identified, located in the Maule and Valdivian Forest biogeographic provinces, which extends also to the Santiago province of the Central Chilean subregion, and contains four endemic species (E. parallelum, E. prasinum, E. proteus, and E. viride, as well as 16 non-endemic species. The sympatry of these phylogenetically unrelated species might indicate ancient vicariance processes, followed by episodes of dispersal. Based on our results, we suggest a close relationship between these provinces, with the Maule representing a complex area.Eurymetopum es un género de cléridos andinos con 22 especies. Modelamos los nichos ecológicos de 19 especies con Maxent y los utilizamos como mapas de distribución potencial para identificar patrones de riqueza y endemismo. Todos los mapas de las especies se superpusieron en un mapa único para determinar la riqueza. Realizamos un análisis de optimalidad con NDM/VNDM en una cuadrícula de 1º de latitud-longitud para identificar el endemismo. Hallamos un área de mayor riqueza, localizada entre los 32º y 41º de latitud sur, donde los pixeles más ricos poseen 16 especies. Se identificó un área de endemismo en las provincias biogeográficas del Maule y el Bosque Valdiviano, la cual se extiende también a la provincia de Santiago de la subregión Chilena Central, y que contiene cuatro especies endémicas (E. parallelum, E. prasinum, E. proteus y E. viride, as

  16. Reflexiones etnográficas sobre la «ciudadanía transnacional». Prácticas políticas de andinos en el sur de Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez Navaz, Liliana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores from an ethnographic perspective the political practices of migrants in a transnational public sphere, based in a study case of Andean Ecuadorians in Spain. It emphasizes the connections between the impact of immigrants settling in Madrid and their efforts to maintain a socioeconomic and political presence in their community of origin, looking at the way new practices of transnational citizenship are established in current neoliberal age. It proposes the category of transnational social fields in the bourdieuan sense to scrutinize how territory, identity and residence are redefined to build up a new cartography of inclusion and exclusion from citizenship rights and duties across national frontiers. It offers some empirical findings to illustrate the way new structures of sociocultural stratification are built both in the origin and destiny countries through these new transnational political practices. These insights are contextualized within some key theoretical debates around the new proposals of transnational citizenship.

    Este trabajo explora desde una perspectiva etnográfica las prácticas políticas de migrantes en una esfera pública transnacional, en base a un estudio de caso de ecuatorianos andinos en España. Enfatiza las interconexiones que se producen entre el impacto del asentamiento de los inmigrantes en Madrid y sus esfuerzos por mantener una presencia socioeconómica y política activa en su comunidad de origen, analizando el modo en el que las nuevas prácticas de ciudadanía transnacional se configuran en la actual era neoliberal. Se propone la categoría de campo migratorio transnacional en el sentido bourdieuano para profundizar cómo el territorio, la identidad y la residencia se redefinen en una nueva cartografía de inclusión y exclusión de los derechos y deberes de ciudadanía a través de las fronteras. Se ofrecen algunos resultados empíricos que ilustran las nuevas estructuras de

  17. Estructura comunitaria de diatomeas presentes en los sedimentos superficiales de ocho lagos andinos de Chile central Diatoms community structure in superficial sediments of eight Andean lakes of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INGRID E ALVIAL

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizó la estructura comunitaria de diatomeas depositadas en los sedimentos superficiales de ocho lagos andinos chilenos ubicados entre los 32°49' y 38°48' S. Se encontró un total de 99 taxa de diatomeas, distribuidos en 48 géneros. Del total de taxa, 74 fueron identificados a nivel de especie siendo todos ellos cosmopolitas a excepción de Eunotia andinofrequens, Gomphonema punae, Pinnularia araucanensis y Pinnularia acidicola, entre otras, que están descritos solo para el Hemisferio Sur. Por otro lado, las muestras analizadas presentaron distinta composición florística de diatomeas. De esta manera, en los ensambles diatomológicos depositados en los sedimentos de las lagunas de altura Ocho, Huifa, Ensueño y Negra ubicadas sobre los 2.860 m del nivel del mar, abundaron especies bentónicas, típicas de aguas oligotróficas y acidas como Achnanthidium exiguum, Achnanthidium minutissimum, Encyonema minutum, Pinnularia acidicola y Planothidium lanceolatum. En los ensambles diatomológicos de los lagos Galletué, Icalma y Laja, ubicados bajo los 1.360 m del nivel del mar, abundaron diatomeas planctónicas, características de aguas alcalinas y mesotróficas como Asterionella formosa, Aulacoseira distans, Aulacoseira granulata, Cyclotella stelligera y Rhopalodia gibbaIn this research the taxonomic structure of diatoms in sediments of high mountain lakes was studied. These lakes are located in Chile between 32°49' and 38°48' S in the Andean Cordillera. A total of 99 diatom taxa distributed in 48 genera were identified and all this taxa are cosmopolitan excepting a Eunotia andinofrequens, Gomphonema punae, Pinnularia araucanensis and Pinnularia acidicola, which are know only for the Southern Hemisphere. The assemblages of diatoms were different in the studied lakes. So the high mountain lakes Ocho, Huifa, Ensueño and Negra, dominated benthic diatoms which are typical of oligotrophic and acid waters as Achnanthidium

  18. Erratum to ``Eruption style and petrology of a new carbonatitic suite from the Mt. Vulture (Southern Italy): The Monticchio Lakes Formation'' [Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 78 (1997) 251 265

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppa, Francesco; Principe, Claudia

    1998-01-01

    The Monticchio Lakes Formation (MLF) is a newly identified carbonatite-melilitite tuff sequence which is exposed in the southwestern sector of the Vulture volcano. It is the youngest example (ca. 0.13 m.y.) of this type of volcanism in Italy, although other carbonatites of smaller volume, but with similar characteristics, have been discovered recently. This volcanic event occurred in isolation after a 0.35 m.y. period of inactivity at Vulture. The eruption produced two maar-type vents and formed tuff aprons mainly composed of dune beds of lapilli. Depositional features suggest that a dry surge mechanism, possibly triggered by CO 2 expansion, was dominant during tuff emplacement. The MLF event involved a mixture of carbonatite and melilitite liquids which were physically separated before the eruption. Abundant mantle xenoliths are direct evidence of the deep-seated origin of the parental magma and its high velocity of propagation towards the surface. Often, these nodules form the core of lapilli composed of concentric shells of melilitite and/or porphyritic carbonatite. Coarse-ash beds alternate with lapilli beds and consist of abundant lumps and spherulae of very fine-grained calcite immersed in a welded, highly compacted carbonatite matrix. Porphyritic carbonatite shells of the lapilli and fine-grained spherulae of calcite in the tuff matrix suggest incipient crystallisation of a carbonatite liquid in subvolcanic conditions and eruption of carbonatite-spray droplets. Dark coloured juvenile fragments mainly consist of melilite, phlogopite, calcite, apatite, perovskite, and häuyne crystals in a carbonatite or melilitite matrix. The rocks have an extremely primitive, ultramafic composition with very high Mg# (> 85) and Cr and Ni content (1500 ppm). The calcite contains high SrO, BaO and REE of up to 1.5 wt.%. Similar compositions are typical of primary, magmatic carbonates which are found in both intrusive and extrusive carbonatites. The high modal Sr

  19. Riqueza específica y especies de interés para la conservación de la avifauna del área protegida Serranía del Aguaragüe (sur de Bolivia)

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Omar; Maillard Z., Oswaldo; Vedia-Kennedy, Javier; Herrera, Mauricio; Mesili, Thibeault; Rojas, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    Se relevó la avifauna de 11 localidades en el Parque Nacional y Área Natural de Manejo Integrado Serranía del Aguaragüe, provincia Gran Chaco, departamento de Tarija, Bolivia. Fueron registradas en total 272 especies de aves, 5 de ellas amenazadas (Buteogallus coronatus, Ara militaris, Amazona tucumana, Vultur gryphus y Buteogallus solitarius). Se incluye el registro de 11 especies nuevas para el departamento de Tarija y de 14 que eran conocidas por pocos registros. Se registraron 29 especies...

  20. Estructura genética y simulaciones de máxima verosimilitud y Estadística Bayesiana aplicada a la conservación genética del Oso andino (Tremarctos ornatus en Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador y Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ruiz-García

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron 115 muestras de oso andino procedentes de Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador yBolivia mediante 5 microsatélites (G1A, G1D, G10B, G10C, G10M, G10P, G10X, UarMu 50,UarMu, 59. Se detectó: (1 No existencia de equilibrio Hardy-Weinberg en ninguna de laspoblaciones analizadas en cada uno de los países, lo que evidencia la existencia de efectoWahlund. (2 Los niveles de variabilidad genética fueron bajos (H=0.40, población total.Alarmantemente bajo fue el nivel de heterocigocidad en la población de Ecuador (H=0.27. (3Los niveles de flujo génico resultaron bajísimos (Nm=0.2-0.3.

  1. Distribución espacio-temporal de larvas de Chironomidae (Diptera en un arroyo andino (Uspallata, Mendoza, Argentina Spatial and temporal distribution of larvae of Chironomidae (Diptera in an Andean stream (Uspallata, Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica E. Scheibler

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio sobre la composición larval de la familia Chironomidae en un arroyo andino en la localidad de Uspallata (Mendoza, Argentina. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales durante un ciclo anual completo (2001/2002 en tres sitios, siguiendo un gradiente altitudinal. Se midieron variables físico-químicas en campo y laboratorio. La relación entre presencia y abundancia de quironómidos y parámetros ambientales se exploró mediante un análisis de Correspondencia Canónica. Se identificaron siete géneros pertenecientes a cuatro subfamilias: Chironominae, Orthocladiinae, Podonominae y Tanypodinae. Orthocladiinae fue la subfamilia que tuvo mayor riqueza genérica (Cricotopus van der Wulp, Onconeura Andersen & Saether y Parametriocnemus Goetghebuer, densidad y frecuencia de aparición a nivel estacional y espacial. Podonominae (Podonomus Philippi y Podonomopsis Brundin se halló únicamente en SA mientras que Chironominae (Polypedilum Kieffer estuvo presente en UD. Tanypodinae (Pentaneura Philippi se encontró en los tres sitios de muestreo aunque con una densidad menor. Se detectó incremento de la conductividad y temperatura del agua, y disminución del tamaño del sustrato desde SA a UD, lo que coincide con la desaparición de Podonomus y Podonomopsis y la aparición de Polypedilum hacia UD. De este estudio se concluye que el sistema presenta baja riqueza genérica comparada con otros sistemas montañosos de Argentina.A study was conducted on the larval composition of the family Chironomidae in an Andean stream in Uspallata locality (Mendoza, Argentina. Seasonal samplings were performed over a full annual cycle (2001/2002 at three sites, along an altitudinal gradient. Physical and chemical variables were measured in both the field and the laboratory. Relationship between presence and abundance of chironomids and environmental parameters was explored using a Canonical Correspondence analysis. Seven genera were identified

  2. Productores de una educación inclusiva: Fronteras ideográficas, demográficas, cartográficas y biográficas que, desde las prácticas formativas, delimitan la gestión de una educación inclusiva-diversa en la Institución Educativa Andino de San Lorenzo, del municipio de Bolívar (Cauca)

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Cerón, Miguel Angel; López Silva, Franciny Guillermo; Rivera Joaquí, Silvio Tulio; Valencia González, Gloria Clemencia

    2015-01-01

    Tesis (Maestría en Educación desde la Diversidad). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas-Instituto Pedagógico, 2015 El presente documento, denominado Productores de una educación inclusiva. Fronteras ideográficas, demográficas, cartográficas y biográficas que, desde las prácticas formativas, delimitan la gestión de una educación inclusiva-diversa en la Institución Educativa Andino de San Lorenzo, del municipio de Bolívar (Cauca), presenta los hallazgos de un pr...

  3. Sensitivity of winter phytoplankton communities from Andean lakes to artificial ultraviolet-B radiation Sensibilidad de comunidades fitoplanctónicas invernales de lagos andinos a la radiación ultravioleta-B artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. WALTER HELBLING

    2001-06-01

    Andinos con el objetivo de determinar la sensibilidad de comunidades fitoplanctónicas invernales a la radiación ultravioleta-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm. Los lagos estudiados, Moreno, El Trébol, Nahuel Huapi, Gutiérrez y Morenito, están ubicados la región Patagónica (41° S, 71° W, 800 m de altitud y tienen coeficientes de atenuación variables entre 0,36 m-1 (Lago Moreno y 2,8 m-1 (Lago Morenito. Las muestras se inocularon con carbono marcado (NaH14CO3 y se incubaron en una cámara iluminada (UV-B = 0,35 W m-2, UV-A [320-400 nm] = 1,1 W m-2, y PAR [400-700 nm] = 10,8 W m-2 a 10° C. El fitoplancton se expuso a PAR (radiación fotosintéticamente activa + radiación UV (tubos de cuarzo, y a PAR + UV-A (tubos de cuarzo recubiertos con Mylar-D. La duración total de los experimentos fue de 4 h y se retiraron dos muestras de cada tratamiento cada 1 h. En los Lagos Moreno, El Trébol, Nahuel Huapi y Gutiérrez la inhibición fotosintética aumentó en forma linear con la dosis de UV-B, mientras que en el Lago Morenito esta relación fue débil. Después de recibir una dosis de 1,25 kJ m-2 (UV-B, el fitoplancton del Lago Morenito tuvo la mayor inhibición fotosintética acumulada (44 %, mientras que en los Lagos Moreno, Trébol, Nahuel Huapi y Gutiérrez la inhibición fue de 22, 11, 5 y 1 %, respectivamente. Sin embargo, al final de la incubación, y luego de recibir una dosis de 5 kJ m-2, el fitoplancton más inhibido fue aquel del Lago Moreno (70 %, y el más resistente aquel del Lago Gutiérrez (27 %. La cinética de inhibición fue distinta para cada lago, registrándose una mayor velocidad en los lagos más transparentes y con mayor proporción de células grandes. Los resultados sugieren que, ante un aumento de UV-B (e.g., producto de una disminución de ozono estratosférico, el microplancton de lagos más claros será el más afectado mientras que el pico- y nanoplancton de lagos menos transparentes será el más resistente

  4. Caracterización genética del puma andino boliviano (Puma concolor en el Parque Nacional Sajama (PNS y relaciones con otras poblaciones de pumas del noroccidente de Sudamérica Genetic characterization of the Bolivian Andean puma (Puma concolor at the Sajama National Park (SNP and relationships with other north-western South American puma populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL RUIZ-GARCÍA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron originalmente 25 muestras fecales de puma andino boliviano para proceder a su extracción de ADN. De esas 25 muestras, se detectaron cinco pumas diferentes que, junto, a tres de pieles de animales cazados, completaron un total de ocho pumas andinos bolivianos analizados. Igualmente se analizaron 45 muestras de ADN procedentes de pumas silvestres de Colombia, Perú, Ecuador, Venezuela y Amazonia occidental brasileña obtenidas a partir de mechones de pelos con bulbo, trocitos de pieles, músculo y dientes. Todas ellas se genotipificaron para siete marcadores microsatélites (Fea 08, 24, 43, 45, 96, 126 y 391. Los niveles de diversidad genética resultaron muy elevados en ambas muestras (H = 0,942 y 0,845; respectivamente, con valores muy superiores a los reportados para pumas norteamericanos. Diversos análisis de asignación poblacional mostraron que los pumas andinos bolivianos no formaron un grupo consistentemente diferente del otro grupo de pumas analizado. Únicamente un marcador, Fea 96, mostró heterogeneidad genética significativa entre ambos grupos. Sin embargo, globalmente, esa heterogeneidad fue extremadamente pequeña (F ST, G ST, R ST. Por el contrario, las estimas de flujo génico entre ambas agrupaciones fueron elevadas para toaos los procedimientos empleados. La estimación del parámetro θ (= 4Neμ mediante el método de máxima verosimilitud de Nielsen (1997 mostró que la muestra boliviana es una extensión indiferenciable de la otra agrupación de pumas de otros países latinoamericanos. Por lo tanto, este estudio aporta resultados concluyentes en favor de un único acervo genético de pumas en el nor-occidente de Sudamérica, en contraste con las tradicionales clasificaciones morfológicas y morfométricas que habían identificado un número considerable de subespecies de puma en esta región de Latinoamérica.Twenty-five Andean Bolivian fecal samples were obtained for extracting DNA. Five different Andean

  5. Dominant culturable bacterial microbiota in the digestive tract of the American black vulture (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793 and search for antagonistic substances Microbiota bacteriana dominante cultivável no trato digestivo do urubu (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydston Rodrigues de Carvalho

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Strict and facultative culturable anaerobic bacteria from the digestive tract of six American black vultures (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793 were isolated and identified. After capture, the birds received a non-contaminated diet for one week to eliminate possible allochthonous microorganisms. Then, specimens collected from tongue, stomach and intestines were weighed, submitted to decimal dilution in an anaerobic chamber, inoculated into culture media and incubated aerobically and anaerobically at 37ºC for enumeration, isolation and identification. Isolated bacteria were submitted to tests to detect possible antagonisms between them. The total bacterial population along the digestive tract ranged from 3.46 ± 0.39 log CFU/g in the stomach to 10.75 ± 0.37 log CFU/g in the distal intestine. Some bacteria were isolated for the first time from the digestive tract of C. atratus: Actinomyces bovis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Micrococcus luteus, Neisseria sicca, Clostridium bifermentans, Enterobacter agglomerans, Peptostreptococcus sp., Sarcina sp., Serratia odorifera, and Shigella flexneri. Associations between microorganisms were observed during isolation on two occasions, one involving A. bovis and N. sicca, and the other involving A. bovis and a Gram-negative rod. Hetero-, iso- and autoantagonisms were observed, suggesting the ecological role of these indigenous microorganisms in terms of population auto-control and environmental barrier in the digestive tract of carrion-feeding birds.As bactérias anaeróbias estritas e facultativas cultiváveis do trato digestivo de seis urubus (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793 foram isoladas e identificadas. Após a captura, as aves receberam uma alimentação de baixa contaminação durante uma semana para eliminar possíveis microorganismos alóctonos. A seguir, amostras colhidas na língua, estomago e intestinos foram pesadas, submetidas a diluições decimais numa câmara anaeróbia, inoculadas em meios de

  6. VULTURE SNIPPETS FROM AROUND THE WORLD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-02

    Sep 2, 2007 ... roof of this structure the bottom of their nest. As the palm sheds its .... It is fairly flat area, 900-1100 m ... Drinie van Rensburg; e-mail address: driniev@wrc.org.za. Buzzards foil .... be about three feet tall, weigh up to 30 pounds ...

  7. VULTURE SNIPPETS FROM AROUND THE WORLD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-01

    Mar 1, 2007 ... We spent a week in the Kruger National ... minutes, they started taking off without ... Kundian near Mianwali in three months, ... Some more links to articles about lead poisoning and California .... which also kill the condors.

  8. VULTURE SNIPPETS FROM AROUND THE WORLD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-01

    Mar 1, 2007 ... bird-watchers, we made a list of all the bird species seen .... on the vehicle contains a very good image of a Cape Griffon, ..... gets into an engine, it will destroy it, the motor will stop ... benches and a shelf for binoculars, books.

  9. Evaluación de la eficiencia fotosintética del fitoplancton en un lago amazónico (Lago Boa y en un lago andino (Lago Guatavita Evaluation of the phytoplanktonic photosynthetic efficiency in an Amazon Lake (Lake Boa and in an Andean Lake (Lake Guatavita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. Pinilla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La relación entre la fluorescencia variable y la fluorescencia máxima (Fv/Fm de las comunidades de algas se ha utilizado comúnmente como una medida de la eficiencia fotosintética del fitoplancton. Dicha eficiencia puede estar afectada por la localización de los ambientes acuáticos en distintas provincias limnológicas. En este trabajo se quiso establecer la diferencia en la relación Fv/Fm entre el lago Boa (150 msnm, Amazonía colombiana y el lago Guatavita (3000 msnm, cordillera oriental de los Andes colombianos. Los promedios de las eficiencias medidas fueron en general bajos (0,212 a 0,367 y 0,089 a 0,32 en los lagos Boa y Guatavita, respectivamente, lo que señala estrés fisiológico para las algas. La eficiencia fue mayor en aguas intermedias y presentó cambios fuertes entre épocas de muestreo y entre ecosistemas. En aguas superficiales se presentó fotoinhibición, la cual fue más fuerte en Guatavita. La eficiencia fotosintética fue menor en el lago andino debido posiblemente a diferencias climáticas, de altura sobre el nivel del mar y de estratificación. Durante los ensayos de laboratorio se observó que la eficiencia disminuyó con el tiempo, lo cual pudo deberse a una aclimatación de las algas a la oscuridad. Los datos de laboratorio confirmaron que el fitoplancton epilimnético del lago Guatavita estuvo fotoinhibido en la época de estratificación.Commonly relation between variable fluorescence and maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm of the algae community has been utilized like a measure of the phytoplanktonic photosynthetic efficiency. Such efficiency can be affected by the water bodies' location in different limnological provinces. The goal of this work was to establish the differences in the Fv/Fm rate between Lake Boa (150 masl Colombian Amazon and Lake Guatavita (3000 masl, East Range in the Colombian Andes. In general, averages of the photosynthetic efficiencies were low (0.212 to 0.367 and 0.089 to 0.32 in lakes Boa and

  10. Carbono almacenado en páramo andino

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda-Martín, Abel Efrén; Montes-Pulido, Carmen Rosa

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN A pesar de la importancia del ecosistema de páramo en el ciclo global de carbono no se dispone de una síntesis que permita diferenciar si es la biomasa vegetal o el suelo el componente que acumula la mayor cantidad de carbono. En este documento se busca integrar los aspectos fundamentales relacionados con el carbono almacenado en el ecosistema de páramo, a través de: 1) Revisar las estimaciones de carbono en biomasa aérea y suelo reportadas por la literatura para el ecosistema de pára...

  11. Representaciones del Mundo Andino en un relato oral sobre fantasmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Raquel Angulo Villán

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo centra el análisis en las narraciones de tradición oral que tematizan las historias de fantasmas. Si bien existen “constelaciones de imágenes” más o menos constantes compartidas por el ser humano y su entorno material y social, éstas se enriquecen en tanto pueden ser leídas desde los códigos de la cultura que las produce. En este caso, representada por la zona andina. La metodología utilizada pondrá en relación las categorías de imaginario desde una perspectiva antropológica y los aportes de la filosofía andina, sustentada en los principios de reciprocidad y complementariedad. La lectura analítica tiene como objetivo poner de manifiesto cómo los discursos orales que circulan en una comunidad en particular se constituyen como estrategias de consolidación de la “memoria” de un pueblo.

  12. TAFONOMÍA DE RESTOS ÓSEOS PROVENIENTES DE EGAGRÓPILAS DE CORAGYPS ATRATUS (JOTE DE CABEZA NEGRA EN EL NOROESTE DE LA PATAGONIA ARGENTINA/Taphonomy of bones remains from pellets of Coragyps Atratus (black vulture in the northwest of the argentinian Patag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ballejo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Existen diversos estudios actualísticos en tafonomía sobre restos de presas de diferentes especies de aves raptoras. Sin embargo, este tipo de trabajos en aves carroñeras ha sido escasamente considerado hasta el momento en Argentina, a pesar que ellas cumplen un papel fundamental en la alteración y transporte de cadáveres. Coragyps atratus (jote de cabeza negra tiene la particularidad de formar posaderos comunales cercanos a áreas de actividades humanas y de alimentarse de animales de todos los tamaños, por lo que pueden interferir en la formación de sitios arqueológicos. El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un análisis tafonómico sobre los restos óseos recuperados de egagrópilas de C. atratus en el Noroeste patagónico, con el fin de generar herramientas que permitan identificar a estas aves como posibles agentes acumuladores. Se recolectaron 469 egagrópilas distribuidas en tres posaderos del Noroeste patagónico. Se identificaron los elementos recuperados y se evaluaron los grados de alteraciones por ácidos gástricos. Lepus europaeus y Ovis aries dominaron las muestras. Los elementos más representativos pertenecen al autopodio, principalmente falanges. Todos ellos muestran signos de digestión, que van desde porosidades superficiales, perforaciones y fracturas, con la desaparición de la médula en el caso de varias falanges; denotando diferencias en relación al tamaño de la presa consumida. Abstract There are several actualistic taphonomic studies regarding different species of birds of prey. However, the studies focus on scavenger birds have been scarcely considered in Argentina, despite the fact that they play a fundamental role in the alteration and transportation of carcasses. A peculiar characteristic of Coragyps atratus (black vulture is that it builds communal roosts near places where human activities are developed and it feeds on animals of varying size, which may interfere with the formation of archaeological

  13. A lightweight portable, walk-in trap for catching vultures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two holes are drilled through the tubing and the piece of wood is attached to the tubing using 8.7 cm screws (Figure. 3). The location of the latch on the ... lightweight, walk-in trap, with door (shaded area) open, small black square shows location of gate latch. Figure 3. Close-up of gate latch. (photograph: David R. Barber).

  14. Mighty vulture back from near extinction Austrian project breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-02

    Mar 2, 2007 ... Alpine roosts. Today, however, the bone crusher is soaring toward a comeback as the continent's most ambitious – and priciest – wildlife reintroduction project achieves small but biologically significant success. The species was hunted nearly to extinction in the Alps by the start of the 20th century, mainly by ...

  15. Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres breeding status in southern Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While our data suggests multiple colonies are stable or increasing, the extinction of peripheral colonies and contraction of the species' range is alarming and gives evidence for unsustainable population declines. Monitoring efforts chronicled the extinction of the previously large core colony at Roberts' Farm, which was ...

  16. Unearthing poison use and consequent anecdotal vulture mortalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aldicarb or carbofuran were the most commonly used poisons, but strychnine is still used by about one farmer out of 10. Poison is typically used by means of distributing poisoned baits in the landscape. Furthermore, willingness to use poison in the future was highest for farmers who own large properties with high livestock ...

  17. Scavenging and predation by Black Vultures Coragyps atratus at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Entre un 12% y 17% de los cachorros sufrieron ataques por jotes durante ambas temporadas. Los perros vagos compiten en forma ventajosa con jotes por carroña. Se postula que la redirección de una conducta carroñera mutualista a depredadora, en el jote de cabeza negra, estaría influenciada por estrés alimentario, ...

  18. Wind farms threaten southern Africa's cliff-nesting vultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    active selection for ridge tops and upper slopes), and that both species generally fly at heights within the rotor-sweep of a typical, modern wind turbine. We constructed a population viability model using actual population data from the area presently ...

  19. New project examining Bearded Vulture movements in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    campbell

    southern Africa to inform wind turbine placement. Tim Reid. 1. , Sonja Krüger. 1,2 and Arjun Amar. 1. 1. Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, DST/NRF Centre of. Excellence, Dept. of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town,. Rondebosch 7701, South Africa. 2. Ezemvelo KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife, P.O. Box ...

  20. Poison blamed for decline of Spain's majestic Black Vultures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-01

    catastrophic” decline in numbers because of illegal poisoning by hunters. The use of poisoned bait to kill foxes, badgers, wild dogs, feral cats and smaller birds of prey has reduced the population by almost a half in the past decade,.

  1. Comparación de métodos analíticos para la determinación de materia orgánica en suelos de la región Andino-Patagónica: efectos de la vegetación y el tipo de suelo Comparison of analytical methods for determining soil organic matter in Patagonian Andean Region: effects of vegetation and soil types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila La Manna

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La determinación de la materia orgánica (MO resulta fundamental para el conocimiento de la productividad agrícola y forestal de los suelos. En este estudio se evaluó la relación entre los contenidos de materia orgánica (MO determinados por pérdida por ignición (MO PI y combustión húmeda de Walkley-Black (MO CH en suelos de la Región Andino Patagónica. La relación se evaluó para suelos volcánicos con y sin aluminosilicatos amorfos y con distintos tipos de vegetación: plantaciones de Pinus ponderosa, bosques de Austrocedrus chilensis, arbustales, estepa arbustiva y estepa herbácea. Se seleccionaron 100 sitios de muestreo, donde se tomaron muestras compuestas del horizonte A para la determinación de MO CH y MO PI. Los datos fueron analizados mediante análisis de varianza y regresiones simples. MO CH fue siempre inferior a MO PI. Esto es esperable dado que MO PI incluye la MO total, mientras que MO CH discrimina las formas de carbono fuertemente condensadas. Si bien no se detectaron diferencias en la relación entre los métodos analíticos para suelos con y sin aluminosilicatos amorfos, sí existió una fuerte relación entre la presencia de estos y los contenidos absolutos de MO. La relación entre los métodos analíticos varió según el tipo de vegetación. Los suelos que sustentan vegetación de estepa herbácea y plantación de pino ponderosa presentaron las mayores diferencias entre los dos métodos analíticos. MO CH fue, en promedio, un 37% inferior a MO PI para estos tipos de vegetación, siendo significativamente superior a lo hallado en arbustales (26%. Los suelos con bosque denso de Austrocedrus chilensis y estepa arbustiva presentaron valores intermedios (30 y 35%, respectivamente. Las plantaciones de pino ponderosa (primera rotación, edad promedio 21 años fueron realizadas en áreas de estepa herbácea. Las similitudes encontradas entre ambos suelos podrían estar asociadas a características de la MO propias del

  2. Table scraps: inter-trophic food provisioning by pumas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbroch, L Mark; Wittmer, Heiko U

    2012-10-23

    Large carnivores perform keystone ecological functions through direct predation, or indirectly, through food subsidies to scavengers or trophic cascades driven by their influence on the distributions of their prey. Pumas (Puma concolor) are an elusive, cryptic species difficult to study and little is known about their inter-trophic-level interactions in natural communities. Using new GPS technology, we discovered that pumas in Patagonia provided 232 ± 31 kg of edible meat/month/100 km(2) to near-threatened Andean condors (Vultur gryphus) and other members of a diverse scavenger community. This is up to 3.1 times the contributions by wolves (Canis lupus) to communities in Yellowstone National Park, USA, and highlights the keystone role large, solitary felids play in natural systems. These findings are more pertinent than ever, for managers increasingly advocate controlling pumas and other large felids to bolster prey populations and mitigate concerns over human and livestock safety, without a full understanding of the potential ecological consequences of their actions.

  3. Nuisance ecology: do scavenging condors exact foraging costs on pumas in Patagonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbroch, L Mark; Wittmer, Heiko U

    2013-01-01

    Predation risk describes the energetic cost an animal suffers when making a trade off between maximizing energy intake and minimizing threats to its survival. We tested whether Andean condors (Vultur gryphus) influenced the foraging behaviors of a top predator in Patagonia, the puma (Puma concolor), in ways comparable to direct risks of predation for prey to address three questions: 1) Do condors exact a foraging cost on pumas?; 2) If so, do pumas exhibit behaviors indicative of these risks?; and 3) Do pumas display predictable behaviors associated with prey species foraging in risky environments? Using GPS location data, we located 433 kill sites of 9 pumas and quantified their kill rates. Based upon time pumas spent at a carcass, we quantified handling time. Pumas abandoned >10% of edible meat at 133 of 266 large carcasses after a single night, and did so most often in open grasslands where their carcasses were easily detected by condors. Our data suggested that condors exacted foraging costs on pumas by significantly decreasing puma handling times at carcasses, and that pumas increased their kill rates by 50% relative to those reported for North America to compensate for these losses. Finally, we determined that the relative risks of detection and associated harassment by condors, rather than prey densities, explained puma "giving up times" (GUTs) across structurally variable risk classes in the study area, and that, like many prey species, pumas disproportionately hunted in high-risk, high-resource reward areas.

  4. Energy beyond food: foraging theory informs time spent in thermals by a large soaring bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L C Shepard

    Full Text Available Current understanding of how animals search for and exploit food resources is based on microeconomic models. Although widely used to examine feeding, such constructs should inform other energy-harvesting situations where theoretical assumptions are met. In fact, some animals extract non-food forms of energy from the environment, such as birds that soar in updraughts. This study examined whether the gains in potential energy (altitude followed efficiency-maximising predictions in the world's heaviest soaring bird, the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus. Animal-attached technology was used to record condor flight paths in three-dimensions. Tracks showed that time spent in patchy thermals was broadly consistent with a strategy to maximise the rate of potential energy gain. However, the rate of climb just prior to leaving a thermal increased with thermal strength and exit altitude. This suggests higher rates of energetic gain may not be advantageous where the resulting gain in altitude would lead to a reduction in the ability to search the ground for food. Consequently, soaring behaviour appeared to be modulated by the need to reconcile differing potential energy and food energy distributions. We suggest that foraging constructs may provide insight into the exploitation of non-food energy forms, and that non-food energy distributions may be more important in informing patterns of movement and residency over a range of scales than previously considered.

  5. Inmigrantes andinos en Madrid: Sus danzas y sus músicas tradicionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Morales

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In our urban context we get in touch with people that have been forced to leave their countries under different circumstances in order to live in Spain. This article analyses their wish to maintain a group identity and how this identity is materialized by some individuals through traditional dance and music. The study is intended as a framework for subsequent educational investigations that relate that cultural reality with the situation in secondary schools where children of Latin American immigrants study.Nuestro entorno ciudadano inmediato nos pone en contacto diario con personas que por diferentes razones se han visto obligadas a dejar sus países de origen para instalarse en España. Este artículo analiza el deseo que surge en ellas de mantener una identidad de grupo, y cómo ésta se concreta en ciertos individuos mediante manifestaciones de danza y música popular tradicional. El estudio pretende servir de marco para ulteriores investigaciones educativas que vinculen esa realidad cultural con la situación de institutos de enseñanza secundaria en los que estudian hijos de inmigrantes latinoamericanos.

  6. Efectos negativos de las plantas exóticas maderables sobre el bosque nativo andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Antonio Gutiérrez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Los abusos que el hombre ha cometido con la naturaleza han provocado que muchas áreas, que debían ser santuarios vegetales, padezcan el deterioro del bosque nativo, con el consiguiente daño ambiental, hídrico, de flora y fauna. No escapa a ello la Escuela Nacional de Carabineros, pues su cerro tutelar fue sometido a una plantación de árboles exóticos maderables, con la consabida tala del bosque nativo. Los daños en dicho cerro han provocado la implementación de una reforestación técnica, que permita devolver la dinámica propia a la vegetación nativa, lo cual debe dar como resultado un Plan Estratégico de Manejo Ambiental, para futuras aplicaciones.

  7. Mirando a la Pachamama: globalización y territorio en el Tarapacá andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Gonzu00E1lez Miranda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda la distancia cultural entre las poblaciones indígenas y la sociedad occidental desde la Colonia hasta nuestros días a través del concepto tiempo y espacio (devenir y territorio, empleando el concepto agua como un elemento vital y ritual. Se analizan las oportunidades y los riesgos que les plantea la globalización a las comunidades andinas, ofreciendo una propuesta, basada en la teoría de Sergio Boisier, que podría resolver el dilema entre globalización y desarrollo endógeno en la sociedad indígena. Se señala la importancia de la nueva geografía cultural, como disciplina, para entender la importancia del territorio en sociedades y culturas no occidentales como la andina.

  8. La mitigación de heladas en los camellones del altiplano andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The raised fields system is an old technique of soil and water management, which was very frequent in the Lake Titicaca region before the Spanish conquest. It essentially consists of a series of earth platforms surrounded by water canals. Crops are grown on the platforms and water level in the canals is controled through inlet and outlet ditches. An important and widely recognized benefit of this system of management is its contribution to frost mitigation during the growing season. An experiment has been conducted on a system of raised fields in the Lake Titicaca region with the goal of quantifying the phenomenon and specifying the physical processes responsible for the mitigation effect. A potato crop was grown on the platforms of the raised fields and the same crop was grown on a control plot in the “Pampa”. Experimental results show that during the night: (i water temperature is much greater than the temperature of the crop on the platforms (ii crop temperature is always greater (1-2 degrees on the platforms than on the control plot in the Pampa. A physical process-based model, adapted from a two-layer transfer scheme of the Shuttleworth-Wallace type (a vegetation layer and a substrate layer of water, is presented to explain the mitigation effect. The model specifies the role played by the canals in the nocturnal heat dynamics and the night-time variation of crop temperature. The mitigation effect is due to heat emanating from the canals and to water condensation on the leaves. When used in a predictive way, the model shows that wider canals and narrower platforms have a positive impact on the minimum crop temperature reached during the night. Increasing water depth also improves frost mitigation, but conversely, a deeper canal (with the same level of water has a negative impact. Leaf area index (LAI and crop height, both have a positive impact on frost mitigation. The marginal benefit, however, is very small when LAI is greater than 1. Higher wind velocity or higher air relative humidity also enhances the frost mitigation effect. El sistema de camellones o “waru warus” es una antigua técnica agrícola de manejo del suelo y del agua. En los tiempos prehispánicos era muy frecuente en la región del lago Titicaca. Consiste esencialmente en una serie de plataformas de tierra rodeadas por canales de agua. Las plantas se cultivan sobre las plataformas y el nivel del agua en los canales puede controlarse a través de entradas y salidas de agua. Un beneficio importante y ampliamente reconocido de este sistema de manejo en el altiplano es su contribución a la mitigación de heladas nocturnas durante la campaña agrícola. Con el objetivo de cuantificar este fenómeno y describir los procesos físicos responsables de la mitigación, se ha realizado un experimento en la región del lago Titicaca sobre un sistema de camellones cultivado con papas comparándolo con una parcela “testigo” en la “Pampa”. Se presentan resultados experimentales que evidencian por una parte, el valor elevado de la temperatura del agua con respecto a la del cultivo sobre las plataformas, y por otra, una temperatura de cultivo siempre mayor (1-2 grados en los camellones que en la Pampa. Conjuntamente se presenta un modelo mecanístico adaptado de un esquema de transferencia bi-capa de tipo “Shuttleworth-Wallace” (una capa de vegetación y un sustrato de agua. El modelo precisa el papel que juegan los canales en la dinámica del calor y por lo tanto en la variación de la temperatura del cultivo durante la noche. El efecto de mitigación se debe al flujo de calor que emana del agua y a menudo también a la condensación del vapor de agua sobre las hojas del cultivo. Utilizando el modelo de manera predictiva, se muestra que canales más anchos o plataformas más estrechas tienen un impacto positivo sobre la temperatura mínima del cultivo alcanzada durante la noche. Aumentar la profundidad del agua mejora también la mitigación de heladas, pero a la inversa, un canal más profundo (con el mismo nivel de agua tiene un impacto negativo. Aumentar el índice de ��rea foliar (LAI o la altura del cultivo tiene un efecto positivo sobre la mitigación de heladas (el beneficio marginal, sin embargo, es muy pequeño cuando el índice foliar supera el valor 1. Mayor velocidad de viento o mayor humedad relativa incrementa también el efecto de mitigación de heladas. Le système des ados ou waru warus, est une ancienne technique agricole qui était très fréquente dans la région du lac Titicaca à l’époque préhispanique. Elle consiste essentiellement en une série de plateformes de terre surélevées entourées par des canaux. Les plantes se cultivent sur les plateformes et le niveau d’eau dans les canaux est contrôlé par les entrées et sorties. Un bénéfice important et largement reconnu de ce système de culture sur l’altiplano est sa contribution à l’atténuation des gelées nocturnes durant la campagne agricole. Dans le but de quantifier ce phénomène et de décrire les processus physiques responsables de cette atténuation une expérimentation a été conduite dans la région du lac Titicaca en comparant un système d’ados cultivés avec des pommes de terre avec une parcelle témoin dans la “ Pampa ”. Les résultats expérimentaux mettent en évidence, d’une part la valeur élevée de la température de l’eau par rapport à celle de la culture sur les plateformes, d’autre part une température de la culture toujours plus élevée (1-2 degrés dans les ados que dans la Pampa. On présente également un modèle mécaniste, adapté d’un schéma de transfert bi-couche de type “ Shuttleworth-Wallace ” (une couche représentant la végétation et une couche représentant le substrat d’eau. Le modèle précise le rôle joué la nuit par les canaux dans la dynamique de la chaleur et dans la variation de la température de la culture. Il apparaît que l’effet d’atténuation est dû principalement au flux de chaleur sensible qui émane de l’eau, mais souvent aussi à la condensation de vapeur d’eau sur les feuilles de la culture. En utilisant le modèle de manière prédictive on montre que des canaux plus larges ou des plateformes plus étroites ont un impact positif sur la température minimale de la culture atteinte durant la nuit. Augmenter la profondeur de l’eau améliore également l’effet d’atténuation des gelées, mais à l’inverse, un canal plus profond, avec le même niveau d’eau, a un impact négatif. L’augmentation de la surface foliaire (LAI ou de la hauteur du couvert a un effet positif sur l’atténuation des gelées. Une vitesse de vent plus forte ou une humidité relative de l’air plus élevée accroît également l’effet d’atténuation.

  9. Bosques andinos del sur de Ecuador, clasificación, regeneración y uso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer W. Bussmann

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Existen muy pocos inventarios y descripciones sintaxonómicas de la vegetación de bosques montanos tropicales. Este trabajo presenta datos sobre los bosques del sur de Ecuador localizados en la Reserva Biológica San Francisco, límite norte del Parque Nacional Podocarpus. Se propone la siguiente clasificación junto con notas sobre los factores edáficos que contribuyen a su establecimiento. El «Bosque Montano Bajo» (1800-2150 m, formando el orden Alzateetalia verticillatae, muestra 2-3 estratos arbóreos muy diversos, con árboles de 20-35 m de altura, y es una clímax mosaico típico. Creciendo sobre Terric Haplosaprists y Aquic Dystrupepts, originado del material de derrumbes viejos, este tipo de bosque se extiende hasta los 2300 m sobre el nivel del mar en quebradas protegidas de viento. A altitudes de 2100-2650 m (menos de 2750 m la estructura del bosque y la composición florística cambia totalmente. Esta vegetación, el «Bosque Montano Alto» forma el orden de Purdiaeaetalia nutantis y crece sobre Histic Petraquepts. Representando una vegetación monotípica con un solo estrato arbóreo de 5-10 m (–15 m de altura, completamente dominado por Purdiaea nutans (Cyrillaceae. El bosque ubicado a mayor altitud en el área, densamente enlazado con el páramo es el «Bosque Nublado Subalpino». Descritos como Clusio ellipticae-Weinmannietum cochensis aparecen más como una vegetación arbustiva casi impenetrable, y crecen sobre Humaquic Epiaquents. El límite del bosque es causado principalmente por los vientos fuertes de la región. Derrumbes e incendios naturales representan el «motor» de regeneración de los bosques. Se encontró carbón en la base de los niveles A de muchos perfiles de suelo. El análisis 14C precisó una edad de 710-980 ±50 años antes del presente. Esto indica que fuegos en la vegetación han contribuido a la dinámica de esta vegetación en el pasado y no es un fenómeno reciente. El diámetro basal de los árboles y el volumen total de madera por hectárea disminuyen rápidamente con la altitud a partir de los 2100 m y no pueden ser eficazmente utilizados para una explotación de madera sostenible.

  10. Recuperación estructural en bosques sucesionales andinos de Porce (Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana P Yepes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lugares susceptibles a perturbaciones naturales o antrópicas pueden recuperar la cobertura boscosa. La sucesión tropical puede ser afectada por factores tales como perturbaciones, distancia al bosque original, topografía y clima local. Estos factores determinan la composición de especies y la tasa de recuperación de los sitios. Se estudió la sucesión en suelos que habían sido usados para el establecimiento de pasturas ganaderas por varias décadas en la Región Porce de Colombia (bosques Colombianos de los Andes. Se midieron un total de veinticinco parcelas, incluyendo nueve parcelas (20x50m en bosques primarios y dieciséis (20x25m en bosques secundarios. Se midieron todos los árboles con un diámetro ≥1.0cm. Se analizó la densidad, área basal, biomasa aérea y riqueza de especies, en un bosque con un proceso sucesional de ca. 43 años y en un bosque primario. Las edades de los bosques secundarios fueron obtenidas en estudios previos usando la datación con carbono catorce (C14, fotografías aéreas y el análisis de imágenes de satélite de alta resolución (entre 7 y >43 años. En total, 1 143 y 1 766 individuos se midieron en bosque primario y secundario, respectivamente. El área basal (5.7 a 85.4m²ha-1, la biomasa aérea (19.1 a 1 011.5 t ha-1 y la riqueza de especies (4 a 69 aumentaron directamente con la edad de los sitios, mientras que la densidad de árboles disminuyó (3 180 a 590. Las distribuciones diamétricas fueron en J-invertida para los bosques primarios y unimodal para los secundarios. Tres especies de palmas fueron abundantes y exclusivas de bosques secundarios viejos y bosques primarios: Oenocarpus mapora, Euterpe precatoria y Oenocarpus bataua. Cohortes de estas palmas aparecieron después de perturbaciones del bosque. La recuperación de la estructura de los bosques secundarios en más de 43 años de sucesión fue 40% e indica que varios factores están interactuando y afectando la sucesión de los bosques en el área (e.g. agricultura, ganadería extensiva, minería, etc..Structural recovering in Andean successional forests from Porce (Antioquia, Colombia. Places subjected to natural or human disturbance can recover forest through an ecological process called secondary succession. Tropical succession is affected by factors such as disturbances, distance from original forest, surface configuration and local climate. These factors determine the composition of species and the time trend of the succession itself. We studied succession in soils used for cattle ranching over various decades in the Porce Region of Colombia (Andean Colombian forests. A set of twenty five permanent plots was measured, including nine plots (20x50m in primary forests and sixteen (20x25m in secondary forests. All trees with diameter ≥1.0cm were measured. We analyzed stem density, basal area, above-ground biomass and species richness, in a successional process of ca. 43 years, and in primary forests. The secondary forests’ age was estimated in previous studies, using radiocarbon dating, aerial photographs and a high-resolution satellite image analysis (7 to >43 years. In total, 1 143 and 1 766 stems were measured in primary and secondary forests, respectively. Basal area (5.7 to 85.4m²ha-1, above-ground biomass (19.1 to 1 011.5 t ha-1 and species richness (4 to 69 directly increased with site age, while steam density decreased (3 180 to 590. Diametric distributions were "J-inverted" for primary forests and even-aged size-class structures for secondary forests. Three species of palms were abundant and exclusive in old secondary forests and primary forests: Oenocarpus mapora, Euterpe precatoria and Oenocarpus bataua. These palms happened in cohorts after forest disturbances. Secondary forest structure was 40% in more than 43 years of forest succession and indicate that many factors are interacting and affecting the forests succession in the area (e.g. agriculture, cattle ranching, mining, etc.. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1: 427-445. Epub 2010 March 01.

  11. La situación energética en el Pacto Andino

    OpenAIRE

    Centro de Estudios Sudamericanos

    2008-01-01

    Los países de la región han venido modernizando sus sectores energéticos y han adoptado enfoques similares en cuanto a objetivos generales como la búsqueda de la eficiencia mediante mecanismos de mercado donde ello sea posible; la tendencia al alejamiento del Estado de actividades puramente empresariales y su focalización en los temas de regulación y control; la puesta en marcha de políticas transparentes que promuevan la competencia; y la participación de inversionistas privados, etc. No obs...

  12. El simbolismo del piojo en el mundo andino. Boceto filológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-France Souffez

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available El valor que se da al piojo varía  según los lugares y las culturas del mundo. En las zonas urbanas peruanas es  sinónimo de  suciedad y  pobreza. En las zonas rurales tradicionales andinas, nos parece estar asociado a la pobreza y a la riqueza, a la muerte y a la vida. Las modalidades-y los matices de expresión de estas asociaciones forman el objeto de nuestro estudio. El presente artículo desarrolla un análisis parcial del vocabulario quechua y aimara relacionado con este parásito.

  13. El sol de los venados. Un fenómeno universal, pero muy andino.

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas, Laura

    2006-01-01

    : Editorial: El emblemático número tres. Por: Ruiz Calderón, Humberto Especial Jóvenes, alcohol y ¿salud?. Venezuela, penoso liderazgo: consumo de licor y muertes en percances viales. Por: González, Silvia Lidia ¡Cuidado! ebrio al volante. Artículo Bebiendo el futuro. Por: Morales, Nelson Guía Web Sitios sobre alcoholismo en Internet. Historias El rostro más especial de Venezuela. Jacqueline Saburido. Por: González, Silvia Lidia Hora libre...

  14. Una nueva especie ecuatoriana del género de peces andinos Grundulus (Characiformes: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Román-Valencia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe Grundulus quitoensis nueva especie (Characiformes, Characidae proveniente de las Lagunas El Voladero reserva biológica El Angel al norte de Ecuador. El nuevo taxon se distingue de las demás especies por el menor número de radios simples en la aleta anal (tres vs. cuatro a cinco y en las aletas pectorales (uno vs. dos a tres, por el mayor número de dientes en cada dentario (12- 14 vs. 8-10, perfil ventral posterior a la cintura pectoral hasta el origen de la aleta anal plano (vs. curvo, el segundo infraorbital es tres veces más grande que el primero (vs. dos veces más grande, el tercer infraorbital está separado del preopérculo (vs. en contacto con la superficie del preopérculo, dentario presenta cuatro pequeñas fenestras en el margen infero-lateral (vs. uno a dos, el premaxilar presenta un proceso lateral largo (vs. corto, maxilar con dos muescas en la superficie infero-lateral (vs. maxilar con una muesca en la superficie inferolateral.A new Ecuadorian species of the Andean fish genus Grundulus (Characiformes: Characidae. The new species Grundulus quitoensis is described from El Voladero Lake, El Angel Biological Reserve, Northern Ecuador. The new taxon can be distinguished from all congeners by the following characters, respectively: a low number of unbranched rays in the anal fin (three vs. four-five and in pectoral fins (on vs. two - three, a higher number of dentary teeth (12-14 vs. 8-10, a second infraorbital about three times larger than the first (vs. about two times larger, a third infraorbital which is not in contact with the preopercle (vs. in contact with preopercle, the presence of four small fenestrae in the infero-lateral bone dentary (vs. one - two; and a premaxilla which presents a long lateral process (vs. short, a maxilla with two notches in the infero-lateral surface (vs. one notch in the infero-lateral surface. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 537-544. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

  15. Apuntes sobre las relaciones entre el pensamiento, la lengua y la cultura, en el caso andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-France Souffez

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reproduce algunas ideas generales sobre los problemas del sistema educativo peruano frente a la cultura andina. Avanza unas propuestas de investigación y desarrolla una posición teórica que subraya, al lado de los diferentes estudios sobre el hombre en su generalidad y permanencia,ia importancia de explorar las variaciones del espíritu humano en las diferentes culturas y épocas, lo que podría ser útil en. el Perú, país pluricultural dominado por una sola, cultura. Asimismo, propone indagar, dentro de la especificidad andina, sobre las formas de pensar y de expresar la inteligencia valoradas en esta cultura, iniciando la aproximación por un análisis de los significados de las expresiones lingüisticas relativas a estas formas.

  16. El Rostro Andino del Arco Iris La diversidad cultural, el desarrollo y el sumak kawsay ecuatoriano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merchán, Andrés Abad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on the concept of human development and its cultural dimensions. It analyzes the Human Development Index (HDI, the legal framework for development in the Ecuador and the concept of sumak kawsay (known as "living well", as well as the intrinsic relationship between biological and cultural diversity. In addition, it analyzes the proposal of UNESCO, which provides a series of indicators linked to welfare and the promotion of cultural and creative diversity. Finally, the National Plan for Living Well 2009-2013 drawn up by the National Secretariat of Planning and Development (SENPLADES is reviewed.

  17. Efectos reglamentarios y jurisdiccionales del derecho comunitario Andino sobre el derecho administrativo colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Montes Sarmiento, Maria Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo se soporta sobre una base conformada por dos conceptos, que constituyen el horizonte contextual de la investigación: Derecho Administrativo y Comunidad de integración. Es claro que al hablar de una Comunidad de integración específica como la Comunidad Andina (CAN), incide de forma directa en la actividad del derecho administrativo.Ha sido necesario que los países que conforman los grupos de integración económica cedan parte de sus competencias para crear un ordenamiento jurídico ...

  18. Food choice and diet of the bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-04-17

    Apr 17, 1990 ... samples, forming at least 67% of the bones collected at ossuaries (Table 8) and .... for breaking, and these were mostly larger animals (e.g. horses and cattle). ..... NEWMAN, K.B. 1969. Some notes on the feeding habits of.

  19. High altitude and hemoglobin function in the vultures Gyps rueppelli and Aegypius monachus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.; Hiebl, Inge; Braunitzer, Gerhard

    1988-01-01

    Functional characteristics of the stripped composite hemoglobins (Hbs) of lhevultures Gyps rueppellii and Aegypills monachus that can fly at extremely high altitudes, and of component Hbs of G. rueppellii are reported, in relation to influences of pH, temperalure and inositol hexaphosphate. G...... structures of the constituent polypeptide chains to trace molecular adaptations to high-altitude respiration, and to physiological factors (pulmonary hypoxia and hypocapnia, body temperature shifts, and lung and nasal gas and heat exchange) to discern their possible survival value at altitudes of 11300 m....

  20. The creation of the SAVE consortium – Saving Asia's Vultures from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes the background to this problem, caused mainly by the veterinary drug diclofenac, and the establishment and structure of the SAVE consortium created to help coordinate the necessary conservation response. The lessons learnt in Asia and the working model of such a consortium are presented, which ...

  1. Blood-borne parasites in the Black Vulture Coragyps atratus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    campbell

    varying greatly by species (Kloss et al. 2003, Nogami et al. 2000). Because sampling occurred at an .... of 12 with multiple protozoan genera present. Finding only hemoprotozoans of the genus. Plasmodium is thus concordant with previously established patterns. Also in agreement with previous research is the lack of.

  2. Monitoring White-backed Vultures Gyps africanus in the North West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    Stellaland), South Africa. Dirk, Karen and Stefan van Stuyvenberg. Stellaland Raptor Project. e-mail: stuyvies@telkomsa.net. Introduction. We became involved with the ringing of birds in 2002 and started to ring raptors actively since 2003.

  3. Observations on the breeding of Indian long-billed vultures Gyps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    observed to be abandoned by the birds after 29 days of incubation during December. We also observed mating attempts (n=5) in adult birds during nestling period. Out of 16 chicks, one died at the hatching stage and one died during the fledgling stage, thus only 14 chicks fledged successfully with a success rate of. 82.35%.

  4. Repeated conservation threats across the Americas: High levels of blood and bone lead in the Andean Condor widen the problem to a continental scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Guillermo M; Pérez, Miguel A; Torres Bianchini, Laura; Sampietro, Luciano; Bravo, Guillermo F; Jácome, N Luis; Astore, Vanesa; Lambertucci, Sergio A

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife lead exposure is an increasing conservation threat that is being widely investigated. However, for some areas of the world (e.g., South America) and certain species, research on this subject is still scarce or only local information is available. We analyzed the extent and intensity of lead exposure for a widely distributed threatened species, the Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus). We conducted the study at two different scales: 1) sampling of birds received for rehabilitation or necropsy in Argentina, and 2) bibliographic review and extensive survey considering exposure event for the species' distribution in South America. Wild condors from Argentina (n = 76) presented high lead levels consistent with both recent and previous exposure (up to 104 μg/dL blood level, mean 15.47 ± 21.21 μg/dL and up to 148.20 ppm bone level, mean 23.08 ± 31.39 ppm). In contrast, captive bred individuals -not exposed to lead contamination- had much lower lead levels (mean blood level 5.63 ± 3.08 μg/dL, and mean bone level 2.76 ± 3.06 ppm). Condors were exposed to lead throughout their entire range in continental Argentina, which represents almost sixty percent (>4000 km) of their geographical distribution. We also present evidence of lead exposure events in Chile, Ecuador, and Peru. Lead poisoning is a widespread major conservation threat for the Andean Condor, and probably other sympatric carnivores from South America. The high number and wide range of Andean Condors with lead values complement the results for the California Condor and other scavengers in North America suggesting lead poisoning is a continental threat. Urgent actions are needed to reduce this poison in the wild. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Observaciones sobre la ecología del páramo andino de Monserrate Observaciones sobre la ecología del páramo andino de Monserrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturm Helmut

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available In a paramo region near Bogotá (Colombia, 3.230 m aboveseal evel investigations were made of clima, soil vegetation and fauna.  The mean temperature was 8.4 degrees C and the annual rainfall 1.221.4 mm. Sometimes great variations of relative humidity and of temperature near the soil surface could be registered. The properties of the black coloured paramosoil, wich probably is not a uniform type, are discussed. Its micromorphology and fauna were examined for the first time. The fauna is well developed and takes part intensivily in mixing the mineral and organic components. The soil type is classified as being between those which KUBIENA (1953 called "Pechtorf" and "Moderranker", The vegetation has been characterized by the estimation of the "Artmächtigkeit" (BRAUN-BLANQUET,1964 of the single species. The distribution and net production of Espeletia grandiflora Humb. & Bonpl., the most specificplant species in this paramo is discussed. The quantitative sampling of the fauna, especially of the arthropod fauna,was carried out by means of a combination of different methods to evaluate the density per litre and the density of activity. The mantle consisting of dead leaves of E. grandiflora proved to be a rich and characteristic "biotope". The facts are discussed partly by comparing them with correspondingfacts from a tropical rain forest.In a paramo region near Bogotá (Colombia, 3.230 m above seal evel investigations were made of clima, soil vegetation and fauna.  The mean temperature was 8.4 degrees C and the annual rainfall 1.221.4 mm. Sometimes great variations of relative humidity and of temperature near the soil surface could be registered. The properties of the black coloured paramo soil, wich probably is not a uniform type, are discussed. Its micromorphology and fauna were examined for the first time. The fauna is well developed and takes part intensivily in mixing the mineral and organic components. The soil type is classified as being between those which KUBIENA (1953 called "Pechtorf" and "Moderranker", The vegetation has been characterized by the estimation of the "Artmächtigkeit" (BRAUN-BLANQUET,1964 of the single species. The distribution and net production of Espeletia grandiflora Humb. & Bonpl., the most specific plant species in this paramo is discussed. The quantitative sampling of the fauna, especially of the arthropod fauna, was carried out by means of a combination of different methods to evaluate the density per litre and the density of activity. The mantle consisting of dead leaves of E. grandiflora proved to be a rich and characteristic "biotope". The facts are discussed partly by comparing them with corresponding facts from a tropical rain forest.

  6. Autoridad y memoria entre los killakas. Las estrategias discursivas de don Juan Colque Guarache en el sur andino (Siglo XVI)

    OpenAIRE

    Graña, Mario Julio

    2014-01-01

    Entre 1575 y 1577, don Juan Colque Guarache, cacique principal de las etnias killaka, asanaque, sivaroyo,haracapi y uruquilla del sur del lago Poopó, actual Oruro (Bolivia)eleva a consideración de las autoridades españolas una serie de "Probanzasde Méritos y Servicios" de sus antepasados. Esta fuente permite explorar la narración de la historia de un linaje indígena, a la luz de las estrategias discursivas empleadas por las autoridades étnicas dentro del contexto colonial.En este sentido, se ...

  7. Aspectos de los Sistemas Tributarios en los Países Andinos que Preocupan los a Inversionistas Extranjeros

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián F. Rodríguez Piedrahita; Carmela Hernández

    2003-01-01

    El presente análisis se ha enfocado en las reglas adoptadas por el legislador en normas internas, tomando como parámetro de comparación nuestra experiencia con inversionistas en la región, sometidos al régimen del impuesto federal sobre la renta en los Estados Unidos de América. Los comentarios que aquí se hacen han de ser considerados sin perjuicio de aquellos casos individuales en que la adopción de tratados bilaterales para evitar la doble tributación ha servido para conciliar los interese...

  8. Micromamiferos andinos holocenicos del sitio arqueologico Inca Cueva 5, Ju Juy, Argentina: tafonomia, zoogeografia y reconstruccion paleoambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz, P. E.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A micromammal archaeological sequence (2120 f 120 to 780 f 100 years BP from Inca Cueva 5 site (23" 05' S - 65" 27' W; 3700 m.a.s.l., Jujuy Province, Argentina was studied. The following mammalian taxa were recorded: Order Didelphimorphia, Family Didelphidae, Thylamys cf. T. pallidior; Order Rodentia, Family Muridae, Akodon cf. A. albiventer, Andinomys edax, Auliscomys sublimis, Calomys lepidus, Neotomys ebriosus, Phyllotis sp.; Family Caviidae, Cavia cf. C. tschudii, Galea musteloides; Family Abrocomidae, Abrocoma cinerea; Family Chinchillidae, Lagidium viscacia; Family Octodontidae, Octodontomys gliroides. The taphonomy indicates that the sequence is an owl pellet accumulation inside the cave. The general landscape corresponds to the oriental border of the Puna steppe, with scattered shrub and low brush vegetation. Near the site there are small tree groups of Polylepis australis as well as small streams covered with grass and ciperaceous vegetation known as «vegas». Al1 the recorded taxa at Inca Cueva 5 exist today in Puna and Prepuna environments from Jujuy and Salta Provinces and southem Bolivia, excepting Cavia cf. C. tschudii. The modem records of this species in northem Argentina and southern Bolivia come from localities with high montane bunchgrass prairies and forests of the humid Yungas phytogeographical region. The presence of this species in the sequence suggests wetter climatic conditions on this region when the archaeological site was originated. Later drier conditions, caused probably by anthropic influence in the last 500 years, produced the retraction of Cavia tschudii to the moist eastern side of the Andes and its disappeareance of the Puna areas.El sitio arqueológico Inca Cueva 5 se encuentra en la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina, en el borde oriental de la región de la Puna (23" 05' S - 65" 27' W; 3700 m s n m y está fechado entre 2120 f 120 y 780 f 100 años radiocarbónicos AP. El estudio de una pequeña muestra de micromamíferos permitió reconocer la presencia de los siguientes taxa: Orden Didelphimorphia, Familia Didelphidae, Thylamys cf. T. pallidior; Orden Rodentia, Familia Muridae, Akodon cf. A. albiventer, Andinomys edax, Auliscomys sublimis, Calomys lepidus, Neotomys ebriosus, Phyllotis sp.; Familia Caviidae, Cavia cf. C. tschudii, Galea musteloides; Familia Abrocomidae, Abrocoma cinerea; Familia Chinchillidae, Lagidium viscacia; Familia Octodontidae, Octodontomys gliroides. La tafonomía indica que el agregado tuvo su origen en la depositación de egagrópilas de lechuza (Aves, Strigiformes en el contexto de la cueva. El ambiente general actual en la zona corresponde a la estepa puneña, con arbustos y matorrales bajos y dispersos. En el fondo del valle hay bosquecillos de Polylepis australis, un curso de agua y vegas pequeñas y circunscritas. Todas las especies registradas en Inca Cueva 5 habitan actualmente en ambientes de Puna y Prepuna de Salta, Jujuy y sur de Bolivia, a excepción de Cavia cf. C. tschudii. Los registros actuales de esta especie en el noroeste de Argentina y sur de Bolivia corresponden a localidades ubicadas en pastizales de altura y bosques subtropicales de Yungas. La presencia de este taxón en la secuencia sugiere condiciones de mayor humedad que las actuales para la región durante el lapso considerado. Condiciones posteriores de mayor aridez, probablemente asociadas al impacto antrópico de los últimos 500 años, habrían redundado en la desaparición de Cavia tschudii de áreas puneñas y en su retracción a los cordones orientales húmedos de los Andes.

  9. Micromamiferos andinos holocenicos del sitio arqueologico Inca Cueva 5, Ju Juy, Argentina: tafonomia, zoogeografia y reconstruccion paleoambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, P. E.; Teta, P.

    2002-01-01

    A micromammal archaeological sequence (2120 f 120 to 780 f 100 years BP) from Inca Cueva 5 site (23" 05' S - 65" 27' W; 3700 m.a.s.l., Jujuy Province, Argentina) was studied. The following mammalian taxa were recorded: Order Didelphimorphia, Family Didelphidae, Thylamys cf. T. pallidior; Order Rodentia, Family Muridae, Akodon cf. A. albiventer, Andinomys edax, Auliscomys sublimis, Calomys lepidus, Neotomys ebriosus, Phyllotis sp.; Family Caviidae, Cavia cf. C. tschudii, Galea musteloides; Fam...

  10. Polémicas en torno a los catequistas andinos en el virreinato peruano (siglos XVI-XVII)

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, John

    2012-01-01

    El presente artículo examina el papel de los catequistas indígenas en la evangelización andina, dándole énfasis a la influencia de las políticas del Tercer Concilio Limense (1582-1583) en favor del quechua y los testimonios de oficiales eclesiásticos sobre el estatus del quechua como lengua de enseñanza doctrinal hacia principios del siglo XVII. El trabajo analiza, además, los problemas que el bilingüismo indígena planteó para el proyecto colonial de unificación cultural y religiosa, así como...

  11. DIATOMEAS DE PEQUEÑOS RÍOS ANDINOS Y SU UTILIZACIÓN COMO INDICADORAS DE CONDICIONES AMBIENTALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DÍAZ-QUIRÓS CATHERINA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En veinte ríos de la cuenca alta y media del Río Bogotá (Cundinamarca, Colombiase estudió la relación entre algunas variables físicas, químicas e hidrológicas con lacomunidad de diatomeas perifíticas. A partir de un Análisis de ComponentesPrincipales se estableció que la conductividad, el pH, el amonio, la turbidez, elfósforo total, el dióxido de carbono y la velocidad de la corriente fueron las variablesque determinaron los patrones físicos y químicos de los ríos. Mediante un Análisisde Correspondencia Canónica se estableció que el pH, el fósforo reactivo soluble,el nitrógeno total y la conductividad fueron las variables que determinaron lacomunidad de diatomeas. Finalmente, se propone un modelo de regresión ycalibración para inferir los valores de las variables significativas a partir de laestructura de la comunidad.

  12. Buen Vivir Andino: Resistência e/ou alternativa ao modelo hegemônico de desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Pereira da Silva

    Full Text Available Resumo Este ensaio teórico problematiza a ética do Buen Vivir como forma de resistência e/ou alternativa ao modelo hegemônico de desenvolvimento que tem sido disseminado e implementado por organizações internacionais e corporações. Após a declaração das Nações Unidas sobre os direitos indígenas, em 2007 (MAMANI, 2010, o Buen Vivir alcançou status oficial nas Constituições do Equador e da Bolívia. O Buen Vivir é uma visão de mundo distinta da ordem internacional liberal institucionalizada no pós-II Guerra Mundial; fundamenta-se nas noções de cosmovisão relacional e pluriverso (ESCOBAR, 2011, multiverso (MAMANI, 2010 ou ecosofia andina (ESTERMANN, 2013, enunciados no Sul e subalternizados por mais de cinco séculos de colonialidade. Com base nestas noções, o ensaio enfatiza a importância de repensar, segundo uma abordagem decolonial, o papel desempenhado pelos Estados e organizações governamentais internacionais no que diz respeito ao desenvolvimento local. A análise crítica da literatura sugere a existência de múltiplas visões acerca do desenvolvimento que devem ser debatidas no âmbito de estudos organizacionais.

  13. De la biogeografía al paisaje en Humboldt: pisos de vegetación y paisajes andinos equinocciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Sanz Herráiz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The current recovery of the notion of landscape as a means of comprehending the relationships between nature, society and culture in their spatiotemporal dimensions, that is, as specifi c totalities, calls for a return to its most fecund presentations, beginning with what is perhaps the most outstanding version of them all, that of Alexander von Humboldt. On this occasion we intend to make a reading in terms of landscape of Essay on the Geography of Plants and of the accompanying Physical Tableau, the one of humboldtian works less known. We believe that our study will demonstrate that Humboldt’s contribution on landscape and landscapes was to a great extent contained in the initial text of Geography of Plants; which in turn enables us to explore the fundamental relationship between landscape and the initial development of Biogeography.

  14. Los Tratados de Libre Comercio impulsados por EUA como una respuesta al fracaso de DOHA. El caso Andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Flores

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La vigencia de la división del trabajo imperante entre el norte y el sur, bajo el actual escenario de globalización económica, esta siendo modificada, por la a nueva tendencia en la que cualquier producto, (sea materia prima, manufacturado o servicio puede ser producido en muchos países y regiones gracias en primer lugar al descenso en los costos de transporte, de telecomunicaciones, laborales, ambientales, que configuran unas ventajas de localización; pero además, a que luego del fracaso de la OMC desde la Ronda del Milenio hasta la de Doha y el fallido intento de la construcción de la Zona de Libre Comercio de las Américas (ALCA, la estrategia comercial de los EUA se ha centrado en impulsar acuerdos bilaterales de nueva generación TLC cuyo objetivo es lograr avanzar en una marco normativo que le garantice trato nacional y no discriminatorio al capital productivo extranjero (inversión extranjera, la estandarización de las normas técnicas, fitosanitarias, la defensa de los derechos de propiedad, entre otras.____________________ABSTRACT:The work division that exists between North and South, in this stage of economic globalization, it’s being modified by the new world tendency in which any product (raw materials, manufactured products or services can be produced in many countries and regions, thanks to: in first place, the lowering of transportation , telecommunications, working and environmental costs, that create localization advantages; in second place, the breakdown of the WTO since the Millennium Round to Doha Round and the failure FTTA has made that the USA commercial strategy focus on Bilateral Agreements of the new generation such as the FTA, which proposes to advance in legal issues that guaranties not to discriminate the foreign investment, the standardization of technique and sanitary and phytosanitary measures and the intellectual property rights defence, among others.

  15. Análisis crítico de un discurso en la variedad del español andino

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa Santos, Victoria

    1999-01-01

    Se presenta un análisis crítico de un discurso en la variedad andina del español de Chile con el propósito de verificar los vínculos existentes entre estructuras, estrategias y otros elementos del texto, y la visión de mundo del habitante aymara del norte de Chile. El discurso es una entrevista y se analizan el léxico, la morfosintaxis, la entonación y otras propiedades del texto que muestran cómo el sujeto produce y comprende el mundo que lo rodea. Los resultados del análisis evidencian la p...

  16. Mariátegui entre dois mundos: Visões do comunitarismo indígena andino

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    Cristhian Teófilo da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo  Este artigo visa demonstrar que a presença da herança andina no projeto de socialismo “indo-americano” de Mariátegui gerou uma tensão epistemológica original e crítica do pensamento social marxista na América Latina. A partir desta releitura da perspectiva mariateguiana apoiada em duas vertentes, indigenista peruana e marxista europeia, o presente artigo afirma a importância dos estudos sobre o indigenismo para a compreensão dos limites do socialismo de orientação marxista no Peru. O artigo será concluído ressaltando a importância do socialismo indo-americano de Mariátegui para a “descoberta” da constituição híbrida do modo de produção peruano.  Palavras-chave  Indigenismo; marxismo; Peru; José Carlos Mariátegui  --- Resumen  Este artículo tiene como objetivo demostrar que la presencia de la herencia andina en el diseño del socialismo "indoamericano" de Mariátegui ha generado una crítica epistemológica original del pensamiento social marxista en América Latina. De este recuento la perspectiva de Mariátegui apoyada en dos frentes, indigenista peruana y marxista europea, este artículo defiende la importancia de los estudios sobre el indigenismo para la comprensión de los límites del socialismo marxista en el Perú. El artículo concluirá destacando la importancia del socialismo indo-americano de Mariátegui en el "descubrimiento" de la constitución híbrida del modo de producción peruana.  Palabras clave  Indigenismo; marxismo; Perú; José Carlos Mariátegui --- Abstract This article aims to demonstrate that the presence of the Andean heritage in Mariátegui's "Indo-American" socialist project generated a new and critical epistemological tension of the Marxist social thinking in Latin America. From this mariateguian retelling, which is established in two ways, Peruvian indigenous and European Marxist, this article maintains the importance of studies on the indigenous movement to understand the boundaries of Marxist socialism in Peru. The text highlights the importance of Mariátegui's Indo-American socialism in the "discovery" of the hybrid constitution of the Peruvian way of production. Keywords indigenism; Marxism; Peru; José Carlos Mariátegui ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ERRATA Onde se lê na página 141, v.8, n. 2 (2014: Esse aspecto é precisamente o cerne das polêmicas que surgiram em torno de suas idéias, que culminaram em desavenças com a III Internacional Comunista, em Montevidéu (maio de 1929. Lê-se: Esse aspecto é precisamente o cerne das polêmicas que surgiram em torno de suas idéias, que culminaram em controvérsias na primeira conferência comunista latino-americana, em Buenos Aires (junho de 1929.   ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  17. La pichca: oráculo y juego de fortuna (su persistencia en el espacio y tiempo andinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available LA PICHCA : ORACLE ET JEU DE HASARD (SA CONTINUITE DANS L'ESPACE ET LE TEMPS ANDINS. Cet essai traite d'un petit objet en forme de pyramide tronquée, taillé en bois, en os ou en pierre, ou modelé en argile, dont les faces et les bases gravées s'interprétaient de différentes manières quand on le jetait, comme un dé européen. À l'époque préhispanique, on l'utilisait pour dialoguer avec la huaca de nos jours, c'est un jeu de société ou un jeu de hasard. Son aire de diffusion préhispanique coïncide avec celle du Tahuantinsuyu il peut donc être un indicateur de la présence inca là où les signes architecturaux ou autres font défaut. Este ensayo trata de un pequeño objeto con forma de pirámide trunca, tallado en madera, hueso o piedra, o moldeado en arcilla, cuyas caras y bases tenían grabados que se interpretaban de diferentes maneras al ser jugado como un dado europeo. En la época prehispánica se le utilizó para dialogar con la huaca llegó al siglo XX como juego de velorio y como juego de fortuna su ámbito de dispersión prehispánica abarca el Tahuantinsuyu y es un rasgo útil para determinar algún tipo de presencia incaica en regiones con escaso registro monumental. LA PICHCA: AN ORACLE AND A FORTUNE GAME OF CHANCE AND ITS PERSISTENCE IN ANDEAN SPACE AND TIME. This essay focuses on a small truncated pyramid-shaped object, carved in wood, bone or stone, or molded in clay. The faces and bases of these objects having engravings which were interpreted in different ways when played as a European die. In pre-Hispanic times, such items were used to dialog with the huaca. They persist into the XXth century as wakeys and as a game of chance. The pre-Hispanic dispersion of this class of object comprises the Tahuantinsuyu and is a useful feature to determine Inca presence in regions with little monumental construction.

  18. Terapeutas tradicionales andinos en un contexto de cambio: el caso de Churcampa en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Portocarrero

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Describir la diversidad de terapeutas tradicionales, sus vínculos con el sistema de salud oficial y los cambios en sus recursos terapéuticos, en dos comunidades rurales de los andes en Churcampa, región de Huancavelica, Perú. Materiales y métodos. Estudio cualitativo en el que se combinan tres técnicas etnográficas: entrevistas en profundidad, observaciones y acompañamientos a terapeutas tradicionales y personal de salud. Resultados. Se identificaron 58 terapeutas, clasificados como curanderos, parteros y hueseros. La mayoría de terapeutas entrevistados aprendió su labor siendo joven y muy pocos tuvieron un maestro o mentor. La gran mayoría señaló tener reparos para vincularse con los establecimientos de salud más allá de las referencias. No había un trabajo articulado entre personal de salud y terapeutas tradicionales. Sin embargo, cuando sucedía, el personal de salud prefería a aquellos terapeutas que tuvieran la disposición para adecuarse a las necesidades de los servicios de salud. Se encontró que buena parte de los terapeutas estaban cambiando sus prácticas debido a la influencia de las iglesias evangélicas. Ningún terapeuta contaba con discípulos para transmitir sus conocimientos y prácticas. Conclusiones. Existe una gran diversidad de terapeutas tradicionales. Esta diversidad viene disminuyendo, entre otros factores, por el avance de las iglesias evangélicas. Los terapeutas tradicionales refieren a algunos pacientes al establecimiento de salud; mientras que el personal de salud establece relaciones jerárquicas de trabajo con los terapeutas. Se requiere trabajar estas actitudes del personal de salud pues la base de un enfoque intercultural es el trabajo articulado y horizontal entre ambos sistemas

  19. Reproducción identitaria y social en las redes translocales de migrantes de dos pueblos andinos

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    Jacques Malengreau

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan de manera comparativa —según su destino y según su origen— las estrategias adoptadas por los migrantes de dos comunidades andinas de distintas regiones del Perú en su manejo de recursos sociales, culturales y materiales de su entorno extendido en el cuadro de su experiencia translocal. Estas estrategias están fundadas en una forma paralela. Por una parte, sobre una extensión de los lazos domésticos del pueblo originario, sobre todo a través de una continuidad transgeneracional basada en la descendenciacolateral tío(a – sobrino (a entre el pueblo originario y el lugar de inmigración, lo que implica un debilitamiento de las identidades colectivas supradomésticas originarias. Y, por otra parte, sobre la construcción de lazos vecindarios nuevos interétnicos, lo cual reinventa un modelo de solidaridad social en el lugar de inmigración. Estas estrategias —que combinan la jerarquización, el clientelismo, así como la reciprocidad y la redistribución— implican una reinterpretaciónde las normas vehiculadas por el modelo empresarial «liberal»,productivista, competitivo y consumista acondicionado a partir de un mundo extranjero que se manifiesta en una forma transnacional y transregional. En consecuencia, se pueden ver de modo comparativo las estrategias seguidas por los migrantes de ambos pueblos originarios como un desarrollo, tanto de rasgos comunes, como de particularidades que son ligadas, no solamente a las experiencias sociohistóricas y a las herencias culturales propias de cada uno de los pueblos, sino también al tipo de destino escogido por ellos; porejemplo, Lima metropolitana, los centros urbanos regionales y los valles tropicales del oriente. -- This article contrasts strategies adopted by migrants from two Andeancommunities located in different regions in Peru, in their useof social, cultural, and material networks, taking into consideration the place they settle in and where they come from, their translocal experience. These strategies are embedded in a parallel form; on the one hand there is an extension of the domestic bonds from the original village in the place they finally settle down in, mostly givenby a transgenerational continuation, based on collateral descendance (uncle/aunt – nephew/niece, which weakens the original supradomestic collective identities; and, on the other hand, the newly interethnic neighborhood bonds which transform the social solidarity model in the place they settle down in. These strategies that combine hierarchy, clientelism, reciprocity and redistribution, also imply a new interpretation of norms regulated by the «liberal», productive, competitive and consumer model, conditioned by a foreign world which is manifested in a transnational and transregional form.Hence, these strategies can be seen as a development of common traits, particularities related not only to social-historic and cultural heritage, but also to a type of destination chosen by these migrants, for example metropolitan Lima, the urban and regional centers and the Oriental tropical valleys.

  20. The epidemiology and control of leishmaniasis in Andean countries Epidemiologia e controle da leishmaniose nos países andinos

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    Clive Richard Davies

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current knowledge of leishmaniasis epidemiology in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. In all 5 countries leishmaniasis is endemic in both the Andean highlands and the Amazon basin. The sandfly vectors belong to subgenera Helcocyrtomyia, Nyssomiya, Lutzomyia, and Psychodopygus, and the Verrucarum group. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania in the Viannia subgenus. Human Leishmania infections cause cutaneous lesions, with a minority of L. (Viannia infections leading to mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis are both rare. In each country a significant proportion of Leishmania transmission is in or around houses, often close to coffee or cacao plantations. Reservoir hosts for domestic transmission cycles are uncertain. The paper first addresses the burden of disease caused by leishmaniasis, focusing on both incidence rates and on the variability in symptoms. Such information should provide a rational basis for prioritizing control resources, and for selecting therapy regimes. Secondly, we describe the variation in transmission ecology, outlining those variables which might affect the prevention strategies. Finally, we look at the current control strategies and review the recent studies on control.Este trabalho revisa o conhecimento atual sobre a epidemiologia da leishmaniose na Venezuela, Colômbia, Equador, Peru e Bolívia, países nos quais a doença é endêmica, tanto nos Andes quanto na Amazônia. Os vetores flebótomos pertencem a vários subgêneros e ao grupo Verrucarum. A maioria dos casos de infecção humana é causada pelos parasitas Leishmania do subgênero Viannia. As infecções humanas por Leishmania provocam lesões cutâneas, com uma minoria de infecções por L. (Viannia levando à leishmaniose mucocutânea. Tanto a leishmaniose visceral quanto a leishmaniose cutânea difusa são raras. Em cada país, parte significativa da transmissão de Leishmania ocorre no intra ou peridomicílio, muitas vezes próximo à lavoura de café ou cacau. Não se sabe ao certo quais são os hospedeiros reservatórios para os ciclos de transmissão doméstica. Discute-se a carga da doença provocada pela leishmaniose na região, chamando atenção para os coeficientes de incidência e para a variabilidade dos sintomas. Tal informação fornecerá uma base racional, visando priorizar os recursos voltados para o controle da doença e selecionar esquemas terapêuticos. Os autores também descrevem a variação na ecologia da transmissão, delineando as variáveis que poderiam afetar a definição de estratégias preventivas.

  1. Reproducción identitaria y social en las redes translocales de migrantes de dos pueblos andinos

    OpenAIRE

    Malengreau, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Se analizan de manera comparativa —según su destino y según su origen— las estrategias adoptadas por los migrantes de dos comunidades andinas de distintas regiones del Perú en su manejo de recursos sociales, culturales y materiales de su entorno extendido en el cuadro de su experiencia translocal. Estas estrategias están fundadas en una forma paralela. Por una parte, sobre una extensión de los lazos domésticos del pueblo originario, sobre todo a través de una continuidad transgeneracional bas...

  2. A Vulture is Not a Dove: The Politics of Indigeneity and Resistance to Canadian Extractivism in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Schnoor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Canadian mining activities have exploded throughout Latin America over the past 15-20 years, bringing a host of problems and leading to burgeoning resistance movements. This paper argues that a growing strategy deployed by Canadian mining companies, and the regimes that support them, in their engagements with Indigenous communities in the Global South who are resisting extractive activities on their territories, entails cultivating Indigenous subjectivities in ways that co-opt their aspirations for decolonization, self-determination, and demands for the recognition of Indigenous rights. That energy is then channelled into supporting, indeed demanding, the very model of extractive capitalism that Canadian mining regimes wish to develop in the region. Drawing upon theories of governmentality and the work of Canadian Indigenous scholars Glen Coulthard and Taiaiake Alfred on the politics of recognition and decolonization, this paper chronicles struggles over Indigeneity as a political subjectivity through three ongoing extractive-related conflicts in Guatemala, Chile, and Panama.

  3. VULtURe snIPPets FRoM ARoUnD tHe WoRLD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-05-03

    May 3, 2007 ... species. The government has now modified the mad cow rules, adopting a decree allowing farmers ..... Endangered California Condors Gymnogyps californianus in ... Tree Condor Conservation Act and again putting our state ...

  4. Use of black vulture (Coragyps atratus in complementary and alternative therapies for cancer in Colombia: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Pedraza Ricardo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Coragyps atratus has been used as a traditional therapy for patients with cancer, the scientific literature does not contain enough information on how this therapy is used or the mechanisms that explain this therapeutic practice. Objectives To understand the methods of use and the reasons given by patients and caregivers for the use of Coragyps atratus in cancer treatment. Methods This study used a qualitative design based on twenty in-depth interviews of patients with cancer or caregivers of patients with the disease. The analysis of the text was based on an inductive thematic approach. Results Resistance to disease and immune enhancement are properties attributed to Coragyps atratus when used for cancer treatment. The most recommended method of use is fresh blood ingestion, and the associated mechanism of action is transfer of immune factors to the individual who consumes it. Conclusions Use of Coragyps atratus as a treatment for cancer is a popular alternative therapy in Colombia. More studies are needed to understand the clinical effects of this intervention in cancer patients. Spanish abstract Introducción Aunque Coragyps atratus se usa tradicionalmente como terapia para pacientes con cáncer, no existe suficiente información en la literatura científica sobre su forma de utilización ni sobre los mecanismos explicativos que subyacen a esta práctica terapéutica. Objetivos Conocer métodos de utilización y mecanismos explicativos dados por los pacientes y cuidadores de pacientes sobre el uso de Coragyps atratus en el tratamiento del cáncer. Materiales y métodos Diseño cualitativo basado en veinte entrevistas en profundidad de pacientes con cáncer o cuidadores de pacientes con esta enfermedad. Análisis de texto basado en enfoque temático inductivo. Resultados Al Coragyps atratus se le atribuyen propiedades de resistencia y fortalecimiento del sistema inmune de personas enfermas de cáncer. La forma de utilización mas común es la ingesta de la sangre fresca y el mecanismo de acción asociado es la transferencia de defensas a quien lo consume. Conclusiones La utilización del Coragyps atratus como tratamiento para el cáncer es una terapia alternativa usada popularmente en Colombia. El uso de este animal debe estudiarse más a fondo para conocer los efectos clínicos en los pacientes con cáncer.

  5. Use of black vulture (Coragyps atratus) in complementary and alternative therapies for cancer in Colombia: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Although Coragyps atratus has been used as a traditional therapy for patients with cancer, the scientific literature does not contain enough information on how this therapy is used or the mechanisms that explain this therapeutic practice. Objectives To understand the methods of use and the reasons given by patients and caregivers for the use of Coragyps atratus in cancer treatment. Methods This study used a qualitative design based on twenty in-depth interviews of patients with cancer or caregivers of patients with the disease. The analysis of the text was based on an inductive thematic approach. Results Resistance to disease and immune enhancement are properties attributed to Coragyps atratus when used for cancer treatment. The most recommended method of use is fresh blood ingestion, and the associated mechanism of action is transfer of immune factors to the individual who consumes it. Conclusions Use of Coragyps atratus as a treatment for cancer is a popular alternative therapy in Colombia. More studies are needed to understand the clinical effects of this intervention in cancer patients. Spanish abstract Introducción Aunque Coragyps atratus se usa tradicionalmente como terapia para pacientes con cáncer, no existe suficiente información en la literatura científica sobre su forma de utilización ni sobre los mecanismos explicativos que subyacen a esta práctica terapéutica. Objetivos Conocer métodos de utilización y mecanismos explicativos dados por los pacientes y cuidadores de pacientes sobre el uso de Coragyps atratus en el tratamiento del cáncer. Materiales y métodos Diseño cualitativo basado en veinte entrevistas en profundidad de pacientes con cáncer o cuidadores de pacientes con esta enfermedad. Análisis de texto basado en enfoque temático inductivo. Resultados Al Coragyps atratus se le atribuyen propiedades de resistencia y fortalecimiento del sistema inmune de personas enfermas de cáncer. La forma de utilización mas común es la ingesta de la sangre fresca y el mecanismo de acción asociado es la transferencia de defensas a quien lo consume. Conclusiones La utilización del Coragyps atratus como tratamiento para el cáncer es una terapia alternativa usada popularmente en Colombia. El uso de este animal debe estudiarse más a fondo para conocer los efectos clínicos en los pacientes con cáncer. PMID:22651097

  6. Vultures and others scavenger vertebrates associated with man-sized pig carcasses: a perspective in Forensic Taphonomy

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    Caroline Demo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The activity of vertebrates that feed on corpses can modify the chronology of the decomposition process and interfere with postmortem interval estimates. Further, by destroying the soft parts of the cadaver, scattering, burying or causing the disappearance of bones, it can entirely change the crime scene. In this study, we simulated a clandestine cemetery in an area of Cerrado located inside a farm in Brasília, Distrito Federal. Three domestic pigs of the size of a human of about 60 kg were placed on the ground in different periods of 2010 and 2011. We recorded four species of birds and one of mammal eating the carcasses: 1 Cathartidae: Coragyps atratus (Bechstein, 1973, Cathartes aura (Linnaeus, 1758, Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758; 2 Falconidae: Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777; and 3 Felidae: Leopardus pardalis (Lund, 1840. The behavior of these animals interfered in the decomposition process and resulted in the dispersion and loss of bony parts.

  7. VULtURe snIPPets FRoM ARoUnD tHe WoRLD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-05-03

    May 3, 2007 ... protect this incredible bird,” said Nava. AB. 821, the Ridley-Tree Condor Preservation. Act, will remove the number one threat to the survival of the endangered California. Condor, lead ammunition, by having hunters switch to a widely available, non- lead ammunition alternative when they hunt big game ...

  8. Narrativas del paisaje andino colombiano: visión ecológica en la música carranguera de Jorge Velosa

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    Felipe Cárdenas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Este es el resultado de un estudio que indagó en las visiones políticas plasmadas en el discurso ambiental que expresa la música Carranguera en la obra de Jorge Velosa. El material de investigación parte del análisis de las trece canciones que conforman el compendio titulado En Cantos Verdes (1998. El trabajo se planteó como una investigación de tipo estructural, que apeló a nociones de la hermenéutica, la semiótica y al análisis del discurso. La realidad de la vida campesina se estructura en un rico universo cultural que la música y el canto refleja a modo de meta-discurso de las sociedades campesinas andinas de Colombia.

  9. Componentes de tecnologías para la pesca (instrumentos Traful en ambientes lacustres y boscosos andinos norpatagónicos, Argentina

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    Alberto Enrique Pérez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available La funcionalidad de los Instrumentos Traful es incierta luego de 70 años de su descripción. A partir de su diseño morfológico, el contexto ambiental y arqueológico asociado, postulamos que son parte de un “instrumento compuesto” especializado en la pesca. Si bien presentan características singulares en el contexto lacustre y rivereño del interior de la Patagonia noroccidental argentina, se asemejan en cuestiones básicas a los pesos de líneas marinos de gran distribución magallánica.

  10. El canon literario andino desde los estudios de género: cargar con el peso de la hetero(maricageneidad contradictoria. El caso de Pablo Palacio

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    Diego Falconí Trávez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca realizar una crítica desde los estudios de género respecto a la noción de canon literario heterocentrado en la zona andina. Para ello, relee tanto a la crítica nacional como a aquella regional respecto a sus construcciones en torno al ecuatoriano Pablo Palacio, escritor icónico de la vanguardia de los años 30, centrándose en dos nociones. En primer lugar, en la idea, elaborada desde la crítica literaria ecuatorianista, de la relación posicional y gráfica de un hombre que carga a otro, cuestión que ha servido para elaborar una dicotomía vertical y patriarcal en el análisis teórico que contrapone realismo social y cosmopolitismo. Y en segundo, en el concepto regional de sujeto heterogéneo y contradictorio, propuesto por Antonio Cornejo Polar que articulándose en la etnia, la clase y el estatus colonial deja, sin embargo, de lado la diferencia sexo-genérica.

  11. Estudio de la dinámica de sedimentos asociada al impacto de la explotación minera sobre cauces de ríos andinos

    OpenAIRE

    Tavera Pinzón, Andrés Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Resumen: el principal objetivo de esta investigación es determinar el impacto de la explotación minera en la cuenca del río Risaralda, determinando las variables que más influyen en el aumento de las tasas de incisión cuando se genera una disminución en el aporte de sedimentos. Este estudio se desarrolló acoplando el modelo hidrológico TETIS distribuido con el modelo de incisión por carga total haciendo usos de la geometría hidráulica de Leopold. Inicialmente se realizó una comparación del de...

  12. PRODUCCIÓN DE HOJARASCA FINA EN BOSQUES ALTO ANDINOS DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA FINE LITTER PRODUCTION IN HIGH ANDEAN FORESTS FROM ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

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    Claudia Marcela Zapata Duque

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En bosques montanos naturales de Quercus humboldtii y reforestados (Pinus patula y Cupressus lusitanica de la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, fue evaluada la producción de hojarasca por un periodo de 2 años. Se utilizaron trampas de hojarasca con el fin de recoger el material desprendido del dosel para su posterior separación en fracciones y pesado respectivo. El promedio de caída de hojarasca anual para Q. humboldtii, P. patula y C. lusitanica fue de 7877,20; 8362,47 y 3725,97 kg ha-1año-1 respectivamente; siendo la fracción foliar la que mayor participación tuvo en la producción total. Mediante análisis de regresión lineal múltiple se ajustaron modelos de producción de hojarasca según fracciones por cobertura en función de diferentes variables hidrológicas, tales como la intensidad y la cantidad de lluvia del período simultáneo a la recolección de la hojarasca o inmediatamente anterior.Litter production was measured over two years in a montane oak forest (Quercus humboldtii and in pine (Pinus patula and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica plantations in Piedras Blancas, Antioquia ( Colombia . Litter traps were used in order to collect litterfall to be subsequently separated into fractions and weighed. Annual mean litterfall for Q. humboldtii, P. patula and C. lusitanica was of 7877,20; 8362,47 and 3725,97 kg ha-1year-1 respectively; being the leaf fraction of highest participation in total production. Multiple linear regression models were used to fit litter production for each fraction and forest cover as a function of different hydrological variables such as intensity and quantity of precipitation, both during the period when the leaf litter was collected and immediately preceding one.

  13. Levaduras fermentadoras aisladas de Cyttaria hariotii (Fungi en bosques Andino-Patagónicos (Argentina Fermenting yeasts isolated from Cyttaria hariotii (Fungi in the Andean Patagonic Forest

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    José Ulloa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Las levaduras han estado asociadas al hombre desde épocas muy tempranas. Entre estas se destacan las fermentadoras debido a su importancia en la industria de los alimentos. Las implicancias biotecnológicas de estas levaduras han sido extensamente estudiadas, sin embargo la distribución en la naturaleza y la ecología de estas no se encuentra igualmente documentada. El presente estudio se realizó en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi (Noroeste Patagónico, Argentina sobre Cyttaria hariotii, hongo ascomicético parásito de árboles del género Nothofagus. Mediante el uso de un medio selectivo con etanol 8 % se obtuvieron 72 aislamientos. Los mismos fueron ordenados en cinco grupos en base a pruebas morfológicas y fisiológicas, tres de los cuales fueron asignados a los géneros Saccharomyces, Pichia y Kloeckera. El grupo Saccharomyces presentó el mayor número de aislamientos y se subdividió en tres subgrupos, dos de ellos presentan alta afinidad con S. bayanus y/ó S. uvarum. La totalidad de los aislamientos fueron psicrotolerantes y la temperatura máxima de crecimiento osciló entre 35 y 37 _C. El presente trabajo contribuye al conocimiento de la biodiversidad de levaduras de la Patagonia y representa el primer aislamiento masivo de levaduras sacaromicéticas en ambientes naturales de la región.Yeasts have been associated with mankind from early ages. Among these, fermentative yeasts played the most relevant role, due to its importance in the food industry. The biotechnological implications of these yeasts have been extensively studied. However there is a lack of information about its distribution in nature and ecology. In this study samples of Cyttaria hariotii, ascomycete fungus parasite of trees of the genus Nothofagus, were collected in Nahuel Huapi National Park (Northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. 72 isolates were obtained using a selective culture medium with 8% ethanol. Identification of the isolates was based on morphological and physiological tests, and then sorted into five groups. Three groups were assigned to the genera Saccharomyces, Pichia and Kloeckera respectively. The Saccharomyces group was the prevailing one, and was sorted into three subgroups. Two of them were related to S. bayanus and /or S. uvarum. All the isolates were psychrotolerant and the maximum growth temperature ranged between 35 and 37 _C. This work contributes to the knowledge of the biodiversity of yeasts in the region and represents the first massive isolation of Saccharomyces yeasts in natural environments of Patagonia.

  14. Social inequality and child malnutrition in four Andean countries Desigualdad social y malnutrición infantil en cuatro países andinos

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Larrea; Wilma Freire

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the effects of socioeconomic, regional, and ethnic conditions on chronic malnutrition in four Andean countries of South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Methods. The study was based on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for Colombia (1995), Peru (1996), and Bolivia (1997), and on a Living Standard Measurement Survey for Ecuador (1998). We developed an index of household socioeconomic status using categorical principal components analysis. We broke down th...

  15. Lugares para la muerte en el espacio meridional andino, Salta en el siglo XVIII: The Southern Andean Region, Salta 18th Century Death and burial places

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    Gabriela Caretta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Los enterratorios como lugares no solo reflejan el status social, la condición étnica y jurídica del enterrado, sino además todo un entramado de relaciones sociales entre las que encontramos rasgos de exclusión, lazos de sujeción, vinculaciones personales y de grupos. Los lugares de entierro no pueden entenderse sin la consideración de los imaginarios en torno a la muerte. Nos centraremos en los espacios destinados al entierro en la ciudad de Salta a lo largo del siglo XVIII para reconocer en ellos "lugares"; es decir, espacios cargados de sentido para sus habitantes. El concepto de "lugar" nos remite a la construcción concreta y simbólica del espacio, en el que los historiadores, sin caer en la ilusión de su transparencia, pueden leer marcas sociales, pautas de identificación, estratificación y conflictos así como indicios acerca de la presencia de imaginarios que valoran y sostienen el entierro en el centro de la ciudad.Burials not only reflect the legal, social and ethnic status of individuals, they also show a network of social relationships among which we find signs of exclusion, subjection and personal and collective links. The complexity of burial places cannot be understood without considering peoples' imaginary about death. We will focus specifically on spaces thought of as burial grounds on Salta city during the eighteenth Century in order to recognize "places" full of meaning to their inhabitants. The concept of place refers to the real and symbolic construction of space and Historians, without falling in an ethnographic illusion of transparency, are able to search for social markers and signs of identity, hierarchy and stratification as well as some clues regarding different imaginaries which give value and sustain those burial places in the town's center.

  16. A cor dos têxteis Andinos: análise da cor em têxteis da cultura milenar de Paracas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Isa Santos

    2008-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada na Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Conservação e Restauro Área de Têxteis O presente trabalho insere-se num projecto denominado “The color of the Andean Textiles”, que resulta de uma colaboração entre a Faculdade de Ciência e Tecnologia, da Universidade Nova de Lisboa (FCT-UNL) e o Museum of Fine Arts (MFA), de Boston. Os corantes dos têxteis da cultura de Paracas, que se desenvolveu na costa Sul d...

  17. Caracterización de la biodiversidad acuática en la cuenca andino-amazónica de Madre de Dios - Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo Flores, Julio Manuel

    2016-01-01

    El conocimiento de los cuerpos de agua de la región Neotrópical se revela como una necesidad a nivel global que la sociedad debe afrontar. La biodiversidad acuática, especialmente las comunidades de peces de la Amazonía, la principal cuenca del Neotrópico, constituyen el principal reservorio de diversidad de agua continental del mundo, señalada como una región de alta prioridad para la conservación. No obstante, aun presenta muchas lagunas de conocimiento con el agravante de estar registrando...

  18. Estudio de la bioacústica del zorzal andino (Turdus chiguanco con la aplicación del software Audacity, v. 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Hugo Miguel Orellana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar las características bioacústicas del Turdus chiguanco; entre estas, la amplitud, la frecuencia y la duración en las distintas voces. Métodos: Investigación descriptiva en la cual se recolectaron datos bioacústicos durante los años 2011-2012, luego fueron procesados con el software Audacity versión 2.0. Resultados: Se identificaron cuatro tipos de voces: Voz de huida, voz estacionaria, voz de contacto y voz de canto. En la voz de huida, se determinaron valores promedio: amplitud máxima 52,82 dB; amplitud media 0,05 dB; amplitud mínima -13,91 dB; frecuencia máxima 6,8 kHz; frecuencia media 0,63 kHz; frecuencia mínima 0,27 kHz; la duración 1,05 segundos. En la voz estacionaria: amplitud máxima 31,22 dB; amplitud media -0,19 dB; amplitud mínima -16,45 dB; frecuencia máxima 4,31 kHz; frecuencia media 1,63 kHz; frecuencia mínima 0,52 kHz; duración de 0,29 segundos. En la voz de contacto: amplitud máxima 55,22 dB; amplitud media 0,8 dB; amplitud mínima -16,33 dB; frecuencia máxima 2,87 kHz; frecuencia media 0,41 kHz; frecuencia mínima 0,2 kHz; duración 1,28 segundos. Y en la voz de canto: amplitud máxima 50,22 dB; amplitud media 0,08 dB; amplitud mínima -7,38 dB; frecuencia máxima 3,85 kHz; frecuencia media 0,71 kHz; frecuencia mínima 0,33 kHz; duración 1,34 segundos. Conclusiones: El Turdus chiguanco emite cuatro tipos de voces: de huida, estacionaria, de contacto y de canto. Los valores de las variables bioacústicas: amplitud, frecuencia y duración, varían entre los cuatro tipos de voces.

  19. La huella ecológica y los países andinos, una reflexión sobre la sustentabilidad y la biocapacidad

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    Deyanira Gómez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La escasez de los recursos ha llevado a la reflexión respecto a la medición del desarrollo, que ya no puede ser medido únicamente en términos de crecimiento económico como lo hace el Producto Interno Bruto (PIB, sino que es necesario tomar en cuenta los recursos o capital natural con los que cuenta una determinada nación para que desde una perspectiva de sustentabilidad, pueda asegurar la calidad de vida de las generaciones futuras, esta herramienta se la conoce como la Huella Ecológica.

  20. Diversidad preliminar de Artrópodos en los remanentes de bosques secos andinos del Valle del Chota en el norte del Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Troya, Adrián; Bersosa, Fabián; Vega, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    En este artículo se da a conocer sobre los bosques secos que representan el 42% de todos los bosques tropicales y se encuentran en peligro de destrucción. Las investigaciones en los bosques secos de Ecuador son puntuales en aspectos botánicos y ecológicos. Durante la época seca se muestreó dos localidades en el Valle del Chota con el objetivo de conocer la diversidad de artrópodos terrestres. Se colectaron 282 morfo-especies pertenecientes a 128 familias de artrópodos correspondientes a 22 ór...

  1. Caracterización de microorganismos involucrados en la descomposición de material vegetal consumido por Oso Andino Tremarctos ornatus (Ursidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusleni Fierro Toscano

    2005-07-01

    menores a seis meses. Cocobacilos Gram (+ solo aparecieron en hojas entre uno y tres meses y los bacilos Gram (+ exclusivamente en hojas de menos de un mes. Cocos y diplococos se presentaron únicamente en la muestra de hoja de cinco y seis meses en descomposición. Se encontraron cuatro morfotipos de hongos, de los cuales se identificaron Mucor spp. y Thricoderma spp. Los otros dos morfotipos no fueron identificados. Thricoderma spp. se encuentra asociado a por lo menos un hongo más.

  2. «Sangres» para propiciar la vida: metáforas y creencias sobre la concepción «humana» en el altiplano andino

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    Vicente Martín, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the participation of telluric entities in regulating and propitiating fertility in general and «human» fertility in particular in the Andes region. The first part of this study deals with the participation of telluric forces in the breeding of livestock and the propitiation of plant life, as well as resources in general. In view of the visibility of these propitiatory rites, the genesis of new individuals is couched in a language in which references to «blood» and excessive heat abound. This study of the notions relating to conception and human fertility in the Andes involves the systematization of references found in ethnographic literature, and presentation of my own research in rural areas of southern Potosi (Bolivia. I then go on to consider the bodily rhetoric of life-promoting pregnant bodies and their specificities with a view to probing more deeply into the concept of fertility of the people of the Andean plateau.Este artículo tiene como objetivo la reflexión sobre la participación de las entidades tutelares en la regulación y propiciación de la fertilidad en general y de la «humana» en particular en los Andes. La primera parte del estudio aborda la participación de las fuerzas telúricas en la multiplicación del ganado y la propiciación de la vida vegetal, así como de las riquezas en general. Frente a la visibilidad de estos ritos propiciatorios, la génesis de los nuevos individuos se enmascara en un lenguaje en el cual abundan las referencias a las «sangres» y al exceso de calor. El estudio de las ideas acerca de la concepción y la fertilidad humana en los Andes pasa por una sistematización de las referencias halladas en la literatura etnográfica, y por la exposición de mis propias investigaciones en áreas rurales de Potosí. Tras ello se abordan las retóricas corporales de los cuerpos gestantes que propician la vida y sus especificidades con el fin de ahondar en la compresión de los conceptos de fertilidad de las gentes del altiplano.

  3. Las medidas de sustentabilidad en los planes para Santiago 1960 – 1994: El caso de los corredores del Maipo-Mapocho y Andino Pedemontano.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Pávez Reyes

    2009-09-01

    It investigates the plans for Santiago de Chile 1960-1994, with emphasis on measures relating to the corridors of Maipo-Mapocho and Andean piedmont. We conclude that there was an early measures of sustainability. The State then addressed especially projects resulting in metropolitan roads and transport, although there was low or no promotion of associational community to help generate and participate in the development of specific projects arising intercommunal scale. Concerning sustainability measures were set aside since 1979, and today the maximum decentralization entails rejecting the neoliberal model "decentralization out" or communal associativity to deal with governments at central issues affecting interregional and / or benefit the local level.

  4. SOBREVIVENCIA Y CRECIMIENTO DE PLÁNTULAS DE TRES ESPECIES ARBÓREAS EN ÁREAS DE BOSQUE MONTANO ANDINO DEGRADADAS POR GANADERÍA EN COLOMBIA

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    Deisy Johanna Moreno-Betancur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En la Región Lechera del centro de Antioquia el paisaje ha sido ampliamente transformado de bosques montanos a pastizales para pastoreo de ganado vacuno, siendo la restauración del paisaje en esta zona una acción primordial que debe ser incorporada en el plan de uso de la tierra. El objetivo general de este estudio fue seleccionar tres especies arbóreas que promuevan el proceso de regeneración de bosques montanos y evaluar el efecto de diferentes estrategias de siembra sobre el establecimiento de las plántulas. Se consideró el efecto del tipo de fertilización, combinación de especies, disponibilidad lumínica y niveles de precipitación sobre la sobrevivencia y crecimiento de las plántulas. Quercus humboldtii, Weinmannia pubescens y Myrsine coriacea fueron las especies seleccionadas por presentar alto índice de valor de importancia ecológica y alta disponibilidad de semillas. La fertilización orgánica favoreció la sobrevivencia de las tres especies evaluadas y el crecimiento para W. pubescens. La combinación de especies no afectó la tasa de crecimiento pero si la sobrevivencia. Se detectó también mayor sobrevivencia en las plántulas de las tres especies que recibieron sombra en algún momento del día; al contrario, disminuyó en la época de sequía. El éxito en el establecimiento de Q. humboldtii, la tolerancia de W. pubescens a las heladas y la dispersión de semillas de M. coriacea por aves son características que en conjunto convierten a estas especies en promisoras para procesos de restauración ecológica en áreas de bosque montano. ABSTRACT Mountain forest landscapes of the central region of Antioquia department (Colombia have been largely transformed into pastures; therefore, ecological restoration must be included as a primordial strategy. The aim of this study was the selection of three tree species that help to improve natural regeneration of mountain forest and to evaluate the effect of different sowing strategies on the seedling`s establishment. We assessed the effect of fertilization type, combination of species, light availability and monthly precipitation on seedling survival and growth. Myrsine coriacea, Quercus humboldtii, and Weinmannia pubescens were selected on the basis of high importance value index and high seed availability. Survival of the three species was higher when seedlings were fertilized with organic matter. Also, growth was higher for W. pubescens. The combination of species had no effect on the growth rate of the three species, but it affected negatively the survival of Q. humboldtii and W. pubescens growing with M. coriacea. Survival was higher for seedlings of W. pubescens and M. coriacea out of the sun at some moment during the day. Also, survival diminished during drought period. Successful establishment of Q. humboldtii and tolerance of W. pubescens to frost and regrowth after freeze period and seed dispersal of M. coriacea by birds constitute a set of characteristics that make of these species promissory in the ecological restoration process in degraded mountain forest areas.

  5. HONGOS APHYLLOPHORALES (BASIDIOMYCOTA LIGNÍCOLAS DEL BOSQUE ALTO ANDINO “SANTA CLARA”. UNA GUÍA ILUSTRADA PARA EL ESTUDIO DE MACROHONGOS

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    César Augusto Pinzón Osorio

    2014-12-01

    Esta investigación surge de la necesidad de registrar los macrohongos Aphyllophorales de estos ecosistemas, conocidos por estar altamente impactados por la agricultura (Van der Hammen, 2003. Es fundamental el diseño de un material didáctico que ofrezca un panorama integral sobre la biología de los Aphyllophorales, teniendo en cuenta que las guías demacrohongos para el país, no se orientan directamente a su enseñanza

  6. Community-Based Tourism and Peasant Differentiation: Considerations from an Andean case Turismo rural comunitario y diferenciación campesina: Consideraciones a partir de un caso andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Gascón

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, Community-Based Tourism has created expectations in many latin american rural communities as an strategy to increase their income and to diversify the sources of this income. But it is an activity that is not free of risks. From a specific case (Amantaní Island, Titikaka Lake, Peru, the article studies one of these risks: the impact of tourism in the socio-economical communitarian cohesion.En los últimos años, el turismo rural comunitario se ha presentado como un instrumento adecuado para aumentar la renta de la población campesina y diversificar sus fuentes de ingresos. Pero se trata de una actividad económica que no está exenta de riesgos. A partir de un caso específico (la isla peruana de Amantaní, en el Lago Titicaca el artículo estudia uno de ellos: el impacto del turismo en la cohesión socioeconómica comunitaria.

  7. ETIMOLOGÍA POPULAR Y ETIMOLOGÍA CIENTÍFICA: EL CASO DE ATAWALLPA ~ WALLPA PARA DESIGNAR AL GALLO EN EL MUNDO ANDINO Y AMAZÓNICO

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    Rodolfo Cerrón-Palomino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pese a conocerse que los habitantes del antiguo país de los incas desconocían el ave de corral, según nos refieren las crónicas, no han faltado quienes sostengan lo contrario, basándose en la supuesta existencia del nombre indígena que lo estaría designando. Y así se afirma que la palabra quechua , coincidente con el nombre del soberano emboscado en Cajamarca en 1532, o su forma abreviada , vendría a ser también, por alguna razón que no suele explicarse, o se lo hace antojadizamente, la designación nativa original de la gallinácea. En el colmo de esta práctica seudo-erudita y desinformada no ha faltado quien traduzca el nombre del soberano inca como “Feliz gallo”, pero igualmente se ha caído en el error de reconstruirlo, anacrónicamente, para el proto-quechua. Pues bien, en el presente trabajo buscaremos demostrar, siguiendo la advertencia señalada por el enciclopédico historiador citado en nuestro epígrafe, que el nombre nativo del gallo se deriva, formalmente, del antropónimo del mencionado monarca, cuyo étimo remonta a *atawwallpa, y a partir del cual se explican las numerosas variantes que registra la designación del gallo no solo en las lenguas andinas sino también en buena parte de las amazónicas. Como se verá, la propuesta ofrecida le hace una concesión esta vez a la etimología popular, o ingenua, por lo demás tan vapuleada en los estudios de corte etimológico científico. Finalmente, demostraremos que el origen ulterior del nombre es de filiación puquina, la tercera lengua general del antiguo Perú.

  8. Identificación de tubérculos andinos (Oxalis tuberosa, Ullucus tuberosus y Tropaeolum tuberosum) : mediante caracteres anatómicos y exomorfológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Melchiorre, Pedro

    1985-01-01

    p.141-153 Se determinan las diferencias morfológicas entre los tubérculos de oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina), ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus Loz.) y añu (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz et Pav.) provenientes del noroeste argentino (provincias de Salta y Jujuy). El estudio de su anatomía y su morfología externa reveló caracteres útiles para el reconocimiento de esas especies tanto a través de materiales actuales como arqueológicos. Se describen los caracteres aludidos y se presenta una clave para la dete...

  9. Las macrófitas de algunos lagos alto-andinos del Ecuador y su bajo potencial como bioindicadores de eutrofización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Kiersch

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la presencia de macrófitas en tres lagos de altoandinos en Ecuador,Lago San Pablo,Laguna La Mica y Lago Cuicocha.Los primeros dos son eutróficos, mientras que el último es un lago de caldera extremadamente oligotrófico.Las especies dominantes en los lagos eutróficos son:Ceratophyllum demersum , Myriophyllum quitense ,Potamogeton illinoensis ,P. striatus y Elodea matthewsii .En el lago oligotrófico están presentes P.pectinatus,P.illinoensi s,y las Characeae Chara rusbyabana ,Ch.globularis y Nitella acuminata .La máxima profundidad para la presencia de macrófitas puede ser usada como un indicador del estado de eutroficación,la cual va desde 5 m en la Laguna Mica a 35 m en el Lago Cuicocha.El valor de la bioindicación de las especies de macrófitas en estos lagos altoandinos es bajo,debido a que solo unas pocas especies están presentes,y algunas de ellas no son específicas para las condiciones ambientales.Macrophytes from some high Andean lakes of Ecuador and their low potential as bioindicators of eutrophication .The occurrence of macrophyte in three high Andean lakes of Ecuador,Lago San Pablo, Laguna La Mica and Lago Cuicocha was recorded in 5-9 transects per lake.The first two lakes are eutrophic, the third is an extremely oligotrophic caldera lake.The dominant species in eutrophic lakes are Ceratophyllum demersum ,Myriophyllum quitense ,Potamogeton illinoensis ,P.striatus and Elodea matthewsii .In the oligotrophic lake P.pectinatus,P.illinoensi s,and the Characeae Chara rusbyana ,Ch.globularis and Nitella acuminata occur.The maximum depth of the macrophyte ’s presence can be used as an indicator of the trophic state,ranging from about 5 m in Mica to 35 m in Cuicocha.The bioindication value of the macrophyte species in these high Andean lakes is low,because few species occur and because some of them are not specific to environmental conditions.Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4:829-837.Epub 2005 Jun 24.

  10. Cofradías de Arica y Tarapacá en los siglos XVIII y XIX. Indígenas andinos, sistema de cargos religiosos y festividades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz A., Alberto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Andean peoples expressed popular piety in several ways. Among them, the brotherhoods stand out as an institution inherited from colonial rule which was of great importance in the ritual congregation of the indigenous population, the construction of popular faith and the emergence of a ritual that incorporated elements of Roman Catholic liturgy, catechesis and local practices (ceremonies, dances, masks, costumes, musical instruments, melodies, etc.. This type of mutual aid religious institution, governed by a system of rotating positions, was comprised mainly of lay people who, on the basis of spirituality, the protection of a patron saint or Marian devotion, sought to promote charity and care for their members (brothers.Las poblaciones andinas expresaron de diversas formas la religiosidad popular. Entre ellas, las cofradías destacan por ser una institución heredada del régimen colonial que gravitó la congregación ritual de los indígenas, la construcción de una fe popular y el surgimiento de una ritualidad que integró los elementos de la liturgia catequética romana, así como prácticas locales (ceremonias, danzas, máscaras, vestimentas, instrumentos musicales, melodías, etc.. Este tipo de institución religiosa de socorro mutuo, regida por un sistema de cargos rotativos, estaba integrada preferentemente por laicos quienes sobre la base de la espiritualidad, la protección de un santo patrón o la advocación mariana, buscaban la promoción benéfica y asistencial para los cofrades (hermanos.

  11. Social inequality and child malnutrition in four Andean countries Desigualdad social y malnutrición infantil en cuatro países andinos

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    Carlos Larrea

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the effects of socioeconomic, regional, and ethnic conditions on chronic malnutrition in four Andean countries of South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Methods. The study was based on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS for Colombia (1995, Peru (1996, and Bolivia (1997, and on a Living Standard Measurement Survey for Ecuador (1998. We developed an index of household socioeconomic status using categorical principal components analysis. We broke down the prevalence of stunting by socioeconomic status (SES, ethnicity, place of residence (large cities, small cities, towns, and countryside, and region (highland region versus other areas of the country. We applied smoothed regression curves and linear functions to analyze SES effects on stunting, with specific models for Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. Results. Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru have similar characteristics, with high stunting prevalences overall; higher stunting prevalences in their highland areas, particularly among indigenous populations; and strong socioeconomic disparities. Colombia, in contrast, has a lower stunting prevalence and smaller regional disparities. The socioeconomic gradient of stunting is strong in all four countries, with prevalence rates in the poorest deciles at least three times as high as those in the top decile. Discussion. The sharp contrast between the conditions found in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru and those in Colombia may be the result of specific ethnic factors affecting indigenous groups; a particular diet profile in the highland areas, with low protein and micronutrient intake; and differences in the long-term economic and social development paths that the countries have taken. Along with the strong socioeconomic gradient in all the countries, the weight of ethnic and regional factors suggests the need to reduce inequality as well as to comprehensively improve education and housing, better target health and nutrition programs, and implement participatory programs integrated into indigenous cultures.Objetivo. Analizar los efectos de las condiciones socioeconómicas, regionales y étnicas en la desnutrición crónica en Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador y Perú. Métodos. El estudio se basó en las Encuestas Demográficas y de Salud de Colombia (1995, Perú (1996 y Bolivia (1997, y en la Encuesta de Condiciones de Vida de Ecuador (1998. Se creó un índice del estatus socioeconómico familiar, empleando un análisis categórico de componentes principales. La prevalencia del retraso del crecimiento se desagregó por estatus socioeconómico, etnia, lugar de residencia (grandes ciudades, pequeñas ciudades, pueblos y zonas rurales y región (regiones montañosas frente al resto del país. Se aplicaron curvas de regresión suavizadas y funciones lineales para analizar los efectos del estatus socioeconómico en el retraso del crecimiento, creándose modelos específicos para Bolivia, Ecuador y Perú. Resultados. Bolivia, Ecuador y Perú presentaron características similares: alta prevalencia general de retraso del crecimiento, mayor prevalencia en las zonas montañosas, sobre todo en las poblaciones indígenas, y fuertes disparidades socioeconómicas. Colombia, por el contrario, presentó menor prevalencia y menores disparidades regionales. Hubo un marcado gradiente socioeconómico del retraso del crecimiento en los cuatro países, siendo las tasas de prevalencia por lo menos tres veces mayores en los deciles más pobres que en el decil más alto. Conclusiones. El marcado contraste entre Bolivia, Ecuador y Perú, por un lado, y Colombia por el otro, puede deberse a factores étnicos específicos que afectan a la población indígena, a las características peculiares de la dieta en las regiones montañosas, con escasas proteínas y micronutrientes, y a las diferencias entre las vías de desarrollo económico y social a largo plazo de los países. Junto con el marcado gradiente socieconómico observado en los cuatro países, el peso de los factores étnicos y regionales señala la necesidad de reducir la desigualdad, así como de mejorar globalmente la educación y el alojamiento, dirigir mejor los programas de salud y nutrición, y poner en práctica programas de participación integrados en las culturas indígenas.

  12. Conflicto colonial andino y mediación teológica en la crónica de Guamán Poma

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    Fernando Amaya Farías

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La Nueva corónica y buen gobierno de Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala representa un documento de protesta muy singular en palabras e imágenes, como defensa de los indígenas maltratados y explotados por el sistema colonial. El cronista como indígena cristiano critica a los funcionarios políticos y religiosos de la colonia, posición que no implica necesariamente la ruptura con el sistema colonial. Para Guamán Poma, lo que amenaza la vida de las culturas indígenas no es la predicación de la salvación ni la forma ideal de vida cristiana, sino las concreciones históricas con las que el cristianismo es transmitido en la Colonia. La mediación teológica que plantea el cronista la formula desde la pregunta por la ruptura y continuidad, por la compatibilidad e incompatibilidad que se presenta entre las religiones andinas y el cristianismo.La nueva corónica y buen gobierno by Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala represents a document of protest outstanding in words and images for the defense of the oppressed natives. The writer’s own experience as native and Christian is the startingpoint for his citizism of the colonial system. In his opinion the negative influence on the native culture wasn’t caused by the Christian promise of salvation nor by the proclaimed ideal way of Christian living, but by the way Christianity was transformed through the colonial context. The author´s main interest is to raise the question of the interruption and continuance and the compatibility and incompatibility between the native religions and Christianity.

  13. Influencia del fenómeno ENSO sobre la precipitación nival en el sector andino de Chile central durante el invierno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available INFLUENCE DU PHÉNOMÈNE ENSO SUR LES PRÉCIPITATIONS NEIGEUSES DANS LE CENTRE DU CHILI ANDIN AU COURS DE L’HIVER AUSTRAL. On analyse l’influence du phénomène El Niño/Oscillation du Sud (ENSO sur les précipitations nivales dans les Andes du Chili central au cours de l’hiver. Pour cela, on a utilisé l’information obtenue sur des sites spécifiques (routes de neige situées entre 30° et 38° S et les anomalies de Température de Surface de la Mer (TSM du bloc Niño 3, comme indicateur de l’importance des événements chauds ou froids dans le Pacifique équatorial central. Au nord de 35°S, l’accumulation de neige tend à être supérieure à la normale quand l’anomalie moyenne de TSM dépasse +1°C au cours de la période mai-août. Dans ce même secteur, on enregistre une précipitation inférieure à la normale les hivers caractérisés par une anomalie de TSM inférieure à -0,5°C. Dans la zone située au sud de 35° S, l’influence du phénomène ENSO sur l’accumulation de neige n’est plus significative. Se analiza la influencia del fenómeno El Niño/Oscilación del Sur (ENSO sobre la precipitación nival en los Andes de Chile central durante el invierno. Para esto, se utiliza información de rutas de nieve localizadas entre 30° y 38° S, y de anomalías de temperatura superficial del mar (TSM en la región Niño 3 como un indicador de la magnitud de los eventos cálidos y fríos en el Pacífico ecuatorial central. En la región al norte de 35° S, la acumulación de nieve durante el invierno tiende a ser superior a lo normal cuando la magnitud de la anomalía media de TSM en el periodo mayo-agosto supera +1,0° C. En este mismo sector se verifica que durante los inviernos caracterizados por una anomalía de TSM inferior a -0,5° C, suele registrarse una precipitación nival inferior a lo normal. En el sector al sur de los 35° S, la influencia del fenómeno ENSO sobre la acumulación de nieve durante el invierno no es significativa. THE ENSO PHENOMENON INFLUENCE ON SNOW FALL IN THE ANDEAN SECTOR OF CENTRAL CHILE DURING WINTER. The influence of El Niño/Southern Oscillation phenomenon (ENSO on winter snow accumulation over the subtropical Andes in Central Chile is analyzed using records of snow accumulation at specific sites between 30° S and 38° S and the sea surface temperature (SST anomaly in the region Niño 3 as an index for the intensity of warm and cold episodes in the central equatorial Pacific. Anomalously large snow accumulation tend to occur in the andean sector to the north of 35° S when the magnitude of a positive SST anomaly surpasses +1.0°C during the austral winter (May-August. On the contrary, less than normal snow accumulation is generally observed in this sector when a negative SST anomaly exceeding -0.5° C prevails. No significant signal associated to ENSO was detected in the winter snow accumulation at andean sites to the south of 35° S.

  14. NEWS AND COMMENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    campbell

    On the morning of 13 May 2013, driving on the S28, a gravel road in southern. Kruger National Park, between Crocodile Bridge camp and Lower Sabie camp, a sub-adult Egyptian Vulture was spotted. It was in open knob-thorn - marula woodland and sitting near a white-backed vulture. The Egyptian Vulture was preening, ...

  15. Status of birds of prey in Guinea-Bissau: first assessment based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cover (based on the normalised difference vegetation index). Apart from Hooded Vultures and White-backed Vultures Gyps africanus, all other raptors in the IUCN Red List were found to be scarce, including other vultures and several medium-to-large eagles. Keywords: birds, Guinea-Bissau, raptors, transects, West Africa ...

  16. Use of black vulture (Coragyps atratus) in complementary and alternative therapies for cancer in Colombia: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Pedraza Ricardo; Gamba-Rincón Magda R; González-Rangel Andrés L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although Coragyps atratus has been used as a traditional therapy for patients with cancer, the scientific literature does not contain enough information on how this therapy is used or the mechanisms that explain this therapeutic practice. Objectives To understand the methods of use and the reasons given by patients and caregivers for the use of Coragyps atratus in cancer treatment. Methods This study used a qualitative design based on twenty in-depth interviews of patients...

  17. Evaluación de la actividad antioxidante bioautográfica de cinco variedades de aceites esenciales andinos (Aristeguietia glutinosa; Myrcianthes rhopaloides; Ambrosia arborescens; Lantana camara; Minthostachys mollis)

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero Toapanta, Priscila Pamela; Pozo Morales, Karla Natalia

    2016-01-01

    This experimental work had the goal of assessing the antioxidant capabilities of five essential oils: Minthostachys mollis, Aristeguietia glutinosa, Ambrosia arborescens, Myrcianthes rhopaloides and Lantana camara; all of which were obtained from the Ecuadorian Andes. This work used the DPPH and ABTS methods to assess free radical-capturing capacity, and it used the β-carotene Test to determine the antioxidant activity of each essential oil. The natural referent used herein...

  18. La salud imperfecta. Cuerpos y subjetividades en la medicina peruana: las personas TLGBI frente a la salud pública, la discriminación y la pobreza en el contexto andino (1990- 2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Ballero, Martin Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Esta tesis realiza una investigación que gira en torno al estudio de la construcción de formas concretas de subjetividad dentro de las personas TLGBI (trans, lesbianas, gays y bisexuales, intersexuales) de Perú, en el contexto de la región andina, en relación con el discurso médico sobre el cuerpo/subjetividad, la sexualidad y el proceso enfermedad-salud de dichas personas, a partir del análisis de las políticas públicas de salud y de las percepciones de los y las activistas de dicha comunida...

  19. Los indios cuzcos de Chile colonial : estrategias semánticas,usos de la memoria y gestión de identidades entre inmigrantes andinos (siglos XVI-XVII)1

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela-Márquez, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    El artículo explora la inmigración de indígenas de los Andes en Chile colonial y las estrategias que desarrollaron para insertarse en el medio urbano de Santiago. En particular, se estudia la emergencia de un gentilicio, el cuzco, como categoría de identidad, como autoreferencia construida por los mismos inmigrantes y heredada por sus descendientes, y como denominación recogida por las instancias coloniales. This article explores the immigration of Indians from the Andes in Chile colonial ...

  20. Fiestas agrícolas y ciclos helio-lunares en el mundo andino: el carnaval como fuente de justicia de los pueblos indígenas pastos y kamentsás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ilich Bacca Benavides

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta los aspectos más prominentes de los carnavales del Inti Raymy y del perdón, leyéndolos a luz de la relación entre tiempo, lengua y justicia. La primera parte del escrito delimita un marco de análisis para pensar el carnaval como un espacio de regulación ética de la comunidad. Entre tanto, la segunda parte pone a prueba la clave de lectura a través de las voces de los comuneros que participan en el carnaval. Se trata de un trabajo etnográfico que intenta poner en evidencia la normatividad social que subyace a este tipo de celebraciones.

  1. Políticas de mejoramiento de la calidad de la educación básica en los países andinos: análisis comparado de Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador y Perú.

    OpenAIRE

    Lita Romero, Daysi Maribel

    2014-01-01

    Lograr una calidad educativa implica, no sólo ocuparse por la parte de infraestructura, cantidad de docentes, o dotación de material pedagógico, sino más bien, involucra una adecuada optimización de los recursos financieros y un acompañamiento de un marco regulatorio que establezca responsabilidades, control y seguimiento de cada acción tomada en el sistema. Por lo anteriormente señalado, se viola necesidad de realizar una investigación que recopile información sobre las principales políticas...

  2. Estudio de Factibilidad para la creación de una empresa productora y comercializadora de Galletas de Quinua y de Amaranto (Productos Andinos), en la Ciudad de Quito.

    OpenAIRE

    Velástegui Encalada, María José

    2010-01-01

    Comer no es lo mismo que alimentarse. La alimentación es el hábito que más influye en la salud. En efecto, por medio de ella el organismo obtiene la energía que necesita para funcionar y los componentes para crecer y autorepararse. Una alimentación adecuada evita y cura enfermedades, ayuda a la persona a verse y sentirse mejor, aumenta el rendimiento físico y mental. Alimentarse correctamente no es necesariamente seguir una larga lista de prohibiciones, y no tiene por qué se...

  3. Diversidad de coleópteros en un bosque alto andino del municipio de Santa Rosa de Viterbo (Boyacá (Diversity of coleoptera in a high forest Andean in the municipality of Santa Rosa de Viterbo (Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Bohórquez Salazar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio desarrollado en el municipio de Santa Rosa de Viterbo, ubicado a 2750 msnm, en un relicto de bosque húmedo montano bajo (bh-M. Dicho estudio tuvo como finalidad identificar la diversidad y riqueza de entomofauna referida al orden Coleóptera, en los predios de la Escuela de Policía Rafael Reyes (ESREY. Es importante señalar que este es el primer estudio de este tipo realizado en la zona. Se reportan un total de 270 individuos capturados pertenecientes a 17 familias, 25 subfamilias, 30 tribus y 44 géneros; siendo Coccinellidae la familia más representativa (19,3% y Dryophthoridae la familia menos representativa (0,4%. Vale la pena mencionar que, según lo reportado por Martínez (2005, no se encuentran registros de ningún género de Carabidae en el municipio, por lo que se puede destacar que los resultados publicados en este artículo son los primeros registros para Santa Rosa de Viterbo. Así mismo, la revisión de Medina, Lopera-Toro, Vitolo & Gill, (2001 sobre escarabajos coprófagos de Colombia indica que los géneros encontrados en este estudio no se registran a una altitud mayor a 2600 msnm por lo que se puede reportar un registro altitudinal para Canthon y Dichotomius Finalmente, en el artículo se presentan los resultados de un proceso de educación desarrollado con niños de grado quinto de primaria de una institución educativa del municipio y con los semilleros de investigación de la ESREY, proceso que fue diseñado como estrategia para promover la apropiación social de conocimiento y divulgación de los resultados del trabajo. (Abstract. This article presents the results of a study conducted in the municipality of Santa Rosa de Viterbo, located at 2750 meters above sea level, in a relict humid montane forest under (bh-M. This study aimed to identify the diversity and richness of Coleoptera order entomofauna referred to in the grounds of the School of Police Rafael Reyes (ESREY. It is important to note that this is the first study of its kind in the area. A total of 270 individuals captured belonging to 17 families, 25 subfamilies, 30 tribes and 44 genera are reported; Coccinellidae being the most representative (19.3% and less representative Dryophthoridae the family (0.4% family. It is important to note that, as reported by Martinez (2005, no records of any kind of Carabidae in the municipality are, so it can be noted that the results published in this article are the first records for Santa Rosa de Viterbo. Also the review of Medina, Lopera-Toro, Vitolo & Gill (2001 on dung beetles of Colombia indicate that genera found in this study are not recorded at a higher altitude to 2,600 meters so you can report altitudinal record for Canthon and Dichotomius Finally, the article presents the results of an education process developed with children in fifth grade of an educational institution of the municipality and the hotbeds of research ESREY, a process that was designed as a strategy to promote social appropriation of present knowledge and dissemination of the results of work.

  4. Patrones de distribución espacial de ensambles de macroinvertebrados bentónicos de un sistema fluvial Andino Patagónico Spatial distribution patterns of benthic macroinvertebrates assemblages in an Andean Patagonian fluvial system

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    CAROLINA MOYA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En enero de 2006 se estudiaron los patrones espaciales de distribución de comunidades de macroinvertebrados bentónicos de la cuenca hidrográfica del río Baker (45°50' O y 47°55' S y los principales factores controladores, intentando cubrir la mayor variedad de ecosistemas lóticos. Para llevar a cabo el estudio se seleccionaron 27 estaciones de muestreo ubicadas en las diferentes subcuencas del río. En cada estación se realizó una caracterización fisicoquímica del agua (conductividad, oxígeno disuelto, pH, temperatura y turbidez, y se documentaron las características del tramo de río (e.g. ancho del cauce y tipo de sedimento e información cartográfica utilizando un sistema de información geográfica (SIG. Se identificaron un total de 51 taxa que correspondieron en su mayoría a larvas de insectos (80 %. Los grupos con mayor riqueza fueron los órdenes Ephemeroptera (15 taxa, Plecoptera (8 taxa y Trichoptera (8 taxa. Los análisis de clasificación y ordenación realizados con los datos de abundancia, permitieron reconocer siete grupos de estaciones diferentes (A-F que fueron estadísticamente significativos (P In January of 2006 we studied the distributional patterns of benthic macroinvertebrate communities of the Baker river basin (45°50' O and 47°55' S and their main controlling factors trying to cover the greater variety of the lotic ecosystems. To carry out the study, 27 sampling stations were located in the different sub basins of the river. In each station, physical-chemical parameters of the column of water were quantified (conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature and turbidity, and documented characteristics of the segment (e.g. wide of the channel and sediment type and cartographic information using a geographic information system (GIS and complemented with cartographic information using GIS. Identified a total of 51 taxa, are mostly insect larvae (80 %. The groups most richness were orders Ephemeroptera (15 taxa, Plecoptera (8 taxa and Trichoptera (8 taxa. The classification and ordination analyses carried out with the data of abundance, allowed to recognize seven groups stations (A-F statistically significant (P < 0.05. The múltiple regression analysis, showed that the environmental variable that accounts for the observed biological patterns, was coverage cobble, explaining 45.1 % the variance of the biological data (r² = 0.44 P < 0.05.

  5. COMPORTAMIENTO DEL CIPRÉS (Cupressus lusitánica Mill. EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE ÁRBOLES DE NAVIDAD BAJO CONDICIONES DE CLIMA ALTO ANDINO, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Petit-Aldana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las condiciones agroecológicas del estado Mérida, Venezuela tienen potencialidad para establecer plantaciones de árboles de navidad con fines de comercialización. Se estudió el comportamiento silvicultural de la especie Cupressus lusitánica Mill., en condiciones de la zona alto-andina, con el fin de promocionar el cultivo de árboles de navidad entre las comunidades interesadas, El ensayo se estableció en la Estación Experimental Santa Rosa, Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias de la Universidad de Los Andes. Los árboles fueron monitoreados y evaluados a lo largo de 20 meses, realizando mediciones de diámetro basal, altura total; aplicando podas apicales y de formación. Se obtuvo una sobrevivencia de 82.69 % y mortalidad de 17.31 %; altura promedio de 2.56 m. y diámetro basal de 7.79 cm, con respuestas positivas a las podas apicales y de formación. El incremento anual en altura fue de 1.51 m y de 3.80 cm en diámetro. Se concluyó que Cupressus lusitanica demostró adaptación a las condiciones ambientales del estado Mérida, de acuerdo a los parámetros evaluados.

  6. Mujer indígena, trabajo doméstico y cambio social en el Virreinato peruano del siglo XVII: la ciudad de La Paz y el Sur Andino en 1684

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available L'analyse approfondie d'un recensement exceptionnel des personnes soumises au service domestique à La Paz, en 1684, nous révèle comment les Repúblicas d'indiens et d'espagnols, dans leurs rapports changeants de subordination et de domination, firent la sélection sexuelle de la population destinée aux travaux les plus misérables de la vie urbaine dans une ville andine. On découvre le rapport existant entre le cycle de la vie de la femme et le système de servitude qui s'étend à la structure sociale. Ainsi, aborde-t-on la connaissance de cette société d'une perspective qui met en relation la sujétion de la femme, comme construction historique, avec la situation coloniale de soumission ethnico-culturelle. Enfin, sont établis les effets possibles que la forme de reproduction biologique et sociale qu'on découvre dans cette structure de relations pourrait avoir dans le changement culturel et social de la population soumise, dans une société coloniale. Analizando en profundidad un excepcional padrón de las personas sometidas a servidumbre doméstica en La Paz en 1684, se descubre el proceso por el que las Repúblicas de indios y españoles, en su cambiante relación de dominación y subordinación social, fueron seleccionando sexual mente la población destinada a los servicios más miserables de la vida urbana de una ciudad andina. Se descubre la relación que existe entre el ciclo de vida femenino y el sistema de servidumbre que se ensanchaba en la estructura social. Así, se introduce al conocimiento de esta sociedad desde una perspectiva que relaciona la subordinación de género como construcción histórica, con la situación colonial básica de sometimiento étnico cultural. Finalmente, se plantean los posibles efectos que la forma de reproducción biológica y social, que en esta estructura de relaciones se descubre, tendría para el cambio cultural y social de la población sometida en una sociedad colonial. Analysis of an exceptional padrón of the people subjected to domestic service in La Paz in 1684 reveals a process by which the Repúblicas of indians and Spaniards, in their changing relationship of dominance and subordination, sexually selected the population destined to the most menial service of urban life. A relationship is discovered between the feminine life cycle and the system of domestic service which grew up in Andean society. A study of the relationship of the two elements, gender and ethnicity, will permit a new understanding of colonial society. Finally this study will establish what possible effects the biological and social reproduction revealed in this structure of relationships had for social and cultural change within the subjected population in colonial society.

  7. Estructura funcional y composición de la comunidad de pequeños mamíferos terrestres en el bosque andino del santuario de flora y fauna Otún Quimbaya, Risaralda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanni Alvarado R.

    2005-07-01

    que el BNM tiene los valores más altos de diversidad y la mayor riqueza, mientras que la menor diversidad y riqueza fue encontrada en el BR. El BNM y el BR son más similares según el índice de Morisita y un análisis de Cluster. Para ordenar las especies por las variables morfológicas externas se realizó un Análisis de Componentes Principales, el cual mostró una agrupación de especies pequeñas y otra de especies intermedias, que podría estar indicando que no hay una competencia marcada por un mismo recurso.

  8. Composición florística y distribución de los bosques ribereños subtropicales andinos del Río Lules, Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín G Sirombra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la composición florística y distribución de los bosques ribereños de dos sistemas hidrográficos en una región subtropical andina. Utilizando técnicas uni y multivariadas, se probó la hipótesis que existe un bosque ribereño diferenciable, compuesto por vegetación nativa típica de la provincia fitogeográfica de Yungas, y que la distribución de la vegetación varió significativamente con las características geomorfológicas. Transectos paralelos a lo largo de los cursos de agua se utilizaron para recolectar los datos de presencia-ausencia de vegetación en once sitios. El Análisis de Correspondencia definió un grupo de especies ribereñas común para el área estudiada (Solanum riparium, Phenax laevigatus, Tipuana tipu, Cestrum parqui, Carica quercifolia, Acacia macracantha, Celtis iguanaea, Juglans australis, Pisoniella arborescens, Baccharis salicifolia, Cinnamomum porphyrium y Eugenia uniflora e identificó dos sitios de referencia. La distribución de la vegetación ribereña varió significativamente con las características geomorfológicas a lo largo de los sitios estudiados. Los hábitats ribereños estuvieron compuestos por especies nativas y exóticas. Una flora ribereña distintiva, diferente en estructura y función a la vegetación terrestre adyacente, no pudo ser identificada. Especies ribereñas fueron similares a los estratos terrestres adyacentes. Estas especies no estarían limitadas por la proximidad al río. Impactos antropogénicos fueron factores importantes que regulan la introducción y el incremento de la vegetación exótica. La falta de regulación de algunas actividades en la zona podría causar problemas graves en la integridad de este ecosistema.Floristic composition and distribution of the Andean subtropical riparian forests of Lules River, Tucuman, Argentina. We studied the floristic composition and distribution of the riparian forest of two hydrographical systems in a subtropical Andean region. Using uni and multivariate techniques, we tested the hypotheses that a differentiable riparian forest exists, composed by native vegetation typical of the Yungas phytogeographical province, and that the distribution of vegetation varied significantly with geomorphologic characteristics. Parallel transects along the water courses were used to collect presence-absence data of vegetation in eleven sites. Detrended Correspondence Analysis defined a group of common riparian species for the studied area (Solanum riparium, Phenax laevigatus, Tipuana tipu, Cestrum parqui, Carica quercifolia, Acacia macracantha, Celtis iguanaea, Juglans australis, Pisoniella arborescens, Baccharis salicifolia, Cinnamomum porphyrium and Eugenia uniflora and identified two reference sites. The distribution of the riparian vegetation varied significantly with the geomorphic characteristics along the studied sites. Riparian habitats were composed by native and exotic species. A distinct riparian flora, different in structure and function from adjacent terrestrial vegetation, could not be identified. Riparian species were similar to the adjacent terrestrial strata. These species would not be limited by the proximity to the river. Anthropogenic impacts were important factors regulating the introduction and increase of exotic vegetation. The lack of regulation of some activities in the zone could cause serious problems in the integrity of this ecosystem. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1: 499-510. Epub 2010 March 01.

  9. Ecomicrobiology and microbial assimilative capacity of the oligotrophic Andean Lake Laja, Chile Ecomicrobiología y capacidad asimilativa microbiana del lago oligotrófico andino Laja, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERNHARD KARRASCH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A strong socio-economic development pressure in South Chile will more and more cause an impact to the present lakes and rivers. Nevertheless, our knowledge concerning the ecological structure and the microbial self-purification capabilities of these lacustrine water bodies is scant but essential for a future sustainable development of land and water use. We studied Lake Laja, a lake already heavily impacted by water diversions for hydropower generation and irrigation. Typical for the Andean region Lake Laja is an oligotrophic water body, limited by nitrogen nutrients. Only very low chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon (POC concentrations and a small abundance and biomass of bacteria (mainly ultramicrobacteria and heterotrophic flagellates were encountered. Weak trophic interrelations were derived from a high bacteria-to-heterotrophic flagellate ratio. For the ten investigated extracellular enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, leucine, arginine-, glycine and tyrosine-aminopeptidase, α-, β-D-glucosidase, α-, β-D-galactosidase, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, with the exception of α-D-glucosidase, a broad range of organic matter degradation activities was proven. Probably, due to the N-limitation, organic nitrogen hydrolysing extracellular enzymes reached activities on average of 45 % compared to other studies in oligotrophic waters. The possible effect of N-limitation on extracellular enzyme activities was more pronounced by cell specific extracellular enzymatic activity rates, which exceeded those of other oligotrophic water bodies on average by factor 2. The overall activities of all microbial extracellular enzymes studied proved to be dominated by the dissolved free external enzymes (up to 98 % over the ectoenzymes which are associated with particulate organic matter (bacterial cell walls, particles, and aggregates. It is concluded that future socio-economic changes, dealing with watershed human intervention (accelerating inorganic and organic loads as well as global change (temperature and precipitation changes could lead to significant changes in the ecology of Lake Laja.La gran presión generada por el desarrollo socioeconómico del sur de Chile, está causando cada vez más un mayor impacto en los lagos y ríos allí presentes. Sin embargo, el conocimiento de la estructura ecológica y la capacidad microbiana de autodepuración de los cuerpos de agua lacustres es escasa, pero esencial para un futuro uso sostenible de los recursos agua y suelo. Se estudió el lago Laja, por ser un cuerpo de agua muy afectado por la extracción de agua para la generación de energía hidroeléctrica y el riego. Como es característico de la región andina, el lago Laja es oligotrófico limitado por nutrientes nitrogenados. Se encontraron bajas concentraciones de clorofila a y carbono orgánico particulado (POC, así como bajas abundancias y biomasa de bacterias (principalmente ultramicrobacteria y de flagelados heterotróficos. Interrelaciones tróficas débiles se determinaron de la relación bacterias y flagelados heterotróficos. Para las diez enzimas extracelulares estudiadas (fosfatasa, leucina-, arginina-, glicina- y tirosina-aminopeptidasa, a-, b-D-glucosidasa, a-, b-D-galactosidasa, N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidasa, con la excepción de α-β-glucosidase, se analizó un amplio rango de actividad de degradación sobre la materia orgánica. Probablemente, debido a la limitación de nitrógeno, el N-orgánico hidrolizado por enzimas extracelulares alcanzó una actividad promedio de 45 %, comparada con otros estudios en aguas oligotróficas. El posible efecto de la limitación de N en la actividad enzimática extracelular, fue más pronunciado en las tasas de la actividad enzimática extracelular específicas, las cuales excedieron en un factor promedio de dos a las de otros cuerpos de aguas oligotróficos. En general, la actividad de todas las enzimas extracelulares microbianas estudiadas resultaron estar dominadas por enzimas externas disueltas libres (hasta el 98 %, más que por ectoenzimas asociadas a partículas de materia orgánica (paredes celulares de bacterias, partículas y agregados. De esta manera es posible concluir que los futuros cambios socioeconómicos, reflejados en el incremento de cargas orgánicas e inorgánicas, así como el efecto del cambio global (cambios en temperaturas y precipitaciones, podrían provocar cambios significativos en la ecología del lago Laja.

  10. Response Analysis of eight native species of high Andean forest with two methods of propagation; Analisis de la respuesta de ocho especies nativas del bosque alto andino ante dos metodos de propagacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liliana, Castaneda Sandra; Ernesto, Garzon Alvaro; Angel, Cantillo Miguel; Patricia, Torres Monica; Jairo, Silva Luis

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this research was to generate information on the native tree species represent an alternative in the ecological restoration of the Colombian high Andean forests, according to its dynamo-genetic characteristics. We have chosen and spread the species: Baccharis latifolia (R and P), Bocconia frutescens L., Cordia cylindrostachya (R and P), Diplostephium rosmarinifolium (Benth), Drymis granadensis L f., Eupatorium angustifolium (Kunth), Palicourea vaginata Benth, and Palicourea linearifolia Wernham. The species include a morphological description of flowers, fruits and seeds, and ISTA tests. The spread experiments were made in the nurseries of the Universidad Distrital and La Florida park. For the sexual spread, we have used as treatments four gibberellins concentrations and three shadow conditions, while the vegetative spread consisted of two diameters and ive indol butiric acid (IBA) concentrations. Results have shown that pre-germination treatments are needed for Bocconia frutescens y Palicourea vaginata, in order to increase the probability and germination rate. On the other hand, shadow conditions are needed for Baccharis latifolia, Diplostephium rosmarinifolium, Drymis granadensis, Eupatorium angustifolium and Palicourea vaginata, as their seeds exhibit photoblastic characteristics. Due to the Cordia cylindrostachya and Palicourea linearifolia seed attack by insects (Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera) their sexual spread is highly limited. Finally, regarding the species response to the IBA and diameter combinations, each species responded in a different manner. Additionally, regarding the vegetative spread, the species Bocconia frutescens, Cordia cylindrostachya, Palicourea vaginata, Diplostephium rosmarinifolium and Drymis granadensis were very difficult to spread.

  11. Characterization and classification rural housing in the middle river basin Guaitara, Nariño Spatial characterization and technology of rural housing as part of asset valuation of main road andino Qhapaq Ñan

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Gerardo Hernando; Docente tiempo completo Programa de Arquitectura Universidad de Nariño.; Afanador Hernández, Claudia; Docente tiempo completo Programa de Licenciatura y Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad de Nariño.; Castillo Valencia, William Arturo; Profesor del departamento de arquitectura, tiempo completo, dedicado a la investigación, miembro del observatorio de culturas urbanas; OCUR, Miembro: Association for Preservation Technology International E.U – estructuras patrimoniales históricas.

    2017-01-01

    The Inca culture contributes in Colombia with pre-Hispanic architecture through the main artery of roads identified as the Qhapaq Nan, Andean road system that dates from the chronicles of historians since the conquest, which enabled the transformation and adaptability of the environment in time and space, with the emergence of new Hispanic culture, about the concepts of habitability and soil management in terms of production activities, ownership, size and shape of the earth. Study the defini...

  12. Análisis genético molecular del Oso Andino ( Tremarctos ornatus en el norte de los andes (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador: Una visión global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ruiz-García

    2001-07-01

    G10B, G10C y G10X. Un exhaustivo análisis genético poblacional permitió determinar los siguientes aspectos fundamentales: (1 No existencia de equilibrio Hardy-Weinberg ni en el conjunto global de muestras ni en el conjunto particular de muestras para cada uno de esos países, al utilizar los tests exactos con cadenas de Markov y con el método de Fisher.

  13. Caída de tefra y su influencia sobre la estructura y dinámica de los bosques andinos de Nothofagus en el Parque Nacional Puyehue, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio Montiel; Mauro E González; Charles M Crisafulli

    2016-01-01

    Tephra fall influences the structure and dynamics of Andean Nothofagus (beech) forests in Puyehue National Park, Chile. Forest mortality and subsequent establishment, structure and composition have been affected by the eruption of the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcano complex.

  14. Paleoambientes sedimentarios de la Formación Toro Negro (Neógeno, antepaís fracturado andino, noroeste argentino Sedimentary paleoenvironments of the Toro Negro Formation (Neogene, Andean broken foreland, northwest Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Ciccioli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La Formación Toro Negro (Neógeno registra parte de la sedimentación de la cuenca de antepaís fracturado de Vinchina (Orogenia Andina en el NW argentino. Esta unidad está compuesta por conglomerados, areniscas y pelitas junto con algunos niveles de brechas y tobas depositados principalmente en ambientes continentales. Once asociaciones de facies (AF fueron reconocidas: ocho corresponden al miembro inferior y tres al superior. La AFI está compuesta por megabrechas intraformacionales y conglomerados depositados en ríos entrelazados gravosos que rellenaron el paleovalle fluvial en el norte del área. La AFII, formada por brechas intraformacionales y areniscas integrando fajas de canales fuertemente incisas dentro una planicie aluvial, fue identificada en las posiciones marginales del mencionado paleovalle. La AFIII, integrada por fajas de canales gravosos con planicies arenosas, corresponde a ríos anastomosados de clima semiárido que evolucionó a un sistema con espesas planicies fangosas con delgados desbordamientos arenosos y canales simples gravosos (AFIV. Por su parte, la AFV consiste de complejos de canales arenosos encapsulados con ciclos grano-crecientes. La AFVI está compuesta por conglomerados y areniscas guijarrosas depositadas en una planicie entrelazada que evoluciona a un sistema fluvial de menor energía (AFVII caracterizado por un aumento de depósitos fangosos con lóbulos arenosos y lentes gravosas. La AFVIII está dominada por sedimentos finos depositados en un lago somero. En el miembro superior, la AFIX corresponde a un sistema fluvial entrelazado profundo gravoso. La AFX está compuesta por facies finas acumuladas en una planicie aluvial fuertemente agradante sobre la que progradan depósitos gruesos correspondiente a un piedemonte dominado por flujos canalizados (AFXI. En la evolución paleoambiental de la Formación Toro Negro se reconocen 3 etapas. La etapa I (Mioceno Temprano corresponde a la formación de un paleovalle fluvial en el norte del área y posterior relleno por cursos fluviales gravo-arenosos provenientes del oeste principalmente (AFI-V. En la etapa II (Mioceno Medio a Tardío se desarrollan sistemas fluviales no confinados areno-gravosos (AFVI-VII que progradan sobre un lago somero (AFVIII desarrollado en el sur del área. Finalmente, la etapa III (miembro superior, Mioceno Tardío-Plioceno Temprano corresponde a pulsos de progradación de la cuña clástica (AFIX-XI desde el oeste (Precordillera.The Toro Negro Formation (Neogene records the sedimentation in the broken-foreland Vinchina Basin during the Andean Orogeny, in northwestern Argentina. This unit is composed of conglomerates, sandstones and mudstones together with some beds of breccias and tuffs deposited mainly in fluvial environments. Eleven facies associations (FA were identified in this unit, eight of them corresponding to the lower member and three to the upper member. FAI is composed of massive intraformational megabreccias and cross-bedded conglomerates deposited in braided fluvial systems that filled a deep fluvial paleovalley formed in the north of the studied region. FAII was only identified in marginal positions of the paleovalley and is composed of intraformational breccias and sandstones forming channel belts incised within alluvial plains deposits. FAIII comprises gravelly channel belts and sandy floodplains dominated by crevasse splays interpreted as deposited in semiarid anastomosing fluvial systems. FAIV shows coarsening-upward successions with thick muddy alluvial plain deposits including thin crevasse splays and gravelly single channels. Encapsulated channel complexes composed of coarse-grained sandstones and scarce conglomerates, form FAV. FAVI covers a low-relief erosive surface and is mainly composed of conglomerates and gravelly sandstones deposited in broad alluvial plains. This fluvial complex evolved to a lower-energy system (FAVII characterized by an increase of muddy floodplain deposits and the existence of fine-grained sandstone lobes with gravelly lenses. FAVIII is dominated by mudstones deposited in a playa lake environment. In the upper member, FAIX corresponds to deep gravel-bed braided streams. FAX is composed of fine-grained deposits of a highly aggradational fluvial plain. Finally, FAXI mainly consists of breccias and conglomerates deposited in streamflow-dominated piedmonts. Three stages were recognized in the paleoenvironmental evolution of the Toro Negro Formation. Stage I (Early Miocene corresponds to the generation and infill of the paleovalley, by fluvial systems coming from the west (FAI-V in the northern-central part of the basin. Stage II (Medium to Late Miocene consists of gravelly-sandy fluvial systems (FAVI-VII prograding from the north-northwest towards the playa lake (FAVIII developed in the south. Finally, Stage III (upper member, Late Miocene-Early Pliocene corresponds to pulses of clastic-wedge progradation (FAIX-XI from the west (Precordillera.

  15. El proceso de contaminación hídrica en un oasis andino. La vida y la muerte por las acequias de Mendoza, Argentina, 1880-1980

    OpenAIRE

    María del Rosario PRIETO; Teresita Castrillejo; Patricia Dussel

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es estudiar, mediante evidencias documentales, el proceso de contaminación hídrica en el oasis norte de la provincia de Mendoza, desde el comienzo del desarrollo industrial (1880) hasta la actualidad, para explicar las causas del deterioro ambiental en el presente y proponer manejos hídricos alternativos. Se ha analizado también la evolución de las representaciones sociales acerca de la contaminación hídrica.

  16. La internacionalización del derecho constitucional en Colombia: una garantía para los procesos de integración. Ejercicio comparado con los países andinos

    OpenAIRE

    Tremolada Álvarez, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Este escrito, desde la perspectiva del derecho internacional, aborda el estudio comparado de la internacionalización del derecho constitucional en Colombia como garantía de los procesos de integración. De ahí que parta del análisis del ordenamiento internacional como una unidad formal compuesto por tres estructuras normativas, para luego centrarse en el estudio de la internacionalización del ordenamiento colombiano. En particular se constata cómo este orden interno recibe y ejecuta el...

  17. EVALUACIÓN DE DOS TRATAMIENTOS FOTOPERIÓDICOS EN CRISANTEMO (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., BAJO CONDICIONES DEL INTERTRÓPICO ANDINO ALTO EVALUATION OF TWO PHOTOPERIOD TREATMENTS IN CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendranthema grandiflorum ((Ramat. Kitam., UNDER CONDITIONS OF HIGH ANDEAN INTERTROPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fáber de Jesús Chica Toro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En la floricultura colombiana, cerca del 14 % de los costos de producción del crisantemo o pompón (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., está representado por la luz complementaria requerida para controlar su floración. Con el fin de encontrar un protocolo que hiciera uso de un menor suministro de luz, en este trabajo se compararon los efectos de dos esquemas de complemento lumínico nocturno sobre algunas características precosecha y poscosecha en dos variedades comerciales tipo spider de crisantemo: Super White y Super Yellow. El esquema testigo de suplemento lumínico nocturno consistió en aportar la adición durante 28 días para la variedad Super Yellow, y 26 para la variedad Super White. La propuesta alternativa de adición lumínica nocturna consistió en interrumpir el estímulo durante una noche completa cada dos días. Tal disminución del estímulo lumínico, en aproximadamente un 30 %, no afectó el crecimiento ni las características poscosecha de las variedades evaluadas.In Colombian floriculture, nearly 14% of the production costs of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam. consists of the additional lighting required to control its flowering. In order to find a protocol that consumes a lower amount of electricity, this study compared the effects of two supplementary noctural lighting schemes on several preharvest and postharvest characteristics in two commercial varieties of chrysanthemum: Super White and Super Yellow. The control nocturnal lighting scheme consisted of providing the supplemental lighting during 28 days for the Super Yellow variety and during 26 days for the Super White variety. The alternative nocturnal lighting scheme consisted of interrupting the stimulus during one complete night every two days. This approximately 30% reduction in light stimulation did not affect either growth or postharvest characteristics of the varieties evaluated.

  18. El espacio de la identificación cultural. Notas sobre el nacimiento político del orden de la diversidad cultural en los países andinos (Ecuador y Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rodríguez Maeso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo ofrece una reflexión teórica en torno a la génesis de un orden de representación de lo social, la diversidad cultural, en la región andina y al papel de las ciencias sociales en la misma. La centralidad de la configuración de identidades indígenas y de sus demandas políticas en América Latina, concretamente en el caso ecuatoriano, se presentan como un caso típico de lo culturalmente diverso. En el texto se argumenta que una mejor comprensión de estos procesos identitarios, así como de su ausencia, pasa por preguntarse por la configuración socio-histórica de distintas ideas de igualdad vinculadas a dos conceptos de cultura: la cultura como proceso civilizatorio y la cultura como diferencia. La argumentación teórica es ilustrada con el trabajo empírico realizado en espacios urbanos periféricos de las ciudades de Lima y Quito.

  19. El espacio de la identificación cultural. Notas sobre el nacimiento político del orden de la diversidad cultural en los países andinos (Ecuador y Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rodríguez Maeso

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available El artículo ofrece una reflexión teórica en torno a la génesis de un orden de representación de lo social, la diversidad cultural, en la región andina y al papel de las ciencias sociales en la misma. La centralidad de la configuración de identidades indígenas y de sus demandas políticas en América Latina, concretamente en el caso ecuatoriano, se presentan como un caso típico de lo culturalmente diverso. En el texto se argumenta que una mejor comprensión de estos procesos identitarios, así como de su ausencia, pasa por preguntarse por la configuración socio-histórica de distintas ideas de igualdad vinculadas a dos conceptos de cultura: la cultura como proceso civilizatorio y la cultura como diferencia. La argumentación teórica es ilustrada con el trabajo empírico realizado en espacios urbanos periféricos de las ciudades de Lima y Quito.

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 154 ... ... Coragyps atratus at a South American sea lion breeding colony ... Notes and reports - New record of African White-backed Vulture ... Vol 61 (2011), Sympatric occurrence of four Cathartid vultures in the dry forests of ...

  1. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND REPORTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    campbell

    Possible sighting of the Indian subspecies of the Egyptian. Vulture Neophron percnopterus ginginianus in Africa. Ivaylo Angelov. 1*. , Bruktawit Abdu. 2. , Nikolay Terziev. 3. , Samson Zelleke. 4. 1 “Balgarka” 29-A-18, Sliven 8800, Bulgaria. 2 Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society. ... Tunisia, which Egyptian Vultures.

  2. ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    campbell

    Abstract. A study on communal roosts of African White-backed Gyps africanus and. Hooded Vultures Necrosyrtes monachus in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resources, southern Ethiopia was conducted from January to. March 2012 to investigate population dynamics of vultures. The population fluctuation ...

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tidmus, Scott. Vol 71 (2016) - Articles Vulture updates - October 2016 - Around the World of Vultures & VSG activities. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1606-7479. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    Portuguese Nature Conservation. Agency) and the Arribes del Duero. Natural Park, revealed that there are. 135 pairs of Egyptian Vultures along the International Douro and its tributaries. Also, the survey of. Egyptian Vulture in France in 2016 was published by Erick Kobierzycki, who is responsible for the Pyrenees.

  5. High occurrence of extra-pair partnerships and homosexuality in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres is an Endangered colonial cliff-nesting species that is typically cited as monogamous. Observations of wild Cape Vulture colonies note extra-pair breeding activities but homosexual activity has never been confirmed. Observations of breeding behaviours within a captive colony were ...

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chansocheat, Song. Vol 55 (2006) - Articles Olfaction in Accipitrid vultures. Abstract PDF · Vol 55 (2006) - Articles First record of Himalayan Griffon vulture Gyps himalyensis in Chhep, Preah Vihear, northern Cambodia Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1606-7479. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  7. A preliminary assessment of the potential risks from electrical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Grey-crowned Crane Balearica regulorum, Lesser Flamingo Phoeniconaias minor, White-backed Vulture Gyps africanus, Rüppell's Vulture Gyps rueppellii, Martial Eagle Polemaetus bellicosus, White Stork Ciconia ciconia, Secretarybird Sagittarius serpentarius, and various sit-and-wait raptors. These preliminary findings ...

  8. Development of microsatellite markers and a restriction endonuclease digest assay for non-invasive sampling of endangered white-rumped, slender-billed and red-headed vultues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y.A. Kapetanakos; I.J. Lovette; T.E. Katzner

    2014-01-01

    Southeast Asian vultures have been greatly reduced in range and population numbers, but it is challenging to use traditional tagging and monitoring techniques to track changes in their populations. Genotypes derived from non-invasively collected feather samples provide an alternative and effective means to 'capture' individual vultures for mark-recapture...

  9. Short CommuniCationS, noteS and reportS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lappet-faced Vultures with white feathers hein van Grouw. Curator, Bird Group, Dept. of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, Akeman Street,. Tring, Herts, HP23 6AP, UK. e-mail: h.van-grouw@nhm.ac.uk. Two different Lappet-faced Vultures Torgos tracheliotos with remarkable white feathers over their bodies are seen.

  10. Concursos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico Banco de la República

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la información y las bases para los siguientes concursos; Concurso Enka de literatura infantil Premio Andino; Becas para Jóvenes Talentos en Música y Artes Plásticas.

  11. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology, Volume 53, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Malhotra, V.M., International Conference on Devel- Yuan, R.C., Thompson, D.B., Cereal chemistry, July- Showa kichi oyobi Domu Fuji kansoku kyoteni...cryogenic system. Microflora of the deep glacier horizons of Central de Ia banda C, en los estudios del medio ambi- Antarctica. ente, sector andino y...extra- andino de la Patago- Schiek, S., Bell, G., SPIE-The International Soci- Abyzov, S.S., Mitskevich, I.N., Poglazova, M.N., nia, Argentina] Vol

  12. Sendero Luminoso: Origins, Outlooks, and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    means. The net result was a small shortage in the regional cities of potatoes and local cereals . This was by no means catastrophic, in light of the...Indigena," in Ideologia V. Mesianica del Mundo Andino , ed. Juan M. Ossio (Lima: Grafica Morson, 1973), p. 37.- 61 with the Spanish imperial society and...Mundo Andino , ed. Juan M. Ossio (Lima: Grafica Morson, 1973), p. 118. 53Fernando Fuenzalida, "Informe Antropologico," pp. 45-47. 62 S

  13. Análisis y propuesta del uso de las manifestaciones culturales criollo limeña y andino cusqueña como eje de las campañas publicitarias televisivas de la cerveza Pilsen Callao de 1997-2002, en Lima y Cusco

    OpenAIRE

    Ventocilla Maestre, José Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    La televisión, es el medio de comunicación de mayor impacto en el mundo actual; en ella se transmite sobre todo publicidad. La publicidad televisiva en el caso peruano, por lo general no presenta relación con la realidad de nuestro país, según lo comprobamos en una anterior investigación sobre uso de estereotipos limeños en la publicidad televisiva. Sin embargo, desde 1997 algunos comerciales empezaron a usar estereotipos nacionales, como fueron los casos de Magia Blanca o los de Pilsen, t...

  14. Volcanic stratigraphy and evidence of magma mixing in the Quaternary Payún Matrú volcano, andean backarc in western Argentina Estratigrafía volcánica y evidencia de mezcla de magmas en el volcán Payún Matrú del Cuaternario, en el retroarco andino de Argentina occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene R Hernando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Payún Matrú Volcanic Field is located in the Payenia Basaltic Province of the recent back-arc of western Argentina (35°S-38°S. This province is younger than 5 Ma, and most of its volcanic activity took place since 2 Ma. The Payún Matrú Volcanic Field contains two composite volcanoes, Payún Matrú and Payún Liso, and two basaltic fields in an E-W oriented zone, located east and west of the Payún Matrú volcano. Payún Matrú is the largest volcano of this volcanic field, and consists of a shield-shaped edifice with a circular summit caldera of 8 km in diameter. The composition of both composite volcanoes is alkaline and predominantly trachytic, having also minor intermediate lavas. The basaltic fields consist of basalts and trachybasalts, with clinopyroxene and abundant olivine as phenocrysts and also in the groundmass. Textures indicating mixing and mingling processes, such as dusty plagioclases along with clear ones, biotite replaced by anhydrous minerals and two groundmasses with a fluid-fluid relationship, are common in the early pre-caldera stage of Payún Matrú and some post-caldera lavas. The latest post-caldera lavas are trachytic, with clean sanidine phenocrysts without disequilibrium textures. A remarkable characteristic of the Payún Matrú Volcanic Field is the fact that the Payún Matrú caldera is surrounded by basaltic fields at its base, while no basalts were erupted in the caldera region. We propose that the absence of basaltic lavas in the Payún Matrú volcano is due to the presence of a magmatic chamber below it, and that the mafic magmas rising from deeper levels were unable to erupt without interaction with more evolved melts. Intermediate hybrid magmas produced as a consequence of magma mixing and mingling between basaltic and trachytic magmas, are present in the early and mid-history of Payún Matrú volcano. We present here new information about the Quaternary Payún Matrú Volcanic Field derived from field work, petrography, and major element geochemistry and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios. For the first time a detailed map of the Payún Matrú Volcanic Field and its volcanic stratigraphy, primarily based on field observations, are presented.El Campo Volcánico Payún Matrú está localizado en la Provincia Basáltica Payenia, en el retroarco reciente al oeste de Argentina (35°S-38°S. Esta provincia es más joven que 5 Ma, y la mayor parte de su actividad volcánica tuvo lugar desde hace 2 Ma. El Campo Volcánico Payún Matrú contiene dos volcanes compuestos, el Payún Matrú y el Payún Liso, así como dos campos basálticos en una franja E-W, ubicados al este y oeste del Payún Matrú. El Payún Matrú es el volcán más grande de este campo volcánico, y consiste en un edificio en forma de escudo con una caldera circular en su cúspide de 8 km de diámetro. La composición de ambos volcanes compuestos es alcalina y predominantemente traquítica, con menor participación de lavas intermedias. Los campos basálticos consisten en basaltos y traquibasaltos, con clinopiroxeno y abundante olivina como fenocristales, presentes también en la pasta. En la etapa pre-caldera del Payún Matrú y en algunas lavas post-caldera son comunes las texturas que indican procesos de mezcla de magmas, 'mixing' y 'mingling', como plagioclasas cribadas en panal de abejas junto con otras limpias, biotitas reemplazadas por minerales anhidros y la presencia de dos pastas con una relación fluido-fluido. Las lavas post-caldera tardías son traquíticas, con fenocristales limpios de sanidina y sin texturas de desequilibrio. Una característica destacable del Campo Volcánico Payún Matrú es el hecho de que la caldera está rodeada por campos basálticos en su base, mientras que no se han producido erupciones de basaltos en la zona de la caldera. Proponemos que la ausencia de lavas basálticas en el volcán Payún Matrú se debe a la presencia de una cámara magmática por debajo del mismo, y a que los magmas máficos que ascienden desde niveles más profundos fueron incapaces de extruirse sin interactuar antes con fundidos más evolucionados. Magmas intermedios híbridos, producidos a consecuencia de la mezcla entre magmas basálticos y traquíticos, están presentes en la historia temprana y media del volcán Payún Matrú. Presentamos aquí nueva información sobre el Campo Volcánico Payún Matrú de edad Cuaternaria, basada en trabajos de campo, petrografía, geoquímica de elementos mayoritarios y relaciones isotópicas de 87Sr/86Sr. Por primera vez se presenta un mapa detallado del Campo Volcánico Payún Matrú y su estratigrafía, basado fundamentalmente en observaciones de campo.

  15. Plan de marketing para los microempresarios de la asociación de comerciantes de artículos en general El Cebollar ubicada en el centro comercial de mayoristas y negocios andinos en el sector sur de la ciudad de Quito.

    OpenAIRE

    Chicaiza Pillana, Patricia Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Las microempresas contribuyen en gran medida al desarrollo del país, ya que sirven de soporte para las operaciones de las grandes corporaciones; ofrecen el mayor número de empleos y permiten desarrollar el espíritu empresarial. Los consumidores actualmente son más exigentes en la adquisición de sus productos y servicios; debido a varios factores como: gustos y preferencias cambiantes, productos y servicios de primera línea a precios realmente competitivos, que atienda a las necesidades, exige...

  16. Mountain building processes at the orogenic front: A study of the unroofing in Neogene foreland sequence (37°S Procesos orogénicos en el frente Andino: Estudio de una secuencia de destechado correspondiente a la cuenca de antepaís neógena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Sagripanti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The orogenic front at 37°S has been mainly formed through at least two contraccional stages, as inferred from the exhumed major angular unconformities at the Late Eocene and the Late Miocene times respectively. A Late Cretaceous event is restricted to the hinterland zones in the Main Cordillera. A series of syntectonic sedimentary packages, that thin to the east is identified through a detailed description of the cannibalized westernmost Neogene foreland basin associated with the Sierra de Reyes. Their detrital microscopic and macroscopic descriptions reveal that the Neogene basin was fed from the west and particularly from the eastern Sierra de Reyes slope at the time of mountain incision. Detrital composition of the upper section reveals that a metamorphic component is present, implying that a domain further east has been exhumed, and therefore that the westernmost foreland basin has been cannibalized. This also implies that exhumation previous to Miocene times should have been minimum in the area, since the Neogene succession represents a complete unroofing. The structural cross sections show Neogene shortening of about 20%, leaving in comparison Eocene contraction as negligible.El frente orogénico a los 37°S ha sido construido por, al menos, dos episodios con-traccionales, determinados a partir de discordancias angulares entre los depósitos del Eoceno Superior y del Mioceno Superior. Un episodio contraccional del Cretácico Superior, ampliamente descrito con anterioridad, se encuentra parcialmente restringido a las zonas internas de la Cordillera Principal. A partir de un detallado análisis de la cuenca de antepaís neógena asociada, canibalizada por el frente de levantamiento de la sierra de Reyes, se puede distinguir una secuencia sedimentaria que experimenta una disminución de su espesor hacia el este. Las descripciones microscópicas y macroscópicas de estos depósitos sinorogénicos revelan que la cuenca neógena fue alimentada desde el oeste y en particular desde el flanco oriental de la sierra de Reyes en el momento que esta se levantaba. La composición de los detritos de la parte superior de la cuenca neógena demuestra que existen componentes metamórficos, implicando que sectores del antepaís hacia el este estaban siendo exhumados al momento de su depositación. El hecho de que la sección miocena registre la secuencia de destechado completa de la sierra de Reyes, implica que la fase miocena superior fue la principal en esta zona, y que la fase eocena ha sido relativamente menor a nivel del frente orogénico. El corte estructural demuestra un acortamiento para el Neógeno de 20%, dejando negligible el acortamiento ocurrido para el Eoceno.

  17. Efecto de la estructuración por macrófitas y por recursos alimentarios en la distribución horizontal de tecamebas y rotíferos en un lago andino patagónico Effect of macrophytes and food resources on the horizontal distribution of testate amoebae and rotifers in an Andean-Patagonian lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA BASTIDAS-NAVARRO

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de macrófitas en la zona litoral lacustre trae aparejada condiciones diferentes con respecto a la zona pelágica, en particular en la disponibilidad de recursos. Por esta razón, las zonas litorales pueden presentar una mayor biodiversidad. En este trabajo se analizó la distribución horizontal de tecamebas y rotíferos en el lago Escondido (Argentina, vinculándola con los recursos alimentarios presentes en las diferentes zonas. Se tomaron muestras para el estudio del fitoplancton y zooplancton durante verano y primavera (2001-2003 en cuatro estaciones litorales y una pelágica. Se realizó el recuento de rotíferos y tecamebas y se determinó la abundancia y la biomasa fitoplanctónica. Los recursos alimentarios fueron clasificados en nanoplancton ( 20 μm. El nanoplancton estuvo compuesto por nanoflagelados y el fitoplancton de red por diatomeas, cianófitas y clorófitas. La biomasa de estas fracciones varió significativamente, observándose una predominancia del nanoplancton en la zona pelágica y del fitoplancton de red en la zona litoral. Los mayores valores de riqueza y de diversidad de tecamebas y rotíferos fueron observados en las estaciones litorales, no hallándose diferencias significativas entre las zonas con diferentes macrófitas. El análisis de ACC evidenció cuatro grupos. Por un lado, Keratella cochlearis, Synchaeta spp., Polyarthra vulgaris y Collotheca mutabilis, asociadas a las muestras pelágicas, se relacionaron con una alta abundancia de nanoplancton. Por otro lado, los rotíferos Trichocerca spp., Lecane spp. y Euchlanis spp., y las tecamebas Dijflugia pyriformis y Trinema enchelys se relacionaron con el fitoplancton de red y las muestras litorales. Además, un tercer grupo reunió a especies (Lecane spp. y Arcella spp. presentes en ambas zonas y en relación con una baja abundancia del fitoplancton de red. Por último, el rotífero Synchaeta spp. y las muestras pelágicas de primavera se relacionaron con el aumento de la abundancia de la cianofita Coelosphaerium kuetzingianum. Las diferencias señaladas indican que los recursos alimentarios serían un factor determinante en la distribución de especies de tecamebas y rotíferos en el lago Escondido. Para estos zoopláncteres de pequeño tamaño las macrófitas litorales brindarían alimento al favorecer el incremento del fitoplancton de redThe presence of macrophytes in the littoral zone of lakes produces particular conditions including higher resource availability for consumers. For this reason, the littoral zone is generally the area with the highest diversity of lakes and rivers. In this work we studied the horizontal distribution of testate amoebae and rotifers in Lago Escondido (Argentina in relation to food resources availability. The study was carried out along a north-south transect that includes the littoral and the pelagic zone of the lake. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were sampled during summer and spring (2001-2003 in five sampling stations: one pelagic and four littoral. Rotifers and testate amoebae, as well as phytoplanktonic algae abundance and biomass were estimated. Food resources were classified as nanoplankton ( 20 μm and the biovolume of these fractions varied significantly within the pelagic and littoral zones of the lake. Nanoplankon dominated the pelagic zone and was mainly composed by nanoflagellates while net phytoplankton prevailed in the littoral zone and was composed by diatoms, cyanophytes and chlorophytes. The highest number of species and diversity of testate amoebae and rotifers were observed in the littoral stations; nevertheless, no significant differences between the zones colonized by different macrophytes were observed. The CCA analysis showed four different groups. Keratella cochlearis, Synchaeta spp., Polyarthra vulgaris and Collotheca mutabilis characterized the pelagic samples and were related with a high abundance of nanoplankton. On the other hand, rotifers like Trichocerca spp., Lecane spp. and Euchlanis spp. and the testate amoebae Dijflugia pyriformis and Trinema enchelys associated with the littoral samples were related with high abundances of net phytoplankton. Besides, a third group of species {Lecane spp. and Arcella spp., presented in both zones, was mainly related with a decrease in abundance of net phytoplankton. Finally, the rotifer Synchaeta spp. was associated with the spring pelagic samples when the cyanophyte Coelosphaerium kuetzingianum increased its abundance. Summarizing, in Lago Escondido, food resources could be an important factor driving testate amoeba and rotifer distribution. Therefore the major role of macrophytes for this small-bodied zooplankton is food supply through an increment of net phytoplankton

  18. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Pad Avian Abatement Efforts Including Related KSC Road Kill Reduction Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlierf, Roland; Hight, Ron; Payne, Stephen J.; Shaffer, John P.; Missimer, Brad; Willis, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    While birds might seem harmless, there's a good reason for the concern. During the July 2005 launch of Discovery on mission STS-1 14, a vulture soaring around the launch pad impacted the shuttle's external tank just after liftoff. With a vulture's average weight ranging from 3 to 5 pounds. a strike at a critical point on the Shuttle -- like the nose or wing leading thermal protection panels -- could cause catastrophic damage to the vehicle. The foam chunk that fatefully struck Columbia's wing in 2003 weighed only 1.7 pounds. (Cheryl L. Mansfield "Bye Bye Birdies" 2006) To address this issue, NASA formed an "Avian Abatement Team". The team goal is to have safer Shuttle missions by reducing the vulture population at KSC near the pad area thereby reducing the probability of another vulture strike during a Shuttle launch.

  19. African Zoology - Vol 25, No 3 (1990)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food choice and diet of the bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus in southern Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C.J. Brown, I Plug, 169-177 ...

  20. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Ilorin Journal of Religious Studies, (IJOURELS). Vol.7 No.2, 2017, ..... Bee, iah meaning Vulture , Zimri meaning a mountain Sheep ,. Jonah meaning Dove , ..... American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures Vol. 24, No. 1. (1907) ...

  1. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many animal species benefit from resources provided by other species. ... 98), we observed behavioral interactions at the Punta Lobería Southern Sea-lion ... by Black Vulture Coragyps atratus, Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus and Domestic Dogs.

  2. Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology - Vol 77, No 1 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adaptive benefits of differential post-fledging development patterns in the Lesser Flamingo ... Breeding records and nest site preference of Hooded Vultures in the greater Kruger ... The Bird-watcher's Companion to North American Birdlife

  3. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013). International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol 5, No 3 (2013). International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol 30, No 1 (2018). South African Journal of Sports Medicine. Vol 66 (2014). Vulture News.

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-01

    Mar 1, 2007 ... most colonies of Cape Vultures have gone extinct; a southern colony is the only one showing ... have disappeared first around Lesotho causing both species' range to retract into ... plants and animals have shifted their.

  5. How predictability of feeding patches affects home range and foraging habitat selection in avian social scavengers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Monsarrat

    Full Text Available Feeding stations are commonly used to sustain conservation programs of scavengers but their impact on behaviour is still debated. They increase the temporal and spatial predictability of food resources while scavengers have supposedly evolved to search for unpredictable resources. In the Grands Causses (France, a reintroduced population of Griffon vultures Gyps fulvus can find carcasses at three types of sites: 1. "light feeding stations", where farmers can drop carcasses at their farm (spatially predictable, 2. "heavy feeding stations", where carcasses from nearby farms are concentrated (spatially and temporally predictable and 3. open grasslands, where resources are randomly distributed (unpredictable. The impact of feeding stations on vulture's foraging behaviour was investigated using 28 GPS-tracked vultures. The average home range size was maximal in spring (1272 ± 752 km(2 and minimal in winter (473 ± 237 km(2 and was highly variable among individuals. Analyses of home range characteristics and feeding habitat selection via compositional analysis showed that feeding stations were always preferred compared to the rest of the habitat where vultures can find unpredictable resources. Feeding stations were particularly used when resources were scarce (summer or when flight conditions were poor (winter, limiting long-ranging movements. However, when flight conditions were optimal, home ranges also encompassed large areas of grassland where vultures could find unpredictable resources, suggesting that vultures did not lose their natural ability to forage on unpredictable resources, even when feeding stations were available. However during seasons when food abundance and flight conditions were not limited, vultures seemed to favour light over heavy feeding stations, probably because of the reduced intraspecific competition and a pattern closer to the natural dispersion of resources in the landscape. Light feeding stations are interesting tools

  6. How predictability of feeding patches affects home range and foraging habitat selection in avian social scavengers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsarrat, Sophie; Benhamou, Simon; Sarrazin, François; Bessa-Gomes, Carmen; Bouten, Willem; Duriez, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Feeding stations are commonly used to sustain conservation programs of scavengers but their impact on behaviour is still debated. They increase the temporal and spatial predictability of food resources while scavengers have supposedly evolved to search for unpredictable resources. In the Grands Causses (France), a reintroduced population of Griffon vultures Gyps fulvus can find carcasses at three types of sites: 1. "light feeding stations", where farmers can drop carcasses at their farm (spatially predictable), 2. "heavy feeding stations", where carcasses from nearby farms are concentrated (spatially and temporally predictable) and 3. open grasslands, where resources are randomly distributed (unpredictable). The impact of feeding stations on vulture's foraging behaviour was investigated using 28 GPS-tracked vultures. The average home range size was maximal in spring (1272 ± 752 km(2)) and minimal in winter (473 ± 237 km(2)) and was highly variable among individuals. Analyses of home range characteristics and feeding habitat selection via compositional analysis showed that feeding stations were always preferred compared to the rest of the habitat where vultures can find unpredictable resources. Feeding stations were particularly used when resources were scarce (summer) or when flight conditions were poor (winter), limiting long-ranging movements. However, when flight conditions were optimal, home ranges also encompassed large areas of grassland where vultures could find unpredictable resources, suggesting that vultures did not lose their natural ability to forage on unpredictable resources, even when feeding stations were available. However during seasons when food abundance and flight conditions were not limited, vultures seemed to favour light over heavy feeding stations, probably because of the reduced intraspecific competition and a pattern closer to the natural dispersion of resources in the landscape. Light feeding stations are interesting tools for managing

  7. LA COMUNIDAD ANDINA EN EL MARCO DE LO JURÍDICO Y POLÍTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Blanco Alvarado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El Acuerdo de Cartagena ha sido considerado como el cimiento de la “construcción inte - gracionista” de los países andinos, el cual puede seguir adelante si se adopta una visión finalmente integradora. En el presente artículo se pretende analizar el proceso andino de integración desde la faceta política y jurídica, teniendo en cuenta que la producción académica de la Comunidad Andina se ha limitado a la perspectiva económica. Los avances investigativos en dichas facetas se fundamentan, principalmente, en el análisis de la legitimidad de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones (CAN, y en la necesidad de contextualizar a los estados andinos frente a la nueva realidad mundial en aspectos que superan el ámbito económico.

  8. La República peregrina: hombres de armas y letras en América Andina, 1810-1884

    OpenAIRE

    Thibaud, Clément

    2014-01-01

    Del 18 al 20 de mayo de 2005 se realizó en el Instituto de Estudios Peruanos el coloquio internacional «La República peregrina: Hombres de armas y letras en América Andina, 1810-1884». El evento, co-organizado por el Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos y el IEP, reunió durante tres días a una veintena de historiadores especialistas en el siglo XIX, provenientes de todos los países andinos —de Chile hasta Venezuela, pasando por Argentina—, pero también de Inglaterra, Francia y Estados Unidos...

  9. Recursos forestales para la vivienda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Elgueta A.

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available En una visita a la Universidad del Bío-Bío, realizada por el arquitecto peruano Cristián Arbaiza, dio a conocer detalladamente cuáles fueron los propósitos que tuvo el Pacto Andino -del cual es funcionario- para ocuparse de la forestación tropical y su relación con la vivienda, aspectos considerados fundamentales en el estudio de soluciones que permitan paliar el grave déficit habitacional que afecta a los países que componen el grupo subregional andino.

  10. DEFORMACION CORTICAL Y PELIGRO SISMICO ASOCIADO A LA FALLA SAN RAMON EN EL FRENTE CORDILLERANO DE SANTIAGO, CHILE CENTRAL (33°S)

    OpenAIRE

    RAULD PLOTT, RODRIGO ANDRES; RAULD PLOTT, RODRIGO ANDRES

    2011-01-01

    1) El orógeno Andino es fundamentalmente bi-vergente, incluyendo un gran sistema de fallas inversas cabalgantes en el frente occidental chileno, que son sintéticas con respecto al acoplamiento tectónico causante de la orogenia Andina (subducción de la placa Nazca, oceánica, bajo la placa Sudamericana, continental); 2) El funcionamiento del Cabalgamiento Andino Occidental (West Andean Thrust, WAT), documentado por la estructura con vergencia oeste de la Cordillera Principal en Chile, tiene ...

  11. El nacionalismo cosmopolita. La referencia europea en la construcción nacional de Colombia 1845-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Weiler

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Frédéric Martínez, El nacionalismo cosmopolita. La referencia europea en la construcción nacional de Colombia 1845-1900. Bogotá, Banco de la Repúblicallnstituto Francés de Estudios Andinos, 2001, 580 páginas. El libro, esperado desde que su autor presentara los primeros avances de su investigación en forma de ponencias y artículos, es la traducción de una tesis doctoral sustentada en la Sorbona en 1997 y publicada en su lengua original, por el Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos.

  12. Cosmovisión Aymara y su Aplicación Práctica en un Contexto Sanitario del Norte de Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, María Paz

    2006-01-01

    El Aymara es un pueblo andino milenario dedicado al pastoreo y a la agricultura, que tiene su origen alrededor del lago Titicaca, comprendiendo lo que en la actualidad es parte de Bolivia y Perú, norte de Chile y norte de Argentina. Todo lo relevante al orden Aymara se vincula con sus creencias que se manifiestan en ritos y ceremonias. En el mundo andino, el concepto de salud no se restringe sólo al bienestar físico y psíquico, sino que incluye el equilibrio y bienestar social y económico de...

  13. Antibiotics threaten wildlife: circulating quinolone residues and disease in Avian scavengers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A Lemus

    Full Text Available Antibiotic residues that may be present in carcasses of medicated livestock could pass to and greatly reduce scavenger wildlife populations. We surveyed residues of the quinolones enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin and other antibiotics (amoxicillin and oxytetracycline in nestling griffon Gyps fulvus, cinereous Aegypius monachus and Egyptian Neophron percnopterus vultures in central Spain. We found high concentrations of antibiotics in the plasma of many nestling cinereous (57% and Egyptian (40% vultures. Enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were also found in liver samples of all dead cinereous vultures. This is the first report of antibiotic residues in wildlife. We also provide evidence of a direct association between antibiotic residues, primarily quinolones, and severe disease due to bacterial and fungal pathogens. Our results indicate that, by damaging the liver and kidney and through the acquisition and proliferation of pathogens associated with the depletion of lymphoid organs, continuous exposure to antibiotics could increase mortality rates, at least in cinereous vultures. If antibiotics ingested with livestock carrion are clearly implicated in the decline of the vultures in central Spain then it should be considered a primary concern for conservation of their populations.

  14. Identificación de áreas de homogeneidad estadística para los caudales de ríos andinos argentinos y su relación con la circulación atmosférica y la temperatura superficial del mar Identification of statistical homogeneous areas for argentinean andean river flows and their relationship with the atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa H. Compagnucci

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se centra en localizar las distintas regiones a lo largo de la Cordillera de los Andes sobre las cuales el comportamiento de los caudales de los ríos involucrados muestran homogeneidades estadísticas, estudiando además su vinculación con las condiciones de Temperatura de la Superficie del Mar y Circulación Atmosférica. Se define un índice lineal de correlación corregido, utilizado como medida de distancia en un Análisis de Componentes Principales. Las primeras dos Componentes permiten identificar dos regiones independientes que explican la mayor variabilidad. Estas regiones abarcan: I desde el río Neuquén hasta el río Senguer y II desde el río Jachal hasta el río Colorado. La región I presenta un régimen de doble máximo de caudal en invierno-primavera, mientras que la región II se caracteriza por un máximo en verano. Esta última estaría íntimamente ligada a los patrones del ciclo El Niño / Oscilación Sur. Las diferencias más relevantes de la circulación asociada a los extremos de caudal en la región I con respecto a la II serían: 1 el corrimiento de los sistemas de circulación hacia mayores latitudes, 2 la mayor relevancia de los sistemas de latitudes medias, 3 la menor importancia de los ubicados sobre el Pasaje de Drake y 4 la presencia en altura de un tren de ondas estacionarias de menor longitud que atraviesa el continente por latitudes subtropicales provenientes del Pacífico central en dirección NO-SE.The purpose of this paper is to locate the different regions in Los Andes mountain range on which the behavior of the flows of the involved rivers shows statistical homogeneities, studying also their entailment with sea surface temperature and atmospheric circulation. A corrected correlation linear index is defined and used as a distance measurement in a Principal Component Analysis. The first two Components identify two independent regions that explain the greater variability. These regions include: I the area from the Neuquén River to the Senguer River and II the area from the Jachal River to the Colorado River. Region I shows a double maximum regime of flow in winter-spring, whereas Region II is characterized by a maximum in summer. The last one would be closely related to the El Niño / Southern Oscillation patterns. The most relevant differences in the associated circulation to volume extremes of the Regions I and whit respect to the Region II would be: 1 the displacement of the circulation systems towards higher latitudes, 2 the greater relevance of the middle latitude systems, 3 the smaller importance of the systems located on the Drake Passage and 4 the presence at 500 hPa of a smaller longitude stationary waves train that crosses the continent at subtropical latitudes coming from the central Pacific in NW-SE direction.

  15. Low-grade metamorphism of Cambro-Ordovician successions in the Famatina belt, Southern-Central Andes: Burial-inversion history linked to the evolution of the proto-Andean Gondwana margin Metamorfismo de bajo grado de sucesiones cambro-ordovícicas en el cinturón del Famatina, Andes Centrales de Argentina: Historia de enterramiento-exhumación ligada a la evolución del margen proto-andino de Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Collo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The metamorphic P-T conditions of low-grade units from the Famatina belt, Central Andes of Argentina, were estimated through petrography, X-ray diffraction, and electron microscopy. For the Middle-Upper Cambrian Negro Peinado Formation a tectono-metamorphic event associated with intense intrafoliar folding, with estimated temperatures between 290 and 400°C (KIcis: 0.16-0.27A°29, biotite blastesis and compositional homogeneity in dioctahedral micas and intermediate pressure conditions (white mica b parameter: 9.010Á-9.035Á, was recognized. The Achavil Formation (Middle-Upper Cambrian presents a main metamorphic event associated with temperatures between 200 and 290°C (KIcis: 0.26-0.41A°29 and intermediate- to low-pressure conditions (white mica b parameter values: 8.972Á-9.017Á. Some illitic substitution in dioctahedral micas also indicates lower metamorphic grade than the Negro Peinado Formation. For Upper Cambrian to Middle Ordovician sequences a burial metamorphic pattern, with a progressive decrease in metamorphic grade from Volcancito Formation to Cerro Morado Group (ca. 490-465 Ma; KIcis: 0.31-0.69A°29 and absence of tendency changes linked to strati-graphic discontinuities was proposed. Mica and chlorite are the main phyllosilicates in the oldest units, while Ilt/ Sme (R3 mixed-layer is almost the only one in the youngest. White mica b parameter indicates intermediate- to low-pressure conditions for all these sequences. This burial metamorphic pattern presents a marked break as the youngest Ordovician unit (La Aguadita Formation, after ca. 452 Ma records higher metamorphic conditions (IKcis: 0.28-0.19A°29 than units from the Ordovician arc, with estimated temperatures between 270 and 330°C and intermediate-pressure conditions. Our results indicate that basin contraction and inversion processes related to the Ordovician Ocloyic Orogeny involved at least two well-discriminated and not superposed metamorphic episodes in this region.Las condiciones P-T del metamorfismo de las unidades de bajo grado del cinturón del Famatina, Andes Centrales de Argentina, fueron estimadas mediante petrografía, difracción de rayos-X y microscopía electrónica. La Formación Negro Peinado (Cámbrico Medio-Superior fue afectada por un evento tectono-metamórfico asociado con un plegamiento intrafoliar intenso, para el cual se estimaron temperaturas entre 290 y 400°C (IKcis: 0,16-0,27 A°29, blástesis de biotita y homogeneidad composicional en micas dioctaédricas y presiones intermedias (parámetro b de la mica blanca: 9,010 Á y 9,035 Á. La Formación Achavil (Cámbrico Medio-Superior presenta un evento metamórfico asociado con temperaturas entre 200 y 290°C (KIcis: 0,26-0,41A°29 y condiciones de presión intermedias-bajas (parámetro b de la mica blanca: 8,972Á-9,017Á. Para las sucesiones comprendidas entre el Cámbrico Superior y el Ordovícico Medio, se identificó un patrón metamórfico de soterramiento, con una disminución progresiva en el grado metamórfico desde la Formación Volcancito hasta el Grupo Cerro Morado (ca. 490-465 Ma; IKcis: 0,31-0,69 A°29 y ausencia de cambios de tendencia ligados a las discontinuidades estratigráficas. La mica blanca y la clorita son los principales filosilicatos en las unidades más antiguas, mientras los interestratificados Ilt/Sme (R3 son casi exclusivos en las más jóvenes. El parámetro b de la mica blanca indica condiciones de presión intermedia-baja para estas unidades. Este patrón metamórfico de soterramiento presenta un marcado quiebre hacia la unidad ordovícica más joven (Formación La Aguadita, posterior a los ca. 452 Ma con temperaturas estimadas entre 270 y 330°C (IKcis: 0,28-0,19A°29 y condiciones de presión intermedias. Nuestros resultados indican que los procesos relacionados con la contracción e inversión de la cuenca durante la orogenia Oclóyica involucran en esta región al menos dos episodios metamórficos bien diferenciados y no superpuestos.

  16. Olivine-hornblende-lamprophyre dikes from Quebrada los Sapos, El Teniente, Central Chile (34°S: implications for the temporal geochemical evolution of the Andean subarc mantle Diques lamprofídicos de olivino-hornblenda de la quebrada los Sapos, El Teniente, Chile central (34°S: implicancias para la evolución temporal de la geoquímica del manto subarco Andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Stern

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mafic Mg-olivine (Fo884-hornblende lamprophyre dikes, with Ni -190 ppm and Cr -390 ppm, cut late Miocene lavas in the Quebrada los Sapos a few kilometers west of the El Teniente Cu-Mo mine. These dikes have petro-chemical affinities with other less primitive, Pliocene (2.9-3.9 Ma, olivine-free lamprophyres previously described from both within and in the vicinity of El Teniente. The mafic mantle-derived lamprophyre dikes from Quebrada los Sapos have La/Yb ratios of 10-13, higher than the ratios of 4-9 for older Late Miocene El Teniente Mafic Complex olivine basalts, suggesting a temporal decrease in the percent of partial mantle melting, consistent with the observed decrease in the volume of igneous rocks through time at this latitude, as well as the ultímate cessation of magmatism and >40 km eastward are migration by the Late Pliocene. Less primitive olivine-free lamprophyres have higher La and lower Yb, resulting in higher La/Yb ratios of 15-44, due to crystal-liquid fractionation involving hornblende, but not plagioclase, the crystallization of which is suppressed by the high H2O contents of the lamprophyres. The lamprophyre dikes, as well as younger (1.8-2.3 Ma olivine-bearing basaltic-andesite lava flows in the valley of the Cachapoal river, have 87Sr/86Sr=0.7041 to 0.7049, or = +1.2 to -1.1 and 206Pb/204Pb=18.60 to 18.68, while Middle to Late Miocene (6.5-13.9 Ma El Teniente Volcanic and Plutonic Complex igneous rocks have lower 87Sr/86Sr=0.7039 to 0.7041 and 206Pb/204Pb=18.56 to 18.59, and higher G =+1.9 to +3.8, and older Oligocene to Early Miocene (>15 Ma Abanico or Coya-Machalí Formation volcanic and plutonic rocks in the region have even lower 87Sr/86Sr=0.7033 to 0.7039 and 206Pb/204Pb=18.45 to 18.57, and higher G Nd=+3.8 to +6.2. The data indicate a significant progressive temporal evolution, between the Oligocene and the Pliocene, to higher 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb, and lower for mantle-derived mafic magmas, and by implication their mantle source region. Significantly Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions are independent of SiO2 content for rocks in each age group, which precludes contamination by isotopically heterogeneous Paleozoic and Mesozoic continental crust during evolution of intermediate and silicic rocks from mantle-derived mafic magmas. The Oligocene to Pliocene isotopic evolution of the mantle source of the mafic magmas may be explained by an increase from 1% to 6% in the extent of mantle source region contamination by subducted components, including continental crust tectonically eroded off the continental margin. We attribute this to both decreasing subduction angle and increasing rates of subduction erosión associated with the southward migration of the locus of subduction of the Juan Fernández Ridge. The lamprophyres also imply increased hydration of the mantle below this portion of the are by the Pliocene, which may have played an important role in producing oxidized volatile-rich magmas and mineralization at El Teniente.Diques de lamprófidos mancos, con fenocristales de olivino magnésicos (Fo884-hornblendas y contenidos de Ni -190 ppm y Cr 390 ppm, cortan lavas miocénicas superior en la quebrada los Sapos a escasos kilómetros al oeste del depósito de Cu-Mo El Teniente. Estos diques tienen afinidades petroquímicas con otros diques lamprófidos del Plioceno (2,9-3,9Ma, menos primitivos y sin fenocristales de divinos, los cuales han sido descritos tanto dentro como alrededor de El Teniente. Estos diques de lamprófidos mancos en la quebrada los Sapos, derivados del manto, tienen razones de La/Yb entre 10-13, más altas que la de los más antiguos basaltos de olivino (La/Yb entre 4 y 9 del Complejo Mañeo El Teniente (CMET, sugerente de un decrecimiento temporal de la fusión parcial del manto, y esto es consistente con el volumen decreciente observado de las rocas ígneas en este período de tiempo, como también con el término del magmatismo y la migración hacia >40 km al este del arco magmático durante el Plioceno. Los lamprófidos menos primitivos, sin olivino, tienen contenidos más altos de La y menores de Yb, con razones más altas de La/Yb entre 15-44, debido al fraccionamiento cristal-líquido el cual involucra hornblenda, pero no plagioclasa. La cristalización de la plagioclasa es inhibida por el alto contenido de H2O de los lamprófidos. Los lamprófidos y los flujos más jóvenes, del Plioceno (1,8-2,3 Ma, de lavas andesíticas-basálticas con olivino del valle del río Cachapoal tienen razones de 87Sr/86Sr entre 0,7041 y 0,7049, C Nd entre +1,2 y -1,1 y de 206Pb/204Pb entre 18,60 a 18,68, mientras que las rocas ígneas del Mioceno Medio a Superior (6,5-13,9 Ma del Complejo Volcánico y Plutónico de El Teniente tienen razones más bajas de 87Sr/86Sr=0,7039 a 0,7041 y de 206Pb/204Pb= 18,56 a 18,59, y más altas de o = +1,9 y +3,8. Las rocas volcánicas y plutónicas del Oligoceno al Mioceno Inferior (>15 Ma de la Formación Abanico o Coya-Machalí en la región tienen razones aún más bajas de 87Sr/86Sr entre 0,7033 a 0,7039 y de 206Pb/204Pb entre 18,45 a 18,57, y C Nd aún más alto entre +3,8 y +6,2. La información isotópica indica una evolución temporal entre el Oligoceno y el Plioceno hacia razones más altas de 87Sr/86Sr y 206Pb/204Pb, y valores de más bajos para los magmas máficos derivados del manto y, por lo tanto, de su fuente en el manto. Notablemente las razones isotópicas de Sr, Nd y Pb son independientes del contenido de SiO2 de las rocas de cada edad, lo que excluye contaminación por la corteza continental del Paleozoico y Mesozoico, la cual es isotópicamente heterogénea, durante la evolución de las rocas intermedias a acidas generadas por los magmas máficos derivados del manto. La evolución isotópica de la fuente de magmas máficos en el manto durante el Oligoceno al Plioceno puede ser explicada por el aumento de 1% a 6% de contaminación en la region fuente de manto por material subductado, incluyendo corteza continental erosionado del margen continental. Atribuimos esto tanto a la disminución del ángulo de subducción como al aumento de las tasas de erosión por subducción asociada a la migración hacia el sur del centro de la subducción de la Dorsal Juan Fernández. La presencia de lamprófidos también implica un aumento de la hidratación del manto bajo esta zona del arco durante el Plioceno. Esta hidratación del manto podría haber jugado un rol importante en la producción de magmas ricos en volátiles y oxidados, y mineralización en El Teniente.

  17. Assessing the impact on birds of prey of nine established wind farms in Thrace, NE Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kret, Elzbieta; Carcamo, Beatriz; Zografou, Christina; Vasilakis, Dimitris

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In this study, we evaluate the impact on birds of prey of nine already established wind farms in Thrace, where a large scale wind farm development project of at least 930 MW is under development. Moreover, the area is acknowledged as of high ornithological interest, used for nesting, wintering and passage by rare territorial birds of prey, including the Near Threatened black vultures that use it for foraging. Finally, ca 50% of the wind farm development project area is covered by Natura 2000 sites. During the monitoring (2008-2010), carcass surveys were carried out in order to estimate mortality. In addition, avian space use surveys were carried out, in order to calculate indexes and to establish comparisons with a previous monitoring study run in 2004-05. In total, 14 birds of prey were found dead (one black vulture, four griffon vultures, one booted eagle, two short-toed eagles, one western marsh harrier, one Eurasian sparrow hawk, three common buzzards, one hawk species). The estimated mortality rate was 0.152 birds of prey (including vultures/turbine/year). Griffon vultures, black vultures and common buzzards comprised more than 50% of observations in the study area. Crossing densities between wind turbines were positively correlated with east exposition and the inclination of the slope, and the length of the wind turbines. gaps, while it was negatively correlated with north exposition. The use of the area was more intensive four years after the initial monitoring, but numbers of common buzzard observations drastically decreased. We suggest that during the planning phase of wind farms it is important to avoid steep slopes, east expositions and to take into account the distance between consecutive wind turbines. Our findings indicate that running a post-construction monitoring during only one year may not be enough to properly assess the impact of wind farms on birds of prey. (Author)

  18. Calibration of a PHREEQC Based Geochemical Model to Predict Surface Water Discharge Compositions from an Operating Uranium Mill in the Athabasca Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, John J.; Frey, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: • Develop predictive model to estimate concentrations in the Sink Vulture Treated Effluent Management System (SVTEMS) for AREVA Resources Canada McClean Lake Mill: • Sink Reservoir, Vulture and McClean Lakes; • PHREEQC based calculations for geochemistry; • Employ PHREEPLOT for data fittings. • Model designed to predict concentrations in response to changing conditions, including: • Different ores; • Different processes; • Different waters sources; • Changing treatment conditions; • This is a batch mixing model: • Think well mixed beakers; • Each model represents one year; • No year-to-year carry over in models

  19. El espejo europeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Orlando Melo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El nacionalismo cosmopolita. La referencia europea en la construcción nacional en Colombia, 1845-1900. Frédéric Martínez. Banco de la República, Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos, Bogotá, 2001, 580 págs.

  20. Liberales, protestantes y masones, modernidad y tolerancia religiosa. Perú, siglo XIX. [Reseña

    OpenAIRE

    Cuesta-Alonso, M.R. (Marcelino R.)

    1999-01-01

    Reseña de: Fernando ARMAS ASÍN, Liberales, protestantes y masones, modernidad y tolerancia religiosa. Perú, siglo XIX, Centro de Estudios Regionales Andinos «Bartolomé de las Casas» - Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Cusco (Perú) 1998, 298 pp.

  1. DE CHARANGO A CHILLADOR. CONFLUENCIAS MUSICALES EN LA ESTUDIANTINA ALTIPLANICA.

    OpenAIRE

    PONCE VALDIVIA, OMAR PERCY; PONCE VALDIVIA, OMAR PERCY

    2008-01-01

    En el presente trabajo enfocaremos un proceso musical que ha estado distante de las construcciones discursivas acerca del instrumento andino denominado charango, tanto desde las referencias escritas, como desde las asunciones ideológicas de lo nacional y 179p.

  2. Adaptation aux changements climatiques et équité en Colombie rurale

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Articles de revue. Recent waves of water governance : constitutional reform and resistance to neoliberalization in Latin America (1990-2012); GEOFORUM (50: 20-30) - final version. Téléchargez le PDF. Documents. Equidad, eficiencia y escala en la asignación de agua en los países Andinos : sinergia o conflicto? 52993 ...

  3. Poéticas andinas: Willanakuy willanakuy kasqan, Cuento es cuento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Espino Relucé

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Este texto se ubica dentro de lo que se conoce como epistemologías del Sur. El enunciado básico que trabajaré será: las formas discursivas andinas están plegadas a la cosmovisión andina. La narración en los Andes está asociada a la manera como la gente concibe y vive su cotidianidad y la expresa como poética andina. La comprensión de esta supone cuatro aspectos mutuamente relacionados: (1 los relatos orales aparecen soldados a la comprensión del ser cultural andino; (2 la naturaleza distintiva del relato corresponde a la dimensión de un discurso que se justifica como ejercicio de la palabra; (3 las estrategias propias del relato andino quechua (aymara o en castellano andino enmarcan la situación del relato (un tiempo narrativo –sqa– y una manera de validar lo que se dice –s ~ –si; (4 la palabra viene acompañada de un conjunto de lenguajes que hacen posible su realización. La voz no es posible si no va acompañada del cuerpo. En nuestro artículo apelaremos a relatos que actualmente se escuchan y que provienen de la lengua quechua,  aymara y del castellano andino.

  4. Vegetación halófila de tres localidades andinas en la vertiente pácifica del sur de perú

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.

    2012-01-01

    Se describen las comunidades vegetales halófilas halladas en tres ecosistemas andinos en los departamentos de Arequipa y Moquegua (sur de Perú) en campos con influencia de pastoreo, fuego, abandono de agricultura o ocupando suelos inundados en las márgenes de los ríos. Se aplicó la metodología

  5. The Andean Common Market: An Experiment in Regional Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Reynold E.

    The Grupo Andino (GRAN) was formed in 1969 as an effort at economic integration by six Latin American countries (Bolivia, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela). It was an outgrowth of its predecessor, the Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA), which had been formed in 1960 with eleven member countries. The Andean Group (GRAN) from…

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-03-02

    Mar 2, 2006 ... perch sites utilized by the adult Turkey. Vultures before landing on the entrance ledge at the BMW Nest could not be seen by the nestlings. Therefore, at the BMW nest the only contact between the adult on perch sites and young in the pit was auditory. On day 25 post hatch the nestlings appeared to respond.

  7. Items of interest from recent ornithological literature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 37: 327-346. ii) Helbig, A.J., Kocum, A., Seibold, I. & Braun, M.J. 2005. A multi-gene phylogeny of aquiline eagles ... Genera: Gypohierax, Neophron and Gypaetus (Palm-nut and. Egyptian Vultures and Lammergeier) iv. Perninae: Kites that specialise on insects, bees or wasp larvae.

  8. Selected mineral and heavy metal concentrations in blood and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Pb in the dead vultures were generally above values characteristic of heavy metal poisoning. ... of the food chain), may accumulate and concentrate heavy metals in their ..... µg/g wet weight) (Honda et al., 1990), which validates the order of ...

  9. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND REPORTS Record of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    50. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND. REPORTS. Record of Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus from Mukundara Hills Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan,. India. Sailaja Nayak1*, Sunny Shah2 and Jimmy Borah2 .... Prey status and abundance in Mukundara Hills Tiger. Reserve. Technical Report, WWF-India. Rao, J.P. ...

  10. Raptor population decline in West Africa | Thiollay | Ostrich: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The roadside counts conducted in 1969–1973 through Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger and northern Cameroon (9 712km) were repeated in 2000–2004 by the same observer, using the same methods, during the same season. Overall, 28 837 Falconiforms from 51 species were recorded. The four large vultures decreased ...

  11. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Faculty of Veterinary, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; Foundation for the Conservation of the Bearded Vulture (FCQ), Zaragoza, Spain; Biodiversity Service, Agriculture and Environmental Department, Aragón Government, Aragón, Spain; Wildlife Conservation Centre La Alfranca, Zaragoza, Spain; Surgery Unit, ...

  12. Articles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZeldaH

    better method than a bird carrying us up to the heavens. ... on the Gulf of Khambhat at 250 km north of Mumbai .... connected to the war-god Ares, and thus affiliated to .... The role of vultures in the disposal of human corpses in India and. Tibet.

  13. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND REPORTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    1976). Among raptors there are those species where only the female incubates, those where the male may also incubate for short to longer periods, and those in which females and males equally share the incubation (Newton 1979). It is well known that both sexes incubate the clutch in vultures, both in the wild (Mundy et al.

  14. ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    Traders identified the following traits ascribed to vulture remains: treatment of epilepsy, insanity, stroke, ease of delivery in women, spiritual protection against witches and witchcraft, evil spirits, good luck (during gambling, money doubling, competition, contest), to stimulate walking in infants, and to gain supernatural powers.

  15. Rare birds of prey observations in Kresna Gorge in Bulgaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    the feeding site and roost in the area in 2013. Passage of birds from Serbia,. Croatia, FYR of Macedonia and. Greece were recorded, as well as a bird tagged in Israel, but most were probably of Balkan origin. There are two peaks of increased presence of exogenous Griffon Vultures in. Kresna Gorge and these are in May-.

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell, Michael O'Neal. Vol 66 (2014) - Articles The impact of urbanization and agricultural development on vultures in El Salvador Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1606-7479. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thomson, Ian. Vol 70 (2016) - Articles King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa) scavenging at green turtle (Chelonia mydas) carcasses in Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1606-7479. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  18. Impact of Kite String Injuries and Temporal Variation in Type of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    campbell

    patterns. Results and Discussion. Injuries caused by Kite Strings. (KSI), dehydration and visceral gout have been the major causes of rescues/mortalities in Ahmadabad and the White-rumped Vulture. (WRV) colonies in the surrounding areas (Muralidharan et al. 2010;. Roy 2011). A total of 108 live/dead WRVs have been.

  19. Zone-tailed Hawk (Buteo albonotatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott H. Stoleson; Giancarlo Sadoti

    2010-01-01

    The Zone-tailed Hawk (Buteo albonotatus) might well be dubbed "the Great Pretender" because it so closely resembles the ubiquitous Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) in appearance and behavior as to be frequently mistaken for it. In the border regions where it lives, it may be confused as well with another "Mexican" raptor, the Common Black-Hawk (...

  20. Book Review – Wildlife Forensic Investigation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    Wildlife crime is an increasingly serious issue for populations of both threatened and common species in many parts of the world. In particular, the use of poisons and other toxic chemicals are one of the greatest threats to vultures in many parts of the world, especially in. Africa. Often, one of the key difficulties in prosecuting ...

  1. Organ procurement: let's presume consent

    OpenAIRE

    Moustarah, F

    1998-01-01

    IN WINNING FIRST PRIZE in the Logie Medical Ethics Essay Contest in 1997, Dr. Fady Moustarah made a strong and compelling argument in favour of presumed consent in the procurement of donor organs. He stressed that a major education campaign will be needed when such a policy is adopted lest some people begin to regard physicians as "organ vultures."

  2. Validation of the EU Environmental Risk Assessment for Veterinary Medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montforts, M.H.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    An alarming decline of vulture populations (up to 95%) in Pakistan in the late 1990’s has recently been attributed to the use of the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac in cattle. Several species are now threatened with extinction, a tragedy that demonstrates that an environmental risk assessment of

  3. Malaria Epidemics in Dembia, Northwest Ethiopia 1952 – 1953

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    result, dead bodies were reportedly devoured by dogs and wild animals. That was particularly the case when domestic servants died. They were left in the open field to be eaten by vultures, dogs, and hyenas. Some of the lucky ones were .... had fever and enormous swelling of the spleen and nearly all of them had serious ...

  4. Selected mineral and heavy metal concentrations in blood and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentrations of eight essential elements (Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) and three toxic metals (Al, Pb and Sr) were measured in various tissue samples from African whitebacked (Pseudogyps africanus), Cape griffon (Gyps coprotheres) and Lappetfaced (Torgos tracheliotos) vultures in different regions of South ...

  5. Conservation of the Red Kite Milvus milvus (Aves: Accipitriformes) is not affected by the establishment of a broad hybrid zone with the Black Kite Milvus migrans migrans in central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heneberg, P.; Dolinay, Matej; Matušík, H.; Pfeiffer, T.; Nachtigall, W.; Bizos, J.; Šimčíková, D.; Literák, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 7 (2016), č. článku 159202. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Old-World vultures * mitochondrial DNA * harriers circus * bird * gene * sterility * Eagles * hybridization * phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wildlife and Environmental Society of Malawi, Blantyre. Lipiya, A. 2011. Status of Birds of Prey, with Special Emphasis on Vultures, in Kasungu. National Park. Unpublished report. Department of National Parks and Wildlife,. Lilongwe. 5pp. MacDonald, L. 2011. Recent Sightings. Vocifer. A Bulletin of Ornithological News in.

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 154 ... Vol 68, No 1 (2015), A preliminary assessment of the palate and tongue for detecting organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide exposure in the degraded carcasses of vultures and other animals, Abstract PDF PDF. Ngaio L Richards, Irene Zorilla, Isabel Fernandez, Monica Calvino, Joaquin Garcia, ...

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reid, Tim. Vol 64 (2013) - Articles New project examining Bearded Vulture movements in southern Africa to inform wind turbine placement. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1606-7479. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

  9. Observations on the population and breeding status of the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The breeding success of the nests of 60 African White-backed Vultures Gyps africanus, nine Black-chested Snake Eagles Circaetus pectoralis and 12 Secretarybirds Sagittarius serpentarius was monitored for three years, during a seven-year population dynamics study on raptors in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (KTP).

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    van Stuyvenberg, Karen. Vol 66 (2014) - Articles Monitoring White-backed Vultures Gyps africanus in the North West Province (Stellaland), South Africa Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1606-7479. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  11. Environmental Assessment of Demolition Activities at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Setophaga ruticilla), broad- winged hawk (Buteo platypterus), cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), bank swallow ( Riparia riparia ), black vulture...Explosive safety-quantity distance (QD) zones are designated areas designed to safeguard the base population and civilian community from potential...explosions. These clear zones include the area within a safety arc surrounding an explosive storage facility. The QD zones at Dover AFB encompass

  12. ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Migrants tended to fly higher in more stable air than local birds, which often fly low over the forest canopy .... Flapping rate of Turkey Vultures as a function of cloud cover in Costa Rica, autumn 2003. Data are ... layer in order to search for food.

  13. The 20TH Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: Building a Generation of Robotists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    advisors as an excellent multidisciplinary design experience for student teams, and a number of engineering schools give credit in senior design courses...Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay IIT Bombay 1044.00 7 U.S. Naval Academy Robo -Goat 1041.67 8 Lawrence Technological University vuLTUre 2 1033.67

  14. California condors spotted nesting in Big Spur | San Hose Mercury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    California condors spotted nesting in Big Spur. Associated Press San Hose Mercury News. Abstract. No Abstract. Vulture News Vol. 55, 2006: 59. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cutler, Kat. Vol 70 (2016) - Articles King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa) scavenging at green turtle (Chelonia mydas) carcasses in Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1606-7479. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  16. Lenguaje y cognición en la cosmovisión andina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Quesada Castillo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la categoría de número en el sistema de persona en las lenguas quechua y aimara. El análisis se sustenta en consideraciones tanto diacrónicas como sincrónicas y el autor evalúa las propuestas inscritas en la lingüística andina. Sobre la base de este análisis, se establece la posiblecorrelación del sistema morfológico con la cosmovisión del hombre andino.Al respecto, el autor incide en las sustantivas diferencias de la cognición andina con respecto a la estructura morfológica de una lengua occidental como la castellana. Palabras claves: Quechua, aimara, cognición, sistema de persona, cosmovisión andina.

  17. Coloquio internacional «Pensar las cárceles de América Latina»

    OpenAIRE

    Constant, Chloé

    2014-01-01

    Del 22 al 25 de abril de 2014, en las instalaciones de la Alianza Francesa de Lima, se llevó a cabo el coloquio internacional «Pensar las cárceles de América Latina» que reunió a 25 expositores, oriundos de México, El Salvador, Colombia, Venezuela, Perú, Argentina, Brasil y Francia. Organizado por Chloé Constant y Chloé Paux, el evento se realizó gracias al Servicio de Cooperación Regional para los Países Andinos de la Embajada de Francia en el Perú, al Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos (...

  18. Las sirenas de Sarhua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Millones

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es producto de una investigación sobre uno de los motivos más llamativos y recurrentes en las Tablas de Sarhua: la sirena.Realizamos una aproximación a este motivo, que originalmente aparece en la literatura clásica occidental, con la finalidad de explicar las razones de su presencia en el arte andino. Para tal efecto transcribimos algunos testimoniosque, desde una cosmovisión netamente andina, dan cuenta de una serie de creencias vinculadas con el ámbito musical, en el que las sirenas juegan un papel central.Palabras claves: Tablas de Sarhua, sirena, arte andino, música andina.

  19. Immunity: Insect Immune Memory Goes Viral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligoxygakis, Petros

    2017-11-20

    Adaptive memory in insect immunity has been controversial. In this issue, Andino and co-workers propose that acquisition of viral sequences in the host genome gives rise to anti-sense, anti-viral piRNAs. Such sequences can be regarded as both a genomic archive of past infections and as an armour of potential heritable memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. La geografía diferencial de los derechos: entre la regulación del trabajo forzado en los países coloniales y la disociación entre trabajadores e indígenas en los Andes (1920-1954)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barragàn, R.; Caruso, Laura; Stagnate, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    En los países andinos de Perú, Ecuador y Bolivia, los indígenas podían representar entre el 60 y hasta el 90% de su población; vivían relativamente autónomos en comunidades, pero cuando lo hacían en haciendas se encontraban sujetos a relaciones laborales descritas bajo diversos grados de

  1. CRONICA: FIESTA FUNERAL: LUMBALÚ PARA BATA III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Luis Muñoz Vélez

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se inspira en las conversaciones con Paulino Salgado Valdez. Entrevistas con Batata III en Bogotá, 1998 y en Cartagena en el 2000 en el marco del Encuentro de los países andinos. Batata III nace el 29 de mayo de 1927 en el Palenque de San Basilio en el departamento de Bolívar, muere en Bogotá el viernes 23 de enero del 2004.

  2. Los 'Colorados': Etnohistoria y Toponimia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez-Rendón, J.

    2015-01-01

    Los "colorados" comprendían varios grupos étnicos emparentados etnolingüísticamente que ocupaban el piedemonte andino occidental desde El Carchi hasta Bolívar así como las tierras bajas del Pacífico en los sistemas hidrográficos de los ríos Esmeraldas y Guayas. Aunque la ocupación "colorada" de

  3. Estrategias de entrada a un oligopolio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Benjamín Duarte Duarte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre octubre de 2004 y agosto de 2005 se presentó en Colombia una guerra de precios entre las principales cementeras del país y la empresa Cementos Andino, una compañía que buscaba proteger su participación del 9% del mercado mediante estrategias de precios, su actividad de mercadeo y su posición geográfica. No es claro aún quién inició dicha situación, que finalizó con la venta de Cementos Andino. Este artículo es el resultado de una investigación realizada respecto a ese evento. Esta hace uso de la valoración con simulación de Montecarlo y de la teoría de juegos. Este trabajo permite el análisis de tres aspectos fundamentales de dicha situación: 1 las posibles causas de la venta de Cementos Andino, 2 el pensamiento estratégico en un oligopolio y 3 el papel del gobierno en estos sectores.

  4. Serologic evidence of exposure of raptors to influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redig, Patrick T; Goyal, Sagar M

    2012-06-01

    Serum or plasma samples from raptors that prey or scavenge upon aquatic birds were tested by a commercially available blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the evidence of antibodies to influenza A virus. Samples were taken from birds (n = 616) admitted to two rehabilitation centers in the United States. In addition, samples from 472 migrating peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) trapped on autumnal and vernal migrations for banding purposes were also tested. Only bald eagles were notably seropositive (22/406). One each of peregrine falcon, great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), and Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperi) from a total of 472, 81, and 100, respectively, were also positive. None of the turkey vultures (n = 21) or black vultures (n = 8) was positive. No clinical signs referable to avian influenza were seen in any bird at the time of capture. These data indicate that, among raptors, bald eagles do have exposure to influenza A viruses.

  5. Polyphyly of the hawk genera Leucopternis and Buteogallus (Aves, Accipitridae): multiple habitat shifts during the Neotropical buteonine diversification

    OpenAIRE

    do Amaral, Fabio S Raposo; Miller, Matthew J; Silveira, Luís Fábio; Bermingham, Eldredge; Wajntal, Anita

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The family Accipitridae (hawks, eagles and Old World vultures) represents a large radiation of predatory birds with an almost global distribution, although most species of this family occur in the Neotropics. Despite great morphological and ecological diversity, the evolutionary relationships in the family have been poorly explored at all taxonomic levels. Using sequences from four mitochondrial genes (12S, ATP8, ATP6, and ND6), we reconstructed the phylogeny of the Neotro...

  6. Assessing the impact of removal scenarios on population viability of a threatened, long-lived avian scavenger

    OpenAIRE

    Margalida, Antoni; Colomer, M? ?ngels; Oro, Daniel; Arlettaz, Rapha?l; Don?zar, Jos? A.

    2015-01-01

    The removal of eggs or chicks from wild populations to create captive populations, reinforce free-ranging populations or reintroduce species into the wild is a restoration tool that requires an assessment of potential detrimental effects upon the donor population. This is an absolute prerequisite when wild donor populations are scarce and small. Here, we forecast the population trend of the largest European population of the bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) over the next 30 years under dif...

  7. Seasonal and circadian biases in bird tracking with solar GPS-tags

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rafa; Afán, Isabel; Gil, Juan A.; Bustamante, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) tags are nowadays widely used in wildlife tracking. This geolocation technique can suffer from fix loss biases due to poor satellite GPS geometry, that result in tracking data gaps leading to wrong research conclusions. In addition, new solar-powered GPS tags deployed on birds can suffer from a new "battery drain bias" currently ignored in movement ecology analyses. We use a GPS tracking dataset of bearded vultures (Gypaetus barbatus), tracked for several years...

  8. ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-02

    Sep 2, 2007 ... Summary. I collected data over six field seasons (34 ½ wks) between 1994-2000 at Hato Las. Nieves in northwestern Bolívar state, Venezuela. A mean of 6.4 King Vultures. (Sarcoramphus papa) ± 4.9 SD (range = 2-15) searched in flight for jaguar (Panthera onca) or remains of kills and were present at or ...

  9. Confirmed organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisonings in South African wildlife (2009–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo J. Botha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During a six-year period (from January 2009 to December 2014, specimens collected from 344 cases of suspected organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisonings in wildlife, including birds, were submitted to the Toxicology Laboratory (ARC-OVI for analysis. A positive diagnosis was made in 135 (39% of these cases. The majority of cases were from birds, which included Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres and African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus and bateleur eagles (Terathopius ecaudatus. In one incident 49 vultures were killed when a farmer intentionally laced carcasses with carbofuran in an attempt to control jackal predation. There were 22 incidents of poisoning in helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris. On nine different occasions blue cranes (Anthropoides paradiseus were poisoned, in one incident 14 birds were reported to have been killed. Over the period of investigation, there were 20 cases of poisoning involving mammalian species, the majority being vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus. The carbamate pesticides were responsible for 57 incidents of poisoning. Aldicarb, carbofuran and methomyl were detected in 26, 18 and 12 cases respectively. The majority of organophosphorus pesticide poisonings were caused by diazinon (n = 19, monocrotophos (n = 13 and methamidophos (n = 10.

  10. Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in Raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, J. Lindsay; Meteyer, Carol U.; Miller, R. Eric; Fowler, Murray E.

    2012-01-01

    The use of analgesia has become standard, and appropriate, practice in avian medicine. As in mammals, pain control in avian patients is usually accomplished with opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) used singly or in combination for a multimodal approach. Despite their usefulness, widespread use, and relative safety in clinical use, few controlled studies in birds have been conducted on efficacy, safety, and dosing. The guidelines for the use of NSAIDs in raptors and other birds have mainly been empirical. More recently, NSAIDs in free-living raptors have emerged as a major conservation issue with the discovery that diclofenac sodium was responsible for the population crash of three species of Gyps vultures in southern Asia. In this context, residues of veterinary NSAIDs in domestic animals are now considered environmental contaminants that can be significantly toxic to vultures and possibly other avian scavengers. Ironically, the disaster with Asian vultures has led to a considerable body of research on NSAIDs in raptors to the benefit of clinicians who now have scientific information available to help assess dosing, safety, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics of NSAIDs in their raptor patients.

  11. VIGILANCE POISON: Illegal poisoning and lead intoxication are the main factors affecting avian scavenger survival in the Pyrenees (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berny, Philippe; Vilagines, Lydia; Cugnasse, Jean-Marc; Mastain, Olivier; Chollet, Jean-Yves; Joncour, Guy; Razin, Martine

    2015-08-01

    A specific surveillance program has been set up to monitor avian scavenger populations in the French Pyrenean Mountains, hosting a high proportion of the French populations. The two main purposes of the study were to identify all causes of death and to investigate poisoning cases. All 170 birds found dead during the 7-year program were submitted to full necropsy, X-Ray, parasitological investigations and consistent analytical toxicology screenings (Cholinesterase inhibitors, anticoagulant rodenticides, organochlorine insecticides, Pb, Cd). Over the study period, 8 Bearded Vultures, 120 Griffon Vultures, 8 Egyptian Vultures and 34 Red kites were eventually collected. Mortality events were often multifactorial, but poisoning was by far the most common cause of death (24.1%), followed by trauma/fall (12%), bacterial diseases and starvation (8%) and electrocution (6%). Illicit use of banned pesticides was identified as a common cause of poisoning (53% of all poisoning cases) and lead poisoning was also identified as a significant toxicant issue (17% of all poisoning cases). Lead isotopic signature could be associated primarily with ammunition. Last, a positive association between trauma and lead contamination was detected, indicating that lead could be a significant contributor to different causes of death. These results urge for severe restrictions on the use of lead ammunition to prevent scavengers from detrimental exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Wind effects on the migration routes of trans-Saharan soaring raptors: geographical, seasonal, and interspecific variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Mateo, Javier; Mellone, Ugo; López-López, Pascual; La Puente, Javier De; García-Ripollés, Clara; Bermejo, Ana; Urios, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Wind is among the most important environmental factors shaping birds’ migration patterns. Birds must deal with the displacement caused by crosswinds and their behavior can vary according to different factors such as flight mode, migratory season, experience, and distance to goal areas. Here we analyze the relationship between wind and migratory movements of three raptor species which migrate by soaring–gliding flight: Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus, booted eagle Aquila pennata, and short-toed snake eagle Circaetus gallicus. We analyzed daily migratory segments (i.e., the path joining consecutive roosting locations) using data recorded by GPS satellite telemetry. Daily movements of Egyptian vultures and booted eagles were significantly affected by tailwinds during both autumn and spring migrations. In contrast, daily movements of short-toed eagles were only significantly affected by tailwinds during autumn migration. The effect of crosswinds was significant in all cases. Interestingly, Egyptian vultures and booted eagles showed latitudinal differences in their behavior: both species compensated more frequently at the onset of autumn migration and, at the end of the season when reaching their wintering areas, the proportion of drift segments was higher. In contrast, there was a higher drift at the onset of spring migration and a higher compensation at the end. Our results highlight the effect of wind patterns on the migratory routes of soaring raptors, with different outcomes in relation to species, season, and latitude, ultimately shaping the loop migration patterns that current tracking techniques are showing to be widespread in many long distance migrants. PMID:29491895

  13. Conservation genetics of Iberian raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez–Cruz, B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I provide an overview of conservation genetics and describe the management actions in the wild that can benefit from conservation genetic studies. I describe the genetic factors of risk for the survival of wild species, the consequences of loss of genetic diversity, inbreeding and outbreeding depression, and the use of genetic tools to delimitate units of conservation. Then I introduce the most common applications of conservation genetics in the management of wild populations. In a second part of the paper I review the conservation genetic studies carried on the Iberian raptors. I introduce several studies on the Spanish imperial eagle, the bearded vulture, the black vulture and the red kite that were carried out using autosomal microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequencing. I describe studies on the lesser kestrel and Egyptian vulture that additionally applied major histocompatibility complex (MHC markers, with the purpose of incorporating the study of non–neutral variation. For every species I explain how these studies can be and/or are applied in the strategy of conservation in the wild.

  14. ENTRE LO INDIO, LO NEGRO Y LO INCAICO: LA JERARQUÍA ESPACIAL DE LA DIFERENCIA EN EL PERÚ MULTICULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Greene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina los problemas encontrados por un programa estatal sobre multiculturalismo afro-indígena en Perú dentro del marco de la historia intelectual de la nación, sus regiones, y las ideologías que las gobiernan. En vez de presentar un recuento comparativo sobre las políticas aplicadas a afro-descendientes e indígenas a nivel regional Latinoamericano enfatizando «raza» versus «cultura» arguyo que se debe prestar más atención a las formas en las que el multiculturalismo afro-indígena se «peruaniza» en el proceso de la expansión global/regional. El caso peruano es particularmente interesante por la forma en la que el Estado separa sus sujetos multiculturales por región (reconociendo los andinos, amazónicos, y afroperuanos que son implícitamente de la costa. También analizo cómo la larga fascinación de la nación con la figura del inca permite que los andinos tengan un estatus de elite indígena dentro de la imaginación multicultural. La influencia histórica de lo que llamo el «apartado inca» sugiere posibilidades para poder comparar todos aquellos sujetos definidos como no andinos / no incas, y particularmente para los afroperuanos e indígenas amazónicos en este contexto.

  15. Las autoridades indígenas y los símbolos de prestigio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora Bunster

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo analiza el significado de los emblemas de poder y prestigio usados por las autoridades indígenas durante los siglos XVI y XVII, en el Virreinato del Perú. A través de los mismos los jefes étnicos legitiman su posición frente a la naciente sociedad colonial y ante sus propios ayllus. Se observan dos actitudes con respecto al uso de los mismos. Una es la adopción de formas pertenecientes a la cultura del colonizador ya que la integración de elementos foráneos es necesaria para la construcción y reconstrucción de la identidad y legitimidad cacicales. La otra es la utilización y alusión a símbolos de prestigio netamente andinos como vehículo de reafirmación de la identidad étnica local y como medio de lograr una jerarquización social frente al “otro” europeo en una sociedad en formación compuesta por españoles y andinos. Se examinan primero probanzas de mérito, reales cédulas y memoriales, cuyos protagonistas y/o autores son siempre señores étnicos que desean obtener algún beneficio material o de status social. Luego se analizan los cronistas andinos quienes mostraron en sus obras la naturaleza de la organización social de su pueblo, además de ser los primeros en expresar una crítica a la conquista. En ambos casos, sus autores hacen de la escritura un dispositivo decisivo para su reproducción e identidad como miembros de una elite

  16. Minería y glaciares rocosos: impactos ambientales, antecedentes políticos y legales, y perspectivas futuras

    OpenAIRE

    Brenning,Alexander; Azócar,Guillermo F

    2010-01-01

    El interés científico y político en los glaciares rocosos andinos ha aumentado fuertemente en los últimos años debido al creciente reconocimiento de su importancia hidrológica y las recientes intervenciones mineras en ellos. Se presenta un resumen de los conocimientos científicos y el marco político-legal de las intervenciones pasadas y actuales en glaciares rocosos en Chile y, en forma preliminar, en Argentina y Perú. En estos países, 26 faenas mineras han afectado glaciares rocosos o podría...

  17. Asociaciones políticas de inmigrantes peruanos y la "Lima Chica" en Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Luque Brazán, José Carlos

    2007-01-01

    El presente trabajo describe y examina la emergencia y desarrollo de tres asociaciones políticas de inmigrantes peruanos y su relación con el surgimiento de un "vecindario cultural", conocido por sus habitantes, la prensa chilena y algunos investigadores como la "Lima Chica", en Santiago de Chile. Nos referimos al Comité de Refugiados Peruanos en Chile, a la Asociación de Inmigrantes por la Integración Latinoamericana y del Caribe (APILA) y al Programa Andino para la Dignidad Humana (Proandes...

  18. Análisis de la Cooperación Multilateral para la Gestión de biodiversidad en Instituciones Subregionales. Caso de Estudio: Estrategia regional para la conservación y uso Sostenible de recursos en el Amazonas (TCA) y Proyecto Facilitación de financiamiento para negocios de biodiversidad y apoyo al desarrollo de actividades del mercado en la Región Andina (CAN) 2000-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Hilarión, Jorge Luis

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo de investigación analiza la importancia de la cooperación internacional para la gestión de biodiversidad entregada por el Global Environmental Facilty-GEF, para la conservación y uso sostenible de la biodiversidad en la cuenca Andino-amazónica. Esto a través del estudio de los proyectos de alcance regional financiados a dos instituciones subregionales, el primero, “Estrategia Regional para la Conservación y Uso Sostenible de Recursos en el Amazonas” perteneciente al Tratado de Co...

  19. La fuente Inca de Aypate

    OpenAIRE

    Astuhuamán Gonzáles, César W.; Ministerio de Cultura

    2013-01-01

    La mayor parte del cerro Aypate está cubierto por la tupida vegetación del húmedo bosque de neblina, la cual concentra y produce el elemento más valioso para los pueblos andinos: el agua. El asentamiento Inca de Aypate se construyó sobre el cerro que forma parte de una cadena montañosa de la que nacen pequeñas quebradas que alimentan las subcuencas de los ríos Quiroz y Macará, que a su vez integran la cuenca del Chira.

  20. Sistemas de gestión de seguridad y salud en el trabajo en la comunidad andina : auditorías de verificación

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez Zamora, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Objetivos: análisis comparativo de los principales sistemas de gestión de seguridad y salud tomando como referente el Sistema de la Comunidad Andina. Elaborar un sistema de auto auditorías automatizado y comparar sus resultados con auditorías externas realizadas por expertos del Instituto Ecuatoriano de la Seguridad Social (IESS) y conocer el grado de aceptación de empresarios y trabajadores de! sistema de auditorías. Metodología: Se comparó el sistema Andino, vigente en los países de Colo...

  1. ¿Por qué el satélite Cóndor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ferrerira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estados Unidos y Rusia representan el 15 por ciento de la población mundial sin embargo utilizan el 50 por ciento de la órbita geoestacionaria, mientras todo el Tercer Mundo emplea menos del 10 por ciento. Los países del Pacto Andino se encuentran trabajando conjuntamente en el uso compartido de un solo sistemas satelital CONDOR. Pero los críticos norteamericanos consideran que es una manera ineficiente e irracional congestionar el espectro orbital. El artículo se centra en describir este proyecto y la lógica Andina, la soberanía

  2. Potencial del tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) como futura fuente proteínica y avances de su desarrollo agroindustrial

    OpenAIRE

    Suca, G. R.; suca, C. A.

    2016-01-01

    El principal fortaleza de las leguminosas es la de sostener la producción global de proteínas, mitigando la falta de fuentes de proteínas de origen animal. Entre las legumbres, el tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) es una de las fuentes más importantes de proteínas, especialmente en los países andinos. Además, las plantas de tarwi permiten la fijación de nitrógeno atmosférico y puede ser usado como cultivo rotativo en una agricultura ambientalmente sostenible. Sus semillas contienen más proteína...

  3. Indios urbanos: inmigraciones, alteridad y ladinización en Santiago de Chile (siglos XVI-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Valenzuela Márquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During the period following the Conquista and when the Santiago de Chile's urban society was formed, one can observe various indigenous peoples that migrated to the city: Andinos, Huarpes of Cuyo, Juries from Tucaman, and Mapuche-Huilliches from the south of the Kingdom of Chile. The objective of this article is to show the great geographic and ethnic diversity of the city by studying the arrival, deployment and mobility of these actors and their descendants, as well as their forms of settlement and their strategies for integration.

  4. Análisis de redes sociales para la gobernanza de un área protegida y su zona de amortiguación en el bosque templado del sur de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Mardones, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    Para transitar desde el manejo hacia la gobernanza de las áreas protegidas y sus zonas aledañas, se requiere el involucramiento y la colaboración de las comunidades locales, además de múltiples otros actores involucrados en la conservación y el desarrollo de dicho territorio. El presente trabajo presenta un análisis de redes sociales de los actores con interés y/o influencia en la zona de amortiguación del Parque Nacional Alerce Andino (PNAA) y la Reserva Nacional Llanquihue (RNLL), ubicado e...

  5. Plan estratégico para la quinua del Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Sheen Cortavarría, Erika María; Arbieto Ramírez, Erico; Pozo Molina, María Del Rocío del

    2007-01-01

    La quinua es un producto oriundo de la región andina que ha sido reconocida en el mundo por su alto nivel proteico. Su cultivo, ha experimentado a lo largo de toda la historia peruana una serie de cambios genéticos que les han dado a los países andinos la exclusividad de su crecimiento a pesar que se han hecho esfuerzos para propiciar su adaptación a otros países. El Perú es el principal productor de quinua y el segundo país que exporta este cultivo, principalmente, al mercado norteamerica...

  6. Primer registro de infestación en un reptil por larvas de Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Natalio Castillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma parvitarsum es una garrapata endémica del Altiplano Andino de Argentina, Bolivia, Chile y Perú. En la provincia de San Juan adultos de esta garrapata fueron encontrados en el Parque Nacional San Guillermo sobre Vicugna vicugna. En Argentina también existen citas de adultos de A. parvitarsum sobre bovinos, ovinos y el ñandú . El primer caso de parasitismo de larvas de A. parvitarsum en Liolaemus fue realizado en Chile. El presente trabajo menciona por primera vez para Argentina la presencia de larvas de A. parvitarsum parasitando al lagarto Liolaemus eleodori.

  7. Antropometría del trabajador minero de la altura

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto V Ramírez

    2006-01-01

    Introducción: La antropometría trata de las medidas del cuerpo humano y es base fundamental para la ergonomía. La minería peruana se localiza casi siempre en la gran altura, hábitat del hombre andino, que tiene características antropométricas diversas al hombre del llano. Objetivo: Caracterizar antropométricamente a una población andina de trabajadores mineros en la sierra central del Perú. Diseño: El estudio fue descriptivo, tipo prospectivo y observacional. Lugar: Servicio de Salud Ocupacio...

  8. La escritura fonémica del quechua Ayacuchano

    OpenAIRE

    Majerhua Castro, Samuel

    2008-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación es el resultado de varios años de recopilación de datos concernientes a demostrar que en el mundo andino hay una diversidad de lenguas y dialectos que continúan vertiginosamente atomizándose producto de la presencia compulsiva de la política etnocentrista de la cultura occidental, quien genera en los Andes la barrera lingüística y la discriminación social y cultural. En el caso de la lengua quechua, el factor fundamental de la profunda dialectalizació...

  9. DEFORMACION CORTICAL Y PELIGRO SÍSMICO ASOCIADO A LA FALLA SAN RAMON EN EL FRENTE CORDILLERANO DE SANTIAGO, CHILE CENTRAL (33ºS)

    OpenAIRE

    RAULD PLOTT, RODRIGO ANDRES

    2011-01-01

    Resultados presentados recientemente, que se incluyen en esta tesis (Armijo, R., R. Rauld, R. Thiele, G. Vargas, J. Campos, R. Lacassin, and E. Kausel (2010), The West Andean Thrust (WAT), the San Ramón Fault and the seismic hazard for Santiago (Chile), Tectonics, 29, TC2007, doi:10.1029/2008TC002427) modifican substancialmente paradigmas anteriores sobre la tectónica Andina y la Geología de la región de Santiago, sosteniendo que: 1) El orógeno Andino es fundamentalmente bi-vergente, in...

  10. Lo indio, indigenismo y movimiento campesino en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández Fontenoy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo el autor presenta un análisis histórico sobre la naturaleza de la aparición de movimientos indígenas en Perú, en la segunda mitad del siglo XX. Se compara la situación del país andino, con otros de la región  y encuentra una relación con las especiales condiciones en las que se conforman los partidos políticos y se describe su dependencia con los movimientos sociales y campesinos.

  11. Antropometría del trabajador minero de la altura

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, Augusto V.

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La antropometría trata de las medidas del cuerpo humano y es base fundamental para la ergonomía. La minería peruana se localiza casi siempre en la gran altura, hábitat del hombre andino, que tiene características antropométricas diversas al hombre del llano. Objetivo: Caracterizar antropométricamente a una población andina de trabajadores mineros en la sierra central del Perú. Diseño: El estudio fue descriptivo, tipo prospectivo y observacional. Lugar: Servicio de Salud Ocupacio...

  12. Composición bioquímica y toxicidad de colonias comestibles de la cianobacteria andina Nostoc sp. Llayta

    OpenAIRE

    Galetovic, Alexandra; E. Araya, Jorge; Gómez-Silva, Benito

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN Llayta es el nombre asignado a la biomasa seca de macrocolonias de una cianobacteria filamentosa, clasificada como Nostoc sp. Llayta crece en humedales andinos de Sudamérica y ha sido considerada como un ingrediente alimenticio desde tiempos precolombinos. Este estudio pretende contribuir a la definición de la calidad nutritiva de la Llayta, proporcionando información sobre su composición bioquímica e identificar aspectos críticos de interés toxicológico. Los resultados mostraron que ...

  13. Diagnóstico de los mecanismos de cooperación multilateral en materia antidroga referente a la reducción de oferta, donde participan los países de América del Sur: Marco de Recomendaciones para el Consejo Suramericano sobre el Problema Mundial de las Drogas

    OpenAIRE

    Agatón Posada, Ginna Paola

    2013-01-01

    Esta investigación diagnóstica tiene por objeto la elaboración de un marco de recomendaciones para el Consejo Suramericano sobre el Problema Mundial de Drogas con el fin de actuar frente al problema de las drogas en la región a partir del diagnóstico de los alcances y limitaciones de la Comisión Interamericana para el Control del Abuso de Drogas (CICAD) y la decisión 505 o Plan Andino de Cooperación para la Lucha contra las Drogas Ilícitas y Delitos Conexos.

  14. El acuerdo de comercio preferencial entre la Unión Europea, Colombia y Perú. Contenido y cambios al Status quo

    OpenAIRE

    Dieter Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    El acuerdo de comercio preferencial negociado y suscrito entre la Unión Europea, Colombia y Perú en mayo de 2010 aspira a profundizar y vivificar las relaciones comerciales entre las partes sin causar conflictos con convenciones internacionales multilaterales como el GATT, el GATS, el ADPIC, y la Convención sobre la Biodiversidad. . Un análisis de los cambios jurídicos impulsados por el acuerdo muestra pocas modificaciones o cambios sustanciales del status quo. Para los comerciantes andinos, ...

  15. Estudio de la influencia comercial sobre los barrios el Nogal, el Espartillal y el Retiro y su efecto en el precio del suelo, en el periodo 1993 – 2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas Carvajal, María Claudia

    2014-01-01

    El interés de esta monografía es describir el proceso de transformación urbana de los barrios El Retiro, El Espartillal y el Nogal de la ciudad de Bogotá, a partir del año 1993, en el cual se inauguró el Centro Comercial Andino. Se analiza y explica el desarrollo impulsado por el centro comercial sobre el territorio, transformando el uso de residencial e institucional a comercial y de servicios lo cual influyó directamente la densificación y valorización de los barrios. Por último se describe...

  16. Riesgo en la zona andina tropical por laderas inestables

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2000-01-01

    Las presentes notas relacionadas con la definición de riesgo y amenaza, y la aplicación de estos conceptos para eventos como los relacionados con la inestabilidad de las vertientes, pueden tener importancia para las comunidades de la región andina. Este trabajo se ocupa de una de las amenazas más importantes del medio tropical andino: los deslizamientos de tierra vistos desde la óptica de los desastres naturales. Se definen los movimientos de masas. Luego se discuten los parámetros de la ines...

  17. Tratamiento comunitario al capital extranjero en los países de la Comunidad Andina desde 1970 hasta 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Montes, Carmen Victoria

    2001-01-01

    Con la presente investigación, se pretende ir más allá de una simple descripción de las normas que han regulado el capital extranjero en los países de la Comunidad Andina. El propósito principal es hallar las razones, que han motivado el cambio en las normas y las incidencias que ha tenido ese cambio sobre la afluencia de capital. Asimismo se pretende ver si la legislación comunitaria de los países andinos es compatible con la de la OMC. Para cumplir con este propósito se ha...

  18. Estructura, diversidad y dinámica de la vegetación en el ecotono bosque-páramo: revisión de la evidencia en la Cordillera de Mérida

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Daniel Llambí

    2015-01-01

    En los Andes tropicales, el límite altitudinal de los bosques corresponde a una compleja zona de transición entre el bosque paramero y el páramo andino. En el límite inferior de esta zona ocurre a su vez una transición gradual entre el bosque y las selvas nubladas. La ordenación del territorio en estos ecosistemas se ha convertido en un tema prioritario en virtud de la creciente amenaza que representan para su conservación las actividades agropecuarias y la minería. En este trabajo se revisar...

  19. Vegetation Structure, Diversity and Dynamics in the Forest-Paramo Ecotone: A Review of the Evidence in the Cordillera de Mérida

    OpenAIRE

    LLAMBÍ, Luis Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Acta Biológica Colombiana, 20(3):5-19, septiembre-diciembre de 2015. http://www.revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/actabiol/index En los Andes tropicales, el límite altitudinal de los bosques corresponde a una compleja zona de transición entre el bosque paramero y el páramo andino. En el límite inferior de esta zona ocurre a su vez una transición gradual entre el bosque y las selvas nubladas. La ordenación del territorio en estos ecosistemas se ha convertido en un tema prioritario en virtud d...

  20. LI, Fabiana. Unearthing conflict: corporate mining, activism, and expertise in Peru. Durham: Duke University Press, 2015. 265 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Peñafiel, Adriana Paola Paredes

    2015-01-01

    Este livro é o produto da pesquisa de mestrado e doutorado da antropóloga Fabiana Li em dois lugares emblemáticos na questão de conflitos mineiros no Peru: La Oroya no centro andino e Cajamarca ao norte dos Andes peruanos. O primeiro é um complexo metalúrgico que funciona desde os inícios do século XX e que a partir de 1997 está sob o comando da empresa americana Doe Run. O segundo é a cidade de Cajamarca, onde está localizada a maior jazida de ouro da América do Sul, Yanacocha, operada pela ...

  1. La influencia positiva de la CAN en la descentralización territorial colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Carolina Blanco Alvarado

    2015-01-01

    Mediante las presentes páginas desarrollaremos la importancia del proceso andino de integración en la descentralización territorial colombiana. Para efectos de lo anterior, estableceremos, desde una perspectiva general, los principales beneficios que la descentralización territorial colombiana puede obtener en el marco de la Comunidad Andina (CAN), haciendo un análisis que descarta la perspectiva económica, núcleo rector de cualquier proceso de integración, y como consecuencia de ello, pre...

  2. Políticas públicas y el derecho humano a la libertad sindical. El caso de los trabajadores agroindustriales del valle de Ica en Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Orellana Pérez, Pedro Mijaíl

    2016-01-01

    Nuestra Latinoamérica ha estado casi constantemente a la saga de los procesos globales, particularmente los países andinos han tenido que enfrentar fenómenos que han venido en vulnerar su soberanía así como a los sectores más vulnerables de nuestras sociedades, tanto en el ejercicio y realización de sus derechos como en oportunidades para su desarrollo; en el caso peruano la crisis hiperinflacionaria de los ochentas, con recesión económica y financiera total, además del narcotráfico y el terr...

  3. Las relaciones de comercio e inversión entre Colombia y Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Eglé Iturbe de Blanco

    1997-01-01

    Venezuela y Colombia cuentan con una larga trayectoria histórica en sus relaciones económicas. Comercian entre ellas y sus nacionales a lo largo de la frontera desde su nacimiento como naciones e interactúan entre ambos países como si fuera uno solo. Al norte, en la península de la Guajira, viven poblaciones indígenas comunes cuyo sustento es el comercio entre ambos lados de la frontera; y al sur, en los estados andinos venezolanos limítrofes con los llanos colombianos, tradicionalmente se ha...

  4. Cuando los muiscas diversificaron la agricultura y crearon el intercambio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Henrik Langebaek

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available Al comienzo del siglo XVI y de la conquista del centro de la actual Colombia, los españoles encontraron un grupo indígena, los muiscas, que habitaban en los valles interandinos fríos y en las tierras adyacentes de la cordillera Oriental. Su territorio abarcaba una amplia porción del ramal andino, desde los páramos de Sumapaz, al sur, hasta el valle transversal del Chicamocha, al norte, en los actuales departamentos de Cundinamarca y Boyacá.

  5. Composición química de “oca” (Oxalis tuberosa), ‘arracacha’ (Arracaccia xanthorriza) y ‘tarwi’ (Lupinus mutabilis). Formulación de una mezcla base para productos alimenticios

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Elizabeth Pagador Flores; Misael Ydilbrando Villacorta González; María Elena León Marroú

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo formular una mezcla base a partir de cultivos nativos, la cual una vez estandarizada, se constituye en materia prima de alto valor nutricional para su utilización en la elaboración de productos alimenticios como: purés, papillas y productos de panificación, entre otros. Se seleccionaron tres cultivos andinos: un tubérculo, “oca” (Oxalis tuberosa); una raíz, ‘arracacha’ (Arracaccia xanthorriza) y una leguminosa, ‘tarwi’ (Lupinus mutabilis). Se realizaron ...

  6. MODELACIÓN DEL EFECTO DE LA PODA Y RALEO SOBRE LAS DEFORMACIONES RESIDUALES LONGITUDINALES EN Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Navarrete; Carolina Valenzuela; Leif Nutto

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Se estudió una plantación de Eucalyptus globulus ubicada en el sector precordillerano andino de la región del Bío Bío, Chile, c on el objetivo de evaluar y modelar el efecto de la poda y raleo sobre las deformaciones residuales longitudinales (DRL) . El lugar de estudio correspondió a un rodal de 12 años de edad, el cual fue intervenido a los 2 años y medio de establecido, donde se evaluaron distintas intensidades de poda (0% y 60% de la altura total) y densidades de raleo (1.6...

  7. MODELACIÓN DEL EFECTO DE LA PODA Y RALEO SOBRE LAS DEFORMACIONES RESIDUALES LONGITUDINALES EN Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

    OpenAIRE

    Navarrete, Eduardo; Valenzuela, Carolina; Nutto, Leif

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Se estudió una plantación de Eucalyptus globulus ubicada en el sector precordillerano andino de la región del Bío Bío, Chile, con el objetivo de evaluar y modelar el efecto de la poda y raleo sobre las deformaciones residuales longitudinales (DRL). El lugar de estudio correspondió a un rodal de 12 años de edad, el cual fue intervenido a los 2 años y medio de establecido, donde se evaluaron distintas intensidades de poda (0% y 60% de la altura total) y densidades de raleo (1.600 árb·ha...

  8. Sistema electoral y representación política en el Perú actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo García Belaunde

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto es la ponencia presentada al simposio internadonal "Sistema electoral y representación política-países andinos", organizado por el Instituto de Cooperación Iberoamericana y la Fundación Ebert, en colaboración con el Centro de Estudios Constitucionales y la Cátedra de Teoría del Estado de la UNED, y que se llevó a cabo en Segovia. del 25 al 27 de noviembre de 1986. Por razones de tiempo, no se pudo considerar comentario alguno acerca de las elecciones municipales realizadas en noviembre de 1986.

  9. Seminario Regional «La Cuestión Urbana en América Latina: Panorama y Desafíos de la investigación y la formación»

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Jérémy

    2016-01-01

    Quito está a punto de recibir la Tercera Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre Desarrollo Sostenible y Vivienda, Hábitat III, en el mes de octubre de 2016, y pone el tema urbano en la agenda regional. En este marco, el IRD (Institut de Recherche Pour le Développement) con el apoyo del Instituto de la Ciudad de Quito, la Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar y del IFEA (Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos UMIFRE 17, MAEDI/CNRS, USR 3337 América Latina), organizó el Seminario Regional «La Cuest...

  10. IFEA 60 años

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    15-09-2008 Riqueza paleontológica del Perú y Bolivia Museo Nacional de Historia Natural - Av. Arenales 1256, Jesús María Coord. Christian De Muizon (Ex Director del Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos, Director de Investigación del CNRS, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural – Francia) Presentación de la Sesión Georges Lomné (Director del IFEA) Gerardo Lamas (Director del Museo de Historia Natural – UNMSM) La riqueza paleontológica del Perú: fauna de vertebrados marinos fósiles de la costa per...

  11. Música y fiesta en la construcción del territorio nasa (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Miñana Blasco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El pueblo nasa , en el sur occ idente andino de Colombia, reafirma y construye a diario sus territorios no sólo por medios legales, trabajando o luchando por la tierra, sino también con ritos, fiestas, música y bailes. Este artículo, basado en un trabajo de campo de varios años, señala vínculos significativos y continuidades entre los territorios de los cacicazgos precolombinos y las fronteras delimitadas y celebradas por las actuales prácticas rituales y musicales.

  12. Jóvenes, política y youtube : AZTRA estudio de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Nacimba Chicaiza, Henry Heriberto

    2011-01-01

    El grupo de folk metal andino AZTRA, tema de análisis, nace en Quito 18 de octubre 2001. El nombre se lo debe a la matanza acaecida en el ingenio azucarero del mismo nombre el 18 de octubre de 1977. Uno de los hallazgos de esta investigación da cuenta de cómo la banda se instituye como un agente de mediación entre su discurso y los jóvenes rockeros seguidores del grupo. Se instituye en la medida de complementar la experiencia del saber popular de la lucha y resistencia con la sistematización ...

  13. Presentacio?n. Experiencias y propuestas de educacio?n intercultural bilingu?e en los cantones Cayambe y Pedro Moncayo (Ecuador)

    OpenAIRE

    Granda Mercha?n, Sebastia?n

    2014-01-01

    En el 2004, luego de 10 an?os de experiencia en los pa?ramos andinos de la Provincia de Cotopaxi, la Universidad Polite?cnica Salesiana oferta la Carrera de Educacio?n Intercultural Bilingu?e en la ciudad de Cayambe con el objetivo de atender las demandas de formacio?n de los docentes de las escuelas y colegios de la Jurisdiccio?n de Educacio?n Intercultural Bilingu?e de la zona. Para ese entonces, habi?an transcurrido ya 15 an?os desde que se institucionalizo? la Educacio?n Intercultural Bil...

  14. Medicinas tradicionales andinas y su despenalización: entrevista con Walter Álvarez Quispe

    OpenAIRE

    Quispe, Walter Álvarez; Loza, Carmen Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Walter Álvarez Quispe, terapeuta kallawaya y biomédico especializado en cirugía general y ginecología, presenta la lucha de los terapeutas tradicionales y alternativos por la depenalización de estos sistemas médicos andinos realizada entre 1960 y 1990. Bolivia se torna el primer país en América Latina y el Caribe en despenalizar la medicina tradicional antes de los planteamientos de la Conferencia Internacional sobre Atención Primaria de Salud (Alma-Ata, 1978). Los datos aportados por el entr...

  15. Corredor Bimodal Cafetero

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    El Corredor Bimodal Cafetero es un proyecto de infraestructura estratégica que articula la Hidrovía del Magdalena con el Corredor Férreo del río Cauca, inscrito en el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo 2014/2018 y financiable con la salida de 30 mil toneladas diarias de carbón andino a la cuenca del Pacífico. Incluye el Túnel Cumanday para cruzar la Cordillera Central, el Ferrocarril Cafetero de 150 km y 3% de pendiente entre La Dorada y el Km 41, y la Transversal Cafetera de 108 km para una vía de...

  16. Nuevos productos alimenticios en el comercio mundial: situación y perspectivas actuales para el cultivo y exportación de quinua por parte del Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Chauca, Diana Pamela

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación plantea un estudio sobre la producción de quinua, enfocado en sus principales proveedores: Bolivia, Ecuador y Perú. El objetivo que guió esta investigación fue determinar las tendencias de la evolución de la producción y el comercio internacional de quinua en los países andinos, y en particular el Ecuador. Para ello se estudiaron las características, actores, tendencias del cultivo y comercio internacional de la quinua. En el capítulo uno, se presentan las...

  17. El tarwi o chocho: una de las principales fuentes de proteína vegetal de las comunidades indígenas de los Andes Centrales

    OpenAIRE

    Planchuelo, Ana M.; Fuentes, Esteban P.

    2005-01-01

    El lupino andino (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) conocido también como tarwi o chocho, es una especie de leguminosa nativa de los Andes Centrales. Su domesticación se remonta a los principios de la cultura Nazca y desde ese entonces hasta la actualidad el cultivo está ampliamente difundido en las laderas montañosas y en los altos valles de Ecuador, Perú y Bolivia. La importancia del lupino para las comunidades andinas prehispánicas quedo documentada en pinturas de cerámicas y en tributos encontrado...

  18. Bogotá 450 años

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Pedro; Vargas, Julián; Zambrano, Fabio; Díaz, Juan; Goueset, Vincent; Giraldo, Fabio; González, Hernando; López, Néstor; Andrade, Irma; Arbeláez, Juan Díaz; Bernal, Por Gustavo Samper; Cuervo, Luis Augusto; Fernández, Néstor López; Goueset, Vincent; Isaza, Fabio Giraldo

    2015-01-01

    El pasado 6 de agosto, Bogotá cumplió 450 años de fundada. Con este motivo durante los meses finales de 1987 un grupo de investigadores que trabajan sobre distintos aspectos de la problemática de la ciudad capital de Colombia, decidimos reunir-nos para discutir la posibilidad de un trabajo colectivo que tomara como objeto de su reflexión la ciudad de Bogotá. Esta idea fue promovida en el marco del Convenio Foro Nacional por Colombia-Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos. De hecho las dos inst...

  19. Incidencia de los Hábitos Alimenticios en los Niveles de Rendimiento Académico Escolar en las Instituciones Educativas Secundarias Urbano Marginales de Juliaca

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Roque, Gaylee Yemira

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación denominado “INCIDENCIA DE LOS HÁBITOS ALIMENTICIOS EN LOS NIVELES DE RENDIMIENTO ACADÉMICO ESCOLAR EN LAS INSTITUCIONES EDUCATIVAS SECUNDARIAS URBANO - MARGINALES DE JULIACA”, cuyo objetivo general es establecer la importancia del consumo de cereales andinos y productos procesados en los niveles de rendimiento académico de los estudiantes de las I.E.S. de las zonas urbano – marginales de la ciudad de Juliaca. Este estudio nos permite establec...

  20. Propiedades nutricionales y antioxidantes de la cañihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen)

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolo Estrella, Dolly Elisa

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de esta revisión fue detallar las propiedades nutricionales y antioxidantes de la cañihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen). La cañihua es uno de los granos andinos menos estudiados y más nutritivos, debido a su contenido y calidad proteica. Esta planta a causa de su crecimiento en condiciones climáticas extremas, como en el altiplano (4000 m.s.n.m.), probablemente ha desarrollado una protección natural contra la oxidación. Los reportes indican que la cañihua tiene una calidad pro...

  1. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; II: Propiedades de las mezclas

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezal Mezquita, P.; Urtuvia Gatica, V.; Ramírez Quintanilla, V.; Arcos Zavala, R.

    2011-01-01

    Las formulaciones alimenticias de alto contenido proteico, aportado por una mezcla de harinas a partir de dos cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) y lupino (Lupi-nus albus L), con dos cereales tradicionales maíz (Zea mays L.) y arroz (Oryza sativa L.), conllevaron a la preparación de una 'mezcla dulce' para la elaboración de queques y otra "mezcla postre" saborizada con plátano, que puede ser preparada con agua o con leche, constituyeron una buena alternativa como suplemento al...

  2. Estrategias sustentables de manejo de los productores de la feria agroecológica de Córdoba

    OpenAIRE

    Cabanillas, Carmen; Tablada, Margot; Ferreyra, Luis Alberto; Ramos, Érica

    2015-01-01

    En la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina, se desarrolla la Feria Agroecológica que reúne a pequeños productores de hortalizas, aromáticas, cereales, oleaginosas, flores, frutales y andinos, en transición agroecológica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar a los agroecosistemas en relación a las estrategias sustentables de manejo que implementan los productores de la Feria Agroecológica de Córdoba en la dimensión ambiental. Mediante una encuesta se evaluaron: la diversificación de la prod...

  3. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; I: Formulación y aceptabilidad

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezal Mezquita, P.; Urtuvia Gatica, V.; Ramírez Quintanilla, V.; Romero Palacios, N.; Arcos Zavala, R.

    2011-01-01

    La revalorización de los cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) y lupino (Lupinus albus L), para ser utilizados en mezclas alimenticias, con cereales tradicionales como maíz (Zea mays L.) y arroz (Oryza sativa L.), originan mezclas sin gluten que constituyen una buena alternativa para la alimentación de niños menores de 24 meses que sufren la enfermedad celíaca, ya que mejoran la calidad de la proteína, por compensación de los aminoácidos esenciales, e incide en la diversificació...

  4. Megabenthic assemblages in the continental shelf edge and upper slope of the Menorca Channel, Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinyó, Jordi; Gori, Andrea; Greenacre, Michael; Requena, Susana; Canepa, Antonio; Lo Iacono, Claudio; Ambroso, Stefano; Purroy, Ariadna; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2018-03-01

    Highly diverse megabenthic assemblages dominated by passive and active suspension feeders have been recently reported in shelf edge environments of the Mediterranean Sea. Due to their frequent association with species of commercial interest, these assemblages have been heavily impacted by fishing. The vulnerability and low resilience of these assemblages, composed mainly by long-living and slow-growing species, have motivated the implementation of management measures such as the restriction of bottom trawling, and the establishment of large protected areas embracing these environments. The Menorca Channel is one of such areas recently included in the European Union Natura 2000 network. Quantitative analysis of video transects recorded at 95-360 m depth by manned submersible and remotely operated vehicles were used to characterize megabenthic assemblages and to assess their geographical and bathymetric distribution. Six different assemblages were identified, mainly segregated by substrate type and depth. Hard substrates hosted coral gardens and sponge grounds, whereas soft sediments were mainly characterized by large extensions of the crinoid Leptometra phalangium and the brachiopod Gryphus vitreus. The good preservation of most of the observed assemblages is probably related to a low bottom trawling pressure, which mainly concentrates deeper on the adjacent continental slope. Because of their biological and ecological value, management and conservation measures need to be established to preserve these benthic assemblages.

  5. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was < 3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be < rmax. Further, the ratio of desired harvest rate to 0.5 x rmax may be a useful metric for ascertaining the applicability of specific requirements of the National Environmental Protection Act.

  6. Exploring bird aerodynamics using radio-controlled models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoey, Robert G

    2010-01-01

    A series of radio-controlled glider models was constructed by duplicating the aerodynamic shape of soaring birds (raven, turkey vulture, seagull and pelican). Controlled tests were conducted to determine the level of longitudinal and lateral-directional static stability, and to identify the characteristics that allowed flight without a vertical tail. The use of tail-tilt for controlling small bank-angle changes, as observed in soaring birds, was verified. Subsequent tests, using wing-tip ailerons, inferred that birds use a three-dimensional flow pattern around the wing tip (wing tip vortices) to control adverse yaw and to create a small amount of forward thrust in gliding flight.

  7. U. S. Pacific Fleet. Central Pacific Force. Operation Plan Number Cen 1-43

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-10-25

    Wareagle Snowflake Stork Beagle v Jocko Bagdad Frolic Locust Tycoon Vulture Dodger Husky Trojan Harpoon Designation or Commander A-II-2 COMM. A...Tiptop Killnrney Saskatoon Dodger Boar lake Titvdllow Beagle Huniboldt Moonglow Raiiisgate COIJ2!. A-II GOMI. A-II OPERATIONfPI^M No. Cen 1-43 ANNEX A...Daytona Decatur Delaware Denmark Del Rio Democrat DeSoto Dingbct Dodger Dogwood Dolores Ship or Unit TG 54.1 CTG 54.6 CTF 51 LST 78 Hq

  8. Los primeros pasos de una ciencia republicana emancipatoria en la América andina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoncio LÓPEZ-OCÓN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se muestran, en primer lugar, las diversas acciones realizadas por los gobiernos de los países andinos en las primeras décadas de vida independiente para fomentar el cultivo de las ciencias. Entre esas acciones cabe destacar la promoción de la enseñanza técnica, la importación de científicos de Europa y el apoyo dado a los naturalistas europeos que recorrieron las nuevas naciones andinas siguiendo las huellas de Alejandro de Humboldt. Se analiza luego el debate entre los historiadores sobre si ese impulso científico inicial se debió a la iniciativa de los propios países andinos o surgió de presiones procedentes del extranjero. Se señalan finalmente algunos resultados de los programas de investigación de naturalistas y médicos en las repúblicas andinas durante el segundo tercio del siglo XIX. Se sostiene entonces que debido a esa multiplicidad de iniciativas se estableció en la América andina, y en otras partes del continente americano, un vínculo duradero y decisivo entre ciencia y política, entre saber y poder.

  9. Salar de Surire un ecosistema altoandino en peligro, frente a escenario del cambio climático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Garcés

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo realiza un análisis al salar de Surire desde el punto de vista de la biodiversidad y sus implicancias producto del cambio climático. Como resultado se predice que los próximos años serán secos y la temperatura podría ir en aumento, lo cual afectará notablemente a la flora y fauna del altiplano. El salar de Surire es un cuerpo salino ubicado en el altiplano andino chileno, en un entorno geológico de características volcánicas. La climatología actual de aridez no permite una acumulación de agua superficial de gran extensión, y por lo tanto es posible diferenciar tres tipos principales de aguas: los aportes de drenaje, las acumulaciones de agua en la aureola pantanosa externa o “bofedales”, y las aguas del interior del cuerpo salino (surgencias termales y salmueras. Estas condiciones hidrológicas afectan factores abióticos, como anaerobiosis de suelos, disposición de nutrientes y salinidad, factores determinantes del desarrollo de la flora y fauna. Palabras claves: Salar de Surire; Biodiversidad andina; Cambio climático; Ecosistema andino

  10. INVENTARIO DE MAMÍFEROS EN UN BOSQUE DE LOS ANDES CENTRALES DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÁNCHEZ FRANCISCO

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se usaron técnicas de captura, observación directa y registro indirecto para obtenerun inventario de mamíferos en un bosque andino de Colombia. Se realizaronmuestreos entre octubre de 1998 y abril de 1999 en la Reserva Río Blanco (Manizales,Departamento de Caldas, entre 2200 - 3750 m de altitud. Para capturar pequeñosmamíferos no voladores se usaron trampas Sherman. Para capturar murciélagos seusaron mallas de niebla y colectas manuales. Para registrar medianos y grandesmamíferos se usaron trampas Tomahawk, puntos de observación, recorridos, trampasde huellas, rastros y encuestas. Se registraron 42 especies de mamíferospertenecientes a doce órdenes. El inventario de pequeños mamíferos no voladoresy murciélagos es incompleto; se dan sugerencias para complementarlo. Las trampasde huellas, los rastros y las encuestas fueron técnicas más eficientes para registrarmedianos y grandes mamíferos, que la captura con trampas Tomahawk, los recorridosy los puntos de observación. Se hacen observaciones y se dan recomendacionespara implementar las diferentes técnicas en bosques andinos.

  11. Agrupaciones de cuidadores familiares en Colombia: perfil, habilidad de cuidado y sobrecarga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Patricia Carreño

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Explorar el papel de las variables sociodemográfi cas, la sobrecarga del cuidador y la habilidad de cuidado en una muestra de cuidadores de personas con enfermedad crónica en Colombia, para conocer sus formas de agrupación. Método. Se empleó un diseño cuantitativo, de corte descriptivo. La muestra estuvo constituida por 1137 cuidadores familiares, quienes respondieron la Encuesta de Caracterización de la Diada (cuidador-paciente, el Inventario de Habilidad de Cuidado de Nkongho y la Encuesta de Sobrecarga de Zarit. Con estos datos se realizó un análisis factorial y un análisis de conglomerados k-medias. Resultados.Se encontró que los cuidadores se agrupan según su región de procedencia, en cuatro conjuntos geográfi cos: andino y pacífi co, andino, caribe y amazónico. Además, se observó que cada agrupación posee necesidades de atención específi cas para el cuidador. Conclusión. Los grupos de cuidadores identifi cados refl ejan la diversidad cultural del país y la urgencia de explorar factores socioculturales que pueden estar incidiendo en las habilidades de cuidado y de sobrecarga de los cuidadores, según su región de procedencia.

  12. Andean contributions to the biogeochemistry of the amazon river system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available LA CONTRIBUTION ANDINE A LA BIOGEOCHIMIE DE L’AMAZONE. Les fleuves andins ont vraisemblablement un rôle déterminant sur la biogéochimie de l’Amazone au Brésil. Les données disponibles sur le C organique, le NO3- et le PO43- des fleuves andins montrent des concentrations très variables et ne révèlent aucune relation avec leur altitude ou leur position dans le bassin. En général, les concentrations des fleuves andins sont semblables à celles du chenal principal et de ses principaux affluents. L’explication des phénomènes d’altération du matériel provenant des Andes ne peut être que spéculative. Cependant, l’atténuation du signal andin est liée à la décomposition et à l’ajout de matériel en aval des Andes. Les analyses de 13C sur la matière organique particulaire ou soluble du chenal principal de l’Amazone mettent en évidence qu’une fraction andine persiste dans le système fluvial qui se jette dans l’océan Atlantique. En 1994, un nouveau programme international de recherche a commencé pour mieux caractériser la biogéochimie des fleuves andins. CONTRIBUCIÓN ANDINA A LA BIOGEOQUÍMICA DEL RÍO AMAZONAS. Los ríos andinos podrían ejercer una influencia significativa sobre la biogeoquímica del Río Amazonas. Las concentraciones en C orgánico, NO3- y PO43- de los ríos andinos son altamente variables y no presentan claros patrones geográficos o altitudinos. En general, las concentraciones presentan valores similares a aquéllos observados en el Río Amazonas. Actualmente sólo existen explicaciones especulativas de los procesos que modifican el material de origen andino sin embargo, la atenuación de la señal andina es una consecuencia del proceso de descomposición y de la añadidura de materiales provenientes de las planicies bajas. El contenido de 13C en el material orgánico del Río Amazonas constituye una evidencia concreta de que cierta fracción del material andino persiste y es transportado hacia el

  13. Prevalence of encysted apicomplexans in muscles of raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D S; Blagburn, B L

    1999-01-28

    An acid-pepsin digestion technique was used to examine portions of breast muscle and heart from raptors for encysted protozoans. Apicomplexan zoites were present in 52 (45.6%) of the 114 samples examined: 11 of 12 (91.7%) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), 20 of 34 (58.8%) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), two of seven (28.6%) Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi), three of four (75%) sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), one (100%) Mississippi kites (Ictinia misisippiensis), one of two (50%) American kestrels (Falco sparverius), one bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), one of two (50%) golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), one of three (33%) turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), two of three (66.7%) black vultures (Coragyps atratus), three of six (50%) great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus), five of 15 (33.3%) barred owls (Strix varia), and one of 12 (8.3%) screech owls (Asio otus). Encysted protozoans were not observed in digests of tissues from three broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), four ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), and five barn owls (Tyto alba). Apicomplexan cysts resembling Sarcocystis species were observed in tissue sections of muscles from 28 (37.8%) of 74 raptors.

  14. Prevalence of encysted Toxoplasma gondii in raptors from Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D S; Smith, P C; Hoerr, F J; Blagburn, B L

    1993-12-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of encysted Toxoplasma gondii in wild birds. We examined the hearts and breast muscles from 101 raptors for encysted T. gondii. All of the raptors had been submitted for necropsy to the State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Auburn, Alabama. Tissues were digested in acid-pepsin solution and inoculated into groups of 3-5 laboratory mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 27 of 101 (26.7%) raptors: 8 of 12 (66.7%) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), 13 of 27 (41.1%) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 1 of 4 (25%) Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi), 1 of 5 (20%) great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), 4 of 15 (26.7%) barred owls (Strix varia), and 1 of 3 (33.3%) kestrels (Falco sparverius). Toxoplasma gondii was not isolated from 3 broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), 3 sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), 6 barn owls (Tyto alba), 9 screech owls (Asio otus), a Mississippi kite (Ictinia misisippiensis), 2 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), 4 ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), 4 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), or 2 black vultures (Coragyps atratus). No significant difference (P > 0.05) in prevalence was detected based on sex using chi-square analysis. Chi-square analysis of the data demonstrated that adult raptors had encysted stages of T. gondii significantly (P < 0.05) more often than did immature raptors.

  15. Comparison of nest-site selection patterns of different sympatric raptor species as a tool for their conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirazidis, K.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the nest-site selection patterns of four tree-nesting sympatric raptor species in Dadia National Park (Greece were compared in order to provide a sound conservation tool for their long-term management in the area. The species studied were the Black vulture (Aegypius monachus, the Lesser-spotted eagle (Aquila pomarina, the Booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus and the Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis. Twenty-six variables illustrating the landscape context and vegetation structure of nesting sites were analysed. Multivariate-ANOVA and Discriminant Function Analysis were used to test for significant differentiations in nest-site characteristics among the species. The species studied were initially differentiated by geomorphology and distance to foraging areas. Once these were determined their nesting areas were established according to forest structure. Our results indicate that forest management should integrate the preservation of mature forest stands with sparse canopy and forest heterogeneity in order to conserve suitable nesting habitats for the raptors. Specific conservation measures such as restriction of road construction should be implemented in order to protect the active nests and provisions should be made for adequate nesting sites for the Black vulture, which is sensitive to human disturbance.

  16. Improving conservation outcomes with insights from local experts and bureaucracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenn, Nora; Schmook, Birgit; Reyes, Yol; Calmé, Sophie

    2014-08-01

    We describe conservation built on local expertise such that it constitutes a hybrid form of traditional and bureaucratic knowledge. Researchers regularly ask how local knowledge might be applied to programs linked to protected areas. By examining the production of conservation knowledge in southern Mexico, we assert local expertise is already central to conservation. However, bureaucratic norms and social identity differences between lay experts and conservation practitioners prevent the public valuing of traditional knowledge. We make this point by contrasting 2 examples. The first is a master's thesis survey of local experts regarding the biology of the King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa) in which data collection took place in communities adjacent to the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve. The second is a workshop sponsored by the same reserve that instructed farmers on how to monitor endangered species, including the King Vulture. In both examples, conservation knowledge would not have existed without traditional knowledge. In both examples, this traditional knowledge is absent from scientific reporting. On the basis of these findings, we suggest conservation outcomes may be improved by recognizing the knowledge contributions local experts already make to conservation programming. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Obligate and Facultative Scavenging Avian Species in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Mary H.; Kelly, Terra R.; Rideout, Bruce A.; Eng, Curtis; Wynne, Janna; Braun, Josephine; Johnson, Christine K.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. Much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. Despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. To assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger bird species, we performed a serosurvey for eleven potential pathogens in three species of scavenging birds in California: the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). California condors were seropositive for avian adenovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, avian paramyxovirus-2, West Nile virus (WNV) and Toxoplasma gondii. Golden eagles were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci and Toxoplasma gondii, and turkey vultures were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci, avian paramyxovirus-1, Toxoplasma gondii and WNV. Risk factor analyses indicated that rearing site and original release location were significantly associated with a positive serologic titer to WNV among free-flying condors. This study provides preliminary baseline data on infectious disease exposure in these populations for aiding in early disease detection and provides potentially critical information for conservation of the endangered California condor as it continues to expand its range and encounter new infectious disease threats. PMID:26606755

  18. First detection of an NSAID, flunixin, in sheep's wool using GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Ngaio, E-mail: ngaio.richards@anglia.ac.uk [Life Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge, CB1 1PT (United Kingdom); Hall, Sarah [Life Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge, CB1 1PT (United Kingdom); Scott, Karen [Forensic Medicine and Science, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Harrison, Nancy [Life Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge, CB1 1PT (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    Exposure to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac resulted in the near extinction of three species of Gyps vultures on the Indian subcontinent. Other NSAIDs present in the environment, including flunixin, may pose a similar risk. In the course of a study to determine the feasibility of detecting NSAIDs in keratinous matrices (i.e., hair, nails and feathers) using GC-MS, wool opportunistically collected from a sheep treated with flunixin was analysed for residues. Flunixin was detected qualitatively in external wool wash and extract samples. While residues of veterinary agents and pesticides have previously been found in sheep's wool, our preliminary investigation provides the first instance of an NSAID being detected in this matrix. Here we provide the sample preparation methods and GC-MS parameters used to enable further refinement as part of ongoing conservation and consumer quality control measures. - Highlights: > In this study we qualitatively detected the NSAID flunixin in sheep's wool using GC-MS. > Potential applications of this technique to the conservation of avian scavengers are outlined. > The quantitative and confirmatory steps required to fully validate the method are also provided. - This is the first time that an NSAID has been investigated or detected in sheep's wool. As such, it details a novel exposure pathway for scavenging species in the environment and offers a potential tool for future monitoring effort in vulture conservation.

  19. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Iconografía religiosa andina en el noroeste argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available L'examen du 'Disque de Lafone Quevedo ou Disque de Chaquiago' s'inscrit dans deux perspectives: l'importance de l'étude de l'histoire des Andes méridionales et l'andin comme unité dynamique. Une telle analyse nous permet de faire des rapprochements intéressants: ainsi, sont mis en évidence des liens entre les disques et les plaques de bronze du Nord de l'Argentine et de Bolivie, la vision de Pachacutec (le promoteur de l'expansion Inca et l'image principale (Punchao du Coricancha. Enfin, de nouveaux éléments sont proposés en faveur de l'existence d'une divinité polyvalente dont la longue histoire rassemble les 'récits sacrés' de plusieurs dieux andins. El examen del 'Disco de Lafone Quevedo o Disco de Chaquiago' está enmarcado dentro de dos perspectivas: la importancia del estudio de la historia de los Andes meridionales y 'lo andino' como unidad dinámica. Su análisis nos permite señalar correspondencias interesantes. Así, se hallarán evidencias que establezcan las vinculaciones entre los discos y placas de bronce del NO. argentino y Bolivia, la visión de Pachacuti (que dio origen a la expansión de los Incas y la imagen principal (Punchao del Coricancha. Para finalizar, se propone nuevos elementos en favor de la existencia de una deidad polivalente en cuya larga historia se recoge las 'historias sagradas' de varios dioses andinos. The examination of the 'Disc of Lafone Quevedo or Disc of Chaquiago' is inscribed in two perspectives: the importance of the study of the history of the meridional Andes and lo andino as a dynamic unit. Such an analysis permits us to make interesting comparisons: thus are placed on evidence links between the discs and the bronze plaques from the North of Argentina and Bolivia, the vision of Pachacutec (the instigator of the Inca expansion and the principal image (Punchao of the Coricancha. Finally, new elements are proposed in favor of the existence of a polyvalent divinity of which the long history