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Sample records for andino boliviano puma

  1. Caracterización genética del puma andino boliviano (Puma concolor en el Parque Nacional Sajama (PNS y relaciones con otras poblaciones de pumas del noroccidente de Sudamérica Genetic characterization of the Bolivian Andean puma (Puma concolor at the Sajama National Park (SNP and relationships with other north-western South American puma populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL RUIZ-GARCÍA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron originalmente 25 muestras fecales de puma andino boliviano para proceder a su extracción de ADN. De esas 25 muestras, se detectaron cinco pumas diferentes que, junto, a tres de pieles de animales cazados, completaron un total de ocho pumas andinos bolivianos analizados. Igualmente se analizaron 45 muestras de ADN procedentes de pumas silvestres de Colombia, Perú, Ecuador, Venezuela y Amazonia occidental brasileña obtenidas a partir de mechones de pelos con bulbo, trocitos de pieles, músculo y dientes. Todas ellas se genotipificaron para siete marcadores microsatélites (Fea 08, 24, 43, 45, 96, 126 y 391. Los niveles de diversidad genética resultaron muy elevados en ambas muestras (H = 0,942 y 0,845; respectivamente, con valores muy superiores a los reportados para pumas norteamericanos. Diversos análisis de asignación poblacional mostraron que los pumas andinos bolivianos no formaron un grupo consistentemente diferente del otro grupo de pumas analizado. Únicamente un marcador, Fea 96, mostró heterogeneidad genética significativa entre ambos grupos. Sin embargo, globalmente, esa heterogeneidad fue extremadamente pequeña (F ST, G ST, R ST. Por el contrario, las estimas de flujo génico entre ambas agrupaciones fueron elevadas para toaos los procedimientos empleados. La estimación del parámetro θ (= 4Neμ mediante el método de máxima verosimilitud de Nielsen (1997 mostró que la muestra boliviana es una extensión indiferenciable de la otra agrupación de pumas de otros países latinoamericanos. Por lo tanto, este estudio aporta resultados concluyentes en favor de un único acervo genético de pumas en el nor-occidente de Sudamérica, en contraste con las tradicionales clasificaciones morfológicas y morfométricas que habían identificado un número considerable de subespecies de puma en esta región de Latinoamérica.Twenty-five Andean Bolivian fecal samples were obtained for extracting DNA. Five different Andean

  2. Nacionalismo boliviano

    OpenAIRE

    Canqui, Roberto Choque

    2016-01-01

    Introducción En el presente trabajo se trata de establecer algunos elementos históricos, políticos y culturales del nacionalismo boliviano. Nuestro planteamiento está sustentado en las siguientes afirmaciones. El nacionalismo boliviano se debe al proceso histórico de las transformaciones socio-culturales, políticas y económicas. El concepto de Nación en su primer momento es entendido como forma política y no precisamente desde la perspectiva étnica, es decir, se debe a factores políticos e hi...

  3. Puma (Puma concolor) epididymal sperm morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucho, Hernán; Alarcón, Virgilio; Ordóñez, César; Ampuero, Enrique; Meza, Aydee; Soler, Carles

    2016-01-01

    The Andean puma (Puma concolor) has not been widely studied, particularly in reference to its semen characteristics. The aim of the present study was to define the morphometry of puma sperm heads and classify their subpopulations by cluster analysis. Samples were recovered postmortem from two epididymides from one animal and prepared for morphological observation after staining with the Hemacolor kit. Morphometric data were obtained from 581 spermatozoa using a CASA-Morph system, rendering 13 morphometric parameters. The principal component (PC) analysis was performed followed by cluster analysis for the establishment of subpopulations. Two PC components were obtained, the first related to size and the second to shape. Three subpopulations were observed, corresponding to elongated and intermediate-size sperm heads and acrosomes, to large heads with large acrosomes, and to small heads with short acrosomes. In conclusion, puma spermatozoa showed no uniform sperm morphology but three clear subpopulations. These results should be used for future work in the establishment of an adequate germplasm bank of this species.

  4. El Derecho Administrativo del Sistema Comunitario Andino

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Enrique Santos Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Una de las tendencias contemporáneas del Derecho Administrativo es el reconocimiento de su existencia más allá de las fronteras de un Estado. Bajo esa premisa, se busca demostrar que en la Comunidad Andina de Naciones se configuran los elementos suficientes para afirmar que existe un Derecho Administrativo Comunitario Andino, en la medida en que de las normas andinas se desprende la existencia de una función administrativa andina, una organización administrativa al seno del Sistema Andino de ...

  5. El Derecho Administrativo del Sistema Comunitario Andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Santos Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Una de las tendencias contemporáneas del Derecho Administrativo es el reconocimiento de su existencia más allá de las fronteras de un Estado. Bajo esa premisa, se busca demostrar que en la Comunidad Andina de Naciones se configuran los elementos suficientes para afirmar que existe un Derecho Administrativo Comunitario Andino, en la medida en que de las normas andinas se desprende la existencia de una función administrativa andina, una organización administrativa al seno del Sistema Andino de Integración, un sistema de fuentes administrativas andina y un contencioso administrativo comunitario.

  6. The Perturbed Puma Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Shu-Jun; Liu Qiu-Yu

    2012-01-01

    The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations. We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model. In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry, the mixing matrix element U e3 is always zero. The nonzero mixing matrix element U e3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry. (the physics of elementary particles and fields)

  7. The Perturbed Puma Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Shu-Jun; Liu, Qiu-Yu

    2012-04-01

    The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations. We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model. In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry, the mixing matrix element Ue3 is always zero. The nonzero mixing matrix element Ue3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry.

  8. El español andino

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    Arboleda Toro Rubén

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Existe una variedad del español conocida en el mundo académico como español andino, que, junto a la zona serrana del noroeste argentino, Bolivia, Perú y Ecuador, se habla en el extremo suroccidental de Colombia. Son pocos y de limitada expansión hasta ahora los estudios referidos a la parte colombiana; tal vez por eso en el mundo académico no existe suficiente conciencia de su filiación al español andino. Desde el Departamento de Lingüística de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia adelantamos un estudio que, tras una delimitación previa de dicha variedad, evidencia la filiación con datos histórico-geográficos y lingüísticos, revisa los estudios realizados, recopila muestras de habla de la región, destaca rasgos dialectales fundamentales y los analiza en el marco de estudios del español andino internacionalmente reconocidos, cuando éstos los contemplan. Presentamos acá algunas consideraciones preliminares generales.

  9. "Bolivianos" en la "escuela argentina": representaciones acerca de los hijos de inmigrantes bolivianos en una escuela de la periferia urbana

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    Eduardo Domenech

    Full Text Available Este artículo problematiza la presencia de alumnos identificados como bolivianos en una escuela estatal de nivel primario ubicada en un barrio de la periferia urbana de la capital cordobesa, cuya historia y vida cotidiana están atravesadas por el asentamiento temprano de trabajadores inmigrantes provenientes de distintas regiones de Bolivia. A partir de las observaciones hechas en diversas situaciones escolares y las entrevistas realizadas a los sujetos involucrados en ellas, se analizan las distintas representaciones producidas acerca de los "alumnos bolivianos" en las interacciones cotidianas de la escuela. La evidencia empírica utilizada para elaborar este artículo es producto del trabajo de campo que llevado a cabo, fundamentalmente, en los años 2002-2004 y 2007-2008 en la escuela.

  10. Harwell hardens Staeubli Puma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.J.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Remote Handling and Robotics Department at Harwell, has argued that it ought to be possible to combine all the advantages of the industrial robot - its off-the-shelf availability, low cost and high reliability - with the specific requirements of the nuclear industry, by subjecting an industrial robot to a programme of ''nuclear engineering''. After a careful evaluation, they selected the Staubli Unimation Puma 760 robot as the first candidate for this programme. Three years, and several Pound 100,000s later, they have launched on the market the world's first Nuclear Engineered Advanced Telerobot, or NEATER, as it is called. The device is manufactured by Staubli Unimation, to the same mechanical and QA standards as a standard PUMA, but with all the non-metallic components replaced by radiation tolerant materials. These were chosen by Harwell, after extensive radiation testing and design work, to ensure that the whole robot can tolerate up to 100 MRads - i.e. the highest radiation dose that a robot is likely to experience in a normal nuclear facility. It is controlled, like a normal PUMA, by a VAL 2 industrial robot controller, but this is ''front-ended'' by the Harwell Telerobotic Controller, a PC-based controller, which takes human commands from mechanical ''Input Device'' and translates these into VAL commands, which can then be interpreted by the VAL 2 controller in the normal way. (Author)

  11. Entre el cine boliviano de los años sesenta y la novela indigenista: un caso de transculturación estética andina

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    Javier Sanjinés C.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo es un ejercicio de historia cultural que explora la conflictiva relación entre la obra cinematográfica del realizador boliviano Jorge Sanjinés y del grupo Ukamau, desarrollada en los años setenta, y la novela indigenista andina escrita varias décadas antes, en relación a la problemática de la representación del indígena y de su lugar en la comunidad nacional. En esta perspectiva, el trabajo analiza la compleja interacción entre cultura letrada, cinematografía y construcción nacional en Bolivia. El estudio considera el contexto histórico modernizador emprendido por la revolución de 1952 y los ulteriores momentos de este proceso político y social fundamental de ese país andino, situando los desafíos estéticos y políticos que la obra de Jorge Sanjinés debió enfrentar.

  12. OS BOLIVIANOS EM CORUMBÁ-MS: CONFLITOS E RELAÇÕES DE PODER NA FRONTEIRA

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    Gustavo Villela Lima da Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir de pesquisas etnográficas realizadas desde 2009 em Corumbá, na fronteira Brasil-Bolívia, procuro compreender alguns aspectos das relações de poder que se tornam mais visíveis por meio da análise dos conflitos sociais entre brasileiros e bolivianos. Para organizar os principais temas envolvidos nessa pesquisa, o artigo está dividido em três partes. Na primeira, abordo as interseções entre nacionalidade e etnicidade como critérios de classificação social na fronteira e as representações estigmatizantes sobre os bolivianos produzidas no lado brasileiro. Na segunda, discuto as estratégias de trabalho dos bolivianos em Corumbá em torno do comércio informal, relacionando etnicidade e nacionalidade com as oportunidades de trabalho e as formas de organização social. Por fim, nas considerações finais, busco compreender quais os efeitos sociais da deslegitimação progressiva dos bolivianos no lado brasileiro, manifestados nas políticas de controle e vigilância na fronteira, a partir da criminalização das práticas de trabalho informal

  13. PUMA test program for SBWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; Revankar, S.T.; Dowlati, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the PUMA integral test program is to obtain confirmatory test data for the SBWR Developed by the General Electric-Nuclear Energy Company. The program was initiated in July 1993 under the sponsorship of the NRC. The SBWR has a simplified coolant circulation system and a passive emergency cooling system. The engineered safety systems and safety-grade systems in the SBWR are: (1) the Automatic Depressurization System (ADS), (2) the Gravity-Driven Cooling System (GDCS), (3) the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS), (4) the Isolation Condenser Systems (ICS), and (5) the Pressure Suppression Pool (SP). The GDCS and PCCS are new designs unique to the SBWR and do not exist in operating BWRs. The ICS is similar to those in some operating BWRs. The PCCS is designed for low-pressure operation for the containment cooling, but the ICS is capable of high pressure operation as well to cool the reactor pressure vessel. The PUMA design was completed based on an extensive scaling analysis. The PUMA facility having 1/4 height and 1/400 volume scales is constructed. Various facility characterization tests and instrumentation and data acquisition system checks are performed presently. The facility acceptance test will be performed in November and integral tests will be initiated

  14. Dualismo estructural andino y espacio novelesco arguediano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available DUALISME STRUCTUREL ANDIN ET ESPACE ROMANESQUE ARGUÉDIEN. À la lumière des principes dualistes structuraux andins yanantin et masintin, mis en évidence à partir des années soixante dix, on propose une étude de l’espace dans les romans de José María Arguedas et en particulier Yawar fiesta. On utilise, dans ce roman, le principe de relation complémentaire géographique et social, yanantin, pour expliquer les différentes origines attribuées au taureau Misitu et le comportement des communautés à son égard. Le principe masintin implique identité, solidarité et équivalence entre les membres qu’il unit. La combinaison de ces deux principes est utilisée pour proposer une explication de la dynamique des “batailles rituelles” dont le Pukllay est une modalité. On met l’accent sur Yawar fiesta, où le Turupukllay est représenté, en utilisant cette interprétation. A la luz de los principios dualistas estructurales andinos yanantin y masintin, evidenciados a partir de los años setenta, se propone un estudio del espacio en las novelas de José María Arguedas y en particular en Yawar fiesta. Se utiliza en esta novela el principio de relación complementaria geográfica y social, yanantin, para explicar los diferentes orígenes atribuidos al toro Misitu y el comportamiento de las comunidades con él. El principio masintin implica identidad, solidaridad y equivalencia entre los miembros que une. Se utiliza la combinación de dichos principios para proponer una explicación de la dinámica de las “batallas rituales” de las que el Pukllay es una modalidad. Se enfoca Yawar fiesta, en la que el Turupukllay está representado, utilizando esta interpretación. ANDEAN STRUCTURAL DUALISM AND ARGUEDIEN NOVELISTIC SPACE. A study of the fictional space of the novels of José María Arguedas, in particular Yawar Fiesta, is proposed in terms of the dual Andean structural principles, yanantin and masintin, which have been recognized since the

  15. Juan Puma, el hijo del oso. Cuento quechua de La Jalca, Chachapoyas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available JUAN PUMA, LE FILS DE L'OURS . CONTE QUECHUA DE LA JALCA, CHACHAPOYAS. Une des fêtes les plus importantes de la communauté de La Jalca, Province de Chachapoyas, Amazonas, est celle de la Saint-Pierre où l’on exécute une danse de l’ours très semblable à celle des ukukus du sud péruvien. Le narrateur du récit que nous publions ici assimile ce rite à l’histoire de Juan Oso (Jean de l’Ours très connue dans le monde andin. L’importance de l’ours dans cette culture des hautes terres amazoniennes est fondamentale. En quechua local, l’ours s’appelle “puma” et partage avec le puma de la forêt les caractéristiques de puissance effrayante et de pouvoirs surnaturels. Le fils de l’ours, Juan, évoque les relations ambiguës liant les “chrétiens” des hautes terres d’Amazonas et les “sauvages” de la forêt. Una de las fiestas más importantes de la comunidad de La Jalca, Provincia de Chachapoyas, Amazonas, es la de San Pedro en la que se representa un baile del oso muy semejante al baile de los ukukus del sur peruano. El narrador del cuento que publicamos aquí asimila este rito a la historia de Juan Oso, muy conocido en el mundo andino. La importancia del oso en esta cultura de la ceja de selva alta es fundamental. En quechua local, el oso se llama “puma” y comparte con el puma de la selva las características de fuerza temible y poderes sobrenaturales. El hijo del oso, Juan, evoca las relaciones ambiguas existentes entre los “cristianos” de la serranía de Amazonas y los “chunchos” de la selva. JUAN PUMA, THE BEAR'S SON. A QUECHUA TALE FROM LA JALCA, CHACHAPOYAS. One of the most important feasts of the community of La Jalca, Province of Amazonas, is that of Saint Peter in which a bear dance similar to the southern Peruvian dance of the ukukus is performed. In the story published here, the narrator assimilates this rite with the tale of Juan Oso, another story which is well known throughout the Andes. The importance of bears

  16. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and phylogeography of Neotropic pumas (Puma concolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Clark, J Alan; Rabinowitz, Salisa; Amato, George

    2014-08-01

    Pumas occupy the largest latitudinal range of any New World terrestrial mammal. Human population growth and associated habitat reduction has reduced their North American range by nearly two-thirds, but the impact of human expansion in Central and South America on puma populations is not clear. We examined mitochondrial DNA diversity of pumas across the majority of their range, with a focus on Central and South America. Four mitochondrial gene regions (1140 base pairs) revealed 16 unique haplotypes differentiating pumas into three geographic groupings: North America, Central America and South America. These groups were highly differentiated as indicated by significant pairwise FST values. North American samples were genetically homogenous compared to Central and South American samples, and South American pumas were the most diverse and ancestral. These findings support an earlier hypothesis that North America was recolonized by founding pumas from Central and South America.

  17. "Ciudadanos bonaerenses-bolivianos": Activismo político binacional en una organización de inmigrantes bolivianos residentes en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Pizarro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el activismo político en una organización de inmigrantes bolivianos residentes en Argentina, que instauró un espacio político binacional. Es decir, un escenario en el que ellos fueron reconocidos como ciudadanos por autoridades de diversos niveles estatales argentinos y bolivianos. El argumento se basa en una descripción etnográfica tanto de la estructura de oportunidades políticas que permitió la constitución de tal espacio, como de las características de la migración boliviana en el norte del Área Metropolitana de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, la trayectoria de la asociación estudiada en relación al escenario político local y la conformación de alianzas basadas en afinidades político-partidarias entre las autoridades de diferente nivel en Argentina. Cierra con una discusión sobre la importancia que la problemática migratoria ha adquirido en Argentina y Bolivia en los últimos años.

  18. Survival and Mortality of Pumas (Puma concolor) in a Fragmented, Urbanizing Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, T. Winston; Sanchez, Jessica N.; Johnson, Christine K.; Morrison, Scott A.; Botta, Randy; Smith, Trish; Cohen, Brian S.; Huber, Patrick R.; Ernest, Holly B.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2015-01-01

    Wide-ranging large carnivores pose myriad challenges for conservation, especially in highly fragmented landscapes. Over a 13-year period, we combined monitoring of radio collared pumas (Puma concolor) with complementary multi-generational genetic analyses to inform puma conservation in southern California, USA. Our goals were to generate survivorship estimates, determine causes of mortality, identify barriers to movement, and determine the genetic and demographic challenges to puma persistence among >20,000,000 people and extensive urban, suburban, and exurban development. Despite protection from hunting, annual survival for radio collared pumas was surprisingly low (55.8%), and humans caused the majority of puma deaths. The most common sources of mortality were vehicle collisions (28% of deaths), and mortalities resulting from depredation permits issued after pumas killed domestic animals (17% of deaths). Other human-caused mortalities included illegal shootings, public safety removals, and human-caused wildfire. An interstate highway (I-15) bisecting this study area, and associated development, have created a nearly impermeable barrier to puma movements, resulting in severe genetic restriction and demographic isolation of the small puma population (n ~ 17–27 adults) in the Santa Ana Mountains west of I-15. Highways that bisect habitat or divide remaining “conserved” habitat, and associated ongoing development, threaten to further subdivide this already fragmented puma population and increase threats to survival. This study highlights the importance of combining demographic and genetic analyses, and illustrates that in the absence of effective measures to reduce mortality and enhance safe movement across highways, translocation of pumas, such as was done with the endangered Florida panther (P. c. coryi), may ultimately be necessary to prevent further genetic decline and ensure persistence of the Santa Ana Mountains population. PMID:26177290

  19. Fractured genetic connectivity threatens a southern california puma (Puma concolor) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Holly B; Vickers, T Winston; Morrison, Scott A; Buchalski, Michael R; Boyce, Walter M

    2014-01-01

    Pumas (Puma concolor; also known as mountain lions and cougars) in southern California live among a burgeoning human population of roughly 20 million people. Yet little is known of the consequences of attendant habitat loss and fragmentation, and human-caused puma mortality to puma population viability and genetic diversity. We examined genetic status of pumas in coastal mountains within the Peninsular Ranges south of Los Angeles, in San Diego, Riverside, and Orange counties. The Santa Ana Mountains are bounded by urbanization to the west, north, and east, and are separated from the eastern Peninsular Ranges to the southeast by a ten lane interstate highway (I-15). We analyzed DNA samples from 97 pumas sampled between 2001 and 2012. Genotypic data for forty-six microsatellite loci revealed that pumas sampled in the Santa Ana Mountains (n = 42) displayed lower genetic diversity than pumas from nearly every other region in California tested (n = 257), including those living in the Peninsular Ranges immediately to the east across I-15 (n = 55). Santa Ana Mountains pumas had high average pairwise relatedness, high individual internal relatedness, a low estimated effective population size, and strong evidence of a bottleneck and isolation from other populations in California. These and ecological findings provide clear evidence that Santa Ana Mountains pumas have been experiencing genetic impacts related to barriers to gene flow, and are a warning signal to wildlife managers and land use planners that mitigation efforts will be needed to stem further genetic and demographic decay in the Santa Ana Mountains puma population.

  20. Survival and Mortality of Pumas (Puma concolor) in a Fragmented, Urbanizing Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, T Winston; Sanchez, Jessica N; Johnson, Christine K; Morrison, Scott A; Botta, Randy; Smith, Trish; Cohen, Brian S; Huber, Patrick R; Ernest, Holly B; Boyce, Walter M

    2015-01-01

    Wide-ranging large carnivores pose myriad challenges for conservation, especially in highly fragmented landscapes. Over a 13-year period, we combined monitoring of radio collared pumas (Puma concolor) with complementary multi-generational genetic analyses to inform puma conservation in southern California, USA. Our goals were to generate survivorship estimates, determine causes of mortality, identify barriers to movement, and determine the genetic and demographic challenges to puma persistence among >20,000,000 people and extensive urban, suburban, and exurban development. Despite protection from hunting, annual survival for radio collared pumas was surprisingly low (55.8%), and humans caused the majority of puma deaths. The most common sources of mortality were vehicle collisions (28% of deaths), and mortalities resulting from depredation permits issued after pumas killed domestic animals (17% of deaths). Other human-caused mortalities included illegal shootings, public safety removals, and human-caused wildfire. An interstate highway (I-15) bisecting this study area, and associated development, have created a nearly impermeable barrier to puma movements, resulting in severe genetic restriction and demographic isolation of the small puma population (n ~ 17-27 adults) in the Santa Ana Mountains west of I-15. Highways that bisect habitat or divide remaining "conserved" habitat, and associated ongoing development, threaten to further subdivide this already fragmented puma population and increase threats to survival. This study highlights the importance of combining demographic and genetic analyses, and illustrates that in the absence of effective measures to reduce mortality and enhance safe movement across highways, translocation of pumas, such as was done with the endangered Florida panther (P. c. coryi), may ultimately be necessary to prevent further genetic decline and ensure persistence of the Santa Ana Mountains population.

  1. The PUMA test program and data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.T.; Morrison, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    The PUMA test program is sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data that are relevant to various Boiling Water Reactor phenomena. The author briefly describes the PUMA test program and facility, presents the objective of the program, provides data analysis for a large-break loss-of-coolant accident test, and compares the data with a RELAP5/MOD 3.1.2 calculation

  2. Resolución Quirúrgica de Glaucoma en un Puma (Puma concolor)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Díaz-Parra

    2007-01-01

    El siguiente es un reporte de caso del manejo quirúrgico de implantación de prótesis intraescleral como tratamiento  definitivo de glaucoma crónico en un puma (Puma concolor) macho, adulto perteneciente a la colección de animales presentes en la Fundación Zoológico Santacruz (Colombia).

  3. Narrando a diáspora: deslocamentos e fluxos populacionais de bolivianos para o Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Paes, Vanessa Generoso; Universidade de São Paulo.

    2013-01-01

    Este artigo propõe uma análise sobre o deslocamento dos bolivianos para o Brasil a partir das histórias de vida dos sujeitos envolvidos em tais tramas históricas. Por este trabalho ser desdobramento da dissertação de mestrado, que nos permitiu uma imersão profunda no cotidiano de imigrantes desde os seus lugares de origem aos de destino, em busca de saberes qualificados pelas experiências dos que sazonalmente se deslocam como andorinhas entre os altiplanos dos Andes e a cidade de São Paulo. N...

  4. Response of pumas (Puma concolor) to migration of their primary prey in Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelin, Maria L; Branch, Lyn C; Thornton, Daniel H; Novaro, Andrés J; Gould, Matthew J; Caragiulo, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale ungulate migrations result in changes in prey availability for top predators and, as a consequence, can alter predator behavior. Migration may include entire populations of prey species, but often prey populations exhibit partial migration with some individuals remaining resident and others migrating. Interactions of migratory prey and predators have been documented in North America and some other parts of the world, but are poorly studied in South America. We examined the response of pumas (Puma concolor) to seasonal migration of guanacos (Lama guanicoe) in La Payunia Reserve in northern Patagonia Argentina, which is the site of the longest known ungulate migration in South America. More than 15,000 guanacos migrate seasonally in this landscape, and some guanacos also are resident year-round. We hypothesized that pumas would respond to the guanaco migration by consuming more alternative prey rather than migrating with guanacos because of the territoriality of pumas and availability of alternative prey throughout the year at this site. To determine whether pumas moved seasonally with the guanacos, we conducted camera trapping in the summer and winter range of guanacos across both seasons and estimated density of pumas with spatial mark-resight (SMR) models. Also, we analyzed puma scats to assess changes in prey consumption in response to guanaco migration. Density estimates of pumas did not change significantly in the winter and summer range of guanacos when guanacos migrated to and from these areas, indicating that pumas do not follow the migration of guanacos. Pumas also did not consume more alternative native prey or livestock when guanaco availability was lower, but rather fed primarily on guanacos and some alternative prey during all seasons. Alternative prey were most common in the diet during summer when guanacos also were abundant on the summer range. The response of pumas to the migration of guanacos differs from sites in the western North

  5. Response of pumas (Puma concolor to migration of their primary prey in Patagonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L Gelin

    Full Text Available Large-scale ungulate migrations result in changes in prey availability for top predators and, as a consequence, can alter predator behavior. Migration may include entire populations of prey species, but often prey populations exhibit partial migration with some individuals remaining resident and others migrating. Interactions of migratory prey and predators have been documented in North America and some other parts of the world, but are poorly studied in South America. We examined the response of pumas (Puma concolor to seasonal migration of guanacos (Lama guanicoe in La Payunia Reserve in northern Patagonia Argentina, which is the site of the longest known ungulate migration in South America. More than 15,000 guanacos migrate seasonally in this landscape, and some guanacos also are resident year-round. We hypothesized that pumas would respond to the guanaco migration by consuming more alternative prey rather than migrating with guanacos because of the territoriality of pumas and availability of alternative prey throughout the year at this site. To determine whether pumas moved seasonally with the guanacos, we conducted camera trapping in the summer and winter range of guanacos across both seasons and estimated density of pumas with spatial mark-resight (SMR models. Also, we analyzed puma scats to assess changes in prey consumption in response to guanaco migration. Density estimates of pumas did not change significantly in the winter and summer range of guanacos when guanacos migrated to and from these areas, indicating that pumas do not follow the migration of guanacos. Pumas also did not consume more alternative native prey or livestock when guanaco availability was lower, but rather fed primarily on guanacos and some alternative prey during all seasons. Alternative prey were most common in the diet during summer when guanacos also were abundant on the summer range. The response of pumas to the migration of guanacos differs from sites in the

  6. História, arte e política: o muralismo do boliviano Miguel Alandia Pantoja History, art and politics: the muralism of the Bolivian Miguel Alandia Pantoja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo de Oliveira Andrade

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende avaliar em que medida arte e política se expressaram na criação e na ação do artista e militante político boliviano Miguel Alandia Pantoja, ativo participante de momentos centrais da História do seu país como a guerra do Chaco, a revolução de 1952 e a Comuna de La Paz de 1971. As influências do indigenismo andino e do muralismo mexicano parecem ter-se cruzado com as opções políticas de Alandia e com seu engajamento na proposta dos artistas ligados ao Manifesto por Uma Arte Revolucionária e Independente lançado por André Breton, Diego Rivera e Leon Trotski em 1936, permitindo o surgimento de uma obra original, polêmica e marcante para a História latino-americana.This article intends to evaluate how art and politics are expressed both in the creation and in the action of the Bolivian militant politician Miguel Alandia Pantoja, who was an active participant in decisive moments of his country's history, as the Chaco War, the 1952 Revolution and the Commune of La Paz in 1971. The Andean indigenismo and the Mexican muralist influences seemed to have crossed with Alandia political options and with his enrollment at the proposal made by artists related to the Manifesto for a Revolutionary and Independent Art launched by Andre Breton, Diego Rivera and Leon Trotski in 1936, allowing the uprising of an original and controversial artistic creation for Latin American history.

  7. Lorena Córdoba (editora. Dos suizos en la selva. Historias del auge cauchero en el Oriente Boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El libro "Dos suizos en la selva. Historias del auge cauchero en el Oriente Boliviano" presenta, por primera vez traducidos al castellano, los testimonios memoriales de dos trabajadores caucheros originarios de Suiza que permanecieron en la región de la selva boliviana en los años de su juventud, a comienzos del siglo pasado.

  8. La escolaridad como hito en las biografías de los hijos de bolivianos en Buenos Aires

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    Natalia Gavazzo

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone un dialogo entre tres trabajos de investigación realizados desde perspectivas socio antropológicas aplicadas al análisis de las experiencias de los hijos de inmigrantes bolivianos en distintos puntos de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y la Provincia de Buenos Aires. A partir del estudio de los procesos migratorios desde Bolivia y de sus cambios a lo largo de las generaciones, pretendemos postular que la escolaridad constituye parte fundamental de la experiencia de los niños y jóvenes migrantes y muy especialmente de los descendientes de inmigrantes bolivianos. Puesto que la misma afecta su formación intelectual, pero sobre todo, sus identificaciones nacionales, étnicas, de género, de clase y particularmente de edad, nos enfocaremos en comprender el rol de la escolaridad en esa etapa vital considerada como juventud. Teniendo en cuenta algunas de las representaciones mas habituales en los casos examinados, expondremos que el paso por la escuela primaria y secundaria implica un hito en las biografías de los hijos de los bolivianos y los niños y jóvenes bolivianos que se han criado en Buenos Aires y analizaremos el impacto en sus formas de identificación y sus relaciones.

  9. The Role of Scent Marking in Mate Selection by Female Pumas (Puma concolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Maximilian L; Wittmer, Heiko U; Houghtaling, Paul; Smith, Justine; Elbroch, L Mark; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Mate selection influences individual fitness, is often based on complex cues and behaviours, and can be difficult to study in solitary species including carnivores. We used motion-triggered cameras at 29 community scrapes (i.e. scent marking locations used by multiple individuals) and home range data from 39 GPS-collared pumas (Puma concolor) to assess the relevance of communication behaviours for mate selection by female pumas in California. Female pumas visited community scrapes irregularly and visitation bouts appeared to be correlated with oestrus. Female pumas on average selected from 1.7 collared males, and selection was based on multiple cues that varied among the different time periods measured (i.e. the female's visitation bout and in 90 days previous to the consorting event). Female mate selection over the course of a visitation bout was based on frequency of the male visitation, mass, and age. In the 90 days previous to consorting, the number of scrapes a male created was the most important contributor to selection, which was likely related to his residency status. We also found that at least 14% of females mated with multiple males, thus possibly confusing paternity. Our findings provide a mechanistic understanding of how female pumas use scent and auditory communication at community scrapes to select dominant resident males to mate with.

  10. Malignant paraganglioma in a cougar (Puma concolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhamelle, Alexis; Langlois, Isabelle; Pey, Pascaline; Tremblay, Josée; Ruel, Hélène; Parent, Joane; Lussier, Joanie; Doré, Monique

    2014-12-01

    A 7½-yr-old male cougar (Puma concolor) was presented with a 2-wk history of progressive hindlimb abnormalities. An abdominal mass was palpated on physical examination. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed a mass surrounding the left ureter. A postmortem diagnosis of paraganglioma was established.

  11. Role of PUMA in methamphetamine-induced neuronal apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuanxiang; Qincao, Litao; Xu, Jingtao; Du, Sihao; Huang, Enping; Liu, Chao; Lin, Zhoumeng; Xie, Wei-Bing; Wang, Huijun

    2016-01-05

    Exposure to methamphetamine (METH), a widely used illicit drug, has been shown to cause neuron apoptosis. p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) is a key mediator in neuronal apoptosis. This study aimed to examine the effects of PUMA in METH-induced neuronal apoptosis. We determined PUMA protein expression in PC12 cells and SH-SY5Y cells after METH exposure using western blot. We also observed the effect of METH on neuronal apoptosis after silencing PUMA expression with siRNA using TUNEL staining and flow cytometry. Additionally, to investigate possible mechanisms of METH-induced PUMA-mediated neuronal apoptosis, we measured the protein expression of apoptotic markers, including cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, Bax, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and cytochrome c (cyto c), after METH treatment with or without PUMA knockdown. Results showed that METH exposure induced cell apoptosis, increased PUMA protein levels, activated caspase-3 and PARP, elevated Bax and reduced Bcl-2 expression, as well as increased the release of cyto c from mitochondria to the cytoplasm in both PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells. All these effects were attenuated or reversed after silencing PUMA. A schematic depicting the role of PUMA in METH-induced mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was proposed. Our results suggest that PUMA plays an important role in METH-triggered apoptosis and it may be a potential target for ameliorating neuronal injury and apoptosis caused by METH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulation of PUMA induced by mechanical stress in rat cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background PUMA (p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis), an apoptosis regulated gene, increased during endoplasmic reticulum stress. However, the expression of PUMA in cardiomyocytes under mechanical stress is little known. We aimed to investigate the regulation mechanism of PUMA expression and apoptosis induced by mechanical stress in cardiomyocytes. Methods Aorta-caval (AV) shunt was performed in adult Wistar rats to induce volume overload. Rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were stretched by vacuum to 20% of maximum elongation at 60 cycles/min. Results PUMA protein and mRNA were up-regulated in the shunt group as compared with sham group. The increased PUMA protein expression and apoptosis induced by shunt was reversed by treatment with atorvastatin at 30 mg/kg/ day orally for 7 days. TUNEL assay showed that treatment with atorvastatin inhibited the apoptosis induced by volume overload. Cyclic stretch significantly enhanced PUMA protein and gene expression. Addition of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125, JNK small interfering RNA (siRNA) and interferon-γ (INF-γ) antibody 30 min before stretch reduced the induction of PUMA protein. Gel shift assay demonstrated that stretch increased the DNA binding activity of interferon regulatory factor-1. Stretch increased, while PUMA-Mut plasmid, SP600125 and INF-γ antibody abolished the PUMA promoter activity induced by stretch. PUMA mediated apoptosis induced by stretch was reversed by PUMA siRNA and atorvastatin. Conclusions Mechanical stress enhanced apoptosis and PUMA expression in cardiomyocytes. Treatment with atorvastatin reversed both PUMA expression and apoptosis induced by mechanical stress in cardiomyocytes. PMID:22862895

  13. Os trabalhadores bolivianos em São Paulo: uma abordagem jurídica

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle Louise Soares Timóteo

    2011-01-01

    No atual cenário de globalização são verificadas diversas práticas de exploração laboral. O trabalho escravo é a forma de exploração laboral mais intensa que pode existir nos dias atuais. O tráfico de pessoas é uma prática criminosa crescente em nossa sociedade. No Brasil, em São Paulo, existem casos de trabalhadores imigrantes bolivianos vítimas de tráfico de pessoas e trabalho escravo. Esta pesquisa busca discutir os conceitos de trabalho decente, trabalho escravo, tráfico de pessoas, tráfi...

  14. El impacto del TLC frente al derecho comunitario andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Tangarife Torres

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En esta conferencia analiza el impacto del Tratado de Libre Comercio que se celebrará entre la República de Colombia y los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica frente al Derecho Comunitario Andino, con gran importancia en los temas relacionados con la propiedad intelectual. Adicional a lo anterior se suma un aspecto trascendental y es la supervivencia de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones y en este sentido se cuestiona la coexistencia de las normas comunitarias en relación con las previstas en el Tratado de Libre Comercio. De esta manera, se examina el marco constitucional del Tratado de Libre Comercio y del Acuerdo de Cartagena, para así determinar las características que tienen esta clase de tratados y con ello establecer el nivel jerárquico que le corresponden dentro del ordenamiento jurídico Colombiano. Finalmente se observa la prevalencía de las normas del Acuerdo de Cartagena y el Tratado de Libre Comercio o viceversa, para con ello encontrar soluciones frente a los posibles conflictos de normas que se pueden presentar por la coexistencia de dichas normatividades.

  15. El impacto del TLC frente al derecho comunitario andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Tangarife Torres

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta conferencia analiza el impacto del Tratado de Libre Comercio que se celebrará entre la República de Colombia y los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica frente al Derecho Comunitario Andino, con gran importancia en los temas relacionados con la propiedad intelectual. Adicional a lo anterior se suma un aspecto trascendental y es la supervivencia de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones y en este sentido se cuestiona la coexistencia de las normas comunitarias en relación con las previstas en el Tratado de Libre Comercio. De esta manera, se examina el marco constitucional del Tratado de Libre Comercio y del Acuerdo de Cartagena, para así determinar las características que tienen esta clase de tratados y con ello establecer el nivel jerárquico que le corresponden dentro del ordenamiento jurídico Colombiano. Finalmente se observa la prevalencía de las normas del Acuerdo de Cartagena y el Tratado de Libre Comercio o viceversa, para con ello encontrar soluciones frente a los posibles conflictos de normas que se pueden presentar por la coexistencia de dichas normatividades.

  16. Livestock Predation by Puma ( Puma concolor) in the Highlands of a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé; Haddad, Claudio Maluf

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated local opinion about reducing livestock losses to puma ( Puma concolor) and the potential for conflict among livestock breeders inside a protected area in the highlands of a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. We also quantified the number and type of livestock losses, and determined if predation by puma was correlated with property profile and landscape characteristics. We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 livestock breeders sampled in 36 rural properties. When asked how to reduce predation, 33 % of livestock breeders refused to answer, 26 % suggested improving livestock husbandry practices, 19 % stated that there was no appropriate action, 17 % favored removing the "problem" individual, and 5 % suggested killing the puma. Opinion on how to solve predation was independent of herd size and history of losses, and was correlated with respondent age class. Older respondents tended to suggest removing or killing pumas. Attitudes toward predation represented high potential for conflict among livestock breeders who demonstrated high discordance among responses. Horses were the most common prey (51 %), followed by cattle (28 %), sheep (17 %), and goats (4 %); totaling 47 animals attacked between 2004 and 2007. Annual predation was approximately 12 ± 5 animals, equivalent to 0.4 % of the total livestock. Property elevation and distance from the urban center were the main predictors of predation probability. This survey used a novel approach that has not been addressed directly in other studies on livestock predation and demonstrated that the high potential for conflict among livestock breeders should be considered before implementing management actions.

  17. Movimientos Sociales y Democracia. Notas sobre la Crisis del Sindicalismo Boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique IBAÑEZ ROJO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El caso boliviano demuestra el papel decisivo jugado por los movimientos sociales en los procesos de transición denwcrática. Así como ,sus carencias atribuidas a la peculiar "cultura política" del movimiento obrero boliviano. Sin embargo un análisis del contexto de la transición - caótico, vioknto y con fuerte polarización ideológica - exige la consideración de un conjunto de variables estructurales. La multiplicación de la "incertidumbre estructural" favorecid la inhibición de la acción estratégica constructiva de la COB que junto a las disfuncionalidad de su propuesta sindicalista en una sociedad heterogénea, explica la incapacidad de la central para encauzar el proceso en favor de sus intereses. Se sugiere la urgencia de recomponer la mediación política capazde articular la dispersión del campo popular mediante fórmulas adecuadas a la estructura social y a la tradición hiktórica boliviana.ABSTRACT: The bolivian case shows the decisive rol played by social movements in the proceses towards democracy, so as their lacks, due to the peculiar "political culture" in labor movement. Nevertheless a further analysis of the transition environment - caotic, violent and with a high polarization - has to take into account a set of structural variables. So, the multiplication of structural uncertainty favourend the inhibition of the strategic constructive action of COB that added to plus disfuncionality of the union proposals in a heterogeneous society, explain the union uncapability for guiding the process towards its own interests. Its also suggested the urgency of rebuilding the political mediation capable of structuring the dispersed popular sector by means of suittable formulas to the social structure and historic traditions of Bolivia.

  18. Food habits of pumas in northwestern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Rosas, O. C.; Valdez, R.; Bender, L.C.; Daniel, D.

    2003-01-01

    It is questionable whether food-habits studies of pumas conducted in the southwestern United States can be extrapolated to northwestern Mexico, because of differences in management, distribution, and abundance of wildlife. We determined food habits of pumas (Puma concolor) in the Sonoran Desert of northwestern Sonora, Mexico. Based on studies in the western United States, we hypothesized that desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were the major food source of pumas in Sonoran Desert habitats of Mexico. The study area supports populations of desert mule deer, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), lagomorphs (Lepus spp. and Sylvilagus audubonii), collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), and the largest population (???300 individuals) of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in Sonora. Based on pugmark characteristics, we recorded 3 different adult resident pumas in approximately 90 km2. We analyzed 60 puma fecal samples collected September 1996-November 1998. Primary prey items based on frequency of occurrence and estimated biomass consumed were desert bighorn sheep (40% and 45%, respectively), lagomorphs (33%, 19%), deer (17%, 17%), and collared peccary (15%, 11%). The high percentage of desert bighorn sheep in puma diets may be due to high abundance relative to mule deer, which declined in number during our study. No differences were found in puma diets between seasons (??22=2.4526, P=0.2934). Fluctuations in mule deer populations in northwestern Sonora may influence prey selection by pumas.

  19. Cuidado de enfermería al niño andino hospitalizado, Chiclayo 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Villarreal Ortiz, Yolanda Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    La presente investigación cualitativa, con abordaje de estudio de caso, asumió como objetivos: describir y analizar los cuidados que brinda la enfermera(o) al niño andino hospitalizado en el servicio de pediatría del Hospital Regional Docente Las Mercedes. Sus bases teóricas se sustentaron en Leininger, Hiebert, entre otros. El escenario lo conformó el servicio de pediatría, participando en el estudio 8 enfermeras y 4 padres de familia de los niños andinos aplicándose una entrevista semiestru...

  20. Ad-PUMA sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Q-C; Sun, Y-R; Han, P; Chen, Y

    2015-12-01

    Ovarian cancer accounted for the first cause of death in female reproductive system tumor even with the operation and chemotherapy. We sought to evaluate the therapeutic potential of p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) in ovarian cancer. An adenovirus expressing PUMA (Ad-PUMA), alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents, was used to treat two different ovarian cancer cell lines. The mechanism of PUMA-mediated growth suppression and apoptosis was investigated by analysis of caspase-9 activation and the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm). The exogenous PUMA was expressed 6 h after Ad-PUMA infection, which increased the chemosensitivity of the cancer cells and decreased the IC50 of chemotherapeutic agents compared with uninfected cells. The apoptotic percentage of OVCAR-3 and SKOV3 increased greatly compared with Taxol or Cisplatin alone. There was shear zone in caspase-9 and Δψm decrease after Ad-PUMA infection which suggested apoptosis started in mitochondrial mediated pathway. PUMA plays a role in suppressing tumor growth and sensitizing ovarian cancer cells to anticancer drugs and may be a promising tool for cancer biotherapy.

  1. Molecular evidence for a recent demographic expansion in the puma (Puma concolor (Mammalia, Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice M. Matte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The puma is an iconic predator that ranges throughout the Americas, occupying diverse habitats. Previous phylogeographic analyses have revealed that it exhibits moderate levels of genetic structure across its range, with few of the classically recognized subspecies being supported as distinct demographic units. Moreover, most of the species' molecular diversity was found to be in South America. To further investigate the phylogeographic structure and demographic history of pumas we analyzed mtDNA sequences from 186 individuals sampled throughout their range, with emphasis on South America. Our objectives were to refine the phylogeographic assessment within South America and to investigate the demographic history of pumas using a coalescent approach. Our results extend previous phylogeographic findings, reassessing the delimitation of historical population units in South America and demonstrating that this species experienced a considerable demographic expansion in the Holocene, ca. 8,000 years ago. Our analyses indicate that this expansion occurred in South America, prior to the hypothesized re-colonization of North America, which was therefore inferred to be even more recent. The estimated demographic history supports the interpretation that pumas suffered a severe demographic decline in the Late Pleistocene throughout their distribution, followed by population expansion and re-colonization of the range, initiating from South America.

  2. Regorafenib inhibits colorectal tumor growth through PUMA-mediated apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongshi; Wei, Liang; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Regorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor targeting the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway, has recently been approved for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanisms of action of regorafenib in CRC cells have been unclear. We investigated how regorafenib suppresses CRC cell growth and potentiates effects of other chemotherapeutic drugs. Experimental Design We determined whether and how regorafenib induces the expression of PUMA, a p53 target and a critical mediator of apoptosis in CRC cells. We also investigated whether PUMA is necessary for the killing and chemosensitization effects of regorafenib in CRC cells. Furthermore, xenograft tumors were used to test if PUMA mediates the in vivo antitumor, antiangiogenic and chemosensitization effects of regorafenib. Results We found that regorafenib treatment induces PUMA in CRC cells irrespective of p53 status through the NF-κB pathway following ERK inhibition and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activation. Upregulation of PUMA is correlated with apoptosis induction in different CRC cell lines. PUMA is necessary for regorafenib-induced apoptosis in CRC cells. Chemosensitization by regorafenib is mediated by enhanced PUMA induction through different pathways. Furthermore, deficiency in PUMA abrogates the in vivo antitumor, antiangiogenic and chemosensitization effects of regorafenib. Conclusions Our results demonstrate a key role of PUMA in mediating the anticancer effects of regorafenib in CRC cells. They suggest that PUMA induction can be used as an indicator of regorafenib sensitivity, and also provide a rationale for manipulating the apoptotic machinery to improve the therapeutic efficacy of regorafenib and other targeted drugs. PMID:24763611

  3. EPIZOOTIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF FELINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS IN THE FLORIDA PUMA

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Mark W.; Brown, Meredith A.; Shindle, David B.; Terrell, Scott P.; Hayes, Kathleen A.; Ferree, Bambi C.; McBride, R. T.; Blankenship, Emmett L.; Jansen, Deborah; Citino, Scott B.; Roelke, Melody E.; Kiltie, Richard A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; O’Brien, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) was not detected in Florida pumas (Puma concolor coryi) in almost 20 yr of surveillance; however, the finding of two FeLV antigen-positive pumas during the 2002–2003 capture season led to an investigation of FeLV in the population. Between January 1990 and April 2007, the proportion of pumas testing FeLV antibody positive increased, with antibody-positive pumas concentrated in the northern portion of puma range. Five of 131 (4%) pumas sampled between July 2000 and...

  4. Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor in the southwestern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett G Dickson

    Full Text Available The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate

  5. Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor) in the southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Brett G; Roemer, Gary W; McRae, Brad H; Rundall, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal

  6. Evaluating public participation exercises - PUMA findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergez, Christian; )

    2003-01-01

    A programme of work was undertaken under the auspices of the PUMA (Public Management Project) Working Group on Strengthening Government-Citizen Connections during 1999-2000. Two comparative surveys were conducted among 23 OECD member countries and the European Union, and eight in-depth country cases were performed; the results were discussed in five meetings and published as 'OECD PUMA, 2001'. While the benefits of engaging citizens in policy-making may be considerable, governments should not underestimate the risks associated with poorly designed and inadequate measures for information, consultation and active participation. They may seek to inform, consult and encourage active participation by citizens in order to enhance the quality, credibility and legitimacy of their policy decisions. However the opposite effect may be achieved if citizens discover that their efforts to be informed, provide feedback and actively participate are ignored or have no impact at all on the decisions reached. To reduce the risk of rapid disillusionment and further erosion of citizens' trust, governments must ensure that: - information is complete, objective, reliable, relevant, easy to find and understand; - consultation is conducted with clear goals and according to unambiguous rules which clearly state the limits of the exercise and government's obligation to account for the use made of citizens' input; - participation provides sufficient time and flexibility to allow for the emergence of new ideas and proposals on the part of citizens and a mechanism for their integration into government's policy-making process. Yet the comparative study performed by PUMA found that evaluation was often overlooked. There is a striking imbalance between the amount of time, money and energy which OECD Member countries invest in strengthening government-citizen connections and their efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of these measures and their impact on public policy-making

  7. Are pumas subordinate carnivores, and does it matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mark Elbroch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Interspecific competition affects species fitness, community assemblages and structure, and the geographic distributions of species. Established dominance hierarchies among species mitigate the need for fighting and contribute to the realized niche for subordinate species. This is especially important for apex predators, many of which simultaneous contend with the costs of competition with more dominant species and the costs associated with human hunting and lethal management. Methods Pumas are a widespread solitary felid heavily regulated through hunting to reduce conflicts with livestock and people. Across their range, pumas overlap with six apex predators (gray wolf, grizzly bear, American black bear, jaguar, coyote, maned wolf, two of which (gray wolf, grizzly bear are currently expanding in North America following recovery efforts. We conducted a literature search to assess whether pumas were subordinate or dominant with sympatric apex predators, as well as with three felid mesocarnivores with similar ecology (ocelot, bobcat, Canada lynx. We also conducted an analysis of the spatial distributions of pumas and their dominant sympatric competitors to estimate in what part of their range, pumas are dominant versus subordinate. Results We used 64 sources to assess dominance among pumas and other apex predators, and 13 sources to assess their relationships with felid mesocarnivores. Evidence suggested that wolves, grizzly bears, black bears, and jaguars are dominant over pumas, but that pumas are dominant over coyotes and maned wolves. Evidence suggested that pumas are also dominant over all three felid mesocarnivores with which they share range. More broadly, pumas are subordinate to at least one other apex carnivore in 10,799,252 (47.5% of their 22,735,268 km2 range across North and South America. Discussion Subordinate pumas change their habitat use, suffer displacement at food sources, likely experience increased energetic demands

  8. Are pumas subordinate carnivores, and does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbroch, L Mark; Kusler, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Interspecific competition affects species fitness, community assemblages and structure, and the geographic distributions of species. Established dominance hierarchies among species mitigate the need for fighting and contribute to the realized niche for subordinate species. This is especially important for apex predators, many of which simultaneous contend with the costs of competition with more dominant species and the costs associated with human hunting and lethal management. Pumas are a widespread solitary felid heavily regulated through hunting to reduce conflicts with livestock and people. Across their range, pumas overlap with six apex predators (gray wolf, grizzly bear, American black bear, jaguar, coyote, maned wolf), two of which (gray wolf, grizzly bear) are currently expanding in North America following recovery efforts. We conducted a literature search to assess whether pumas were subordinate or dominant with sympatric apex predators, as well as with three felid mesocarnivores with similar ecology (ocelot, bobcat, Canada lynx). We also conducted an analysis of the spatial distributions of pumas and their dominant sympatric competitors to estimate in what part of their range, pumas are dominant versus subordinate. We used 64 sources to assess dominance among pumas and other apex predators, and 13 sources to assess their relationships with felid mesocarnivores. Evidence suggested that wolves, grizzly bears, black bears, and jaguars are dominant over pumas, but that pumas are dominant over coyotes and maned wolves. Evidence suggested that pumas are also dominant over all three felid mesocarnivores with which they share range. More broadly, pumas are subordinate to at least one other apex carnivore in 10,799,252 (47.5%) of their 22,735,268 km 2 range across North and South America. Subordinate pumas change their habitat use, suffer displacement at food sources, likely experience increased energetic demands from harassment, exhibit increased starvation, and

  9. Estructuras agrarias comparadas: la Puna argentina y el sur boliviano a comienzos del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana A. Teruel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article expects to be another contribution to the knowledge about the social-economic problems from the Argentine Puna, especifically to its agricultural structure, paying special attention to changes and permanences, concerning to property and land, key to economical and social power and fundamental axis of production relationship of this society. It focuses on the problematical fact of indian lands, making a comparison between the North of Argentina and the South of Bolivia, considering both political state systems about comunity lands and its effects in the agrarian structures in the begining of the XXth century.Este artículo tiene por propósito realizar un aporte más al conocimiento de la problemática socio-económica de la Puna argentina, específicamente a su estructura agraria, atendiendo los cambios y permanencias relativos a la propiedad y tenencia de la tierra, clave del poder económico y social y eje fundamental en las relaciones de producción de esta sociedad agraria. Se trata la cuestión en el marco de la problemática de las tierras indígenas, comparando la situación del Norte argentino con la del Sur boliviano, analizando las políticas de ambos Estados en torno a la tierra de las comunidades y sus efectos en las estructuras agrarias de comienzos del siglo XX.

  10. El "Tío" está sordo: Los mineros bolivianos y el Patrimonio Cultural Inmaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Fernández Juárez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Los mineros quechuas de Potosí rinden culto en el interior de mina a un personaje al que denominan “Tío”, el diablo. El artículo reflexiona sobre las contradicciones aparentes en que incurre la UNESCO en el reconocimiento de los bienes de interés cultural intangible o inmaterial aplicadas, en este caso, a la figura del “Tío” y su contexto minero. Las perspectivas “emic” y “etic” chocan con especial violencia intelectual al valorar la significación cultural del “Tio” en las minas potosinas como bien cultural intangible, en un contexto social difícilmente compatible con la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos, tal y como reclama la UNESCO. ¿La cultura de la pobreza en que viven los mineros bolivianos agudiza la responsabilidad ética del “tío” o son los responsables del turismo en la zona los que usan al tío para “invisibilizar” a los propios mineros? El artículo pretende responder a estas cuestiones y acercarnos a la vez a las vivencias y expresiones que sobre el “tío” realizan los propios mineros, y analizar las profundas contradicciones que la UNESCO presenta en sus criterios de definición ,” puesta en valor” y reconocimiento de los bienes del Patrimonio Cultural inmaterial.

  11. PUMA mediates ER stress-induced apoptosis in portal hypertensive gastropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S; Wei, X; Song, M; Tao, J; Yang, Y; Khatoon, S; Liu, H; Jiang, J; Wu, B

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal apoptosis has been demonstrated to be an essential pathological feature in portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG). p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) was identified as a BH3-only Bcl-2 family protein that has an essential role in apoptosis induced by a variety of stimuli, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, whether PUMA is involved in mucosal apoptosis in PHG remains unclear, and whether PUMA induces PHG by mediating ER stress remains unknown. The aim of the study is to investigate whether PUMA is involved in PHG by mediating ER stress apoptotic signaling. To identify whether PUMA is involved in PHG by mediating ER stress, gastric mucosal injury and apoptosis were studied in both PHG patients and PHG animal models using PUMA knockout (PUMA-KO) and PUMA wild-type (PUMA-WT) mice. The induction of PUMA expression and ER stress signaling were investigated, and the mechanisms of PUMA-mediated apoptosis were analyzed. GES-1 and SGC7901 cell lines were used to further identify whether PUMA-mediated apoptosis was induced by ER stress in vitro. Epithelial apoptosis and PUMA were markedly induced in the gastric mucosa of PHG patients and mouse PHG models. ER stress had a potent role in the induction of PUMA and apoptosis in PHG models, and the apoptosis was obviously attenuated in PUMA-KO mice. Although the targeted deletion of PUMA did not affect ER stress, mitochondrial apoptotic signaling was downregulated in mice. Meanwhile, PUMA knockdown significantly ameliorated ER stress-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in vitro. These results indicate that PUMA mediates ER stress-induced mucosal epithelial apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in PHG, and that PUMA is a potentially therapeutic target for PHG. PMID:24625987

  12. Intralesional vincristine use for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma in a puma (Puma concolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Blanca Juarez; Amat, Azlan Che'; Sabri, Jasni; Ramli, Mat Naim

    2013-12-01

    A 14-yr-old male puma (Puma concolor) was presented to the veterinary staff of the National Zoo in Malaysia for an auricular mass. Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed by histologic examination of a biopsy. Systemic administration of chemotherapy using vincristine (0.5 mg/m2 i.v. q. 7 days for six treatments) and prednisolone (2 mg/kg i.m. q. 72 hr x 7 days) caused side effects of vomiting, weight loss, and alopecia and did not improve the size or appearance of the tumor. Intralesional vincristine injections (0.2 mg q. 7 days for two treatments) and prednisolone (2 mg/kg i.m. q. 72 hr x 15 days) were administered, resulting in complete tumor regression after 14 days of treatment.

  13. A new panel of SNP markers for the individual identification of North American pumas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitak, Robert R.; Naidu, Ashwin; Thompson, Ron W.; Culver, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Pumas Puma concolor are one of the most studied terrestrial carnivores because of their widespread distribution, substantial ecological impacts, and conflicts with humans. Over the past decade, managing pumas has involved extensive efforts including the use of genetic methods. Microsatellites have been the most commonly used genetic markers; however, technical artifacts and little overlap of frequently used loci render large-scale comparison of puma genetic data across studies challenging. Therefore, a panel of genetic markers that can produce consistent genotypes across studies without the need for extensive calibrations is essential for range-wide genetic management of puma populations. Here, we describe the development of PumaPlex, a high-throughput assay to genotype 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms in pumas. We validated PumaPlex in 748 North American pumas Puma concolor couguar, and demonstrated its ability to generate reproducible genotypes and accurately identify individuals. Furthermore, in a test using fecal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples, we found that PumaPlex produced significantly more genotypes with fewer errors than 12 microsatellite loci, 8 of which are commonly used. Our results demonstrate that PumaPlex is a valuable tool for the genetic monitoring and management of North American puma populations. Given the analytical simplicity, reproducibility, and high-throughput capability of single nucleotide polymorphisms, PumaPlex provides a standard panel of markers that promotes the comparison of genotypes across studies and independent of the genotyping technology used.

  14. Bolivianos en la diáspora. Representaciones y prácticas comunicativas en el ciberespacio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Martín

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ReseñaBolivianos en la diáspora. Representaciones y prácticas comunicativas en el ciberespacio, de Alicia Marina Szmukler.  Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Editorial Teseo 2015, ISBN 978-987-723-060-4. 228 páginas, en español.El libro presenta los restulados de su tesis doctoral en Antropología, por la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la UBA.

  15. PUMA: An Operating System for Massively Parallel Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Wheat

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of PUMA (Performance-oriented, User-managed Messaging Architecture, a message-passing kernel for massively parallel systems. Message passing in PUMA is based on portals – an opening in the address space of an application process. Once an application process has established a portal, other processes can write values into the portal using a simple send operation. Because messages are written directly into the address space of the receiving process, there is no need to buffer messages in the PUMA kernel and later copy them into the applications address space. PUMA consists of two components: the quintessential kernel (Q-Kernel and the process control thread (PCT. Although the PCT provides management decisions, the Q-Kernel controls access and implements the policies specified by the PCT.

  16. PUMA Pædagogisk udredningsmateriale til AKT - og specialundervisning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, René

    2011-01-01

    PUMA er et nyudviklet pædagogisk udredningsmateriale bestående af en bog samt en cd med 35 opgaver, modeller og skemaer til udskrivning på skolelicensvilkår. Materialet arbejder ud fra anerkendte teorier som systemisk konstruktionisme, selvpsykologi, samt kognitive teorier om hukommelse, analyse og...... lignende. Der kan downloades en flyer, samt supplerende materiale fra www.rkris.dk/PUMA...

  17. The Perception of the PUMA Brand in the Czech Market

    OpenAIRE

    Martínková, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    The ambition of this master thesis is to provide a deeper insight into a marketing strategy of the multinational company PUMA applied in the Czech Republic. Specifically, the thesis includes a survey of customers designed to examine the perception of the PUMA brand in the Czech market within the target group of people from 16 to 26 years old. One of the essential requirements of this thesis is to provide a very important theoretical background of the marketing field, explaining the basic mark...

  18. HER2 Phosphorylates and Destabilizes Pro-Apoptotic PUMA, Leading to Antagonized Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Richard L.; Han, Woody; Paw, Ivy; Lo, Hui-Wen

    2013-01-01

    HER2 is overexpressed in 15–20% of breast cancers. HER2 overexpression is known to reduce apoptosis but the underlying mechanisms for this association remain unclear. To elucidate the mechanisms for HER2-mediated survival, we investigated the relationship between HER2 and p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), a potent apoptosis inducer. Our results showed that HER2 interacts with PUMA, which was independent of HER2 activation. In addition, we observed that HER2 interacted with PUMA in both mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial compartments. We next examined whether HER2 phosphorylates PUMA. Notably, PUMA tyrosine phosphorylation has never been reported. Using an intracellular assay, we found PUMA to be phosphorylated in breast cancer cells with activated HER2. Via cell-free HER2 kinase assay, we observed that PUMA was directly phosphorylated by HER2. Activation of HER2 decreased PUMA protein half-life. To identify which of the three tyrosines within PUMA are targeted by HER2, we generated three PUMA non-phosphorylation mutants each with a single Tyr→Phe substitution. Results indicated that each PUMA single mutant had lost some, but not all phosphorylation by HER2 indicating that HER2 targets all three tyrosines. Consequently, we created an additional PUMA mutant with all three tyrosines mutated (TM-PUMA) that could not be phosphorylated by HER2. Importantly, TM-PUMA was found to have a longer half-life than PUMA. An inverse association was observed between HER2 and PUMA in 93 invasive breast carcinoma samples. We further found that TM-PUMA suppressed growth of breast cancer cells to a greater degree than PUMA. Also, TM-PUMA had a stronger propensity to induce apoptosis than PUMA. Together, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that PUMA can be tyrosine phosphorylated and that HER2-mediated phosphorylation destabilizes PUMA protein. The HER2-PUMA interplay represents a novel mechanism by which PUMA is regulated and a new molecular basis for HER2

  19. Idelalisib induces PUMA-dependent apoptosis in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shida; Zhu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Ning; Yao, Zhicheng

    2017-01-24

    Idelalisib, a PI3K inhibitor, specifically targeting p110δ, has been approved for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. However, the mechanisms of action of idelalisib in colon cancer cells are not well understood. We investigated how idelalisib suppresses colon cancer cells growth and potentiates effects of other chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, we found that idelalisib treatment induces PUMA in colon cancer cells irrespective of p53 status through the p65 pathway following AKT inhibition and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activation. PUMA is necessary for idelalisib-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Idelalisib also synergized with 5-FU or regorafenib to induce marked apoptosis via PUMA in colon cancer cells. Furthermore, PUMA deficiency suppressed apoptosis and antitumor effect of idelalisib in xenograft model. These results demonstrate a critical role of PUMA in mediating the anticancer effects of idelalisib in colon cancer cells and suggest that PUMA induction can be used as an indicator of idelalisib sensitivity, and also have important implications for it clinical applications.

  20. Involvement of PUMA in pericyte migration induced by methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhong; Zhang, Yuan; Bai, Ying; Chao, Jie; Hu, Gang; Chen, Xufeng; Yao, Honghong

    2017-07-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that methamphetamine causes blood-brain barrier damage, with emphasis on endothelial cells. The role of pericytes in methamphetamine-induced BBB damage remains unknown. Our study demonstrated that methamphetamine increased the migration of pericytes from the endothelial basement membrane. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this process remain poorly understood. Thus, we examined the molecular mechanisms involved in methamphetamine-induced pericyte migration. The results showed that exposure of C3H/10T1/2 cells and HBVPs to methamphetamine increased PUMA expression via activation of the sigma-1 receptor, MAPK and Akt/PI3K pathways. Moreover, methamphetamine treatment resulted in the increased migration of C3H/10T1/2 cells and HBVPs. Knockdown of PUMA in pericytes transduced with PUMA siRNA attenuated the methamphetamine-induced increase in cell migration through attenuation of integrin and tyrosine kinase mechanisms, implicating a role of PUMA in the migration of C3H/10T1/2 cells and HBVPs. This study has demonstrated that methamphetamine-mediated pericytes migration involves PUMA up-regulation. Thus, targeted studies of PUMA could provide insights to facilitate the development of a potential therapeutic approach for alleviation of methamphetamine-induced pericyte migration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Nuisance ecology: do scavenging condors exact foraging costs on pumas in Patagonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbroch, L Mark; Wittmer, Heiko U

    2013-01-01

    Predation risk describes the energetic cost an animal suffers when making a trade off between maximizing energy intake and minimizing threats to its survival. We tested whether Andean condors (Vultur gryphus) influenced the foraging behaviors of a top predator in Patagonia, the puma (Puma concolor), in ways comparable to direct risks of predation for prey to address three questions: 1) Do condors exact a foraging cost on pumas?; 2) If so, do pumas exhibit behaviors indicative of these risks?; and 3) Do pumas display predictable behaviors associated with prey species foraging in risky environments? Using GPS location data, we located 433 kill sites of 9 pumas and quantified their kill rates. Based upon time pumas spent at a carcass, we quantified handling time. Pumas abandoned >10% of edible meat at 133 of 266 large carcasses after a single night, and did so most often in open grasslands where their carcasses were easily detected by condors. Our data suggested that condors exacted foraging costs on pumas by significantly decreasing puma handling times at carcasses, and that pumas increased their kill rates by 50% relative to those reported for North America to compensate for these losses. Finally, we determined that the relative risks of detection and associated harassment by condors, rather than prey densities, explained puma "giving up times" (GUTs) across structurally variable risk classes in the study area, and that, like many prey species, pumas disproportionately hunted in high-risk, high-resource reward areas.

  2. Nuisance ecology: do scavenging condors exact foraging costs on pumas in Patagonia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mark Elbroch

    Full Text Available Predation risk describes the energetic cost an animal suffers when making a trade off between maximizing energy intake and minimizing threats to its survival. We tested whether Andean condors (Vultur gryphus influenced the foraging behaviors of a top predator in Patagonia, the puma (Puma concolor, in ways comparable to direct risks of predation for prey to address three questions: 1 Do condors exact a foraging cost on pumas?; 2 If so, do pumas exhibit behaviors indicative of these risks?; and 3 Do pumas display predictable behaviors associated with prey species foraging in risky environments? Using GPS location data, we located 433 kill sites of 9 pumas and quantified their kill rates. Based upon time pumas spent at a carcass, we quantified handling time. Pumas abandoned >10% of edible meat at 133 of 266 large carcasses after a single night, and did so most often in open grasslands where their carcasses were easily detected by condors. Our data suggested that condors exacted foraging costs on pumas by significantly decreasing puma handling times at carcasses, and that pumas increased their kill rates by 50% relative to those reported for North America to compensate for these losses. Finally, we determined that the relative risks of detection and associated harassment by condors, rather than prey densities, explained puma "giving up times" (GUTs across structurally variable risk classes in the study area, and that, like many prey species, pumas disproportionately hunted in high-risk, high-resource reward areas.

  3. “Uno ya sabe a lo que viene”: la movilidad laboral de migrantes andino-bolivianos entre talleres de costura de São Paulo explicada a la luz de la producción del consentimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Resumen El presente trabajo tiene sus lentes puestos en la movilidad de migrantes de la región andina de Bolivia hacia los talleres de costura ubicados en la zona metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, recorrido que hacen a lo largo de por lo menos veinticinco años. El objetivo es problematizar las relaciones laborales entre los costureros y los talleristas (los gestores de los talleres) más allá de la victimización de estos grupos de migrantes, considerando ciertos niveles de coerción, pero tam...

  4. “Uno ya sabe a lo que viene”: la movilidad laboral de migrantes andino-bolivianos entre talleres de costura de São Paulo explicada a la luz de la producción del consentimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Miranda

    Full Text Available Resumen El presente trabajo tiene sus lentes puestos en la movilidad de migrantes de la región andina de Bolivia hacia los talleres de costura ubicados en la zona metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, recorrido que hacen a lo largo de por lo menos veinticinco años. El objetivo es problematizar las relaciones laborales entre los costureros y los talleristas (los gestores de los talleres más allá de la victimización de estos grupos de migrantes, considerando ciertos niveles de coerción, pero también deconsentimiento - todo lo anterior bajo determinadas formas de trabajo no-libre. El mecanismo de producción del consentimiento se sustenta en elementos institucionales e ideológicos que en última instancia definen los “límites de la esclavitud”.

  5. Evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin S; Bevins, Sarah N; Serieys, Laurel E K; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L; Riley, Seth P; Boyce, Walter M; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue

    2014-07-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories. Importance: An understanding of viral evolution in natural host populations is a fundamental goal of virology, molecular biology, and disease ecology. Here we provide a detailed analysis of puma lentivirus (PLV) evolution in two natural carnivore hosts, the bobcat and mountain lion. Our results illustrate that PLV evolution is a dynamic process that results from high rates of viral mutation/recombination and host-imposed selection pressure. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Nuisance Ecology: Do Scavenging Condors Exact Foraging Costs on Pumas in Patagonia?

    OpenAIRE

    Elbroch, L. Mark; Wittmer, Heiko U.

    2013-01-01

    Predation risk describes the energetic cost an animal suffers when making a trade off between maximizing energy intake and minimizing threats to its survival. We tested whether Andean condors (Vultur gryphus) influenced the foraging behaviors of a top predator in Patagonia, the puma (Puma concolor), in ways comparable to direct risks of predation for prey to address three questions: 1) Do condors exact a foraging cost on pumas?; 2) If so, do pumas exhibit behaviors indicative of these risks?;...

  7. Exogenous p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) decreases growth of lung cancer A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Ju; Zhang, Xia-Li; Luo, Da-Ya; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Wan, Hui-Fang; Yang, Jun-Ping; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Wan, Fu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the influence of exogenous p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) expression on cell proliferation and apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells and transplanted tumor cell growth in nude mice. A549 cells were divided into the following groups: control, non- carrier (NC), PUMA (transfected with pCEP4- (HA) 2-PUMA plasmid), DDP (10 μg/mL cisplatin treatment) and PUMA+DDP (transfected with pCEP4-(HA)2-PUMA plasmid and 10 μg/mL cisplatin treatment). The MTT method was used to detect the cell survival rate. Cell apoptosis rates were measured by flow cytometry, and PUMA, Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression levels were measured by Western blotting. Compared to the control group, the PUMA, DDP and PUMA+DDP groups all had significantly decreased A549 cell proliferation (pPUMA+DDP group. Conversely, the apoptosis rates of the three groups were significantly increased (PPUMA and DDP treatments were synergistic. Moreover, Bax protein levels significantly increased (pPUMA+DDP group was significantly higher than in the single DDP or PUMA groups. Exogenous PUMA effectively inhibited lung cancer A549 cell proliferation and transplanted tumor growth by increasing Bax protein levels and reducing Bcl-2 protein levels.

  8. Post-conditioning anti-PUMA treatment protects mice against mice heart I/R injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J; Zhang, L; Wang, W-L; Ma, Q; Chu, H-C

    2016-04-01

    PUMA is a pro-apoptotic gene, which has been found to be critical to the pathogenesis during heart ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). We investigate whether anti-PUMA protect mice from acute heart failure. Mice were subjected to 30 min ischemia and 24 hrs reperfusion in the presence or absence of anti-PUMA. Treated mice were evaluated for heart PUMA protein and mRNA expression, and apoptosis by terminal deoxy nucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. In mice, anti-PUMA post conditioning markedly reduced PUMA mRNA and protein expression in the heart 4-fold. Hearts from mice that received anti-PUMA had substantially fewer heart muscles apoptosis by TUNEL staining. Anti-PUMA post-conditioning greatly reduced infarct size to 14.4±3.7%, from 38.2±3.9% in the untreated I/R group. Furthermore, survival experiments revealed that more than 90% of control mice died from lethal I/R, whereas 20% of the anti-PUMA post-treated mice survived until the end of the 10-day observation period. This study confirms the importance of PUMA-mediated apoptosis in heart ischemia-reperfusion injury. Silencing PUMA by recombinant PUMA has therapeutic promise to limit ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  9. PUMA amplifies necroptosis signaling by activating cytosolic DNA sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongshi; Tong, Jingshan; Yang, Liheng; Wei, Liang; Stolz, Donna B; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Jianke; Zhang, Lin

    2018-04-10

    Necroptosis, a form of regulated necrotic cell death, is governed by RIP1/RIP3-mediated activation of MLKL. However, the signaling process leading to necroptotic death remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that PUMA , a proapoptotic BH3-only Bcl-2 family member, is transcriptionally activated in an RIP3/MLKL-dependent manner following induction of necroptosis. The induction of PUMA, which is mediated by autocrine TNF-α and enhanced NF-κB activity, contributes to necroptotic death in RIP3-expressing cells with caspases inhibited. On induction, PUMA promotes the cytosolic release of mitochondrial DNA and activation of the DNA sensors DAI/Zbp1 and STING, leading to enhanced RIP3 and MLKL phosphorylation in a positive feedback loop. Furthermore, deletion of PUMA partially rescues necroptosis-mediated developmental defects in FADD -deficient embryos. Collectively, our results reveal a signal amplification mechanism mediated by PUMA and cytosolic DNA sensors that is involved in TNF-driven necroptotic death in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  10. Evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin S.; Bevins, Sarah N.; Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A.; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Riley, Seth P.; Boyce, Walter M.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories.

  11. PUMA Development through a Multi physics Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Jinsik; Kim, Junehyung; Lee, Byoungoon; Lee, Chanbock

    2013-01-01

    Meanwhile advances of numerical methods make it possible for the multi physics problem to be solved in a fully coupled way. In addition to a multidimensional, multi physical approach, a nuclear fuel performance analysis code, which is 1D code, should be improved by accommodating the state-of-the-art in the numerical analysis to support current fuel design and performance analysis. In particular, the coupling between the mechanical equilibrium equation and a set of numerically stiff kinetics equations for fission gas release is of great importance for a multi physics simulation of nuclear fuel. Instead, coupling between temperature and fuel constituent was found to be made with a relative ease by employing an ordinary differential equations solver. As an effort for a new SFR metal fuel performance analysis code, called PUMA (Performance of Uranium Metal fuel rod Analysis code), the deformation of U-Zr fuel for SFR in connection with a fission gas release model is analyzed. A finite element analyses for purely mechanical problems are performed using a backward differentiation formula, and are subjected to scrupulous verification with Abaqus. Then mechanical equilibrium equation and the equations for fission gas release are coupled with the same differential-algebraic equations (DAE) solver

  12. Trabalho escravo urbano contemporâneo: o trabalho de bolivianos nas oficinas de costura em São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Kempfer, Marlene; Universidade Estadual de Londrina - UEL; Martins, Lara Caxico; Universidade Estadual de Londrina - UEL

    2013-01-01

    A Constituição Federal Brasileira de 1988 prevê, em seu Art.1º, III, entre seus fundamentos a dignidade da pessoa humana. Mas, infelizmente, hoje no Brasil há inúmeros casos de cidadãos bolivianos reduzidos à condição análoga a de escravo também no campo das oficinas de costura na grande São Paulo. A fiscalização do Ministério do Trabalho e relatórios da OIT denunciam que diversos trabalhadores são submetidos a baixíssimos salários, locais insalubres de trabalho, péssimas condições de higiene...

  13. Entre devires e pertencimentos: a produção da subjetividade entre imigrantes bolivianos em São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Geraldo Adriano Godoy de

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho busca responder à seguinte questão-problema: de que forma se dá a produção de subjetividade no contexto do trabalho de imigrantes bolivianos nas oficinas de costura em São Paulo? O tema é relevante, considerando as condições de exploração de trabalho às quais estão submetidos os imigrantes. As oficinas nas quais a exploração ocorre são subcontratadas por grandes marcas da indústria têxtil, por meio de práticas terceirizadas. O diferencial da pesquisa demonstra-se na própria abor...

  14. Frequent transmission of immunodeficiency viruses among bobcats and pumas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.P.; Troyer, J.L.; TerWee, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Boyce, W.M.; Riley, S.P.D.; Roelke, M.E.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2007-01-01

    With the exception of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which emerged in humans after cross-species transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses from nonhuman primates, immunodeficiency viruses of the family Lentiviridae represent species-specific viruses that rarely cross species barriers to infect new hosts. Among the Felidae, numerous immunodeficiency-like lentiviruses have been documented, but only a few cross-species transmissions have been recorded, and these have not been perpetuated in the recipient species. Lentivirus seroprevalence was determined for 79 bobcats (Lynx rufus) and 31 pumas (Puma concolor) from well-defined populations in Southern California. Partial genomic sequences were subsequently obtained from 18 and 12 seropositive bobcats and pumas, respectively. Genotypes were analyzed for phylogenic relatedness and genotypic composition among the study set and archived feline lentivirus sequences. This investigation of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in bobcats and pumas of Southern California provides evidence that cross-species infection has occurred frequently among these animals. The data suggest that transmission has occurred in multiple locations and are most consistent with the spread of the virus from bobcats to pumas. Although the ultimate causes remain unknown, these transmission events may occur as a result of puma predation on bobcats, a situation similar to that which fostered transmission of HIV to humans, and likely represent the emergence of a lentivirus with relaxed barriers to cross-species transmission. This unusual observation provides a valuable opportunity to evaluate the ecological, behavioral, and molecular conditions that favor repeated transmissions and persistence of lentivirus between species. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Acerca de la transferencia lingüística en el castellano andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Esquivel Villafana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La coexistencia de códigos lingüísticos de comunicación dentro de unamisma área territorial deviene en un tipo de bilingüismo donde el manejode la segunda lengua testimonia las pautas estructurales que imponela lengua materna. Los términos empleados para caracterizar estefenómeno se han sucedido con mucha o poca suerte, con mayor o menoradecuación empírica. El presente artículo se propone presentar unarevisión de ellos, con especial referencia al concepto de transferencia.Palabras claves: Sintaxis, castellano andino.

  16. Insectos de los remanentes de bosques secos andinos del norte de Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Troya, A.; Bersosa, F.; Espinoza, L.

    2016-01-01

    Las investigaciones biológicas en los bosques secos de Ecuador se centran en aspectos botánicos y ecológicos, mientras que el conocimiento de la entomofauna es casi nulo. Utilizando trampas Malaise , de caída, y golpeteo, se realizaron muestreos en cuatro localidades de bosque seco Andino con el objetivo de identificar la composición de la fauna de insectos terrestres a nivel de familia. Se registraron 14 órdenes y 117 familias, entre las cuales las hormigas (Formicidae) representaron el may...

  17. Epizootiology and management of feline leukemia virus in the Florida puma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Mark W; Brown, Meredith A; Shindle, David B; Terrell, Scott P; Hayes, Kathleen A; Ferree, Bambi C; McBride, R T; Blankenship, Emmett L; Jansen, Deborah; Citino, Scott B; Roelke, Melody E; Kiltie, Richard A; Troyer, Jennifer L; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2008-07-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) was not detected in Florida pumas (Puma concolor coryi) in almost 20 yr of surveillance; however, the finding of two FeLV antigen-positive pumas during the 2002-2003 capture season led to an investigation of FeLV in the population. Between January 1990 and April 2007, the proportion of pumas testing FeLV antibody positive increased, with antibody-positive pumas concentrated in the northern portion of puma range. Five of 131 (4%) pumas sampled between July 2000 and April 2007 were viremic, with all cases clustered in Okaloacoochee Slough (OKS). Clinical signs and clinical pathology at capture were absent or included lymphadenopathy, moderate-to-severe anemia, and lymphopenia. All viremic pumas died; causes of death were septicemia (n=2), intraspecific aggression (n=2), and anemia/dehydration (n=1). Outcome after FeLV exposure in pumas was similar to that in domestic cats, with evidence of regressive, latent, and persistent infections. Management of the epizootic included vaccination, and as of April 2007, 52 free-ranging pumas had received one or more inoculations. Vaccinations were concentrated in OKS and in a band between OKS and the remainder of the puma population. There have been no new cases since July 2004; however, the potential for reintroduction of the virus remains.

  18. Clinical and pathological correlations of marrow PUMA and P53 expressions in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Ozlen; Uner, Aysegul; Buyukasik, Yahya; Uz, Burak; Bozkurt, Sureyya; Eliacik, Eylem; Işik, Ayse; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin; Goker, Hakan; Demiroglu, Haluk; Aksu, Salih; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami; Sayinalp, Nilgun

    2015-05-01

    p53 is a key regulator of apoptosis. p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) is a critical mediator of p53-dependent and independent apoptosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of p53 and PUMA to the prognosis of MDS. Bone marrow biopsies of MDS patients at the time of diagnosis (n = 76) and at the time of transformation (n = 19) were included in the study group. The expression of p53 and PUMA was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. When compared to the control group, both p53 (p PUMA (p = 0.012) expression levels were significantly higher in MDS group. In MDS group, there was a moderate positive correlation between p53 and PUMA expressions. PUMA expression was not correlated with event free and overall survival. However, overall survival was significantly lower in cases with p53 expression in more than 50% of the cells. There was an increase in PUMA expression in cases that showed transformation as compared to the initial diagnostic bone marrows but was not statistically significant. The correlation that existed between p53 and PUMA was lost in transformed cases. Our results showed that PUMA and p53 expressions are increased in MDS marrows compared to normal marrows. PUMA expression increases further during transformation while the expression of p53 is not significantly altered which suggests that PUMA alterations might be a late event during the evolution of MDS. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Alcide d'Orbigny en la visión de los bolivianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcide d'Orbigny, naturaliste français, a été le voyageur (1830-1833 qui a apporté la plus ample connaissance scientifique sur la Bolivie. De nombreux intellectuels, scientifiques et artistes boliviens, de manière récurrente depuis presque deux siècles, lui ont rendu hommage au travers de livres, essais et articles de revues et journaux. Cette production non seulement fait référence à l'apport de d'Orbigny à la connaissance géographique, géologique, archéologique, botanique et ethnologique de la Bolivie et au développement économique et social du pays mais soulignent aussi sa contribution au développement général de la science, en particulier la géographie et l'?ethnologie sans oublier de mentionner l'importance littéraire et poétique de son œuvre. Alcide d'Orbigny, naturalista francés, fue el viajero (1830-1833 que dio el más importante conocimiento científico sobre Bolivia. Numerosos intelectuales, científicos y artistas bolivianos de manera recurrente desde casi dos siglos le han rendido homenaje a través de libros, ensayos y artículos en revistas y periódicos. Esta producción no solamente hace referencia al aporte de d'Orbigny al conocimiento geográfico, geológico, arqueológico, botánico y etnológico sobre Bolivia y al desarrollo económico y social del país, sino que subrayan también su contribución al desarrollo general de las ciencias, en particular la etnología y la geografía, sin olvidar de mencionar la importancia literaria y poética de su obra. Palabras claves: Alcide d'Orbigny, viajeros, Bolivia, siglo 19, historia de las ciencias. The french naturalist, Alcide d'Orbigny, was the explorer (1830-1833 who carried the most important scientific knowledge about Bolivia. Several intellectuals, scientifics and Bolivian artists have recurrently since two centuries tribute to him with books, editorials, and articles. This production not only refer to the d'Orbigny contribution about geographical

  20. Direct adaptive control of a PUMA 560 industrial robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Lee, Thomas; Delpech, Michel

    1989-01-01

    The implementation and experimental validation of a new direct adaptive control scheme on a PUMA 560 industrial robot is described. The testbed facility consists of a Unimation PUMA 560 six-jointed robot and controller, and a DEC MicroVAX II computer which hosts the Robot Control C Library software. The control algorithm is implemented on the MicroVAX which acts as a digital controller for the PUMA robot, and the Unimation controller is effectively bypassed and used merely as an I/O device to interface the MicroVAX to the joint motors. The control algorithm for each robot joint consists of an auxiliary signal generated by a constant-gain Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative (PID) controller, and an adaptive position-velocity (PD) feedback controller with adjustable gains. The adaptive independent joint controllers compensate for the inter-joint couplings and achieve accurate trajectory tracking without the need for the complex dynamic model and parameter values of the robot. Extensive experimental results on PUMA joint control are presented to confirm the feasibility of the proposed scheme, in spite of strong interactions between joint motions. Experimental results validate the capabilities of the proposed control scheme. The control scheme is extremely simple and computationally very fast for concurrent processing with high sampling rates.

  1. PuMA: the Porous Microstructure Analysis software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Joseph C.; Panerai, Francesco; Borner, Arnaud; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2018-01-01

    The Porous Microstructure Analysis (PuMA) software has been developed in order to compute effective material properties and perform material response simulations on digitized microstructures of porous media. PuMA is able to import digital three-dimensional images obtained from X-ray microtomography or to generate artificial microstructures. PuMA also provides a module for interactive 3D visualizations. Version 2.1 includes modules to compute porosity, volume fractions, and surface area. Two finite difference Laplace solvers have been implemented to compute the continuum tortuosity factor, effective thermal conductivity, and effective electrical conductivity. A random method has been developed to compute tortuosity factors from the continuum to rarefied regimes. Representative elementary volume analysis can be performed on each property. The software also includes a time-dependent, particle-based model for the oxidation of fibrous materials. PuMA was developed for Linux operating systems and is available as a NASA software under a US & Foreign release.

  2. Veinte años del Régimen Andino de Acceso a Recursos Genéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Ribadeneira Sarmiento

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available El artículo buscar contribuir al conocimiento del régimen legal andino de acceso a recursos genéticos, cuyo instrumento central es la Decisión Andina 391, promulgada en 1996. Se analiza la norma y se presentan sus más evidentes virtudes y limitaciones. Se incluye información sobre la evolución nacional de la decisión en cada uno de los países andinos. El artículo contiene un apartado referido al futuro de la norma en el actual escenario de reingeniería del Sistema Andino de Integración (SAI. Se han consultado documentos, fuentes oficiales, artículos de expertos y entrevistas. El artículo se estructura de la siguiente manera: los orígenes de la norma; el análisis y contenido de la norma andina; el proceso de reglamentación en los países andinos; las virtudes y limitaciones; la coyuntura y el futuro, y, por último, las conclusiones.

  3. El racismo en los discursos de los patrones argentinos sobre inmigrantes laborales bolivianos. Estudio de caso en un lugar de trabajo en Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Alejandra Pizarro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo realizamos un estudio de caso que indaga las maneras en que se manifiesta el racismo en los discursos de los patrones argentinos sobre inmigrantes bolivianos que viven y trabajan en una fábrica de ladrillos, localizada en el periurbano de la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina. Considerando que las prácticas discursivas son constitutivas y constituyentes de lo social, desarrollamos un entramado analítico para estudiar el racismo cotidiano. Con base en el análisis de registros de trabajo etnográfico y de noticias publicadas en medios gráficos locales, abordamos las maneras que asume el discurso racista, teniendo en cuenta el contexto socio-histórico donde se visibilizó a los bolivianos como inmigrantes laborales. Argumentamos que el patrón de este lugar de trabajo y sus allegados emplean estereotipos y prejuicios racistas para justificar y naturalizar tanto la asignación de los bolivianos a trabajos duros y mal pagados como las condiciones de precariedad e informalidad del proceso productivo.

  4. Prognostic value of PUMA expression in patients with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, S-L; Yao, D-B; Zhao, Y; Xu, F; Jia, C-J; Xu, Y-Q; Dai, C-L

    2015-01-01

    The p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) is a potent apoptosis inducer that is downexpressed in various tumor types. The aim of this study was to explore the prognostic significance of PUMA expression in patients with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). PUMA expressions were examined in 80 pairs of tissues to compare its expression between cancer tissues and paired noncancerous liver tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Relationship between the PUMA expression level and clinicopathological characteristics and clinic outcomes was analyzed. PUMA protein was all positive in paired non-tumor tissue samples. PUMA were downregulated in 61.25% (49/80) of tumor tissues compared with non-tumor tissues. PUMA levels in cancer tissues were significantly lower than non-tumor in patients with recurrence-related factors and patients at higher stage (stage II, III) (p PUMA expression was associated with poor 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in HCC patients. Finally, multivariate analyses identified that PUMA was an independent poor-prognostic predictor for DFS and OS in patients with HBV-related HCC. Our results suggest that PUMA expression is a novel prognostic indicator in HBV-related HCC and may be a potential target for diagnosis and gene therapy.

  5. [Food habits of Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) in the Parque Nacional Natural Puracé, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guzmán, Andrés; Payán, Esteban; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio

    2011-09-01

    Neotropical puma (Puma concolor) diet is scarcely known, in particular that of mountain dwelling individuals from Northern South America. This is the first study on pumas from the paramo and the first puma diet analysis for Colombia. The puma diet was studied from 2007 to 2009 in the Puracé National Park in the South Colombian Andes. Paramos are unique neotropical high altitude ecosystems which store and regulate water, and are currently threatened by agricultural expansion and climate change. Seven latrines were monitored for three years and scat collected, washed and dried. Items in scat such as hair, bones, claws and others were separated. Hairs were inspected by microscopy and compared to voucher hair museum specimens. Bone fragments, claws and teeth were also compared to museum collections and identified wherever possible. Additionally, six cameras were set along game trails to document puma and potential prey presence in the area. Food items from five species were identified in 60 puma scats; Northern Pudu (Pudu mephistophiles) was the most important prey in their diet. A total of 354 camera trap-nights photographed a male and female puma, Northern pudu and Spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus). The main conclusion suggests a strong dependence of puma on the threatened and mysterious Northern Pudu in paramo habitats. This behavior might reflect restricted prey availability in the high Andes mountains of Colombia, and highlights the plasticity in the puma diet. Conservation actions in the paramo should thus, focus on focal wild species, and in particularly those that show a relationship, such as the one evidenced here with the dependence of puma on Northern Pudu. These findings contribute to increase the little known ecology of Andean puma populations and the species as a whole in Colombia. Baseline data on puma prey populations in different ecosystems throughout their range, is critical to understand the regional requirements for survival, and design

  6. Variability in assays used for detection of lentiviral infection in bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Puma concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.P.; Troyer, J.L.; TerWee, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Kays, R.W.; Riley, S.P.D.; Boyce, W.M.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2007-01-01

    Although lentiviruses similar to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are known to infect numerous felid species, the relative utility of assays used for detecting lentiviral infection has not been compared for many of these hosts. We tested bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Felis concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) for exposure to lentivirus using five different assays: puma lentivirus (PLV), African lion lentivirus (LLV), and domestic cat FIV-based immunoblots, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Puma lentivirus immunoblots identified more seropositive individuals than the other antibody-detection assays. The commercial ELISA provided a fair ability to recognize seropositive samples when compared with PLV immunoblot for screening bobcats and ocelots, but not pumas. Polymerase chain reaction identified fewer positive samples than PLV immunoblot for all three species. Immunoblot results were equivalent whether the sample tested was serum, plasma, or whole blood. The results from this study and previous investigations suggest that the PLV immunoblot has the greatest ability to detect reactive samples when screening wild felids of North America and is unlikely to produce false positive results. However, the commercial ELISA kit may provide ap adequate alternative for screening of some species and is more easily adapted to field conditions. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

  7. Diet of pumas (Puma concolor) in Sonora, Mexico, as determined by GPS kill sites and molecular identified scat, with comments on jaguar (Panthera onca) diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassaigne, Ivonne; Medellin, Rodrigo A.; Thompson, Ron W.; Culver, Melanie; Ochoa, Alexander; Vargas, Karla; Childs, Jack L.; Sanderson, Jim; List, Rurik; Torres-Gomez, Armando

    2016-01-01

    We documented puma (Puma concolor) and jaguar (Panthera onca) prey consumption in northeastern Sonora, Mexico, by investigating global positioning system cluster sites (n = 220), and conducting molecular analyses of scat (n = 116) collected between 2011 and 2013. We used camera trap data (n = 8,976 camera days) to estimate relative abundances of pumas and jaguars. Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was the most frequent prey for puma found at kill sites (67%) and identified from scat (74%), although based on relative numbers of prey consumed, deer represented 45% and lagomorphs 20% of the proportion of all individuals eaten. A variety of small prey (weighing pumas preyed on calves at a higher frequency than previously reported in the same area. In our study area, jaguars preyed on calves at approximately the same rate as pumas (jaguars 3.7 calves per year, pumas 4.9 calves per year). Calculated predation rates were limited only to collared animals within our study area and therefore should not be considered applicable to all pumas and jaguars in Sonora.

  8. Diet of pumas (Puma concolor) in Sonora, Mexico, as determined by GPS kill sites and molecular identified scat, with comments on jaguar (Panthera onca) diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassaigne, Ivonne; Medellin, Rodrigo A.; Thompson, Ron W.; Culver, Melanie; Ochoa, Alexander; Vargas, Karla; Childs, Jack L.; Sanderson, Jim; List, Rurik; Torres-Gomez, Armando

    2016-01-01

    We documented puma (Puma concolor) and jaguar (Panthera onca) prey consumption in northeastern Sonora, Mexico, by investigating global positioning system cluster sites (n = 220), and conducting molecular analyses of scat (n = 116) collected between 2011 and 2013. We used camera trap data (n = 8,976 camera days) to estimate relative abundances of pumas and jaguars. Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was the most frequent prey for puma found at kill sites (67%) and identified from scat (74%), although based on relative numbers of prey consumed, deer represented 45% and lagomorphs 20% of the proportion of all individuals eaten. A variety of small prey (weighing <15 kg) comprised the majority (52%) of the jaguar kill sites. From prey found at kill sites, jaguars killed calves (Bos taurus) at a lower frequency than previously reported, whereas pumas preyed on calves at a higher frequency than previously reported in the same area. In our study area, jaguars preyed on calves at approximately the same rate as pumas (jaguars 3.7 calves per year, pumas 4.9 calves per year). Calculated predation rates were limited only to collared animals within our study area and therefore should not be considered applicable to all pumas and jaguars in Sonora.

  9. E2F-1 induces melanoma cell apoptosis via PUMA up-regulation and Bax translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Hongying; Dong, Yanbin; Bowling, Maria T; Gomez-Gutierrez, Jorge G; Zhou, H Sam; McMasters, Kelly M

    2007-01-01

    PUMA is a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member that has been shown to be involved in apoptosis in many cell types. We sought to ascertain whether induction of PUMA plays a crucial role in E2F-1-induced apoptosis in melanoma cells. PUMA gene and protein expression levels were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot in SK-MEL-2 and HCT116 cell lines after Ad-E2F-1 infection. Activation of the PUMA promoter by E2F-1 overexpression was detected by dual luciferase reporter assay. E2F-1-induced Bax translocation was shown by immunocytochemistry. The induction of caspase-9 activity was measured by caspase-9 colorimetric assay kit. Up-regulation of the PUMA gene and protein by E2F-1 overexpression was detected by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis in the SK-MEL-2 melanoma cell line. In support of this finding, we found six putative E2F-1 binding sites within the PUMA promoter. Subsequent dual luciferase reporter assay showed that E2F-1 expression could increase the PUMA gene promoter activity 9.3 fold in SK-MEL-2 cells. The role of PUMA in E2F-1-induced apoptosis was further investigated in a PUMA knockout cell line. Cell viability assay showed that the HCT116 PUMA-/- cell line was more resistant to Ad-E2F-1-mediated cell death than the HCT116 PUMA+/+ cell line. Moreover, a 2.2-fold induction of the PUMA promoter was also noted in the HCT116 PUMA+/+ colon cancer cell line after Ad-E2F-1 infection. Overexpression of a truncated E2F-1 protein that lacks the transactivation domain failed to up-regulate PUMA promoter, suggesting that PUMA may be a transcriptional target of E2F-1. E2F-1-induced cancer cell apoptosis was accompanied by Bax translocation from the cytosol to mitochondria and the induction of caspase-9 activity, suggesting that E2F-1-induced apoptosis is mediated by PUMA through the cytochrome C/Apaf-1-dependent pathway. Our studies strongly demonstrated that E2F-1 induces melanoma cell apoptosis via PUMA up-regulation and Bax translocation. The signaling

  10. Cytokine receptor signaling activates an IKK-dependent phosphorylation of PUMA to prevent cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandow, J J; Jabbour, A M; Condina, M R; Daunt, C P; Stomski, F C; Green, B D; Riffkin, C D; Hoffmann, P; Guthridge, M A; Silke, J; Lopez, A F; Ekert, P G

    2012-01-01

    P53-upregulated modifier of apoptosis (PUMA), a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, is transcriptionally activated by p53 and is a key effector of p53-dependent apoptosis. We show that PUMA protein is subject to rapid post-translational regulation by phosphorylation at a conserved residue, serine 10, following serum or interleukin-3 (IL-3) stimulation. Serine 10 is not within the Bcl-2 homology (BH3) domain, and PUMA phosphorylated at serine 10 retained the ability to co-immunoprecipitate with antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members. However, phosphorylated PUMA was targeted for proteasomal degradation indicating that it is less stable than unphosphorylated PUMA. Importantly, we identified IKK1/IKK2/Nemo as the kinase complex that interacts with and phosphorylates PUMA, thereby also demonstrating that IL-3 activates NFκB signaling. The identification and characterization of this novel survival pathway has important implications for IL-3 signaling and hematopoietic cell development. PMID:21997190

  11. PUMA mediates ER stress-induced apoptosis in portal hypertensive gastropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, S; Wei, X; Song, M; Tao, J; Yang, Y; Khatoon, S; Liu, H; Jiang, J; Wu, B

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal apoptosis has been demonstrated to be an essential pathological feature in portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG). p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) was identified as a BH3-only Bcl-2 family protein that has an essential role in apoptosis induced by a variety of stimuli, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, whether PUMA is involved in mucosal apoptosis in PHG remains unclear, and whether PUMA induces PHG by mediating ER stress remains unknown. The aim of th...

  12. COMUNEROS ANDINOS EN LA ADMINISTRACIÓN CHILENA (ARICA, 1880-1929

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO DÍAZ ARAYA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Se evalúa el impacto generado en los sectores rurales andinos de Arica por la implementación de la estructura y burocracia administrativa chilena post Guerra del Pacífico. A través de registros documentales se hace explícita la participación de comuneros indígenas en la trama estatal chilena en un período de conflicto político y de identidades nacionales. Palabras claves: Comunidad andina – administración chilena – Arica y Tacna. Abstract Assesses the impact generated in the rural Andes Arica for implementing the administrative structure and bureaucracy in Chile after the Pacific War. Through documentary record makes explicit the participation of indigenous community members in the plot Chilean state over a period of political and national identities. Keywords : Andean Community - Chilean government - Arica and Tacna.

  13. Jaguar interactions with pumas and prey at the northern edge of jaguars’ range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmina E. Gutiérrez-González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the first study that evaluates jaguar-puma interactions in the arid lands of northern Mexico, where jaguars have their northernmost breeding population and both predators are persecuted for livestock depredation. We tested whether jaguars are the dominant species in this unique ecosystem, where: (1 pumas outnumber jaguars, (2 pumas are better adapted to arid environments, and (3 jaguars and pumas are of similar size. We analyzed four years of data with two approaches; a two species conditional occupancy model and an activity patterns analysis. We used camera location and prey presence as covariates for jaguar and puma detection and presence probabilities. We also explored overlap in activities of predators and prey. Where both species were detected, peccary presence was positively correlated with both jaguar and puma presence, whereas in areas where jaguars were detected but pumas were not, deer presence explained the probability of jaguar presence. We found that both predators were more likely to co-occur together than to be found independently, and so we rejected the hypothesis that jaguars were the dominant species in our study area. Predators were mainly nocturnal and their activity patterns overlapped by 60%. Jaguar, as compared with puma, overlapped more with deer and calves; puma overlapped with calves more than with other prey, suggesting a preference. We believe exploring predator relationships at different scales may help elucidate mechanisms that regulate their coexistence.

  14. PUMA Cooperates with p21 to Regulate Mammary Epithelial Morphogenesis and Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Zhang

    Full Text Available Lumen formation is essential for mammary morphogenesis and requires proliferative suppression and apoptotic clearance of the inner cells within developing acini. Previously, we showed that knockdown of p53 or p73 leads to aberrant mammary acinus formation accompanied with decreased expression of p53 family targets PUMA and p21, suggesting that PUMA, an inducer of apoptosis, and p21, an inducer of cell cycle arrest, directly regulate mammary morphogenesis. To address this, we generated multiple MCF10A cell lines in which PUMA, p21, or both were stably knocked down. We found that morphogenesis of MCF10A cells was altered modestly by knockdown of either PUMA or p21 alone but markedly by knockdown of both PUMA and p21. Moreover, we found that knockdown of PUMA and p21 leads to loss of E-cadherin expression along with increased expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT markers. Interestingly, we found that knockdown of ΔNp73, which antagonizes the ability of wide-type p53 and TA isoform of p73 to regulate PUMA and p21, mitigates the abnormal morphogenesis and EMT induced by knockdown of PUMA or p21. Together, our data suggest that PUMA cooperates with p21 to regulate normal acinus formation and EMT.

  15. PUMA Cooperates with p21 to Regulate Mammary Epithelial Morphogenesis and Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong Sam; Chen, Xinbin

    2013-01-01

    Lumen formation is essential for mammary morphogenesis and requires proliferative suppression and apoptotic clearance of the inner cells within developing acini. Previously, we showed that knockdown of p53 or p73 leads to aberrant mammary acinus formation accompanied with decreased expression of p53 family targets PUMA and p21, suggesting that PUMA, an inducer of apoptosis, and p21, an inducer of cell cycle arrest, directly regulate mammary morphogenesis. To address this, we generated multiple MCF10A cell lines in which PUMA, p21, or both were stably knocked down. We found that morphogenesis of MCF10A cells was altered modestly by knockdown of either PUMA or p21 alone but markedly by knockdown of both PUMA and p21. Moreover, we found that knockdown of PUMA and p21 leads to loss of E-cadherin expression along with increased expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. Interestingly, we found that knockdown of ΔNp73, which antagonizes the ability of wide-type p53 and TA isoform of p73 to regulate PUMA and p21, mitigates the abnormal morphogenesis and EMT induced by knockdown of PUMA or p21. Together, our data suggest that PUMA cooperates with p21 to regulate normal acinus formation and EMT. PMID:23805223

  16. Aβ induces PUMA activation: a new mechanism for Aβ-mediated neuronal apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Meng, Chengbo; Xing, Da

    2015-02-01

    p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) is a promising tumor therapy target because it elicits apoptosis and profound sensitivity to radiation and chemotherapy. However, inhibition of PUMA may be beneficial for curbing excessive apoptosis associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a representative neurodegenerative disease in which amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition causes neurotoxicity. The regulation of PUMA during Aβ-induced neuronal apoptosis remains poorly understood. Here, we reported that PUMA expression was significantly increased in the hippocampus of transgenic mice models of AD and hippocampal neurons in response to Aβ. PUMA knockdown protected the neurons against Aβ-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, besides p53, PUMA transactivation was also regulated by forkhead box O3a through p53-independent manner following Aβ treatment. Notably, PUMA contributed to neuronal apoptosis through competitive binding of apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain to activate caspase-8 that cleaved Bid into tBid to accelerate Bax mitochondrial translocation, revealing a novel pathway of Bax activation by PUMA to mediate Aβ-induced neuronal apoptosis. Together, we demonstrated that PUMA activation involved in Aβ-induced apoptosis, representing a drug target to antagonize AD progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lo andino en los murales de Jesús Flores Walpaq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Leandro Arce De Piero

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo exploramos los modos en que lo andino se construye en la producción muralística del artista plástico Jesús Flores Walpq. Nos enfocamos en la definición de rasgos que configuran el centro representacional de lo andino y el proceso de deslizamientos semánticos y retóricos en la enunciación. A medida que el artista fue construyéndose como enunciador autorizado, la construcción del relato en el mural fue variando considerablemente. Si bien no se registran diferencias radicales en el empleo del color, la forma, la línea, etc. sí es significativa la variación en cuanto a la retórica que incorpora al indio en el discurso pictórico. El recorrido parte de la observación de los cambios en la construcción del yo-artista, que parte de la problematización del rol de productor de arte académico hasta plantear rol de “obrero del arte” comprometido con su contexto político, ideológico y artístico. Esto significó para Flores Walpaq adherir a las luchas reivindicatorias por los derechos indígenas. En conjunto, este texto nos lleva a problematizar sobre las condiciones de producción de la pregunta por la identidad en este contexto y las respuestas que los sujetos ensayan y modifican.

  18. Program for measuring plutonium quantities by gamma spectrometry: code 'PUMA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, J.; Vallee, M.; Etcheverry, M.

    1989-01-01

    The interest of the gamma spectrometry method for measuring plutonium quantities has been recently demonstrated. A practical outcome of this study is the code 'PUMA' (PlUtonium MAss). This code, characterized by an easy utilisation, is operational on a micro-computer. It can be used for the hold-up measurements, monitoring of wastes and surveillance of facility dismantling. The general structure, subroutine algorithms, the principles used for calculating parameters and corrections are explained [fr

  19. Transnacionalismo andino

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pærregaard, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    Formålet med kapitlet er at analyse den transnationale relation mellem to migrantkollektiver i USA og deres oprindelseslandsbyer i Perus højland. Analytisk koncentrerer kapitlet sig om, hvad som motiverer migranterne til at investere tid og penge i deres hjemlandsbyer, og hvordan dette engagement...

  20. Deguelin induces PUMA-mediated apoptosis and promotes sensitivity of lung cancer cells (LCCs) to doxorubicin (Dox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aimei; Wang, Weina; Chen, Yaqi; Ma, Fengqiao; Wei, Xiaoming; Bi, Yongyi

    2018-05-01

    As a natural agent for chemotherapy, deguelin remarkably suppresses proliferation in numerous solid cancers. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of its suppression are still insufficient. In our research, it was revealed that deguelin induced cell death of lung cancer cells (LCCs) by triggering expression of PUMA. Deguelin triggered PUMA induction independently of p53 via suppression of PI3K/AKT pathway, therefore stimulating Foxo3a to bind with PUMA promoter and stimulate its transcription. Subsequent to activation, PUMA motivated Bax as well as the intrinsic mitochondrial cell death pathway. Removal of PUMA from LCC cells led to deguelin resistance, suggesting deguelin-induced cell death was modulated by PUMA. Furthermore, we demonstrated that deguelin enhanced the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of doxorubicin in vitro and in vivo, which were associated with potentiated PUMA induction. Taken together, these results establish a critical role of PUMA in mediating the anticancer effects of deguelin in lung cancer cells and provide the rationale for clinical evaluation.

  1. ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DE ALGUNOS ELEMENTOS DE LAS EXTREMIDADES ANTERIORES Y POSTERIORES Y PIEZAS DENTALES DE PUMA (Puma concolor) Y JAGUAR (Panthera onca)

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiola Montserrat Morales-Mejía; Joaquín Arroyo-Cabrales; Oscar J. Polaco

    2010-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio osteológico comparativo de algunos elementos de las extremidades anteriores y posteriores y de las piezas dentales entre ejemplares de las dos grandes especies de felinos de América: el puma (Puma concolor) y el jaguar (Panthera onca). Se utilizaron 29 ejemplares de puma y 31 de jaguar, alojadas en distintas colecciones osteológicas de México. Las diferencias más notables que se encontraron fueron que las inserciones musculares de los elementos de las extremi...

  2. Trayectorias, redes migratorias y procesos identitarios, en la conformación del mercado de trabajo agrícola destinado a bolivianos : estudio en dos municipios del este salteño 1960 - 2013.

    OpenAIRE

    Ataide, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    La presente tesis pretende aportar a los estudios sobre la segmentación étnica de los mercados laborales en general y de aquellos vinculados a los migrantes bolivianos en Salta (Argentina), en particular. Partimos de la existencia de un mercado de trabajo agrícola segmentado por la pertenencia de los trabajadores al colectivo nacional: bolivianos, en dos municipios de la provincia de Salta, Apolinario Saravia y Gral. Pizarro. En este caso, la migración boliviana conforma un destino temprano, ...

  3. IMPLANTACIÓN DE PRÓTESIS INTRAESCLERAL COMO MANEJO DE GLAUCOMA EN PUMA (PUMA CONCOLOR LINNAEUS, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Díaz-Parra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Un macho adulto de puma o león americano (Puma concolor, de la Fundación Zoológico santacruz (Colombia, evidenció al examen oftalmológico del ojo derecho buftalmo seve-ro, congestión episcleral, epífora, atrofia retiniana, luxación del cristalino y pérdida de la visión como signos relevantes. debido a los hallazgos del examen clínico y la cronicidad del caso se realizó evisceración e implantación de prótesis intraescleral como parte del tratamiento del glaucoma crónico del animal. después de la cirugía el puma presentó una buena recuperación y adaptación a la prótesis, lo que permitió dar un adecuado manejo de la enfermedad, proporcionando bienestar al animal.

  4. Cholos, incas y fusionistas: El nuevo Perú y la globalización de lo andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelou Ypeij

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:   Cholos, incas and fusionistas: The New Peru and the Globalization of 'Lo Andino'This Exploration deals with the cultural changes in Peru from the year 2000. Peru has become a society with more economic, political, social and global opportunities. Within this context, significant cultural changes can be noted. This essay explores cultural expressions such as the weaving associations of the women of Chinchero, the Peruvian cuisine and the rock band Uchpa. All have in common that they reinterpret 'lo andino', or what it is to be Andean, and that they integrate globalized elements. Based on this, a new identity becomes apparent which surpasses the known categories of ethnicity and class.Resumen:Esta exploración trata sobre los cambios culturales en Perú a partir del año 2000. Perú se ha convertido en una sociedad con más oportunidades económicas, políticas, sociales y globales. En este contexto se pueden notar cambios culturales significantes. El ensayo explora expresiones culturales como las asociaciones de tejidos de las mujeres de Chinchero, la gastronomía peruana y la banda de rock Uchpa. Todas tienen en común que reinterpretan lo andino y que integran elementos globalizados. Basándose en ello, surge una nueva identidad que sobrepasa las conocidas categorías de etnicidad y de clase.

  5. COMPOSICIÓN, ESTRUCTURA Y PATRÓN ESPACIAL DE UN BOSQUE TUCUMANO-BOLIVIANO EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DE TARIJA (BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Santiago Zenteno-Ruiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El bosque tucumano-boliviano, en su sector correspondiente a Bolivia, ha comenzado a ser conocido con mayor detalle en los últimos años. Sin embargo, los estudios realizados han tenido un carácter más cualitativo o se han realizado en superficies pequeñas (0,1 ha; además, la biogeografía de sus zonas más bajas no está del todo clara. Por otro lado, algunos aspectos ecológicos, como los referidos a patrones espaciales de los árboles, no han sido nunca abordados. Nosotros realizamos el estudio de una hectárea de bosque tucumano-boliviano a 700-950 m, y mapeamos todos los árboles y lianas con DAP ¿10 cm a fin de caracterizar cuantitativamente un área representativa de este bosque. El propósito fue conocer su composición, abundancia y estructura. Realizamos el primer estudio de patrones espaciales para este tipo de bosque en Bolivia. Registramos 591 individuos agrupados en 31 familias, 47 géneros y 57 especies. Seis especies fueron las más abundantes: Urera caracasana, Trichilia clausenii, Piper tucumanum, Diatenopteryx sorbifolia, Chrysophyllum gonocarpum y Cupania vernalis. El bosque estudiado puede considerarse parte del bosque tucumano-boliviano más que del Arco Pleistocénico. El área basal total fue de 29.4 m2/ha. La presencia de lianas fue relativamente baja, lo que indica que se trata de un bosque relativamente poco perturbado. Se trata de un lugar diverso. La riqueza específica resultó comparable a la de los bosques secos de Madidi (La Paz, Bolivia, y superior a la del tucumano-boliviano en el lado argentino, y fue estimada en 74 especies de árboles. La diversidad (3,5 índice Shannon-Wiener es tan alta como la de muchos bosques más tropicales, e incluso algunos amazónicos. Encontramos un patrón espacial aleatorio en los individuos de la comunidad, y la mayoría de las especies presentó agregación a alguna escala espacial.

  6. El jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa: Un invasor biológico como presa reciente del puma (Puma concolor en el sur de Chile The European wild boar (Sus scrofa: A biological invader as a recent prey of the American puma (Puma concolor in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSCAR SKEWES

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la dieta del puma (Puma concoloren los anos 1988 y 2004 en los faldeos de los volcanes Mocho y Choshuenco, pluviselva valdiviana, sur de Chile, a través de la identificación de ítemes-presas en sus heces y la búsqueda en terreno de carcasas de jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa.Se registra por primera vez al jabalí europeo entre los ítemes-presas del puma en Chile. El puma depredó predominantemente sobre juveniles y los porcentajes de consumo variaron entre un 17-37 % dependiendo del método empleado para analizar el contenido de presas presentes en sus heces.The diet of the American puma (Puma concolorwas studied in 1988 and 2004 in the foothills of the volcanoes Mocho and Choshuenco, Valdivian rainforest, southern Chile, through the identification of prey-items in their feces and field surveys of European wild boar (Sus scrofacarcasses. We reported for the first time the invader European wild boar as a puma's prey in Chile. The puma preys mainly on juveniles and its percentage of consumed prey ranges between 17 and 37 % according to the method employed to assess the analyses of their feces prey contents.

  7. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Puma Energy Caribe, LLC in Bayamon, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma Energy Caribe LLC (Puma) is located in the Luchetti Industrial Park in Bayamón, Puerto Rico. The site is bounded to the west and southwest by industrial and commercial facilities, and to the south and east by Fort Buchanan, a U.S. military reservation

  8. MicroRNA-203 induces apoptosis by upregulating Puma expression in colon and lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funamizu, Naotake; Lacy, Curtis R; Kamada, Minori; Yanaga, Katsuhiko; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between microRNA-203 (miR-203) and the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (Puma) in colon (HCT116) and lung cancer (A549) cells. Colon and lung cancer cell lines were selected for this study since a relationship between p53/miR-203 and p53/Puma has been established in both cancers. In the present study, adriamycin and nutlin-3 were used to activate p53, which induced both miR-203 and Puma expression in HCT116 cells. In contrast, HCT 116 cells with downregulated p53 showed decreased miR-203 and Puma expression. Importantly, we found that overexpressed miR-203 in HCT116 cells resulted in significantly increased Puma expression (PPuma axis depends on miR-203 expression. To further validate this relationship, we used lung cancer cells (A549) and found that activated p53 increased both miR-203 and Puma expression. In addition, we found that Puma expression remained elevated in cells with overexpressed miR-203 in the presence of p53 downregulation. Cumulatively, our data purport that p53 not only increased Puma expression directly, but that it may also do so through miR-203. Additionally, functional studies revealed that miR-203 overexpression induced apoptosis and inhibited cell invasiveness.

  9. Subcellular localization of PUMA regulates its pro-apoptotic activity in Burkitt's lymphoma B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroise, Gorbatchev; Portier, Alain; Roders, Nathalie; Arnoult, Damien; Vazquez, Aimé

    2015-11-10

    The BH3-only protein PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis) is a major regulator of apoptosis. It belongs to the Bcl-2 family of proteins responsible for maintaining mitochondrial outer membrane integrity by controlling the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway. We describe here a new pathway regulating PUMA activation through the control of its subcellular distribution. Surprisingly, neither PUMA upregulation in normal activated human B lymphocytes nor high levels of PUMA in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were associated with cell death. We show that PUMA is localized to the cytosol in these cells. By contrast, various apoptosis-triggering signals were found to promote the translocation of PUMA to the mitochondria in these cells, leading to their death by apoptosis. This apoptosis was associated with the binding of mitochondrial PUMA to anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, such as Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. This translocation was caspase-independent but was prevented by inhibiting or knocking down the expression of the MAPK kinase p38. Our data suggest that the accumulation of PUMA in the cytosol may be important for the participation of this protein in apoptosis without the need for prior transcription. This regulatory pathway may be an important feature of differentiation and tumorigenic processes.

  10. Characterization of puma-livestock conflicts in rangelands of central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerisoli, María de Las Mercedes; Luengos Vidal, Estela; Franchini, Marcello; Caruso, Nicolás; Casanave, Emma Beatriz; Lucherini, Mauro

    2017-12-01

    Livestock predation is one of the major causes of conflicts between humans and pumas ( Puma concolor ). Using data from interviews with ranchers and kill-site inspections, we characterized puma-livestock conflicts in Villarino and Patagones counties of central Argentinean rangelands. Depredation was considered the major cause of livestock losses, and puma attacks were reported in 46.6% and 35.4% of ranches in Villarino and Patagones, respectively. The majority of ranches underwent losses smaller than 1000 USD. The proportion of livestock lost to predation (0.1-10.4%) and financial losses (5.3-1560.4 USD) per ranch/year varied across ranches, and small sheep ranches in Villarino were affected the most. Depredation was recorded only at night and preferentially in grassland with shrubs and cropland habitats. Although nocturnal enclosures appeared to decrease sheep losses, puma hunting was considered the most effective form of reducing depredation and was implemented by most ranchers. Mortality rates were 3.7 and 1.1-1.56 individuals/year × 100 km 2 for sheep and pumas, respectively. Nocturnal fencing, shepherding and spatial separation from predators may efficiently reduce sheep losses. However, the poor association between the intensity of puma persecution and puma-related livestock losses suggests that conflict mitigation in central Argentina is not only about reducing damage but also about increasing tolerance.

  11. PUMA mediates the anti-cancer effect of osimertinib in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lingchuan; Huang, Shan; Wang, Xinwei

    2017-01-01

    Osimertinib, an irreversible EGFR/HER2 inhibitor, has been found to be effective in the cancer cell with EGFR gene mutations in preclinical lung cancer models. However, the effect of osimertinib in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells is unclear. In the present study, we investigated how osimertinib suppresses CRC cells growth and potentiates effects of other chemotherapeutic drugs. We found that p73-mediated osimertinib-induced p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) expression irrespective of p53 status following PI3K/AKT pathway inhibition in CRC cells. Furthermore, PUMA is required for osimertinib-induced apoptosis. In addition, osimertinib also synergized with 5-FU to induce significant apoptosis via PUMA in CRC cells. These results demonstrated a critical role of PUMA in mediating the anticancer effects of osimertinib and suggest that PUMA induction can be used as an indicator of osimertinib sensitivity.

  12. IRES-mediated translation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member PUMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltouki, Atossa; Harford, Terri J.; Komar, Anton A.; Weyman, Crystal M.

    2013-01-01

    The proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member PUMA is a critical regulator of apoptosis. We have previously shown that PUMA plays a pivotal role in the apoptosis associated with skeletal myoblast differentiation and that a MyoD-dependent mechanism is responsible for the increased expression of PUMA in these cells. Herein, we report that the increased expression of PUMA under these conditions involves regulation at the level of translation. Specifically, we have found that the increase in PUMA protein levels occurs under conditions of decreased total protein synthesis, eIF2-alpha phosphorylation and hypophosphorylation of eIF4E-BP, suggesting that PUMA translation is proceeding via an alternative initiation mechanism. Polyribosome analysis of PUMA mRNA further corroborated this suggestion. A combination of in vitro and ex vivo (cellular) approaches has provided evidence suggesting that PUMA mRNA 5'UTR harbors an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) element. Using mono- and bi-cistronic reporter constructs, we have delineated an mRNA fragment that allows for cap-independent translation in vitro and ex vivo (in skeletal myoblasts) in response to culture in differentiation media (DM), or in response to treatment with the DNA-damaging agent, etoposide. This mRNA fragment also supports translation in HeLa and 293T cells. Thus, our data has revealed a novel IRES-mediated regulation of PUMA expression in several cell types and in response to several stimuli. These findings contribute to our understanding and potential manipulation of any developmental or therapeutic scenario involving PUMA. PMID:26824017

  13. Interfacing models of wildlife habitat and human development to predict the future distribution of puma habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, Christopher L.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Theobald, David M.; Wilson, Kenneth R.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa A.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of human land uses on ecological systems typically differ relative to how extensively natural conditions are modified. Exurban development is intermediate-intensity residential development that often occurs in natural landscapes. Most species-habitat models do not evaluate the effects of such intermediate levels of human development and even fewer predict how future development patterns might affect the amount and configuration of habitat. We addressed these deficiencies by interfacing a habitat model with a spatially-explicit housing-density model to study the effect of human land uses on the habitat of pumas (Puma concolor) in southern California. We studied the response of pumas to natural and anthropogenic features within their home ranges and how mortality risk varied across a gradient of human development. We also used our housing-density model to estimate past and future housing densities and model the distribution of puma habitat in 1970, 2000, and 2030. The natural landscape for pumas in our study area consisted of riparian areas, oak woodlands, and open, conifer forests embedded in a chaparral matrix. Pumas rarely incorporated suburban or urban development into their home ranges, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the behavioral decisions of individuals can be collectively manifested as population-limiting factors at broader spatial scales. Pumas incorporated rural and exurban development into their home ranges, apparently perceiving these areas as modified, rather than non-habitat. Overall, pumas used exurban areas less than expected and showed a neutral response to rural areas. However, individual pumas that selected for or showed a neutral response to exurban areas had a higher risk of mortality than pumas that selected against exurban habitat. Exurban areas are likely hotspots for puma-human conflict in southern California. Approximately 10% of our study area will transform from exurban, rural, or undeveloped areas to suburban or

  14. PUMA: a puzzle piece in chloroquine’s antimelanoma activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaravadi, Ravi K.

    2013-01-01

    Chloroquine can induce cell death in a subset of cancer cell lines, and some melanoma cell lines are quite susceptible. While it is well known that chloroquine impairs lysosomal function and can serve as an autophagy inhibitor, the molecular target of chloroquine and the subsequent cascade of events that leads to cell death are not fully understood. Recent evidence indicates that in melanoma cell lines, chloroquine induces apoptosis by preventing degradation of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein PUMA. This finding adds to the unfolding story of chloroquine’s mechanism of action as a cancer therapeutic agent. PMID:23949767

  15. PHOTORECEPTOR DEGENERATION IN A MOUNTAIN LION CUB (PUMA CONCOLOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvo, Andrew R; Reilly, Christopher M; Wiggans, K Tomo; Woods, Leslie W; Wack, Ray F; Clifford, Deana L

    2016-12-01

    An orphaned 4-mo-old female mountain lion cub ( Puma concolor ) was captured along the coastline in Montaña de Oro State Park in Los Osos, California, USA. Following suspicion that the cub was visually impaired, ophthalmic examination revealed diffuse bilateral retinal atrophy. Due to a poor prognosis, humane euthanasia was elected. Necropsy and histopathological findings were consistent with photoreceptor degeneration. Based on the cub's signalment, history, and histopathology, a genetic or nutritional etiology was suspected, with the former etiology more strongly supported. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of photoreceptor degeneration in a wild felid and should be considered in cases of blindness.

  16. Neoliberalismo socioeconômico e mutações jurídicas do Estado moderno: o Estado Plurinacional boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinho Martins Botelho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente artigo é analisar as recentes modificações no ordenamento jurídico constitucional boliviano, no que tange à institucionalização do Estado Plurinacional, criado a partir do diálogo maior entre a democracia cultural, o direito e as instituições econômicas. Em 2009, fora aprovada a Constituição Política do Estado Plurinacional de Bolívia, depois de manifestação por meio de referendo. O legado da nova Constituição Política boliviana reside no desligamento com o antigo regime mais corporativista e voltado para a difusão de um ideal neoliberal socioeconômico.  A compreensão da nova categoria constitucional poderá contribuir para o levantamento de elementos que possibilitem a compreensão de novas mutações constitucionais e intervenções jurídicas na sociedade do século XXI. O presente artigo busca refletir sobre a recente crise do Estado boliviano e na institucionalização do Estado Plurinacional como uma demanda social para a superação das ideias neoliberais.

  17. Estados sin nación. El discurso nacionalista y el evolucionismo andino, 1890-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Juan Montoya Vásquez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to analyze the relationship between the nationalist pronouncements in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, and the debate center on European evolutionism at the end of the 19th and 20th centuries. The essay, introductory in nature, presents some aspects of the recent debate on the genealogic discourse of nationalism as well as some important bibliographic references concerning these issues.//El artículo propone un análisis de las relaciones entre el discurso nacionalista en los países centro andinos (Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia y el debate en torno a las tesis del evolucionismo europeo, a fines del siglo XIX e inicios del XX, centrado en el problema de la “integración de las mayorías” a la vida o dinámica nacional. Por ser de carácter introductorio se avoca a presentar algunos elementos del debate reciente sobre el discurso genealógico del nacionalismo así como parte importante de la bibliografía dedicada al tema en los referidos medios.

  18. Niveles de satisfacción de los usuarios del Hospital Andino Alternativo de Chimborazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basantes-Avalos, René

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To be competitive in the present world, it should be offered goods and services of quality, therefore the efforts of enterprises should be focused on the customer, by knowing their needs, providing value-added solutions and a level of excellence that satisfies them, and thus ensure their loyalty. Alternative Andino Hospital of Chimborazo, Ecuador, which is a new institution in the area of health, performs procedures for continuous improvement when providing their service, but it does not know for sure what the opinions of its customers about the quality of the received service are. That is why, a research that analyzes the perceptions of customers, using the SERVPERF model was made, this model owes its name to the exclusive attention paid to performance assessment to measure the quality of service, although it consists of the same items and dimensions as SERVQUAL, the only difference is that it eliminates the part that refers to expectations of customers. Once analyzed the items of security, empathy, tangibility, reliability and responsiveness; the best one is safety, followed closely by reliability.

  19. Estudio de la Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp., cultivo andino con propiedades terapéuticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Sifuentes-Penagos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La maca es un producto originario de los Andes Centrales del Perú, resistente a granizadas, heladas y sequías prolongadas. Se cultiva desde la época incaica en altitudes comprendidas entre los 3800 a 4500 m.s.n.m. Esta planta herbácea, presenta no sólo un alto valor nutricional sino también es valorada por su papel medicinal. Entre los componentes químicos de este cultivo andino que se han relacionado con sus acciones terapéuticas como el aumento de la fertilidad, niveles de energía, acción antioxidante, mejora del deseo sexual y la tasa de crecimiento, destacan: los glucosinolatos, esteroles, ácidos grasos (macaeno y sus respectivas amidas (macamidas, alcaloides (lepidilinas A y B, macaridina y polifenoles. El objetivo de este trabajo fue, recopilar las diferentes investigaciones que se han llevado a cabo sobre las propiedades terapéuticas de la maca y los compuestos responsables de las mismas.

  20. Slug promotes survival during metastasis through suppression of Puma-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seaho; Yao, Jiahong; Suyama, Kimita; Qian, Xia; Qian, Bin-Zhi; Bandyopadhyay, Sanmay; Loudig, Olivier; De Leon-Rodriguez, Carlos; Zhou, Zhen Ni; Segall, Jeffrey; Macian, Fernando; Norton, Larry; Hazan, Rachel B

    2014-07-15

    Tumor cells must overcome apoptosis to survive throughout metastatic dissemination and distal organ colonization. Here, we show in the Polyoma Middle T mammary tumor model that N-cadherin (Cdh2) expression causes Slug (Snai2) upregulation, which in turn promotes carcinoma cell survival. Slug was dramatically upregulated in metastases relative to primary tumors. Consistent with a role in metastasis, Slug knockdown in carcinoma cells suppressed lung colonization by decreasing cell survival at metastatic sites, but had no effect on tumor cell invasion or extravasation. In support of this idea, Slug inhibition by shRNA sensitized tumor cells to apoptosis by DNA damage, resulting in caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. The prosurvival effect of Slug was found to be caused by direct repression of the proapoptotic gene, Puma (Bbc3), by Slug. Consistent with a pivotal role for a Slug-Puma axis in metastasis, inhibition of Puma by RNA interference in Slug-knockdown cells rescued lung colonization, whereas Puma overexpression in control tumor cells suppressed lung metastasis. The survival function of the Slug-Puma axis was confirmed in human breast cancer cells, where Slug knockdown increased Puma expression and inhibited lung colonization. This study demonstrates a pivotal role for Slug in carcinoma cell survival, implying that disruption of the Slug-Puma axis may impinge on the survival of metastatic cells. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. PUMA Version 6 Multiplatform with Facilities to be coupled with other Simulation Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    PUMA is a code for nuclear reactor calculation used in all nuclear installations in Argentina for simulation of fuel management, power cycles and transient events by means of spatial kinetic diffusion theory in 3D. For the versions used up to now the WINDOWS platform was used with very good results. Nowadays PUMA must work in different operative systems, LINUX among others, and must also have facilities to be coupled with other models. For this reason this new version was reprogrammed in ADA, language oriented to a safe programming and be found in any operative system. In former versions PUMA was executed through macro instructions written in LOGO. For this version it is possible to use also PYTHON, which makes also possible the access in execution time to internal data of PUMA. The use of PYTHON allows a easy way to couple PUMA with other codes. The possibilities of this new version of PUMA are shown by means of examples of input data and process control using PYTHON and LOGO. It is discussed the implementation of this methodology in other codes to be coupled with PUMA for versions run in WINDOWS and LINUX. (author)

  2. Participatory development of incentives to coexist with jaguars and pumas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Ronit; Jacobson, Susan K

    2018-01-22

    Reducing costs and increasing benefits for rural communities coexisting with large carnivores is necessary for conservation of jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Puma concolor). To design acceptable incentives, stakeholders must be involved in the process. We conducted an innovative, structured, group communication process based on a Delphi technique as a template for identifying potential incentives. Community workshops with 133 members of 7 communities and surveys with 25 multidisciplinary experts from government, nongovernmental organizations, and academia provided iterative data to design a plan of incentives through 4 rounds of discussion. The final product integrated 862 ideas into 6 types of incentives: organization of communities, mechanisms for improved dialogue, citizen technical assistance, green labeling for community products, payment for the ecosystem service of biodiversity, and an assessment of financial alternatives. We used quantitative and qualitative techniques to indicate support for decisions about the design of incentives, which reduced researcher subjectivity. The diverse incentives developed and the cooperation from multiple stakeholders resulted in an incentive plan that integrated issues of governance, equity, and social norms. © 2018 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Budování sportovní značky PUMA

    OpenAIRE

    Lečková, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Title: PUMA branding Objective: The aim of diploma thesis is to get improvement proposal which could be used for further building of PUMA brand. The research will be carried out on two samples of respondents. The first sample will be Generation Y which is defined by Bergh (2012). A second sample of respondents are employees of the company PUMA. Methods: The entire thesis is focused and based on standardized method of the brand personality from J. L. Aaker (1997), adapted by the authors Geuens...

  4. GRUPOS FUNCIONALES DE PLANTAS EN BORDES DE AVANCE CON POTENCIAL PARA LA RESTAURACIÓN DE UN BOSQUE ALTO ANDINO

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla Maria Argenis; Castellanos Castro Carolina

    2011-01-01

    El estudio de grupos funcionales de plantas es una herramienta útil en la identificación de características ecológicas de importancia en la regeneración de una comunidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue la identificación de grupos funcionales de plantas en bordes de avance de un bosque alto andino y la evaluación de su importancia en el curso de la sucesión secundaria en pastizales abandonados. Con base en levantamientos de vegetación de 10 x 10m y en la revisión de atributos vitales de las e...

  5. Modelo gerencial para toma de decisiones aplicando Teoría de restricciones en Cemento Andino S.A. - Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es determinar mediante la Teoría de restricciones, las mejores opciones de producción y despacho de productos, con las cuales los gerentes pueden tomar las mejores decisiones orientadas a maximizar las utilidades de la empresa Cementos Andino S.A - Venezuela, en la cual se desarrolló la metodología del decálogo, de tal forma que los Trúput obtenidos en los casos planteados como opción de mejora, son el reflejo de los conceptos que enmarcan su aplicación. Los resu...

  6. Cuando pobreza y género confluyen en el contexto educativo rural andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Alvarado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de haberse expandido las oportunidades educativas en el Perú andino durante las dos últimas décadas, la educación rural aún presenta problemas crónicos como una inadecuada inclusión de la niña y la joven en el sistema educativo. El mercado laboral tampoco les ofrece un panorama esperanzador luego de culminar la escuela, si tienen la posibilidad de hacerlo. Este artículo analiza los factores socio-económicos y educativos que impactan la permanencia o fracaso escolar de la joven andina en el Perú rural. Se señalan tres temas emergentes en el análisis y reflexión de esta realidad: brechas de género en el contexto educativo, pobreza y ruralidad así como políticas sensibles al género. Se concluye con sugerencias concretas para la toma de acciones inmediatas que tengan en cuenta la inclusión de todas las voces en la sociedad. Despite the fact that Andean Peru has expanded educational opportunities during the last two decades, rural education still presents serious problems as an inappropriate inclusion of girls and young women into the system of education. Moreover, the labor market does not offer to them an encouraging panorama after graduating from school, even if they have the chance to do so. This article analyzes the educational and socioeconomic factors that strike the permanence or school failure of young women´s in Peruvian rural. Three emerging topics are analyzed and considered on this context: gender gaps in the educational context, poverty and rurality, and gender-sensitive policies. The article draws some conclusions providing concrete recommendations for an urgent action-taking for the inclusion of all the voices in the society.

  7. ¿ES EL COMPORTAMIENTO RELIGIOSO ANDINO PRODUCTO DE FACTORES ECONÓMICOS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmín Tavera Colonna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sudamérica atravesada por los Andes presenta un contexto rico en diversidad pero incierto. Los fuertes cambios climáticos y terremotos han determinado cambios drásticos en la cosmogonía andina, así las primeras culturas andinas desarrolladas a orillas del mar le dan la espalda y reorientan sus dioses a los nevados de la cordillera. La escritura por su poder de comunicación en el tiempo ha revestido un cierto poder mágico para diferentes culturas. Las gracias impresas son agradecimientos a Dios o a los Santos por los favores concedidos. Al evaluar para Perú, el impacto de variables macroeconómicas sobre la cantidad de gracias por motivos económicos en sectores de clase media, encontramos que sólo los factores que reflejan el animismo andino guardan un impacto significativo. Ello sería el reflejo de un marco institucional débil en el que un individuo encuentra en la religión una institucionalidad legítima que le ofrece respuestas a necesidades básicas para su supervivencia como tal. El sincretismo religioso logró establecer el catolicismo en la Sudamérica andina, pero con una interesante reinterpretación, en la que la naturaleza y los ancestros siguen ocupando un lugar preponderante, sus señales son más claras que la de las instituciones que norman su sociedad.

  8. Archive of Census Related Products (ACRP): 1990 Public Use Microdata Sample Areas (PUMA) Boundary Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 1990 Public Use Microdata Sample Areas (PUMA) Boundary Files portion of the Archive of Census Related Products (ACRP) consists of 5% sample (apuma) and 1% sample...

  9. VEGA1 PUMA DUST MASS SPECTROMETER DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The PUMA data were submitted by IKI in two unique forms, a GROUPS FITS file and undocumented binary file. In one original form, the data in this set were received as...

  10. Evaluation of the BH3-only Protein Puma as a Direct Bak Activator*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Haiming; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among Bcl-2 family proteins play critical roles in cellular life and death decisions. Previous studies have established the BH3-only proteins Bim, tBid, and Noxa as “direct activators” that are able to directly initiate the oligomerization and activation of Bak and/or Bax. Earlier studies of Puma have yielded equivocal results, with some concluding that it also acts as a direct activator and other studies suggesting that it acts solely as a sensitizer BH3-only protein. In the present study we examined the interaction of Puma BH3 domain or full-length protein with Bak by surface plasmon resonance, assessed Bak oligomerization status by cross-linking followed by immunoblotting, evaluated the ability of the Puma BH3 domain to induce Bak-mediated permeabilization of liposomes and mitochondria, and determined the effect of wild type and mutant Puma on cell viability in a variety of cellular contexts. Results of this analysis demonstrate high affinity (KD = 26 ± 5 nm) binding of the Puma BH3 domain to purified Bak ex vivo, leading to Bak homo-oligomerization and membrane permeabilization. Mutations in Puma that inhibit (L141E/M144E/L148E) or enhance (M144I/A145G) Puma BH3 binding to Bak also produce corresponding alterations in Bak oligomerization, Bak-mediated membrane permeabilization and, in a cellular context, Bak-mediated killing. Collectively, these results provide strong evidence that Puma, like Bim, Noxa, and tBid, is able to act as a direct Bak activator. PMID:24265320

  11. Evaluation of the BH3-only protein Puma as a direct Bak activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Haiming; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina; Kaufmann, Scott H

    2014-01-03

    Interactions among Bcl-2 family proteins play critical roles in cellular life and death decisions. Previous studies have established the BH3-only proteins Bim, tBid, and Noxa as "direct activators" that are able to directly initiate the oligomerization and activation of Bak and/or Bax. Earlier studies of Puma have yielded equivocal results, with some concluding that it also acts as a direct activator and other studies suggesting that it acts solely as a sensitizer BH3-only protein. In the present study we examined the interaction of Puma BH3 domain or full-length protein with Bak by surface plasmon resonance, assessed Bak oligomerization status by cross-linking followed by immunoblotting, evaluated the ability of the Puma BH3 domain to induce Bak-mediated permeabilization of liposomes and mitochondria, and determined the effect of wild type and mutant Puma on cell viability in a variety of cellular contexts. Results of this analysis demonstrate high affinity (KD = 26 ± 5 nM) binding of the Puma BH3 domain to purified Bak ex vivo, leading to Bak homo-oligomerization and membrane permeabilization. Mutations in Puma that inhibit (L141E/M144E/L148E) or enhance (M144I/A145G) Puma BH3 binding to Bak also produce corresponding alterations in Bak oligomerization, Bak-mediated membrane permeabilization and, in a cellular context, Bak-mediated killing. Collectively, these results provide strong evidence that Puma, like Bim, Noxa, and tBid, is able to act as a direct Bak activator.

  12. PUMA is invovled in ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis of mouse cerebral astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Tian, M; Jin, L; Jia, H; Jin, Y

    2015-01-22

    PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis), a BH3-only member of the Bcl-2 protein family, is required for p53-dependent and p53-independent forms of apoptosis. PUMA has been invovled in the onset and progress of several diseases, including cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and ischemic brain disease. Although many studies have shown that ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) can induce the apoptosis of astrocytes, the role of PUMA in I/R-mediated apoptosis of cerebral astrocyte apoptosis remains unclear. To mimic in vivo I/R conditions, primary mouse cerebral astrocytes were incubated in a combinational cultural condition of oxygen, glucose, and serum deprivation (OSGD) for 1 h followed by reperfusion (OSGD/R). Cell death determination assays and cell viability assays indicated that OSGD and OSGD/R induce the apoptosis of primary cerebral astrocytes. The expression of PUMA was significantly elevated in primary cerebral astrocytes during OSGD/R. Moreover, targeted down-regulation of PUMA by siRNA transfection significantly decreased the OSGD/R-induced apoptosis of primary cerebral astrocytes. We also found that OSGD and OSGD/R triggered the release of cytochrome c in astrocytes, indicating the dependence on a mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was extremely generated during OSGD and OSGD/R, and the elimination of ROS by treated with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) remarkably inhibited the expression of PUMA and the apoptosis of primary cerebral astrocytes. The activation of Caspase 3 and Caspase 9 was extremely elevated in primary cerebral astrocytes during OSGD. In addition, we found that knockdown of PUMA led to the depressed expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3 during OSGD/R. These results indicate that PUMA is invovled in the apoptosis of cerebral astrocytes upon I/R injury. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PUMA and BIM Are Required for Oncogene Inactivation–Induced Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Gregory R.; Ganesan, Yogesh Tengarai; Dong, Yiyu; Takeda, Shugaku; Liu, Han; Chan, Po M.; Huang, Yafen; Chodosh, Lewis A.; Zambetti, Gerard P.; Hsieh, James J.-D.; Cheng, Emily H.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors supports the dependence of distinct subsets of cancers on specific driver mutations for survival, a phenomenon called “oncogene addiction.” We demonstrate that PUMA and BIM are the key apoptotic effectors of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in breast cancers with amplification of the gene encoding human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and lung cancers with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutants. The BH3 domain containing proteins BIM and PUMA can directly activate the proapoptotic proteins BAX and BAK to permeabilize mitochondria, leading to caspase activation and apoptosis. We delineated the signal transduction pathways leading to the induction of BIM and PUMA by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated or extracellular signal–regulated protein kinase kinase (MEK)–extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) pathway caused increased abundance of BIM, whereas antagonizing the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)–AKT pathway triggered nuclear translocation of the FOXO transcription factors, which directly activated the PUMA promoter. In a mouse breast tumor model, the abundance of PUMA and BIM was increased after inactivation of HER2. Moreover, deficiency of Bim or Puma impaired caspase activation and reduced tumor regression caused by inactivation of HER2. Similarly, deficiency of Puma impeded the regression of EGFRL858R-driven mouse lung tumors upon inactivation of the EGFR-activating mutant. Overall, our study identified PUMA and BIM as the sentinels that interconnect kinase signaling networks and the mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic program, which offers therapeutic insights for designing novel cell death mechanism–based anticancer strategies. PMID:23532334

  14. PUMA dependent mitophagy by Abrus agglutinin contributes to apoptosis through ceramide generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Prashanta Kumar; Naik, Prajna Paramita; Meher, Biswa Ranjan; Das, Durgesh Nandini; Mukhopadhyay, Subhadip; Praharaj, Prakash Priyadarshi; Maiti, Tapas K; Bhutia, Sujit K

    2018-03-01

    PUMA, a BH3-only pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family protein, is known to translocate from the cytosol into the mitochondria in order to induce apoptosis. Interestingly, the induction of PUMA by p53 plays a critical role in DNA damage-induced apoptosis. In this study, we reported mitophagy inducing potential of PUMA triggered by phytolectin Abrus agglutinin (AGG) in U87MG glioblastoma cells and established AGG-induced ceramide acts as the chief mediator of mitophagy dependent cell death through activation of both mitochondrial ROS as well as ER stress. Importantly, AGG upregulates PUMA expression in U87MG cells with the generation of dysfunctional mitochondria, with gain and loss of function of PUMA is shown to alter mitophagy induction. At the molecular level, our study identified that the LC3 interacting region (LIR) located at the C-terminal end of PUMA interacts with LC3 in order to stimulate mitophagy. In addition, AGG is also found to trigger ubiquitination of PUMA which in turn interacted with p62 for prompting mitophagy suggesting that AGG turns on PUMA-mediated mitophagy in U87MG cells in both p62-dependent as well as in p62-independent manner. Interestingly, AGG-triggered ceramide production through activation of ceramide synthase-1 leads to induction of ER stress and ROS accumulation to promote mitochondrial damage as well as mitophagy. Further, upon pre-treatment with Mdivi-1, DRP1 inhibitor, AGG exposure results in suppression of apoptosis in U87MG cells indicating AGG-induced mitophagy switches to apoptosis that can be exploited for better cancer therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Fuente del Puma Sheet G-27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.; Pena, S.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Fuente del Puma) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils. The area corresponding to Fuente del Puma is located in the SW of Lavalleja and NW of Maldonado town and its stratigraphy belong to the Cretaceous and Cenozoic formations as well as the Cambrian and upper Precambrian

  16. Značky Adidas a Puma v letech 2006-08 : komparativní studie

    OpenAIRE

    Suchá, Helena

    2010-01-01

    The bachelor thesis "Adidas and Puma brands in the years 2006-2008 : comparative study " deals with comparing the positioning and communication activities of Adidas and Puma sport brands in the years 2006-2008 in both Czech and Global market for sporting goods. Their Sharp origin and history is reflected in the production and marketing communication of brands that belong to the leaders in the sports industry and sponsorships. The first two parts deal with representation of brands Adidas and P...

  17. Marketingový výzkum hodnoty značky Puma

    OpenAIRE

    Lhota, Filip

    2011-01-01

    My thesis introduces a problem of value identification concerning the brand Puma in the Czech Republic. The main objective of this thesis is to find out how is Puma perceived by the Czech population as well as how satisfied and familiar is the Czech population with its products. The theoretical part of the thesis will deal with obtaining information and defining terms in field of marketing research, brand value and propagation. The practical part will include data collection and its processin...

  18. Medium-grade astrocytoma in a cougar (Puma concolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hirotaka; Leone, Angelique M; Erlacher-Reid, Claire; Gary, Joy; Kiupel, Matti; Farina, Lisa L; Abbott, Jeffrey R

    2012-12-01

    A 17-year-old, male castrated cougar (Puma concolor) was presented minimally responsive and severely depressed, with bilateral mydriasis and absent pupillary light response. On gross examination of the brain, there was a tan-to-gray, invasive mass with a central cavitation on the ventral aspect in the left cerebral hemisphere, rostral to the caudate nucleus. On histopathologic examination, the mass was composed of sheets of medium-sized, round-to-polygonal cells that were multifocally separated by islands of neuropil. Approximately 80% of the neoplastic cells showed strong cytoplasmic labeling for glial fibrillary acidic protein. These findings were consistent with a medium-grade astrocytoma. To the authors' knowledge, neoplastic disease of the central nervous system has not been previously reported in cougars.

  19. Un abordaje comparativo en torno a la incidencia de la tuberculosis en inmigrantes bolivianos de Buenos Aires y São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Goldberg

    Full Text Available Este trabajo expone de manera exploratoria y desde una perspectiva sociosanitaria regional, en clave comparativa, algunas dimensiones de análisis en torno a la incidencia de la tuberculosis en inmigrantes bolivianos de las ciudades de Buenos Aires y São Paulo. En ambos casos, se trata de un padecimiento ligado a sus modos de vida y de trabajo precarios en talleres textiles clandestinos. Sumado a lo anterior, la falta de documentación en regla, las dificultades de acceso a la atención sanitaria pública y el sufrimiento social experimentado, potencian la situación de vulnerabilidad social de estas personas; aumentando los riesgos de infectarse y desarrollar la enfermedad.

  20. Prolonged Expression of Puma in Cholinergic Amacrine Cells During the Development of Rat Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Jun; Mori, Tetsuji; Yamada, Hisao

    2012-01-01

    During development of the nervous system, large numbers of neurons are overproduced and then eliminated by programmed cell death. Puma is a BH3-only protein that is reported to be involved in the initiation of developmental programmed cell death in rodent retinal neurons. The expression and cellular localization of Puma in retinal tissues during development are not, however, well known. Here the authors report the expression pattern of Puma during retinal development in the rat. During the period of programmed cell death in the retina, Puma was expressed in some members of each retinal neuron, including retinal ganglion cells, amacrine cells, bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and photoreceptor cells. Although the developmental programmed cell death of cholinergic amacrine cells is known to be independent of Puma, this protein was expressed in almost all their dendrites and somata of cholinergic amacrine cells at postnatal age 2 to 3 weeks, and it continued to be detected in cholinergic dendrites in the inner plexiform layer for up to 8 weeks after birth. These results suggest that Puma has some significant roles in retinal neurons after eye opening, especially that of cholinergic amacrine cells, in addition to programmed cell death of retinal neurons before eye opening. PMID:22736709

  1. Regulation of memory B-cell survival by the BH3-only protein Puma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clybouw, Cyril; Fischer, Silke; Auffredou, Marie Thérèse; Hugues, Patricia; Alexia, Catherine; Bouillet, Philippe; Raphael, Martine; Leca, Gérald; Strasser, Andreas; Tarlinton, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Apoptosis is crucial for immune system homeostasis, including selection and survival of long-lived antibody-forming cells and memory cells. The interactions between proapoptotic and pro-survival proteins of the Bcl-2 family are critical for this process. In this report, we show that expression of the proapoptotic BH3-only Bcl-2 family member Puma was selectively up-regulated on in vitro activation with antigens or mitogens of both human and mouse B cells. Puma expression coincided in vivo, with the prosurvival Bcl-2 family member Mcl-1 within the germinal centers and its expression correlates with the germinal center like phenotype of Burkitt lymphoma. Experiments performed in Puma-deficient mice revealed that Puma is essential for apoptosis of mitogen-activated B cells in vitro and for the control of memory B-cell survival. In conclusion, using both human and murine models, our data show that Puma has a major role in the T cell– dependent B-cell immune response. These data demonstrate that Puma is a major regulator of memory B lymphocyte survival and therefore a key molecule in the control of the immune response. PMID:21868573

  2. Scale dependent behavioral responses to human development by a large predator, the puma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmers, Christopher C; Wang, Yiwei; Nickel, Barry; Houghtaling, Paul; Shakeri, Yasaman; Allen, Maximilian L; Kermish-Wells, Joe; Yovovich, Veronica; Williams, Terrie

    2013-01-01

    The spatial scale at which organisms respond to human activity can affect both ecological function and conservation planning. Yet little is known regarding the spatial scale at which distinct behaviors related to reproduction and survival are impacted by human interference. Here we provide a novel approach to estimating the spatial scale at which a top predator, the puma (Puma concolor), responds to human development when it is moving, feeding, communicating, and denning. We find that reproductive behaviors (communication and denning) require at least a 4× larger buffer from human development than non-reproductive behaviors (movement and feeding). In addition, pumas give a wider berth to types of human development that provide a more consistent source of human interference (neighborhoods) than they do to those in which human presence is more intermittent (arterial roads with speeds >35 mph). Neighborhoods were a deterrent to pumas regardless of behavior, while arterial roads only deterred pumas when they were communicating and denning. Female pumas were less deterred by human development than males, but they showed larger variation in their responses overall. Our behaviorally explicit approach to modeling animal response to human activity can be used as a novel tool to assess habitat quality, identify wildlife corridors, and mitigate human-wildlife conflict.

  3. PUMA promotes apoptosis of hematopoietic progenitors driving leukemic progression in a mouse model of myelodysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirguis, A A; Slape, C I; Failla, L M; Saw, J; Tremblay, C S; Powell, D R; Rossello, F; Wei, A; Strasser, A; Curtis, D J

    2016-06-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis with resultant cytopenias. Increased apoptosis and aberrantly functioning progenitors are thought to contribute to this phenotype. As is the case for other malignancies, overcoming apoptosis is believed to be important in progression toward acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using the NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) transgenic mouse model of MDS, we previously reported that overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein BCL2, blocked apoptosis and improved cytopenias, paradoxically, delaying leukemic progression. To further understand this surprising result, we examined the role of p53 and its pro-apoptotic effectors, PUMA and NOXA in NHD13 mice. The absence of p53 or PUMA but not NOXA reduced apoptosis and expanded the numbers of MDS-repopulating cells. Despite a similar effect on apoptosis and cell numbers, the absence of p53 and PUMA had diametrically opposed effects on progression to AML: absence of p53 accelerated leukemic progression, while absence of PUMA significantly delayed progression. This may be explained in part by differences in cellular responses to DNA damage. The absence of p53 led to higher levels of γ-H2AX (indicative of persistent DNA lesions) while PUMA-deficient NHD13 progenitors resolved DNA lesions in a manner comparable to wild-type cells. These results suggest that targeting PUMA may improve the cytopenias of MDS without a detrimental effect on leukemic progression thus warranting further investigation.

  4. Bioética y justicia ambiental en la salud de los pobladores andinos de Perú

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara Zapata, Diana E.; Mazzei Pimental, Marinella

    2018-01-01

    Este artículo intenta plasmar el panorama bioético-ambiental de la salud del poblador que habita en la sierra peruana, remarcando la inequidad en el acceso a los servicios de salud que existe en esta región y reflexionando sobre las posibles causas contextuales, históricas y actuales que han originado diferencias entre el poblador andino del incanato y el poblador andino actual, el cambio de cosmovisón sobre el ambiente y los recursos, el deterioro del enfoque de justicia, solidaridad, bienestar y respeto hacia el ser humano y la naturaleza. Además, se describe la salud desde el escenario histórico de esta región, donde la salud pública tiene y tendrá como desafío la aplicación de programas que respondan a las necesidades específicas de esta población, con un enfoque dirigido hacia lo ambiental. PMID:29708219

  5. Uncoupling of PUMA Expression and Apoptosis Contributes to Functional Heterogeneity in Renal Cell Carcinoma - Prognostic and Translational Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoguang; Li, Jielin; Marx, Christina; Tolstov, Yanis; Rauch, Geraldine; Herpel, Esther; Macher-Goeppinger, Stephan; Roth, Wilfried; Grüllich, Carsten; Pahernik, Sascha; Hohenfellner, Markus; Duensing, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is characterized by a profound disruption of proapoptotic signaling networks leading to chemo- and radioresistance. A key mediator of DNA damage-induced apoptosis is the BH3-only protein PUMA. Given its central role in proapoptotic signaling, we analyzed a series of more than 600 precision-annotated primary RCC specimens for PUMA protein expression. We found a reduced expression of PUMA in 22.6% of RCCs analyzed. Unexpectedly, however, PUMA deficiency was not associated with more aggressive tumor characteristic as expected. Instead, a reduced PUMA expression was associated with a lower TNM stage, lower histopathologic grade, and more favorable cancer-specific patient survival. A direct correlation in a separate patient cohort revealed a profound disconnection between PUMA expression and apoptosis as exemplified by the fact that the tumor with the highest level of apoptotic cells was PUMA deficient. In a series of in vitro studies, we corroborated these results and discovered the highest propensity to undergo apoptosis in an RCC cell line with virtually undetectable PUMA expression. At the same time, PUMA expression was not necessarily associated with stronger apoptosis induction, which underscores the striking functional heterogeneity of PUMA expression and apoptosis in RCC. Collectively, our findings suggest that PUMA-independent mechanisms of cell death exist and may play an important role in suppressing malignant progression. They underscore the functional heterogeneity of RCCs and suggest that PUMA expression alone may not be a suitable predictive biomarker. A better understanding of alternative proapoptotic pathways, however, may help to design novel therapeutic strategies for patients with advanced RCC. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analýza vývoje sportovních značek (Adidas a Puma)

    OpenAIRE

    Cajzl, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Title: Analysis of development of sports brands Adidas and Puma Objectives: The main aim of this thesis is to compile, describe and analyze informations about history and development of sports brands Adidas and Puma. Methods: The main informations obout historical development of Adidas and Puma were processed by direct historical method, method of deduction and progressive method. Research through the comparative method was used marginally. Results: The results show the direction in which the...

  7. Tras las huellas de los Ñanaigua: de tapii, tapiete y otros salvajes en el Chaco boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les noms de peuples et d’ethnies qui pullulent dans les chroniques coloniales, ceux de Tapii et Tapiete ont mis beaucoup d’auteurs à l’épreuve et ont été qualifiés de véritable “énigme ethnografique”. Ils ont donné lieu, en particulier, à de nombreuses confusions dans la littérature postérieure, faute de prêter attention à leur sens original et générique : “esclaves”, ou “vrais esclaves”. Ainsi, les étiquettes de Tapii et Tapiete ont pu désigner différentes ethnies selon les lieux et les époques. L’article tente d’éclaircir le panorama dans le cas du Chaco bolivien, tout en introduisant un troisième terme générique qui est celui de Ñanaigua ou “sauvages”, et en présentant des données historiques inédites sur les différentes ethnies ainsi appelées au XIXe siècle. Entre los nombres de etnias y pueblos que pululan en las crónicas coloniales, los de tapii y tapiete han puesto a prueba muchos autores y fueron calificados de verdadero “enigma etnográfico”. Han dado lugar, en particular, a muchas confusiones en la literatura posterior, principalmente por no prestar atención a su sentido original y genérico: “esclavos” o “verdaderos esclavos”. Así, las etiquetas de tapii y tapiete han podido designar a diferentes etnias según los lugares y las épocas. El artículo intenta aclarar el panorama en el caso del Chaco boliviano, introduciendo un tercer término genérico que es el de ñanaigua o “salvaje”, y aportando datos históricos inéditos sobre las diferentes etnias así designadas en el siglo XIX. Among the many ethnonyms that proliferate throughout the colonial records, those of tapii and tapiete have challenged a number of scholars, and have even been deemed an “ethnographic enigma.” Largely due to ignorance of their original and generic meaning -“slaves” and “true slaves”- both have given rise to several confusions in subsequent literature. In fact, the labels tapii and tapiete

  8. PUMA decreases the growth of prostate cancer PC-3 cells independent of p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Zhengfei; Liu, Qingzuo; Li, Yuling; Wu, Jitao; Sun, Dekang; Gao, Zhenli

    2017-03-01

    PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis), a member of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein family, is a pro-apoptotic protein. PUMA expression is modulated by the tumor suppressor p53. PUMA has a role in rapid cell death via p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms. To evaluate whether p53 is required for PUMA-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, p53 protein was silenced in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells by using p53 small interfering RNA (siRNA). The interference efficiency of p53 on RNA and protein levels was detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Cell proliferation and p21 expression were subsequently examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and western blot analysis, respectively. p53-silenced or control PC-3 cells were transfected with pCEP4-(hemagglutinin)-PUMA plasmid, or non-carrier plasmid. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine cell apoptosis by measuring histone release and caspase-3 activation, and MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. In addition, the expression of pro-apoptosis protein Bax and anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 were evaluated. The results of the present study revealed that p53 siRNA significantly suppressed p53 RNA and protein expression in PC-3 cells. Deficiency of p53 increased the cell growth rate and decreased p21 expression. However, PUMA overexpression remained able to induce apoptosis in p53-silenced and control cells by increasing Bax expression and decreasing Bcl-2 expression, leading to the activation of caspase-3. These results suggest that PUMA may mediate apoptosis of prostate cancer PC-3 cells, potentially independently of p53. Furthermore, PUMA gene treatment to induce cancer cell apoptosis may be more efficient compared with p53-dependent apoptosis, where loss of p53 expression or function may lead to limited efficacy of PUMA expression. Therefore, the present study proposes the

  9. Aproximación psico-antropológica a los mitos andinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Ont été sélectionnés pour cet essai les récits de l'origine du Tawantinsuyu (les frères Ayar, de l'expansion de l'Etat (la guerre des Chankas, et d'une interprétation indigène de la Conquête (le Taki Onqoy. Les deux premiers constituent, à notre avis, une sorte de saga inca qui décrit les Incas à travers leur version officielle, le troisième étant l'idéologie messianique d'un mouvement surgi trente ans après la capture d'Atahualpa. Le résultat de cette première recherche résume le travail de nombreuses sessions et prétend ouvrir la discussion sur le problème de la reconstruction des faits et des conduites et sur la méthodologie utilisée. El presente estudio intenta una nueva estrategia para el análisis de los mitos andinos. Se trata de acercarse a ellos a partir de un diálogo interdisciplinario que permita releer los textos como documento histórico y como versión oral, independientemente de la veracidad de los datos que contiene. Se han seleccionado para este ensayo los relatos de origen del Tawantinsuyu (los hermanos Ayar, de la expansión del Estado (la guerra de los Chankas, y de una interpretación indígena de la Conquista (el Taki Onqoy. A nuestro juicio, los dos primeros constituyen una suerte de 'saga inkaica' que describe a los Inkas a través de su versión oficial, siendo el tercero, la ideología mesiánica de un movimiento surgido treinta años después de la captura de Atahualpa. El resultado de esta primera indagación resume el trabajo de muchas sesiones y pretende abrir la discusión tanto en el orden de la reconstrucción de los hechos y conductas, como en la metodología utilizada.

  10. Using Species Distribution Models to Predict Potential Landscape Restoration Effects on Puma Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelieri, Cintia Camila Silva; Adams-Hosking, Christine; Ferraz, Katia Maria Paschoaletto Micchi de Barros; de Souza, Marcelo Pereira; McAlpine, Clive Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A mosaic of intact native and human-modified vegetation use can provide important habitat for top predators such as the puma (Puma concolor), avoiding negative effects on other species and ecological processes due to cascade trophic interactions. This study investigates the effects of restoration scenarios on the puma's habitat suitability in the most developed Brazilian region (São Paulo State). Species Distribution Models incorporating restoration scenarios were developed using the species' occurrence information to (1) map habitat suitability of pumas in São Paulo State, Southeast, Brazil; (2) test the relative contribution of environmental variables ecologically relevant to the species habitat suitability and (3) project the predicted habitat suitability to future native vegetation restoration scenarios. The Maximum Entropy algorithm was used (Test AUC of 0.84 ± 0.0228) based on seven environmental non-correlated variables and non-autocorrelated presence-only records (n = 342). The percentage of native vegetation (positive influence), elevation (positive influence) and density of roads (negative influence) were considered the most important environmental variables to the model. Model projections to restoration scenarios reflected the high positive relationship between pumas and native vegetation. These projections identified new high suitability areas for pumas (probability of presence >0.5) in highly deforested regions. High suitability areas were increased from 5.3% to 8.5% of the total State extension when the landscapes were restored for ≥ the minimum native vegetation cover rule (20%) established by the Brazilian Forest Code in private lands. This study highlights the importance of a landscape planning approach to improve the conservation outlook for pumas and other species, including not only the establishment and management of protected areas, but also the habitat restoration on private lands. Importantly, the results may inform environmental

  11. Acompanhamento do crescimento dental em Puma concolor mantido em cativeiro Accompaniment of the dental growth in Puma concolor kept in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João L. Rossi Junior

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho fazer levantamento sobre a troca de dentição decídua por permanente, notadamente dos dentes caninos e a prevalência de maloclusão em pumas (Puma concolor manejados nas instituições visitadas no Estado de São Paulo. Para os estudos utilizou-se amostra constituída de 36 pumas, provenientes de 18 instituições mantenedoras de tais espécies em cativeiro no Estado de São Paulo, sendo que três animais com idade de oito meses, irmãos de ninhada, apresentaram retenção dos dentes caninos decíduos e foram acompanha dos por 2 anos e 8 meses. Todos os animais foram examinados, observando se a oclusão estava de acordo com o normal para a espécie. Os dentes foram identificados um a um, examinados diretamente por meio de explorador odontológico. Os animais que apresentaram retenção dos dentes caninos decíduos não foram tratados, pois a maloclusões aparentemente não comprometia a preensão ou mastigação de alimentos, embora apresentassem acúmulo de alimentos ou indutos moles na região dos dentes com espaço interproximal mais reduzido.The development of dentistry is delayed in the preventive internal medicine for wild animals. Some international papers about wild animal dentistry have already been published regarding some species in wild life or kept in captivity in different geographical regions, but not specifically about the great neotropical felines Panthera onca and Puma concolor. The aim of this study was to survey the prevalence of malocclusion in neotropical felines maintained in the state of São Paulo. For the study a sample of 42 jaguars (Panthera onca and 36 pumas (Puma concolor was used, totalizing 78 animals, proceeding from 18 institutions where such species were kept in captivity. All animals were examined if the occlusion was in accordance with the normal for the species. The teeth were identified one by one, examined directly by means of a dental explorer. Malocclusion was present in 47

  12. Hábitos alimentarios del Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae en el Parque Nacional Natural Puracé, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Hernández-Guzmán

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La dieta de Puma concolor es ampliamente conocida a lo largo de su distribución, sin embargo, en Colombia no se ha realizado ningún estudio sobre sus hábitos alimentarios. Entre 2007-2009, la dieta de puma fue analizada en el Parque-Nacional-Natural-Puracé, sur occidente de los Andes colombianos. Ítems alimenticios de cinco especies presa fueron identificadas en su dieta; el venado conejo (Pudu mephistophiles es la presa más importante. Como herramienta complementaria para la identificación de huesos y pelos contenidos en heces (n=60, se instalaron seis cámarastrampa en lugares estratégicos, para registrar la presencia de pumas y presas potenciales. El descubrimiento de la dependencia de los pumas con el pudú sugiere una única adaptación de los pumas de paramo a la disponibilidad de presas y resalta su importancia como reguladores de las poblaciones presa. Estos resultados contribuyen a incrementar el poco conocimiento sobre la ecología de pumas de los Andes, de sus presas y de las especies en su conjunto en Colombia. Obtener información sobre el grupo de presas de pumas en diferentes ecosistemas, es esencial para entender los requerimientos regionales para su supervivencia y diseñar acciones de conservación que permitan seguir/evaluar las necesidades particulares de áreas protegidas en toda su distribución.Food habits of Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae in the Parque Nacional Natural Puracé,Colombia. Neotropical puma (Puma concolor diet is scarcely known, in particular that of mountain dwelling individuals from Northern South America. This is the first study on pumas from the paramo and the first puma diet analysis for Colombia. The puma diet was studied from 2007 to 2009 in the Puracé National Park in the South Colombian Andes. Paramos are unique neotropical high altitude ecosystems which store and regulate water, and are currently threatened by agricultural expansion and climate change. Seven latrines were monitored for

  13. Aurora kinase inhibition induces PUMA via NF-κB to kill colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Knickelbein, Kyle; He, Kan; Chen, Dongshi; Dongshi, Crissy; Shu, Yongqian; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Aurora kinases play a key role in mitosis and are frequently overexpressed in a variety of tumor cells. Inhibition of aurora kinases results in mitotic arrest and death of cancer cells, and has been explored as an anticancer strategy. However, how aurora inhibition kills cancer cells is poorly understood. In this study, we found that inhibition of aurora kinases by siRNA or small-molecule inhibitors led to induction of PUMA, a BH3-only Bcl-2 family protein, in colorectal cancer cells irrespective of p53 status. Deficiency in PUMA increased polyploidy, improved cell survival, and abrogated mitochondria-mediated apoptosis induced by aurora kinase inhibitors. In response to aurora kinase inhibition, PUMA was directly activated by p65 through the canonical NF-κB pathway following AKT inhibition. Furthermore, PUMA was necessary for the chemosensitization and in vivo antitumor effects of aurora kinase inhibitors in colon cancer cells. These results suggest that PUMA induction mediates the apoptotic response to mitotic arrest imposed by aurora kinase inhibition, and may be a useful indicator for the anticancer activity of aurora kinase inhibitors. PMID:24563542

  14. Explaining reported puma-related behaviors and behavioral intentions among northern Arizona residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Ruther, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Management of pumas in the American West is typified by conflict among stakeholders plausibly rooted in life experiences and worldviews. We used a mail questionnaire to assess demographics, nature-views, puma-related life experiences and behaviors, and support for puma-related policies among residents of northern Arizona. Data from the questionnaire (n = 693 respondents) were used to model behaviors and support for policies. Compared to models based on nature-views and life experiences, those based on demographics had virtually no support from the data. The Utilitarian/Dominionistic nature-view had the strongest effect of any variable in six of seven models, and was associated with firearms and opposition to policies that would limit killing pumas. The Humanistic/Moralistic nature-view was positively associated with non-lethal behaviors and policies in five models. Gender had the strongest effect of any demographic variable. Compared to demographics alone, our results suggest that worldviews provide a more meaningful explanation of reported human behaviors and behavioral intentions regarding pumas.

  15. Proapoptotic PUMA targets stem-like breast cancer cells to suppress metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Lesperance, Jacqueline; Wettersten, Hiromi; Luterstein, Elaine; DeRose, Yoko S.; Welm, Alana; Cheresh, David A.; Desgrosellier, Jay S.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer cells with stem cell properties are key contributors to metastatic disease, and there remains a need to better understand and target these cells in human cancers. Here, we identified rare stem-like cells in patients’ tumors characterized by low levels of the proapoptotic molecule p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) and showed that these cells play a critical role in tumor progression that is independent of clinical subtype. A signaling axis consisting of the integrin αvβ3, Src kinase, and the transcription factor Slug suppresses PUMA in these cells, promoting tumor stemness. We showed that genetic or pharmacological disruption of αvβ3/Src signaling drives PUMA expression, specifically depleting these stem-like tumor cells; increases their sensitivity to apoptosis; and reduces pulmonary metastasis, with no effect on primary tumor growth. Taken together, these findings point to PUMA as a key vulnerability of stem-like cells and suggest that pharmacological upregulation of PUMA via Src inhibition may represent a strategy to selectively target these cells in a wide spectrum of aggressive breast cancers. PMID:29227280

  16. Counterpart experimental study of ISP-42 PANDA tests on PUMA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jun; Choi, Sung-Won; Lim, Jaehyok; Lee, Doo-Yong; Rassame, Somboon; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Counterpart tests were performed on two large-scale BWR integral facilities. ► Similarity of post-LOCA system behaviors observed between two tests. ► Passive core and containment cooling systems work as design in both tests. -- Abstract: A counterpart test to the Passive Nachwärmeabfuhr und Druckabbau Test Anlage (Passive Decay Heat Removal and Depressurization Test Facility, PANDA) International Standard Problem (ISP)-42 test was conducted at the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) facility. Aimed to support code validation on a range of light water reactor (LWR) containment issues, the ISP-42 test consists of six sequential phases (Phases A–F) with separately defined initial and boundary conditions, addressing different stages of anticipated accident scenario and system responses. The counterpart test was performed from Phases A to D, which are within the scope of the normal integral tests performed on the PUMA facility. A scaling methodology was developed by using the PANDA facility as prototype and PUMA facility as test model, and an engineering scaling has been applied to the PUMA facility. The counterpart test results indicated that functions of passive safety systems, such as passive containment cooling system (PCCS) start-up, gravity-driven cooling system (GDCS) discharge, PCCS normal operation and overload function were confirmed in both the PANDA and PUMA facilities with qualitative similarities

  17. Effect of capilliposide for induction apoptosis in human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-2 cells through up-regulating PUMA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yonghong; Hu, Qiaoying; Piao, Yongfeng; Tang, Qiu; Feng, Jiangguo

    2015-11-01

    To observe the apoptosis of capilliposide against human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-2 cells and to study its primary mechanisms. Vectors pSilencer-PUMA-small interfering RNA (siRNA) were constructed to transcribe functional siRNA specially targeting PUMA. The interfering plasmids were used to transfect CNE-2 cells with lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent. PUMA messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. The proliferation of CNE-2 cells was detected using MTT colorimetry. Annexin V/propidium iodide double staining was applied to detect the apoptosis rate of CNE-2 cells. The protein levels of p53, PUMA, and Bax were detected using Western blot analysis. Recombinant siRNA expression vector targeting PUMA was constructed. MTT assays showed capilliposide inhibited the proliferation of CNE-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibition was strengthened along with increased concentrations. Apoptosis detected by flow cytometry in control group, drug group, siRNA group, and drug combined siRNA group was 9.3 ± 2.3%, 31.4 ± 5.6%, 12.3 ± 4.1%, and 13.2 ± 3.7%, respectively. After pretreated by capilliposide, PUMA protein was upregulated, and BAX was distributed to mitochondria in CNE-2 cells using Western blot analysis, but this effect can be interrupted by PUMA-siRNA. Capilliposide could induce the apoptosis of CNE-2 cells, which might be related with the increasing in PUMA-Bax pathway.

  18. Multimodal Interaction with BCL-2 Family Proteins Underlies the Pro-Apoptotic Activity of PUMA BH3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Amanda L.; Gavathiotis, Evripidis; LaBelle, James L.; Braun, Craig R.; Opoku-Nsiah, Kwadwo A.; Bird, Gregory H.; Walensky, Loren D.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY PUMA is a pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member that drives the apoptotic response to a diversity of p53-dependent and independent cellular insults. Deciphering the spectrum of PUMA interactions that confer its context-dependent pro-apoptotic properties remains a high priority goal. Here, we report the synthesis of PUMA SAHBs, structurally-stabilized PUMA BH3 helices that, in addition to broadly targeting anti-apoptotic proteins, directly bind to BAX. NMR, photocrosslinking, and biochemical analyses revealed that PUMA SAHBs engage an α1/α6 trigger site on BAX to initiate its functional activation. We further demonstrated that a cell-permeable PUMA SAHB analog induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells and, like expressed PUMA protein, engages BCL-2, MCL-1 and BAX. Thus, we find that PUMA BH3 is a dual anti-apoptotic inhibitor and pro-apoptotic direct activator, and its mimetics may serve as effective pharmacologic triggers of apoptosis in resistant human cancers. PMID:23890007

  19. Pazopanib, a novel multi-kinase inhibitor, shows potent antitumor activity in colon cancer through PUMA-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Huanan; Li, Wei; Zhong, Juchang; Yu, Rongcheng; Huang, Xinfeng; Wang, Honghui; Tan, Zhikai; Wang, Jiangang; Zhang, Yingjie

    2017-01-10

    Colon cancer is still the third most common cancer which has a high mortality but low five-year survival rate. Novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as pazopanib become effective antineoplastic agents that show promising clinical activity in a variety of carcinoma, including colon cancer. However, the precise underlying mechanism against tumor is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that pazopanib promoted colon cancer cell apoptosis through inducing PUMA expression. Pazopanib induced p53-independent PUMA activation by inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, thereby activating Foxo3a, which subsequently bound to the promoter of PUMA to activate its transcription. After induction, PUMA activated Bax and triggered the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, administration of pazopanib highly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model. PUMA deletion in cells and tumors led to resistance of pazopanib, indicating PUMA-mediated pro-apoptotic and anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo. Combing pazopanib with some conventional or novel drugs, produced heightened and synergistic antitumor effects that were associated with potentiated PUMA induction via different pathways. Taken together, these results establish a critical role of PUMA in mediating the anticancer effects of pazopanib in colon cancer cells and provide the rationale for clinical evaluation.

  20. Suppression Pool Mixing and Condensation Tests in PUMA Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Cheng; Kyoung Suk Woo; Mamoru Ishii; Jaehyok Lim; Han, James

    2006-01-01

    Condensation of steam with non-condensable in the form of jet flow or bubbly flow inside the suppression pool is an important phenomenon on determining the containment pressure of a passively safe boiling water reactor. 32 cases of pool mixing and condensation test have been performed in Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) facility under the sponsor of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to investigate thermal stratification and pool mixing inside the suppression pool during the reactor blowdown period. The test boundary conditions, such as the steam flow rate, the noncondensable gas flow rate, the initial water temperature, the pool initial pressure and the vent opening submergence depth, which covers a wide range of prototype (SBWR-600) conditions during Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) were obtained from the RELAP5 calculation. The test results show that steam is quickly condensed at the exit of the vent opening. For pure steam injection or low noncondensable injection cases, only the portion above the vent opening in the suppression pool is heated up by buoyant plumes. The water below the vent opening can be heated up slowly through conduction. The test results also show that the degree of thermal stratification in suppression pool is affected by the vent opening submergence depth, the pool initial pressure and the steam injection rate. And it is slightly affected by the initial water temperature. From these tests it is concluded that the pool mixing is strongly affected by the noncondensable gas flow rate. (authors)

  1. Organic chemistry of cometary dust as derived from PUMA 1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, J.; Krueger, F. R.

    1989-01-01

    Onboard the Halley Fly-By spacecrafts Vega 1, Vega 2, and Giotto were the dust impact mass spectrometers PUMA 1, PUMA 2, and PIA respectively. PUMA 1 was the most sensitive instrument among them. From its data the occurrence of masslines greater than 60 Daltons could be shown to be statistically significant. An analysis of these masslines lead to a scenario, which could explain the masslines as fragment ions from larger molecules which characterize the chemical nature of cometary organic matter as: (1) highly unsaturated hydrocarbons; (2) some of them containing oxygen; (3) less containing nitrogen; and (4) a few containing oxygen and nitrogen as heteroatoms. From the properties of the spectrometer, also some physical parameters of the dust particles could be inferred, such as their density and structure.

  2. Organic chemistry of cometary dust as derived from PUMA 1 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissel, J.; Krueger, F.R.

    1989-01-01

    Onboard the Halley Fly-By spacecrafts Vega 1, Vega 2, and Giotto were the dust impact mass spectrometers PUMA 1, PUMA 2, and PIA respectively. PUMA 1 was the most sensitive instrument among them. From its data the occurrence of masslines greater than 60 Daltons could be shown to be statistically significant. An analysis of these masslines lead to a scenario, which could explain the masslines as fragment ions from larger molecules which characterize the chemical nature of cometary organic matter as: (1) highly unsaturated hydrocarbons; (2) some of them containing oxygen; (3) less containing nitrogen; and (4) a few containing oxygen and nitrogen as heteroatoms. From the properties of the spectrometer, also some physical parameters of the dust particles could be inferred, such as their density and structure

  3. PUMAS: The On-line journal of Math and Science Examples for Pre-College Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainer, Melissa G.; Kahn, Ralph A.

    2015-11-01

    PUMAS - “Practical Uses of Math And Science” - is an on-line collection of brief examples showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes can be used in interesting settings, including every day life. The examples are written primarily by scientists, engineers, and other content experts having practical experience with the material. They are aimed mainly at classroom teachers to enrich their presentation of math and science topics. The goal of PUMAS is to capture, for the benefit of pre-college education, the flavor of the vast experience that working scientists have with interesting and practical uses of math and science. There are currently over 80 examples in the PUMAS collection, and they are organized by curriculum topics and tagged with relevant grade levels and curriculum topic benchmarks. The published examples cover a wide range of subject matter: from demonstrating why summer is hot, to describing the fluid dynamics of a lava lamp, to calculating the best age to collect Social Security Benefits. The examples are available to all interested parties via the PUMAS web site: http://pumas.nasa.gov/.We invite the community to participate in the PUMAS collection. We seek scientists and scientific thinkers to provide innovative examples of practical uses for teachers to use to enrich the classroom experience, and content experts to participate in peer-review. We also seek teachers to review examples for originality, accuracy of content, clarity of presentation, and grade-level appropriateness. Finally, we encourage teachers to mine this rich repository for real-world examples to demonstrate the value of math in science in everyday life.

  4. Expression and clinical significance of ATM and PUMA gene in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hui; Zhang, Jiangnan

    2017-12-01

    The expression of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) genes in patients with colorectal cancer were investigated, to explore the correlation between the expression of ATM and PUMA and tumor development, to evaluate the clinical significance of ATM and PUMA in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of ATM and PUMA in tumor tissue and adjacent healthy tissue of 67 patients with colorectal cancer and in normal colorectal tissue of 33 patients with colorectal polyps at mRNA level. The expression level of ATM mRNA in colorectal cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in normal mucosa tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissue (P≤0.05), while no significant differences in expression level of ATM mRNA were found between normal mucosa tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissue (P=0.07). There was a negative correlation between the expression of ATM mRNA and the degree of differentiation of colorectal cancer (r= -0.312, P=0.013), while expression level of ATM mRNA was not significantly correlated with the age, sex, tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis or clinical stage (P>0.05). Expression levels of PUMA mRNA in colorectal cancer tissues, adjacent noncancerous tissue and normal tissues were 0.68±0.07, 0.88±0.04 and 1.76±0.06, respectively. Expression level of PUMA mRNA in colorectal cancer tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissue was significantly lower than that in normal colorectal tissues (PPUMA gene in colorectal carcinoma is downregulated, and is negatively correlated with the occurrence of cancer.

  5. Residential development alters behavior, movement, and energetics in an apex predator, the puma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwei; Smith, Justine A; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2017-01-01

    Human development strongly influences large carnivore survival and persistence globally. Behavior changes are often the first measureable responses to human disturbances, and can have ramifications on animal populations and ecological communities. We investigated how a large carnivore responds to anthropogenic disturbances by measuring activity, movement behavior, and energetics in pumas along a housing density gradient. We used log-linear analyses to examine how habitat, time of day, and proximity to housing influenced the activity patterns of both male and female pumas in the Santa Cruz Mountains. We used spatial GPS location data in combination with Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration measurements recorded by onboard accelerometers to quantify how development density affected the average distances traveled and energy expended by pumas. Pumas responded to development differently depending on the time of day; at night, they were generally more active and moved further when they were in developed areas, but these relationships were not consistent during the day. Higher nighttime activity in developed areas increased daily caloric expenditure by 10.1% for females and 11.6% for males, resulting in increases of 3.4 and 4.0 deer prey required annually by females and males respectively. Our results support that pumas have higher energetic costs and resource requirements in human-dominated habitats due to human-induced behavioral change. Increased energetic costs for pumas are likely to have ramifications on prey species and exacerbate human-wildlife conflict, especially as exurban growth continues. Future conservation work should consider the consequences of behavioral shifts on animal energetics, individual fitness, and population viability.

  6. Radiosensitization effect of recombinant adenoviral-mediated PUMA gene on pancreatic carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Dongming; Zhang Kejun; Li Dechun; Zhu Xuefeng; Yang Yong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of PUMA gene mediated by recombinant adenovirus vector combined with radiation on the pancreatic carcinoma. Methods: The PANC-1 cells were infected with Ad- PUMA (MOI=10, 50 and 100, respectively) for 48 h. The expression of PUMA mRNA and protein was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. PANC-1 cells were divided into 4 groups: control group, transfection group, irradiation group and combined treatment group. The cell growth inhibition rate and apoptotic rate of PANC-1 cells were assessed by MTT assay and flow cytometry. Human pancreatic carcinomas were transplanted subcutaneously in nude mice, which were randomized into 4 groups: control group, transfection group, irradiation group and combined treatment group. Tumor growth rate and apoptotic index at different time points were recorded in 35 days. Results: The expression of PUMA mRNA and protein was increased with the increase of MOI of Ad-PUMA, which was does-dependant (MOI=10, mRNA=0.46± 0.02, protein=0.75± 0.09; MOI=50, mRNA=1.12±0.09, protein=1.01±0.18; MOI=100, mRNA=1.50±0.08, protein= 1.80±0.15; P 3 , (39.5±9.23)mm 3 , (33.6±10.3)mm 3 and (52.0±11.43)mm 3 , respectively, P<0.05]. And the apoptotic index was increased in the same manner (AI=0.43±0.05, 0.29±0.10, 0.24±0.05 and 0.00±0.00, respectively, P<0.05). Conclusions: Recombinant adenoviral-mediated PUMA gene combined with irradiation could increase the cell-killing effect on pancreatic carcinoma. It is better than that of either one kind of therapy. (authors)

  7. Targeting of slug sensitizes anaplastic thyroid carcinoma SW1736 cells to doxorubicin via PUMA upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Anbing; Jiao, Xuelong; Chen, Dong; Hao, Fengyun; Zhang, Kejun

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human cancers and often shows resistance to multimodal therapeutic approaches. It has been shown that the transcriptional repressor Slug inhibits the chemotherapeutic agent-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. We evaluated whether targeting of Slug could augment doxorubicin (DOX)-induced apoptosis of ATC cells. We also determined changes in PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis) expression levels to identify possible mechanisms of their combined actions. Methods SW1736 cells were transfected with Slug siRNA or/and PUMA siRNA and then exposed to DOX (0.1, 1, and 5 mM) for selected times. Scrambled siRNA was used as a control. The effects on cell viability were determined via MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL assays and annexin V staining, and was confirmed by flow cytometry analyses. Slug and PUMA levels were determined using western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses. We used a subcutaneous implanted tumor model of SW1736 cells in nude mice to assess the effects of Slug silencing in combination with DOX on tumor development. Apoptosis was assessed via TUNEL assay. Results Targeting of Slug using siRNA combined with DOX led to lower cell viability than treatment with DOX alone in SW1736 cells. TUNEL and flow cytometry analyses showed that targeting of Slug enhanced DOX-induced apoptosis of SW1736 cells. In addition, targeting of Slug increased PUMA expression, and targeting of PUMA restored the chemoresistance of SW1736/Slug siRNA cells to DOX. Conclusions Knockdown of Slug enhanced the antitumor activity of DOX in SW1736 cells via induction of PUMA upregulation. Our results suggest that targeting of Slug has good potential for the development of new therapeutic strategies for ATC.

  8. Residential development alters behavior, movement, and energetics in an apex predator, the puma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwei Wang

    Full Text Available Human development strongly influences large carnivore survival and persistence globally. Behavior changes are often the first measureable responses to human disturbances, and can have ramifications on animal populations and ecological communities. We investigated how a large carnivore responds to anthropogenic disturbances by measuring activity, movement behavior, and energetics in pumas along a housing density gradient. We used log-linear analyses to examine how habitat, time of day, and proximity to housing influenced the activity patterns of both male and female pumas in the Santa Cruz Mountains. We used spatial GPS location data in combination with Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration measurements recorded by onboard accelerometers to quantify how development density affected the average distances traveled and energy expended by pumas. Pumas responded to development differently depending on the time of day; at night, they were generally more active and moved further when they were in developed areas, but these relationships were not consistent during the day. Higher nighttime activity in developed areas increased daily caloric expenditure by 10.1% for females and 11.6% for males, resulting in increases of 3.4 and 4.0 deer prey required annually by females and males respectively. Our results support that pumas have higher energetic costs and resource requirements in human-dominated habitats due to human-induced behavioral change. Increased energetic costs for pumas are likely to have ramifications on prey species and exacerbate human-wildlife conflict, especially as exurban growth continues. Future conservation work should consider the consequences of behavioral shifts on animal energetics, individual fitness, and population viability.

  9. Energetics and evasion dynamics of large predators and prey: pumas vs. hounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb M. Bryce

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of fine-scale movement, performance, and energetics of hunting by large carnivores is critical for understanding the physiological underpinnings of trophic interactions. This is particularly challenging for wide-ranging terrestrial canid and felid predators, which can each affect ecosystem structure through distinct hunting modes. To compare free-ranging pursuit and escape performance from group-hunting and solitary predators in unprecedented detail, we calibrated and deployed accelerometer-GPS collars during predator-prey chase sequences using packs of hound dogs (Canis lupus familiaris, 26 kg, n = 4–5 per chase pursuing simultaneously instrumented solitary pumas (Puma concolor, 60 kg, n = 2. We then reconstructed chase paths, speed and turning angle profiles, and energy demands for hounds and pumas to examine performance and physiological constraints associated with cursorial and cryptic hunting modes, respectively. Interaction dynamics revealed how pumas successfully utilized terrain (e.g., fleeing up steep, wooded hillsides as well as evasive maneuvers (e.g., jumping into trees, running in figure-8 patterns to increase their escape distance from the overall faster hounds (avg. 2.3× faster. These adaptive strategies were essential to evasion in light of the mean 1.6× higher mass-specific energetic costs of the chase for pumas compared to hounds (mean: 0.76 vs. 1.29 kJ kg−1 min−1, respectively. On an instantaneous basis, escapes were more costly for pumas, requiring exercise at ≥90% of predicted $\\dot {\\mathrm{V }}{\\mathrm{O}}_{2\\mathrm{MAX}}$ V ̇ O 2 MAX and consuming as much energy per minute as approximately 5 min of active hunting. Our results demonstrate the marked investment of energy for evasion by a large, solitary carnivore and the advantage of dynamic maneuvers to postpone being overtaken by group-hunting canids.

  10. Energetics and evasion dynamics of large predators and prey: pumas vs. hounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Caleb M; Wilmers, Christopher C; Williams, Terrie M

    2017-01-01

    Quantification of fine-scale movement, performance, and energetics of hunting by large carnivores is critical for understanding the physiological underpinnings of trophic interactions. This is particularly challenging for wide-ranging terrestrial canid and felid predators, which can each affect ecosystem structure through distinct hunting modes. To compare free-ranging pursuit and escape performance from group-hunting and solitary predators in unprecedented detail, we calibrated and deployed accelerometer-GPS collars during predator-prey chase sequences using packs of hound dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris , 26 kg, n  = 4-5 per chase) pursuing simultaneously instrumented solitary pumas ( Puma concolor , 60 kg, n  = 2). We then reconstructed chase paths, speed and turning angle profiles, and energy demands for hounds and pumas to examine performance and physiological constraints associated with cursorial and cryptic hunting modes, respectively. Interaction dynamics revealed how pumas successfully utilized terrain (e.g., fleeing up steep, wooded hillsides) as well as evasive maneuvers (e.g., jumping into trees, running in figure-8 patterns) to increase their escape distance from the overall faster hounds (avg. 2.3× faster). These adaptive strategies were essential to evasion in light of the mean 1.6× higher mass-specific energetic costs of the chase for pumas compared to hounds (mean: 0.76 vs. 1.29 kJ kg -1  min -1 , respectively). On an instantaneous basis, escapes were more costly for pumas, requiring exercise at ≥90% of predicted [Formula: see text] and consuming as much energy per minute as approximately 5 min of active hunting. Our results demonstrate the marked investment of energy for evasion by a large, solitary carnivore and the advantage of dynamic maneuvers to postpone being overtaken by group-hunting canids.

  11. A New Tool for CME Arrival Time Prediction using Machine Learning Algorithms: CAT-PUMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiajia; Ye, Yudong; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, Yuming; Erdélyi, Robert

    2018-03-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are arguably the most violent eruptions in the solar system. CMEs can cause severe disturbances in interplanetary space and can even affect human activities in many aspects, causing damage to infrastructure and loss of revenue. Fast and accurate prediction of CME arrival time is vital to minimize the disruption that CMEs may cause when interacting with geospace. In this paper, we propose a new approach for partial-/full halo CME Arrival Time Prediction Using Machine learning Algorithms (CAT-PUMA). Via detailed analysis of the CME features and solar-wind parameters, we build a prediction engine taking advantage of 182 previously observed geo-effective partial-/full halo CMEs and using algorithms of the Support Vector Machine. We demonstrate that CAT-PUMA is accurate and fast. In particular, predictions made after applying CAT-PUMA to a test set unknown to the engine show a mean absolute prediction error of ∼5.9 hr within the CME arrival time, with 54% of the predictions having absolute errors less than 5.9 hr. Comparisons with other models reveal that CAT-PUMA has a more accurate prediction for 77% of the events investigated that can be carried out very quickly, i.e., within minutes of providing the necessary input parameters of a CME. A practical guide containing the CAT-PUMA engine and the source code of two examples are available in the Appendix, allowing the community to perform their own applications for prediction using CAT-PUMA.

  12. Identificación de individuos de jaguares (Panthera onca y pumas (Puma concolor a partir de morfometría de sus huellas (Carnivora: Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Isasi-Catalá

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimar la abundancia de felinos resulta particular-mente difícil o, incluso imposible, debido a su comportamiento críptico y sus amplios requerimiento espaciales. Las técnicas disponibles para estimar abundancia son costosas y poco eficientes, por lo que es necesario proponer métodos alternativos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad de identificación de individuos utilizando el análisis morfométrico de huellas en yaguares y pumas. Para ello, se dibujaron huellas de cinco yaguares y cuatro pumas, registrándose el tipo de pata que dio origen a la huella y el sustrato. Para cada huella se tomaron 16 mediciones morfológicas de ángulos, largos, anchos y áreas. Las variables de largos, anchos y áreas fueron analizadas con un Análisis de Componentes Principales (ACP y sustituidas por el primer componente principal (más del 70 % de la varianza en todos los casos. Se evaluó el efecto del sustrato y del tipo de pata a partir de pruebas t-pareadas, encontrándose diferencias entre huellas del mismo individuo dibujadas a partir de arena o tierra (t-pareadas p Identification of individual jaguars (Panthera onca and pumas (Puma concolor based on footprint morphometry (Carnivora: Felidae. Estimating feline abundance becomes particularly difficult, sometimes impossible, due to their elusive behavior and extensive space requirements. Available techniques are expensive and/or poorly efficient, therefore alternative methods are needed. The objective of this study was to assess the possibility of identifying individual jaguars and pumas based on morphometric analyses of their tracks. The footprints of five jaguars and four pumas were drawn and the foot (hind or fore foot, left or right foot and the substrate were recorded. We took 16 measures from each footprint including lengths, widths, areas and angles. Variables were analyzed by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and substituted by the first Principal Component (PC (> 70

  13. COMPARING PUMA ROBOT ARM WITH THE HUMAN ARM MOVEMENTS; AN ALTERNATIVE ROBOTIC ARM SHOULDER DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa BOZDEMİR

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Using the robotic arms instead of human power becomes increasingly widespread nowadays. Widening of the robotic arms usage field is parallel to improvement of movement capability of it. In this study PUMA Robotic Arm System that is a developed system of the robotic arms was compared with a human arm due to movement. A new joint was added to PUMA Robotic Arm System to have the movements similar to the human shoulder joint. Thus, a shoulder was designed that can make movements through the sides in addition to fore and back movement.

  14. COMPARING PUMA ROBOT ARM WITH THE HUMAN ARM MOVEMENTS; AN ALTERNATIVE ROBOTIC ARM SHOULDER DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    BOZDEMİR, Mustafa; ADIGÜZEL, Esat

    1999-01-01

    Using the robotic arms instead of human power becomes increasingly widespread nowadays. Widening of the robotic arms usage field is parallel to improvement of movement capability of it. In this study PUMA Robotic Arm System that is a developed system of the robotic arms was compared with a human arm due to movement. A new joint was added to PUMA Robotic Arm System to have the movements similar to the human shoulder joint. Thus, a shoulder was designed that can make movements through the sides...

  15. Tracking the source of mercury in coastal populations of California Cougars (puma concolor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Wilmers, C.; Yovovich, V.; Houghtaling, P.; Torregrosa, A.

    2015-12-01

    As part of a project on the cycling of mercury (Hg) from the ocean to fog and deposition to land in coastal California, the whiskers of pumas from coastal and inland populations in California were analyzed for total Hg (HgT). Previous studies have shown that fog water in coastal California contains enhanced concentrations of monomethyl Hg (MMHg) compared to rain water. The likely source of fog MMHg is from evasion and demethylation of dimethyl Hg (DMHg) from coastal ocean upwelling. The California coast receives seasonal inputs of fog drip, and we hypothesized that if fog water deposition of MMHg was making an impact, the observable effects might be seen in high trophic level predators of the terrestrial ecosystem. Puma whiskers from 88 individuals from the Santa Cruz Mountains, a sub-range of the California Coast Range, were obtained and compared with puma whiskers from 12 individuals from the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Mean total Hg in puma whiskers from the coastal population is 1.0 ± 1.5 ug Hg / g whisker (ppm), whereas mean HgT from the inland puma population is 0.13 ± 0.09 ppm. The difference between these means is significant to the 95% confidence level. For the coastal puma population, the whiskers from 10 individuals had HgT concentrations > 2.0 ppm and 3 individuals had HgT > 4 ppm, which exceeds the U.S. EPA reference dose for humans (1 ppm) approaches a level of concern found for other large mammals such as polar bears (5 ppm). The study is ongoing and HgT concentrations will be determined in the fur and flesh of deer from the same locations as the puma whiskers, since deer comprise ~95% of the puma diet. Samples of plants that are likely fed upon by deer that span the coastal-inland transect will also be analyzed for HgT. Estimates of fog frequency spatial patterns, derived from weather satellite observations and topographic modeling, will be compared with the HgT content of plant and animal tissue in coastal California to quantify

  16. PUMa - modelling the groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvane, G.; Marnica, A.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    In 2009-2012 at University of Latvia and Latvia University of Agriculture project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" is implemented financed by the European Social Fund. The aim of the project is to develop groundwater research in Latvia by establishing interdisciplinary research group and modelling system covering groundwater flow in the Baltic Sedimentary Basin. Researchers from fields like geology, chemistry, mathematical modelling, physics and environmental engineering are involved in the project. The modelling system is used as a platform for addressing scientific problems such as: (1) large-scale groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin and impact of human activities on it; (2) the evolution of groundwater flow since the last glaciation and subglacial groundwater recharge; (3) the effects of climate changes on shallow groundwater and interaction of hydrographical network and groundwater; (4) new programming approaches for groundwater modelling. Within the frame of the project most accessible geological information such as description of geological wells, geological maps and results of seismic profiling in Latvia as well as Estonia and Lithuania are collected and integrated into modelling system. For example data form more then 40 thousands wells are directly used to automatically generate the geological structure of the model. Additionally a groundwater sampling campaign is undertaken. Contents of CFC, stabile isotopes of O and H and radiocarbon are the most significant parameters of groundwater that are established in unprecedented scale for Latvia. The most important modelling results will be published in web as a data set. Project number: 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060. Project web-site: www.puma.lu.lv

  17. Novel gammaherpesviruses in North American domestic cats, bobcats, and pumas: identification, prevalence, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Ryan M; Beatty, Julia A; Stutzman-Rodriguez, Kathryn R; Carver, Scott; Lozano, Caitlin C; Lee, Justin S; Lappin, Michael R; Riley, Seth P D; Serieys, Laurel E K; Logan, Kenneth A; Sweanor, Linda L; Boyce, Walter M; Vickers, T Winston; McBride, Roy; Crooks, Kevin R; Lewis, Jesse S; Cunningham, Mark W; Rovnak, Joel; Quackenbush, Sandra L; VandeWoude, Sue

    2014-04-01

    Gammaherpesviruses (GHVs) are a diverse and rapidly expanding group of viruses associated with a variety of disease conditions in humans and animals. To identify felid GHVs, we screened domestic cat (Felis catus), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and puma (Puma concolor) blood cell DNA samples from California, Colorado, and Florida using a degenerate pan-GHV PCR. Additional pan-GHV and long-distance PCRs were used to sequence a contiguous 3.4-kb region of each putative virus species, including partial glycoprotein B and DNA polymerase genes. We identified three novel GHVs, each present predominantly in one felid species: Felis catus GHV 1 (FcaGHV1) in domestic cats, Lynx rufus GHV 1 (LruGHV1) in bobcats, and Puma concolor GHV 1 (PcoGHV1) in pumas. To estimate infection prevalence, we developed real-time quantitative PCR assays for each virus and screened additional DNA samples from all three species (n = 282). FcaGHV1 was detected in 16% of domestic cats across all study sites. LruGHV1 was detected in 47% of bobcats and 13% of pumas across all study sites, suggesting relatively common interspecific transmission. PcoGHV1 was detected in 6% of pumas, all from a specific region of Southern California. The risk of infection for each host varied with geographic location. Age was a positive risk factor for bobcat LruGHV1 infection, and age and being male were risk factors for domestic cat FcaGHV1 infection. Further characterization of these viruses may have significant health implications for domestic cats and may aid studies of free-ranging felid ecology. Gammaherpesviruses (GHVs) establish lifelong infection in many animal species and can cause cancer and other diseases in humans and animals. In this study, we identified the DNA sequences of three GHVs present in the blood of domestic cats (Felis catus), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and pumas (Puma concolor; also known as mountain lions, cougars, and panthers). We found that these viruses were closely related to, but distinct from, other

  18. Pequeña historia de un proyecto utópico: el Movimiento del Nuevo Cine y Video Boliviano y su Revista Imagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Aimaretti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de una investigación más amplia que releva, describe y analiza las prácticas de producción audiovisual en La Paz, Bolivia, entre 1978 y 1989, el presente trabajo se centra en historiar el proyecto editorial Imagen: una revista de cine que publicó el Movimiento del Nuevo Cine y Video Boliviano durante la segunda mitad de la década del ochenta. Sin tradición local en lo que refiere a publicaciones dedicadas al cine, Imagen fue una iniciativa autogestiva y autofinanciada, que funcionó con una frecuencia y formato variable, y sirvió como foro de discusión sobre temas específicos del quehacer local, vehículo de difusión de actividades del Movimiento, microespacio de formación, medio de circulación de convocatorias y concursos, y herramienta de articulación entre distintas propuestas. El trabajo explica su devenir histórico, describe sus caracteres generales y perfil editorial, da cuenta de los actores intervinientes y sus formas de organización, y señala las condiciones de posibilidad, alcances y limitaciones del proyecto.

  19. Entramados de clase y nacionalidad: Capital social e incorporación política de migrantes bolivianos en Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo CANTOR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo examina la formación de un capital social y sus implicaciones políticas dentro de la colectividad de residentes bolivianos en Buenos Aires. A través del análisis de periódicos y entrevistas a profundidad con informantes clave, se identificaron dos entramados organizativos con perfiles diferenciados: uno basado en el discurso de solidaridad de clase y orientado a la unión de trabajadores inmigrantes, y el otro sustentado en un discurso de solidaridad nacional o étnica, que promueve la unidad de la comunidad boliviana en función de los lazos de fraternidad connacional. Estos dos entramados han coexistido en tensión, propiciando patrones de incorporación política diferentes en la colectividad: mientras en el primer caso el tipo de inclusión es más activo, horizontal y abierto, en el segundo, el tipo de incorporación política tiende a ser reactivo, vertical y cerrado.

  20. Hábitos alimentarios del Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae en el Parque Nacional Natural Puracé, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Hernández-Guzmán

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La dieta de Puma concolor es ampliamente conocida a lo largo de su distribución, sin embargo, en Colombia no se ha realizado ningún estudio sobre sus hábitos alimentarios. Entre 2007-2009, la dieta de puma fue analizada en el Parque-Nacional-Natural-Puracé, sur occidente de los Andes colombianos. Ítems alimenticios de cinco especies presa fueron identificadas en su dieta; el venado conejo (Pudu mephistophiles es la presa más importante. Como herramienta complementaria para la identificación de huesos y pelos contenidos en heces (n=60, se instalaron seis cámarastrampa en lugares estratégicos, para registrar la presencia de pumas y presas potenciales. El descubrimiento de la dependencia de los pumas con el pudú sugiere una única adaptación de los pumas de paramo a la disponibilidad de presas y resalta su importancia como reguladores de las poblaciones presa. Estos resultados contribuyen a incrementar el poco conocimiento sobre la ecología de pumas de los Andes, de sus presas y de las especies en su conjunto en Colombia. Obtener información sobre el grupo de presas de pumas en diferentes ecosistemas, es esencial para entender los requerimientos regionales para su supervivencia y diseñar acciones de conservación que permitan seguir/evaluar las necesidades particulares de áreas protegidas en toda su distribución.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Structure in Jaguars (Panthera onca, Pumas (Puma concolor, and Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis in Fragmented Landscapes of a Critical Mesoamerican Linkage Zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Wultsch

    Full Text Available With increasing anthropogenic impact and landscape change, terrestrial carnivore populations are becoming more fragmented. Thus, it is crucial to genetically monitor wild carnivores and quantify changes in genetic diversity and gene flow in response to these threats. This study combined the use of scat detector dogs and molecular scatology to conduct the first genetic study on wild populations of multiple Neotropical felids coexisting across a fragmented landscape in Belize, Central America. We analyzed data from 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci in 1053 scat samples collected from wild jaguars (Panthera onca, pumas (Puma concolor, and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis. We assessed levels of genetic diversity, defined potential genetic clusters, and examined gene flow for the three target species on a countrywide scale using a combination of individual- and population-based analyses. Wild felids in Belize showed moderate levels of genetic variation, with jaguars having the lowest diversity estimates (HE = 0.57 ± 0.02; AR = 3.36 ± 0.09, followed by pumas (HE = 0.57 ± 0.08; AR = 4.20 ± 0.16, and ocelots (HE = 0.63 ± 0.03; AR = 4.16 ± 0.08. We observed low to moderate levels of genetic differentiation for all three target species, with jaguars showing the lowest degree of genetic subdivision across the country, followed by ocelots and pumas. Although levels of genetic diversity and gene flow were still fairly high, we detected evidence of fine-scale genetic subdivision, indicating that levels of genetic connectivity for wild felids in Belize are likely to decrease if habitat loss and fragmentation continue at the current rate. Our study demonstrates the value of understanding fine-scale patterns of gene flow in multiple co-occurring felid species of conservation concern, which is vital for wildlife movement corridor planning and prioritizing future conservation and management efforts within human-impacted landscapes.

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Structure in Jaguars (Panthera onca), Pumas (Puma concolor), and Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in Fragmented Landscapes of a Critical Mesoamerican Linkage Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wultsch, Claudia; Waits, Lisette P; Kelly, Marcella J

    2016-01-01

    With increasing anthropogenic impact and landscape change, terrestrial carnivore populations are becoming more fragmented. Thus, it is crucial to genetically monitor wild carnivores and quantify changes in genetic diversity and gene flow in response to these threats. This study combined the use of scat detector dogs and molecular scatology to conduct the first genetic study on wild populations of multiple Neotropical felids coexisting across a fragmented landscape in Belize, Central America. We analyzed data from 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci in 1053 scat samples collected from wild jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis). We assessed levels of genetic diversity, defined potential genetic clusters, and examined gene flow for the three target species on a countrywide scale using a combination of individual- and population-based analyses. Wild felids in Belize showed moderate levels of genetic variation, with jaguars having the lowest diversity estimates (HE = 0.57 ± 0.02; AR = 3.36 ± 0.09), followed by pumas (HE = 0.57 ± 0.08; AR = 4.20 ± 0.16), and ocelots (HE = 0.63 ± 0.03; AR = 4.16 ± 0.08). We observed low to moderate levels of genetic differentiation for all three target species, with jaguars showing the lowest degree of genetic subdivision across the country, followed by ocelots and pumas. Although levels of genetic diversity and gene flow were still fairly high, we detected evidence of fine-scale genetic subdivision, indicating that levels of genetic connectivity for wild felids in Belize are likely to decrease if habitat loss and fragmentation continue at the current rate. Our study demonstrates the value of understanding fine-scale patterns of gene flow in multiple co-occurring felid species of conservation concern, which is vital for wildlife movement corridor planning and prioritizing future conservation and management efforts within human-impacted landscapes.

  3. Noninvasive individual and species identification of jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor) and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in Belize, Central America using cross-species microsatellites and faecal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wultsch, Claudia; Waits, Lisette P; Kelly, Marcella J

    2014-11-01

    There is a great need to develop efficient, noninvasive genetic sampling methods to study wild populations of multiple, co-occurring, threatened felids. This is especially important for molecular scatology studies occurring in challenging tropical environments where DNA degrades quickly and the quality of faecal samples varies greatly. We optimized 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci for jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor) and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and assessed their utility for cross-species amplification. Additionally, we tested their reliability for species and individual identification using DNA from faeces of wild felids detected by a scat detector dog across Belize in Central America. All microsatellite loci were successfully amplified in the three target species, were polymorphic with average expected heterozygosities of HE = 0.60 ± 0.18 (SD) for jaguars, HE = 0.65 ± 0.21 (SD) for pumas and HE = 0.70 ± 0.13 (SD) for ocelots and had an overall PCR amplification success of 61%. We used this nuclear DNA primer set to successfully identify species and individuals from 49% of 1053 field-collected scat samples. This set of optimized microsatellite multiplexes represents a powerful tool for future efforts to conduct noninvasive studies on multiple, wild Neotropical felids. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. High consumption of primates by pumas and ocelots in a remnant of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Santos

    Full Text Available We studied the diet of the ocelot and puma during the years 2007 and 2008 at the Feliciano Miguel Abdala Reserve, in Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil. We collected 49 faecal samples (scats from cats, and identified the species of cat from 23 of them by the analysis of the microstructure patterns of hairs found in their faeces: 17 scats of the puma (Puma concolor and six of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis. In the puma scats, we identified three species of primates (Brachyteles hypoxanthus, Alouatta guariba and Sapajus nigritus, the remains of which were found in eight of 17 collected (47.1%, representing 26.7% of items consumed. For the ocelot, we detected capuchin monkey (S. nigritus remains in three of the six scats (50%, accounting for 18.7% of items consumed by ocelot. We were unable to identify the cat species in the remaining 26 faecal samples, but we were able to analyse the food items present. Primates were found in five of these 26 faeces (19.2% and represented 10.2% of the items found. Although the sample size is limited, our results indicate a relatively high consumption of primates by felines. We believe that this high predation may be the result of the high local density of primates as well as the greater exposure to the risks of predation in fragmented landscapes, which tends to increase the incidence of the primates using the ground.

  5. Harnessing the p53-PUMA Axis to Overcome DNA Damage Resistance in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to DNA damage–induced apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer and a major cause of treatment failure and lethal disease outcome. A tumor entity that is largely resistant to DNA-damaging therapies including chemo- or radiotherapy is renal cell carcinoma (RCC. This study was designed to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of DNA damage resistance in RCC to develop strategies to resensitize tumor cells to DNA damage–induced apoptosis. Here, we show that apoptosis-resistant RCC cells have a disconnect between activation of p53 and upregulation of the downstream proapoptotic protein p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA. We demonstrate that this disconnect is not caused by gene-specific repression through CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF but instead by aberrant chromatin compaction. Treatment with an HDAC inhibitor was found to effectively reactivate PUMA expression on the mRNA and protein level and to revert resistance to DNA damage–induced cell death. Ectopic expression of PUMA was found to resensitize a panel of RCC cell lines to four different DNA-damaging agents tested. Remarkably, all RCC cell lines analyzed were wild-type for p53, and a knockdown was likewise able to sensitize RCC cells to acute genotoxic stress. Taken together, our results indicate that DNA damage resistance in RCC is reversible, involves the p53-PUMA axis, and is potentially targetable to improve the oncological outcomes of RCC patients.

  6. MELCOR Validation against a PUMA facility main steam line break integral test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Y.; Vierow, K.; Han, J. T.

    2008-01-01

    The MELCOR code has evolved from a probabilistic risk assessment tool to a best- estimate severe accident system analysis code. Developed by Sandia National Laboratories with funding from the US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, MELCOR is capable of analyzing hypothetical severe accidents in a variety of nuclear power plants. An assessment of MELCOR's ability to simulate a design basis accident main steam line break (MSLB) scenario in the PUMA (Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly) facility is reported in this paper The PUMA MSLB integral test was chosen for MELCOR assessment because the PUMA test facility has all the key components needed for investigating the loss-of-coolant accidents in an advanced boiling water reactor design using passive safety systems and the phenomena observed in the PUMA test are expected to be qualitatively similar to those in the plant. Key parameters including vessel pressures, flow rates and heat removal rates were compared. Based on favorable comparison results, the MELCOR thermal-hydraulic models are found to be generally satisfactory for prediction of the design basis accident MSLB in a passively cooled, advanced boiling water reactor. (authors)

  7. Mammalian energetics. Instantaneous energetics of puma kills reveal advantage of felid sneak attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terrie M; Wolfe, Lisa; Davis, Tracy; Kendall, Traci; Richter, Beau; Wang, Yiwei; Bryce, Caleb; Elkaim, Gabriel Hugh; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2014-10-03

    Pumas (Puma concolor) live in diverse, often rugged, complex habitats. The energy they expend for hunting must account for this complexity but is difficult to measure for this and other large, cryptic carnivores. We developed and deployed a physiological SMART (species movement, acceleration, and radio tracking) collar that used accelerometry to continuously monitor energetics, movements, and behavior of free-ranging pumas. This felid species displayed marked individuality in predatory activities, ranging from low-cost sit-and-wait behaviors to constant movements with energetic costs averaging 2.3 times those predicted for running mammals. Pumas reduce these costs by remaining cryptic and precisely matching maximum pouncing force (overall dynamic body acceleration = 5.3 to 16.1g) to prey size. Such instantaneous energetics help to explain why most felids stalk and pounce, and their analysis represents a powerful approach for accurately forecasting resource demands required for survival by large, mobile predators. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. PUMA mediates the combinational therapy of 5-FU and NVP-BEZ235 in colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanan; Zhang, Lingling; Yang, Xu; Jin, Yipeng; Pei, Shimin; Zhang, Di; Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Yingjie; Lin, Degui

    2015-01-01

    Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in humans which has a high mortality rate, and 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the most widely used drugs in colon cancer therapy. However, acquired chemoresistance is becoming the major challenges for patients, and the molecular mechanism underlying the development of 5-FU resistance is still poorly understood. In this study, a newly designed therapy in combination with 5-FU and NVP-BEZ235 in colon cancer cells (HCT-116 and RKO) was established, to investigate the mechanism of 5-FU resistance and optimize drug therapy to improve outcome for patients. Our results show 5-FU induced cell apoptosis through p53/PUMA pathway, with aberrant Akt activation, which may well explain the mechanism of 5-FU resistance. NVP-BEZ235 effectively up-regulated PUMA expression, mainly through inactivation of PI3K/Akt and activation of FOXO3a, leading to cell apoptosis even in the p53−/− HCT-116 cells. Combination treatment of 5-FU and NVP-BEZ235 further increased cell apoptosis in a PUMA/Bax dependent manner. Moreover, significantly enhanced anti-tumor effects were observed in combination treatment in vivo. Together, these results demonstrated that the combination treatment of 5-FU and NVP-BEZ235 caused PUMA-dependent tumor suppression both in vitro and in vivo, which may promise a more effective strategy for colon cancer therapy. PMID:25965911

  9. Acute lead toxicosis via ingestion of spent ammunition in a free-ranging cougar (Puma concolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burco, Julia; Myers, Anne Mary; Schuler, Krysten; Gillin, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Lead toxicity has long been documented and acknowledged as a significant health issue of water birds and avian scavengers. However, few instances of toxic effects to higher mammalian carnivores have been documented. Here we present an acute case of lead toxicity in a free-ranging cougar (Puma concolor) in Oregon.

  10. Trophic facilitation or limitation? Comparative effects of pumas and black bears on the scavenger community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian L Allen

    Full Text Available Scavenging is a widespread behaviour and an important process influencing food webs and ecological communities. Large carnivores facilitate the movement of energy across trophic levels through the scavenging and decomposition of their killed prey, but competition with large carnivores is also likely to constrain acquisition of carrion by scavengers. We used an experimental approach based on motion-triggered video cameras at black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus carcasses to measure the comparative influences of two large carnivores in the facilitation and limitation of carrion acquisition by scavengers. We found that pumas (Puma concolor and black bears (Ursus americanus had different effects on their ecological communities. Pumas, as a top-level predator, facilitated the consumption of carrion by scavengers, despite significantly reducing their observed sum feeding times (165.7 min ± 21.2 SE at puma kills 264.3 min ± 30.1 SE at control carcasses. In contrast, black bears, as the dominant scavenger in the system, limited consumption of carrion by scavengers as evidenced by the observed reduction of scavenger species richness recorded at carcasses where they were present (mean = 2.33 ± 0.28 SE, compared to where they were absent (mean = 3.28 ± 0.23 SE. Black bears also had large negative effects on scavenger sum feeding times (88.5 min ± 19.8 SE at carcasses where bears were present, 372.3 min ± 50.0 SE at carcasses where bears were absent. In addition, we found that pumas and black bears both increased the nestedness (a higher level of order among species present of the scavenger community. Our results suggest that scavengers have species-specific adaptions to exploit carrion despite large carnivores, and that large carnivores influence the structure and composition of scavenger communities. The interactions between large carnivores and scavengers should be considered in future studies of food webs and ecological communities.

  11. Trophic facilitation or limitation? Comparative effects of pumas and black bears on the scavenger community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Maximilian L; Elbroch, L Mark; Wilmers, Christopher C; Wittmer, Heiko U

    2014-01-01

    Scavenging is a widespread behaviour and an important process influencing food webs and ecological communities. Large carnivores facilitate the movement of energy across trophic levels through the scavenging and decomposition of their killed prey, but competition with large carnivores is also likely to constrain acquisition of carrion by scavengers. We used an experimental approach based on motion-triggered video cameras at black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) carcasses to measure the comparative influences of two large carnivores in the facilitation and limitation of carrion acquisition by scavengers. We found that pumas (Puma concolor) and black bears (Ursus americanus) had different effects on their ecological communities. Pumas, as a top-level predator, facilitated the consumption of carrion by scavengers, despite significantly reducing their observed sum feeding times (165.7 min ± 21.2 SE at puma kills 264.3 min ± 30.1 SE at control carcasses). In contrast, black bears, as the dominant scavenger in the system, limited consumption of carrion by scavengers as evidenced by the observed reduction of scavenger species richness recorded at carcasses where they were present (mean = 2.33 ± 0.28 SE), compared to where they were absent (mean = 3.28 ± 0.23 SE). Black bears also had large negative effects on scavenger sum feeding times (88.5 min ± 19.8 SE at carcasses where bears were present, 372.3 min ± 50.0 SE at carcasses where bears were absent). In addition, we found that pumas and black bears both increased the nestedness (a higher level of order among species present) of the scavenger community. Our results suggest that scavengers have species-specific adaptions to exploit carrion despite large carnivores, and that large carnivores influence the structure and composition of scavenger communities. The interactions between large carnivores and scavengers should be considered in future studies of food webs and ecological communities.

  12. Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: implications for infectious disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, Sarah N; Carver, Scott; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; Alldredge, Mat; Logan, Kenneth A; Riley, Seth P D; Fisher, Robert N; Vickers, T Winston; Boyce, Walter; Salman, Mo; Lappin, Michael R; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases--vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii--varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better understand the

  13. Interdependence of Bad and Puma during ionizing-radiation-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Toruno

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation (IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks trigger an extensive cellular signaling response that involves the coordination of hundreds of proteins to regulate DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptotic pathways. The cellular outcome often depends on the level of DNA damage as well as the particular cell type. Proliferating zebrafish embryonic neurons are highly sensitive to IR-induced apoptosis, and both p53 and its transcriptional target puma are essential mediators of the response. The BH3-only protein Puma has previously been reported to activate mitochondrial apoptosis through direct interaction with the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak, thus constituting the role of an "activator" BH3-only protein. This distinguishes it from BH3-only proteins like Bad that are thought to indirectly promote apoptosis through binding to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, thereby preventing the sequestration of activator BH3-only proteins and allowing them to directly interact with and activate Bax and Bak. We have shown previously that overexpression of the BH3-only protein Bad in zebrafish embryos supports normal embryonic development but greatly sensitizes developing neurons to IR-induced apoptosis. While Bad has previously been shown to play only a minor role in promoting IR-induced apoptosis of T cells in mice, we demonstrate that Bad is essential for robust IR-induced apoptosis in zebrafish embryonic neural tissue. Moreover, we found that both p53 and Puma are required for Bad-mediated radiosensitization in vivo. Our findings show the existence of a hierarchical interdependence between Bad and Puma whereby Bad functions as an essential sensitizer and Puma as an essential activator of IR-induced mitochondrial apoptosis specifically in embryonic neural tissue.

  14. Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: implications for infectious disease transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah N Bevins

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral, that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact, and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV, and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases--vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii--varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better

  15. Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: Implications for infections disease transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, Sarah N.; Carver, Scott; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alldredge, Mat; Logan, Kenneth A.; Riley, Seth P.D.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Boyce, Walter; Salman, Mo; Lappin, Michael R.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases – vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii – varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better

  16. Análisis de la industria cultural en el pacto de integración sub-regional andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilo Fernández

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de la presente investigacion fue realizar un analisis de la industria cultural en el pacto de la integracion Sub-regional Andino, destancado el papel fundamental de esta industria como entidad de comunicacion que se construye y se modela a travez de signos culturales que se encuentran en la cotidianidad, en el discurso social y surgidas de realidades entrelazadas, siendo los medios de comunicacion los que hacen percibirlo de otra manera. Las bases teoricas describen como algunos elementos tento del contexto multidimensional de la region andina como elemento socio-juridicos y culturales influyen los aportes de autores tales como: Lorena Rincon, Lucrecia Morales, German Rey, Bernardo Klisberg, Marcelino Bisbal y Nestor Garcia Canclini, entre otros. El tipo de investigacion que se selecciono fue la descriptiva documental; para la cual se utilizo como instrumento de analisis una guia de observacion que permitio ubicar las principales categoria, sub-categorias y las unidades de analisis, de ocho (8 documentos (convenios, acuerdos y declaraciones que constituyeron en una muestra intencional de un total de 16 documentos seleccionados como poblacion inicial que conforman las bases de los pactos que ha suscrito la comunidad Andina de Naciones. Con referencia al analisis e interpretacion de los resultados, se constituyem en hallazgos los planteamientos ubicados en cada uno de los documentos estudiados confirmandose el papel central que juega la industria cultural para la integracion Sub-regional Andina, a pesar de no ser explico en algunos de los documentos.

  17. Diversidad de flora vascular del Chocó Andino en el área de Selva Virgen, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Aguirre Ulloa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El bosque junto a la Hostería Selva Virgen, ubicado en el noroccidente de Pichincha, zona del Chocó Andino, es uno de los sitios de alta biodiversidad (hotspot del mundo; lo cual se determinó en el análisis de su flora vascular. Para dicho análisis se implementó un muestreo con transectos temporales de 50 x 4 y 50 x 2 m que cubren una superficie de 0.1 hectáreas. Se calcularon los índices de Sorensen, Simpson y Shannon, con el programa Past, obteniéndose los siguientes resultados: 159 especies (spp. registradas, que corresponden a 121 géneros y 54 familias. Las familias con mayor número de especies fueron: Moraceae 15 spp, Rubiaceae 10 spp, Arecaceae 9 spp, Fabaceae 9 spp, Melastomataceae 8 spp y Meliaceae 8 spp. La diversidad obtuvo un valor de 0.95 en el índice de Simpson, que se interpreta como alta diversidad. La riqueza fue de 0.33, riqueza media. El índice de Sorensen identifica espacios que comparten el mayor número de especies. El endemismo es bajo: 6.25%. La alta biodiversidad encontrada en el bosque, demuestra una riqueza biológica importante, que sugiere la realización de más estudios en esta zona poco explorada desde el punto de vista biológico.

  18. New light on an old friend: targeting PUMA in radioprotection and therapy of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichy, Ales; Marek, Jan; Havelek, Radim; Pejchal, Jaroslav; Seifrtova, Martina; Zarybnicka, Lenka; Filipova, Alzbeta; Rezacova, Martina; Sinkorova, Zuzana

    2018-04-05

    This review summarizes recent progress in understanding the role of p53-upregulated mediator of apoptosis (PUMA) in molecular pathways with respect to its potential therapeutic applications. Particular emphasis is given to the PUMA´s role in ionizing radiation-induced signalling as radiotoxicity of normal tissue is mediated mostly via apoptosis. PUMA and its p53-dependent and p53-independent induction is described and potential use as a new target for the development of radioprotective agents is suggested. Further implications, including targeting PUMA to prevent and treat cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, are also discussed together with overview of other therapeutic applications. Finally, basic chemical structures for development of novel PUMA modulators such as pifithrine derivativeses, kinase inhibitors or modulators of Bcl-2 protein family are described. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Comment meurent les pumas: du mythe au rite à Huaraz (Centre-nord du Pérou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente quelques éléments ethnographiques nouveaux à propos du symbolisme du puma dans les Andes. En partant de discours recueillis en quechua dans la région de Huaraz (Centre-Nord du Pérou, nous dégageons tout d’abord la perception collective de cet animal. Ensuite, à l’aide d’un mythe, également présenté en quechua, nous montrons que le puma est une représentation symbolique des ancêtres. Ces discours nous livrent le contexte qui permet de comprendre la fonction symbolique de la graisse de puma, ainsi qu’un rite de passage occasionnel au moment de la mort. CÓMO MUEREN LOS PUMAS: DEL MITO AL RITO EN HUARAZ (CENTRO-NORTE DEL PERÚ. Este artículo presenta algunos nuevos datos etnográficos acerca del simbolismo del puma en los Andes. A partir de relatos en quechua, recogidos en la zona de Huaraz (centro-norte de Perú, sacamos a luz la percepción colectiva de este animal. Luego, un mito, también presentado en quechua, nos ayuda a mostrar que el puma es una representación simbólica de los antepasados. Estos textos ofrecen un contexto que permite entender la función simbólica de la grasa de puma, así como un ritual ocasional que se lleva a cabo en el momento de la muerte. HOW PUMAS DIE: MYTH AND RITUAL IN HUARAZ (CENTRAL NORTHERN PERU. This paper presents new ethnographic data on puma symbolism in the Andes. Through samples of speech collected in Quechua in the area of Huaraz (central-northern Peru, I first describe how the animal is collectively perceived. Next, I analyze a myth, also in Quechua, which shows that the puma is a symbolic representation of the ancestors. This above provides the key which enables us to understand the symbolic value of puma fat, as well as an infrequent ritual which is carried out at the moment of death.

  20. Cisplatin induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer A2780s cells by activation of ERK/p53/PUMA signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hao; Wei, Mei; Liu, Wenfen; Shen, Shulin; Li, Jiaqun; Wang, Liming

    2018-01-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most effective anticancer agents widely used in the treatment of solid tumors, including ovarian cancer. It is generally considered as a cytotoxic drug which kills cancer cells by causing DNA damage, and subsequently inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to cell apoptosis remain obscure. In this study, the signaling pathways involved in CDDP-induced apoptosis were examined using CDDP-sensitive ovarian cancer A2780s cells. A2780s cells were treated with CDDP (1.5-3 μg/ml) for 6h, 12h and 24h. Using siRNA targeting P53 and PUMA, and a selective MEK inhibitor, PD98059 to examine the relation between ERK1/2 activation, p53 and PUMA expression after exposure to CDDP, and the effect on CDDP-induced apoptosis. The results shown that treatment of A2780s cells with CDDP (3 μg/ml) for 6-24h induced apoptosis, resulting in the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and accumulation of p53 and PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) protein. Knockdown of P53 or PUMA by siRNA transfection blocked CDDP-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of ERK1/2 using PD98059, a selective MEK inhibitor, blocked the apoptotic cell death but prevented CDDP-induced accumulation of p53 and PUMA. Knockdown of P53 by siRNA transfection also blocked CDDP-induced accumulation of PUMA. We therefore concluded that CDDP activated ERK1/2 and induced-p53-dependent PUMA upregulation, resulting in triggering apoptosis in A2780s cells. Our study clearly demonstrates that the ERK1/2/p53/PUMA axis is related to CDDP-induced cell death in A2780s cells.

  1. Slug suppression induces apoptosis via Puma transactivation in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes treated with hydrogen peroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Hoon-Suk; Bae, Eun-Kyung; Ahn, Joong Kyong; Lee, Jaejoon; Ahn, Kwang-Sung; Koh, Eun-Mi

    2010-01-01

    Inadequate apoptosis contributes to synovial hyperplasia in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent study shows that low expression of Puma might be partially responsible for the decreased apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Slug, a highly conserved zinc finger transcriptional repressor, is known to antagonize apoptosis of hematopoietic progenitor cells by repressing Puma transactivation. In this study, we examined the expression and function of Slug in RA FLS. Slug mRNA expression was...

  2. EZH2-mediated Puma gene repression regulates non-small cell lung cancer cell proliferation and cisplatin-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haidan; Li, Wei; Yu, Xinfang; Gao, Feng; Duan, Zhi; Ma, Xiaolong; Tan, Shiming; Yuan, Yunchang; Liu, Lijun; Wang, Jian; Zhou, Xinmin; Yang, Yifeng

    2016-08-30

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are highly conserved epigenetic effectors that maintain the silenced state of genes. EZH2 is the catalytic core and one of the most important components of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and primary lung tumors, we found that PRC2 components, including EZH2, are overexpressed. High levels of EZH2 protein were associated with worse overall survival rate in NSCLC patients. RNA interference mediated attenuation of EZH2 expression blunted the malignant phenotype in this setting, exerting inhibitory effects on cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and tumor development in a xenograft mouse model. Unexpectedly, we discovered that, in the suppression of EZH2, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) expression was concomitantly induced. This is achieved through EZH2 directly binds to the Puma promoter thus epigenetic repression of PUMA expression. Furthermore, cisplatin-induced apoptosis of EZH2-knocking down NSCLC cells was elevated as a consequence of increased PUMA expression. Our work reveals a novel epigenetic regulatory mechanism controlling PUMA expression and suggests that EZH2 offers a candidate molecular target for NSCLC therapy and EZH2-regulated PUMA induction would synergistically increase the sensitivity to platinum agents in non-small cell lung cancers.

  3. Propofol-induced neurotoxicity in hESCs involved in activation of miR-206/PUMA signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Jia, Changxin; Zhang, Dianlong; Ni, Guangzhen; Miao, Xia; Tu, Ruirong

    2017-08-23

    Studies in developing animals have demonstrated that when anesthetic agents, such as propofol, are early administered in life, it can lead to neuronal cell death and learning disabilities. However, the mechanisms causing these effects remains unknown. A recent report found that propofol could significantly upregulat miR-206 expression in the human ASCs. miR-206 could also induce apoptosis in human malignant cancers. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesized that propofol induces neurotoxicity in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). hESCs were exposed to propofol (50 μM) for 6 hr and cell death was assessed using TUNEL staining, and cleaved caspase-3 expression. miR-206 was knocked down using antagomir. PUMA was knocked down using a small interfering RNA. microRNA-206 (miR-206) expression was assessed using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). PUMA protein expression was detected using western blot assay. hESCs exposed to propofol showed a significant increase in TUNEL positive cells and cleaved caspase-3 expression, followed by the upregulation of miR-206 and PUMA expression. Targeting PUMA inhibits propofol-induced cell apoptosis; miR-206 knockdown decreased propofol-induced cell apoptosis, cleaved caspase-3 and PUMA expression. Propofol induce s cell death in hESC-derived neurons via activation of miR-206/PUMA signal pathway.

  4. NVP-BKM120 inhibits colon cancer growth via FoxO3a-dependent PUMA induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shida; Li, Xin; Guan, Wenchang; Qian, Mingqin; Yao, Zhicheng; Yin, Xiaoxue; Zhao, Hongmei

    2017-10-10

    NVP-BKM120, a potent and highly selective PI3K inhibitor, is currently being investigated in phase I/II clinical trials. The mechanisms of action of NVP-BKM120 in colon cancer cells are unclear. In the present study, we investigated how NVP-BKM120 suppresses colon cancer cells growth and potentiates effects of other chemotherapeutic drugs. We found that NVP-BKM120 treatment enhance PUMA induction irrespective of p53 status through the FoxO3a pathway following AKT inhibition. Furthermore, PUMA is required for NVP-BKM120-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells. In addition, NVP-BKM120 also synergized with 5-Fluorouracil or regorafenib to induce marked apoptosis via PUMA induction. Deficiency of PUMA suppressed apoptosis and antitumor effect of NVP-BKM120 in xenograft model. These results demonstrate a key role of PUMA in mediating the anticancer effects of NVP-BKM120 and suggest that PUMA could be used as an indicator of NVP-BKM120 sensitivity, and also have important implications for it clinical applications.

  5. Universitätsbibliografie mit PUMA. Praxisbericht aus der Einführung der Universitätsbibliografie an der Universitätsbibliothek Stuttgart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Hermann

    2017-12-01

    The added value of the Academic Publication Management PUMA at the University of Stuttgart compared to a bibliographic cataloguing environment lies in the direct processing of data by scientists without an interim step via the library. For the university content management system, a plugin is available, which dynamically integrates publication lists into employees’ web pages. The metadata is loaded directly from PUMA, filtered, sorted and can be put out in the citation style desired. PUMA offers many interfaces and display possibilities.

  6. PUMA gene transfection can enhance the sensitivity of epirubicin-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C-G; Zhuang, J; Teng, W-J; Wang, Z; Du, S-S

    2015-05-29

    We explored whether p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) gene transfection could enhance the sensitivity of epirubicin-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The liposome-mediated recombinant eukaryotic expression vector PU-MA-pCDNA3 and empty vector plasmid were stably transfected into MCF-7 cells. Epirubicin (0.01-100 μM) was applied to MCF-7, MCF-7/PUMA, and MCF-7/pCDNA3 cells for 72 h. The MTT assay was used to calculate the cell survival rate in each group, and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was calculated. The IC50 values of epirubicin in MCF-7, MCF-7/PUMA, and MCF-7/pCDNA3 cells were 13 ± 1.4, 1.8 ± 0.2, and 10.7 ± 1.3 μM, respectively. The sensitivity of MCF-7/PUMA cells to epirubicin increased 7.2-fold. Epirubicin induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells dose-dependently, but MCF-7/PUMA cell-induced apoptosis was more significant compared to controls. Low concentrations of epirubicin (0.1 μM) caused low levels of apoptosis of MCF-7/pCDNA3 (1.15 ± 0.26%) and MCF-7 cells (0.9 ± 0.24%), but significantly induced apoptosis of MCF-7/PUMA cells (6.44 ± 1.46%). High epirubicin concentration (1 μM) induced apoptosis in each group, but the epirubicin MCF-7/PUMA apoptosis rate (35.47 ± 9.36%) was significantly higher than that of MCF-7 (12.6 ± 3.73%) and MCF-7/ pCDNA3 (15.2 ± 5.17%) cells (P PUMA protein expression in MCF-7/PUMA cells was significantly higher than that in MCF-7 and MCF-7/pCDNA3 cells by Western blot analysis. There-fore, stable transfection of PUMA can significantly enhance epirubicin-induced apoptosis sensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

  7. Plutonium and minor actinides management in thermal high - temperature reactors - the EU FP6 project puma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijper, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    The High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (HTR) can fulfil a very useful niche for the purposes of Pu and Minor Actinide (MA) incineration due to its unique and unsurpassed safety features, as well as to the attractive incentives offered by the nature of the coated particle (CP) fuel. No European reactor of this type is currently available, but there has been, and still is, considerable interest internationally. Decisions to construct such a reactor in China and in South Africa have already been made or are about to be made. Apart from the unique and unsurpassed safety features offered by this reactor type, the nature of the CP fuel offers a number of attractive characteristics. In particular, it can withstand burn-ups far beyond that in either LWR or FR systems. Demonstrations as high as 75% FIMA have been achieved. The coated particle itself offers significantly improved proliferation resistance, and finally with a correct choice of the kernel composition, it can be a very effective support for direct geological disposal of the fuel. The overall objective of the PUMA project, a Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) within the European Union 6th Framework (EU FP6), is to investigate the possibilities for the utilisation and transmutation of plutonium and especially minor actinides in contemporary and future (high temperature) gas-cooled reactor designs, which are promising tools for improving the sustainability of the nuclear fuel cycle. This contributes to the reduction of Pu and MA stockpiles, and also to the development of safe and sustainable reactors for CO 2 -free energy generation. A number of important issues concerning the use of Pu and MA in gas-cooled reactors have already been dealt with in other projects, or are being treated in ongoing projects, e.g. as part of EU FP6. However, further steps are required to demonstrate the potential of HTRs as Pu/MA transmuters based on realistic/feasible designs of CP Pu/MA fuel and the PUMA focuses on necessary

  8. Experimental study on direct adaptive control of a PUMA 560 industrial robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.; Lee, T.; Delpech, M.

    1990-01-01

    The implementation and experimental validation of a direct adaptive control scheme on a PUMA 560 industrial robot is discussed. The design theory for direct adaptive control of manipulators is outlined and the test facility and software are described. Results are presented from the experiments on the simultaneous control of all of the six joint angles and control of the end-effector position and orientation of the robot. Also, the possible applications of the direct adaptive control scheme are considered.

  9. Expression of Bim, Noxa, and Puma in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara-Konishi, Jun; Oizumi, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Junko; Kikuchi, Eiki; Mizugaki, Hidenori; Kinoshita, Ichiro; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    The BH3-only members of the Bcl-2 protein family have been proposed to play a key role in the control of apoptosis and in the initiation of the apoptotic pathways. In this study, we evaluated the expression of Bim, Noxa, and Puma in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 135 surgically resected NSCLCs were immunohistochemically assessed for Bim, Noxa, and Puma expression. The immunoscores were determined, and then its correlation with either the clinicopathological variables or the survival outcomes were analyzed. Immunohistochemical reactivity for Bim, Noxa, and Puma was detected in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. Bim expression was associated with several clinicopathological factors, including sex (p < 0.001), smoking habit (p = 0.03), pathological histology (p = 0.001), pathological T stage (p = 0.03), pathological disease stage (p = 0.02), and differentiation of tumor (p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant correlation between low Bim expression and squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.04), in addition to a correlation between high Bim expression and well differentiated tumors (p = 0.02). Analysis of cellular biological expression demonstrated a link between low Bim expression and high Ki67. While Noxa expression was also shown to be correlated with both smoking habit (p = 0.02) and the pathological histology (p = 0.03), there was no strong association observed between the expression and the clinical features when they were examined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. No correlations were noted between Puma expression and any of the variables. Our analyses also indicated that the expression levels of the BH3-only proteins were not pertinent to the survival outcome. The current analyses demonstrated that Bim expression in the NSCLCs was associated with both squamous cell carcinoma histology and tumor proliferation

  10. Evaluation of the effects of initial conditions on transients in PUMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlatan, Y.; Jo, J.; Rohatgi, U.S.

    1996-01-01

    Major differences between the SBWR and the currently operating BWRs include the use of passive gravity-driven systems in the SBWR for emergency cooling of the vessel and containment. In order to investigate the phenomena expected during a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), NRC has sponsored an integral scaled-test facility, called Purdue, University Multidimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA). The facility models all the major safety-related components of SBWR. Two PUMA initialization calculations were performed to assist the Purdue University in establishing test initialization procedures. Both calculations were based on the initial conditions obtained from SBWR LOCA simulation. In the base case, a complete separation between vapor and liquid was assumed, with all the water in the lower part of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) and all the vapor above it. In the sensitivity case, the water inventory was distributed in the vessel in the same way as in the SBWR at 1.034 MPa, which is the initial pressure for PUMA facility. Purdue University plans to initialize the PUMA tests as in the base case. The sensitivity calculation is performed to provide assurance that this mode of initialization is adequate. It also provides information on possible differences in the progress of transients. The conditions outside of the vessel were identical for both cases prior to initiation of the accident. The paper will discuss the differences in the early part of the transient. The conclusion from this study will also apply to many integral facilities which simulate the reactor transients from the middle of the transient

  11. Evaluation of the effects of initial conditions on transients in PUMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlatan, Y.; Jo, J.; Rohatgi, U.S.

    1996-01-01

    A Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) is the latest Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) designed by the General Electric (GE). Major differences between the SBWR and the currently operating BWRs include the use of passive gravity-driven systems in the SBWR for emergency cooling of the vessel and containment. In order to investigate the phenomena expected during a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored an integral scaled-test facility, called Purdue University Multidimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA). The facility models all the major safety-related components of SBWR. Two PUMA initialization calculations were performed to assist the Purdue University in establishing test initialization procedures. Both calculations were based on the initial conditions obtained from SBWR LOCA simulation. In the base case, a complete separation between vapor and liquid was assumed, with all the water in the lower part of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) and all the vapor above it. In the sensitivity case, the water inventory was distributed in the vessel in the same way as in the SBWR at 1.034 MPa, which is the initial pressure for PUMA facility. Purdue University plans to initialize the PUMA tests as in the base case. The sensitivity calculation is performed to provide assurance that this mode of initialization is adequate. It also provides information on possible differences in the progress of transients. The paper will discuss the differences in the early part of the transient. The conclusion from this study will also apply to many integral facilities which simulate the reactor transients form the middle of the transient

  12. Residential development alters behavior, movement, and energetics in an apex predator, the puma

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yiwei; Smith, Justine A.; Wilmers, Christopher C.

    2017-01-01

    Human development strongly influences large carnivore survival and persistence globally. Behavior changes are often the first measureable responses to human disturbances, and can have ramifications on animal populations and ecological communities. We investigated how a large carnivore responds to anthropogenic disturbances by measuring activity, movement behavior, and energetics in pumas along a housing density gradient. We used log-linear analyses to examine how habitat, time of day, and pro...

  13. Targeting of slug sensitizes anaplastic thyroid carcinoma SW1736 cells to doxorubicin via PUMA upregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Anbing; Jiao, Xuelong; Chen, Dong; Hao, Fengyun; Zhang, Kejun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human cancers and often shows resistance to multimodal therapeutic approaches. It has been shown that the transcriptional repressor Slug inhibits the chemotherapeutic agent-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. We evaluated whether targeting of Slug could augment doxorubicin (DOX)-induced apoptosis of ATC cells. We also determined changes in PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis) expression levels to identify poss...

  14. GRUPOS FUNCIONALES DE PLANTAS EN BORDES DE AVANCE CON POTENCIAL PARA LA RESTAURACIÓN DE UN BOSQUE ALTO ANDINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Castellanos Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de grupos funcionales de plantas es una herramienta útil en la identificación de características ecológicas de importancia en la regeneración de una comunidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue la identificación de grupos funcionales de plantas en bordes de avance de un bosque alto andino y la evaluación de su importancia en el curso de la sucesión secundaria en pastizales abandonados. Con base en levantamientos de vegetación de 10 x 10m y en la revisión de atributos vitales de las especies registradas, se realizó una clasificación multivariante de las especies en grupos emergentes de plantas. Los atributos más importantes para la clasificación de los grupos emergentes fueron el método de dispersión, la formación de un banco de semillas y la presencia de propagación vegetativa y asociada a esta la ramificación basal de tallo. Se definieron tres grupos para las especies de estrato herbáceo y tres para las del estrato arbustivo-arbóreo, los cuales reúnen especies con estrategias morfo-fisiológicas similares. Dentro de los grupos definidos, las especies herbáceas dispersadas por diversos medios abióticos y las especies arbustivas con ramificación basal dispersadas por viento y por aves parecen ser claves en la colonización del terreno dominado por H. lanatus y en la facilitación del establecimiento de especies de bosque secundario.

  15. Impacto de la fragmentación en la diversidad de plantas vasculares en bosques andinos del nororiente de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Alvarez Dávila

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo analizamos la relación entre variables a escala del paisaje (área del fragmento, forma, conectividad, altitud, contraste de borde, tipo de bosque, etc. y la riqueza de plantas vasculares en un bosque andino del norte de Colombia. Con base en un mapa de vegetación escala 1:10.000, seleccionamos 39 fragmentos al azar (de un total de 700 y en cada uno de ellos establecimos al menos una parcela de 200 m2 donde se contó el número total de especies de plantas vasculares. La muestra estuvo constituida por fragmentos entre 1 ha y 840 ha distribuidos en un gradiente altitudinal entre los 1800 y 2800 msnm. En las 60 parcelas establecidas (1.2 ha en total encontramos  108 familias, 259 géneros y 556 especies de plantas vasculares, demostrando la alta biodiversidad que pueden albergar los bosques fragmentados de los andes. La riqueza de especies estuvo entre 34 y 74 por parcela de 200 m2. El análisis mostró que las variables individuales más relacionadas con la riqueza de especies (de acuerdo con el coeficiente r de Pearson son el área total del fragmento (r = 0.43, p<0.001, n = 60, el área central del fragmento (r = 0.49, p<0.001, n = 60 y el contraste de borde del fragmento (r = - 0.48, p<0.001, n = 60. Finalmente, construimos diferentes modelos de regresión múltiple que explican hasta el 32.6 % de la variación de la riqueza de especies de cada fragmento. Discutimos la utilidad del modelo para la identificación prioridades de conservación a pequeña escala.

  16. PUMA - plutonium and minor actinides management in thermal high-temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijper, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The PUMA project, a Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) of the European Union EURATOM 6. Framework Program, is mainly aimed at providing additional key elements for the utilisation and transmutation of plutonium and minor actinides in contemporary and future (high temperature) gas-cooled (HTR) reactor designs. The project runs from September 1, 2006 until August 31, 2009. The investigation on core physics aims at optimising the coated particle (CP) fuel and reactor characteristics, and assuring nuclear stability and safety of a Pu/Ma (minor actinides) HTR core. New CP designs will be explored in order to withstand very high burn-ups and obtain optimal adaptation for disposal after irradiation. In particular, helium production in Pu and MA-based fuel will be assessed and supported by experiments. Fuel irradiation performance codes, developed and used by several organisations, will permit convergence on optimized design criteria. The impact of the introduction of Pu/MA fuel on the fuel cycle and future energy mix will be assessed

  17. Homocysteine induces PUMA-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yumi; Kim, Juhae; Ko, Je Won; Kwon, Young Hye

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have reported that homocysteine induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in neuronal cells, proposing the underlying mechanism by which it could induce neurotoxicity. Induction of pro-apoptotic transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and activation of caspase-4 by calpain have been suggested to be an important route in inducing apoptosis in response to ER stress. In this study, we investigated the molecular pathway of homocysteine-induced apoptosis in caspase-4 deficient SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Homocysteine significantly increased mRNA levels of CHOP and p53, resulting in the upregulation of their downstream target gene, p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA). In cells treated with homocysteine, Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX) protein levels, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, and caspase-9 activation were significantly increased. Consistently, a caspase-9 inhibitor significantly alleviated homocysteine-induced cytotoxicity. Significantly lower BAX mRNA levels and caspase-9 activation were observed in cells transfected with siRNA for PUMA. Taken together, our findings suggest that PUMA would be involved in the possible crosstalk between the ER and the mitochondria in the homocysteine-induced apoptosis of caspase-4 deficient SH-SY5Y cells.

  18. Anatomical study of the forearm and hand nerves of the domestic cat ( Felis catus), puma ( Puma concolor) and jaguar ( Panthera onca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, H L; Silva, L B; Rafasquino, M E; Mateo, A G; Zuccolilli, G O; Portiansky, E L; Alonso, C R

    2013-04-01

    The innervation of the forearm and hand regions of cats has not been well described despite its importance for any surgery or any neurological disorder. It is probably the main area where disorders of peripheral nerves in this species are observed. In felines, the forelimbs facilitate the jump and represent the most important way for capturing prey. The main muscles and nerves involved in this activity are located in the region of the forearm and hand. The aim of the present study was to provide a detailed description of the innervation of the forearm and hand regions of the jaguar and puma, in comparison with that of the domestic cat, contributing thus with the anatomical knowledge of the area for applying it to surgery and pathology. The forearms of three pumas and two jaguars (all of them fixed in formalin) and of six domestic cats (fresh) were dissected. The nerves path and their forearm distribution patterns of all three species were described. The analysed results indicate that the observed variations between species are minimal; thus, the anatomy described for domestic cats can be widely applied to American wild felids. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Do attacks by jaguars Panthera onca and pumas Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) on livestock correlate with species richness and relative abundance of wild prey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgas, Albert; Amit, Ronit; Lopez, Bernat C

    2014-12-01

    Abstract: Attacks by big cats on livestock are one of the major causes of human-felid conflicts and, therefore, an important factor in the conservation of these species. It has been argued that a reduction in natural prey abundance promotes attacks on domestic species, but few studies have tested this statement, and some have delivered contradictory results. We investigated whether the occurrence of attacks to livestock by jaguar and puma relates to the abundance and richness of their natural prey. In the rainy season 2009, we tracked potential prey species counting signs of presence along linear transects in 14 non-attacked cattle farms (control) and in 14 attacked cattle farms in NW Costa Rica. There was a negative relationship between the occurrence of attacks and both species richness (p = 0.0014) and abundance (p = 0.0012) of natural prey. Our results support the establishment of actions to promote support and recovery of natural prey, in order to diminish attacks on livestock, while maintaining jaguar and puma populations.

  20. Procesos de transformación de los bosques andinos en la microcuenca del río Guacha, Encino, Santander (1978-1994-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Fernando Gómez Anaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, los ecosistemas andinos presentan fuerte intervención demográfica y económica, por consiguiente los paisajes naturales son transformados y fragmentados en el tiempo. El presente artículo profundiza en la escala local sobre los procesos de transformación del paisaje mediante un estudio integrado del mismo y su evolución durante los últimos 28 años. Los resultados identifican 28 geosistemas en la microcuenca, de los cuales doce contienen un paisaje antrópico y trece conservan un grado de naturalidad alto, así mismo se registró una tendencia a la estabilidad de los procesos de cambio. Los bosques andinos presentan una pérdida de 7,37 ha por año o una tasa de 0,23 %, y las zonas con mayor intervención están asociadas a áreas núcleo, por ende aumentan los efectos de borde y fragmentación. Los resultados permitirán planificar la microcuenca a partir de los procesos históricos de uso y la condición del paisaje, para así facilitar la construcción de alternativas de uso y conservación de los geosistemas.

  1. LAS ELECCIONES DIRECTAS EN EL PARLAMENTO ANDINO. UN CAMINO PARA FORTALECER SU PAPEL COMO INSTITUCIÓN PROMOTORA DE LA INTEGRACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Insignares Cera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parlamento Andino atraviesa por una serie de inconvenientes que le impiden cumplir su papel como órgano fundamental e institución promotora de la integración andina. A pesar de los intentos plasmados en los tratados constitutivos de la Comunidad, no se ha podido lograr que irradie su identidad legitimadora y fortalezca el carácter democrático fundamental para la evolución del proceso de integración en la Comunidad Andina. Las elecciones directas son una herramienta para que el Parlamento Andino se convierta en un pilar a nivel de las instituciones comunitarias, que permita reforzar el concepto de ciudadanía andina, así como la participación política de los pueblos de los Estados miembros, para que no continúen de espaldas al proceso unificador y se conviertan en pueblo unitario, actor relevante de la comunidad internacional.

  2. Nodulação em cultivares de feijão dos conjuntos gênicos andino e meso-americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Marília Caixeta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a capacidade de nodulação e a especificidade de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. dos conjuntos gênicos andino e meso-americano submetidos a inóculo de Rhizobium. O experimento foi estabelecido em parcelas subdivididas em blocos ao acaso, com quatorze cultivares de feijão e três estirpes de Rhizobium (R. etli KIM 5, R. etli CIAT 632 e R. tropici CIAT 899. Somente as cultivares andinas WAF 15, WAF 7, Mineiro Precoce, WAF 6 e Antioquia 8 apresentaram especificidade na nodulação. Em relação à massa seca dos nódulos, houve diferenças significativas dos tratamentos de inoculação nas cultivares andinas WAF 15, WAF 7, WAF 6 e Diacol Andino, e na cultivar meso-americana Ouro Negro. Nenhuma das cultivares restringiu a nodulação, embora tenham sido verificadas diferenças de até 53 e 103 vezes no número e massa de nódulos por planta, respectivamente. Considerando todas as cultivares e estirpes de rizóbio, WAF 15 foi a cultivar com melhor desempenho em número e massa nodular. WAF 6 foi a cultivar de pior desempenho, chegando quase ao nível de restrição da nodulação com a estirpe R. etli CIAT 632.

  3. Alcance del principio de eficacia directa del derecho comunitario andino en el ámbito de la propiedad industrial y del derecho del consumidor en el ordenamiento jurídico colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Pachón Guerrero, Juan Sebastián

    2017-01-01

    Tesis sobre el alcance del principio de eficacia directa del derecho comunitario andino en el ámbito de la propiedad industrial y del derecho del consumidor en el ordenamiento jurídico colombiano Thesis related to the scope of the principle of direct effectiveness of andean community law in the field of industrial property and consumer law in the Colombian legal system

  4. miR-34 increases in vitro PANC-1 cell sensitivity to gemcitabine via targeting Slug/PUMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-An; Yang, Xu-Hai; Chen, Dong; Yan, Xiang; Jing, Fu-Chun; Liu, Hong-Qian; Zhang, Ronghua

    2018-01-01

    miR-34 was deregulated in tumor tissues compared with corresponding noncancerous tissue samples. Furthermore, miR-34 may contribute to cancer-stromal interaction associated with cancer progression. However, whether miR-34 could decrease chemoresistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agent remains unclear. In our study, we examined whether overexpression of miR-34 could sensitize gemcitabine -mediated apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells. We found that miR-34 markedly induced gemcitabine -mediated apoptosis in PANC-1 cells. miR-34 induced down-regulation of Slug expression and upregulation of p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) expression. The over-expression of Slug or downregulation of PUMA by Slug cDNA or PUMA siRNA transfection markedly blocked miR-34-induced gemcitabine sensitization. Furthermore, miR-34 induced PUMA expression by downregulation of Slug. Taken together, our study demonstrates that miR-34 enhances sensitization against gemcitabine-mediated apoptosis through the down-regulation of Slug expression, and up-regulation of Slug-dependent PUMA expression.

  5. Expressions of p53 and PUMA in fibroblasts of systemic sclerosis patients are normal at transcription level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Mohammad Bagher; Abed Khojasteh, Majid; Alsahebfosoul, Fereshteh; Gharibdoost, Farhad; Mostafaei, Shayan; Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak; Mahmoudi, Mahdi

    2017-09-14

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) fibroblasts show resistance apoptosis mechanisms, which enhances the fibrosis stage of the disease. Impaired function of p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) has been related to deficits in p53-dependant apoptosis pathway. This study aimed to evaluate the transcriptional levels of p53 and PUMA mRNAs in fibroblasts from SSc patients and compare it with healthy individuals. In this case-control study, skin biopsy samples were obtained from 19 patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc (DcSSc) and 16 healthy controls. Afterward, dermal fibroblasts were isolated and cultured. After extraction of total RNA from cultured fibroblasts, complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized. mRNA quantification was carried out using real-time PCR, SYBR Green PCR master mix, and specific primers for p53 and PUMA. No significant alteration was observed in mRNA expression levels of p53 and PUMA (P = .99 and .23, respectively) in fibroblasts from SSc patients compared with controls. Apoptosis pathways are impaired in fibroblasts from patients with SSc, leading to chronic fibrosis. Nonetheless, PUMA/p53 pathway may not be involved in dysfunction of apoptosis mechanisms in fibroblasts of patients with SSc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Hsp90 inhibitor NMS-E973 exerts the anticancer effect against glioblastoma via induction of PUMA-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Libo; Yang, Shoujun; Chi, Guonan; Jin, Xingyi

    2018-01-01

    Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive and common malignancies of the central nervous system in humans. Owing to the correlation of high Hsp90 expression with prognosis and clinical pathology features of diverse types of cancer, targeting Hsp90 with small-molecule inhibitors has become a promising anticancer strategy. In this study, we aimed to explore the possibility of anticancer effect of NMS-E973 in giloblastoma and elucidate the mechanism. Cell based MTT assay and colony formation assay were used to detect cell viability. Apoptosis was analyzed by nuclear staining with Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry. Western-blot and RT-PCR were used to detect gene expression. Xenograft assay was used to explore the anticancer effect of NMS-E973 in vivo. We found that NMS-E973 induces apoptosis and inhibits cell growth in glioblastoma cells in cell culture and xenograft models. As a proapoptotic Bcl-2 member, PUMA was induced by NMS-E973 in a p53-dependent manner in glioblastoma in cell culture, thereby inducing apoptosis in glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, PUMA was induced by NMS-E973 treatment in xenograft tumors, and deficiency in PUMA significantly suppressed the antitumor effects of NMS-E973. Our study suggests that PUMA-mediated apoptosis is important for the therapeutic responses of NMS-E973. Induction of PUMA might be a potential biomarker for predicting NMS-E973 responses.

  7. Expression of PUMA in Follicular Granulosa Cells Regulated by FoxO1 Activation During Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze-Qun; Shen, Ming; Wu, Wang-Jun; Li, Bo-Jiang; Weng, Qian-Nan; Li, Mei; Liu, Hong-Lin

    2015-06-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis is a main cause of follicular atresia. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis is regulated by a variety of signaling pathways involving numerous genes and transcription factors. In this study, we found expression of the p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), a BH3-only Bcl-2 subfamily protein, in ovarian GCs during oxidative stress. By overexpression and knockdown of Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1), we found that FoxO1 regulates PUMA at the protein level. Moreover, as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been shown to activate FoxO1 by promoting its nuclear import, we used a JNK inhibitor to reduce FoxO1 activation and detected decreased PUMA messenger RNA expression and protein levels during oxidative stress. In addition, in vivo oxidative stress-induced upregulation of PUMA was found following injection of 3 nitropropionic acid in mice. In conclusion, oxidative stress increases PUMA expression regulated by FoxO1 in follicular GCs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Perugia urodynamic method of analysis (PUMA): a new advanced method of urodynamic analysis applied clinically and compared with other advanced methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porena, Massimo; Biscotto, Sauro; Costantini, Elisabetta; Mearini, Ettore; Verdini, Livio

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare PUMA curves with different pathologic conditions causing bladder dysfunction in 158 men and 83 women. PUMA results in terms of bladder outlet obstruction and detrusor contractility were compared in 92 men with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and p(ves) congruent with p(det) (i.e., p(abd) congruent with 0) with the results of the urodynamics operator's opinion, the provisional International Continence Society method, Abrams and Griffith's diagram, urethral resistence factor (URA), Schäfer's diagram, and Watt factor. PUMA curves correlated reliably with different pathologic conditions such as obstructive BPH, orthotopic bladder, cystocele, the neurological bladder, and bladder diverticulum. Statistical analysis indicated excellent agreement between PUMA and URA; agreement with other methods was good in cases of obstruction and nonobstruction. In doubtful cases, as diagnosed by standard methods, PUMA agreed only with the Abrams and Griffith's diagram. PUMA and Wmax were in good agreement on detrusor con traction force. Agreement between PUMA and Schäfer's diagram was excellent for patients with detrusor hypercontractility and good for patients with detrusor hypocontractility and normocontractility. PUMA is the only method applicable to women. It is easy to perform. When integrated with other diagnostic tests, it provides realistic data for diagnosis, medical or surgical therapy, and outcome. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Impact of Burnout and Psychosocial Work Characteristics on Future Long-Term Sickness Absence. Prospective Results of the Danish PUMA Study Among Human Service Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, Karl Bang; Bultmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner; Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Ingelise; Villadsen, Ebbe; Diderichsen, Finn; Kristensen, Tage S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine if burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Methods: Data were collected prospectively at 82-work units in human services (PUMA cohort, PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation and

  10. DNA damage-induced primordial follicle oocyte apoptosis and loss of fertility require TAp63-mediated induction of Puma and Noxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jeffrey B.; Hutt, Karla J.; Michalak, Ewa M.; Cook, Michele; Vandenberg, Cassandra J.; Liew, Seng H.; Bouillet, Philippe; Mills, Alea; Scott, Clare L.; Findlay, Jock K.; Strasser, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Trp63, a transcription factor related to the tumor suppressor p53, is activated by diverse stimuli and can initiate a range of cellular responses. TAp63 is the predominant Trp53 family member in primordial follicle oocytes and essential for their apoptosis triggered by DNA damage in vivo. Following γ-irradiation, induction of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only members Puma and Noxa was observed in primordial follicle oocytes from wt and Trp53−/− mice but not in those from TAp63 deficient mice. Primordial follicle oocytes from mice lacking Puma or both Puma and Noxa were protected from γ-irradiation-induced apoptosis and, remarkably, could produce healthy offspring. Hence, PUMA and NOXA are critical for DNA damage-induced, TAp63-mediated primordial follicle oocyte apoptosis. Thus, blockade of PUMA may protect fertility during cancer therapy and prevent premature menopause, improving women’s health. PMID:23000175

  11. Oxygen isotope composition of North American bobcat (Lynx rufus) and puma (Puma concolor) bone phosphate: implications for provenance and climate reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Stephanie J; Tütken, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Feline carnivores are threatened by illegal wildlife trade. Tracing the provenance of unknown felid tissues via stable isotope analysis could provide important information in wildlife crime investigations. The oxygen isotope composition of mammalian skeletal phosphate (δ(18)Op) is widely applied to trace the origin of animal remains and to reconstruct migratory patterns in palaeontological, archaeological, ecological and wildlife forensic applications. Teeth and bones of terrestrial mammals form at constant body temperature in isotope equilibrium with body water, which is predominantly controlled by ingested meteoric water (δ(18)Ow) that varies systematically with latitude, altitude and climate. Here we analysed δ(18)Op of 106 North American puma and bobcat bones of known geographic origin to establish the first δ(18)Op-δ(18)Ow regression for feline carnivores: δ(18)Op = 0.40(±0.04) * δ(18)Ow + 20.10(±0.40) (R(2) = 0.46, n = 106). This was compared with those from their respective prey species (deer and rabbit), a canid carnivore (fox) and other placental mammals. Effects of species, sex and relative humidity on the feline δ(18)Op-δ(18)Ow correlation were analysed and additional intra-individual tissue comparisons (hair δ(18)Oh vs. bone δ(18)Op) were performed for some bobcat individuals. Bobcats and pumas exhibited only a moderate δ(18)Op-δ(18)Ow correlation, which differed from canid carnivores and other placental mammals. However, feline δ(18)Op values revealed a moderate relation with δ(18)Ow, which lacks for the δ(18)Oh of hair from the same bobcat individuals. This indicates a difference in oxygen isotope routing from body water to bioapatite and hair. Most herbivores and omnivores track δ(18)Ow in their bioapatite δ(18)Op values much better, whereas δ(18)Op and especially δ(18)Oh values of feline carnivores are less precise proxies for meteoric water δ(18)Ow values and thus for provenance determination in wildlife

  12. Avaliação do sistema estomatognático e de sincrânios de onça-pintada (Panthera onca) e puma (Puma concolor) capturados ou coletados em natureza

    OpenAIRE

    João Luiz Rossi Junior

    2007-01-01

    Utilizaram-se duas onças-pintadas (Panthera onca) e um puma (Puma concolor) provenientes de natureza e 44 sincrânios das mesmas espécies. Estes animais de vida livre foram capturados respectivamente na Amazônia (Sul do Pará), na Mata Atlântica (Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais) e no Pantanal sul mato-grossense (Mato Grosso do Sul). Os animais foram avaliados mediante anestesia geral injetável, exame físico geral, exame físico da cavidade oral, documentação dos achados clínicos em fichas-odontog...

  13. Nacionalización de los hidrocarburos bolivianos: reflexiones sobre su impacto en lo doméstico y en los vínculos con Argentina y Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ceppi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En mayo de 2006, Evo Morales anunció una medida de trascendencia histórica: la tercera nacionalización de los hidrocarburos bolivianos. Se elabora una serie de reflexiones sobre las principales connotaciones del Decreto Supremo 28 701 “Héroes del Chaco” para la sociedad boliviana, del cual se consideran sus aspectos más relevantes en materia económica y social. Asimismo, se analizan los cambios en los contratos de exportación de gas natural que alimentan las necesidades de energía de Argen - tina y Brasil en este siglo. Se revaloriza en el debate académico el lugar de la energía como un asunto prioritario en las agendas estatales y en el escenario internacional.

  14. Puma and Trail/Dr5 Pathways Control Radiation-Induced Apoptosis in Distinct Populations of Testicular Progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coureuil, M.; Tavernier, M.; Barroca, V.; Fouchet, P.; Allemand, I.; Ugolin, N.; Chevillard, S.

    2010-01-01

    Spermatogonia- stem cells and progenitors of adult spermatogenesis- are killed through a p53-regulated apoptotic process after γ-irradiation but the death effectors are still poorly characterized. Our data demonstrate that both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways are involved, and especially that spermatogonia can be split into two main populations, according to apoptotic effectors. Following irradiation both Dr5 and Puma genes are up-regulated in the α 6 -integrin-positive Side Population (SP) fraction, which is highly enriched in spermatogonia. Flow cytometric analysis confirms an increased number of Dr5-expressing SP cells, and Puma-β isoform accumulates in α 6 -integrin positive cellular extracts, enriched in spermatogonia. Trail -/- or Puma -/- spermatogonia display a reduced sensitivity to radiation-induced apoptosis. The TUNEL kinetics strongly suggest that the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, via Trail/Dr5 and Puma respectively, could be engaged in distinct subpopulations of spermatogonia. Indeed flow cytometric studies show that Dr5 receptor is constitutively present on more than half of the undifferentiated progenitors (Kit - α 6 + SP) and half of the differentiated ones (Kit + α 6 + SP). In addition after irradiation, Puma is not detected in the Dr5-positive cellular fraction isolated by immuno-magnetic purification, while Puma is present in the Dr5-negative cell extracts. In conclusion, adult testicular progenitors are divided into distinct sub-populations by apoptotic effectors, independently of progenitor types (immature Kit-negative versus mature Kit-positive), underscoring differential radiosensitivities characterizing the stem cell/progenitors compartment. (authors)

  15. Hsp90 inhibitor NMS-E973 exerts the anticancer effect against glioblastoma via induction of PUMA-mediated apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun L

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Libo Sun,1 Shoujun Yang,2 Guonan Chi,1 Xingyi Jin1 1First Department of Neurosurgery, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changhun, Jilin, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Rehabilitation, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changhun, Jilin, People’s Republic of China Background: Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive and common malignancies of the central nervous system in humans. Owing to the correlation of high Hsp90 expression with prognosis and clinical pathology features of diverse types of cancer, targeting Hsp90 with small-molecule inhibitors has become a promising anticancer strategy.Purpose: In this study, we aimed to explore the possibility of anticancer effect of NMS-E973 in giloblastoma and elucidate the mechanism.Methods: Cell based MTT assay and colony formation assay were used to detect cell viability. Apoptosis was analyzed by nuclear staining with Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry. Western-blot and RT-PCR were used to detect gene expression. Xenograft assay was used to explore the anticancer effect of NMS-E973 in vivo.Results: We found that NMS-E973 induces apoptosis and inhibits cell growth in glioblastoma cells in cell culture and xenograft models. As a proapoptotic Bcl-2 member, PUMA was induced by NMS-E973 in a p53-dependent manner in glioblastoma in cell culture, thereby inducing apoptosis in glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, PUMA was induced by NMS-E973 treatment in xenograft tumors, and deficiency in PUMA significantly suppressed the antitumor effects of NMS-E973.Conclusion: Our study suggests that PUMA-mediated apoptosis is important for the therapeutic responses of NMS-E973. Induction of PUMA might be a potential biomarker for predicting NMS-E973 responses. Keywords: NMS-E973, PUMA, glioblastoma, apoptosis

  16. Targeting miR-155 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis of HL-60 cells by targeting Slug/PUMA signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hui; Dong, Ziyan; Liu, Jiang-Feng; Chuang, Wei; Gao, Li-Zhen; Ren, Yu-Guo

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that high miR-155 expression was associated with poor prognosis in patients with acute myelogeneous leukemia (AML). Furthermore, targeting miR-155 results in monocytic differentiation and apoptosis. However, the exact role and mechanisms of miR-155 in human AML remains speculative. HL-60 cells were treated with anti-miR-155 for 72 h. Cell growth and apoptosis in vitro were detected by MTT, BrdU proliferation, colony formation and flow cytometry assay. The effect of anti-miR-155 on growth of HL-60 cells was also evaluated in a leukemia mouse model. Slug cDNA and PUMA siRNA trannsfection was used to assess the signal pathway. Different protein expression was detected by western blot assay and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. The results shown that targeting miR-155 resulted in a 24-fold decrease of miR-155 expression compared to negative control in the HL-60 cells. Targeting miR-155 significantly downregulated Slug and upregulated PUMA expression, and decreased HL-60 cell growth by 70% , impaired colony formation by approximately 60%, and increased HL-60 cell apoptosis by 45%. Targeting PUMA reversed miR-155 sliencing-induced proliferation and apoptosis of HL-60 cells. Restoration of Slug decreased PUMA expression. In murine engraftment models of HL-60 cells, we showed that targeting miR-155 was able to reduce tumor growth. This was accompanied with decreased Slug expression and increased PUMA expression in these tumors. Collectively, our findings strongly suggest targeting miR-155 exhibited in vivo and in vitro antileukemic activities in AML through a novel mechanism resulting in inhibition of Slug expression and increase of PUMA expression.

  17. Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in granulosa cells involves JNK, p53 and Puma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyan; Xie, Yan; Yang, Dongyu; Ren, Decheng

    2017-04-11

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in follicular development and survival. Granulosa cell death is associated with increased ROS, but the mechanism of granulosa cell death induced by ROS is not clear. In order to define the molecular link between ROS and granulosa cell death, COV434, human granulosa tumor cells, were treated with H2O2. Compared to control cells, H2O2 induced granulosa cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. H2O2 induced an increase in Bax, Bak and Puma, and a decrease in anti-apoptotic molecules such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. Both knockdown of Puma and overexpression of Bcl-xL could inhibit H2O2-induced granulosa cell death. These results suggest that suppression of Puma and overexpression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members could improve granulosa cell survival. To explore the mechanisms responsible for these findings, ROS in granulosa cells treatment with H2O2 were measured. The results showed that ROS was increased in a H2O2 dose- and time-dependent manner at the earlier time point. In addition, H2O2 induced an increase in Nrf2 and phosphorylation of JNK and p53. SP600125, an inhibitor of JNK, inhibits H2O2-induced phosphorylation of JNK and p53, and granulosa cell death. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) dose-dependently prevents H2O2-induced granulosa cell death. Furthermore, NAC also prevents phosphorylation of JNK and p53 induced by H2O2. Taken together, these data suggest that H2O2 regulates cell death in granulosa cells via the ROS-JNK-p53 pathway. These findings provide an improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying granulosa cell apoptosis, which could potentially be useful for future clinical applications.

  18. PUMA and NF-kB Are Cell Signaling Predictors of Reovirus Oncolysis of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhong-Qiao; Thirukkumaran, Ponnampalam; Luider, Joanne; Kopciuk, Karen; Spurrell, Jason; Elzinga, Kate; Morris, Don

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Reovirus is a ubiquitous RNA virus that exploits aberrant signaling pathways for its replication. The oncolytic potential of reovirus against numerous cancers under pre-clinical/clinical conditions has been documented by us and others. Despite its proven clinical activity, the underlying mechanisms of reovirus oncolysis is still not well elucidated. If reovirus therapy is to be optimized for cancer, including breast cancer patients, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms of reovirus oncolysis, especially in treatment of resistant tumour. Experimental approach and results In the present study global gene expression profiling was utilized as a preliminary roadmap to tease-out pivotal molecules involved in reovirus induced apoptosis in breast cancer. Reovirus treated HTB133 and MCF7 breast cancer cells revealed transcriptional alteration of a defined subset of apoptotic genes and members of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) family and p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) were prominent. Since NF-kB can paradoxically suppress or promote apoptosis in cancer, the significance of NF-kB in reovirus oncolysis of breast cancer was investigated. Real time PCR analysis indicated a 2.9–4.3 fold increase in NF-kB p65 message levels following reovirus infection of MCF7 and HTB133, respectively. Nuclear translocation of NF-kB p65 protein was also dramatically augmented post reovirus treatment and correlated with enhanced DNA binding. Pharmacologic inhibition of NF-kB lead to oncolytic protection and significant down regulation of PUMA message levels. PUMA down regulation using siRNA suppressed reovirus oncolysis via significantly repressed apoptosis in p53 mutant HTB133 cells. Conclusions This study demonstrates for the first time that a prominent pathway of reovirus oncolysis of breast cancer is mediated through NF-kB and that PUMA upregulation is dependent on NF-kB activation. These findings represent potential therapeutic indicators of

  19. Dualidad y diálogo postcolonial: desmarginalización de la lengua popular y del pensamiento andino en Rosa Cuchillo, de Óscar Colchado Lucio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Quiroz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo examinaremos cómo se inscribe la dualidad, aspecto fundamental de la racionalidad andina, en un texto literario. De este modo, estudiaremos la presencia activa de la dualidad tanto en el plano del contenido (el mundo representado cuanto en el plano de la expresión (el lenguaje y los mecanismos discursivos de Rosa Cuchillo (1997, la novela más importante del escritor peruano Óscar Colchado Lucio. Planteamos que la actualización de la dualidad en este texto contribuye a la desmarginalización y descolonización de la racionalidad andina con el fin de proponerla como un modo de pensamiento alternativo desde el que se pueden replantear los términos del diálogo entre lo occidental y lo andino más allá de las jerarquías coloniales.

  20. LA EVIDENCIALIDAD EN EL CASTELLANO ANDINO NARIÑENSE EVIDENTIALITY IN THE CASTILIAN SPANISH OF THE ANDEAN REGION OF NARIÑO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ómar Andrés Portilla Melo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En este texto se hace una descripción de un fenómeno de transferencia semánticopragmática a nivel modal del quechua al castellano andino de la región nariñense. El trabajo está organizado de la siguiente manera: en primer lugar, se introduce el concepto de evidencialidad; después, se hace una breve descripción histórica del quechua y una introducción a su tipología, y, finalmente, se explica la manera en que el contacto lingüístico quechua-español le dio al castellano andino nariñense los aspectos que lo caracterizan. La metodología usada fue la entrevista etnográfica. Como resultado se obtuvo que la influencia del quechua en el castellano del departamento de Nariño no se dio solamente a nivel léxico o sintáctico, sino que alcanzó niveles más profundos.Abstract The article describes a phenomenon of semantic-pragmatic transfer at the modal level from Quechua into the Castilian Spanish of the Andean region of Nariño. The article is organized as follows: first it introduces the concept of evidentiality, next it provides a brief historical description of Quechua and an introduction to its typology, and, finally, it explains how the linguistic contact between Quechua and Spanish gave the Castilian Spanish of the Andean region of Nariño its characteristic aspects. The methodology used was the ethnographic interview. The results obtained show that the influence of Quechua on the Castilian Spanish of the department of Nariño occurred not only at the lexical or syntactic levels, but also at deeper levels.

  1. Análisis geográfico y conservación del zorro andino Lycalopex culpaeus (Mammalia, Canidae en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin A. Noguera-Urbano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El zorro andino Lycalopex culpaeus (Molina, 1782 ha sido incluido en la categoría de amenaza Vulnerable en Colombia, sin embargo, no se han realizado estudios que validen la inclusión de la especie en dicha categoría a nivel nacional. En el presente trabajo se delimitó el área de distribución potencial (DP de la especie en Colombia y se discute su categoría de amenaza. Para ello se usó modelamiento de nicho ecológico en el algoritmo de Máxima Entropía (Maxent. Con procesamiento en Sistemas de Información Geográfico resaltamos las áreas donde la especie se encuentra protegida. Los resultados muestran que el zorro andino se podría encontrar desde los departamentos de Nariño hasta el Huila (8,877 km2, y el 19.6% (1,742 km2 del área de distribución potencial de la especie se encuentra dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas de Colombia. A pesar, que la especie es considerada Vulnerable en Colombia, se encontró que no cumple con los criterios para su asignación en dicha categoría debido a la ausencia de evidencias tangibles que sustenten una reducción poblacional, disminución del área de ocupación o la calidad del hábitat en la década previa a la asignación de la categoría de amenaza. Teniendo en cuenta los registros verificables e información sobre el área de distribución de la especie en Colombia, se propone una reasignación de la categoría de amenaza nacional a Casi Amenazada (NT.

  2. The Red de Monitoreo de BosquesAndinos: A communication platform for science and policy in the Andean countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, S.; Cuesta, F. X.; Malizia, A.; Carilla, J.; Bustamante, M.; Yepes, A.

    2013-05-01

    A workshop held in October 2012 in Lima, Peru, brought together more than 40 scientists and policy makers working in Andean forest ecosystems, one of the richer and most threatened ecosystems of the world. Among the various results of the workshop, there is the formation of the network "Red de Bosques Andinos". The goals of the network include to stimulate scientific research in Andean forest ecosystems by promoting collaboration among scientists, and to serve as a platform to facilitate applied research and communication between scientists and policy makers. Current members of the network include scientists of Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Germany, Peru, USA, and representatives of Ministries of Environment and the National Climate Change Adaptation Programs of Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. The network has started to work in two critical documents for the region. The first one is an extended protocol to monitor diversity and carbon in Andean forests. This protocol, partly based on unpublished efforts, has been developed by the Instituto de Ecología Regional, Universidad de Tucuman, Argentina, and has been revised and improved by experts working in the Andes. The document describe methods to document ecological changes that take place over mid- and long periods of time. It focuses on monitoring changes on the diversity and growth of trees, shrubs and lianas, cover of herbaceous species, and carbon content in forests. This extended protocol will be a useful tool for students and researchers interested in conducting long-term ecological research. Moreover, the use of this tool will produce standardized data needed to understand ecological processes that take place at large spatial scales. The document will be freely available at www.condesan.org. The second document consists of an analysis of the dynamics of trees and carbon in the Andean region. The members of the network have contributed with data of more than 70 permanent forest plots located from

  3. A new atypical genotype mouse virulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from the heart of a wild caught puma (Felis concolor) from Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Herrera-Valenzuela, V H; Ortiz-Diaz, J J; Oliveira, S; Verma, S K; Choudhary, S; Kwok, O C H; Su, C

    2013-11-08

    Nothing is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife in Mexico. In the present study, a mouse virulent T. gondii strain was isolated from the heart of a wild puma (Felis concolor). The puma was found roaming in outskirt of Durango City, Mexico and tranquilized for moving to a zoo. The puma died during translocation and a necropsy examination was performed. The puma had an antibody titer for T. gondii of 200 by the modified agglutination test. Its heart and brain tissue were bioassayed into 2 outbred Swiss Webster (SW) and 1 gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mouse. The KO mouse and the 2 SW mice that became infected after inoculation with homogenate of puma heart died of acute toxoplasmosis 12, 19 and 20 days p.i. respectively and tachyzoites were found in lungs of all 3 mice. None of the 4 SW and 1 KO mouse inoculated with digest of the puma brain became infected with T. gondii. Tachyzoites from the lungs of mice were propagated in cell cultures. Tachyzoites from cell culture were inoculated into 5 SW; the mice died or had to be killed 14 days p.i. and a cat fed tissues of these mice shed T. gondii oocysts. Results of mortality and infectivity of tachyzoites and oocysts in SW mice indicated that the puma T. gondii strain (designated TgPumaMe1) was virulent for outbred mice. DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites was characterized using 11 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) revealed a new genotype (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP #222). Isolation of atypical genotype T. gondii from wild puma indicates that mouse virulent strains are circulating in wildlife in Mexico. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. ERK1/2/p53 and NF-κB dependent-PUMA activation involves in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D-X; Ma, D-Y; Yao, Z-Q; Fu, C-Y; Shi, Y-X; Wang, Q-L; Tang, Q-Q

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that Doxorubicin (DOX) induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which is associated with DOX-induced acute and chronic cardiotoxicity. DOX activated ERP1/2 and NF-KB signals has been linked to DOX-induced apoptosis and cardiotoxicity. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for DOX-induced apoptosis have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we determine whether both ERK1/2/p53-dependent and NF-κB dependent-PUMA activation was related to DOX-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells. H9c2 cells were treated with DOX (1 μM) for 2-48 hours. To explore the effect of ERK1/2, NF-KB, P53 and PUMA on DOX-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells, H9c2 cells were transfected with PUMA siRNA or p65 siRNA, or treated with PFT-α (a chemical inhibitor of p53), or PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) before DOX treatment. MTT, Flow cytometry, TUNEL, Western blot and EMSA assay was used to detect cell survival, apoptosis, protein expression and NF-KB activity. DOX induced apoptosis and inhibited growth of H9c2 cells in a time-dependent manner. DOX activated ERK1/2, NF-KB, p53 and PUMA. Knockdown of PUMA completely blocked DOX-induced cell apoptosis and survival inhibition. Knockdown of NF-KB or ERK1/2 alone could partly block DOX-induced PUMA upregulation and cell apoptosis. However, knockdown of NF-KB and ERK1/2 together completely blocked DOX-induced cell apoptosis and PUMA upregulation. In addition, knockdown of ERK1/2 blocked p53-dependent PUMA upregulation. DOX induced apoptosis and inhibited growth of H9c2 cells by activation of ERK1/2/p53 and NF-κB dependent-PUMA signaling pathway.

  5. Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles Used in Preservative Solutions for Chrysanthemum cv. Puma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Carrillo-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of pulse solutions containing antimicrobials has been reported, but more research is necessary. To increase vase life and to study their effect on opening inflorescences, silver nanoparticles were used in vase solutions for cv. Puma Chrysanthemum stems. The nanoparticles were synthesized biologically using Chenopodium ambrosioides L. applied at concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 mM and compared with a control. Treatments were replicated five times. The stems were cut to 50 cm and observed until the end of their vase life. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles promoted inflorescence opening and leaf yellowing, while the control leaves remained green, but there was a lower degree of inflorescence opening. High concentrations of silver nanoparticles (0.5, 1, and 5 mM caused senescence due to low water uptake through the stems. Statistical differences in inflorescence opening and diameter, bacterial growth (CFU mL−1 in vase solutions, fresh weight, water uptake, and vase life were found among treatments. Longer vase life and less weight loss were observed in the stems exposed to low concentrations of silver nanoparticles. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles promoted inflorescence opening and increased vase life of Chrysanthemum cv. Puma.

  6. Slug inhibition upregulates radiation-induced PUMA activity leading to apoptosis in cholangiocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kejun; Zhang, Bingyuan; Lu, Yun; Sun, Chuandong; Zhao, Wei; Jiao, Xuelong; Hu, Jilin; Mu, Peng; Lu, Hai; Zhou, Changyong

    2011-12-01

    Resistance of cholangiocarcinoma to irradiation therapy is a major problem in cancer treatment. Slug, a snail family transcription factor, is a suppressor of PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis), which has been shown to be involved in the control of apoptosis. In this study, we investigated whether the modulation of Slug expression, using adeno-associated-virus-mediated transfer of siRNA targeting Slug gene (rAAV2-Slug siRNA), affects cholangiocarcinoma sensitivity to radiation. In the present study, we used rAAV2-Slug siRNA to downregulate the expression of Slug in QBC939 cholangiocarcinoma cell lines in vitro before γ-irradiation. In vivo studies were done with orthotopic cholangiocarcinoma, and radiosensitivity was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. rAAV2-Slug siRNA transfection resulted in downregulation of the levels of Slug in QBC939 cells. In addition, rAAV2-Slug siRNA, in combination with radiation, increased levels of the PUMA, which contributes to the radiosensitivity of cholangiocarcinomas. Finally, treatment with rAAV2-Slug siRNA plus γ-irradiation completely regressed tumor growth in orthotopic cholangiocarcinomas model. In summary, integrating gene therapy with radiotherapy could have a synergistic effect, thereby improving the survival of patients with cholangiocarcinomas.

  7. Sensitivity of landscape resistance estimates based on point selection functions to scale and behavioral state: Pumas as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A. Zeller; Kevin McGarigal; Paul Beier; Samuel A. Cushman; T. Winston Vickers; Walter M. Boyce

    2014-01-01

    Estimating landscape resistance to animal movement is the foundation for connectivity modeling, and resource selection functions based on point data are commonly used to empirically estimate resistance. In this study, we used GPS data points acquired at 5-min intervals from radiocollared pumas in southern California to model context-dependent point selection...

  8. Contiguity principle for geographic units: evidence on the quantity, degree, and location of Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA fragmentation

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    Carlos Siordia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Social scientists investigating how context varies by geographical location and/or how macro-level phenomenon affects individual outcomes often make use of U.S. Census Bureau Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS files where micro-units can only be geographically located to Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA polygons. Most spatial analysis investigations with PUMAs ignore the fact that many of them are multipart polygons—spatially separated polygons that share the same attribute and are stored as a single feature in a vector file. We briefly discuss the theoretical premises of how geographical boundaries are created for macro units and investigate the quantity, degree, and location of PUMA fragmentation. We argue that the basic contiguity principle (the assumption that spatial analysis uses polygon centroids for solid and contiguous geographic units in spatial dependence analysis is being violated with many PUMAs in the U.S. mainland—where Texas, California, Tennessee, and Illinois merit special attention. Future research should outline a method for handling multipart polygons in spatial and hierarchical analyses.

  9. Over-expression of PUMA correlates with the apoptosis of spinal cord cells in rat neuropathic intermittent claudication model.

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    Bin Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuropathic intermittent claudication (NIC is a typical clinical symptom of lumbar spinal stenosis and the apoptosis of neurons caused by cauda equina compression (CEC has been proposed as an important reason. Whereas, the factors and the mechanism involved in the process of apoptosis induced by CEC remain unclear. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: In our modified rat model of NIC, a trapezoid-shaped silicon rubber was inserted into the epidural space under the L5 and L6 vertebral plate. Obvious apoptosis was observed in spinal cord cells after compression by TUNEL assay. Simultaneously, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry showed that the expression levels of PUMA (p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis and p53 were upregulated significantly in spinal cord under compression, while the expression of p53 inhibitor MDM2 and SirT2 decreased in the same region. Furthermore, CEC also resulted in the upregulation of Bcl-2 pro-apoptotic genes expression and caspase-3 activation. With the protection of Methylprednisolone, the upregulation of PUMA and p53 expression as well as the decrease of MDM2 and SirT2 in spinal cord were partially rescued in western bolt analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that over-expression of PUMA correlates with CEC caused apoptosis of spinal cord cells, which is characterized by the increase of p53, Bax and Bad expression. PUMA upregulation might be crucial to induce apoptosis of spinal cord cells through p53-dependent pathway in CEC.

  10. Inhibition of p38 MAPK enhances ABT-737-induced cell death in melanoma cell lines: novel regulation of PUMA.

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    Keuling, Angela M; Andrew, Susan E; Tron, Victor A

    2010-06-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is constitutively activated in the majority of melanomas, promoting cell survival, proliferation and migration. In addition, anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 are frequently overexpressed, contributing to melanoma's well-documented chemoresistance. Recently, it was reported that the combination of MAPK pathway inhibition by specific MEK inhibitors and Bcl-2 family inhibition by BH3-mimetic ABT-737 synergistically induces apoptotic cell death in melanoma cell lines. Here we provide the first evidence that inhibition of another key MAPK, p38, synergistically induces apoptosis in melanoma cells in combination with ABT-737. We also provide novel mechanistic data demonstrating that inhibition of p38 increases expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein PUMA. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PUMA can be cleaved by a caspase-dependent mechanism during apoptosis and identify what appears to be the PUMA cleavage product. Thus, our findings suggest that the combination of ABT-737 and inhibition of p38 is a promising, new treatment strategy that acts through a novel PUMA-dependent mechanism.

  11. The clinical relationship between the slug-mediated Puma/p53 signaling pathway and radiotherapy resistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

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    Xu, T; Yuan, Y; Xiao, D-J

    2017-03-01

    To explore the clinical relationship between the Slug-mediated Puma/p53 signaling pathway and radiotherapy resistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Forty surgical specimens were collected from nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated at our hospital between February 2010 and February 2015. Twenty patients with poorly differentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma with and without radiotherapy resistance were included in the experimental and control groups, respectively. Slug, Puma, and p53 expression were quantified in all tissues using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Slug and p53 mRNA levels were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group (p control group (p Slug protein expression was significantly higher in the experimental group (6.07 ± 0.203 μg/L) than in the control group (1.24 ± 0.171 μg/L) (p control group (0.63 ± 0.101 μg/L) (p control group (3.37 ± 0.112 μg/L) (v Slug, Puma, and p53-positive cells in the experimental group and the control group were quantified; these values confirmed the ELISA and Western blot findings. Slug downregulated the Puma protein expression signaling pathway and promoted radiotherapy resistance in poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma tissue, in a p53-independent manner.

  12. ZNF509S1 downregulates PUMA by inhibiting p53K382 acetylation and p53-DNA binding.

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    Jeon, Bu-Nam; Yoon, Jae-Hyeon; Han, Dohyun; Kim, Min-Kyeong; Kim, Youngsoo; Choi, Seo-Hyun; Song, Jiyang; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Kim, Kunhong; Hur, Man-Wook

    2017-09-01

    Expression of the POK family protein ZNF509L, and -its S1 isoform, is induced by p53 upon exposure to genotoxic stress. Due to alternative splicing of the ZNF509 primary transcript, ZNF509S1 lacks the 6 zinc-fingers and C-terminus of ZNF509L, resulting in only one zinc-finger. ZNF509L and -S1 inhibit cell proliferation by activating p21/CDKN1A and RB transcription, respectively. When cells are exposed to severe DNA damage, p53 activates PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis) transcription. Interestingly, apoptosis due to transcriptional activation of PUMA by p53 is attenuated by ZNF509S1. Thus we investigated the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the transcriptional attenuation and anti-apoptotic effects of ZNF509S1. We show that ZNF509S1 modulation of p53 activity is important in PUMA gene transcription by modulating post-translational modification of p53 by p300. ZNF509S1 directly interacts with p53 and inhibits p300-mediated acetylation of p53 lysine K382, with deacetylation of p53 K382 leading to decreased DNA binding at the p53 response element 1 of the PUMA promoter. ZNF509S1 may play a role not only in cell cycle arrest, by activating RB expression, but also in rescuing cells from apoptotic death by repressing PUMA expression in cells exposed to severe DNA damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Slug suppression induces apoptosis via Puma transactivation in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes treated with hydrogen peroxide.

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    Cha, Hoon-Suk; Bae, Eun-Kyung; Ahn, Joong Kyong; Lee, Jaejoon; Ahn, Kwang-Sung; Koh, Eun-Mi

    2010-06-30

    Inadequate apoptosis contributes to synovial hyperplasia in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent study shows that low expression of Puma might be partially responsible for the decreased apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Slug, a highly conserved zinc finger transcriptional repressor, is known to antagonize apoptosis of hematopoietic progenitor cells by repressing Puma transactivation. In this study, we examined the expression and function of Slug in RA FLS. Slug mRNA expression was measured in the synovial tissue (ST) and FLS obtained from RA and osteoarthritis patients. Slug and Puma mRNA expression in FLS by apoptotic stimuli were measured by real-time PCR analysis. FLS were transfected with control siRNA or Slug siRNA. Apoptosis was quantified by trypan blue exclusion, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 assay. RA ST expressed higher level of Slug mRNA compared with osteoarthritis ST. Slug was significantly induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) but not by exogenous p53 in RA FLS. Puma induction by H2O2 stimulation was significantly higher in Slug siRNA-transfected FLS compared with control siRNA-transfected FLS. After H2O2 stimulation, viable cell number was significantly lower in Slug siRNA-transfected FLS compared with control siRNA-transfected FLS. Apoptosis enhancing effect of Slug siRNA was further confirmed by ELISA that detects cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragments and caspase-3 assay. These data demonstrate that Slug is overexpressed in RA ST and that suppression of Slug gene facilitates apoptosis of FLS by increasing Puma transactivation. Slug may therefore represent a potential therapeutic target in RA.

  14. Inhibiting oncogenic signaling by sorafenib activates PUMA via GSK3β and NF-κB to suppress tumor cell growth

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    Dudgeon, Crissy; Peng, Rui; Wang, Peng; Sebastiani, Andrea; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Lin

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling is one of the most prevalent oncogenic alterations and confers survival advantage to tumor cells. Inhibition of this pathway can effectively suppress tumor cell growth. For example, sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor targeting c-Raf and other oncogenic kinases, has been used clinically for treating advanced liver and kidney tumors, and also has shown efficacy against other malignancies. However, how inhibition of oncogenic signaling by sorafenib and other drugs suppresses tumor cell growth remains unclear. In this study, we found that sorafenib kills cancer cells by activating PUMA, a p53 target and a BH3-only Bcl-2 family protein. Sorafenib treatment induces PUMA in a variety of cancer cells irrespective of their p53 status. Surprisingly, the induction of PUMA by sorafenib is mediated by IκB-independent activation of NF-κB, which directly binds to the PUMA promoter to activate its transcription. NF-κB activation by sorafenib requires GSK3β activation, subsequent to ERK inhibition. Deficiency in PUMA abrogates sorafenib-induced apoptosis and caspase activation, and renders sorafenib resistance in colony formation and xenograft tumor assays. Furthermore, the chemosensitization effect of sorafenib is dependent on PUMA, and involves concurrent PUMA induction through different pathways. BH3 mimetics potentiate the anticancer effects of sorafenib, and restore sorafenib sensitivity in resistant cells. Together, these results demonstrate a key role of PUMA-dependent apoptosis in therapeutic inhibition of Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. They provide a rationale for manipulating the apoptotic machinery to improve sensitivity and overcome resistance to the therapies that target oncogenic kinase signaling. PMID:22286758

  15. Inhibition of AKT/FoxO3a signaling induced PUMA expression in response to p53-independent cytotoxic effects of H1: A derivative of tetrandrine.

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    Zhang, Yin-Xu; Liu, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Jing; Li, Jun; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Hua; Yu, Xue-Wen; Wei, Ning

    2015-01-01

    PUMA (p53 unregulated modulator of apoptosis), a BH3-only Bcl-2 family member, can be induced by p53-dependent and p53-independent manners. It plays an important role as regulator of cellular apoptosis. Herein, we evaluate the effects of H1 (a derivative of tetrandrine) on induction of PUMA and underlie its potential mechanism in p53-independent cytotoxic response. Anti-proliferative activity and evidently cytotoxic activity of H1 were observed in wild-type and p53 null cells. Further studies demonstrated that H1 resulted in an increase of cleaved PARP, decease of survivin and elevation of p-H2AX. What is more, H1 significantly induced PUMA expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner and caused an increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in p53 null cells. Of note, knockdown of PUMA attenuated cytotoxic activity of H1. Further studies demonstrated that inhibition of AKT/FoxO3a signaling contributed to H1-mediated PUMA induction. Targeted suppression of AKT/FoxO3a signaling by siRNA could overcome H1-mediated PUMA induction. In addition, H1 significantly suppressed NF-κB activity and caused an increase of early apoptotic and late apoptotic cells, and elevated caspase-3 activity. Taken together, we found that inhibition of AKT/FoxO3a signaling may contribute to H1-mediated PUMA induction, suggesting that inhibition of AKT/FoxO3a signaling result in PUMA expression in response to p53-independent cytotoxic effects of H1.

  16. Targeting miR-29 induces apoptosis of osteosarcoma MG-63 cells via regulation of TGF-β1/PUMA signal.

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    Wang, C-Y; Ren, J-B; Liu, M; Yu, L

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that high miR-29 expression was associated with poor prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma (OS). However, the exact role and mechanisms of miR-29 in human OS remains speculative. Here, we identify a connection between miR-29 and TGF-β1/PUMA signaling in this context. MG-63 cells were treated with anti-miR-29 for 48 h. Cell growth and apoptosis in vitro were detected by MTT, colony formation and flow cytometry assay. The effect of the miR-29 inhibitor on the growth of MG-63 cells was also evaluated in a MG-63 mouse model. Human recombinant TGF-β1 (rh TGF-β1) and PUMA siRNA transfection were used to assess the signal pathway. miR-29, TGF-β1, PUMA, and caspase-3 protein expression were detected by Western blotting assay and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays. Knockdown of miR-29 resulted in 80% decrease of miR-29 compared to the negative control. Knockdown of miR-29 significantly downregulated TGF-β1 and upregulated PUMA expression, and decreased MG-63 cell growth by 70%, impaired colony formation by approximately 80%, and increased MG-63 cell apoptosis by 40%. Knockdown of PUMA reversed miR-29 silencing-induced proliferation and apoptosis of MG-63 cells. Restoration of TGF-β1 decreased PUMA expression. In murine engraftment models of MG-63, we showed that knockdown of miR-29 was able to reduce tumor growth. This was accompanied by decreased levels of TGF-β1 and increased levels of PUMA in these tumors. Targeting miR-29 exhibits significant in vivo and in vitro anti-tumor activities in OS through a novel mechanism resulting in inhibition of TGF-β1 expression and inducing PUMA expression.

  17. Simulasi Penggunaan Ipv6 Pada PD. Pumas Jaya Menggunakan Metode Manual Tunneling

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    Elidjen Elidjen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet usage trends with IPv4 addresses that only have 32-bit addresses could no longer cope with the large allocation of the required addresses. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF has issued a new standard of Internet protocol called IPv6 to anticipate this problem. PD. Pumas Jaya, which started in 1996 in the field of marine products in particular marinated seafood, such as salted fish, rebon shrimp, cuttlefish, anchovies and other marine products to anticipate the need for this in its network. However, IPv6 can not simply be used to replace IPv4 as the existing network infrastructure with IPv4. This research discussed IPv6 simulation tunneling with manual methods so that an IPv6 site can communicate with other IPv6 site even if separated by an infrastructure that supports only IPv4. 

  18. Forward Models for Following a Moving Target with the Puma 560 Robot Manipulator

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    Daniel Fernando Tello Gamarra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how a forward model could be applied in a manipulator robot to accomplish the task of following a moving target. The forward model has been implemented in the puma 560 robot manipulator in simulation after a babbling motor phase using ANFIS neural networks. The forward model delivers a rough estimation of the position in the operational space of a moving target. Using this information a Cartesian controller tracks the moving target. An implementation of the proposed architecture and the Piepmeir algorithm for the problem of following a moving target is also shown in the paper. The control architecture proposed in this paper was also tested with MLP and RBF neural networks. Results and simulations are shown to demonstrate the applicability of our proposed architecture for tracking a moving target.

  19. Clinical significance and expression of PUMA, MCL-1, and p53 in human renal cell carcinoma and para-carcinoma tissues.

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    Xia, H B; Cui, H W; Su, L; Zhang, Z H; Yang, X Y; Ning, S Q; Su, X L

    2017-07-06

    We investigated the expression level of p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), myeloid cell leukemia-I (MCL-1), and p53 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and para-carcinoma tissues, as well as their clinical significance. The expression levels of PUMA, MCL-1, and p53 in RCC and para-carcinoma tissues were measured using immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time PCR methods. Correlations between protein expression and pathological characteristics were analyzed. Renal clear cell carcinoma showed elevated MCL-1 and p53 protein expression (P > 0.05) and reduced PUMA expression as compared to that in para-carcinoma tissues. Spearman ranking correlation analysis showed that expression of PUMA, MCL-1, and p53 in was negatively correlated with RCC (r = -0.504, P = 0.001; r = -0.413, P = 0.008). We also observed significant correlation between MCL-1 expression and tumor differentiation (P PUMA, MCL-1, and p53 in cancer tissues as compared to that in para-carcinoma tissues (P PUMA, MCL-1, and p53 can reflect the biological behavior of renal cell carcinoma, and can be used to indicate tumor invasion, progression, and prognosis.

  20. Phylogenetically Distant Viruses Use the Same BH3-Only Protein Puma to Trigger Bax/Bak-Dependent Apoptosis of Infected Mouse and Human Cells

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    Papaianni, Emanuela; El Maadidi, Souhayla; Schejtman, Andrea; Neumann, Simon; Maurer, Ulrich; Marino-Merlo, Francesca; Mastino, Antonio; Borner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Viruses can trigger apoptosis of infected host cells if not counteracted by cellular or viral anti-apoptotic proteins. These protective proteins either inhibit the activation of caspases or they act as Bcl-2 homologs to prevent Bax/Bak-mediated outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MOMP). The exact mechanism by which viruses trigger MOMP has however remained enigmatic. Here we use two distinct types of viruses, a double stranded DNA virus, herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and a positive sense, single stranded RNA virus, Semliki Forest virus (SFV) to show that the BH3-only protein Puma is the major mediator of virus-induced Bax/Bak activation and MOMP induction. Indeed, when Puma was genetically deleted or downregulated by shRNA, mouse embryonic fibroblasts and IL-3-dependent monocytes as well as human colon carcinoma cells were as resistant to virus-induced apoptosis as their Bax/Bak double deficient counterparts (Bax/Bak-/-). Puma protein expression started to augment after 2 h postinfection with both viruses. Puma mRNA levels increased as well, but this occurred after apoptosis initiation (MOMP) because it was blocked in cells lacking Bax/Bak or overexpressing Bcl-xL. Moreover, none of the classical Puma transcription factors such as p53, p73 or p65 NFκB were involved in HSV-1-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that viruses use a Puma protein-dependent mechanism to trigger MOMP and apoptosis in host cells. PMID:26030884

  1. The JNK- and AKT/GSK3β- Signaling Pathways Converge to Regulate Puma Induction and Neuronal Apoptosis Induced by Trophic Factor Deprivation

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    Karajgikar, Meera; Hamilton, Alison; Ferguson, Stephen S.; Cregan, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    The AKT, GSK3 and JNK family kinases have been implicated in neuronal apoptosis associated with neuronal development and several neurodegenerative conditions. However, the mechanisms by which these kinase pathways regulate apoptosis remain unclear. In this study we have investigated the role of these kinases in neuronal cell death using an established model of trophic factor deprivation induced apoptosis in cerebellar granule neurons. BCL-2 family proteins are known to be central regulators of apoptosis and we have determined that the pro-apoptotic family member Puma is transcriptionally up-regulated in trophic factor deprived neurons and that Puma induction is required for apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, we demonstrate that Puma induction is dependent on both JNK activation and AKT inactivation. AKT is known to regulate a number of downstream pathways, however we have determined that PI3K-AKT inactivation induces Puma expression through a GSK3β-dependent mechanism. Finally we demonstrate that the JNK and AKT/GSK3β pathways converge to regulate FoxO3a-mediated transcriptional activation of Puma. In summary we have identified a novel and critical link between the AKT, GSK3β and JNK kinases and the regulation of Puma induction and suggest that this may be pivotal to the regulation of neuronal apoptosis in neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:23056511

  2. Diferenciación étnica y redes de larga distancia entre migrantes andinos: el caso de Sanka y Colcha

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    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available DIFFERENTIATION ETHNIQUE ET RESEAUX DE LONGUE DISTANCE CHEZ LES MIGRANTS ANDINS : LE CAS DE “SANKA” ET “COLCHA”. Les migrants andins ne limitent pas leurs réseaux sociaux d’interaction au milieu urbain. La réorientation spatiale des migrants devient notable au moment de l’aggravation de la crise nationale au Pérou qui affecte avec une particulière dureté la population liménienne. La formation de nouveaux réseaux de longue distance entre migrants est déterminée historiquement par l’espace géographique que couvre l’histoire de leur migration. De tels réseaux d’interaction impliquent un mécanisme spécifique de reproduction sociale des migrants andins et constituent un facteur important de changement social. Los migrantes andinos en Lima no limitan sus redes sociales de interacción al centro urbano. Sobre todo con la agudización de la crisis nacional en el Perú, que afecta con particular dureza a la población limeña, comienza una notable reorientación espacial de los migrantes. La formación de nuevas redes de larga distancia entre migrantes es históricamente determinada por el espacio geográfico que cubre su historia migracional. Tales redes de interacción significan un mecanismo específico de reproducción social de migrantes andinos y son factor importante del cambio social. ETHNIC DIFFERENTIATION AND LONG-DISTANCE-NETWORKS BETWEEN ANDEAN MIGRANTS: THE CASE OF “SANKA” AND “COLCHA”. The andean migrants in Lima do not limit their social networks of interaction on the urban center. Together with the aggravation of the national crisis in Peru, which affects the urban population of Lima particularly hard, is emerging a remarkable spatial reorientation of those migrants. The formation of long-distance-networks between migrants is historically determined by the geographical space, which covers their migration history. Such networks of interaction suggest a specific form of social reproduction of the andean migrants

  3. Consumption of an adult Puma yagouaroundi (Felidae by the snake Boa constrictor (Boidae in Central Mexico Consumo de un jaguarundi adulto Puma yagouaroundi (Felidae por la serpiente Boa constrictor (Boidae en el centro de México

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    Octavio Monroy-Vilchis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Few felids have been recorded as being preyed upon by the Boa constrictor snake (Boa constrictor. Documentation of predation on felids by reptiles is scarce, and natural predators of the adult jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi are poorly known. Here, we report for the first time an adult male jaguarundi being eaten by the snake Boa constrictor (of 273 cm snout-to-vent length at the Sierra Nanchititla Natural Reserve, Estado de México.Pocos depredadores han sido registrados como presas de la Boa constrictor (Boa constrictor. La depredación de felinos por reptiles es escasamente documentada y los depredadores naturales del jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi son pobremente conocidos. Aquí, nosotros informamos de un evento de depredación de un jaguarundi macho adulto que fue consumido por una B. constrictor (longitud hocico-cloaca: 273 cm en la Reserva Natural Sierra Nanchititla, Estado de México.

  4. Validación y aplicación de la prueba ELISA para medir cortisol fecal en jaguar (Panthera onca y puma (Puma concolor durante un programa de enriquecimiento ambiental en el Zoológico Jaime Duque

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    Catalina Rodríguez Álvarez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El enriquecimiento ambiental busca aumentar el bienestar de los animales cautivos mediante la provisión de estímulos que motiven la realización de comportamientos típicos de la especie. A las poblaciones de jaguares (Panthera onca y pumas (Puma concolor presentes en el Zoológico Jaime Duque se les aplicó un programa de enriquecimiento ambiental y con el fin de probar si su bienestar aumentaba, se realizaron mediciones de cortisol en materia fecal mediante la prueba de ELISA, para lo cual hubo necesidad de validar la técnica para cada especie. La prueba utilizada resultó ser válida para ambas especies; sin embargo, los niveles de cortisol se ven influenciados por múltiples variables y no se hizo evidente la reducción de los niveles del mismo con el enriquecimiento ambiental.

  5. La participación política de bolivianos y paraguayos residentes de villas en la ciudad de Buenos Aires: una aproximación desde la lucha por la vivienda

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    Carla Gallinati

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo se dedica en analizar la participación política de los migrantes bolivianos y paraguayos que, al lado de la población nacional, desarrollan un proceso de reclamo por la urbanización y por la vivienda digna en las villas de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Presentaré parte de la cartografía de discusiones de un grupo específico de residentes de villas que, independiente del origen nacional, compartían problemáticas comunes y reivindicaron ser reconocidos como vecinos de la ciudad y militantes en lucha por la vivienda. La propuesta es poner en foco dos aspectos poco observados por los estudios del campo migratorio: a la centralidad de la escala urbana para el estudio del fenómeno migratorio y b el reclamo como práctica política fundamental en la vida cotidiana (urbana de los migrantes. Es objetivo ofrecer una reflexión sobre las complejas articulaciones entre política, clase y nacionalidad que se abren a partir de un proceso local de puja por el suelo urbano y por el derecho a la ciudad.

  6. Democracia paritaria en Latinoamérica: la situación de jure y de facto de la participación política de las mujeres en el contexto boliviano

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    Óscar Gonzalo Barrientos Jiménez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El contexto histórico del desarrollo de los derechos políticos de las mujeres refleja una constante discriminación a favor del género masculino, por ello, y en buena medida gracias a una serie de conquistas significativas de las mismas mujeres, se van adoptando diversos instrumentos internacionales específicos de protección que permitan lograr cierta igualdad de oportunidades en derechos de participación política. En el caso del contexto boliviano, en el marco de la Constitución Política del Estado y de diferentes leyes de desarrollo constitucional, se ha logrado consolidar a Bolivia como el único país de América Latina en lograr resultados de paridad en todos los niveles estatales. No obstante, y sin perder objetividad, el trabajo refleja también la sistemática violación de derechos de participación política de autoridades municipales electas. A continuación se analiza la aplicación de la primera ley específica de acoso y violencia política en Latinoamérica. Las conclusiones muestran que la construcción de una democracia paritaria plena contribuye a la legitimidad democrática, el buen gobierno y el desarrollo sostenible de cualquier país.

  7. Por uma reflexão sobre o estado plurinacional boliviano: questões sobre identidade chiquitana e o termo originário = A reflection on the plurinational Bolivian state: questions about chiquitana identity and the term original

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    Dan, Vívian Lara Cáceres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Partindo de um movimento denominado “descolonização” e “neoconstitucionalismo latino-americano” esse artigo pretende realizar uma reflexão sobre os avanços, limites e possibilidades do estado Boliviano rumo ao estado plurinacional desde que foi implantado em 2009. Para tanto, conceitos importantes como o de identidade indígena, plurinacionalidade, pluralismo jurídico e autonomias vêm fazendo parte desse novo processo político descolonizador na Bolívia e aqui merecem destaque perpassando por alguns questionamentos: O que representa a implantação de um estado plurinacional na Bolívia? Quais os limites do conceito de povos indígenas originários e campesinos? Como está se configurando o processo de organização chiquitana e de suas demandas enquanto indígenas perante o estado? Para essa abordagem serão utilizados referenciais teóricos como: Linera, Mollinedo, Zavaleta, Schavezon, Puhl, Riester, entre outros. A pesquisa é de cunho qualitativo baseada em referenciais bibliográficos, documentos institucionais e entrevistas

  8. Genetic variability of Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Puma concolor and Panthera onca (Mammalia, Felidae studied using Felis catus microsatellites

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    Vanessa Roma Moreno

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We used four microsatellite loci (Fca08, Fca45, Fca77 and Fca96 from the domestic cat, Felis catus, to investigate genetic variability in specimens of Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi, otter cat, eyra, Puma concolor (cougar, mountain lion, puma and Panthera onca (jaguar held in various Brazilian zoos. Samples of DNA from the cats were PCR amplified and then sequenced before being analyzed using the CERVUS program. Our results show a mean polymorphic information content (PIC of 0.83 for H. yagouaroundi, 0.66 for P. concolor and 0.69 for P. onca and a mean of 10.3 alleles for the Fca08 locus, 5.3 for Fca 45, 9 for Fca 77 and 14 for Fca 96. These results indicate a relatively high level of genetic diversity for the specimens studied.

  9. A new metastrongyloidean species (Nematoda) parasitizing pulmonary arteries of Puma (Herpailurus) yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora: Felidae) from Brazil.

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    Vieira, Fabiano M; Muniz-Pereira, Luís C; de Souza Lima, Sueli; Neto, Antonio H A Moraes; Guimarães, Erick V; Luque, José L

    2013-04-01

    Angiostrongylus felineus n. sp. (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea), parasitic in Puma (Herpailurus) yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora, Felidae) from the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, is described and illustrated herein. Angiostrongylus felineus n. sp. differs from all congeneric species by having the anterior extremity with accentuated cuticular expansion and by smaller size of spicules. This study describes for the first time a species of Angiostrongylus in a wild Felidae in Brazil.

  10. Su majestad quiere saber. Información oficial y reformismo borbónico: el mundo andino bajo la mirada de la ilustración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Marchena Fernández

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Estudio dedicado a analizar el proceso de recolección de información burocrática que la Corona española requirió de sus posesiones americanas, durante las últimas décadas del siglo XVIII. La monarquía española demandó información sobre una variedad de aspectos que incluían producción, población, rentas, impuestos, doctrinas, costumbres, etc. El estudio escudriña, de manera específica, las vicisitudes que marcaron el cumplimiento de esta disposición real en el espacio andino. Se analizan las mediaciones sociales, políticas y culturales locales que estuvieron presentes en el proceso de recolección de la información. Por un lado, se subraya la distancia existente entre las premisas reformistas ilustradas que animaban los intereses de la monarquía española, y por otro, las maneras cómo reaccionaron la burocracia colonial y las sociedades andinas locales.

  11. La transformación del Estado en América Latina: una perspectiva económica desde los países andinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Moncayo Jiménez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A juicio de muchos analistas, el Estadonación —piedra angular de la organización política del mundo desde la suscripción del Tratado de Wesfalia, en 1968— está experimentando una profunda crisis. En esta visión, el poder efectivo de dicha entidad política se está desbordando en tres direcciones: hacia arriba, por la globalización y la supranacionalización; horizontalmente, por el desmonte del Estado de bienestar, la privatización y la desregulación; y hacia abajo, por la descentralización y la devolución de autonomías a las polis regionales y locales. La acción conjunta de estas tendencias estaría determinando el vaciamiento (hollowing out del Estado-nación, en la medida en que muchas de sus competencias tradicionales se están transfiriendo hacia arriba, a las instituciones internacionales y supranacionales; hacia los lados, al mercado, las empresas privadas y las transnacionales; y hacia abajo, a las entidades de orden subnacional. En este artículo analizaremos el impacto de tales tendencias en los países andinos

  12. Reflexões interdisciplinares a partir de A Arte do Canto, manuscrito inédito do barítono gaúcho Andino Abreu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Porto Nogueira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma análise do manuscrito inédito do barítono gaúcho Andino Abreu (1884-1961, cantor de grande experiência nacional e internacional, elaborado por volta de 1940, quando este já se encontrava ausente dos palcos. O cantor apresenta uma série de reflexões sobre a prática, a interpretação e a aprendizagem do canto, a partir de abordagens interdisciplinares, em que se combinam aspectos da filosofia, da psicanálise e de estudos da linguagem. A base filosófica aristotélico-tomista se congrega com a visão fisiológica, valorizando a respiração e a articulação, ao lado da necessidade de uma formação plural e humanística no ensino do canto.

  13. The muscle regulatory transcription factor MyoD participates with p53 to directly increase the expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member PUMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Terri J; Kliment, Greg; Shukla, Girish C; Weyman, Crystal M

    2017-12-01

    The muscle regulatory transcription factor MyoD is a master regulator of skeletal myoblast differentiation. We have previously reported that MyoD is also necessary for the elevated expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member PUMA, and the ensuing apoptosis, that occurs in a subset of myoblasts induced to differentiate. Herein, we report the identification of a functional MyoD binding site within the extended PUMA promoter. In silico analysis of the murine PUMA extended promoter revealed three potential MyoD binding sites within 2 kb of the transcription start site. Expression from a luciferase reporter construct containing this 2 kb fragment was enhanced by activation of MyoD in both myoblasts and fibroblasts and diminished by silencing of MyoD in myoblasts. Experiments utilizing truncated versions of this promoter region revealed that the potential binding site at position - 857 was necessary for expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis confirmed binding of MyoD to the DNA region encompassing position - 857. The increase in MyoD binding to the PUMA promoter as a consequence of culture in differentiation media (DM) was comparable to the increase in MyoD binding at the myogenin promoter and was diminished in myoblasts silenced for MyoD expression. Finally, ChIP analysis using an antibody specific for the transcription factor p53 demonstrated that, in myoblasts silenced for MyoD expression, p53 binding to the PUMA promoter was diminished in response to culture in DM. These data indicate that MyoD plays a direct role in regulating PUMA expression and reveal functional consequences of MyoD expression on p53 mediated transcription of PUMA.

  14. MicroRNA-199a-3p inhibits tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by targeting ZHX1/PUMA signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jinping; Liu, Zimin; Xiao, Menjing; Hao, Fengyun; Wang, Chenghong; Chen, Yan; Lu, Yingying; Liang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs play an important role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and invasion by regulating the expression of various genes. For example, the downregulation of microRNA-199a-3p (miR-199a-3p) that is noted in numerous human malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), results in a poor prognosis in patients with HCC. This finding suggests that miR-199a-3p overexpression in HCC could provide a new treatment approach. We explored this possibility by examining the effects of miR-199a-3p on the growth and apoptosis of HCC cells in vitro and vivo. The miR-199a-3p signaling pathway was examined using ZHX1 (zinc-fingers and homeoboxes-1) or PUMA (a p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) siRNA transfection to determine the effects of miR-199a-3p on growth and apoptosis of HepG2 cells in vitro. A subcutaneously implanted tumor model of HepG2 cells in nude mice was used to assess the effects of miR-199a-3p on the signaling pathway and tumorigenesis development in vivo. miR-199a-3p inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells in vitro. These effects were accompanied by upregulation of ZHX1 and PUMA. Targeting ZHX1 inhibited upregulation of PUMA after miR-199a-3p transfection. In addition, miR-199a-3p inhibited Bcl2 expression, but increased Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression. Targeting PUMA or ZHX1 reversed the effect of miR-199a-3p, followed by upregulation of Bcl2 and downregulation of Bax and cleaved caspase-3, respectively. Furthermore, miR-199a-3p inhibited tumorigenesis of xenografts in nude mice. miRNA-199a-3p could effectively prevent primary tumor formation. The ability of this therapy to decrease tumorigenesis may be related toZHX1-dependent PUMA signals.

  15. Combined loss of PUMA and p21 accelerates c-MYC-driven lymphoma development considerably less than loss of one allele of p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, L J; Grabow, S; Vandenberg, C J; Strasser, A; Janic, A

    2016-07-21

    The tumor suppressor p53 is mutated in ~50% of human cancers. P53 is activated by a range of stimuli and regulates several cellular processes, including apoptotic cell death, cell cycle arrest, senescence and DNA repair. P53 induces apoptosis via transcriptional induction of the BH3-only proteins PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis) and NOXA, and cell cycle arrest via p21. Induction of these processes was proposed to be critical for p53-mediated tumor suppression. It is therefore surprising that mice lacking PUMA, NOXA and p21, as well as mice bearing mutations in p53 that impair the transcriptional activation of these genes, are not tumor prone, unlike mice lacking p53 function, which spontaneously develop tumors with 100% incidence. These p53 target genes and the processes they regulate may, however, impact differently on tumor development depending on the oncogenic drivers. For example, loss of PUMA enhances c-MYC-driven lymphoma development in mice, but, interestingly, the acceleration was less impressive compared with that caused by the loss of even a single p53 allele. Different studies have reported that loss of p21 can accelerate, delay or have no impact on tumorigenesis. In an attempt to resolve this controversy, we examined whether loss of p21-mediated cell cycle arrest cooperates with PUMA deficiency in accelerating lymphoma development in Eμ-Myc mice (overexpressing c-MYC in B-lymphoid cells). We found that Eμ-Myc mice lacking both p21 and PUMA (Eμ-Myc;Puma(-/-);p21(-/-)) developed lymphoma at a rate comparable to Eμ-Myc;Puma(-/-) animals, notably with considerably longer latency than Eμ-Myc;p53(+/-)mice. Loss of p21 had no impact on the numbers, cycling or survival of pre-leukemic Eμ-Myc B-lymphoid cells, even when PUMA was lost concomitantly. These results demonstrate that even in the context of deregulated c-MYC expression, p53 must suppress tumor development by activating processes apart from, or in addition to, PUMA

  16. Therapeutic Response to Non-genotoxic Activation of p53 by Nutlin3a Is Driven by PUMA-Mediated Apoptosis in Lymphoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz J. Valente

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutlin3a is a small-molecule antagonist of MDM2 that promotes non-genotoxic activation of p53 through p53 protein stabilization and transactivation of p53 target genes. Nutlin3a is the forerunner of a class of cancer therapeutics that have reached clinical trials. Using transgenic and gene-targeted mouse models lacking the critical p53 target genes, p21, Puma, and Noxa, we found that only loss of PUMA conferred profound protection against Nutlin3a-induced killing in both non-transformed lymphoid cells and Eμ-Myc lymphomas in vitro and in vivo. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeting of the PUMA gene rendered human hematopoietic cancer cell lines markedly resistant to Nutlin3a-induced cell death. These results demonstrate that PUMA-mediated apoptosis, but not p21-mediated cell-cycle arrest or senescence, is a critical determinant of the therapeutic response to non-genotoxic p53 activation by Nutlin3a. Importantly, in human cancer, PUMA expression may predict patient responses to treatment with MDM2 antagonists.

  17. Indicios indirectos de la presencia del oso andino (Tremarctos ornatus Cuvier, 1825 en el noroeste de Argentina Indirect evidence on the presence of the Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus Cuvier, 1825 in northwestern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fernando Del Moral

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de osos andinos (Tremarctos ornatus en Argentina ha sido muy discutida debido a la ausencia de evidencia confirmativa. Muchos expertos en el oso dudan actualmente de su presencia en el país. No obstante, la Selva Tucumano-Boliviana o de Yungas es un ecosistema típico donde se puede encontrar esta especie; particularmente en el área estudiada, el hábitat parece ser de alta calidad para los osos. Entre los años 2001 y 2006, se recopilaron 23 casos de evidencia sobre la presencia de osos andinos en las provincias de Salta y Jujuy. Se registraron huellas, restos alimenticios y heces. Adicionalmente, se entrevistó a nativos, agricultores y cazadores para colectar otros datos sobre la especie. Se concluye que las selvas de Yungas del extremo noroeste de Argentina, deben ser consideradas un área con alta probabilidad de mantener una población residente de osos andinos. Aunque posiblemente esta sea una población aislada y pequeña, la presencia permanente de osos andinos en el noroeste de Argentina no debería ser puesta en duda.The presence of Andean bears (Tremarctos ornatus in Argentina has been disputed due to the absence of confirming evidence. Many Andean bear experts currently doubt on their presence in this country. Nevertheless, the Tucuman-Bolivian Forest or Yungas is a typical ecosystem where this species can be found, particularly in the studied area, in which the habitat appears to be of high quality for bears. Between 2001 and 2006, 23 cases of evidence on the presence of Andean bears in the provinces of Salta and Jujuy were recorded. Footprints, food remains and scats were found. In addition, natives, farmers, and hunters where interviewed to collect new data of this species. The conclusion is that the Yungas Forest of northwestern Argentina must be considered an area with high probability of maintaining a resident population of Andean bears. Although this is probably a small and perhaps isolated population, the

  18. Caracterización de la circulación atmosférica y la temperatura superficial del mar asociadas a extremos de caudal de ríos andinos y su variabilidad en baja frecuencia

    OpenAIRE

    Araneo, Diego C.

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo principal del presente trabajo se centra en determinar los mecanismos asociados a la variabilidad de los caudales de los ríos andinos en relación con la circulación atmosférica y la Temperatura Superficial del Mar (TSM) como forzante del sistema climático. Para la circulación atmosférica el estudio se extiende desde la escala sinóptica a la climática. A lo largo de la Cordillera de los Andes se identifican dos zonas en las cuales el comportamiento de los caudales de los ríos muest...

  19. Calculation of the CAREM reactor with the HUEMUL-PUMA-THERMIT chain of codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notari, Carla; Grant, Carlos R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the work was the evaluation of the the CAREM 25 reactor core, using a chain of codes (HUEMUL-PUMA-THERMIT) different to the one used in the original design (CONDOR-CITVAP-THERMIT). First, we performed a partial validation of the our codes in lattices similar to CAREM and reproduced a benchmark for simulation of gadolinium burnup. The results were considered satisfactory for this stage of the project. Then, we calculated the core along the normal operating equilibrium cycle and in hot and cold shut-down conditions. The main outcome of our evaluation confirms the general behaviour of the reference calculations except in one important point referring to the cold shut down. In this condition, the failure of one single rod of bank number 13 of the shut down system, leaves the core in a supercritical state at the beginning of the cycle and this anomaly persists during almost a third of the overall cycle. A new design of the core is proposed with minor modifications of the reference one, without introducing new types of fuel elements and keeping the same fuel management scheme. This new core fulfills all the design requirements. (author)

  20. Feline infectious peritonitis in a mountain lion (Puma concolor), California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Nicole; Swift, Pamela; Moeller, Robert B; Worth, S Joy; Foley, Janet

    2013-04-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal immune-mediated vasculitis of felids caused by a mutant form of a common feline enteric virus, feline enteric coronavirus. The virus can attack many organ systems and causes a broad range of signs, commonly including weight loss and fever. Regardless of presentation, FIP is ultimately fatal and often presents a diagnostic challenge. In May 2010, a malnourished young adult male mountain lion (Puma concolor) from Kern County, California, USA was euthanized because of concern for public safety, and a postmortem examination was performed. Gross necropsy and histopathologic examination revealed necrotizing, multifocal myocarditis; necrotizing, neutrophilic, and histiocytic myositis and vasculitis of the tunica muscularis layer of the small and large intestines; and embolic, multifocal, interstitial pneumonia. Feline coronavirus antigen was detected in both the heart and intestinal tissue by immunohistochemistry. A PCR for coronavirus performed on kidney tissue was positive, confirming a diagnosis of FIP. Although coronavirus infection has been documented in mountain lions by serology, this is the first confirmed report of FIP.

  1. High prevalence of Trichinella pseudospiralis in Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Mason V; Criffield, Marc; Thomas, Jennifer E; Paritte, Jacqueline M; Cunningham, Mark; Onorato, Dave; Logan, Kenneth; Interisano, Maria; Marucci, Gianluca; Pozio, Edoardo

    2015-02-04

    Parasites of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic nematodes common in carnivores throughout the world. We determined the prevalence and species of Trichinella infections in Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi). Tongues from Florida panthers were collected at necropsy and examined by pepsin-HCl artificial digestion for infection with Trichinella spp. DNA was extracted from larvae and multiplex PCR using Trichinella species-specific primers was used to genotype the worms. Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in 24 of 112 (21.4%; 14.6%-30.3%) panthers. Sixteen of the panthers (14.3%) were infected with T. pseudospiralis, 1 (0.9%) was infected with T. spiralis, and 2 (1.8%) had mixed infections of T. pseudospiralis and T. spiralis. Trichinella spp. larvae from 5 panthers were not identified at the species level due to degraded DNA. This is the highest prevalence of T. pseudospiralis detected in North America up to now and suggests the Florida panther is a key mammalian reservoir of this parasite in southern Florida. Trichinella pseudospiralis can infect both mammals and birds indicating the source of infection for Florida panthers could be broader than believed; however, birds represent a small percentage (0.01%) of the cat's diet. Since wild pigs (Sus scrofa) can be parasitized by both T. pseudospiralis and T. spiralis and these swine can comprise a large portion (~40%) of a panther's diet in Florida, we believe that Florida panthers acquired these zoonotic parasites from feeding on wild pigs.

  2. Birth timing for mountain lions (Puma concolor); testing the prey availability hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Brian D; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2012-01-01

    We investigated potential advantages in birth timing for mountain lion (Puma concolor) cubs. We examined cub body mass, survival, and age of natal dispersal in relation to specific timing of birth. We also investigated the role of maternal age relative to timing of births. We captured mountain lion cubs while in the natal den to determine birth date, which allowed for precise estimates of the population birth pulse and age of natal dispersal. A birth pulse occurred during June-August. Body mass of cubs was related to litter size and timing of birth; heaviest cubs occurred in litters of 2, and those born after 1 July. Cubs born within pulse months exhibited similar survival to those born out of the pulse. We found that cubs born April-June dispersed at younger ages than those born after 1 July. There was less variation in birth timing for 1(st) litters of females than older females. We hypothesize that cubs born after the peak in births of neonate prey are advantaged by the abundance of vulnerable prey and those cubs and mothers realize an evolutionary advantage.

  3. Dental and Temporomandibular Joint Pathology of the California Mountain Lion (Puma concolor couguar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghashani, A; Kim, A S; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

    Skulls from 91 California mountain lions (Puma concolor couguar) were examined macroscopically and radiographically. The majority of the skulls were from young adult animals (57.1%). The skull specimens were from 42 male (46.1%) and 34 female (37.4%) animals, while the gender was unknown for the remainder. The majority (94.5%) of teeth were present for examination. Only 11 teeth were identified as absent congenitally; five of these teeth were maxillary first molar teeth and three were maxillary second premolar teeth. Abnormal tooth morphology was identified in 3.5% of teeth. The most common abnormality in tooth form was abnormally large crowns of the maxillary first molar teeth. Teeth with an abnormal number of roots were uncommon (n = 21). Ninety-one teeth were found to have an abnormal number of roots, most often two-rooted maxillary first molar teeth instead of the expected one root. The most prevalent dental lesions found in the California mountain lion were attrition/abrasion (93.4%), tooth fractures (80.2%) and periodontitis (38.5%). Less common dental lesions were tooth resorption (n = 32 teeth) and endodontal disease (n = 29 teeth). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A mono-dimensional nuclear fuel performance analysis code, PUMA, development from a coupled approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, J. S.; Lee, B. O.; Lee, C. B.; Yacout, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Multidimensional-multi-physical phenomena in nuclear fuels are treated as a set of mono-dimensional-coupled problems which encompass heat, displacement, fuel constituent redistribution, and fission gas release. Rather than uncoupling these coupled equations as in conventional fuel performance analysis codes, efforts are put into to obtain fully coupled solutions by relying on the recent advances of numerical analysis. Through this approach, a new SFR metal fuel performance analysis code, called PUMA (Performance of Uranium Metal fuel rod Analysis code) is under development. Although coupling between temperature and fuel constituent was made easily, the coupling between the mechanical equilibrium equation and a set of stiff kinetics equations for fission gas release is accomplished by introducing one-level Newton scheme through backward differentiation formula. Displacement equations from 1D finite element formulation of the mechanical equilibrium equation are solved simultaneously with stress equation, creep equation, swelling equation, and FGR equations. Calculations was made successfully such that the swelling and the hydrostatic pressure are interrelated each other. (authors)

  5. Scientific design of Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) for GE SBWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; Ravankar, S.T.; Dowlati, R.

    1996-04-01

    The scaled facility design was based on the three level scaling method; the first level is based on the well established approach obtained from the integral response function, namely integral scaling. This level insures that the stead-state as well as dynamic characteristics of the loops are scaled properly. The second level scaling is for the boundary flow of mass and energy between components; this insures that the flow and inventory are scaled correctly. The third level is focused on key local phenomena and constitutive relations. The facility has 1/4 height and 1/100 area ratio scaling; this corresponds to the volume scale of 1/400. Power scaling is 1/200 based on the integral scaling. The time will run twice faster in the model as predicted by the present scaling method. PUMA is scaled for full pressure and is intended to operate at and below 150 psia following scram. The facility models all the major components of SBWR (Simplified Boiling Water Reactor), safety and non-safety systems of importance to the transients. The model component designs and detailed instrumentations are presented in this report

  6. Scientific design of Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) for GE SBWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, M.; Ravankar, S.T.; Dowlati, R. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Nuclear Engineering] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The scaled facility design was based on the three level scaling method; the first level is based on the well established approach obtained from the integral response function, namely integral scaling. This level insures that the stead-state as well as dynamic characteristics of the loops are scaled properly. The second level scaling is for the boundary flow of mass and energy between components; this insures that the flow and inventory are scaled correctly. The third level is focused on key local phenomena and constitutive relations. The facility has 1/4 height and 1/100 area ratio scaling; this corresponds to the volume scale of 1/400. Power scaling is 1/200 based on the integral scaling. The time will run twice faster in the model as predicted by the present scaling method. PUMA is scaled for full pressure and is intended to operate at and below 150 psia following scram. The facility models all the major components of SBWR (Simplified Boiling Water Reactor), safety and non-safety systems of importance to the transients. The model component designs and detailed instrumentations are presented in this report.

  7. Risk factors for exposure to feline pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet E; Swift, Pamela; Fleer, Katryna A; Torres, Steve; Girard, Yvette A; Johnson, Christine K

    2013-04-01

    The primary challenge to mountain lion population viability in California is habitat loss and fragmentation. These habitat impacts could enhance disease risk by increasing contact with domestic animals and by altering patterns of exposure to other wild felids. We performed a serologic survey for feline pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor) using 490 samples from 45 counties collected from 1990 to 2008. Most mountain lions sampled were killed because of depredation or public safety concerns and 75% were adults. Pathogens detected by serosurvey in sampled mountain lions included feline panleukopenia virus (39.0%), feline calicivirus (33.0%), feline coronavirus (FCoV, 15.1%), feline herpesvirus (13.0%), heartworm (12.4%), feline leukemia virus (5.4%), and canine distemper virus (3%). An outbreak of heartworm exposure occurred from 1995 to 2003 and higher than expected levels of FCoV-antibody-positive mountain lions were observed from 2005 to 2008, with foci in southern Mendocino and eastern Lake counties. We show that the majority of mountain lions were exposed to feline pathogens and may be at risk of illness or fatality, particularly kittens. Combined with other stressors, such as ongoing habitat loss, infectious disease deserves recognition for potential negative impact on mountain lion health and population viability.

  8. Evaluación ambiental del proceso de urbanización de las cuencas del piedemonte andino de Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Romero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Las cuencas son complejos sistemas ambientales en que se desarrollan procesos geomorfológicos, hidrológicos, climáticos y ecológicos, que son impactados por la urbanización. En este trabajo se estudian seis cuencas del piedemonte andino de la ciudad de Santiago que se encuentran en diferentes fases del proceso de urbanización, variando entre Macul-San Ramón, en donde casi el 40% de su superficie ha sido incorporada a la ciudad, y Pirque, que mantiene aún sus características agrícolas y rurales. Empleando Sistemas de Información Geográfica, se analiza el impacto de la urbanización sobre indicadores ambientales, tales como productividad vegetal, biomasa, humedad en el suelo y temperaturas superficiales de los territorios ocupados por las cuencas. Las Áreas Totales de Impermeabilización, los Coeficientes de Escorrentía y las Áreas Sensitivas Ambientales, permiten estimar el estado de las cuencas y su contribución a la salud ambiental de la ciudad de SantiagoWatersheds are complex environmental systems, where geomorphologic, hydrologic, climatic and ecological processes take place, and which are severely impacted by urbanisation. In this paper, six Santiago Andean piedmont watersheds have been researched, according with the degree of urbanisation that they reach, which varies between Macul-San Ramón, where about 40% of their land covers has been already urbanised, until Pirque, where agricultural and rural features are still dominants. Using geographical information systems, the impact of urbanization on several ecological indicators, such as vegetative productivity, biomass, soil moisture and surface temperature are analysed. Total Imperviousness Areas, Runoff Coefficients and Environmentally Sensitive Areas allow the estimation of the state of the watersheds ant their contribution to the environmental health of Santiago city

  9. La televisión social en los países andinos. Análisis de los medios sociales en informativos y magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Suing

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Los países andinos transitan hacia la televisión digital al mismo tiempo en que se consolidan los medios sociales que otorgan a la audiencia la capacidad de interactuar en tiempo real, ello deriva en interrogantes como ¿existe integración de los medios sociales en la televisión?, ¿la audiencia participa en la definición de la televisión digital? y ¿estamos frente a la televisión social? La investigación pretende responder a las preguntas señaladas mediante el estudio de los programas de noticias y magazines de las estaciones de televisión líderes del área andina, en razón de que sus contenidos se emiten en tiempo real cuando se generaría el mayor interés de la audiencia. La metodología empleada es cuantitativa y cualitativa a partir del análisis de cuentas en Facebook y Twitter de las estaciones. Las hipótesis son que la televisión social gana aceptación en los países del área andina y que los canales de televisión no explotan los medios sociales. Se concluye que las estaciones privadas muestran más actividad que las públicas, que existe diferencia entre los informativos y el entretenimiento en seguidores y actividad en la red y que estamos en el inicio de la televisión social pero demanda más esfuerzos para integrar pantallas y medios sociales.

  10. Géneros y formatos para la televisión digital. Análisis en los países andinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Suing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de la investigación es analizar los formatos de televisión vigentes en la transición hacia la televisión digital terrestre en los países andinos e identificar alternativas para la televisión local. La investigación se justifica en razón del apagón analógico entre el 2018 y 2020. La metodología es cualitativa y cuantitativa; los instrumentos son análisis de contenidos y entrevistas semiestructuradas. Los resultados permiten concluir que los contenidos de producción nacional están vinculados con la actualidad. Los elementos que influyen en la creación de contenidos están relacionados con factores de identidad, recursos económicos, talento humano y narrativas. La hibridación de formatos que promuevan la cultura es una opción para las estaciones locales. The purpose of the research is to analyze the current television formats in the transition to digital terrestrial television in the Andean countries, and to identify alternatives for the local television. The research is justified in view of the analog blackout that will occur between 2018 and 2020. The methodology is both qualitative and quantitative; the instruments are content analyses and semi-structured interviews. The results allow concluding that the local production contents are linked to current events. The elements that influence the creation of contents are related to factors of identity, economic resources, human talent and narratives. The hybridization of formats promoting culture is an option for the local stations.

  11. Repression of p53-target gene Bbc3/PUMA by MYSM1 is essential for the survival of hematopoietic multipotent progenitors and contributes to stem cell maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, J I; Petrov, J C; Langlais, D; Robert, F; Cencic, R; Shen, S; Pelletier, J; Gros, P; Nijnik, A

    2016-05-01

    p53 is a central mediator of cellular stress responses, and its precise regulation is essential for the normal progression of hematopoiesis. MYSM1 is an epigenetic regulator essential for the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function, hematopoietic progenitor survival, and lymphocyte development. We recently demonstrated that all developmental and hematopoietic phenotypes of Mysm1 deficiency are p53-mediated and rescued in the Mysm1(-/-)p53(-/-) mouse model. However, the mechanisms triggering p53 activation in Mysm1(-/-) HSPCs, and the pathways downstream of p53 driving different aspects of the Mysm1(-/-) phenotype remain unknown. Here we show the transcriptional activation of p53 stress responses in Mysm1(-/-) HSPCs. Mechanistically, we find that the MYSM1 protein associates with p53 and colocalizes to promoters of classical p53-target genes Bbc3/PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) and Cdkn1a/p21. Furthermore, it antagonizes their p53-driven expression by modulating local histone modifications (H3K27ac and H3K4me3) and p53 recruitment. Using double-knockout mouse models, we establish that PUMA, but not p21, is an important mediator of p53-driven Mysm1(-/-) hematopoietic dysfunction. Specifically, Mysm1(-/-)Puma(-/-) mice show full rescue of multipotent progenitor (MPP) viability, partial rescue of HSC quiescence and function, but persistent lymphopenia. Through transcriptome analysis of Mysm1(-/-)Puma(-/-) MPPs, we demonstrate strong upregulation of other p53-induced mediators of apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest. The full viability of Mysm1(-/-)Puma(-/-) MPPs, despite strong upregulation of many other pro-apoptotic mediators, establishes PUMA as the essential non-redundant effector of p53-induced MPP apoptosis. Furthermore, we identify potential mediators of p53-dependent but PUMA-independent Mysm1(-/-)hematopoietic deficiency phenotypes. Overall, our study provides novel insight into the cell-type-specific roles of p53 and its downstream

  12. Knockdown of Erk/Slug signals increases radiosensitivity of MDA-MB-231 cells to γ-rays by upregulating PUMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Jiyuan; Liu Zimin; Liu Xing'an; Shan Guoyong; Cao Weihong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the role Erk/Slug signal pathway in the radiosensitivity of MDA-MB-231 cells. Methods: MDA-MB-231 cells were transfected with NF-κBp65 siRNA, PUMA siRNA and Slug siRNA respectively or treated with U0126 for 24h, then the cells were irradiated with 4 Gy γ-ray. At different time points post-irradiation, the expressions of Erk1/2, NF-κBp65, Slug and PUMA protein were detected. The cell survival rate and apoptotic index were detected by MTT and TUNEL methods. Resluts: Compared with 4 Gy irradiated group, the expression of PUMA was reduced in NF-κB p65 siRNA/4 Gy group, the expressions of Slug and Erk1/2 were obviously decreased but PUMA increased in U0126/4 Gy group, the expression of Erk1/2 had no change but the expression of PUMA increased significantly in Slug siRNA/4 Gyγ group. Meanwhile, at 48h post-irradiation, for U0126/4 Gy group and Slug siRNA/4 Gy group, cells survival rates were decreased to 19.78±2.71 (F = 11.39, P < 0.05) and 17.41±4.58 (F = 15.31, P < 0.05), cell apoptosis rates were 28.61±4.70 (F = 9.84, P < 0.05) and 27.55±6.41 (F = 10.31, P < 0.05), respectively. At 24 h post-irradiation, for NF-κB p65 siRNA/4 Gy group and PUMA siRNA/4 Gy group, cell survival rates approached to 85.65±9.60 (F = 12.31, P < 0.05) and 87.53±11.50 (F = 13.68, P < 0.05), and cell apoptosis rates declined to 3.28±0.78 (F = 10.83, P < 0.05) and 3.46±0.84 (F = 9.92, P < 0.05). Conclusions: The radiosensitivity of MDA-MB-231 cells was relative to the induction of NF-κB up-regulated PUMA, and the radioresistance was caused by the up-regulation of Slug induced by Erk1/2, which inhibited the expression of PUMA. (authors)

  13. Novel type of neutron polarization analysis using the multianalyzer-equipment of the three-axes spectrometer PUMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwesig, Steffen; Maity, Avishek; Sobolev, Oleg; Ziegler, Fabian; Eckold, Götz

    2018-01-01

    The combination of polarization analysis and multianalyzer system available at the three axes spectrometer PUMA@FRM II allows the simultaneous determination of both spin states of the scattered neutrons and the absolute value of the polarization. The present paper describes the technical details along with the basic formalism used for the precise calibration. Moreover, the performance of this method is illustrated by several test experiments including first polarized inelastic studies of the magnetic excitations of CuO in the multiferroic and the uniaxial antiferromagnetic phases.

  14. Eletrocardiografia em onças-pardas (Puma concolor anestesiadas com sevoflurano ou isoflurano

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    A.R. Oliveira

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever os achados eletrocardiográficos de 11 onças- pardas (Puma concolor. Os animais foram sedados com 0,15mg/kg de detomidina associado a 5mg/kg de cetamina e mantidos anestesiados com sevoflurano (GSEVO, n=6 ou isoflurano (GISO, n=5. A frequência cardíaca foi de 95 ± 13bpm. As alterações observadas nos animais no GSEVO foram: atrial standtill com condução ventricular, episódios isolados de contração ventricular prematura, bloqueio atrioventricular de primeiro grau, diminuição da amplitude do complexo QRS, onda S profunda e aumento da amplitude da onda T. No grupo GISO, observou-se bloqueio de ramo direito do feixe de His, bloqueio atrioventricular de primeiro grau e aumento da amplitude da onda T. Arritmias não puderam ser associadas ao uso dos anestésicos inalatórios devido à não sensibilização do miocárdio às catecolaminas. Achados como o BAV de primeiro grau pode ter ocorrido devido ao uso de agonistas α-2 adrenérgicos. Este estudo aumentou o conhecimento sobre as alterações eletrocardiográficas em onças-pardas anestesiadas, entretanto mais estudos são necessários para correlacionar estes achados ao uso de agentes anestésicos.

  15. Functional responses of cougars (Puma concolor) in a multiple prey-species system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Díaz, Leroy; Fowler, Mike S; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Oro, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The study of predator-prey interactions is commonly analyzed using functional responses to gain an understanding of predation patterns and the impact they have on prey populations. Despite this, little is known about predator-prey systems with multiple prey species in sites near the equator. Here we studied the functional response of cougars (Puma concolor) in relation to their main prey, armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), coati (Nasua narica) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Between 2004 and 2010, cougar scats were collected along 5 transects to estimate the consumption of different prey species. A relative abundance index (RAI) was calculated for each prey species and cougar using 18 camera traps. We compared Holling type I, II and III functional response models to determine patterns in prey consumption based on the relative abundance and biomass of each prey species consumed. The 3 main prey species comprised 55% (armadillo), 17% (coati) and 8% (white-tailed deer) of the diet. Type I and II functional responses described consumption of the 2 most common prey species armadillos and coati similarly well, while a type I response best characterized consumption of white-tailed deer. A negative correlation between the proportions of armadillo versus coati and white-tailed deer biomass in cougar scats suggests switching to consume alternative prey, confirming high foraging plasticity of this carnivore. This work represents one of the few studies to compare functional responses across multiple prey species, combined with evidence for prey-switching at low densities of preferred prey. © 2017 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Quantifying animal movement for caching foragers: the path identification index (PII) and cougars, Puma concolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, Kirsten E.; Mattson, David J.; Theimer, Tad; Jansen, Brian; Holton, Brandon; Arundel, Terry; Peters, Michael; Sexton, Joseph O.; Edwards, Thomas C.

    2017-01-01

    Relocation studies of animal movement have focused on directed versus area restricted movement, which rely on correlations between step-length and turn angles, along with a degree of stationarity through time to define behavioral states. Although these approaches may work well for grazing foraging strategies in a patchy landscape, species that do not spend a significant amount of time searching out and gathering small dispersed food items, but instead feed for short periods on large, concentrated sources or cache food result in movements that maybe difficult to analyze using turning and velocity alone. We use GPS telemetry collected from a prey-caching predator, the cougar (Puma concolor), to test whether adding additional movement metrics capturing site recursion, to the more traditional velocity and turning, improve the ability to identify behaviors. We evaluated our movement index’s ability to identify behaviors using field investigations. We further tested for statistical stationarity across behaviors for use of topographic view-sheds. We found little correlation between turn angle, velocity, tortuosity, and site fidelity and combined them into a movement index used to identify movement paths (temporally autocorrelated movements) related to fast directed movements (taxis), area restricted movements (search), and prey caching (foraging). Changes in the frequency and duration of these movements were helpful for identifying seasonal activities such as migration and denning in females. Comparison of field investigations of cougar activities to behavioral classes defined using the movement index and found an overall classification accuracy of 81%. Changes in behaviors resulted in changes in how cougars used topographic view-sheds, showing statistical non-stationarity over time. The movement index shows promise for identifying behaviors in species that frequently return to specific locations such as food caches, watering holes, or dens, and highlights the role

  17. Diet of margay, Leopardus wiedii, and jaguarundi, Puma yagouaroundi, (Carnivora: Felidae in Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Bianchi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the food habits of the margay, Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821, and the jaguarundi, Puma yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilare, 1803, in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve and in the Sooretama Biological Reserve, Espírito Santo, Brazil. We determined the diet of both species by the analysis of scats. Fecal samples were collected from April 1995 to September 2000 and identified based on the presence of hairs that were ingested during self-grooming. Scats were oven-dried and washed on a sieve, and the screened material was identified using a reference collection. Of the 59 fecal samples examined, 30 were confirmed to be from the margay and nine of them from the jaguarundi. Mammals were the most consumed items in the diet of the margay, occurring in 77% of the fecal samples, followed by birds (53% and reptiles (20%. Among the mammals consumed, marsupials (Didelphimorphia were the most common item (66%. In the diet of the jaguarundi, birds were the most consumed items and occurred in 55% of the fecal samples; mammals and reptiles occurred in 41% and in 17% of the fecal samples, respectively. From this work we conclude that the margay and jaguarundi fed mainly upon small vertebrates in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve and in the Sooretama Biological Reserve. Although sample sizes are therefore insufficient for quantitative comparisons, margays prey more frequently upon arboricolous mammals than jaguarundis, which in turn prey more frequently upon birds and reptiles than margays. This seems to reflect a larger pattern throughout their geographic range

  18. ¿Se correlacionan los ataques de jaguares Panthera onca y pumas Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae al ganado con la riqueza de especies y la abundancia relativa de presas silvestres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Burgas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los ataques de grandes felinos al ganado son una de las principales causas de conflicto entre humanos y felinos, siendo por ello un tema prioritario para la conservación de estas especies. Se ha argumentado que la reducción en abundancia de presas naturales incrementa la ocurrencia de ataques a las especies domésticas. Sin embargo son pocos los estudios que han evaluado esta afirmación, algunos con resultados contradictorios. Nosotros investigamos cómo la ocurrencia de ataques al ganado, por parte de puma o jaguar, se relaciona con la abundancia y la riqueza de sus presas naturales. Muestreamos las presas potenciales contando los rastros de presencia a lo largo de transectos lineales en 14 fincas sin ataques (control y en 14 fincas con ataques en el Noroeste de Costa Rica durante la temporada lluviosa de 2009. Encontramos una relación negativa entre la ocurrencia de ataques al ganado y la riqueza (p=0.0014 y abundancia (p=0.0012 de presas naturales. Nuestros resultados respaldan la aplicación de medidas que promuevan el mantenimiento y recuperación de las presas naturales como medida para reducir los ataques al ganado y conservar las poblaciones de puma y jaguar.

  19. Role of non-native electrostatic interactions in the coupled folding and binding of PUMA with Mcl-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wen-Ting; Clarke, Jane; Shammas, Sarah L.; Wang, Jin

    2017-01-01

    PUMA, which belongs to the BH3-only protein family, is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). It binds to its cellular partner Mcl-1 through its BH3 motif, which folds upon binding into an α helix. We have applied a structure-based coarse-grained model, with an explicit Debye—Hückel charge model, to probe the importance of electrostatic interactions both in the early and the later stages of this model coupled folding and binding process. This model was carefully calibrated with the experimental data on helical content and affinity, and shown to be consistent with previously published experimental data on binding rate changes with respect to ionic strength. We find that intramolecular electrostatic interactions influence the unbound states of PUMA only marginally. Our results further suggest that intermolecular electrostatic interactions, and in particular non-native electrostatic interactions, are involved in formation of the initial encounter complex. We are able to reveal the binding mechanism in more detail than is possible using experimental data alone however, and in particular we uncover the role of non-native electrostatic interactions. We highlight the potential importance of such electrostatic interactions for describing the binding reactions of IDPs. Such approaches could be used to provide predictions for the results of mutational studies. PMID:28369057

  20. The Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Growth and Propagation of In-Vitro Chrysanthemum Shoot Explants (cv. Yellow Puma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dwimahyani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study on the effect of gamma irradiation on in-vitro shoot growth of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma has been carried out. The aim of the study was to observe genetic variability of shoot growth caused by gamma irradiation. Shoot explants with four leaves were irradiated by gamma with dose of 10, 15 and 20 Gy with 3 replications at each of dose. The irradiated shoot explants were then transferred into fresh MS solid medium and placed in a growth room. Observation was performed on number of leaves and branches on M1V0 generation, while plantlets height and number of branches were observed a M1V1 generation. Number of survival plantlets and multiplication rate on three subsequent subcultures were observed as well. Results showed that gamma rays with dose of 20 Gy inhibited growth of leaves as much as 50% compared to control (shoots without irradiation, and branches 73.7% in three weeks. Observation on multiplication rate at M1V1 generation showed that gamma irradiation with dose of 10 Gy promoted multiplication rate as much as 10% higher than control. It can be concluded that in vitro mutagenesis using gamma iradiation with dose of 10 to 15 Gy can be used for inducing genetic variability of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma.

  1. Phosphorylation of Tip60 by GSK-3 determines the induction of PUMA and apoptosis by p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Céline; Wissler, Manuela; Brauns-Schubert, Prisca; Wang, Shang-Jui; Tang, Yi; Sigloch, Florian C.; Mellert, Hestia; Brandenburg, Martin; Lindner, Silke E.; Breit, Bernhard; Green, Douglas R.; McMahon, Steven B.; Borner, Christoph; Gu, Wei; Maurer, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Summary Activation of p53 by DNA damage results in either cell cycle arrest, allowing DNA repair and cell survival, or induction of apoptosis. As these opposite outcomes are both mediated by p53 stabilization, additional mechanisms to determine this decision must exist. Here we show that glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is required for the p53-mediated induction of the pro-apoptotic BH3 only-protein PUMA, an essential mediator of p53-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of GSK-3 protected from cell death induced by DNA damage and promoted increased long-term cell survival. We demonstrate that GSK-3 phosphorylates serine 86 of the p53-acetyltransferase Tip60. A Tip60S86A mutant was less active to induce p53 K120 acetylation, Histone 4 acetylation and expression of PUMA. Our data suggest that GSK-3 mediated Tip60S86-phosphorylation provides a link between PI3K signaling and the choice for or against apoptosis induction by p53. PMID:21658600

  2. PRODUCCIÓN HORTÍCOLA A BAJA ESCALA EN EL LÍMITE CONTINENTAL DEL DESARROLLO ANDINO: UN APORTE DESDE LA ARQUEOBOTÁNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Llano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Llano, C.; V. Cortegoso & E. Marsh. 2017. Producción hortícola a baja escala en el límite continental del desarrollo andino: un aporte desde la arqueobotánica. Darwiniana , nueva serie 5(2: 109-125. Los macrorrestos vegetales recuperados en el sitio Los Conitos (noroeste de Mendoza, Argentina proporcionan evidencia del consumo y manejo de especies de plantas silvestres y domésticas. Con base en estos datos, el objetivo de este trabajo es mejorar nuestra comprensión del proceso socioeconómico de recolección y manejo de especies de plantas durante el Holoceno Tardío. El método de recuperación fue cribado en seco. La cronología se basa en ocho fechas de radiocarbono que abarcan los últimos tres mil años, que se evalúan junto con los restos macrobotánicos. De los 207 restos, Prosopis (“algarrobo” fue el más ubicuo. Los niveles de excavación se agruparon en cuatro componentes de ocupación. En el com- ponente IV más antiguo, no se documentaron taxones vegetales; el componente III incluye la presencia más temprana de restos de plantas domésticas, Cucurbita (“zapallo” y un predominio de especies de plantas silvestres; el componente II muestra una diversificación del uso de los recursos vegetales; final - mente, el componente I incluyó solo plantas silvestres. Se proponen algunas explicaciones alternativas de la incorporación, reemplazo y/o permanencia de las prácticas productoras y recolectoras que pueden vincularse a: estrés abiótico que afecta las prácticas hortícolas, aumento e intensificación demográfica y la llegada de migrantes con una base de subsistencia diversificada. La conclusión principal nos permite esbozar una imagen de la implementación de sistemas hortícolas de pequeña escala que comenzó hace alrededor de 1500 años, durante los cuales la recolección siguió siendo importante para la subsistencia.

  3. DEVOCIONES DE INMIGRANTES: INDÍGENAS ANDINOS Y PLURIETNICIDAD URBANA EN LA CONFORMACIÓN DE COFRADÍAS COLONIALES (SANTIAGO DE CHILE, SIGLO XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Valenzuela Márquez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En los orígenes de Chile colonial nos encontramos con numerosos indígenas andinos que sirvieron a los españoles, se asentaron y se integraron en los espacios laborales y sociales de este “nuevo mundo” periférico; formaron redes y parentescos locales, tuvieron descendencia, varios se transformaron en artesanos y algunos dictaron testamentos o dejaron huellas en documentos eclesiásticos y notariales que nos permiten observar su participación en las cofradías de la capital chilena. Estas corporaciones, por su parte, si bien remiten a una finalidad eminentemente religiosa, también actúan como un canal privilegiado para la inserción y movilidad de población diversa. Bajo esta perspectiva, nuestro artículo analiza las principales cofradías en las cuales participaron estos inmigrantes, vinculando prácticas religiosas, redes sociales y espacios laborales. Las cofradías estudiadas se revelan, entonces, como instancias representativas de la diversidad de orígenes geográficos y étnicos de sus integrantes, así como de la pluralidad de referentes identitarios que circulaban e interactuaban en un escenario urbano colonial como Santiago de Chile.In the origins of colonial Chile it is possible to find numerous Andean Indians who worked for Spaniards, settled and were integrated in labor and social spaces of this peripheral “new world”. They established local nets and relationships, and had descendants. Many became craftmen and some left wills or traces on ecclesiastic and notarial documents that allow us to observe their participation in brotherhoods created in Chile’s capital. These corporations had a religious aim, but worked as privileged channels for the insertion and mobility of diverse people. Under this premise, this article analyzes the main brotherhoods in which these immigrants participated, linking religious practices with their social nets and working spaces. The brotherhoods studied reveal themselves as instances that

  4. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in rural villages of the Bolivian Amazon Prevalência da infecção pelo papilomavirus humano nas aldeias rurais do Amazonas Boliviano

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    Jorge Cervantes

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer constitutes a major health problem in developing countries like Bolivia. The roles of certain genotypes of human papillomaviruses (HPVs in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer is well established. The prevalence of HPV infection among sexually active women varies greatly. Information regarding HPV infection in Bolivia is very much scarce, specially in regions like the Amazonian lowland. We studied 135 healthy women living in four rural localities of the Bolivian Amazon. Presence of HPV in DNA extracted from cervical swabs was analyzed using a reverse line hybridization assay. The estimated overall HPV infection prevalence among the studied rural localities was 5.9% (ranging from 0-16.6%. These values were unexpectedly low considering Bolivia has a high incidence of cervical cancer. The fact that Amazonian people seem to be less exposed to HPV, makes it likely that some other risk factors including host lifestyle behaviors and genetic background may be involved in the development of cervical cancer in this population.O câncer cervical constitui problema de saúde da maior importância nos países em desenvolvimento tais como a Bolívia. O papel de certos genótipos de papilomavirus humano (HPVs na patologia do câncer cervical está bem estabelecido. A prevalência da infecção pelo HPV nas mulheres sexualmente ativas varia amplamente. Contudo, as informações existentes acerca da infecção pelo HPV na Bolivia são muito escassas, especialmente nas zonas rurais, nomeadamente na região amazônica do país. Foram estudadas 135 mulheres saudáveis, residentes em quatro localidades do Amazonas Boliviano. Foi detectada a presença de HPV no DNA extraído de esfregaços cervicais, utilizando o método de hibridização em linha reversa. A prevalência da infecção por HVP, encontrada nas localidades rurais, foi de 5,9% (variação entre 0-16,6%. Estes valores foram inesperadamente baixos, uma vez que a Bolívia é um país com alta

  5. p53-Dependent PUMA to DRAM antagonistic interplay as a key molecular switch in cell-fate decision in normal/high glucose conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garufi, Alessia; Pistritto, Giuseppa; Baldari, Silvia; Toietta, Gabriele; Cirone, Mara; D'Orazi, Gabriella

    2017-09-11

    As an important cellular stress sensor phosphoprotein p53 can trigger cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and regulate autophagy. The p53 activity mainly depends on its transactivating function, however, how p53 can select one or another biological outcome is still a matter of profound studies. Our previous findings indicate that switching cancer cells in high glucose (HG) impairs p53 apoptotic function and the transcription of target gene PUMA. Here we report that, in response to drug adriamycin (ADR) in HG, p53 efficiently induced the expression of DRAM (damage-regulated autophagy modulator), a p53 target gene and a stress-induced regulator of autophagy. We found that ADR treatment of cancer cells in HG increased autophagy, as displayed by greater LC3II accumulation and p62 degradation compared to ADR-treated cells in low glucose. The increased autophagy in HG was in part dependent on p53-induced DRAM; indeed DRAM knockdown with specific siRNA reversed the expression of the autophagic markers in HG. A similar outcome was achieved by inhibiting p53 transcriptional activity with pifithrin-α. DRAM knockdown restored the ADR-induced cell death in HG to the levels obtained in low glucose. A similar outcome was achieved by inhibition of autophagy with cloroquine (CQ) or with silencing of autophagy gene ATG5. DRAM knockdown or inhibition of autophagy were both able to re-induce PUMA transcription in response to ADR, underlining a reciprocal interplay between PUMA to DRAM to unbalance p53 apoptotic activity in HG. Xenograft tumors transplanted in normoglycemic mice displayed growth delay after ADR treatment compared to those transplanted in diabetics mice and such different in vivo response correlated with PUMA to DRAM gene expression. Altogether, these findings suggest that in normal/high glucose condition a mutual unbalance between p53-dependent apoptosis (PUMA) and autophagy (DRAM) gene occurred, modifying the ADR-induced cancer cell death in HG both in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Betulinic acid derivative B10 inhibits glioma cell proliferation through suppression of SIRT1, acetylation of FOXO3a and upregulation of Bim/PUMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Longwei; Bai, Xiaobin; Wang, Yafei; Wang, Maode

    2017-08-01

    Glioma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system. B10 is a new glycosylated derivative of betulinic acid with enhanced cytotoxic activity. The present study was designed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying the anticancer effect of B10 in glioma cells. 25-50μM B10 resulted in a significant decrease of cell viability and BrdU incorporation. 25-50mg/kg B10 significantly reduced the implanted tumor weight and volume in nude mice. Activation of apoptosis was found in glioma cells when the cells were exposed to B10, as evidenced by increased number of TUNEL-stained cells, increased caspase 3 and 9 activities, and Bax and cleaved PARP expression. B10 caused a significant decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate, mitochondrial complex I, II, III, IV, and V activities, and ATP level, and increase of mitochondrial ROS production, indicating the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction. B10 reduced the expression of sirtuin (SIRT) 1 and resulted in an increase in forkhead box O (FOXO) 3a expression and acetylation. Activation of SIRT1 by SRT-1720 and downregualtion of FOXO3a using shRNA significantly inhibited B10-induced cytotoxicity. B10 markedly increased the expression of Bim and PUMA. Downregualtion of FOXO3a or activation of SIRT1 significantly inhibited B10-induced increase of Bim and PUMA expression. Downregualtion of Bim or PUMA could suppress B10-induced increase of Bax expression. Moreover, B10-induced cytotoxicity was significantly suppressed by downregulation of Bim or PUMA. In summary, we identified B10 as a potent therapeutic candidate for glioma treatment and SIRT1-FOXO3a-Bim/PUMA axis as a novel therapeutic target. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. La delegación del Poder Tributario en el Poder Ejecutivo, su regulación en el Perú y en otros países andinos

    OpenAIRE

    Urquizo Maggia, Daniel Fernando

    2009-01-01

    La presente tesis que lleva por título “La delegación del Poder Tributario en el Poder Ejecutivo, su regulación en el Perú y en otros países andinos” trata sobre la delegación legislativa tributaria regulada en los artículos 74 y 104 de la Carta del Perú aprobada en el año 1993, y en los países andinos de Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador y Venezuela. La doctrina admite que el poder tributario ya no es atribución exclusiva del Poder Legislativo, que originariamente gozaba de esta facu...

  8. “ SITUACIÓN DE LA MUJER EN LA CIENCIA Y LA TECNOLOGÍA EN BOLIVIA Y SU PARTICIPACIÓN EN EL SISTEMA BOLIVIANO DE INNOVACIÓN: CASO DE LA FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS Y TECNOLOGÍA DE LA UNIVERSIDAD MAYOR DE SAN SIMÓN”

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Gloria

    2017-01-01

    En las ultimas décadas el concepto de Sistemas de Innovación se ha convertido en una poderosa herramienta para el análisis y la comprensión del rol de la ciencia, la tecnología y la innovación en el desarrollo de las naciones. Bolivia, al igual que numerosos países de América Latina, adopta una estrategia basada en el desarrollo de la ciencia y la tecnología y la construcción del Sistema Boliviano de Innovación. Sin embargo, a lo largo de la historia, las mujeres han sido relegadas de la cien...

  9. The multianalyser system of the three axes neutron spectrometer PUMA: Pilot experiments with the innovative multiplex technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Oleg; Hoffmann, Ron; Gibhardt, Holger; Jünke, Norbert; Knorr, Andreas; Meyer, Volker; Eckold, Götz

    2015-02-01

    A new type of multiplex technique for three axes neutron spectrometers has been realized and successfully commissioned at the PUMA spectrometer at FRM II. Consisting of eleven analyser-detector channels which can be configured individually, this technique is especially suitable for kinetic experiments where a single excitation spectrum is recorded as a function of time without the need to move the spectrometer. On a time-scale of seconds an entire spectrum can be recorded thus allowing users to monitor changes during fast kinetic processes in single shot experiments without the need for stroboscopic techniques. Moreover, the multianalyser system provides an efficient and rapid tool for mapping excitations in (Q,ω)-space. The results of pilot experiments demonstrate the performance of this new technique and a user-friendly software is presented which assists users during their experiments.

  10. Arquitectura y vivienda campesina en tres pueblos andinos: Yanque, Lari y Coporaque en el valle del río Colca, Arequipa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1994-01-01

    hasta el presente. Este trabajo aporta un testimonio histórico y antropológico que podría ser un modelo valioso para realizar un análisis comparativo con los pueblos en otros valles andinos. ARCHITECTURE AND PEASANT HOMES IN THREE ANDEAN VILLAGES: YANQUE, LARI AND COPORAQUE IN THE COLCA VALLEY, PERU. This essay discusses the civil architecture in Yanque, Lari and Coporaque, three of the 16 'Indians villages' founded in the Colca Valley of southern Peru in the 1570s, during the rule of Viceroy Francisco de Toledo. The first part of the article describes the general layout of the villages and their architectural characteristics. The second part enters more fully into the technology and use of villagers' homes and compares traditional 'modern' styles and building materials. Contemporary historical and anthropological literature offers little information on the subject of peasant housing in peruvian mountain villages. Hopefully, this essay will be of value for comparative research in other Andean villages.

  11. The Essential Role of p53-up-regulated Modulator of Apoptosis (Puma) and Its Regulation by FoxO3a Transcription Factor in β-Amyloid-induced Neuron Death*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Rumana; Sanphui, Priyankar; Biswas, Subhas Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegeneration underlies the pathology of Alzheimer disease (AD). The molecules responsible for such neurodegeneration in AD brain are mostly unknown. Recent findings indicate that the BH3-only proteins of the Bcl-2 family play an essential role in various cell death paradigms, including neurodegeneration. Here we report that Puma (p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis), an important member of the BH3-only protein family, is up-regulated in neurons upon toxic β-amyloid 1–42 (Aβ(1–42)) exposure both in vitro and in vivo. Down-regulation of Puma by specific siRNA provides significant protection against neuron death induced by Aβ(1–42). We further demonstrate that the activation of p53 and inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathways induce Puma. The transcription factor FoxO3a, which is activated when PI3K/Akt signaling is inhibited, directly binds with the Puma gene and induces its expression upon exposure of neurons to oligomeric Aβ(1–42). Moreover, Puma cooperates with another BH3-only protein, Bim, which is already implicated in AD. Our results thus suggest that Puma is activated by both p53 and PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a pathways and cooperates with Bim to induce neuron death in response to Aβ(1–42). PMID:24567336

  12. The essential role of p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (Puma) and its regulation by FoxO3a transcription factor in β-amyloid-induced neuron death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Rumana; Sanphui, Priyankar; Biswas, Subhas Chandra

    2014-04-11

    Neurodegeneration underlies the pathology of Alzheimer disease (AD). The molecules responsible for such neurodegeneration in AD brain are mostly unknown. Recent findings indicate that the BH3-only proteins of the Bcl-2 family play an essential role in various cell death paradigms, including neurodegeneration. Here we report that Puma (p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis), an important member of the BH3-only protein family, is up-regulated in neurons upon toxic β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ(1-42)) exposure both in vitro and in vivo. Down-regulation of Puma by specific siRNA provides significant protection against neuron death induced by Aβ(1-42). We further demonstrate that the activation of p53 and inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathways induce Puma. The transcription factor FoxO3a, which is activated when PI3K/Akt signaling is inhibited, directly binds with the Puma gene and induces its expression upon exposure of neurons to oligomeric Aβ(1-42). Moreover, Puma cooperates with another BH3-only protein, Bim, which is already implicated in AD. Our results thus suggest that Puma is activated by both p53 and PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a pathways and cooperates with Bim to induce neuron death in response to Aβ(1-42).

  13. YM155 Down-Regulates Survivin and Induces P53 Up-Regulated Modulator of Apoptosis (PUMA)-Dependent in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiang; Su, Han

    2017-04-24

    BACKGROUND YM155, which inhibits the anti-apoptotic protein survivin, is known to exert anti-tumor effects in various cancers. However, there were few reports describing the inhibitory effect of YM155 on human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells that highly express survivin. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor effects of YM155 on OSCC cells and then examined its molecular mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS SCC9 cells of OSCC were treated with series of concentrations of YM155 (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 ng/ml) for 6, 12, and 24 h. The effect of YM155 on survival of SCC9 cells was detected by MTT and colony formation assay. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometric analysis and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of survivin, p53, and PUMA. Caspase-3 activity was measured by cleavage of the caspase-3 substrate. To test the role of PUMA and caspase-3 on YM155-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition, the SCC9 cells was transfected with PUMA siRNA or caspase-3 siRNA or control siRNA for 16 h before YM155 (1 and 10 ng/ml) treatment for 24 h. In addition, we also investigated the effect of YM155 in an in vivo xenograft model. RESULTS Treatment of YM155 efficiently reduced survivin expression and increased PUMA expression and caspase-3 activation in the SCC9 cells. YM155 treatment resulted in 18-86% decrease in cell viability, 10-60% decrease in colony numbers, and 8-40% increase in cell apoptosis (pPUMA siRNA or caspase-3 transfection. In addition, animals treated with YM155 showed more than 60% tumor growth inhibition compared to the controls (pPUMA/caspase-3 cellular signaling processes. This study suggests that YM155 may be a potential molecular target with therapeutic relevance for the treatment of OSCC.

  14. Parámetros genético poblacionales en seis especies de Felidae neotropicales ( Leopardus tigrina, L. wiedii, L. pardalis, Herpailurus jagouroundi, Puma concolor y Pantera onca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ruiz-García

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron 196 muestras pertenecientes a 68 Leopardus pardalis (Ocelote; Colombia, Perú, a12 L. wiedi (Margay; Colombia y Bolivia, a 24 L. tigrinus (Tigrillo; Colombia, a 16 Herpailurus jagouroundi (yagouroundi; Colombia, Venezuela, Brasil a 50 Puma concolor (Puma; Colombia, Perú, Bolivia y a 24 Panthera onca (Jaguar; Colombia con 6 marcadores microsatélites diferentes (FCA08, FCA43, FCA45, FCA90, FCA96 y FCA126. Los resultados y conclusiones más obvias fueron las siguientes: (1 Para la mayoría de esas especies no se dio equilibrio Hardy- Weinberg cuando se analizaron individuos de localidades diferentes por exceso de homocigotos. Probablemente, el efecto Wahlund es responsable de ese hecho.

  15. The occurrence of Trichinella species in the cougar Puma concolor couguar from the state of Colorado and other regions of North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, M V; Logan, K; Criffield, M; Thomas, J E; Paritte, J M; Messerly, D M; Interisano, M; Marucci, G; Pozio, E

    2017-05-01

    Trichinella species are zoonotic nematodes that infect wild carnivores and omnivores throughout the world. We examined the prevalence and species of Trichinella infections in cougars (Puma concolor couguar) from Colorado, United States. Tongues from cougars were examined by pepsin-HCl artificial digestion to detect Trichinella spp. larvae. The species or genotype of individual worms was identified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in 17 of 39 cougars (43.6% (28.7-59.5%)). Five of the cougars (12.8%) were infected with T. murrelli, 3 (7.7%) were infected with T. pseudospiralis, and 1 (2.6%) had Trichinella genotype T6. Trichinella spp. larvae from eight cougars were not identified at the species level, due to degraded DNA. The high prevalence of Trichinella spp. in cougars from Colorado and reports of the parasite in other populations of Puma spp. suggest that this large predator is a key mammalian reservoir.

  16. Impact of burnout and psychosocial work characteristics on future long-term sickness absence. Prospective results of the Danish PUMA-study among human service workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, KB; Bültmann, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine if burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Methods: Data were collected prospectively at 82-work units in human services (PUMA cohort, PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation...... and Job satisfaction) followed up during the proceeding 18 months regarding onset of long-term sickness absence. Questionnaire data regarding burnout and psychosocial factors were aggregated at work unit level. We used Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors and burnout as predictors of long......-term sickness absence for more than 18 months based on data from a national absence register. Results: Long-term sickness absence was predicted by psychosocial factors and by burnout at work unit level. Conclusion: To reduce sickness absence, organizations within human services should improve the psychosocial...

  17. Attitudes toward jaguars and pumas and the acceptability of killing big cats in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: An application of the Potential for Conflict Index2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Monica T; Vaske, Jerry J; Bath, Alistair J; Marchini, Silvio

    2017-09-01

    We explored the overall acceptability of killing jaguars and pumas in different scenarios of people-big cat interactions, the influence of attitudes toward big cats on acceptability, and the level of consensus on the responses. Data were obtained from 326 self-administered questionnaires in areas adjacent to Intervales State Park and Alto Ribeira State Park. Overall, people held slightly positive attitudes toward jaguars and pumas and viewed the killing of big cats as unacceptable. However, individuals that held negative attitudes were more accepting of killing. As the severity of people-big cat interactions increased, the level of consensus decreased. Knowing whether killing a big cat is acceptable or unacceptable in specific situations allows managers to anticipate conflict and avoid illegal killing of big cats.

  18. Los conflictos ambientales del gas boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavaldá Palacín, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los ajustes neoliberales introducidos en la legislación bolivana han facilitado la apropiación de los recursos hidrocarburíferos por parte de las transnacionales petroleras. Estas compañías invaden territorios indígenas y áreas protegidas. En su accionar generan graves conflictos ambientales con las comunidades locales. La costrucción de los gasoductos Bolivia-Brasil, Cuiabá y Gasyrg así como la oposición de la población a exportar gas a Estados Unidos nos reflejan cómo la población se organiza para resistir al expolio de las compañías petroleras. Las movilizaciones populares de ¿La Guerra del gas¿, en octubre 2003 no han terminado, porque el gas sigue en manos extranjeras.

  19. Radiosensitivity of AsPC-1 cell to γ-rays enhanced by up-regulation of PUMA induced by targeted Slug gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kejun; Tang Limin; Jiao Xuelong; Zhang Bingyuan; Sun Chuandong; Lu Yun; Cao Hongshi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the influence of PUMA on radiosensitivity of pancreatic cancer AsPC-1 cells after Slug gene inhibition by transfected short interferencing RNA (siRNA). Methods: The AsPC-1 cells were infected with MOI 10, 50, 100 for 72 h, respectively. The expression of Slug and PUMA was analyzed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry methods. The transfected and control cells were exposed to 4 Gy γ-rays. The cells inhibition rate was examined by MTT, Hoechst 33342 and IP double staining. DNA ladder and Giemsa staning was used to observe apoptosis. Results: The relative value of Slug expression was 0.831±0.14, 0.546±0.12 and 0.178±0.08 after AsPC-1 was infected with Slug-siRNA (MOI 10, 50, 100) for 72 h, significantly lower than that of control group (F=4.992, P<0.05). The relative value of PUMA was 0.325±0.07, 0.593±0.11 and 0.978±0.12, after AsPC-1 was infected with Slug-siRNA (MOI 10, 50, 100) for 72 h, significantly higher than that of control group (F=4.324, P<0.05). The cell proliferation rate was (78.76±9.36)% in transfection combined with radiosensitivity group, significantly higher than that of transfection group [(43.68±6.71)%] and radiosensitivity group alone [(19.25±3.72)%] (F=5.056, P<0.05). The apoptosis of transfection combined with radiosensitivity group was significantly higher than that of others. Conclusions: Slug gene targeting siRNA could inhibit the expression of Slug, and consequently increase the activation of PUMA expression, and so enhance the radiosensitivity to γ-rays. (authors)

  20. First results on the element composition of Halley comet dust particles measured by PUMA instruments on the board of Vega space probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Kissel', I.; Berto, Zh. L.

    1986-01-01

    Already the raw data of the ''Puma'' instruments reveal unexpected and striking features of cometary dust particles. Firstly it seems that particles below 10 -14 g are much more abundand that anticipated by the models. Secondly most of the particles are rich in light elements such as H, C, N and O giving hints to the validity of models describing the cometary material as made from radiation processed ices. Three examples of original measurements for typical compositions are given

  1. Activity and population characteristics of Andean Condors in southern Chile Actividad y características poblacionales de los Cóndores Andinos en el sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RONALD J. SARNO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Data were collected on general activity patterns and population characteristics of free-ranging Andean Condors Vultur gryphus in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile from July 1992 to June 1994 during 3,680 h of observation. Seasonal differences were evident in relative abundance and activity patterns. The mean number of condors sighted/ observation significantly higher in fall-winter than in spring-summer. There was a significant decrease from spring-summer to fall-winter in the percentage of observations during which we sighted solitary condors and a significant increase in the number of groups of condors. In addition, mean monthly maximum group size was significantly larger in fall-winter than spring-summer. The sex ratio (males:females of juveniles was significantly skewed in favor of females, and that of adults was significantly skewed in favor of males. The significantly different adult:juvenile ratio of condors visiting the park could have resulted from differences in distribution and habitat use and/or low breeding rates. Differential juvenile mortality and dispersal could also have produced skewed age and sex ratios, but more research is needed. Condor activity seemed related to wind speed. The greatest proportion of condors was observed flying in calm and low winds and less frequently in moderate to very strong winds. Temperature seemed to have an important effect on aerial activity because the greatest proportion of condors was sighted flying and soaring on warm days. Temperature and wind speed were weakly correlated.Se recolectaron datos sobre los patrones generales de actividad y caractersticas de la población del Cóndor Andino Vultur gryphus. El estudio se realizó en el Parque Nacional Torres del Paine, Chile, entre julio 1992 y junio de 1994, totalizando 3680 horas de observación. Durante el estudio fueron evidentes diferencias estacionales en los patrones de actividad y abundancia relativa de estas aves. El numero promedio

  2. Genetic Relationships of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Race Chile with Wild Andean and Mesoamerican Germplasm Relaciones Genéticas entre el Germoplasma de Poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Raza Chile y Silvestres Andinos y Mesoamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Becerra V

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. belongs to the cultivated race Chile and its origin is presumably Andean. The objective of this study was to identify the origin of a group of Chilean accessions based on their genetic relationship with wild material from the Mesoamerican and Andean common bean gene pool. To achieve this objective, universal primers of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA were used to detect polymorphism using Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. Thirty-two genotypes were analyzed, including wild material from Mexico, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina, as well as Chilean cultivated genotypes belonging to endemic Chilean accession types (Tórtola, Coscorrón, and Cuyano and naturalized commercial lines (Frutilla, Bayo, Manteca, and Blanco grande. Results showed a low level of polymorphism for cpDNA (23% and mtDNA (24% in wild and cultivated Chilean common bean accessions. Some universal primers and restriction enzyme combinations were more efficient than others in detecting polymorphism. The Chilean materials were closely related to wild accessions collected in Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru indicating their Andean origin. The wild accessions from Ecuador were located in a intermediate position between the Mesoamerican and Andean accessions.El poroto chileno (Phaseolus vulgaris L. pertenece a la raza Chile, cuyo origen es desconocido y presumiblemente andino. El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar el origen de un grupo de genotipos chilenos basado en sus relaciones genéticas con material silvestre perteneciente a los acervos genéticos mesoamericano y andino. Para lograr este objetivo se usaron partidores universales de ADNcp y ADNmt con la metodología de la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa-Fragmentos de Restricción Polimórficos. (PCR-RFLP. Se analizó un total de 32 genotipos de P. vulgaris, los cuales incluyeron materiales silvestres de M

  3. The apoptosis regulators p53, bax and PUMA: Relationship and impact on outcome in early stage (FIGO I-II) ovarian carcinoma after post-surgical taxane-based treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skírnisdóttir, I; Seidal, T

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic effect of the apoptosis regulators p53, bax and PUMA for recurrent disease and disease-free survival (DFS) in a series of 105 patients in FIGO-stages I-II with epithelial ovarian cancer, all treated with post-surgical platinum-taxane chemotherapy. For the detection of positivity of the biological markers p53, bax and PUMA the techniques of tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used. In tumors the frequency of p53 positivity was 24%, that of bax positivity was 83%, and strong positivity was found for PUMA (43%). The bax status was related to tumor grade (P=0.029). Positive staining for bax was related to strong positivity of PUMA in the tumors (P=0.004). The p53, bax or PUMA status alone or concomitant (p53 bax, p53 PUMA and bax PUMA) were not related to age, histopathological subtype, serous/non-serous tumors or type of the staging procedure at primary surgery. In survival analysis p53-positive tumors (P=0.014) and concomitant p53-positive and weak PUMA-positive tumors (P=0.015) were significantly correlated with shorter DFS. Concomitant p53-negative and bax-positive tumors were significantly correlated with longer survival (P=0.019). FIGO-stage (OR=6.0) and p53 status (OR=4.1) were predictive factors for tumor recurrence in logistic regression analysis and independent prognostic factors (HR=2.4 for both) in multivariate Cox regression analysis. In a separate Cox multivariate regression analysis the p53 bax status (HR=2.2) was an independent prognostic factor for DFS. The p53 PUMA status (HR=0.4) was not an independent prognostic factor, however, a borderline significance (P=0.07) was noted. Our results indicate that FIGO stage and p53 status alone were independent predictive factors for recurrence and prognostic factors for survival. Furthermore, p53 bax status was an independent prognostic factor for survival in this study.

  4. Development and testing of an optimized method for DNA-based identification of jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Puma concolor) faecal samples for use in ecological and genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Taiana; Santos, Anelisie S; De Angelo, Carlos; Srbek-Araujo, Ana Carolina; Sana, Dênis A; Morato, Ronaldo G; Salzano, Francisco M; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2009-07-01

    The elusive nature and endangered status of most carnivore species imply that efficient approaches for their non-invasive sampling are required to allow for genetic and ecological studies. Faecal samples are a major potential source of information, and reliable approaches are needed to foster their application in this field, particularly in areas where few studies have been conducted. A major obstacle to the reliable use of faecal samples is their uncertain species-level identification in the field, an issue that can be addressed with DNA-based assays. In this study we describe a sequence-based approach that efficiently distinguishes jaguar versus puma scats, and that presents several desirable properties: (1) considerably high amplification and sequencing rates; (2) multiple diagnostic sites reliably differentiating the two focal species; (3) high information content that allows for future application in other carnivores; (4) no evidence of amplification of prey DNA; and (5) no evidence of amplification of a nuclear mitochondrial DNA insertion known to occur in the jaguar. We demonstrate the reliability and usefulness of this approach by evaluating 55 field-collected samples from four locations in the highly fragmented Atlantic Forest biome of Brazil and Argentina, and document the presence of one or both of these endangered felids in each of these areas.

  5. Hydrological Modeling in the Bull Run Watershed in Support of a Piloting Utility Modeling Applications (PUMA) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijssen, B.; Chiao, T. H.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Vano, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrologic models with varying complexities and structures are commonly used to evaluate the impact of climate change on future hydrology. While the uncertainties in future climate projections are well documented, uncertainties in streamflow projections associated with hydrologic model structure and parameter estimation have received less attention. In this study, we implemented and calibrated three hydrologic models (the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM), the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), and the Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC)) for the Bull Run watershed in northern Oregon using consistent data sources and best practice calibration protocols. The project was part of a Piloting Utility Modeling Applications (PUMA) project with the Portland Water Bureau (PWB) under the umbrella of the Water Utility Climate Alliance (WUCA). Ultimately PWB would use the model evaluation to select a model to perform in-house climate change analysis for Bull Run Watershed. This presentation focuses on the experimental design of the comparison project, project findings and the collaboration between the team at the University of Washington and at PWB. After calibration, the three models showed similar capability to reproduce seasonal and inter-annual variations in streamflow, but differed in their ability to capture extreme events. Furthermore, the annual and seasonal hydrologic sensitivities to changes in climate forcings differed among models, potentially attributable to different model representations of snow and vegetation processes.

  6. The three-level scaling approach with application to the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; Revankar, S.T.; Leonardi, T.; Dowlati, R.; Bertodano, M.L.; Babelli, I.; Wang, W.; Pokharna, H.; Ransom, V.H.; Viskanta, R.

    1998-01-01

    The three-level scaling approach was developed for the scientific design of an integral test facility and then it was applied to the design of the scaled facility known as the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA). The NRC technical program group for severe accident scaling developed the conceptual framework for this scaling methodology. The present scaling method consists of the integral system scaling, whose components comprise the first two levels, and the phenomenological scaling constitutes the third level of scaling. More specifically, the scaling is considered as follows: (1) the integral response function scaling, (2) control volume and boundary flow scaling, and (3) local phenomena scaling. The first two levels are termed the top-down approach while the third level is the bottom-up approach. This scheme provides a scaling methodology that is practical and yields technically justifiable results. It ensures that both the steady state and dynamic conditions are simulated within each component, and also scales the inter-component mass and energy flows as well as the mass and energy inventories within each component. (orig.)

  7. Transforming Growth Factor-β Directly Induces p53-up-regulated Modulator of Apoptosis (PUMA) during the Rapid Induction of Apoptosis in Myc-driven B-cell Lymphomas*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spender, Lindsay C.; Carter, Matthew J.; O'Brien, Darren I.; Clark, Louise J.; Yu, Jian; Michalak, Ewa M.; Happo, Lina; Cragg, Mark S.; Inman, Gareth J.

    2013-01-01

    c-Myc transformed human Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells are highly sensitive to TGF-β-induced apoptosis. Previously we demonstrated that TGF-β-mediated cell death in BL cells is regulated via the mitochondrial intrinsic apoptosis pathway, which is dependent on the activation of BAX and/or BAK. TGF-β directly induces transcription of the BH3-only protein BIK and represses expression of the pro-survival factor BCL-XL but has no effect on the direct BAX/BAK “activators” BIM or BID (tBID). Here we show that TGF-β induces the BH3-only activator PUMA to aid induction of the intrinsic cell death pathway. TGF-β also induced PUMA in normal germinal center CD77-positive centroblasts isolated from human tonsil tissue. PUMA was a direct TGF-β target gene in B-cells, and we identify a putative Smad-binding region within the human PUMA promoter that recruits Smad3 and Smad4 in cells in response to TGF-β signaling. Constitutive activity of the isolated Smad-binding region in luciferase reporter assays was dependent on Smad consensus sequences and was partially dependent on endogenous TGF-β signaling and Smad4. Knockdown of PUMA in BL cells using lentiviral shRNA resulted in slower kinetics of the TGF-β-mediated apoptotic response. Analysis of Eμ-Myc cell lines demonstrated that c-myc-driven murine lymphomas are also sensitive to TGF-β-mediated apoptosis. Moreover, Puma−/− Eμ-Myc lines demonstrated significantly delayed kinetics of the apoptotic response when compared with wild type lymphomas. TGF-β therefore induces a polygenic response in Myc-driven lymphomas involving transcription of PUMA, which is necessary for the rapid induction of cell death. PMID:23243310

  8. Prevalência de maloclusão em Panthera onca e Puma concolor mantidas em cativeiro no Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Rossi Junior

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento da Odontologia Veterinária foi tardio na Clínica Médico Veterinária Preventiva de Animais Selvagens. Alguns trabalhos a respeito da Odontologia de Animais Selvagens já foram realizados com animais originários de cativeiro e vida livre de várias espécies de diversas distribuições geográficas, mas não específicos aos grandes felinos neotropicais (Panthera onca e Puma concolor. Objetivou-se neste trabalho fazer levantamento sobre a prevalência de maloclusão em grandes felinos neotropicais manejados nas instituições visitadas no Estado de São Paulo. Para os estudos utilizamos amostra constituída de 42 onças-pintadas (Panthera onca e 36 suçuaranas (Puma concolor, totalizando 78 animais, provenientes de 18 instituições mantenedoras de tais espécies em cativeiro no Estado de São Paulo. Todos os animais foram examinados, observando-se se a oclusão estava de acordo com o normal para as espécies. Os dentes foram identificados um a um, examinados diretamente por meio de explorador odontológico. A maloclusão esteve presente em 47,61% (20 casos em Panthera onca e dois indivíduos de Puma concolor (5,55.00%. Os animais que apresentaram maloclusões aparentemente não tinham problemas de apreensão de alimentos ou de mastigação, embora apresentassem acúmulo de alimentos ou indutos moles na região dos dentes com espaço interproximal mais reduzido, o que poderá levar a problemas futuros devido a falta de remoção desses indutos dos dentes.

  9. The pro-apoptotic protein Bmf co-operates with Bim and Puma in neuron death induced by β-amyloid or NGF deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Rumana; Saleem, Suraiya; Saha, Akash; Biswas, Subhas Chandra

    2018-04-01

    The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3 domain only (BH3-only) proteins are central regulators of cell death in various physiological and pathological conditions, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Bcl-2 modifying factor (Bmf) is one such BH3-only protein that is implicated in various death paradigms such as anoikis, seizures, cancer and autoimmunity. It also co-operates with other BH3-only proteins such as Bim in various death paradigms. However, its role in neurodegeneration is under-investigated. Here, we report for the first time the essential role of Bmf and its co-operativity with direct activator BH3-only proteins Bim and Puma in neuron death induced by beta-amyloid (Aβ) toxicity or NGF deprivation. Oligomeric Aβ is main pathologic species in AD and NGF deprivation is relevant for both developmental as well as pathologic neuron death. We find that Bmf over-expression causes cell death and Bmf knockdown protects neurons against death evoked by Aβ or NGF deprivation. We also find that Bmf co-operates with other important BH3-only proteins such as Bim and Puma in neuron death induced by Aβ or NGF deprivation. Simultaneous knocking down of these molecules by their respective shRNAs provide enhanced protection against Aβ. Taken together, our results elucidate the essential role of Bmf and its co-operative effects with already known neuron death inducers, Bim and Puma, in neuron death evoked by Aβ treatment or NGF deprivation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cylicospirura species (Nematoda: Spirocercidae) and stomach nodules in cougars (Puma concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jayde A; Woodberry, Karen; Gillin, Colin M; Jackson, DeWaine H; Sanders, Justin L; Madigan, Whitney; Bildfell, Robert J; Kent, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    The stomachs and proximal duodena of 160 cougars (Puma concolor) and 17 bobcats (Lynx rufus), obtained throughout Oregon during 7 yr, were examined for Cylicospirura spp. and associated lesions. Prevalence in cougars was 73%, with a range in intensity of 1-562 worms. The mean diameter of nodules was 1.2 cm (SD=0.5), and many extended through the submucosa to the muscularis. About 83% of cougars had nodules; most nodules contained worms, but 14% of the smaller nodules (<0.2 cm) contained porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) quills. A mean of 12.4 worms/nodule (SD=34.1) was observed, with a maximum of 340 worms/nodule. Prevalence in bobcats was 53%, with an intensity of 1-25 worms. About 65% of bobcats had nodules, which were slightly smaller than those in cougars but appeared to involve similar layers of gastrointestinal tissue. One to 25 Cylicospirura sp. were found in all but two small nodules in bobcats. Cougars killed for livestock damage or safety concerns had a significantly higher median worm intensity than did those that died of other causes. Also, the median worm intensity of older cougars was higher than that of younger lions. There were more males than females killed for livestock damage or safety concerns. The cylicospirurid from cougars was Cylicospirura subaequalis, and that of bobcats was Cylicospirura felineus. These two similar species were separated morphologically by differences in tooth and sex organ morphology. They were also differentiated by DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Worm sequences from cougars differed from those from bobcats by 11%, whereas essentially no difference was found among worms from the same host. Phylogenetic analysis showed that within the order Spirurida, both cylicospirurids were most closely related to Spirocerca lupi, based on this gene sequence.

  11. Pride diaries: sex, brain size and sociality in the African lion (Panthera leo) and cougar (Puma concolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsznov, Bradley M; Sakai, Sharleen T

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if differences in social life histories correspond to intraspecific variation in total or regional brain volumes in the African lion (Panthera leo) and cougar (Puma concolor). African lions live in gregarious prides usually consisting of related adult females, their dependent offspring, and a coalition of immigrant males. Upon reaching maturity, male lions enter a nomadic and often, solitary phase in their lives, whereas females are mainly philopatric and highly social throughout their lives. In contrast, the social life history does not differ between male and female cougars; both are solitary. Three-dimensional virtual endocasts were created using computed tomography from the skulls of 14 adult African lions (8 male, 6 female) and 14 cougars (7 male, 7 female). Endocranial volume and basal skull length were highly correlated in African lions (r = 0.59, p < 0.05) and in cougars (r = 0.67, p < 0.01). Analyses of total endocranial volume relative to skull length revealed no sex differences in either African lions or cougars. However, relative anterior cerebrum volume comprised primarily of frontal cortex and surface area was significantly greater in female African lions than males, while relative posterior cerebrum volume and surface area was greater in males than females. These differences were specific to the neocortex and were not found in the solitary cougar, suggesting that social life history is linked to sex-specific neocortical patterns in these species. We further hypothesize that increased frontal cortical volume in female lions is related to the need for greater inhibitory control in the presence of a dominant male aggressor. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Bed site selection by a subordinate predator: an example with the cougar (Puma concolor in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kusler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As technology has improved, our ability to study cryptic animal behavior has increased. Bed site selection is one such example. Among prey species, bed site selection provides thermoregulatory benefits and mitigates predation risk, and may directly influence survival. We conducted research to test whether a subordinate carnivore also selected beds with similar characteristics in an ecosystem supporting a multi-species guild of competing predators. We employed a model comparison approach in which we tested whether cougar (Puma concolor bed site attributes supported the thermoregulatory versus the predator avoidance hypotheses, or exhibited characteristics supporting both hypotheses. Between 2012–2016, we investigated 599 cougar bed sites in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and examined attributes at two scales: the landscape (second-order, n = 599 and the microsite (fourth order, n = 140. At the landscape scale, cougars selected bed sites in winter that supported both the thermoregulatory and predator avoidance hypotheses: bed sites were on steeper slopes but at lower elevations, closer to the forest edge, away from sagebrush and meadow habitat types, and on southern, eastern, and western-facing slopes. In the summer, bed attributes supported the predator avoidance hypothesis over the thermoregulation hypothesis: beds were closer to forest edges, away from sagebrush and meadow habitat classes, and on steeper slopes. At the microsite scale, cougar bed attributes in both the winter and summer supported both the predator avoidance and thermoregulatory hypotheses: they selected bed sites with high canopy cover, high vegetative concealment, and in a rugged habitat class characterized by cliff bands and talus fields. We found that just like prey species, a subordinate predator selected bed sites that facilitated both thermoregulatory and anti-predator functions. In conclusion, we believe that measuring bed site attributes may provide a novel

  13. Teoría de las restricciones (TOC) y la mecánica del Throughput Accounting (TA) Una aproximación a un modelo gerencial para toma de decisiones: caso compañía de Cementos Andino S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    González G., Patricia; Universidad del Valle; Escobar V., John Willmer; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es explicar a los lectores cómo a partir del modelo de decisión propuesto por la TOC y el TA, los gerentes pueden tomar las mejores decisiones orientadas a maximizar las utilidades del negocio. Para el logro del objetivo propuesto se empleó un caso centrado en la compañía Cementos Andino S.A., en el cual se desarrolló la metodología del TA, cuyos resultados fueron confrontados con los obtenidos a partir del costeo variable, de tal forma que los throughput obtenid...

  14. Conflictos por acceso biotecnológico de los recursos genéticos y conocimientos tradicionales en la región andino-amazónica : los casos de patentes de la maca, el yacón y la sangre de drago

    OpenAIRE

    Pohlenz de Tavira, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Este estudio indaga acerca de si la intervención de las actividades biotecnológicas, que aprovecha el conocimiento tradicional, deviene en conflictos socioambientales. De ahí que se revise el por qué ocurren confrontaciones entre las empresas biotecnológicas y las comunidades indígenas. Específicamente, se investigaron tres casos de etnobioprospección en la región andino-amazónica, mediante los cuales se puede entender los modos de operar de la industria biotecnológica, además del sistema de ...

  15. Contesting the Equivalency of Continuous Sedation until Death and Physician-assisted Suicide/Euthanasia: A Commentary on LiPuma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raho, Joseph A; Miccinesi, Guido

    2015-10-01

    Patients who are imminently dying sometimes experience symptoms refractory to traditional palliative interventions, and in rare cases, continuous sedation is offered. Samuel H. LiPuma, in a recent article in this Journal, argues that continuous sedation until death is equivalent to physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia based on a higher brain neocortical definition of death. We contest his position that continuous sedation involves killing and offer four objections to the equivalency thesis. First, sedation practices are proportional in a way that physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia is not. Second, continuous sedation may not entirely abolish consciousness. Third, LiPuma's particular version of higher brain neocortical death relies on an implausibly weak construal of irreversibility--a position that is especially problematic in the case of continuous sedation. Finally, we explain why continuous sedation until death is not functionally equivalent to neocortical death and, hence, physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia. Concluding remarks review the differences between these two end-of-life practices. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Epistatic mutations in PUMA BH3 drive an alternate binding mode to potently and selectively inhibit anti-apoptotic Bfl-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenson, Justin M.; Ryan, Jeremy A.; Grant, Robert A.; Letai, Anthony; Keating, Amy E. (DFCI); (MIT)

    2017-06-08

    Overexpression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins contributes to cancer progression and confers resistance to chemotherapy. Small molecules that target Bcl-2 are used in the clinic to treat leukemia, but tight and selective inhibitors are not available for Bcl-2 paralog Bfl-1. Guided by computational analysis, we designed variants of the native BH3 motif PUMA that are > 150-fold selective for Bfl-1 binding. The designed peptides potently trigger disruption of the mitochondrial outer membrane in cells dependent on Bfl-1, but not in cells dependent on other anti-apoptotic homologs. High-resolution crystal structures show that designed peptide FS2 binds Bfl-1 in a shifted geometry, relative to PUMA and other binding partners, due to a set of epistatic mutations. FS2 modified with an electrophile reacts with a cysteine near the peptide-binding groove to augment specificity. Designed Bfl-1 binders provide reagents for cellular profiling and leads for developing enhanced and cell-permeable peptide or small-molecule inhibitors.

  17. Indígenas andinos en Chile Colonial: Inmigración, inserción espacial, integración económica y movilidad social (Santiago, Siglos XVI-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela Márquez, Jaime

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with the 16th century conquering expeditions, many Andean natives who served the Spaniards arrived in Chile, where they settled in and integrated in the work and social areas of this outlying «New World»; they formed local networks and relationships, had offspring; a number of them became artisans and some drafted wills or left their mark in ecclesiastical or notarized documents that provide us with an idea of their mobility and local integration. This work offers a background and reveals the principle hubs of a process resembling a medullar structure, in order to understand how the early Chilean colonial society was made up. At the same time, it provides insights into the phenomena of movement, uprooting and settlement of the indigenous population in the southern Peruvian viceroyalty.

    Desde las expediciones de conquista del siglo XVI llegaron a Chile numerosos indígenas andinos que sirvieron a los españoles, se asentaron y se integraron en los espacios laborales y sociales de este «nuevo mundo» periférico; formaron redes y parentescos locales, tuvieron descendencia, varios se transformaron en artesanos y algunos dictaron testamentos o dejaron huellas en documentos eclesiásticos y notariales que nos permiten observar su movilidad e inserción local. Este trabajo aporta antecedentes y desvela los principales ejes de un proceso que aparece como medular para entender la formación de la sociedad colonial chilena temprana y, a la vez, para dar cuenta de fenómenos de circulación, desarraigo y asentamiento de población indígena en el virreinato peruano meridional.

  18. Variation in the ITS-1 and ITS-2 rRNA genomic regions of Cytauxzoon felis from bobcats and pumas in the eastern United States and comparison with sequences from domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Barbara C; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Patton, Laura L; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; Beringer, Jeff; Grove, Daniel M; Peek, Matt; Butfiloski, Joseph W; Hughes, Daymond W; Lockhart, J Mitchell; Cunningham, Mark W; Brown, Holly M; Peterson, David S; Yabsley, Michael J

    2012-11-23

    Cytauxzoon felis, a tick-borne protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats in the United States. The natural reservoir for this parasite is the bobcat (Lynx rufus), which typically does not develop clinical signs. Although not likely important reservoirs, C. felis has also been detected in pumas (Puma concolor) in Florida and Louisiana. Recent studies suggest that specific genotypes of C. felis that circulate in domestic cats may be associated with variable clinical outcomes and specific spatial locations. In the current study, we investigated the intraspecific variation of the C. felis internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 and ITS-2 rRNA regions from 145 wild felids (139 bobcats and six pumas) from 11 states (Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, South Carolina, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania). Unambiguous ITS-1 and ITS-2 data were obtained for 144 and 112 samples, respectively, and both ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences were obtained for 111 (77%) samples. For the ITS-1 region, sequences from 65 samples collected from wild felids were identical to those previously reported in domestic cats, while the other 79 sequences were unique. C. felis from 45 bobcats and one puma had ITS-1 sequences identical to the most common sequence reported from domestic cats. Within the ITS-2 region, sequences from 49 bobcats were identical to those previously reported in domestic cats and 63 sequences were unique (with some occurring in more than one bobcat). The most common ITS-2 sequence from domestic cats was also common in wild felids (31 bobcats and a puma). Samples from three pumas from Florida and two bobcats from Missouri had a 40- or 41-bp insert in the ITS-2 similar to one described previously in a domestic cat from Arkansas. Additionally, a previously undescribed 198- or 199-bp insert was detected in the ITS-2 sequence from four bobcats. Collectively, based on combined ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences, five

  19. Comparison between a finite difference model (PUMA) and a finite element model (DELFIN) for simulation of the reactor of the atomic power plant of Atucha I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    The reactor code PUMA, developed in CNEA, simulates nuclear reactors discretizing space in finite difference elements. Core representation is performed by means a cylindrical mesh, but the reactor channels are arranged in an hexagonal lattice. That is why a mapping using volume intersections must be used. This spatial treatment is the reason of an overestimation of the control rod reactivity values, which must be adjusted modifying the incremental cross sections. Also, a not very good treatment of the continuity conditions between core and reflector leads to an overestimation of channel power of the peripherical fuel elements between 5 to 8 per cent. Another code, DELFIN, developed also in CNEA, treats the spatial discretization using heterogeneous finite elements, allowing a correct treatment of the continuity of fluxes and current among elements and a more realistic representation of the hexagonal lattice of the reactor. A comparison between results obtained using both methods in done in this paper. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  20. Both p53-PUMA/NOXA-Bax-mitochondrion and p53-p21cip1 pathways are involved in the CDglyTK-mediated tumor cell suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Zhendong; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Libin; Tang, Aifa; Zhai, Qinna; Wen, Jianxiang; Yao, Li; Li, Pengfei

    2009-01-01

    CDglyTK fusion suicide gene has been well characterized to effectively kill tumor cells. However, the exact mechanism and downstream target genes are not fully understood. In our study, we found that CDglyTK/prodrug treatment works more efficiently in p53 wild-type (HONE1) cells than in p53 mutant (CNE1) cells. We then used adenovirus-mediated gene delivery system to either knockdown or overexpress p53 and its target genes in these cells. Consistent results showed that both p53-PUMA/NOXA/Bcl2-Bax and p53-p21 pathways contribute to the CDglyTK induced tumor cell suppression. Our work for the first time addressed the role of p53 related genes in the CDglyTK/prodrug system.

  1. Chemical immobilization of captive Cougars Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771 (Carnivora: Felidae using a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam, ketamine and xylazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Lescano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Handling of large felids is highly risky, hence immobilization is required for the safety of personnel.  Data on the effects of anesthetic drugs used for immobilizing Cougars Puma concolor are scarce. This study describes the anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (2mg/kg, ketamine (1.6mg/kg and xylazine (0.4mg/kg in pumas. Five captive adult and clinically healthy Cougars were included in this study.  Animals were immobilized by remote injection using blow pipe and darts.  The durations of induction, immobilization and recovery periods and their qualities were recorded.  Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature and blood pressure were recorded at five minute intervals for 25 minutes.  Then all animals received 0.125mg/kg of yohimbine, intramuscularly administered.  Central tendency and dispersal statistics were calculated for each parameter.  The duration of the induction period was 10.4±6.4 minutes and the duration of the recovery period was 83.3±35.1 minutes. Induction, immobilization and recovery periods were smooth and adequate anesthetic depth was achieved.  The mean heart rate was 122±10 beats/minute, mean respiratory rate was 10±1 breaths/minute, mean body temperature was 39.1±0.2 0C and mean blood pressure was 139±12 mmHg.  No statistically significant difference (p>0.05 was observed in vital parameters over the duration of the assessment.  The tested anesthetic combination effectively immobilized the cougars included in this study and provided safety for the personnel involved.  Though vital signs were not significantly affected, a degree of hypoventilation was observed and respiratory support is recommended when using this anesthetic combination in cougars. 

  2. Ecological niche models and patterns of richness and endemism of the southern Andean genus Eurymetopum (Coleoptera, Cleridae Modelos de nicho ecológico y patrones de riqueza y endemismo del género andino austral Eurymetopum (Coleoptera, Cleridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Escalante

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eurymetopum is an Andean clerid genus with 22 species. We modeled the ecological niches of 19 species with Maxent and used them as potential distributional maps to identify patterns of richness and endemicity. All modeled species maps were overlapped in a single map in order to determine richness. We performed an optimality analysis with NDM/VNDM in a grid of 1º latitude-longitude in order to identify endemism. We found a highly rich area, located between 32º and 41º south latitude, where the richest pixels have 16 species. One area of endemism was identified, located in the Maule and Valdivian Forest biogeographic provinces, which extends also to the Santiago province of the Central Chilean subregion, and contains four endemic species (E. parallelum, E. prasinum, E. proteus, and E. viride, as well as 16 non-endemic species. The sympatry of these phylogenetically unrelated species might indicate ancient vicariance processes, followed by episodes of dispersal. Based on our results, we suggest a close relationship between these provinces, with the Maule representing a complex area.Eurymetopum es un género de cléridos andinos con 22 especies. Modelamos los nichos ecológicos de 19 especies con Maxent y los utilizamos como mapas de distribución potencial para identificar patrones de riqueza y endemismo. Todos los mapas de las especies se superpusieron en un mapa único para determinar la riqueza. Realizamos un análisis de optimalidad con NDM/VNDM en una cuadrícula de 1º de latitud-longitud para identificar el endemismo. Hallamos un área de mayor riqueza, localizada entre los 32º y 41º de latitud sur, donde los pixeles más ricos poseen 16 especies. Se identificó un área de endemismo en las provincias biogeográficas del Maule y el Bosque Valdiviano, la cual se extiende también a la provincia de Santiago de la subregión Chilena Central, y que contiene cuatro especies endémicas (E. parallelum, E. prasinum, E. proteus y E. viride, as

  3. Reflexiones etnográficas sobre la «ciudadanía transnacional». Prácticas políticas de andinos en el sur de Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez Navaz, Liliana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores from an ethnographic perspective the political practices of migrants in a transnational public sphere, based in a study case of Andean Ecuadorians in Spain. It emphasizes the connections between the impact of immigrants settling in Madrid and their efforts to maintain a socioeconomic and political presence in their community of origin, looking at the way new practices of transnational citizenship are established in current neoliberal age. It proposes the category of transnational social fields in the bourdieuan sense to scrutinize how territory, identity and residence are redefined to build up a new cartography of inclusion and exclusion from citizenship rights and duties across national frontiers. It offers some empirical findings to illustrate the way new structures of sociocultural stratification are built both in the origin and destiny countries through these new transnational political practices. These insights are contextualized within some key theoretical debates around the new proposals of transnational citizenship.

    Este trabajo explora desde una perspectiva etnográfica las prácticas políticas de migrantes en una esfera pública transnacional, en base a un estudio de caso de ecuatorianos andinos en España. Enfatiza las interconexiones que se producen entre el impacto del asentamiento de los inmigrantes en Madrid y sus esfuerzos por mantener una presencia socioeconómica y política activa en su comunidad de origen, analizando el modo en el que las nuevas prácticas de ciudadanía transnacional se configuran en la actual era neoliberal. Se propone la categoría de campo migratorio transnacional en el sentido bourdieuano para profundizar cómo el territorio, la identidad y la residencia se redefinen en una nueva cartografía de inclusión y exclusión de los derechos y deberes de ciudadanía a través de las fronteras. Se ofrecen algunos resultados empíricos que ilustran las nuevas estructuras de

  4. Estructura comunitaria de diatomeas presentes en los sedimentos superficiales de ocho lagos andinos de Chile central Diatoms community structure in superficial sediments of eight Andean lakes of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INGRID E ALVIAL

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizó la estructura comunitaria de diatomeas depositadas en los sedimentos superficiales de ocho lagos andinos chilenos ubicados entre los 32°49' y 38°48' S. Se encontró un total de 99 taxa de diatomeas, distribuidos en 48 géneros. Del total de taxa, 74 fueron identificados a nivel de especie siendo todos ellos cosmopolitas a excepción de Eunotia andinofrequens, Gomphonema punae, Pinnularia araucanensis y Pinnularia acidicola, entre otras, que están descritos solo para el Hemisferio Sur. Por otro lado, las muestras analizadas presentaron distinta composición florística de diatomeas. De esta manera, en los ensambles diatomológicos depositados en los sedimentos de las lagunas de altura Ocho, Huifa, Ensueño y Negra ubicadas sobre los 2.860 m del nivel del mar, abundaron especies bentónicas, típicas de aguas oligotróficas y acidas como Achnanthidium exiguum, Achnanthidium minutissimum, Encyonema minutum, Pinnularia acidicola y Planothidium lanceolatum. En los ensambles diatomológicos de los lagos Galletué, Icalma y Laja, ubicados bajo los 1.360 m del nivel del mar, abundaron diatomeas planctónicas, características de aguas alcalinas y mesotróficas como Asterionella formosa, Aulacoseira distans, Aulacoseira granulata, Cyclotella stelligera y Rhopalodia gibbaIn this research the taxonomic structure of diatoms in sediments of high mountain lakes was studied. These lakes are located in Chile between 32°49' and 38°48' S in the Andean Cordillera. A total of 99 diatom taxa distributed in 48 genera were identified and all this taxa are cosmopolitan excepting a Eunotia andinofrequens, Gomphonema punae, Pinnularia araucanensis and Pinnularia acidicola, which are know only for the Southern Hemisphere. The assemblages of diatoms were different in the studied lakes. So the high mountain lakes Ocho, Huifa, Ensueño and Negra, dominated benthic diatoms which are typical of oligotrophic and acid waters as Achnanthidium

  5. PUMA TİPİ ROBOT İLE İNSAN KOLU HAREKETLERİNİN KARŞILAŞTIRILMASI; ALTERNATİF BİR ROBOT KOL OMUZ TASARIMI

    OpenAIRE

    BOZDEMİR, Mustafa; ADIGÜZEL, Esat

    1999-01-01

    Robot kollarının insan gücü yerine kullanımı, son yıllarda giderek yaygınlaşmaktadır. Kullanım alanının genişlemesi, robot kolunun hareket yeteneğinin gelişimine paraleldir. Bu çalışmada robot kollarının gelişmiş bir sistemi olan PUMA Robot Kol Sistemi insan kolu ile hareket açısından karşılaştırıldı. PUMA Robot Kol Sistemi'ne, insan omuz eklemine benzer hareketler yapabilmesi için yeni bir mafsal eklendi. Bu sayede, ön ve arkaya hareket edebilmesinin yanı sıra, yana doğru açılma hareket...

  6. Sevoflurane post-conditioning protects primary rat cortical neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/resuscitation via down-regulation in mitochondrial apoptosis axis of Bid, Bim, Puma-Bax and Bak mediated by Erk1/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Min; Zhao, Xiao-Chun; Sun, Wen-Bo; Li, Rui; Jiang, Xiao-Jing

    2015-10-15

    Temporal post-conditioning helps provide neuroprotection against brain injury secondary to ischemia-reperfusion and is considered an effective intervention, but the exact mechanism of sevoflurane post-conditioning is unclear. The essential axis involves activator Bid, Bim, Puma (BH3s), Bax, and Bak; activates the mitochondrial death program; and might be involved in a cell death signal. Extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) play a pivotal role in cell growth and proliferation. We hypothesized that sevoflurane post-conditioning might inhibit Bid, Bim, Puma, Bax, and Bak expression and is activated by phosphor-Erk1/2 to decrease neuronal death. To test this hypothesis, we exposed primary cortical neuron cultures to oxygen-glucose deprivation for 1h, along with resuscitation for 24h (OGD/R). MTT assays, propidium iodide uptake (PI), JC-1 fluorescence, and Western blot indicated the following: decreased cell viability (PPuma, Bax, and Bak expression with OGD/R exposure. Inhibition of Erk1/2 phosphorylation could attenuate sevoflurane post-conditioning that mediated an increase in neuronal viability and mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as a decrease in cell death and Bid, Bim, Puma, Bax, and Bak expression after OGD/R treatment. The results demonstrated that sevoflurane post-conditioning caused a marked decrease in cortical neuronal death secondary to OGD/R exposure through the downregulation of the mitochondrial apoptosis axis involving Bid, Bim, Puma, Bax, and Bak that was mediated by the phosphorylation/activation of Erk1/2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Komercnoslēpuma aizsardzība un tā ietekme uz personas tiesībām iegūt informāciju

    OpenAIRE

    Rudziša, Agita

    2018-01-01

    Eiropas Savienības dalībvalstu atšķirīgais normatīvais regulējums komercnoslēpuma aizsardzībā un 2016. gadā pieņemtā Komercnoslēpuma aizsardzības dirketīva ir raisījusi plašas diskusijas šo tiesību ietekmē uz sabiedrības tiesībāms uz informāciju. Tādēļ darbā tiek izpētīts un izanalizēts tiesību uz informāciju nozīmīgumus demokrātiskā sabiedrībā, nonākot līdz šo tiesību būtības un piemērošanas jomu noskaidrošanai. Tāpat tiek vērtēta un analizēta komercnoslēpuma aizsardzības būtība un tvērums. ...

  8. Validation of updated neutronic calculation models proposed for Atucha-II PHWR. Part II: Benchmark comparisons of PUMA core parameters with MCNP5 and improvements due to a simple cell heterogeneity correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, C.; Mollerach, R.; Leszczynski, F.; Serra, O.; Marconi, J.; Fink, J.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 the Argentine Government took the decision to complete the construction of the Atucha-II nuclear power plant, which has been progressing slowly during the last ten years. Atucha-II is a 745 MWe nuclear station moderated and cooled with heavy water, of German (Siemens) design located in Argentina. It has a pressure vessel design with 451 vertical coolant channels and the fuel assemblies (FA) are clusters of 37 natural UO 2 rods with an active length of 530 cm. For the reactor physics area, a revision and update of reactor physics calculation methods and models was recently carried out covering cell, supercell (control rod) and core calculations. This paper presents benchmark comparisons of core parameters of a slightly idealized model of the Atucha-I core obtained with the PUMA reactor code with MCNP5. The Atucha-I core was selected because it is smaller, similar from a neutronic point of view, more symmetric than Atucha-II, and has some experimental data available. To validate the new models benchmark comparisons of k-effective, channel power and axial power distributions obtained with PUMA and MCNP5 have been performed. In addition, a simple cell heterogeneity correction recently introduced in PUMA is presented, which improves significantly the agreement of calculated channel powers with MCNP5. To complete the validation, the calculation of some of the critical configurations of the Atucha-I reactor measured during the experiments performed at first criticality is also presented. (authors)

  9. Distribución espacio-temporal de larvas de Chironomidae (Diptera en un arroyo andino (Uspallata, Mendoza, Argentina Spatial and temporal distribution of larvae of Chironomidae (Diptera in an Andean stream (Uspallata, Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica E. Scheibler

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio sobre la composición larval de la familia Chironomidae en un arroyo andino en la localidad de Uspallata (Mendoza, Argentina. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales durante un ciclo anual completo (2001/2002 en tres sitios, siguiendo un gradiente altitudinal. Se midieron variables físico-químicas en campo y laboratorio. La relación entre presencia y abundancia de quironómidos y parámetros ambientales se exploró mediante un análisis de Correspondencia Canónica. Se identificaron siete géneros pertenecientes a cuatro subfamilias: Chironominae, Orthocladiinae, Podonominae y Tanypodinae. Orthocladiinae fue la subfamilia que tuvo mayor riqueza genérica (Cricotopus van der Wulp, Onconeura Andersen & Saether y Parametriocnemus Goetghebuer, densidad y frecuencia de aparición a nivel estacional y espacial. Podonominae (Podonomus Philippi y Podonomopsis Brundin se halló únicamente en SA mientras que Chironominae (Polypedilum Kieffer estuvo presente en UD. Tanypodinae (Pentaneura Philippi se encontró en los tres sitios de muestreo aunque con una densidad menor. Se detectó incremento de la conductividad y temperatura del agua, y disminución del tamaño del sustrato desde SA a UD, lo que coincide con la desaparición de Podonomus y Podonomopsis y la aparición de Polypedilum hacia UD. De este estudio se concluye que el sistema presenta baja riqueza genérica comparada con otros sistemas montañosos de Argentina.A study was conducted on the larval composition of the family Chironomidae in an Andean stream in Uspallata locality (Mendoza, Argentina. Seasonal samplings were performed over a full annual cycle (2001/2002 at three sites, along an altitudinal gradient. Physical and chemical variables were measured in both the field and the laboratory. Relationship between presence and abundance of chironomids and environmental parameters was explored using a Canonical Correspondence analysis. Seven genera were identified

  10. Desarrollo andino: sustentable y con identidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Guerrero Jiménez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El concepto del desarrollo ocupa buena parte de la agenda de los Estados y los gobiernos en América Latina. Sin embargo, esta idea esconde algunos supuestos que en este artículo discutimos. El desarrollo y su vinculación a la identidad cultural, al territorio, contraviene la idea hegemónica que anima a este concepto nacido en Occidente. Analizamos el itinerario en América Latina y lo ubicamos en el Norte Grande de Chile, enfatizando las ideas centrales desde los años sesenta adelante del siglo XX. Finalizamos argumentando a favor del llamado posdesarrollo.

  11. Pintuco se internacionaliza en el mercado andino.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Ramírez R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La historia de la internacionalización de Pintuco está presentada en este trabajo. Es importante resaltar la valiosa información sobre el mercado mundial de pinturas lo cual despierta el interés del lector al mostrar el tamaño del mercado y la importancia económica del mismo. De igual forma, la introducción es muy expedita al señalar cuál es la tendencia de dicho mercado, pues con esto se puede hacer una idea de hacia dónde deberá ir Pintuco y cuáles serán sus principales retos a superar. Luego de dar un vistazo general de lo que son las pinturas y su impacto económico, el artículo continúa con la historia del Grupo Inversiones Mundial (GIM, ente económico que ha triunfado gracias a la tenacidad de sus directivos desde 1921. La estrategia utilizada por la empresa colombiana es explicada a través de los ejemplos de cómo empezó y se desarrolló en Venezuela y Ecuador, principalmente. Y es en esto, en lo que precisamente radica lo más importante del trabajo pues sirve como motivación y como ejemplo a seguir. Las empresas colombianas como Pintuco han entendido que una de las formas de amoldarse a las nuevas tendencias del mundo empresarial es la de competir con calidad, pero no sólo en su propio mercado, sino también en el mercado de origen de su competencia. Hoy en día las fronteras son cada vez más invisibles y eso, más que una amenaza, debería ser un atractivo.

  12. "A carne mais barata do mercado é a carne negra: uma reflexão sobre o "design" das camisas da Puma na Copa do Mundo de Futebol/2010 "The cheapest flesh in the market is the black one": body, soccer and advertising Puma uniforms in the 2010 soccer world cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Andrade de Melo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A Puma, uma empresa de material esportivo, desde meados da primeira década do século XXI tem constantemente utilizado jogadores negros em suas campanhas publicitárias, parte de uma estratégia de busca de aproximação com o continente africano. À beira da falência no início dos anos 90, a empresa conseguiu se reposicionar no mercado unindo o esporte à moda, investindo em produtos de "design" arrojado. Uma de suas iniciativas foi buscar inspiração no "caráter exótico" das nações africanas para produzir peças que possam ser utilizadas em situações cotidianas, não só para a prática de esportes. Como o corpo do negro africano tem sido representado em suas estratégias publicitárias? Esse estudo teve por objetivo analisar um ponto específico da publicidade da Puma por ocasião da Copa do Mundo de Futebol de 2010, realizada na África do Sul: o "design" das camisas fornecidas a três seleções africanas - Camarões, Costa do Marfim e Gana. Para alcance do objetivo, entabulamos uma comparação com os modelos das camisas fornecidas pela empresa a outros selecionados (Suíça, Uruguai e Itália, prospectando o quanto suas ações publicitárias reforçam ou não certos estereótipos comumente observados quando se utilizam negros em campanhas de publicidade.Puma, a company of sport gears, has been inserting black soccer players in its advertising campaigns as a strategy to get closer to the African continent. Near to bankruptcy at the 90' beginning, the company has succeeded in bringing to the market products with more daring design, linking fashion and sports. One of its latest initiatives was to seek inspiration in the exotic profile of African people to produce pieces that can be used in all occasions not only for sports. How African's bodies have been exposed in its adverting campaigns? The objective of this study was to analyze an specific issue related to some strategies adopted in Puma advertising campaigns launched during

  13. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF APPENDICULAR LONG-BONE FRACTURES IN FREE-RANGING FLORIDA PANTHERS ( PUMA CONCOLOR CORYI): SIX CASES (2000-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au Yong, Jo Anne; Lewis, Daniel D; Citino, Scott B; Cunningham, Mark W; Cross, Alan R; Farese, James P; Pablo, Luisito S

    2018-03-01

    The clinical outcomes of six free-ranging Florida panthers ( Puma concolor coryi) that underwent surgical stabilization of appendicular long-bone fractures (three femoral fractures, one tibial and one tibial and fibular fracture and two radial and ulnar fractures) were evaluated. These panthers presented to the University of Florida from 2000-2014. Estimated age of the panthers ranged from 0.5 to 4.5 yr, and weights ranged from 22 to 65 kg. Causes of injuries were vehicular collision ( n = 4) and capture related ( n = 2). All panthers underwent open reduction and fracture stabilization. Fixation failure necessitated three subsequent surgeries in one panther. Five panthers survived the immediate postoperative period, and all of these panthers' fractures obtained radiographic union (range, 8-36 [mean, 22] wk). The five surviving panthers underwent convalescence for 7-14 mo at White Oak Conservation Center before being released back into the wild; however, one panther was killed when hit by a car 3 days after release. The remaining four panthers were tracked for up to 106 mo in the wild and successfully integrated back into the native population. Surgical stabilization of appendicular long-bone fractures in free-ranging Florida panthers can be successful, but must take into account the stress that a large, undomesticated felid will place on the stabilized limb during convalescence as well as the difficulties involved in rehabilitating a wild panther in captivity.

  14. Anti-tumour activity of a novel coumarin-chalcone hybrid is mediated through intrinsic apoptotic pathway by inducing PUMA and altering Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neetu; Sarkar, Jayanta; Sashidhara, Koneni V; Ali, Shakir; Sinha, Sudhir

    2014-06-01

    Coumarins and chalcones are secondary plant metabolites which have shown an array of pharmacological properties including anti-tumour activity. We have previously reported on the synthesis and anti-proliferative activity of a series of novel coumarin-chalcone hybrids. Now we report on the in vivo efficacy as well as mechanism of action of the most potent molecule of the series, S009-131. Oral administration of this molecule resulted in regression of tumours induced by HeLa cell xenografts in nod SCID mice. The molecule inhibited proliferation of cervical cancer cells (HeLa and C33A) by inducing apoptosis and arresting cell cycle at G2/M phase. Apoptosis was induced through induction of caspase-dependent intrinsic pathway and alterations in the cellular levels of Bcl-2 family proteins. The mitochondrial transmembrane potential got highly depleted in S009-131 treated cells due to an increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and intracellular ROS. The molecule induced release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and activation of initiator caspase-9 and executioner caspases-3/7. Tumour suppressor protein p53 and its transcriptional target PUMA were up regulated, suggesting their role in mediating the cell death. These results suggest that S009-131 is a potent candidate for the chemotherapy of cervical carcinoma.

  15. Huéspedes definitivos de Spirometra mansonoides (Cestoda, Diphyllobothriidae en el Perú

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    Manuel Tantaleán

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio parasitológico en el zoológico Parque de Las Leyendas, Lima, Perú en el año de 1993. Se recolectaron 49 muestras de heces de carnívoros pertenecientes a cinco familias: Canidae, Ursidae, Procyonidae, Mustelidae y Felidae, éstas fueron procesadas usando métodos rutinarios para la búsqueda de huevos de helmintos. En las heces de tres especies de la familia Felidae, Puma concolor (puma andino y puma de la selva, Panthera onca (otorongo y Leopardus pardalis (tigrillo se identificaron huevos de Spirometra mansonoides.

  16. Sensitivity of winter phytoplankton communities from Andean lakes to artificial ultraviolet-B radiation Sensibilidad de comunidades fitoplanctónicas invernales de lagos andinos a la radiación ultravioleta-B artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. WALTER HELBLING

    2001-06-01

    Andinos con el objetivo de determinar la sensibilidad de comunidades fitoplanctónicas invernales a la radiación ultravioleta-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm. Los lagos estudiados, Moreno, El Trébol, Nahuel Huapi, Gutiérrez y Morenito, están ubicados la región Patagónica (41° S, 71° W, 800 m de altitud y tienen coeficientes de atenuación variables entre 0,36 m-1 (Lago Moreno y 2,8 m-1 (Lago Morenito. Las muestras se inocularon con carbono marcado (NaH14CO3 y se incubaron en una cámara iluminada (UV-B = 0,35 W m-2, UV-A [320-400 nm] = 1,1 W m-2, y PAR [400-700 nm] = 10,8 W m-2 a 10° C. El fitoplancton se expuso a PAR (radiación fotosintéticamente activa + radiación UV (tubos de cuarzo, y a PAR + UV-A (tubos de cuarzo recubiertos con Mylar-D. La duración total de los experimentos fue de 4 h y se retiraron dos muestras de cada tratamiento cada 1 h. En los Lagos Moreno, El Trébol, Nahuel Huapi y Gutiérrez la inhibición fotosintética aumentó en forma linear con la dosis de UV-B, mientras que en el Lago Morenito esta relación fue débil. Después de recibir una dosis de 1,25 kJ m-2 (UV-B, el fitoplancton del Lago Morenito tuvo la mayor inhibición fotosintética acumulada (44 %, mientras que en los Lagos Moreno, Trébol, Nahuel Huapi y Gutiérrez la inhibición fue de 22, 11, 5 y 1 %, respectivamente. Sin embargo, al final de la incubación, y luego de recibir una dosis de 5 kJ m-2, el fitoplancton más inhibido fue aquel del Lago Moreno (70 %, y el más resistente aquel del Lago Gutiérrez (27 %. La cinética de inhibición fue distinta para cada lago, registrándose una mayor velocidad en los lagos más transparentes y con mayor proporción de células grandes. Los resultados sugieren que, ante un aumento de UV-B (e.g., producto de una disminución de ozono estratosférico, el microplancton de lagos más claros será el más afectado mientras que el pico- y nanoplancton de lagos menos transparentes será el más resistente

  17. Qualidade de ambiente para a onça-pintada, puma e jaguatirica na Baía de Guaratuba, Estado do Paraná, utilizando os aplicativos Capture e Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mazzolli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n2p105 Duas expedições de um mês cada foram conduzidas à Baía de Guaratuba, na Floresta Atlântica do sul do Brasil, em 2006. Parâmetros calculados a partir de amostragem de vestígios e armadilhas-fotográficas foram riqueza de espécies de mamíferos (1kg e proporção de área ocupada(PAO por onça-pintada, puma, e oportunisticamente, por jaguatirica. Oito qua- drantes de 4km2 foram amostrados, em uma área de 130km2, resultando em uma estimativa de 14 espécies de mamíferos (CI(Nˆ=14 a 14, CAPTURE. PAO resultou em 25% para puma, e 100% tanto para a onça-pintada como para a jaguatirica. Argumenta-se que o esperado seria uma probabilidade de captura da onça-pintada similar a do puma, já que ambos deixam sinais em trilhas abertas quando presentes. O resultado de PAO para a onça-pintada é, portanto, considerado um artefato derivado de uma baixa fi delidade espacial e/ou baixa densidade, mais do que um produto da baixa detectabilidade da espécie. Esta conjectura é substanciada pela reduzida presença de importantes espécies-presa.Os resultados não diminuem a importância da área para a conservação da onça-pintada, ao invés disto, estas observações objetivamente identificam a necessidade de restabelecimento de populações de espécies-presa na área.

  18. Concurrent acetylation of FoxO1/3a and p53 due to sirtuins inhibition elicit Bim/PUMA mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in berberine-treated HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Shatrunajay; Sharma, Ankita; Pandey, Vivek Kumar; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Kakkar, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Post-translational modifications i.e. phosphorylation and acetylation are pivotal requirements for proper functioning of eukaryotic proteins. The current study aimed to decode the impact of acetylation/deacetylation of non-histone targets i.e. FoxO1/3a and p53 of sirtuins (NAD + dependent enzymes with lysine deacetylase activity) in berberine treated human hepatoma cells. Berberine (100 μM) inhibited sirtuins significantly (P < 0.05) at transcriptional level as well as at translational level. Combination of nicotinamide (sirtuin inhibitor) with berberine potentiated sirtuins inhibition and increased the expression of FoxO1/3a and phosphorylation of p53 tumor suppressor protein. As sirtuins deacetylate non-histone targets including FoxO1/3a and p53, berberine increased the acetylation load of FoxO1/3a and p53 proteins. Acetylated FoxO and p53 proteins transcriptionally activate BH3-only proteins Bim and PUMA (3.89 and 3.87 fold respectively, P<0.001), which are known as direct activator of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bax that culminated into mitochondria mediated activation of apoptotic cascade. Bim/PUMA knock-down showed no changes in sirtuins' expression while cytotoxicity induced by berberine and nicotinamide was curtailed up to 28.3% (P < 0.001) and it restored pro/anti apoptotic protein ratio in HepG2 cells. Sirtuins inhibition was accompanied by decline in NAD + /NADH ratio, ATP generation, enhanced ROS production and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. TEM analysis confirmed mitochondrial deterioration and cell damage. SRT-1720 (1–10 μM), a SIRT-1 activator, when pre-treated with berberine (25 μM), reversed sirtuins expression comparable to control and significantly restored the cell viability (P < 0.05). Thus, our findings suggest that berberine mediated sirtuins inhibition resulting into FoxO1/3a and p53 acetylation followed by BH3-only protein Bim/PUMA activation may in part be responsible for mitochondria-mediated apoptosis

  19. Músicas, movimientos, colores en la fiesta andina: ejemplos bolivianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En la fiesta andina, la música suele tanto oírse como verse. Esta dimensión multisensorial de la situación musical no es únicamente el resultado de una yuxtaposición de elementos sonoros y visuales. El análisis de las articulaciones que los campesinos indígenas de la zona de sucre (Bolivia construyen entre sonidos, movimientos y colores revela la presencia de organizaciones singulares de la experiencia sensible que se caracterizan tanto por su espesor sensorial como por la manera en la cual se encuentran conectadas con otros campos del conocimiento. Estas formas de intersección culturalmente elaboradas implican el cuerpo mismo de los músicos, generando nuevas configuraciones perceptivas.

  20. Evidencias fotográfica, biológica y genética de la presencia actual de jaguaroundi (Puma yagouaroundi en Michoacán, México Photographic, biological and genetic evidences of the presence of jaguaroundi (Puma yagouaroundi at the moment in Michoacán, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberio C. Monterrubio-Rico

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El jaguaroundi, a pesar de su amplia distribución neotropical, es uno de los felinos menos estudiados del continente y se carece de estudios genéticos sobre la especie. Para el estado de Michoacán ha existido la sospecha de su presencia y no obstante que sólo se tenía un registro del año 1970, los mapas de distribución de la especie en México incluyen al estado. Combinando métodos de campo (trampas cámara, recolección de campo, transectos y genotipificación molecular, obtuvimos evidencia fotográfica, biológica y genética que confirma la presencia actual de jaguaroundi (Puma yagouaroundi en 3 regiones del estado de Michoacán, México. Se obtuvieron 11 registros fotográficos en 7 localidades con bosque tropical y 7 de estos registros, revelaron que la especie está activa principalmente por la tarde, que existen 2 fases de pelaje, predominando la fase clara y que se reproduce en el estado. Con base en las distancias e independencia entre registros de los municipios de Arteaga y Lázaro Cárdenas, se plantea la hipótesis de que la distribución continúa a lo largo de la sierra Madre del Sur y la costa del Pacífico de Michoacán, aunque se desconoce si hay conectividad hacia la depresión del Balsas. Se obtuvieron 2 secuencias de 1089 y 1096 pb del gen de citocromo b que actualmente son las más largas que se han obtenido para la especie en México y el norte del continente. Las secuencias indican que hay 2 haplotipos distintos. La presencia de la especie en 3 regiones y los 2 haplotipos permiten suponer que en Michoacán puede contar con importante diversidad genética, aunque hace falta ampliar el tamaño de muestra para confirmarlo. Las secuencias obtenidas permitirán la comparación con individuos de otras regiones del país para conocer mejor la variabilidad genética en la especie y auxiliarán en la identificación de poblaciones para conservación.The jaguaroundi is one of the least studied felids on the American

  1. Evaluación de la eficiencia fotosintética del fitoplancton en un lago amazónico (Lago Boa y en un lago andino (Lago Guatavita Evaluation of the phytoplanktonic photosynthetic efficiency in an Amazon Lake (Lake Boa and in an Andean Lake (Lake Guatavita

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    Gabriel A. Pinilla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La relación entre la fluorescencia variable y la fluorescencia máxima (Fv/Fm de las comunidades de algas se ha utilizado comúnmente como una medida de la eficiencia fotosintética del fitoplancton. Dicha eficiencia puede estar afectada por la localización de los ambientes acuáticos en distintas provincias limnológicas. En este trabajo se quiso establecer la diferencia en la relación Fv/Fm entre el lago Boa (150 msnm, Amazonía colombiana y el lago Guatavita (3000 msnm, cordillera oriental de los Andes colombianos. Los promedios de las eficiencias medidas fueron en general bajos (0,212 a 0,367 y 0,089 a 0,32 en los lagos Boa y Guatavita, respectivamente, lo que señala estrés fisiológico para las algas. La eficiencia fue mayor en aguas intermedias y presentó cambios fuertes entre épocas de muestreo y entre ecosistemas. En aguas superficiales se presentó fotoinhibición, la cual fue más fuerte en Guatavita. La eficiencia fotosintética fue menor en el lago andino debido posiblemente a diferencias climáticas, de altura sobre el nivel del mar y de estratificación. Durante los ensayos de laboratorio se observó que la eficiencia disminuyó con el tiempo, lo cual pudo deberse a una aclimatación de las algas a la oscuridad. Los datos de laboratorio confirmaron que el fitoplancton epilimnético del lago Guatavita estuvo fotoinhibido en la época de estratificación.Commonly relation between variable fluorescence and maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm of the algae community has been utilized like a measure of the phytoplanktonic photosynthetic efficiency. Such efficiency can be affected by the water bodies' location in different limnological provinces. The goal of this work was to establish the differences in the Fv/Fm rate between Lake Boa (150 masl Colombian Amazon and Lake Guatavita (3000 masl, East Range in the Colombian Andes. In general, averages of the photosynthetic efficiencies were low (0.212 to 0.367 and 0.089 to 0.32 in lakes Boa and

  2. A Pre-microRNA-149 (miR-149) Genetic Variation Affects miR-149 Maturation and Its Ability to Regulate the Puma Protein in Apoptosis*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Su-Ling; Wang, Jian-Xun; Jiao, Jian-Qin; Tu, Xin; Wang, Qing; Liu, Fang; Li, Qian; Gao, Jie; Zhou, Qun-Yong; Gu, Dong-Feng; Li, Pei-Feng

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, single-stranded, noncoding RNAs that function as negative regulators of gene expression. They are transcribed from endogenous DNA and form hairpin structures (termed as pre-miRNAs) that are processed to form mature miRNAs. It remains largely unknown as to the molecular consequences of the natural genetic variation in pre-miRNAs. Here, we report that an A→G polymorphism (rs71428439) is located in Homo sapiens miR-149 stem-loop region. This polymorphism results in a change in the structure of the miR-149 precursor. Our results showed that the genotype distribution of this polymorphism in myocardial infarction cases was significantly different from that in the control subjects. We examined the biological significance of this polymorphism on the production of mature miR-149, and we observed that the G-allelic miR-149 precursor displayed a lower production of mature miR-149 compared with the A-allelic one. Further investigations disclosed that miR-149 could withstand mitochondrial fission and apoptosis through targeting the pro-apoptotic factor p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (Puma). Enforced expression of miR-149 promoted cell survival, whereas knockdown of miR-149 rendered cells to be sensitive to apoptotic stimulation. Intriguingly, the A to G variation led pre-miR-149 to elicit an attenuated effect on the inhibition of mitochondrial fission and apoptosis. Finally, this polymorphism exerts its influence on cardiac function in the mouse model of myocardial infarction. These data suggest that this polymorphism in the miR-149 precursor may result in important phenotypic traits of myocardial infarction. Our findings warrant further investigations on the relationship between miR-149 polymorphism and myocardial infarction. PMID:23873935

  3. Representaciones del Mundo Andino en un relato oral sobre fantasmas.

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    Florencia Raquel Angulo Villán

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo centra el análisis en las narraciones de tradición oral que tematizan las historias de fantasmas. Si bien existen “constelaciones de imágenes” más o menos constantes compartidas por el ser humano y su entorno material y social, éstas se enriquecen en tanto pueden ser leídas desde los códigos de la cultura que las produce. En este caso, representada por la zona andina. La metodología utilizada pondrá en relación las categorías de imaginario desde una perspectiva antropológica y los aportes de la filosofía andina, sustentada en los principios de reciprocidad y complementariedad. La lectura analítica tiene como objetivo poner de manifiesto cómo los discursos orales que circulan en una comunidad en particular se constituyen como estrategias de consolidación de la “memoria” de un pueblo.

  4. Los pasos del folklore colombiano. El folklore andino

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    Manuel Zapata Olivella

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available El Bambuco y la Güabina representan el folklore de los Andes colombianos. Tres elementos muy definidos les caracterizan: la acentuada influencia española, la melodía y la copla inspirada. La raíz española la denuncian la guitarra y el tiple, entre los instrumentos; la danza, que no solo les asemeja a muchos bailes peninsulares, sino que los emparenta con la cueca chilena; el punto guanacasteco costarricense; el joropo venezolano; el huapango de México y en general, con el folklore mestizo de toda Hispanoamérica y por último, el acento hispano de la copla picaresca.

  5. La informalidad en los procesos identitarios de migrantes andinos

    OpenAIRE

    Macchiavello Lizárraga, Manuel Moisés

    2012-01-01

    La situación de migración abarca muchas variantes en el accionar cotidiano que el extranjero debe apropiar para desenvolverse en la sociedad mayor. Este proceso lleva consigo una negociación cultural que implica, por lo menos, ceder determinados parámetros habituales y ganar otros. El resultado: una sociedad que propone determinados aspectos pero que, además, acepta algunos otros que le eran anteriormente ajenos. Ante esta situación, el cúmulo migrante busca también elaborar espacio...

  6. Isolation and genetic characterisation of Toxoplasma gondii from a red-handed howler monkey (Alouatta belzebul), a jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi), and a black-eared opossum (Didelphis aurita) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, H F J; Marvulo, M F V; Horta, M C; Silva, M A; Silva, J C R; Siqueira, D B; Lima, P-A C P; Vitaliano, S N; Gennari, S M

    2011-02-10

    Toxoplasma gondii isolates are highly diverse in domestic animals from Brazil. However, little is known about the genetics of this parasite from wild mammals in the same region. Reveal genetic similarity or difference of T. gondii among different animal populations is necessary for us to understand transmission of this parasite. Here we reported isolation and genetic characterisation of three T. gondii isolates from wild animals in Brazil. The parasite was isolated by bioassay in mice from tissues of a young male red handed howler monkey (Alouatta belzebul), an adult male jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi), and an adult female black-eared opossum (Didelphis aurita). The monkey and the jaguarundi had inhabited the Zoo of Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos, Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil, for 1 year and 8 years, respectively. The wild black-eared opossum was captured in São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil, and euthanised for this study because it was seropositive for T. gondii (titre 1:100 by the modified agglutination test, MAT). Ten PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) markers, SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico, were used to genotype the isolates. T. gondii was isolated from the brain and heart homogenate of the monkey, the muscle homogenate of the jaguarundi, and the heart homogenate of the black-eared opossum. This was the first isolation of T. gondii from a neotropical felid from Brazil. The isolate from the monkey (TgRhHmBr1) was not virulent in mice, whereas the isolates from the jaguarundi (TgJagBr1) and the black-eared opossum (TgOpBr1) were virulent in mice. The genotype of the isolate from the monkey has been identified in isolates from a goat and ten chickens in the same region of Brazil, suggesting that it may be a common lineage circulating in this region. The genotypes of the isolates from the jaguarundi and the black-eared opossum have not been previously reported. Although there

  7. PUMA: The Positional Update and Matching Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Line, J. L. B.; Webster, R. L.; Pindor, B.; Mitchell, D. A.; Trott, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    We present new software to cross-match low-frequency radio catalogues: the Positional Update and Matching Algorithm. The Positional Update and Matching Algorithm combines a positional Bayesian probabilistic approach with spectral matching criteria, allowing for confusing sources in the matching process. We go on to create a radio sky model using Positional Update and Matching Algorithm based on the Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey, and are able to automatically cross-match 98.5% of sources. Using the characteristics of this sky model, we create simple simulated mock catalogues on which to test the Positional Update and Matching Algorithm, and find that Positional Update and Matching Algorithm can reliably find the correct spectral indices of sources, along with being able to recover ionospheric offsets. Finally, we use this sky model to calibrate and remove foreground sources from simulated interferometric data, generated using OSKAR (the Oxford University visibility generator). We demonstrate that there is a substantial improvement in foreground source removal when using higher frequency and higher resolution source positions, even when correcting positions by an average of 0.3 arcmin given a synthesised beam-width of 2.3 arcmin.

  8. Paleohidrología de los últimos 25000 años en los Andes bolivianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available PALÉOHYDROLOGIE DES DERNIÈRES 25 000 ANNÉES DANS LES ANDES BOLIVIENNES. Nous présentons une reconstruction climatique de haute résolution de l’Altiplano bolivien (Andes Centrales basée sur des données géomorphologiques, sédimentologiques, palynologiques et provenant de l’analyse des faunes d’ostracodes. Nous avons déterminé (1, de manière semi-quantitative, la température ainsi que (2 de façon quantitative, les variations des niveaux lacustres depuis la fin du Pléistocène (25 000 ans BP. Les principaux résultats obtenus sont les suivants: de 25 000 à 18 000 ans BP, les températures atmosphériques sont basses ainsi que les niveaux des lacs entre 18 000 et 15 000/14 000 ans BP, la présence d’une lacune de sédimentation est indicatrice d’une phase climatique sèche pendant le Tardi-Glaciaire (15 000/14 000 - 10 500, les lacs (phase Tauca et les glaciers se sont étendus de 10 500 à 8000 ans BP, les lacs et les glaciers reculent très rapidement pendant que la température globale moyenne augmente à l’Holocène moyen (8 000-3 900 ans BP, le climat régional est globalement de type sec autour de 3900 ans BP, le niveau du lac Titicaca monte fortement des conditions relativement humides s’installent alors et se maintiennent par la suite pendant le Petit âge de la Glace (16ème-19ème siècles, des conditions froides et humides prévalent. En base a datos geomorfológicos, sedimentológicos, palinológicos y el análisis de fauna de ostrácodos, se ha determinado (1, de manera semicuantitativa, la temperatura así como (2 los cambios cuantificados de las variaciones de los niveles lacustres desde el final del Pleistoceno (25 000 años BP. Los principales resultados obtenidos son los siguientes: de 25 000 a 18 000 años BP, las temperaturas atmosféricas son bajas así como los niveles de los lagos entre 18 000 y 15 000/14 000 años BP, una fase climática seca es definida por la presencia de una laguna de sedimentación durante el Tardi-Glaciar (15 000/14 000 a 10 500 años BP, los lagos (fase Tauca y los glaciares se extendieron de 10 500 a 8 000 años BP, los lagos y los glaciares retroceden muy rápidamente mientras que la temperatura global media aumenta el Holoceno medio (8 000-3 900 años BP corresponde generalmente a un clima seco alrededor de 3 900 años BP, el nivel del lago Titicaca sube considerablemente luego se instalan condiciones relativamente húmedas durante la Pequeña Edad de Hielo (siglos XVI y XIX, prevalecen condiciones frías y húmedas. 25,000 YR BP PALEOHYDROLOGY OF THE BOLIVIAN ANDES. We report a high-resolution climate reconstruction for the Bolivian Altiplano (Central Andes based on geomorphological, sedimentological, palynological, and analysis of lacustrine ostracod shells. We determine (1 semi-quantitative changes in temperature and (2 quantitative changes in lake-levels from the late Pleistocene (25,000 yr BP to the present. The principal results are the following ones: from 25,000 to 18,000 yr BP, temparatures decreased as lake-levels lowered between 18,000 and 15,000/14,000 yr BP, a sedimentary hiatus indicates very low Lake Titicaca levels during the last deglaciation (15,000/14,000 , 10,500 yr BP, lake levels (Tauca phase and glaciers were consistently wide in the Altiplano and cordilleras from 10,500 to 8000 yr BP, lake levels declined and glaciers receded as global temperature increased during the mid-Holocene (8000-3900 yr BP a dry climate generally prevailed by 3900 yr BP, the lake level rose markedly and relatively moist conditions were established and persisted after during the Little Ice Age (16th-19th centuries, moist and cold conditions prevailed.

  9. Recursos hídricos para riego en la provincia Villarroel, Altiplano boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available RESSOURCES HYDRIQUES POUR L’IRRIGATION DANS LA PROVINCE VILLAROEL, ALTIPLANO BOLIVIEN. L’irrigation à partir du rio Desaguadero est pratiquée par gravité depuis près de 30 ans dans la zone basse de la province. Cette étude a montré que malgré une conductivité électrique de l’eau d’environ 2 mS cm-1 et grâce à une irrigation seulement de type supplémentaire, cette pratique a permis la réhabilitation de certains sols salés. Vers le piedmont, non accessibles à cette méthode d’irrigation, ce travail a initié l’irrigation à partir d’eau souterraine qui dans cette zone est douce. Avant d’amplifier l’exploitation de la ressource souterraine il faut évaluer son volume, sa dynamique et sa qualité. Une prospection géo-électrique a permis d’établir une carte de l’épaisseur de l’aquifère (40 à 140 m et d’estimer l’évolution de la salinité de l’eau souterraine. El riego a partir del río Desaguadero se practica por gravedad desde hace 30 años en la zona baja de la provincia. El estudio muestra que a pesar de una conductividad eléctrica del agua de aproximadamente 2 mS cm-1 y gracias a un riego que es solamente de tipo suplementario, esta practica ha permitido la habilitación de algunos suelos salinos. Cerca del pie de monte, no es posible acceder a este tipo de riego, por lo cual se inició el riego a partir de agua subterránea que en esta zona es dulce. Antes de ampliar la explotación del recurso subterráneo hay que evaluar su volumen, su dinámica y su cualidad. En base a una prospección geoeléctrica se elaboró un mapa del espesor del acuífero (40 a 140 m y se ha estimado la evolución de la salinidad del agua subterránea. HYDRAULIC RESOURCES FOR IRRIGATION IN THE VILLARROEL PROVINCE, BOLIVIAN ALTIPLANO. Irrigation by gravitation from the rio Desaguadero has been in operation for about 30 years in the lower part of the province. This study shows than even with an electric water conductivity of approximately 2 mS cm-1 and as a consequence of irrigation being used only as a supplementary resource, this practice has allowed the rehabilitation of some saline soils. Near the piedmont, which is not accessible by this method, YUNTA has initiated irrigation with groundwater which is not saline in this zone. Before increasing the exploitation of groundwater resources, it is necessary to evaluate their volume, its dynamics and its quality. Geo-electrical prospecting was carried on to draw a map of the aquifer thickness (40 to 140 m and estimate the evolution of groundwater salinity.

  10. Campesinos, pueblos originarios y sectores obrero-populares en el proceso de cambio boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cajías De La Vega

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa as transformações ocorridas na Bolívia durante a última década, ponderando a importância dos diferentes setores sociais mobilizados contra as medidas neoliberais, destacando o papel dos povos originários e dos campesinos indígenas organizados sindicalmente, que emergem politicamente neste período. Busca retratar o processo de construção de um poder alternativo baseado na organização indígena, na força adquirida pelos cocaleiros e na “Confederación Sindical Única de Trabajadores Campesinos de Bolivia”, que contribuíram para o triunfo eleitoral do “Movimiento al Socialismo” que elege o presidente Evo Morales. Por fim, destaca a importância da “Central Obrera Boliviana”, especialmente do movimento mineiro organizado por meio da “Federación Sindical de Trabajadores Mineros de Bolivia” que promoveu a "Guerra del Gas", em outubro de 2003, e que acabou subestimado pelas visões políticas dominantes dentro do Movimiento al Socialismo.

  11. Estudio de la variabilidad genética en camélidos bolivianos

    OpenAIRE

    Barreta Pinto, Julia

    2013-01-01

    El estudio de los camélidos sudamericanos es de gran interés en los países andinoscomo Perú, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina, debido a su importante valor económico y suimportancia en el mantenimiento y desarrollo de las poblaciones rurales en dichos países. Dada la falta de estudios genéticos centrados en las poblaciones de camélidos quehabitan en Bolivia, y la necesidad de realizar una valoración de la diversidad genética deestas poblaciones, la presente Tesis doctoral ha abordado el estudio gené...

  12. Pluralismo giuridico e pratica giuridica indigena: il caso dei Guaranì del Chaco Boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Scionti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article ethnographically explores the form and the content of juridical practices of Guarani people living in the Capitanías of Charagua Norte and Alto Isoso, Bolivia. Starting from the Bolivian legal pluralism main field and through the analysis of some juridical case study, I answer some questions about how the Guarani people act and interpret the legal field in a plural legal context. I argue that such guarani people practice is both rooted in an interlegal field of sense and meaning and product of a legal and political strategy useful to hide and protect the indigenous juridical habitus.

  13. Rethinking the recent past: Policies of the difference and interculturality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Garcés V.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde la década del noventa del siglo pasado se hicieron explícitas unas políticas de la diferencia en los espacios estatales bolivianos (Postero, 2005;Paz, 2005a, 2006.1 Cuando hablamos de políticas de la diferencia nos referimos a la implementación de mecanismos de reconocimiento y tolerancia de la diversidad, cada vez más frecuentes al interior de los Estados del ámbito andino. Estos mecanismos de reconocimiento y tolerancia de la diversidad pueden esconder sutiles mecanismos de dominación bajo un discurso y unas prácticas incorporadoras y asimiladoras de lo diverso en el aparato estatal y en los circuitos de acumulación del capital.2 Se trata de unas políticas que pueden ser encontradas no sólo en declaraciones

  14. Educação ambiental e a conservação da onça parda: potenciais das unidades de conservação do nordeste paulista. Environmental education and puma conservation: potentials of the protected areas of northeastern São Paulo state (Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayla Willk VALENTI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No nordeste do Estado de São Paulo as unidades de conservação abrigam importante parcela da biodiversidade brasileira. Espécies predadoras de topo de cadeia, como a onça parda (Puma concolor, ainda estão presentes nessa região e dependem dessas unidades para sobreviverem. Nesse contexto, a educação ambiental pode contribuir com a conservação das espécies, embora existam desafios a serem superados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar potencialidades e limites da educação ambiental para a conservação da biodiversidade nas unidades de conservação do nordeste paulista, tendo como tema a conservação de predadores, em especial a onça parda. A área de estudo foi definida com base na população dessa espécie na região. Realizamos levantamento das unidades de conservação na área de estudo e consulta para identificar aquelas com programas de educação ambiental ativos. Visitamos sete áreas protegidas, sendo que em cada uma realizamos entrevista estruturada com pessoas envolvidas em ações de educação ambiental e/ou gestores das unidades, totalizando sete entrevistas. Os dados indicaram que essas unidades estão em contextos relevantes para a realização de ações educativas voltadas à conservação de predadores. Contudo, as/os entrevistadas/os relataram dificuldades em se aproximar da população do entorno fora do ambiente escolar, especialmente o público adulto. Apesar disso, identificamos uma preocupação em envolver a comunidade do entorno, percebida nos próprios objetivos das atividades realizadas pelas unidades de conservação. A partir dos resultados obtidos, consideramos que, embora o tema dos predadores não seja especificamente trabalhado, existe um potencial grande para atuação nesse sentido. Ainda, destacamos que as unidades de conservação são espaços privilegiados para a integração dos conhecimentos científicos e educação ambiental. In northeastearn São Paulo state (Brazil, the

  15. Probing HER2-PUMA and EGFR-PUMA Crosstalks in Aggressive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    sensitizes lung cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents and irradiation. Clin Cancer Res, 12:2928-36, 2006. 6. Faris , M., N. Kokot, K. Latinis, S...35. Faris M, Kokot N, Latinis K, Kasibhatla S, Green DR, et al. (1998) The c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Cascade Plays a Role in Stress-Induced Apoptosis

  16. Comparación de métodos analíticos para la determinación de materia orgánica en suelos de la región Andino-Patagónica: efectos de la vegetación y el tipo de suelo Comparison of analytical methods for determining soil organic matter in Patagonian Andean Region: effects of vegetation and soil types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila La Manna

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La determinación de la materia orgánica (MO resulta fundamental para el conocimiento de la productividad agrícola y forestal de los suelos. En este estudio se evaluó la relación entre los contenidos de materia orgánica (MO determinados por pérdida por ignición (MO PI y combustión húmeda de Walkley-Black (MO CH en suelos de la Región Andino Patagónica. La relación se evaluó para suelos volcánicos con y sin aluminosilicatos amorfos y con distintos tipos de vegetación: plantaciones de Pinus ponderosa, bosques de Austrocedrus chilensis, arbustales, estepa arbustiva y estepa herbácea. Se seleccionaron 100 sitios de muestreo, donde se tomaron muestras compuestas del horizonte A para la determinación de MO CH y MO PI. Los datos fueron analizados mediante análisis de varianza y regresiones simples. MO CH fue siempre inferior a MO PI. Esto es esperable dado que MO PI incluye la MO total, mientras que MO CH discrimina las formas de carbono fuertemente condensadas. Si bien no se detectaron diferencias en la relación entre los métodos analíticos para suelos con y sin aluminosilicatos amorfos, sí existió una fuerte relación entre la presencia de estos y los contenidos absolutos de MO. La relación entre los métodos analíticos varió según el tipo de vegetación. Los suelos que sustentan vegetación de estepa herbácea y plantación de pino ponderosa presentaron las mayores diferencias entre los dos métodos analíticos. MO CH fue, en promedio, un 37% inferior a MO PI para estos tipos de vegetación, siendo significativamente superior a lo hallado en arbustales (26%. Los suelos con bosque denso de Austrocedrus chilensis y estepa arbustiva presentaron valores intermedios (30 y 35%, respectivamente. Las plantaciones de pino ponderosa (primera rotación, edad promedio 21 años fueron realizadas en áreas de estepa herbácea. Las similitudes encontradas entre ambos suelos podrían estar asociadas a características de la MO propias del

  17. A gastronomia e a Feira Kantuta: cultura e identidade de imigrantes bolivianos em São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Rosana Fernandes dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Se em tempos idos a alimentação era utilizada para nutrir e saciar o ser humano e relacionava-se apenas à vida doméstica, hoje essa relação ultrapassa esse limite e avança para os restaurantes, praças de alimentação e feiras gastronômicas. Nesse sentido entende-se que os alimentos e consequentemente a gastronomia constituem-se em um processo histórico, carregado de simbolismos e dizem muito da estrutura econômica e social estabelecidas em uma determinada comunidade, a qual encontra em suas ex...

  18. Inmigrantes, trabajadores, bolivianos : La representación del "otro" cultural a través de la palabra "esclavo"

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas, Gabriela Leonor; Cartechini, María Jimena

    2008-01-01

    El propósito de nuestro trabajo es analizar la representación del “otro” cultural a partir de la construcción simbólica de los trabajadores inmigrantes, realizada por los medios gráficos de comunicación masiva. El caso particular del cual partiremos es el incendio de un taller textil en el barrio de Caballito de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, el 31 de marzo de 2006, en el que murieron dos trabajadores y cuatro niños de nacionalidad boliviana. Tras este episodio circuló la nominación de “esclavo” ...

  19. Economía y política del modelo boliviano 2006-2014: evaluación preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Alexander Arévalo Luna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bolivia sufrió un profundo cambio socioeconómico y político en el periodo 2006-2014, pasó de un modelo de crecimiento liberal a uno de economía mixta, donde el Gobierno juega un papel muy relevante en la economía. El Estado tiene un control completo de los recursos económicos y principales ingresos de la industria. El excedente generado por los commodities contribuyó a la política de distribución de ingreso y además fue utilizado para la lucha contra la pobreza a través de una mejor educación y salud. El modelo macroeconómico fue exitoso: la economía boliviana creció a una tasa promedio de 4.6 % anual durante el periodo 2006–2014 y registró un superávit fiscal, un balance comercial positivo y un aumento en el volumen de reservas internacionales. Además, el país goza de estabilidad macroeconómica y baja inflación.

  20. Las relaciones de pareja entre migrantes bolivianos/as en Madrid: ¿Cambios, resistencias o continuidades?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Tapia Ladino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La migración internacional es un escenario propicio para estudiar los cambios y las permanencias de la relaciones de género patriarcal desde la perspectiva de quienes migran. El artículo que se presenta quiere avanzar hacia la comprensión del impacto del cruce de fronteras en las relaciones entre hombres y mujeres desde la consideración relacional de género. Se advierte que los sistemas de desigualdad social en origen y en destino se enlazan con el género para describir tránsitos hacia relaciones más democráticas o de mayor subordinación en la sociedad receptora. Los elementos que explican dichas trayectorias se relacionan con factores de nivel micro social como el tipo de relación de pareja predominante antes de migrar, el capital social de las personas, y de nivel macro como las condiciones laborales y jurídicas que encuentran lo/as migrantes en el contexto de recepción. En general se aprecia que la migración es, al mismo tiempo, una oportunidad para el cambio a pequeña escala y una forma de dar continuidad a las prácticas tradicionales de género entre migrantes. Las diferencias en cada caso se relacionan con el impacto acumulado de la migración que vincula factores de nivel micro y estructural

  1. Vera Tyuleneva. Cuatro viajes a la Amazonía boliviana. Foro Boliviano sobre Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Combès, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Quienes partieron, en los siglos XVI y XVII, en busca del fabuloso reino del Paititi, jamás encontraron la «tierra rica» de sus sueños; quienes lo siguen buscando hoy, siempre al oriente de Cusco, son a menudo los dignos hijos de Indiana Jones. Pero ciertamente, aparte de gloriosas excepciones como la obra de Roberto Levillier (1976), la búsqueda del Paititi poco tuvo que ver con la ciencia histórica y el tema fue, como lo recalca la autora de este libro, «injustamente excluido de los campos ...

  2. Inmigrantes andinos en Madrid: Sus danzas y sus músicas tradicionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Morales

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In our urban context we get in touch with people that have been forced to leave their countries under different circumstances in order to live in Spain. This article analyses their wish to maintain a group identity and how this identity is materialized by some individuals through traditional dance and music. The study is intended as a framework for subsequent educational investigations that relate that cultural reality with the situation in secondary schools where children of Latin American immigrants study.Nuestro entorno ciudadano inmediato nos pone en contacto diario con personas que por diferentes razones se han visto obligadas a dejar sus países de origen para instalarse en España. Este artículo analiza el deseo que surge en ellas de mantener una identidad de grupo, y cómo ésta se concreta en ciertos individuos mediante manifestaciones de danza y música popular tradicional. El estudio pretende servir de marco para ulteriores investigaciones educativas que vinculen esa realidad cultural con la situación de institutos de enseñanza secundaria en los que estudian hijos de inmigrantes latinoamericanos.

  3. Efectos reglamentarios y jurisdiccionales del derecho comunitario Andino sobre el derecho administrativo colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Montes Sarmiento, Maria Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo se soporta sobre una base conformada por dos conceptos, que constituyen el horizonte contextual de la investigación: Derecho Administrativo y Comunidad de integración. Es claro que al hablar de una Comunidad de integración específica como la Comunidad Andina (CAN), incide de forma directa en la actividad del derecho administrativo.Ha sido necesario que los países que conforman los grupos de integración económica cedan parte de sus competencias para crear un ordenamiento jurídico ...

  4. Constitución, Tratado de Libre Comercio Andino – Estados Unidos, Comunidad Andina

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Tangarife Torres

    2007-01-01

    El presente escrito pretende hacer algunas reflexiones acerca de las relaciones jurídicas existentes entre la Constitución Política, el Tratado de Libre Comercio con Estados Unidos (TLC), y el ordenamiento jurídico de la comunidad andina. En esta oportunidad se recogerán algunos planteamientos hechos por el autor en publicaciones anteriores, con las actualizaciones, ampliaciones y precisiones que surgen de un proceso tan dinámico como el de la internacionalización de las relaciones económicas...

  5. Mirando a la Pachamama: globalización y territorio en el Tarapacá andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Gonzu00E1lez Miranda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda la distancia cultural entre las poblaciones indígenas y la sociedad occidental desde la Colonia hasta nuestros días a través del concepto tiempo y espacio (devenir y territorio, empleando el concepto agua como un elemento vital y ritual. Se analizan las oportunidades y los riesgos que les plantea la globalización a las comunidades andinas, ofreciendo una propuesta, basada en la teoría de Sergio Boisier, que podría resolver el dilema entre globalización y desarrollo endógeno en la sociedad indígena. Se señala la importancia de la nueva geografía cultural, como disciplina, para entender la importancia del territorio en sociedades y culturas no occidentales como la andina.

  6. La situación energética en el Pacto Andino

    OpenAIRE

    Centro de Estudios Sudamericanos

    2008-01-01

    Los países de la región han venido modernizando sus sectores energéticos y han adoptado enfoques similares en cuanto a objetivos generales como la búsqueda de la eficiencia mediante mecanismos de mercado donde ello sea posible; la tendencia al alejamiento del Estado de actividades puramente empresariales y su focalización en los temas de regulación y control; la puesta en marcha de políticas transparentes que promuevan la competencia; y la participación de inversionistas privados, etc. No obs...

  7. Recuperación estructural en bosques sucesionales andinos de Porce (Antioquia, Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    P. Yepes, Adriana; I. del Valle, Jorge; L. Jaramillo, Sandra; A. Orrego, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Lugares susceptibles a perturbaciones naturales o antrópicas pueden recuperar la cobertura boscosa. La sucesión tropical puede ser afectada por factores tales como perturbaciones, distancia al bosque original, topografía y clima local. Estos factores determinan la composición de especies y la tasa de recuperación de los sitios. Se estudió la sucesión en suelos que habían sido usados para el establecimiento de pasturas ganaderas por varias décadas en la Región Porce de Colombia (bosques Colomb...

  8. Recuperación estructural en bosques sucesionales andinos de Porce (Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana P Yepes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lugares susceptibles a perturbaciones naturales o antrópicas pueden recuperar la cobertura boscosa. La sucesión tropical puede ser afectada por factores tales como perturbaciones, distancia al bosque original, topografía y clima local. Estos factores determinan la composición de especies y la tasa de recuperación de los sitios. Se estudió la sucesión en suelos que habían sido usados para el establecimiento de pasturas ganaderas por varias décadas en la Región Porce de Colombia (bosques Colombianos de los Andes. Se midieron un total de veinticinco parcelas, incluyendo nueve parcelas (20x50m en bosques primarios y dieciséis (20x25m en bosques secundarios. Se midieron todos los árboles con un diámetro ≥1.0cm. Se analizó la densidad, área basal, biomasa aérea y riqueza de especies, en un bosque con un proceso sucesional de ca. 43 años y en un bosque primario. Las edades de los bosques secundarios fueron obtenidas en estudios previos usando la datación con carbono catorce (C14, fotografías aéreas y el análisis de imágenes de satélite de alta resolución (entre 7 y >43 años. En total, 1 143 y 1 766 individuos se midieron en bosque primario y secundario, respectivamente. El área basal (5.7 a 85.4m²ha-1, la biomasa aérea (19.1 a 1 011.5 t ha-1 y la riqueza de especies (4 a 69 aumentaron directamente con la edad de los sitios, mientras que la densidad de árboles disminuyó (3 180 a 590. Las distribuciones diamétricas fueron en J-invertida para los bosques primarios y unimodal para los secundarios. Tres especies de palmas fueron abundantes y exclusivas de bosques secundarios viejos y bosques primarios: Oenocarpus mapora, Euterpe precatoria y Oenocarpus bataua. Cohortes de estas palmas aparecieron después de perturbaciones del bosque. La recuperación de la estructura de los bosques secundarios en más de 43 años de sucesión fue 40% e indica que varios factores están interactuando y afectando la sucesión de los bosques en el área (e.g. agricultura, ganadería extensiva, minería, etc..Structural recovering in Andean successional forests from Porce (Antioquia, Colombia. Places subjected to natural or human disturbance can recover forest through an ecological process called secondary succession. Tropical succession is affected by factors such as disturbances, distance from original forest, surface configuration and local climate. These factors determine the composition of species and the time trend of the succession itself. We studied succession in soils used for cattle ranching over various decades in the Porce Region of Colombia (Andean Colombian forests. A set of twenty five permanent plots was measured, including nine plots (20x50m in primary forests and sixteen (20x25m in secondary forests. All trees with diameter ≥1.0cm were measured. We analyzed stem density, basal area, above-ground biomass and species richness, in a successional process of ca. 43 years, and in primary forests. The secondary forests’ age was estimated in previous studies, using radiocarbon dating, aerial photographs and a high-resolution satellite image analysis (7 to >43 years. In total, 1 143 and 1 766 stems were measured in primary and secondary forests, respectively. Basal area (5.7 to 85.4m²ha-1, above-ground biomass (19.1 to 1 011.5 t ha-1 and species richness (4 to 69 directly increased with site age, while steam density decreased (3 180 to 590. Diametric distributions were "J-inverted" for primary forests and even-aged size-class structures for secondary forests. Three species of palms were abundant and exclusive in old secondary forests and primary forests: Oenocarpus mapora, Euterpe precatoria and Oenocarpus bataua. These palms happened in cohorts after forest disturbances. Secondary forest structure was 40% in more than 43 years of forest succession and indicate that many factors are interacting and affecting the forests succession in the area (e.g. agriculture, cattle ranching, mining, etc.. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1: 427-445. Epub 2010 March 01.

  9. La sombra de la vida: la placenta en el mundo andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available L'article suivant propose une explication sociale au traitement qui est donné au placenta, une fois l'enfant né. Comme on peut le voir plus loin, mis à part tout ce qui touche au traitement préventif ou médicinal de la femme qui accouche, ou du nouveau-né, les rituels liés au placenta ont lieu pour des raisons psychosociales qui font de celui-ci l'expression (ou 'l'ombre' des aspects liminaires ('alter ego' de la vie de l'enfant. L'équilibre biologique et social de la mère -et de la communauté- ayant été altéré par la grossesse et l'accouchement, il est nécessaire de conjurer les possibilités de désordre par la désapparition rituelle (l'enterrement, le feu du placenta. El artículo que sigue ensaya una explicación social al tratamiento de la placenta, una vez nacido el infante. Como se verá a continuación, aparte de cualquier relación con el tratamiento preventivo o medicinal de la parturienta, o del recién nacido, los rituales de la placenta toman lugar en razón de consideraciones psicosociales que sitúan a dicho tejido como expresión (o 'sombra' de los aspectos liminares ('alter ego' de la vida del niño. Habiendo sido alterado el equilibrio biológico y social de la madre -y de la comunidad- por el embarazo y el parto, es necesario conjurar las posibilidades de desorden a través de la desaparición ritual (entierro, fuego de la placenta.

  10. El simbolismo del piojo en el mundo andino. Boceto filológico

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    Marie-France Souffez

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available El valor que se da al piojo varía  según los lugares y las culturas del mundo. En las zonas urbanas peruanas es  sinónimo de  suciedad y  pobreza. En las zonas rurales tradicionales andinas, nos parece estar asociado a la pobreza y a la riqueza, a la muerte y a la vida. Las modalidades-y los matices de expresión de estas asociaciones forman el objeto de nuestro estudio. El presente artículo desarrolla un análisis parcial del vocabulario quechua y aimara relacionado con este parásito.

  11. El Rostro Andino del Arco Iris La diversidad cultural, el desarrollo y el sumak kawsay ecuatoriano

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    Merchán, Andrés Abad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on the concept of human development and its cultural dimensions. It analyzes the Human Development Index (HDI, the legal framework for development in the Ecuador and the concept of sumak kawsay (known as "living well", as well as the intrinsic relationship between biological and cultural diversity. In addition, it analyzes the proposal of UNESCO, which provides a series of indicators linked to welfare and the promotion of cultural and creative diversity. Finally, the National Plan for Living Well 2009-2013 drawn up by the National Secretariat of Planning and Development (SENPLADES is reviewed.

  12. El tributo andino reinterpretado: El caso del corregimiento de Lípez

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    Raquel Gil Montero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Andean Tribute Reinterpreted: The Case of the Province of Lípez The objective of this study is to analyse the tribute or tax within the series of obligations that were imposed on the indigenous population during colonial times by focusing on one case study: the corregimiento or province of Lípez (in current southwestern Bolivia. Based on what took place in Lípez, we discuss the concepts formulated from a study of the historiography. In particular an analysis was made to discover what role these tributes had in the organization of the labour force. We propose to revise in detail the developments between the sixteenth and the nineteenth centuries – a period which we suggest saw a transition ‘from labourers to tribute-payers’. The developments that the complete series of tributes paid by the indigenous of Lípez present (in frequency and total amount make it possible to differentiate four periods. These make up the core of our research. These developments are analysed in conjunction with other indigenous obligations (la mita, el repartimiento de mercancías, the composition of tax revenues, the historical context of the indigenous population and other elements we considered significant for each of these periods. Resumen: El propósito de este trabajo es analizar el tributo dentro del conjunto de obligaciones que se le impuso a las poblaciones indígenas durante el período colonial, a partir de un caso: el corregimiento de Lípez (sudoeste de la actual Bolivia. A la luz de lo ocurrido en Lípez se discuten las propuestas realizadas desde la historiografía especializada, en particular aquellas que analizaron cual fue el rol que tuvieron los tributos en la organización de la mano de obra. Proponemos revisar con detalle lo ocurrido entre los siglos XVI y XIX, período en el que se dio una transición que sugerimos fue ‘de trabajadores a tributarios’. Los cambios que presenta la serie completa de los tributos pagados por los indígenas de Lípez (en la frecuencia y en el monto nos permitieron diferenciar cuatro momentos, que son el centro de nuestro estudio. Estos cambios se analizaron en conjunto con el resto de las obligaciones indígenas (la mita, el repartimiento de mercancías, la composición de los ingresos fiscales, el contexto histórico de esta población y otros elementos que se consideraron significativos para cada uno de los momentos.

  13. La mitigación de heladas en los camellones del altiplano andino

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    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The raised fields system is an old technique of soil and water management, which was very frequent in the Lake Titicaca region before the Spanish conquest. It essentially consists of a series of earth platforms surrounded by water canals. Crops are grown on the platforms and water level in the canals is controled through inlet and outlet ditches. An important and widely recognized benefit of this system of management is its contribution to frost mitigation during the growing season. An experiment has been conducted on a system of raised fields in the Lake Titicaca region with the goal of quantifying the phenomenon and specifying the physical processes responsible for the mitigation effect. A potato crop was grown on the platforms of the raised fields and the same crop was grown on a control plot in the “Pampa”. Experimental results show that during the night: (i water temperature is much greater than the temperature of the crop on the platforms (ii crop temperature is always greater (1-2 degrees on the platforms than on the control plot in the Pampa. A physical process-based model, adapted from a two-layer transfer scheme of the Shuttleworth-Wallace type (a vegetation layer and a substrate layer of water, is presented to explain the mitigation effect. The model specifies the role played by the canals in the nocturnal heat dynamics and the night-time variation of crop temperature. The mitigation effect is due to heat emanating from the canals and to water condensation on the leaves. When used in a predictive way, the model shows that wider canals and narrower platforms have a positive impact on the minimum crop temperature reached during the night. Increasing water depth also improves frost mitigation, but conversely, a deeper canal (with the same level of water has a negative impact. Leaf area index (LAI and crop height, both have a positive impact on frost mitigation. The marginal benefit, however, is very small when LAI is greater than 1. Higher wind velocity or higher air relative humidity also enhances the frost mitigation effect. El sistema de camellones o “waru warus” es una antigua técnica agrícola de manejo del suelo y del agua. En los tiempos prehispánicos era muy frecuente en la región del lago Titicaca. Consiste esencialmente en una serie de plataformas de tierra rodeadas por canales de agua. Las plantas se cultivan sobre las plataformas y el nivel del agua en los canales puede controlarse a través de entradas y salidas de agua. Un beneficio importante y ampliamente reconocido de este sistema de manejo en el altiplano es su contribución a la mitigación de heladas nocturnas durante la campaña agrícola. Con el objetivo de cuantificar este fenómeno y describir los procesos físicos responsables de la mitigación, se ha realizado un experimento en la región del lago Titicaca sobre un sistema de camellones cultivado con papas comparándolo con una parcela “testigo” en la “Pampa”. Se presentan resultados experimentales que evidencian por una parte, el valor elevado de la temperatura del agua con respecto a la del cultivo sobre las plataformas, y por otra, una temperatura de cultivo siempre mayor (1-2 grados en los camellones que en la Pampa. Conjuntamente se presenta un modelo mecanístico adaptado de un esquema de transferencia bi-capa de tipo “Shuttleworth-Wallace” (una capa de vegetación y un sustrato de agua. El modelo precisa el papel que juegan los canales en la dinámica del calor y por lo tanto en la variación de la temperatura del cultivo durante la noche. El efecto de mitigación se debe al flujo de calor que emana del agua y a menudo también a la condensación del vapor de agua sobre las hojas del cultivo. Utilizando el modelo de manera predictiva, se muestra que canales más anchos o plataformas más estrechas tienen un impacto positivo sobre la temperatura mínima del cultivo alcanzada durante la noche. Aumentar la profundidad del agua mejora también la mitigación de heladas, pero a la inversa, un canal más profundo (con el mismo nivel de agua tiene un impacto negativo. Aumentar el índice de ��rea foliar (LAI o la altura del cultivo tiene un efecto positivo sobre la mitigación de heladas (el beneficio marginal, sin embargo, es muy pequeño cuando el índice foliar supera el valor 1. Mayor velocidad de viento o mayor humedad relativa incrementa también el efecto de mitigación de heladas. Le système des ados ou waru warus, est une ancienne technique agricole qui était très fréquente dans la région du lac Titicaca à l’époque préhispanique. Elle consiste essentiellement en une série de plateformes de terre surélevées entourées par des canaux. Les plantes se cultivent sur les plateformes et le niveau d’eau dans les canaux est contrôlé par les entrées et sorties. Un bénéfice important et largement reconnu de ce système de culture sur l’altiplano est sa contribution à l’atténuation des gelées nocturnes durant la campagne agricole. Dans le but de quantifier ce phénomène et de décrire les processus physiques responsables de cette atténuation une expérimentation a été conduite dans la région du lac Titicaca en comparant un système d’ados cultivés avec des pommes de terre avec une parcelle témoin dans la “ Pampa ”. Les résultats expérimentaux mettent en évidence, d’une part la valeur élevée de la température de l’eau par rapport à celle de la culture sur les plateformes, d’autre part une température de la culture toujours plus élevée (1-2 degrés dans les ados que dans la Pampa. On présente également un modèle mécaniste, adapté d’un schéma de transfert bi-couche de type “ Shuttleworth-Wallace ” (une couche représentant la végétation et une couche représentant le substrat d’eau. Le modèle précise le rôle joué la nuit par les canaux dans la dynamique de la chaleur et dans la variation de la température de la culture. Il apparaît que l’effet d’atténuation est dû principalement au flux de chaleur sensible qui émane de l’eau, mais souvent aussi à la condensation de vapeur d’eau sur les feuilles de la culture. En utilisant le modèle de manière prédictive on montre que des canaux plus larges ou des plateformes plus étroites ont un impact positif sur la température minimale de la culture atteinte durant la nuit. Augmenter la profondeur de l’eau améliore également l’effet d’atténuation des gelées, mais à l’inverse, un canal plus profond, avec le même niveau d’eau, a un impact négatif. L’augmentation de la surface foliaire (LAI ou de la hauteur du couvert a un effet positif sur l’atténuation des gelées. Une vitesse de vent plus forte ou une humidité relative de l’air plus élevée accroît également l’effet d’atténuation.

  14. Apuntes sobre las relaciones entre el pensamiento, la lengua y la cultura, en el caso andino

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    Marie-France Souffez

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reproduce algunas ideas generales sobre los problemas del sistema educativo peruano frente a la cultura andina. Avanza unas propuestas de investigación y desarrolla una posición teórica que subraya, al lado de los diferentes estudios sobre el hombre en su generalidad y permanencia,ia importancia de explorar las variaciones del espíritu humano en las diferentes culturas y épocas, lo que podría ser útil en. el Perú, país pluricultural dominado por una sola, cultura. Asimismo, propone indagar, dentro de la especificidad andina, sobre las formas de pensar y de expresar la inteligencia valoradas en esta cultura, iniciando la aproximación por un análisis de los significados de las expresiones lingüisticas relativas a estas formas.

  15. Somatotipo en jóvenes deportistas amateurs del mundo andino

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    Bejarano, Ignacio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La técnica del somatotipo, de uso fundamental en antropología y medicina deportiva, describe conjuntamente la forma y la composición corporal de un sujeto. Así, sus tres cifras consecutivas reflejan los niveles de adiposidad, robusticidad musculo-esquelética y linearidad respectivamente. Se analiza aquí el somatotipo de participantes en los VI Juegos de la Juventud Transandina (San Salvador de Jujuy, Marzo 2003. Los deportistas de ambos sexos y edades entre los 8 y 20 años (n = 276, procedieron de Argentina, Bolivia, Chile y Perú donde existen regiones ubicadas a diferentes niveles de altitud geográfica. Las modalidades de competición fueron Básquet (n = 66, Volley (n = 82 y Natación (n = 128. Utilizando el método de Heath-Carter se estimaron las componentes de endomorfía, mesomorfia y ectomorfía en cada disciplina. Los valores medios fueron respectivamente Básquet: 4.50- 3.29- 3.20, Voley: 4.27-3.56- 3.09 y Natación: 3.40- 4.17- 2.99 para varones y 3.87- 3.90- 2.56 para mujeres. Para conocer el grado de homogeneidad se calcularon los índices de dispersión del somatotipo (SDI, observándose la mayor variabilidad en natación, seguido de Básquet y Voley. Los resultados se contrastaron con los reportados por otros autores tanto en países latinoamericanos como en otros continentes. Para ello se utilizaron estadísticos apropiados, como las distancias altitudinales medias (SAD. Frente a las series de élite comparadas y para las tres disciplinas, los jóvenes analizados presentan una endomorfia significativamente mayor, siendo las diferencias menores para los dos componentes restantes.

  16. Bosques andinos del sur de Ecuador, clasificación, regeneración y uso

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    Rainer W. Bussmann

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Existen muy pocos inventarios y descripciones sintaxonómicas de la vegetación de bosques montanos tropicales. Este trabajo presenta datos sobre los bosques del sur de Ecuador localizados en la Reserva Biológica San Francisco, límite norte del Parque Nacional Podocarpus. Se propone la siguiente clasificación junto con notas sobre los factores edáficos que contribuyen a su establecimiento. El «Bosque Montano Bajo» (1800-2150 m, formando el orden Alzateetalia verticillatae, muestra 2-3 estratos arbóreos muy diversos, con árboles de 20-35 m de altura, y es una clímax mosaico típico. Creciendo sobre Terric Haplosaprists y Aquic Dystrupepts, originado del material de derrumbes viejos, este tipo de bosque se extiende hasta los 2300 m sobre el nivel del mar en quebradas protegidas de viento. A altitudes de 2100-2650 m (menos de 2750 m la estructura del bosque y la composición florística cambia totalmente. Esta vegetación, el «Bosque Montano Alto» forma el orden de Purdiaeaetalia nutantis y crece sobre Histic Petraquepts. Representando una vegetación monotípica con un solo estrato arbóreo de 5-10 m (–15 m de altura, completamente dominado por Purdiaea nutans (Cyrillaceae. El bosque ubicado a mayor altitud en el área, densamente enlazado con el páramo es el «Bosque Nublado Subalpino». Descritos como Clusio ellipticae-Weinmannietum cochensis aparecen más como una vegetación arbustiva casi impenetrable, y crecen sobre Humaquic Epiaquents. El límite del bosque es causado principalmente por los vientos fuertes de la región. Derrumbes e incendios naturales representan el «motor» de regeneración de los bosques. Se encontró carbón en la base de los niveles A de muchos perfiles de suelo. El análisis 14C precisó una edad de 710-980 ±50 años antes del presente. Esto indica que fuegos en la vegetación han contribuido a la dinámica de esta vegetación en el pasado y no es un fenómeno reciente. El diámetro basal de los árboles y el volumen total de madera por hectárea disminuyen rápidamente con la altitud a partir de los 2100 m y no pueden ser eficazmente utilizados para una explotación de madera sostenible.

  17. Una nueva especie ecuatoriana del género de peces andinos Grundulus (Characiformes: Characidae

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    César Román-Valencia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe Grundulus quitoensis nueva especie (Characiformes, Characidae proveniente de las Lagunas El Voladero reserva biológica El Angel al norte de Ecuador. El nuevo taxon se distingue de las demás especies por el menor número de radios simples en la aleta anal (tres vs. cuatro a cinco y en las aletas pectorales (uno vs. dos a tres, por el mayor número de dientes en cada dentario (12- 14 vs. 8-10, perfil ventral posterior a la cintura pectoral hasta el origen de la aleta anal plano (vs. curvo, el segundo infraorbital es tres veces más grande que el primero (vs. dos veces más grande, el tercer infraorbital está separado del preopérculo (vs. en contacto con la superficie del preopérculo, dentario presenta cuatro pequeñas fenestras en el margen infero-lateral (vs. uno a dos, el premaxilar presenta un proceso lateral largo (vs. corto, maxilar con dos muescas en la superficie infero-lateral (vs. maxilar con una muesca en la superficie inferolateral.A new Ecuadorian species of the Andean fish genus Grundulus (Characiformes: Characidae. The new species Grundulus quitoensis is described from El Voladero Lake, El Angel Biological Reserve, Northern Ecuador. The new taxon can be distinguished from all congeners by the following characters, respectively: a low number of unbranched rays in the anal fin (three vs. four-five and in pectoral fins (on vs. two - three, a higher number of dentary teeth (12-14 vs. 8-10, a second infraorbital about three times larger than the first (vs. about two times larger, a third infraorbital which is not in contact with the preopercle (vs. in contact with preopercle, the presence of four small fenestrae in the infero-lateral bone dentary (vs. one - two; and a premaxilla which presents a long lateral process (vs. short, a maxilla with two notches in the infero-lateral surface (vs. one notch in the infero-lateral surface. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 537-544. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

  18. PUMA: a puzzle piece in chloroquine?s antimelanoma activity

    OpenAIRE

    Amaravadi, Ravi K.

    2013-01-01

    Chloroquine can induce cell death in a subset of cancer cell lines, and some melanoma cell lines are quite susceptible. While it is well known that chloroquine impairs lysosomal function and can serve as an autophagy inhibitor, the molecular target of chloroquine and the subsequent cascade of events that leads to cell death are not fully understood. Recent evidence indicates that in melanoma cell lines, chloroquine induces apoptosis by preventing degradation of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only prot...

  19. PUMA: a puzzle piece in chloroquine's antimelanoma activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaravadi, Ravi K

    2013-09-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) can induce cell death in a subset of cancer cell lines, and some melanoma cell lines are quite susceptible. Although it is well known that CQ impairs lysosomal function and can serve as an autophagy inhibitor, the molecular target of CQ and the subsequent cascade of events that lead to cell death are not fully understood. Recent evidence indicates that in melanoma cell lines, CQ induces apoptosis by preventing degradation of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis. This finding adds to the unfolding story of CQ's mechanism of action as a cancer therapeutic agent.

  20. Observaciones sobre la ecología del páramo andino de Monserrate Observaciones sobre la ecología del páramo andino de Monserrate

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    Sturm Helmut

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available In a paramo region near Bogotá (Colombia, 3.230 m aboveseal evel investigations were made of clima, soil vegetation and fauna.  The mean temperature was 8.4 degrees C and the annual rainfall 1.221.4 mm. Sometimes great variations of relative humidity and of temperature near the soil surface could be registered. The properties of the black coloured paramosoil, wich probably is not a uniform type, are discussed. Its micromorphology and fauna were examined for the first time. The fauna is well developed and takes part intensivily in mixing the mineral and organic components. The soil type is classified as being between those which KUBIENA (1953 called "Pechtorf" and "Moderranker", The vegetation has been characterized by the estimation of the "Artmächtigkeit" (BRAUN-BLANQUET,1964 of the single species. The distribution and net production of Espeletia grandiflora Humb. & Bonpl., the most specificplant species in this paramo is discussed. The quantitative sampling of the fauna, especially of the arthropod fauna,was carried out by means of a combination of different methods to evaluate the density per litre and the density of activity. The mantle consisting of dead leaves of E. grandiflora proved to be a rich and characteristic "biotope". The facts are discussed partly by comparing them with correspondingfacts from a tropical rain forest.In a paramo region near Bogotá (Colombia, 3.230 m above seal evel investigations were made of clima, soil vegetation and fauna.  The mean temperature was 8.4 degrees C and the annual rainfall 1.221.4 mm. Sometimes great variations of relative humidity and of temperature near the soil surface could be registered. The properties of the black coloured paramo soil, wich probably is not a uniform type, are discussed. Its micromorphology and fauna were examined for the first time. The fauna is well developed and takes part intensivily in mixing the mineral and organic components. The soil type is classified as being between those which KUBIENA (1953 called "Pechtorf" and "Moderranker", The vegetation has been characterized by the estimation of the "Artmächtigkeit" (BRAUN-BLANQUET,1964 of the single species. The distribution and net production of Espeletia grandiflora Humb. & Bonpl., the most specific plant species in this paramo is discussed. The quantitative sampling of the fauna, especially of the arthropod fauna, was carried out by means of a combination of different methods to evaluate the density per litre and the density of activity. The mantle consisting of dead leaves of E. grandiflora proved to be a rich and characteristic "biotope". The facts are discussed partly by comparing them with corresponding facts from a tropical rain forest.

  1. Terapeutas tradicionales andinos en un contexto de cambio: el caso de Churcampa en el Perú

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    Julio Portocarrero

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Describir la diversidad de terapeutas tradicionales, sus vínculos con el sistema de salud oficial y los cambios en sus recursos terapéuticos, en dos comunidades rurales de los andes en Churcampa, región de Huancavelica, Perú. Materiales y métodos. Estudio cualitativo en el que se combinan tres técnicas etnográficas: entrevistas en profundidad, observaciones y acompañamientos a terapeutas tradicionales y personal de salud. Resultados. Se identificaron 58 terapeutas, clasificados como curanderos, parteros y hueseros. La mayoría de terapeutas entrevistados aprendió su labor siendo joven y muy pocos tuvieron un maestro o mentor. La gran mayoría señaló tener reparos para vincularse con los establecimientos de salud más allá de las referencias. No había un trabajo articulado entre personal de salud y terapeutas tradicionales. Sin embargo, cuando sucedía, el personal de salud prefería a aquellos terapeutas que tuvieran la disposición para adecuarse a las necesidades de los servicios de salud. Se encontró que buena parte de los terapeutas estaban cambiando sus prácticas debido a la influencia de las iglesias evangélicas. Ningún terapeuta contaba con discípulos para transmitir sus conocimientos y prácticas. Conclusiones. Existe una gran diversidad de terapeutas tradicionales. Esta diversidad viene disminuyendo, entre otros factores, por el avance de las iglesias evangélicas. Los terapeutas tradicionales refieren a algunos pacientes al establecimiento de salud; mientras que el personal de salud establece relaciones jerárquicas de trabajo con los terapeutas. Se requiere trabajar estas actitudes del personal de salud pues la base de un enfoque intercultural es el trabajo articulado y horizontal entre ambos sistemas

  2. De la biogeografía al paisaje en Humboldt: pisos de vegetación y paisajes andinos equinocciales

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    Concepción Sanz Herráiz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The current recovery of the notion of landscape as a means of comprehending the relationships between nature, society and culture in their spatiotemporal dimensions, that is, as specifi c totalities, calls for a return to its most fecund presentations, beginning with what is perhaps the most outstanding version of them all, that of Alexander von Humboldt. On this occasion we intend to make a reading in terms of landscape of Essay on the Geography of Plants and of the accompanying Physical Tableau, the one of humboldtian works less known. We believe that our study will demonstrate that Humboldt’s contribution on landscape and landscapes was to a great extent contained in the initial text of Geography of Plants; which in turn enables us to explore the fundamental relationship between landscape and the initial development of Biogeography.

  3. La pichca: oráculo y juego de fortuna (su persistencia en el espacio y tiempo andinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available LA PICHCA : ORACLE ET JEU DE HASARD (SA CONTINUITE DANS L'ESPACE ET LE TEMPS ANDINS. Cet essai traite d'un petit objet en forme de pyramide tronquée, taillé en bois, en os ou en pierre, ou modelé en argile, dont les faces et les bases gravées s'interprétaient de différentes manières quand on le jetait, comme un dé européen. À l'époque préhispanique, on l'utilisait pour dialoguer avec la huaca de nos jours, c'est un jeu de société ou un jeu de hasard. Son aire de diffusion préhispanique coïncide avec celle du Tahuantinsuyu il peut donc être un indicateur de la présence inca là où les signes architecturaux ou autres font défaut. Este ensayo trata de un pequeño objeto con forma de pirámide trunca, tallado en madera, hueso o piedra, o moldeado en arcilla, cuyas caras y bases tenían grabados que se interpretaban de diferentes maneras al ser jugado como un dado europeo. En la época prehispánica se le utilizó para dialogar con la huaca llegó al siglo XX como juego de velorio y como juego de fortuna su ámbito de dispersión prehispánica abarca el Tahuantinsuyu y es un rasgo útil para determinar algún tipo de presencia incaica en regiones con escaso registro monumental. LA PICHCA: AN ORACLE AND A FORTUNE GAME OF CHANCE AND ITS PERSISTENCE IN ANDEAN SPACE AND TIME. This essay focuses on a small truncated pyramid-shaped object, carved in wood, bone or stone, or molded in clay. The faces and bases of these objects having engravings which were interpreted in different ways when played as a European die. In pre-Hispanic times, such items were used to dialog with the huaca. They persist into the XXth century as wakeys and as a game of chance. The pre-Hispanic dispersion of this class of object comprises the Tahuantinsuyu and is a useful feature to determine Inca presence in regions with little monumental construction.

  4. RESPUESTA DE LA CLOROFILA Y EL METABOLISMO DE UN ARROYO ANDINO AL AUMENTO DE TEMPERATURA EN UN EXPERIMENTO ex situ

    OpenAIRE

    Viviana INFANTE CANGREJO; Jhon Charles DONATO RONDÓN

    2017-01-01

    En los trópicos, el cambio climático puede significar un incremento en la temperatura que puede afectar la diversidad biológica de los ecosistemas fluviales, favoreciendo la llegada de especies propias de aguas más cálidas. La variación de temperatura puede también afectar las relaciones tróficas y el metabolismo del sistema. En el presente estudio, se analizó el efecto de 2-4 ºC de aumento de la temperatura del agua sobre el ensamble de diatomeas y...

  5. EL TURISMO ALTERNATIVO COMO FACTOR DE CAMBIOS EN LA MOVILIDAD ESPACIAL EN LOS PAÍSES ANDINOS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Skoczek

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available En los años 90 del siglo XX hemos podido observar la expansión espacial de áreas turísticas en casi todos lospaises del mundo. Una de las causas principales de este fenómeno la constituye el interés creciente por diferentes formas del turismo alternativo, cuyos partidarios buscan lugares nuevos, tranquilos, pero a la vez atractivos debido a su. “otredad” en relación con las áreas de su residencia cotidiana.

  6. Autoridad y memoria entre los killakas. Las estrategias discursivas de don Juan Colque Guarache en el sur andino (Siglo XVI)

    OpenAIRE

    Graña, Mario Julio

    2014-01-01

    Entre 1575 y 1577, don Juan Colque Guarache, cacique principal de las etnias killaka, asanaque, sivaroyo,haracapi y uruquilla del sur del lago Poopó, actual Oruro (Bolivia)eleva a consideración de las autoridades españolas una serie de "Probanzasde Méritos y Servicios" de sus antepasados. Esta fuente permite explorar la narración de la historia de un linaje indígena, a la luz de las estrategias discursivas empleadas por las autoridades étnicas dentro del contexto colonial.En este sentido, se ...

  7. Mariátegui entre dois mundos: Visões do comunitarismo indígena andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Teófilo da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo  Este artigo visa demonstrar que a presença da herança andina no projeto de socialismo “indo-americano” de Mariátegui gerou uma tensão epistemológica original e crítica do pensamento social marxista na América Latina. A partir desta releitura da perspectiva mariateguiana apoiada em duas vertentes, indigenista peruana e marxista europeia, o presente artigo afirma a importância dos estudos sobre o indigenismo para a compreensão dos limites do socialismo de orientação marxista no Peru. O artigo será concluído ressaltando a importância do socialismo indo-americano de Mariátegui para a “descoberta” da constituição híbrida do modo de produção peruano.  Palavras-chave  Indigenismo; marxismo; Peru; José Carlos Mariátegui  --- Resumen  Este artículo tiene como objetivo demostrar que la presencia de la herencia andina en el diseño del socialismo "indoamericano" de Mariátegui ha generado una crítica epistemológica original del pensamiento social marxista en América Latina. De este recuento la perspectiva de Mariátegui apoyada en dos frentes, indigenista peruana y marxista europea, este artículo defiende la importancia de los estudios sobre el indigenismo para la comprensión de los límites del socialismo marxista en el Perú. El artículo concluirá destacando la importancia del socialismo indo-americano de Mariátegui en el "descubrimiento" de la constitución híbrida del modo de producción peruana.  Palabras clave  Indigenismo; marxismo; Perú; José Carlos Mariátegui --- Abstract This article aims to demonstrate that the presence of the Andean heritage in Mariátegui's "Indo-American" socialist project generated a new and critical epistemological tension of the Marxist social thinking in Latin America. From this mariateguian retelling, which is established in two ways, Peruvian indigenous and European Marxist, this article maintains the importance of studies on the indigenous movement to understand the boundaries of Marxist socialism in Peru. The text highlights the importance of Mariátegui's Indo-American socialism in the "discovery" of the hybrid constitution of the Peruvian way of production. Keywords indigenism; Marxism; Peru; José Carlos Mariátegui ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ERRATA Onde se lê na página 141, v.8, n. 2 (2014: Esse aspecto é precisamente o cerne das polêmicas que surgiram em torno de suas idéias, que culminaram em desavenças com a III Internacional Comunista, em Montevidéu (maio de 1929. Lê-se: Esse aspecto é precisamente o cerne das polêmicas que surgiram em torno de suas idéias, que culminaram em controvérsias na primeira conferência comunista latino-americana, em Buenos Aires (junho de 1929.   ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  8. Los Tratados de Libre Comercio impulsados por EUA como una respuesta al fracaso de DOHA. El caso Andino

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    Rubén Flores

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La vigencia de la división del trabajo imperante entre el norte y el sur, bajo el actual escenario de globalización económica, esta siendo modificada, por la a nueva tendencia en la que cualquier producto, (sea materia prima, manufacturado o servicio puede ser producido en muchos países y regiones gracias en primer lugar al descenso en los costos de transporte, de telecomunicaciones, laborales, ambientales, que configuran unas ventajas de localización; pero además, a que luego del fracaso de la OMC desde la Ronda del Milenio hasta la de Doha y el fallido intento de la construcción de la Zona de Libre Comercio de las Américas (ALCA, la estrategia comercial de los EUA se ha centrado en impulsar acuerdos bilaterales de nueva generación TLC cuyo objetivo es lograr avanzar en una marco normativo que le garantice trato nacional y no discriminatorio al capital productivo extranjero (inversión extranjera, la estandarización de las normas técnicas, fitosanitarias, la defensa de los derechos de propiedad, entre otras.____________________ABSTRACT:The work division that exists between North and South, in this stage of economic globalization, it’s being modified by the new world tendency in which any product (raw materials, manufactured products or services can be produced in many countries and regions, thanks to: in first place, the lowering of transportation , telecommunications, working and environmental costs, that create localization advantages; in second place, the breakdown of the WTO since the Millennium Round to Doha Round and the failure FTTA has made that the USA commercial strategy focus on Bilateral Agreements of the new generation such as the FTA, which proposes to advance in legal issues that guaranties not to discriminate the foreign investment, the standardization of technique and sanitary and phytosanitary measures and the intellectual property rights defence, among others.

  9. Reproducción identitaria y social en las redes translocales de migrantes de dos pueblos andinos

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    Jacques Malengreau

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan de manera comparativa —según su destino y según su origen— las estrategias adoptadas por los migrantes de dos comunidades andinas de distintas regiones del Perú en su manejo de recursos sociales, culturales y materiales de su entorno extendido en el cuadro de su experiencia translocal. Estas estrategias están fundadas en una forma paralela. Por una parte, sobre una extensión de los lazos domésticos del pueblo originario, sobre todo a través de una continuidad transgeneracional basada en la descendenciacolateral tío(a – sobrino (a entre el pueblo originario y el lugar de inmigración, lo que implica un debilitamiento de las identidades colectivas supradomésticas originarias. Y, por otra parte, sobre la construcción de lazos vecindarios nuevos interétnicos, lo cual reinventa un modelo de solidaridad social en el lugar de inmigración. Estas estrategias —que combinan la jerarquización, el clientelismo, así como la reciprocidad y la redistribución— implican una reinterpretaciónde las normas vehiculadas por el modelo empresarial «liberal»,productivista, competitivo y consumista acondicionado a partir de un mundo extranjero que se manifiesta en una forma transnacional y transregional. En consecuencia, se pueden ver de modo comparativo las estrategias seguidas por los migrantes de ambos pueblos originarios como un desarrollo, tanto de rasgos comunes, como de particularidades que son ligadas, no solamente a las experiencias sociohistóricas y a las herencias culturales propias de cada uno de los pueblos, sino también al tipo de destino escogido por ellos; porejemplo, Lima metropolitana, los centros urbanos regionales y los valles tropicales del oriente. -- This article contrasts strategies adopted by migrants from two Andeancommunities located in different regions in Peru, in their useof social, cultural, and material networks, taking into consideration the place they settle in and where they come from, their translocal experience. These strategies are embedded in a parallel form; on the one hand there is an extension of the domestic bonds from the original village in the place they finally settle down in, mostly givenby a transgenerational continuation, based on collateral descendance (uncle/aunt – nephew/niece, which weakens the original supradomestic collective identities; and, on the other hand, the newly interethnic neighborhood bonds which transform the social solidarity model in the place they settle down in. These strategies that combine hierarchy, clientelism, reciprocity and redistribution, also imply a new interpretation of norms regulated by the «liberal», productive, competitive and consumer model, conditioned by a foreign world which is manifested in a transnational and transregional form.Hence, these strategies can be seen as a development of common traits, particularities related not only to social-historic and cultural heritage, but also to a type of destination chosen by these migrants, for example metropolitan Lima, the urban and regional centers and the Oriental tropical valleys.

  10. Reproducción identitaria y social en las redes translocales de migrantes de dos pueblos andinos

    OpenAIRE

    Malengreau, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Se analizan de manera comparativa —según su destino y según su origen— las estrategias adoptadas por los migrantes de dos comunidades andinas de distintas regiones del Perú en su manejo de recursos sociales, culturales y materiales de su entorno extendido en el cuadro de su experiencia translocal. Estas estrategias están fundadas en una forma paralela. Por una parte, sobre una extensión de los lazos domésticos del pueblo originario, sobre todo a través de una continuidad transgeneracional bas...

  11. De lo nacional-popular a la resistencia popular: la representación y performatividad en la fiesta de los andes bolivianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleverth Cárdenas Plaza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la comprensión de la fiesta popular se discuten dos temas importantes sobre Bolivia: la conexión democratización social y forma estatal y la dispar articulación de disponibilidad social. En tal sentido, argumenta que, aunque la fiesta popular se desarrolla en un contexto de aparente “trasformación” política en Bolivia, el Estado no se relaciona con ella.Es la festividad del Gran Poder, en La Paz, la que expande su lógica a otros espacios. Así,la fiesta hecha por migrantes aymaras, es una actividad que se gestiona desde “abajo” y evita ser cooptada por el poder político y la presencia de mediadores. En la fiesta popular se evidencia el funcionamiento de otra lógica cultural y otros valores respecto al Estado y, sin embargo, todo ello apunta a la reafirmación de su identidad nacional. Es interesante ver cómo articulan estratégicamente su lógica para concluir, afirmándose como sujetos nacionales,folcloristas y migrantes.

  12. Impacts of the Bolivian regulatory changes for the future of natural gas in Brazil; Impacto na relacao Brasil-Bolivia com a nacionalizacao dos hidrocarbonetos bolivianos de 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Berrnardo Pestana Mello C.; Saraiva, Thiago Carvalho; Bone, Rosemarie Broker [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to clarify and understand the reasons for the current economic policy and trade between Bolivia and Brazil, the latter represented by PETROBRAS, as the year 2006. Focuses on the regulatory change in Bolivia that culminated in a period of re-nationalization of its mineral wealth as opposed to international interests, including Brazilians, and agreements entered into during the opening of the market in the country. Thus, set in the Latin American actual situation, we undertake to understand the process and its consequences for Brazil, which, even with the third largest gas reserves in the region, in the short term, it follows as an importer of this feature. To have a concrete base with foundations and analyze what happens today, we must understand the political history of Bolivia and their internal changes. So we divided the work into two parts: first, we analyze the neo liberal period, and the agreements signed with Brazil in the hydrocarbon sector, for mutual benefits. In the second part, we understand the political rise of Evo Morales and the nationalization process of national wealth and the consequent crisis that developed with the international oil companies, especially with PETROBRAS, to the final outcome on the price, production and export of gas.

  13. Mallas y flujos : acción colectiva, cambio social, quinua y desarrollo regional indígena en los Andes Bolivianos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, P.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies collective action and social change in indigenous rural organisations (IRO) in the Bolivian Andes. I focus on the effects and importance that these organisations have in the historical process of regional development as social spaces that encapsulate different projects of social,

  14. Coleccionista de Arena. La comisión médico - quirúrgica Italiana en el Altiplano Boliviano (1875 - 1877.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Podgorny.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the itineraries in the bolivian highlands of guido bennatti and his fellow travelers around 1876, with particular focus on the observations and collections from tiahuanaco and the titicaca lake. visible only regionally, the scale of these trips remains a pending task that must be rebuilt through a bureaucratic investigation records, brochures and regional daily press. this work forms a link in this project

  15. Mallas y flujos : acción colectiva, cambio social, quinua y desarrollo regional indígena en los Andes Bolivianos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, P.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies collective action and social change in indigenous rural organisations (IRO) in the Bolivian Andes. I focus on the effects and importance that these organisations have in the historical process of regional development as social spaces that encapsulate different projects of

  16. ¿Carga o bendición? La respuesta de organizaciones no gubernamentales y gobiernos locales bolivianos a la migración internacional

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenhuis, G.; Bogaardt, I. van den; Weenink, G.

    2012-01-01

    La migración internacional forma parte de la vida cotidiana de muchos hogares en el Sur. A muchas personas les atraen las oportunidades de trabajo en otros países - tanto en el Sur como en el Norte - con el fin de ganarse la vida. Muchos de estos migrantes mantienen estrechos vínculos con sus

  17. La “defensa social”. Pugnas y competencias en torno a la mano de obra en el Oriente Boliviano, 1890-1910.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Lema Garrett

    2010-01-01

    la región amazónica boliviana, al norte del país, suscitó profundos cambios en otros departamentos y, entre otras cuestiones, en el mercado laboral. Los departamentos de Beni y de Santa Cruz se constituyeron entonces en reservorios de mano de obra y el flujo migratorio hacia las regiones gomeras del norte fue creciendo proporcionalmente a las necesidades de los empresarios gomeros. Sin embargo, las regiones de origen, y específicamente Santa Cruz, reaccionaron en contra de este “vaciamiento”, desarrollando estrategias para controlar las migraciones o, eventualmente, frenarlas. Este proceso fue acompañado por el despliegue de varias normas novedosas en el ámbito laboral, producto de un debate parlamentario en torno al tema de las migraciones.

  18. Efectos de espacio sobre costos de provisión local. Un modelo de ecualización por bloques para los municipios bolivianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios Suvelza, Franz Xavier

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Bolivia experimentó una importante transformación territorial después de que se aprobó la Ley de Participación Popular en 1994. Los efectos benéficos de tal reforma estuvieron acompañados de una serie de efectos contraproducentes, entre ellos los que se derivan del modelo de transferencias centrales hacia los municipios. Este artículo propone un nuevo modelo de transferencias que complementa el actual ¿sistema de dotación fiscal a municipios según el principio per cápita¿ con uno de ¿ecualización fiscal intermunicipal por bloques¿.

  19. Conexões e entrecruzamentos: configurações culturais e direitos em um circuito migratório entre La Paz e Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Caggiano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir de um conflito entre imigrantes bolivianos em Buenos Aires em torno do “trabalho escravo” nas oficinas de costura da cidade, o artigo trata da relação entre direitos (“ocidentais” e formas culturais aymaras ou andinas. Como são qualificadas essas relações de trabalho quando envolvem trabalhadores e proprietários (ou administradores bolivianos/andinos? A cultura aymara problematiza a ideia de exploração laboral e a exploração laboral problematiza a cultura aymara. O artigo foca o circuito migratório transnacional e a circulação heterogênea que o conforma (pessoas, dinheiro, objetos, saberes e práticas culturais para tentar compreender aquele conflito. Com base na análise da convivência enredada de direitos e traços culturais aymaras, proponho que o cruzamento e a sobreposição de instituições e de “lógicas” culturais, sociais, econômicas e políticas são um componente constitutivo desses processos de circulação.Based upon the study of a conflict that erupted between Bolivian immigrants in Buenos Aires over the concept of “slave labor” in the city’s sweatshops, the present article deals with the relationship between (western rights and Aymara or Andean cultural forms. How are these work relations qualified when they involve Bolivian/Andeanworkers and owners (or administrators? Aymara culture problematizes the concept of labor exploitation and vice versa. The present article focuses on the transnational migratory circuit and heterogeneous circulations (of people, money, objects, knowledge and practices that it contains in order to better comprehend this conflict. Based upon an analysis of the lived, networked experience of rights and Aymara cultural traces, I propose to interlink and juxtapose the social, cultural economic and political logics and institutuions that are constituitive components of these processes of circulation.

  20. “Los embrujos secretos del trópico”. Frontera amazónica y producción del espacio estatal en la obra cinematográfica de Jorge Ruiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pareja

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia la obra cinematográfica de Jorge Ruiz utilizando la teoría socio-espacial de Henri Lefebvre. Argumenta que sus documentales, películas etnográficas y noticieros para el cine constituyen una totalidad discursiva que presenta estéticamente la producción del espacio estatal boliviano durante el siglo XX. A partir de una retórica audiovisual que juega con nociones de verticalidad, horizontalidad y centralidad, la obra de Ruiz posiciona el espacio andino como el eje de la modernización estatal y sitúa  a la cuenca amazónica en los márgenes del estado. Concluye que hacer visible la región amazónica en el discurso de la nación tuvo como efecto el desplazamiento de los antagonismos de clase en favor del conflicto entre centro y regiones.This article studies the cinematography of Jorge Ruiz making use of the socio-spatial theory of Henri Lefebvre. It argues that his documentaries, ethnographic films and newsreels for the cinema constitute a discursive totality that presents aesthetically the production of the Bolivian state space during the twentieth century. From an audiovisual rhetoric that plays with notions of verticality, horizontality and centrality, Ruiz’s work locates Andean space as the focal point of state modernization and situates the Amazon basin at the margins of the state. It concludes that in making the Amazon region visible in the nation’s discourse this had the effect of displacing class antagonisms in favor of the conflict between center and regions.

  1. CARACTERIZACIÓN FÍSIOGRÁFICA DE LA PUNA DE SAJAMA, CORDILLERA OCCIDENTAL DE LOS ANDES (BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Javier Santa Cecilia Mateos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aproxima a la realidad física de la cordillera Occidental de los Andes. Un espacio geográfico donde los caracteres geológicos relacionados con el vulcanismo adquieren una relevancia especial en la configuración del paisaje andino. Los nevados y llanuras intermedias o altiplanos, son los dos elementos que constituyen la imagen de la puna andina, un territorio situado por encima de los 4.000 metros, ámbito intermedio entre los valles húmedos o yungas y las más altas cumbres de los Andes. A la singularidad volcánica habría que añadir la relacionada con el modelado glaciar, los aspectos hidrográficos y la biogeografia en esta área. El artículo toma como ejemplo de estudio la puna de Sajama en eldepartamento de Oruro, en la frontera boliviano-chilena.Abstract. This article approaches the physical reality of the Western Cordillera of the Andes. A geographical space where characters related geological volcanism are of particular importance in shaping the landscape Andean. The intermediate plains or mountains and plateaus, are the two elements that make up the image of the Andean puna, an area located above 4,000 meters, the middle ground between Yungas wet valley and the highest peaks of the Andes. A volcanic uniqueness should add that related to glacier modeling, hydrographic aspects and biogeography in this area. The article uses the example of the highlands of Sajama study in thedepartment of Oruro in Bolivian-Chilean border.

  2. Algunas reflexiones desde la acuarela de Mario Conde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Romano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This brief reflection on the work of Mario Conde starts paying attention to the special relationship the artist has with the watercolor technique, deploying from that relationship a copy-based ethics. From that materiality Conde builds his response to the postmodern moment in which art in general, and particularly Bolivian art, is been developed given its current social conditions. The ethics of the copy is explored especially in two of his works: "Exterminator Angel" where  copying addresses colonial issues that return to question and challenge the very notion of homeland, and "Drunk with power (Géricault in Los Andes" where the copy,  adapted to Andean latitudes, exudes a desire to restore the sacred and  auratic character of artwork as well as of the Andean imagery.Esta breve reflexión sobre la obra de Mario Conde se inicia poniendo atención en la relación particular que tiene el pintor con la técnica de la acuarela, desplegando desde esa relación una ética basada en la copia. Desde esa materialidad Conde concretiza su respuesta al momento posmoderno en que se desarrolla el arte en general, y el boliviano en particular dadas sus condiciones sociales actuales. La ética de la copia es explorada especialmente en dos de sus obras: “Ángel exterminador” donde la copia aborda temáticas coloniales que retornan para poner en cuestión y entredicho la noción de patria, y “Ebrios de poder (Géricault en Los Andes” donde la copia adaptada a latitudes andinas destila un deseo de restablecer el carácter sagrado y aurático de la obra de arte como del imaginario andino.

  3. Model of automatic fuel management for the Atucha II nuclear central with the PUMA IV code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marconi G, J.F.; Tarazaga, A.E.; Romero, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Atucha II central is a heavy water power station and natural uranium. For this reason and due to the first floor reactivity excess that have this type of reactors, it is necessary to carry out a continuous fuel management and with the central in power (for the case of Atucha II every 0.7 days approximately). To maintain in operation these centrals and to achieve a good fuels economy, different types of negotiate of fuels that include areas and roads where the fuels displace inside the core are proved; it is necessary to prove the great majority of these managements in long periods in order to corroborate the behavior of the power station and the burnt of extraction of the fuel elements. To carry out this work it is of great help that a program implements the approaches to continue in each replacement, using the roads and areas of each administration type to prove, and this way to obtain as results the one regulations execution in the time and the average burnt of extraction of the fuel elements, being fundamental this last data for the operator company of the power station. To carry out the previous work it is necessary that a physicist with experience in fuel management proves each one of the possible managements, even those that quickly can be discarded if its don't fulfill with the regulatory standards or its possess an average extraction burnt too much low. For this it is of fundamental help that with an automatic model the different administrations are proven and lastly the physicist analyzes the more important cases. The pattern in question not only allows to program different types of roads and areas of fuel management, but rather it also foresees the possibility to disable some of the approaches. (Author)

  4. Smoke, Biomass Exposure, and COPD Risk in the Primary Care Setting: The PUMA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes de Oca, Maria; Zabert, Gustavo; Moreno, Dolores; Laucho-Contreras, Maria E; Lopez Varela, Maria Victorina; Surmont, Filip

    2017-08-01

    The evidence indicates that risk factors other than smoking are important in the development of COPD. It has been postulated that less traditional risk factors (eg, exposure to coal and/or biomass smoke) may interact with smoking to further increase COPD risk. This analysis evaluated the effect of exposure to biomass and smoking on COPD risk in a primary care setting in Latin America. Subjects attending routine primary care visits, ≥40 y old, who were current or former smokers or were exposed to biomass smoke, completed a questionnaire and performed spirometry. COPD was defined as post-bronchodilator FEV 1 /FVC 30), and biomass exposure was defined as an exposure to coal or wood (for heating, cooking, or both) for ≥ 10 y. One thousand seven hundred forty-three individuals completed the questionnaire, and 1,540 performed spirometry. Irrespective of COPD definition, approximately 40% of COPD subjects reported exposure to biomass versus 30% of those without COPD. A higher proportion of COPD subjects (post-bronchodilator FEV 1 /FVC 30 pack-years (66% vs 39%); similar results were found with the lower limit of normal definition. Analysis of exposure to biomass > 10 y plus smoking > 20 pack-years (reference was no exposure) found that tobacco smoking (crude odds ratio [OR] 4.50, 95% CI 2.73-7.41; adjusted OR 3.30, 95% CI 1.93-5.63) and biomass exposure (crude OR 3.66, 95% CI 2.00-6.73; adjusted OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.18-4.41) were risk factors for COPD, with smoking a possible confounder for the association between biomass and COPD (post-bronchodilator FEV 1 /FVC biomass and smoking compared with non-COPD subjects. Smoking and biomass are both risk factors for COPD, but they do not appear to have an additive effect. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  5. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Grant County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Union County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Eddy County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Camila S.; Hackbart, Vivian C. S.; Pivello, Vânia R.; dos Santos, Rozely F.

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges.

  6. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. Zoonotic vector-borne bacterial pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor), 1987-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Yvette A; Swift, Pamela; Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Fleer, Katryna; Foley, Janet E; Torres, Steven G; Johnson, Christine K

    2012-11-01

    Sera collected from 442 mountain lions in 48 California counties between the years of 1987 and 2010 were tested using immunofluorescence assays and agglutination tests for the presence of antibodies reactive to Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Bartonella henselae, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum antigens. Data were analyzed for spatial and temporal trends in seropositivity. Seroprevalences for B. burgdorferi (19.9%) and B. henselae (37.1%) were relatively high, with the highest exposure in the Central Coast region for B. henselae. B. henselae DNA amplified in mountain lion samples was genetically similar to human-derived Houston-1 and domestic cat-derived U4 B. henselae strains at the gltA and ftsZ loci. The statewide seroprevalences of Y. pestis (1.4%), F. tularensis (1.4%), and A. phagocytophilum (5.9%), were comparatively low. Sera from Y. pestis- and F. tularensis-seropositive mountain lions were primarily collected in the Eastern and Western Sierra Nevada, and samples reactive to Y. pestis antigen were collected exclusively from adult females. Adult age (≥ 2 years) was a risk factor for B. burgdorferi exposure. Over 70% of tested animals were killed on depredation permits, and therefore were active near areas with livestock and human residential communities. Surveillance of mountain lions for these bacterial vector-borne and zoonotic agents may be informative to public health authorities, and the data are useful for detecting enzootic and peridomestic pathogen transmission patterns, particularly in combination with molecular characterization of the infecting organisms.

  11. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells display p53-dependent drug-induced Puma upregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackus, W. J. M.; Kater, A. P.; Grummels, A.; Evers, L. M.; Hooijbrink, B.; Kramer, M. H. H.; Castro, J. E.; Kipps, T. J.; van Lier, R. A. W.; van Oers, M. H. J.; Eldering, E.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the apoptosis gene expression profile of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells in relation to (1) normal peripheral and tonsillar B-cell subsets, (2) IgV(H) mutation status, and (3) effects of cytotoxic drugs. In accord with their noncycling, antiapoptotic status in vivo, CLL

  12. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Sierra County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Grant County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Multiplex-detectie van Phytophthora: "padlock-based Universal Multiplex detection Array" (pUMA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaszczyk, K.; Mendes, O.; Verstappen, E.C.P.; Bonants, P.J.M.; Schoen, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    Plant Research International heeft een diagnostische methode ontwikkeld die toe te passen is 'in planta', en ook de meest recent beschreven (quarantaine-) soorten omvat. De methode omvat de ontwikkeling van een generieke Phytophthora-methode gevolgd door een Phytophthora-identificatie.

  18. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Eddy County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Roosevelt County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. VEGA2 PUMA DUST MASS SPECTROMETER DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data from IKI for this dataset were received as two binary files containing data taken in all instrument modes. These files were split into separate files for...

  2. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. Dust envelope of the Halley comet from data of the PUMA device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Evlanov, E.N.; Zubkov, B.V.

    1987-01-01

    Results of measuring intensity of dust flow of the Halley comet envelope in different mass ranges are presented. Availability of up to 5x10 -17 dusts in the dust coma of the comet, i.e. absence of cut of mass integral spectrum in the range of approximately 10 -14 g is shown. The dust envelope has a smeared diffuse boundary and fine dust is registered at approximately 5x10 5 km distance. The dust envelope is strongly inhomogeneous, and has narror ranges of increased density of dust fluxes pointing to availability of powerful local sources at nucleus surface

  5. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. VEGA2 PUMA DUST MASS SPECTROMETER MODAL DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data from MPI for this dataset were received as text files each containing spectra of a single instrument mode (there were several files for most modes). These...

  7. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Roosevelt County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Using step and path selection functions for estimating resistance to movement: Pumas as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A. Zeller; Kevin McGarigal; Samuel A. Cushman; Paul Beier; T. Winston Vickers; Walter M. Boyce

    2015-01-01

    GPS telemetry collars and their ability to acquire accurate and consistently frequent locations have increased the use of step selection functions (SSFs) and path selection functions (PathSFs) for studying animal movement and estimating resistance. However, previously published SSFs and PathSFs often do not accommodate multiple scales or multiscale modeling....

  13. Slug promotes survival during metastasis through suppression of Puma-mediated apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seaho; Yao, Jiahong; Suyama, Kimita; Qian, Xia; Qian, Bin-Zhi; Bandyopadhyay, Sanmay; Loudig, Olivier; De Leon-Rodriguez, Carlos; Zhou, Zhen Ni; Segall, Jeffrey; Macian, Fernando; Norton, Larry; Hazan, Rachel. B.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor cells must overcome apoptosis to survive throughout metastatic dissemination and distal organ colonization. Here we show in the Polyoma Middle T mammary tumor model that N-cadherin expression causes Slug upregulation, which in turn promotes carcinoma cell survival. Slug was dramatically upregulated in metastases relative to primary tumors. Consistent with a role in metastasis, Slug knockdown in carcinoma cells suppressed lung colonization by decreasing cell survival at metastatic sites,...

  14. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Curry County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Detection of Bim and Puma in mouse hair follicles using immunofluorescence and TUNEL assay double staining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselá, Barbora; Matalová, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 8 (2015), s. 587-593 ISSN 1052-0295 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP502/12/1285 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : apoptosis * Bim * development Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.078, year: 2015

  18. Pu and MA Management in Thermal HTR, QUO VADIS? Insights from the Euratom PUMA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijper, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    The results of this study demonstrate the excellent plutonium and minor actinide burning capabilities of the high temperature reactor. The largest degree of incineration is attained in the case of an HTR fuelled by pure plutonium fuel as it remains critical at very deep burn-up of the discharged pebbles. Addition of minor actinides to the fuel leads to decrease of the achievable discharge burn-up and therefore smaller fraction of actinides incinerated during reactor operation. The inert-matrix fuel design improves the transmutation performance of the reactor, while the “wallpaper” fuel does not have advantage over the standard fuel design in this respect

  19. Social inequality and child malnutrition in four Andean countries Desigualdad social y malnutrición infantil en cuatro países andinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Larrea

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the effects of socioeconomic, regional, and ethnic conditions on chronic malnutrition in four Andean countries of South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Methods. The study was based on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS for Colombia (1995, Peru (1996, and Bolivia (1997, and on a Living Standard Measurement Survey for Ecuador (1998. We developed an index of household socioeconomic status using categorical principal components analysis. We broke down the prevalence of stunting by socioeconomic status (SES, ethnicity, place of residence (large cities, small cities, towns, and countryside, and region (highland region versus other areas of the country. We applied smoothed regression curves and linear functions to analyze SES effects on stunting, with specific models for Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. Results. Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru have similar characteristics, with high stunting prevalences overall; higher stunting prevalences in their highland areas, particularly among indigenous populations; and strong socioeconomic disparities. Colombia, in contrast, has a lower stunting prevalence and smaller regional disparities. The socioeconomic gradient of stunting is strong in all four countries, with prevalence rates in the poorest deciles at least three times as high as those in the top decile. Discussion. The sharp contrast between the conditions found in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru and those in Colombia may be the result of specific ethnic factors affecting indigenous groups; a particular diet profile in the highland areas, with low protein and micronutrient intake; and differences in the long-term economic and social development paths that the countries have taken. Along with the strong socioeconomic gradient in all the countries, the weight of ethnic and regional factors suggests the need to reduce inequality as well as to comprehensively improve education and housing, better target health and nutrition programs, and implement participatory programs integrated into indigenous cultures.Objetivo. Analizar los efectos de las condiciones socioeconómicas, regionales y étnicas en la desnutrición crónica en Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador y Perú. Métodos. El estudio se basó en las Encuestas Demográficas y de Salud de Colombia (1995, Perú (1996 y Bolivia (1997, y en la Encuesta de Condiciones de Vida de Ecuador (1998. Se creó un índice del estatus socioeconómico familiar, empleando un análisis categórico de componentes principales. La prevalencia del retraso del crecimiento se desagregó por estatus socioeconómico, etnia, lugar de residencia (grandes ciudades, pequeñas ciudades, pueblos y zonas rurales y región (regiones montañosas frente al resto del país. Se aplicaron curvas de regresión suavizadas y funciones lineales para analizar los efectos del estatus socioeconómico en el retraso del crecimiento, creándose modelos específicos para Bolivia, Ecuador y Perú. Resultados. Bolivia, Ecuador y Perú presentaron características similares: alta prevalencia general de retraso del crecimiento, mayor prevalencia en las zonas montañosas, sobre todo en las poblaciones indígenas, y fuertes disparidades socioeconómicas. Colombia, por el contrario, presentó menor prevalencia y menores disparidades regionales. Hubo un marcado gradiente socioeconómico del retraso del crecimiento en los cuatro países, siendo las tasas de prevalencia por lo menos tres veces mayores en los deciles más pobres que en el decil más alto. Conclusiones. El marcado contraste entre Bolivia, Ecuador y Perú, por un lado, y Colombia por el otro, puede deberse a factores étnicos específicos que afectan a la población indígena, a las características peculiares de la dieta en las regiones montañosas, con escasas proteínas y micronutrientes, y a las diferencias entre las vías de desarrollo económico y social a largo plazo de los países. Junto con el marcado gradiente socieconómico observado en los cuatro países, el peso de los factores étnicos y regionales señala la necesidad de reducir la desigualdad, así como de mejorar globalmente la educación y el alojamiento, dirigir mejor los programas de salud y nutrición, y poner en práctica programas de participación integrados en las culturas indígenas.

  20. Estudio de la dinámica de sedimentos asociada al impacto de la explotación minera sobre cauces de ríos andinos

    OpenAIRE

    Tavera Pinzón, Andrés Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Resumen: el principal objetivo de esta investigación es determinar el impacto de la explotación minera en la cuenca del río Risaralda, determinando las variables que más influyen en el aumento de las tasas de incisión cuando se genera una disminución en el aporte de sedimentos. Este estudio se desarrolló acoplando el modelo hidrológico TETIS distribuido con el modelo de incisión por carga total haciendo usos de la geometría hidráulica de Leopold. Inicialmente se realizó una comparación del de...

  1. Influencia del fenómeno ENSO sobre la precipitación nival en el sector andino de Chile central durante el invierno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available INFLUENCE DU PHÉNOMÈNE ENSO SUR LES PRÉCIPITATIONS NEIGEUSES DANS LE CENTRE DU CHILI ANDIN AU COURS DE L’HIVER AUSTRAL. On analyse l’influence du phénomène El Niño/Oscillation du Sud (ENSO sur les précipitations nivales dans les Andes du Chili central au cours de l’hiver. Pour cela, on a utilisé l’information obtenue sur des sites spécifiques (routes de neige situées entre 30° et 38° S et les anomalies de Température de Surface de la Mer (TSM du bloc Niño 3, comme indicateur de l’importance des événements chauds ou froids dans le Pacifique équatorial central. Au nord de 35°S, l’accumulation de neige tend à être supérieure à la normale quand l’anomalie moyenne de TSM dépasse +1°C au cours de la période mai-août. Dans ce même secteur, on enregistre une précipitation inférieure à la normale les hivers caractérisés par une anomalie de TSM inférieure à -0,5°C. Dans la zone située au sud de 35° S, l’influence du phénomène ENSO sur l’accumulation de neige n’est plus significative. Se analiza la influencia del fenómeno El Niño/Oscilación del Sur (ENSO sobre la precipitación nival en los Andes de Chile central durante el invierno. Para esto, se utiliza información de rutas de nieve localizadas entre 30° y 38° S, y de anomalías de temperatura superficial del mar (TSM en la región Niño 3 como un indicador de la magnitud de los eventos cálidos y fríos en el Pacífico ecuatorial central. En la región al norte de 35° S, la acumulación de nieve durante el invierno tiende a ser superior a lo normal cuando la magnitud de la anomalía media de TSM en el periodo mayo-agosto supera +1,0° C. En este mismo sector se verifica que durante los inviernos caracterizados por una anomalía de TSM inferior a -0,5° C, suele registrarse una precipitación nival inferior a lo normal. En el sector al sur de los 35° S, la influencia del fenómeno ENSO sobre la acumulación de nieve durante el invierno no es significativa. THE ENSO PHENOMENON INFLUENCE ON SNOW FALL IN THE ANDEAN SECTOR OF CENTRAL CHILE DURING WINTER. The influence of El Niño/Southern Oscillation phenomenon (ENSO on winter snow accumulation over the subtropical Andes in Central Chile is analyzed using records of snow accumulation at specific sites between 30° S and 38° S and the sea surface temperature (SST anomaly in the region Niño 3 as an index for the intensity of warm and cold episodes in the central equatorial Pacific. Anomalously large snow accumulation tend to occur in the andean sector to the north of 35° S when the magnitude of a positive SST anomaly surpasses +1.0°C during the austral winter (May-August. On the contrary, less than normal snow accumulation is generally observed in this sector when a negative SST anomaly exceeding -0.5° C prevails. No significant signal associated to ENSO was detected in the winter snow accumulation at andean sites to the south of 35° S.

  2. Adiciones de angiospermas a la Flora del Perú procedentes de los bosques Andino Amazónicos del sur peruano

    OpenAIRE

    Huamantupa, Isau; Vásquez, Rodolfo; Foster, Robin; Cuba, Magaly; Calatayud, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    We present 25 new records of angiosperms for the Peruvian flora, as a result of different botanical explorations conducted in southern Peru, mainly in the areas of the departments of Cusco, Apurimac and Madre de Dios. Se da a conocer 25 nuevos registros de angiospermas a la flora peruana, como resultado de diferentes exploraciones botánicas realizadas en el sur peruano, principalmente en los ámbitos de los departamentos de Cusco, Madre de Dios y Apurímac.

  3. Las macrófitas de algunos lagos alto-andinos del Ecuador y su bajo potencial como bioindicadores de eutrofización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Kiersch

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la presencia de macrófitas en tres lagos de altoandinos en Ecuador,Lago San Pablo,Laguna La Mica y Lago Cuicocha.Los primeros dos son eutróficos, mientras que el último es un lago de caldera extremadamente oligotrófico.Las especies dominantes en los lagos eutróficos son:Ceratophyllum demersum , Myriophyllum quitense ,Potamogeton illinoensis ,P. striatus y Elodea matthewsii .En el lago oligotrófico están presentes P.pectinatus,P.illinoensi s,y las Characeae Chara rusbyabana ,Ch.globularis y Nitella acuminata .La máxima profundidad para la presencia de macrófitas puede ser usada como un indicador del estado de eutroficación,la cual va desde 5 m en la Laguna Mica a 35 m en el Lago Cuicocha.El valor de la bioindicación de las especies de macrófitas en estos lagos altoandinos es bajo,debido a que solo unas pocas especies están presentes,y algunas de ellas no son específicas para las condiciones ambientales.Macrophytes from some high Andean lakes of Ecuador and their low potential as bioindicators of eutrophication .The occurrence of macrophyte in three high Andean lakes of Ecuador,Lago San Pablo, Laguna La Mica and Lago Cuicocha was recorded in 5-9 transects per lake.The first two lakes are eutrophic, the third is an extremely oligotrophic caldera lake.The dominant species in eutrophic lakes are Ceratophyllum demersum ,Myriophyllum quitense ,Potamogeton illinoensis ,P.striatus and Elodea matthewsii .In the oligotrophic lake P.pectinatus,P.illinoensi s,and the Characeae Chara rusbyana ,Ch.globularis and Nitella acuminata occur.The maximum depth of the macrophyte ’s presence can be used as an indicator of the trophic state,ranging from about 5 m in Mica to 35 m in Cuicocha.The bioindication value of the macrophyte species in these high Andean lakes is low,because few species occur and because some of them are not specific to environmental conditions.Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4:829-837.Epub 2005 Jun 24.

  4. La huella ecológica y los países andinos, una reflexión sobre la sustentabilidad y la biocapacidad

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    Deyanira Gómez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La escasez de los recursos ha llevado a la reflexión respecto a la medición del desarrollo, que ya no puede ser medido únicamente en términos de crecimiento económico como lo hace el Producto Interno Bruto (PIB, sino que es necesario tomar en cuenta los recursos o capital natural con los que cuenta una determinada nación para que desde una perspectiva de sustentabilidad, pueda asegurar la calidad de vida de las generaciones futuras, esta herramienta se la conoce como la Huella Ecológica.

  5. Cognição e paisagem no processo civilizatório andino: a matriz do lugar como chave para decifrar Machu Picchu

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    Rualdo Menegat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investiga as relações entre a paisagem andina e a construção das cidades incaicas de Machu Picchu e Ollantaytambo no vale do rio Vilcanota-Urubamba, na região de Cusco, Peru. Por meio de técnicas da Ecologia de Paisagem, Geologia e Geomorfologia, estabeleceu-se a matriz do lugar da região em termos de uma rede de falhas tectônicas e as formas das montanhas e blocos rochosos resultantes da erosão. Procura-se mostrar que as cidades incaicas foram propositadamente situadas em locais de cruzamento de falhas geológicas, onde as condições do meio rochoso propiciaram a construção de cidades em locais elevados e estrategicamente seguros frente às condições inóspitas dos Andes centrais.

  6. PRODUCCIÓN DE HOJARASCA FINA EN BOSQUES ALTO ANDINOS DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA FINE LITTER PRODUCTION IN HIGH ANDEAN FORESTS FROM ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

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    Claudia Marcela Zapata Duque

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En bosques montanos naturales de Quercus humboldtii y reforestados (Pinus patula y Cupressus lusitanica de la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, fue evaluada la producción de hojarasca por un periodo de 2 años. Se utilizaron trampas de hojarasca con el fin de recoger el material desprendido del dosel para su posterior separación en fracciones y pesado respectivo. El promedio de caída de hojarasca anual para Q. humboldtii, P. patula y C. lusitanica fue de 7877,20; 8362,47 y 3725,97 kg ha-1año-1 respectivamente; siendo la fracción foliar la que mayor participación tuvo en la producción total. Mediante análisis de regresión lineal múltiple se ajustaron modelos de producción de hojarasca según fracciones por cobertura en función de diferentes variables hidrológicas, tales como la intensidad y la cantidad de lluvia del período simultáneo a la recolección de la hojarasca o inmediatamente anterior.Litter production was measured over two years in a montane oak forest (Quercus humboldtii and in pine (Pinus patula and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica plantations in Piedras Blancas, Antioquia ( Colombia . Litter traps were used in order to collect litterfall to be subsequently separated into fractions and weighed. Annual mean litterfall for Q. humboldtii, P. patula and C. lusitanica was of 7877,20; 8362,47 and 3725,97 kg ha-1year-1 respectively; being the leaf fraction of highest participation in total production. Multiple linear regression models were used to fit litter production for each fraction and forest cover as a function of different hydrological variables such as intensity and quantity of precipitation, both during the period when the leaf litter was collected and immediately preceding one.

  7. Identificación de tubérculos andinos (Oxalis tuberosa, Ullucus tuberosus y Tropaeolum tuberosum) : mediante caracteres anatómicos y exomorfológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Melchiorre, Pedro

    1985-01-01

    p.141-153 Se determinan las diferencias morfológicas entre los tubérculos de oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina), ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus Loz.) y añu (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz et Pav.) provenientes del noroeste argentino (provincias de Salta y Jujuy). El estudio de su anatomía y su morfología externa reveló caracteres útiles para el reconocimiento de esas especies tanto a través de materiales actuales como arqueológicos. Se describen los caracteres aludidos y se presenta una clave para la dete...

  8. Levaduras fermentadoras aisladas de Cyttaria hariotii (Fungi) en bosques Andino-Patagónicos (Argentina) Fermenting yeasts isolated from Cyttaria hariotii (Fungi) in the Andean Patagonic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    José Ulloa; Diego Libkind; Sonia Fontenla; María Van Broock

    2009-01-01

    Las levaduras han estado asociadas al hombre desde épocas muy tempranas. Entre estas se destacan las fermentadoras debido a su importancia en la industria de los alimentos. Las implicancias biotecnológicas de estas levaduras han sido extensamente estudiadas, sin embargo la distribución en la naturaleza y la ecología de estas no se encuentra igualmente documentada. El presente estudio se realizó en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi (Noroeste Patagónico, Argentina) sobre Cyttaria hariotii, hongo ...

  9. Levaduras fermentadoras aisladas de Cyttaria hariotii (Fungi en bosques Andino-Patagónicos (Argentina Fermenting yeasts isolated from Cyttaria hariotii (Fungi in the Andean Patagonic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ulloa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Las levaduras han estado asociadas al hombre desde épocas muy tempranas. Entre estas se destacan las fermentadoras debido a su importancia en la industria de los alimentos. Las implicancias biotecnológicas de estas levaduras han sido extensamente estudiadas, sin embargo la distribución en la naturaleza y la ecología de estas no se encuentra igualmente documentada. El presente estudio se realizó en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi (Noroeste Patagónico, Argentina sobre Cyttaria hariotii, hongo ascomicético parásito de árboles del género Nothofagus. Mediante el uso de un medio selectivo con etanol 8 % se obtuvieron 72 aislamientos. Los mismos fueron ordenados en cinco grupos en base a pruebas morfológicas y fisiológicas, tres de los cuales fueron asignados a los géneros Saccharomyces, Pichia y Kloeckera. El grupo Saccharomyces presentó el mayor número de aislamientos y se subdividió en tres subgrupos, dos de ellos presentan alta afinidad con S. bayanus y/ó S. uvarum. La totalidad de los aislamientos fueron psicrotolerantes y la temperatura máxima de crecimiento osciló entre 35 y 37 _C. El presente trabajo contribuye al conocimiento de la biodiversidad de levaduras de la Patagonia y representa el primer aislamiento masivo de levaduras sacaromicéticas en ambientes naturales de la región.Yeasts have been associated with mankind from early ages. Among these, fermentative yeasts played the most relevant role, due to its importance in the food industry. The biotechnological implications of these yeasts have been extensively studied. However there is a lack of information about its distribution in nature and ecology. In this study samples of Cyttaria hariotii, ascomycete fungus parasite of trees of the genus Nothofagus, were collected in Nahuel Huapi National Park (Northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. 72 isolates were obtained using a selective culture medium with 8% ethanol. Identification of the isolates was based on morphological and physiological tests, and then sorted into five groups. Three groups were assigned to the genera Saccharomyces, Pichia and Kloeckera respectively. The Saccharomyces group was the prevailing one, and was sorted into three subgroups. Two of them were related to S. bayanus and /or S. uvarum. All the isolates were psychrotolerant and the maximum growth temperature ranged between 35 and 37 _C. This work contributes to the knowledge of the biodiversity of yeasts in the region and represents the first massive isolation of Saccharomyces yeasts in natural environments of Patagonia.

  10. Estudio de la bioacústica del zorzal andino (Turdus chiguanco con la aplicación del software Audacity, v. 2.0

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    Aldo Hugo Miguel Orellana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar las características bioacústicas del Turdus chiguanco; entre estas, la amplitud, la frecuencia y la duración en las distintas voces. Métodos: Investigación descriptiva en la cual se recolectaron datos bioacústicos durante los años 2011-2012, luego fueron procesados con el software Audacity versión 2.0. Resultados: Se identificaron cuatro tipos de voces: Voz de huida, voz estacionaria, voz de contacto y voz de canto. En la voz de huida, se determinaron valores promedio: amplitud máxima 52,82 dB; amplitud media 0,05 dB; amplitud mínima -13,91 dB; frecuencia máxima 6,8 kHz; frecuencia media 0,63 kHz; frecuencia mínima 0,27 kHz; la duración 1,05 segundos. En la voz estacionaria: amplitud máxima 31,22 dB; amplitud media -0,19 dB; amplitud mínima -16,45 dB; frecuencia máxima 4,31 kHz; frecuencia media 1,63 kHz; frecuencia mínima 0,52 kHz; duración de 0,29 segundos. En la voz de contacto: amplitud máxima 55,22 dB; amplitud media 0,8 dB; amplitud mínima -16,33 dB; frecuencia máxima 2,87 kHz; frecuencia media 0,41 kHz; frecuencia mínima 0,2 kHz; duración 1,28 segundos. Y en la voz de canto: amplitud máxima 50,22 dB; amplitud media 0,08 dB; amplitud mínima -7,38 dB; frecuencia máxima 3,85 kHz; frecuencia media 0,71 kHz; frecuencia mínima 0,33 kHz; duración 1,34 segundos. Conclusiones: El Turdus chiguanco emite cuatro tipos de voces: de huida, estacionaria, de contacto y de canto. Los valores de las variables bioacústicas: amplitud, frecuencia y duración, varían entre los cuatro tipos de voces.

  11. «Sangres» para propiciar la vida: metáforas y creencias sobre la concepción «humana» en el altiplano andino

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    Vicente Martín, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the participation of telluric entities in regulating and propitiating fertility in general and «human» fertility in particular in the Andes region. The first part of this study deals with the participation of telluric forces in the breeding of livestock and the propitiation of plant life, as well as resources in general. In view of the visibility of these propitiatory rites, the genesis of new individuals is couched in a language in which references to «blood» and excessive heat abound. This study of the notions relating to conception and human fertility in the Andes involves the systematization of references found in ethnographic literature, and presentation of my own research in rural areas of southern Potosi (Bolivia. I then go on to consider the bodily rhetoric of life-promoting pregnant bodies and their specificities with a view to probing more deeply into the concept of fertility of the people of the Andean plateau.Este artículo tiene como objetivo la reflexión sobre la participación de las entidades tutelares en la regulación y propiciación de la fertilidad en general y de la «humana» en particular en los Andes. La primera parte del estudio aborda la participación de las fuerzas telúricas en la multiplicación del ganado y la propiciación de la vida vegetal, así como de las riquezas en general. Frente a la visibilidad de estos ritos propiciatorios, la génesis de los nuevos individuos se enmascara en un lenguaje en el cual abundan las referencias a las «sangres» y al exceso de calor. El estudio de las ideas acerca de la concepción y la fertilidad humana en los Andes pasa por una sistematización de las referencias halladas en la literatura etnográfica, y por la exposición de mis propias investigaciones en áreas rurales de Potosí. Tras ello se abordan las retóricas corporales de los cuerpos gestantes que propician la vida y sus especificidades con el fin de ahondar en la compresión de los conceptos de fertilidad de las gentes del altiplano.

  12. Community-Based Tourism and Peasant Differentiation: Considerations from an Andean case Turismo rural comunitario y diferenciación campesina: Consideraciones a partir de un caso andino

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    Jordi Gascón

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, Community-Based Tourism has created expectations in many latin american rural communities as an strategy to increase their income and to diversify the sources of this income. But it is an activity that is not free of risks. From a specific case (Amantaní Island, Titikaka Lake, Peru, the article studies one of these risks: the impact of tourism in the socio-economical communitarian cohesion.En los últimos años, el turismo rural comunitario se ha presentado como un instrumento adecuado para aumentar la renta de la población campesina y diversificar sus fuentes de ingresos. Pero se trata de una actividad económica que no está exenta de riesgos. A partir de un caso específico (la isla peruana de Amantaní, en el Lago Titicaca el artículo estudia uno de ellos: el impacto del turismo en la cohesión socioeconómica comunitaria.

  13. A cor dos têxteis Andinos: análise da cor em têxteis da cultura milenar de Paracas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Isa Santos

    2008-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada na Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Conservação e Restauro Área de Têxteis O presente trabalho insere-se num projecto denominado “The color of the Andean Textiles”, que resulta de uma colaboração entre a Faculdade de Ciência e Tecnologia, da Universidade Nova de Lisboa (FCT-UNL) e o Museum of Fine Arts (MFA), de Boston. Os corantes dos têxteis da cultura de Paracas, que se desenvolveu na costa Sul d...

  14. HONGOS APHYLLOPHORALES (BASIDIOMYCOTA LIGNÍCOLAS DEL BOSQUE ALTO ANDINO “SANTA CLARA”. UNA GUÍA ILUSTRADA PARA EL ESTUDIO DE MACROHONGOS

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    César Augusto Pinzón Osorio

    2014-12-01

    Esta investigación surge de la necesidad de registrar los macrohongos Aphyllophorales de estos ecosistemas, conocidos por estar altamente impactados por la agricultura (Van der Hammen, 2003. Es fundamental el diseño de un material didáctico que ofrezca un panorama integral sobre la biología de los Aphyllophorales, teniendo en cuenta que las guías demacrohongos para el país, no se orientan directamente a su enseñanza

  15. Lugares para la muerte en el espacio meridional andino, Salta en el siglo XVIII: The Southern Andean Region, Salta 18th Century Death and burial places

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    Gabriela Caretta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Los enterratorios como lugares no solo reflejan el status social, la condición étnica y jurídica del enterrado, sino además todo un entramado de relaciones sociales entre las que encontramos rasgos de exclusión, lazos de sujeción, vinculaciones personales y de grupos. Los lugares de entierro no pueden entenderse sin la consideración de los imaginarios en torno a la muerte. Nos centraremos en los espacios destinados al entierro en la ciudad de Salta a lo largo del siglo XVIII para reconocer en ellos "lugares"; es decir, espacios cargados de sentido para sus habitantes. El concepto de "lugar" nos remite a la construcción concreta y simbólica del espacio, en el que los historiadores, sin caer en la ilusión de su transparencia, pueden leer marcas sociales, pautas de identificación, estratificación y conflictos así como indicios acerca de la presencia de imaginarios que valoran y sostienen el entierro en el centro de la ciudad.Burials not only reflect the legal, social and ethnic status of individuals, they also show a network of social relationships among which we find signs of exclusion, subjection and personal and collective links. The complexity of burial places cannot be understood without considering peoples' imaginary about death. We will focus specifically on spaces thought of as burial grounds on Salta city during the eighteenth Century in order to recognize "places" full of meaning to their inhabitants. The concept of place refers to the real and symbolic construction of space and Historians, without falling in an ethnographic illusion of transparency, are able to search for social markers and signs of identity, hierarchy and stratification as well as some clues regarding different imaginaries which give value and sustain those burial places in the town's center.

  16. Caracterización de la biodiversidad acuática en la cuenca andino-amazónica de Madre de Dios - Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo Flores, Julio Manuel

    2016-01-01

    El conocimiento de los cuerpos de agua de la región Neotrópical se revela como una necesidad a nivel global que la sociedad debe afrontar. La biodiversidad acuática, especialmente las comunidades de peces de la Amazonía, la principal cuenca del Neotrópico, constituyen el principal reservorio de diversidad de agua continental del mundo, señalada como una región de alta prioridad para la conservación. No obstante, aun presenta muchas lagunas de conocimiento con el agravante de estar registrando...

  17. La enseñanza de la ética periodística y el autocontrol: convergencias de cinco países andinos

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    María Luján González Portela

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de conjugar la libertad de expresión de que gozan los medios de comunicación, con la responsabilidad que la sociedad está en obligación de exigirles, es una de las mayores preocupaciones de los estudiosos de la ética de la comunicación y otros investigadores. La autora señala que el autocontrol y la autorregulación ética sustentada en el enfoque que aporta el derecho a la información, es la mejor manera de articular esas dos caras de la misma moneda como son la libertad y la responsabilidad de la prensa.

  18. ¿Cómo hacer chicha en Córdoba? Reflexiones en torno a los aspectos políticos y materiales de la producción de chicha por inmigrantes bolivianos

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    Gisela Vargas Ibarra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Beverages and food might be considered as instances with a special daily routine, and with a poeticand a special gastro-politic, which implicates in the everyday reproduction and in the sense ofmembership in a group. In these instances different subjects and materialities convergence, whicharticulates in a process in which themselves are defined. From this perspective, it interests us toreflect around the «chicha» (a fermented beverage based on maize production processes from the viewof the Bolivian women immigrants and it articulation with other contexts in the city of Córdoba(Argentina. We consider that it exists a tension between the necessity to count with this beverage forcertain celebrations and the difficulty to produce it, and the tension which are inscribed in the marginalsituations that experience the majority of the immigrants. To approximate the gastro-politics thatunfolds in these production processes, we concentrate on the trajectories of the «chichera» women, asthe source materials and other necessities for its elaboration

  19. Migraciones y géneros: Formas de narrar los movimientos por parte de migrantes bolivianos/as en Argentina Migration and gender: How Bolivian migrants in Argentina narrate their experience

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    Ana Inés Mallimaci Barral

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas se ha producido un creciente desarrollo de las producciones científicas desde una perspectiva feminista o de género sobre temáticas migratorias. Este artículo pretende incluirse en esta tradición a la vez que se plantean las especificidades que generan este tipo de estudios en las sociedades latinoamericanas. Puntualmente, en el artículo se presentan algunas reflexiones sobre las producciones de sentidos que mujeres y varones bolivianas/os inmigrantes en Argentina (Ushuaia realizan sobre sus trayectorias migratorias. Proponemos una tipología de las trayectorias migratorias para describir y comprender los diferentes sentidos que migrar tiene para estas mujeres y varones. Este mismo trabajo de análisis nos servirá como base para discutir dicotomías clásicas presentes en estudios y políticas migratorias, tales como reunificación familiar vs. migración laboral, migración racional vs. migración afectiva y migración asociativa vs. migración autónoma.There has been a growing development of scientific works on migratory issues from a feminist or gender perspective in the last decades. This article intends to be included in this tradition as it exposes the specificities that generate this type of studies in Latin American societies. Precisely, the article presents some reflections on how Bolivian women and men immigrants in Argentina (Ushuaia understand their migratory trajectories. We propose a typology of the migratory trajectories to describe and understand the distinct perceptions of migration for these women and men. This work will also serve as a basis for the discussion of the classic dichotomies existing in migratory studies and policies, as family reunification x labor migration, rational migration x affection migration and associative migration x autonomous migration.

  20. Del altiplano sur boliviano hasta el mercado global: coordinación y estructuras de gobernancia en la cadena de valor de la quinua orgánica y del comercio justo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, P.; Cáceres, Z.; Carimetrand, A.

    2006-01-01

    This article aims to describe and to analyze the recent development of real organic quinoa global value chain, linked to consumer demand in specific quality food markets. Taking into account small producers¿ organizations and local and multinational private companies, the authors consider the