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Sample records for andes mountain region

  1. Analyzing Multidecadal Trends in Cloudiness Over the Subtropical Andes Mountains of South America Using a Regional Climate Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Russell, A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2016-12-01

    Satellite-based products indicate that many parts of South America have been experiencing increases in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and corresponding decreases in cloudiness over the last few decades, with the strongest trends occurring in the subtropical Andes Mountains - an area that is highly vulnerable to climate change due to its reliance on glacial melt for dry-season runoff. Changes in cloudiness may be contributing to increases in atmospheric temperature, thereby raising the freezing level height (FLH) - a critical geophysical parameter. Yet these trends are only partially captured in reanalysis products, while AMIP climate models generally show no significant trend in OLR over this timeframe, making it difficult to determine the underlying drivers. Therefore, controlled numerical experiments with a regional climate model are performed in order to investigate drivers of the observed OLR and cloudiness trends. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is used here because it offers several advantages over global models, including higher resolution - a critical asset in areas of complex topography - as well as flexible physics, parameterization, and data assimilation capabilities. It is likely that changes in the mean states and meridional gradients of SSTs in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans are driving regional trends in clouds. A series of lower boundary manipulations are performed with WRF to determine to what extent changes in SSTs influence regional OLR.

  2. Mountain building in the central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Masaru; Fukao, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Akihiko

    1989-04-01

    The Central Andes is the middle part of the Andean chain between about 13°S and 27°S, characterized by the parallel running high mountain chains (the Western and Eastern Cordilleras) at the edges of high plateaus with a height of about 4000 m and a width of 200 to 450 km (the Altiplano-Puna). From the examination of geophysical and geological data in this area, including earthquakes, deformation, gravity anomaly, volcanism, uplift history, and plate motion, we conclude that the continued plate subduction with domination of compressive stress over the entire arc system is the main cause of the tectonic style of the Central Andes. We propose that the present cycle of mountain building has continued in the Cenozoic with the most active phase since the Miocene, and that the present subduction angle (30°) is not typical in that period but that subduction with more shallowly dipping oceanic lithosphere has prevailed at least since the Miocene, because of the young and buoyant slab involved. This situation is responsible for the production of a broad zone of partial melt in the mantle above the descending slab. Addition of volcanic materials was not restricted to the western edge (where active volcanoes of the Western Cordillera exist) but extended to the western and central portion of the Altiplano-Puna. The western half of the Central Andes is essentially isostatic because the heat transferred with the volcanic activities softened the crust there. In the eastern edge, the thermal effect is small, and the crust is strongly pushed by the westward moving South American plate. This caused the shortening of crustal blocks due to reverse faulting and folding in the Eastern Cordillera and Amazonian foreland. The magmatism and crustal accretion are dominant at the western end of the mountain system and decrease eastward, while the compression and consequent crustal shortening are strongest at the eastern end and wane toward west. These two processes are superposed between

  3. Meteorological Conditions of Floods In The Chilean Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, J.

    Catastrophic floods occurred on mountains River during 2000 and 2001. The meteo- rological conditions of flood during the last five years have analyzed. For example, the flood of June 29 of 2000 occurred after one of extremely wettest June of the last 40 years were snowfall was 991cm in the Aconcagua Valley. Infrequently storms activ- ity generated a huge snowfall and rainfall over the Andes mountains on June of 2000 (1525mm in El Maule Valley) and the end of the unusually period, the flood was trig- gered by rising temperatures on the mountains and heavy rain (199mm in 24 hours) fall over the fresh snow on the morning of June 29 and floods wave developed and moved down along of the all river located on Central part of Chile, the foods peak was 2970.5m3/s on the El Maule basin in the morning of June 29. The regional meteoro- logical models with the hydrological forecasting was used for alert of the floods.

  4. Mountain building processes in the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, A. L.; Isacks, B. L.

    False color composite images of the Thematic Mapper (TM) bands 5, 4, and 2 were examined to make visual interpretations of geological features. The use of the roam mode of image display with the International Imaging Systems (IIS) System 600 image processing package running on the IIS Model 75 was very useful. Several areas in which good comparisons with ground data existed, were examined in detail. Parallel to the visual approach, image processing methods are being developed which allow the complete use of the seven TM bands. The data was organized into easily accessible files and a visual cataloging of the quads (quarter TM scenes) with preliminary registration with the best available charts for the region. The catalog has proved to be a valuable tool for the rapid scanning of quads for a specific investigation. Integration of the data into a complete approach to the problems of uplift, deformation, and magnetism in relation to the Nazca-South American plate interaction is at an initial stage.

  5. Influence of spatial resolution on precipitation simulations for the central Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachte, Katja; Bendix, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    The climate of South America is highly influenced by the north-south oriented Andes Mountains. Their complex structure causes modifications of large-scale atmospheric circulations resulting in various mesoscale phenomena as well as a high variability in the local conditions. Due to their height and length the terrain generates distinctly climate conditions between the western and the eastern slopes. While in the tropical regions along the western flanks the conditions are cold and arid, the eastern slopes are dominated by warm-moist and rainy air coming from the Amazon basin. Below 35° S the situation reverses with rather semiarid conditions in the eastern part and temperate rainy climate along southern Chile. Generally, global circulation models (GCMs) describe the state of the global climate and its changes, but are disabled to capture regional or even local features due to their coarse resolution. This is particularly true in heterogeneous regions such as the Andes Mountains, where local driving features, e. g. local circulation systems, highly varies on small scales and thus, lead to a high variability of rainfall distributions. An appropriate technique to overcome this problem and to gain regional and local scale rainfall information is the dynamical downscaling of the global data using a regional climate model (RCM). The poster presents results of the evaluation of the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over South America with special focus on the central Andes Mountains of Ecuador. A sensitivity study regarding the cumulus parametrization, microphysics, boundary layer processes and the radiation budget is conducted. With 17 simulations consisting of 16 parametrization scheme combinations and 1 default run a suitable model set-up for climate research in this region is supposed to be evaluated. The simulations were conducted in a two-way nested mode i) to examine the best physics scheme combination for the target and ii) to

  6. SRTM Perspective of Colored Height and Shaded Relief Laguna Mellquina, Andes Mountains, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This depiction of an area south of San Martin de Los Andes, Argentina, is the first Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)view of the Andes Mountains, the tallest mountain chain in the western hemisphere. This particular site does not include the higher Andes peaks, but it does include steep-sided valleys and other distinctive landforms carved by Pleistocene glaciers. Elevations here range from about 700 to 2,440 meters (2,300 to 8,000 feet). This region is very active tectonically and volcanically, and the landforms provide a record of the changes that have occurred over many thousands of years. Large lakes fill the broad mountain valleys, and the spectacular scenery here makes this area a popular resort destination for Argentinians.Three visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading, color coding of topographic height and a perspective view. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in the southern hemisphere. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. The perspective is toward the west, 20 degrees off horizontal with 2X vertical exaggeration. The back (west) edge of the data set forms a false skyline within the Andes Range.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved

  7. ISOSTATICALLY DISTURBED TERRAIN OF NORTHWESTERN ANDES MOUNTAINS FROM SPECTRALLY CORRELATED FREE-AIR AND GRAVITY TERRAIN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández P Orlando

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently revised models on global tectonics describe the convergence of the North Andes, Nazca, Caribbean and South American Plates and their seismicity, volcanism, active faulting and extreme
    topography. The current plate boundaries of the area are mainly interpreted from volcanic and seismic datasets with variable confidence levels. New insights on the isostatic state and plate boundaries of
    the northwestern Andes Mountains can be obtained from the spectral analysis of recently available gravity and topography data.
    Isostatically disturbed terrain produces free-air anomalies that are highly correlated with the gravity effects of the terrain. The terrain gravity effects (TGE and free air gravity anomalies (FAGA of the
    Andes mountains spectral correlation data confirms that these mountains are isostatically disturbed. Strong negative terrain-correlated FAGA along western South America and the Greater and Lesser Antilles are consistent with anomalously deepened mantle displaced by subducting oceanic plates.

    Inversion of the compensated terrain gravity effects (CTGE reveals plate subduction systems with alternating shallower and steeper subduction angles. The gravity modeling highlights crustal
    deformation from plate collision and subduction and other constraints on the tectonism of the plate boundary zones for the region.

  8. SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief: Laguna Mellquina, Andes Mountains, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This depiction of an area south of San Martin de Los Andes, Argentina, is the first Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) view of the Andes Mountains, the tallest mountain chain in the western hemisphere. This particular site does not include the higher Andes peaks, but it does include steep-sided valleys and other distinctive landforms carved by Pleistocene glaciers. Elevations here range from about 700 to 2,440 meters(2,300 to 8,000 feet). This region is very active tectonically and volcanically, and the landforms provide a record of the changes that have occurred over many thousands of years. Large lakes fill the broad mountain valleys, and the spectacular scenery here makes this area a popular resort destination for Argentinians.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in the southern hemisphere. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR)that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U

  9. Contrasting Climate Change Impact on River Flow from Glacierised Catchments in the Himalayan and Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicciotti, F.; Ragettli, S.; Immerzeel, W. W. W.

    2016-12-01

    Glaciers and glacierised catchments in mountainous regions react to a changing climate in different manners depending on climate and glacier characteristics. Despite the key role of mountain ranges as natural water towers, their hydrological balance and future changes in glacier runoff associated with climate warming remain poorly understood because of high meteorological variability, physical inaccessibility and the complex interplay between climate, cryosphere and hydrological processes. We use a state-of-the art glacio-hydrological model informed by data from high altitude observations and the latest CMIP5 climate change scenarios to quantify the climate change impact on glaciers and runoff for two contrasting catchments vulnerable to changes in the cryosphere. The two catchments are located in the Central Andes of Chile and in the Nepalese Himalaya in close vicinity of densely populated areas. Although both sites are projected to experience a strong decrease in glacier area, they show remarkably different hydrological responses. Icemelt is on a rising limb in Langtang at least until 2041-2050 and starts to decrease afterwards, while in Juncal icemelt was already beyond its tipping point at the beginning of the 21st century. This contrasting response can be explained by differences in the elevation distribution of the glaciers in the two regions. In Juncal, many glaciers are melting up to the highest elevations already during the reference period (2000-2010) and increasing melt rates due to higher air temperatures cannot compensate the loss of glacier area. In Langtang, large sections of the glaciers at high elevations are currently not exposed to melt, but will be in the future, thus compensating for the loss of glacier area at lower elevations. As a result of these changes and projected changes in precipitation, in Juncal runoff will sharply decrease in the future and the runoff seasonality is sensitive to projected climatic changes. In Langtang, future water

  10. Oroclinal Bending and Mountain Uplift in the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpodozis, C.; Arriagada, C.; Roperch, P.

    2007-05-01

    The large paleomagnetic database now available for the Central Andes permits a good understanding of the overall spatial and temporal variations of rotations. Mesozoic to Early Paleogene rocks along the forearc of northern Chile (23°-28°S) record significant clockwise rotations (>25°) [Arriagada et al., 2006, Tectonics, doi:10.1029/2005TC001923]. Along the forearc of southern Peru, counterclockwise rotations recorded within flat lying red-beds (Moquegua Formation) increase from about -30° at 17.5°S to - 45° at15.5°S and decrease through time from the late Eocene to the late Oligocene-early Miocene [Roperch et al., 2006, Tectonics, doi:10.1029/2005TC001882]. Recently published thermo-chronological studies show evidence for strong exhumation within Bolivian Eastern Cordillera and the Puna plateau starting in the Eocene while structural studies indicate that the majority of crustal shortening in the Eastern Cordillera occurred during the Eocene-Oligocene, although the final stages of deformation may have continued through the Early Miocene. Rotations in the Peruvian and north Chilean forearc thus occurred at the same time than deformation and exhumation/uplift within the Eastern Cordillera. In contrast Neogene forearc rocks in southern Peru and northern Chile do not show evidences of rotation but low magnitude (10°) counterclockwise rotations are usually found in mid to late Miocene rocks from the northern Altiplano. These Neogene rotations are concomitant with shortening in the Sub-Andean zone and sinistral strike-slip faulting along the eastern edge of the northern Altiplano. We interpret the rotation pattern along the southern Peru and north Chile forearc as a result of strong late Eocene- late Oligocene oroclinal bending of the Central Andes associated with shortening gradients along the Eastern Cordillera associated both with the Abancay deflection and the Arica bend. The amount and spatial distribution of pre-Neogene shortening needed to account for

  11. Intraseasonal variability of organized convective systems in the Central Andes: Relationship to Regional Dynamical Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, K. I.; Slayback, D. A.; Nicholls, S.; Yager, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Andes extend from the west coast of Colombia (10N) to the southern tip of Chile (53S). In southern Peru and Bolivia, the Central Andes is split into separate eastern and western cordilleras, with a high plateau (≥ 3000 m), the Altiplano, between them. Because 90% of the Earth's tropical mountain glaciers are located in the Central Andes, our study focuses on this region, defining its zonal extent as 7S-21S and the meridional extent as the terrain 1000 m and greater. Although intense convection occurs during the wet season in the Altiplano, it is not included in the lists of regions with frequent or the most intense convection. The scarcity of in-situ observations with sufficient density and temporal resolution to resolve individual storms or even mesoscale-organized cloud systems and documented biases in microwave-based rainfall products in poorly gauged mountainous regions have impeded the development of an extensive literature on convection and convective systems in this region. With the tropical glaciers receding at unprecedented rates, leaving seasonal precipitation as an increasingly important input to the water balance in alpine valley ecosystems and streams, understanding the nature and characteristics of the seasonal precipitation becomes increasingly important for the rural economies in this region. Previous work in analyzing precipitation in the Central Andes has emphasized interannual variability with respect to ENSO, this is the first study to focus on shorter scale variability with respect to organized convection. The present study took advantage of the University of Utah's Precipitation Features database compiled from 14 years of TRMM observations (1998-2012), supplemented by field observations of rainfall and streamflow, historical gauge data, and long-term WRF-simulations, to analyze the intraseasonal variability of precipitating systems and their relationship regional dynamical features such as the Bolivian High. Through time series and

  12. [Fertility and reproductive behavior in Peru: Andes mountains and the Amazon basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, A L

    1992-01-01

    "The article attempts to discuss the historical and contemporary situations of [fertility among] populations residing in the two least studied areas of Peru: the Andes mountains and the Amazon basin. The study starts with a review of the 'demographic catastrophe' that the Spanish presence meant to the people of these areas.... The harmful effects of the 'rubber boom' and, more recently, of the 'oil boom', periods are also reviewed." Fertility trends in the two areas are analyzed, with a focus on marriage, breast-feeding, and contraceptive use. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  13. Overriding plate shortening and extension above subduction zones : A parametric study to explain formation of the Andes Mountains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, Wouter P.

    2008-01-01

    Mountain building above subduction zones, such as observed in the Andes, is enigmatic, and the key parameter controlling the underlying dynamics remains a matter of considerable debate. A global survey of subduction zones is presented here, illustrating the correlation between overriding plate

  14. Cloud forest restoration for erosion control in a Kichwa community of the Ecuadorian central Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, L.; Giordanengo, J.; Sacatoro, I.

    2013-12-01

    The Denver Professional Chapter of Engineers Without Borders (EWB) has begun conducting erosion control projects in the Kichwa communities of Malingua Pamba in the Andes Mountains south of Quito, Ecuador. In many high elevation areas in this region, erosion of volcanic soils on steep hillsides (i.e., food crops. Following a 2011 investigation of over 75 erosion sites, the multidisciplinary Erosion Control team traveled to Malingua Pamba in October 2012 to conduct final design and project implementation at 5 sites. In partnership with the local communities, we installed woody cloud forest species, grass (sig-sig) contour hedges, erosion matting, and rock structures (toe walls, plunge pools, bank armoring, cross vanes, contour infiltration ditches, etc.) to reduce incision rates and risk of slump failures, facilitate aggradation, and hasten revegetation. In keeping with the EWB goal of project sustainability, we used primarily locally available resources. High school students of the community grew 5000 native trees and some naturalized shrubs in a nursery started by the school principal, hand weavers produced jute erosion mats, and rocks were provided by a nearby quarry. Where possible, local rock was harvested from landslide areas and other local erosion features. Based on follow up reports and photographs from the community and EWB travelers, the approach of using locally available materials installed by the community is successful; plants are growing well and erosion control structures have remained in place throughout the November to April rainy season. The community has continued planting native vegetation at several additional erosion sites. Formal monitoring will be conducted in October 2013, followed by analysis of data to determine if induced meandering and other low-maintenance erosion control techniques are working as planned. For comparison of techniques, we will consider installing check dams in comparable gullies. The October 2013 project will also

  15. Synchronous fire activity in the tropical high Andes: an indication of regional climate forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Cuesta, R M; Carmona-Moreno, C; Lizcano, G; New, M; Silman, M; Knoke, T; Malhi, Y; Oliveras, I; Asbjornsen, H; Vuille, M

    2014-06-01

    Global climate models suggest enhanced warming of the tropical mid and upper troposphere, with larger temperature rise rates at higher elevations. Changes in fire activity are amongst the most significant ecological consequences of rising temperatures and changing hydrological properties in mountainous ecosystems, and there is a global evidence of increased fire activity with elevation. Whilst fire research has become popular in the tropical lowlands, much less is known of the tropical high Andean region (>2000 masl, from Colombia to Bolivia). This study examines fire trends in the high Andes for three ecosystems, the Puna, the Paramo and the Yungas, for the period 1982-2006. We pose three questions: (i) is there an increased fire response with elevation? (ii) does the El Niño- Southern Oscillation control fire activity in this region? (iii) are the observed fire trends human driven (e.g., human practices and their effects on fuel build-up) or climate driven? We did not find evidence of increased fire activity with elevation but, instead, a quasicyclic and synchronous fire response in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, suggesting the influence of high-frequency climate forcing on fire responses on a subcontinental scale, in the high Andes. ENSO variability did not show a significant relation to fire activity for these three countries, partly because ENSO variability did not significantly relate to precipitation extremes, although it strongly did to temperature extremes. Whilst ENSO did not individually lead the observed regional fire trends, our results suggest a climate influence on fire activity, mainly through a sawtooth pattern of precipitation (increased rainfall before fire-peak seasons (t-1) followed by drought spells and unusual low temperatures (t0), which is particularly common where fire is carried by low fuel loads (e.g., grasslands and fine fuel). This climatic sawtooth appeared as the main driver of fire trends, above local human influences and fuel build

  16. Litterfall production under pine plantations in the southern Andes region of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Quichimbo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Litterfall research is an interesting aspect in environmental studies due to its significance in nutrient cycling specially in regions like the Andes where the interactions between biomass production and its decomposition is poorly understood. This study is focusing in the litterfall biomass production under pine plantations in southern Ecuador. The litterfall production was studied for five months at two-week intervals in three pine forest sites located in the southern Andes region of Ecuador. Monthly litterfall production ranged between 1067-1907 kg ha-1, in comparison with other coniferous stands around the world, this study revealed a higher litterfall production for tropical areas and particularly the highest production under pine plantations in the Andes region. This high litterfall production highlights the upmost importance of this forest component as a potential nutrient reservoir involved in the global nutrient cycling under landscapes dominated by this exotic forest specie in the tropical Andes.

  17. Understanding Recent Trends in Freezing Level Height over the Tropical Andes Mountains of South America: An Investigation of Reanalysis Products and GEOSCCM Integrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Russell, A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2015-12-01

    As the global climate warms, the height of the 0°C isotherm - aka the freezing level height (FLH) - rises, especially over mountainous regions. Over the past few decades, FLH in the tropical Andes Mountains of South America has been rising at a rate that is 2 to 3 times faster than would be expected considering the zonally-averaged upper troposphere temperature trends and the recent cooling of Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures. Rising FLH could have devastating impacts in this region where most of the dry season runoff comes from seasonal snow melt and glacial melt. Yet, is unclear why FLH is rising so rapidly in this particular area and what the quantitative implications will be for tropical Andean water resources. Reanalysis products tend to disagree on the spatial pattern and strength of FLH changes which confounds the issue by making it difficult to uncover the driving mechanisms of these local changes in FLH. Indeed, there are several possible factors that may be contributing to the unprecedented rise in FLH over the Andes (above and beyond the normally expected effects of greenhouse gases) of which the most likely actors are: changes in the state of the tropical Pacific Ocean, changes in sea surface temperatures in the Atlantic Ocean, shifts in the Hadley cell, indirect effects of stratospheric ozone depletion and recent recovery, and local thermodynamic land-atmosphere feedbacks. To better understand the changes in FLH, which will ultimately contribute to the effort to predict effects on Andean water resources, we analyze FLH in several forcing-separated integrations of the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM). By separating out the various forcings (greenhouse gases, sea surface temperatures, ozone depleting substances, volcanic eruptions, and solar fluctuations), we are able to develop hypotheses for mechanistic drivers of FLH changes which can be rigorously tested. These efforts will contribute to the understanding of

  18. Observations of the Breakdown of Mountain Waves Over the Andes Lidar Observatory at Cerro Pachon on 8/9 July 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, J. H.; Fritts, D. C.; Wang, L.; Gelinas, L. J.; Rudy, R. J.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P. D.; Smith, S.; Franke, S. J.

    2018-01-01

    Although mountain waves (MWs) are thought to be a ubiquitous feature of the wintertime southern Andes stratosphere, it was not known whether these waves propagated up to the mesopause region until Smith et al. (2009) confirmed their presence via airglow observations. The new Andes Lidar Observatory at Cerro Pachon in Chile provided the opportunity for a further study of these waves. Since MWs have near-zero phase speed, and zero wind lines often occur in the winter upper mesosphere (80 to 100 km altitude) region due to the reversal of the zonal mean and tidal wind, MW breakdown may routinely occur at these altitudes. Here we report on very high spatial/temporal resolution observations of the initiation of MW breakdown in the mesopause region. Because the waves are nearly stationary, the breakdown process was observed over several hours; a much longer interval than has previously been observed for any gravity wave breakdown. During the breakdown process observations were made of initial horseshoe-shaped vortices, leading to successive vortex rings, as is also commonly seen in Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of idealized and multiscale gravity wave breaking. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) structures were also observed to form. Comparing the structure of observed KHI with the results of existing DNS allowed an estimate of the turbulent kinematic viscosity. This viscosity was found to be around 25 m2/s, a value larger than the nominal viscosity that is used in models.

  19. Neogene paleoelevation of intermontane basins in a narrow, compressional mountain range, southern Central Andes of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Gregory D.; Giambiagi, Laura B.; Garzione, Carmala N.; Mahoney, J. Brian; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2014-11-01

    The topographic growth of mountain ranges at convergent margins results from the complex interaction between the motion of lithospheric plates, crustal shortening, rock uplift and exhumation. Constraints on the timing and magnitude of elevation change gleaned from isotopic archives preserved in sedimentary sequences provide insight into how these processes interact over different timescales to create topography and potentially decipher the impact of topography on atmospheric circulation and superposed exhumation. This study uses stable isotope data from pedogenic carbonates collected from seven different stratigraphic sections spanning different tectonic and topographic positions in the range today, to examine the middle to late Miocene history of elevation change in the central Andes thrust belt, which is located immediately to the south of the Altiplano-Puna Plateau, the world's second largest orogenic plateau. Paleoelevations are calculated using previously published local isotope-elevation gradients observed in modern rainfall and carbonate-formation temperatures determined from clumped isotope studies in modern soils. Calculated Neogene basin paleoelevations are between 1 km and 1.9 km for basins that today are located between 1500 and 3400 m elevation. Considering the modern elevation and δ18O values of precipitation at the sampling sites, three of the intermontane basins experienced surface uplift between the end of deposition during the late Miocene and present. The timing of elevation change cannot be linked to any documented episodes of large-magnitude crustal shortening. Paradoxically, the maximum inferred surface uplift in the core of the range is greatest where the crust is thinnest. The spatial pattern of surface uplift is best explained by eastward migration of a crustal root via ductile deformation in the lower crust and is not related to flat-slab subduction.

  20. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Model Volcanic Hazard Risk Levels in Areas Surrounding the Copahue Volcano in the Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, A. M.; Weigel, A. M.; Rivas, J.

    2014-12-01

    Copahue is a stratovolcano located along the rim of the Caviahue Caldera near the Chile-Argentina border in the Andes Mountain Range. There are several small towns located in proximity of the volcano with the two largest being Banos Copahue and Caviahue. During its eruptive history, it has produced numerous lava flows, pyroclastic flows, ash deposits, and lahars. This isolated region has steep topography and little vegetation, rendering it poorly monitored. The need to model volcanic hazard risk has been reinforced by recent volcanic activity that intermittently released several ash plumes from December 2012 through May 2013. Exposure to volcanic ash is currently the main threat for the surrounding populations as the volcano becomes more active. The goal of this project was to study Copahue and determine areas that have the highest potential of being affected in the event of an eruption. Remote sensing techniques were used to examine and identify volcanic activity and areas vulnerable to experiencing volcanic hazards including volcanic ash, SO2 gas, lava flow, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI), Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), ISS ISERV Pathfinder, and Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) products were used to analyze volcanic hazards. These datasets were used to create a historic lava flow map of the Copahue volcano by identifying historic lava flows, tephra, and lahars both visually and spectrally. Additionally, a volcanic risk and hazard map for the surrounding area was created by modeling the possible extent of ash fallout, lahars, lava flow, and pyroclastic density currents (PDC) for future eruptions. These model results were then used to identify areas that should be prioritized for disaster relief and evacuation orders.

  1. Near-surface temperature lapse rates in a mountainous catchment in the Chilean Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala; Schauwecker, S.; Pellicciotti, F.; McPhee, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    In mountainous areas, and in the Chilean Andes in particular, the irregular and sparse distribution of recording stations resolves insufficiently the variability of climatic factors such as precipitation, temperature and relative humidity. Assumptions about air temperature variability in space and time have a strong effect on the performance of hydrologic models that represent snow processes such as accumulation and ablation. These processes have large diurnal variations, and assumptions that average over longer time periods (days, weeks or months) may reduce the predictive capacity of these models under different climatic conditions from those for which they were calibrated. They also introduce large uncertainties when such models are used to predict processes with strong subdiurnal variability such as snowmelt dynamics. In many applications and modeling exercises, temperature is assumed to decrease linearly with elevation, using the free-air moist adiabatic lapse rate (MALR: 0.0065°C/m). Little evidence is provided for this assumption, however, and recent studies have shown that use of lapse rates that are uniform in space and constant in time is not appropriate. To explore the validity of this approach, near-surface (2 m) lapse rates were calculated and analyzed at different temporal resolution, based on a new data set of spatially distributed temperature sensors setup in a high elevation catchment of the dry Andes of Central Chile (approx. 33°S). Five minutes temperature data were collected between January 2011 and April 2011 in the Ojos de Agua catchment, using two Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) and 13 T-loggers (Hobo H8 Pro Temp with external data logger), ranging in altitude from 2230 to 3590 m.s.l.. The entire catchment was snow free during our experiment. We use this unique data set to understand the main controls over temperature variability in time and space, and test whether lapse rates can be used to describe the spatial variations of air

  2. Snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountain regions: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Abbas; Gascoin, Simon; Faour, Ghaleb; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Drapeau, Laurent; Page, Michel Le; Escadafal, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Water resources in Mediterranean regions are under increasing pressure due to climate change, economic development, and population growth. Many Mediterranean rivers have their headwaters in mountainous regions where hydrological processes are driven by snowpack dynamics and the specific variability of the Mediterranean climate. A good knowledge of the snow processes in the Mediterranean mountains is therefore a key element of water management strategies in such regions. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountains to identify the existing knowledge, key research questions, and promising technologies. We collected 620 peer-reviewed papers, published between 1913 and 2016, that deal with the Mediterranean-like mountain regions in the western United States, the central Chilean Andes, and the Mediterranean basin. A large amount of studies in the western United States form a strong scientific basis for other Mediterranean mountain regions. We found that: (1) the persistence of snow cover is highly variable in space and time but mainly controlled by elevation and precipitation; (2) the snowmelt is driven by radiative fluxes, but the contribution of heat fluxes is stronger at the end of the snow season and during heat waves and rain-on-snow events; (3) the snow densification rates are higher in these regions when compared to other climate regions; and (4) the snow sublimation is an important component of snow ablation, especially in high-elevation regions. Among the pressing issues is the lack of continuous ground observation in high-elevation regions. However, a few years of snow depth (HS) and snow water equivalent (SWE) data can provide realistic information on snowpack variability. A better spatial characterization of snow cover can be achieved by combining ground observations with remotely sensed snow data. SWE reconstruction using satellite snow cover area and a melt model provides reasonable information that

  3. Description of Thecavermiculatus andinus n.sp. (Meloidoderidae), a Round Cystoid Nematode from the Andes Mountains of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, A M; Franco, J; Jatala, P; Astogaza, E

    1983-07-01

    Thecavermiculatus andinus n.sp. is described and illustrated from Oxalis tuberosa originally collected in the vicinity of Lake Titicaca high in the Andes mountains of southern Peru. This new species differs markedly front the other two species in the genus, especially in having a much greater female vulval-anal distance and annules with lined punctation on most of the female body with a lacelike pattern restricted to the posterior portion, particularly at the vulva and anus which do not protrude. Females are essentially spherical with protruding neck, white to yellowish in color, and can easily be mistaken for potato cyst nematodes. Among the dozen or more known weed and crop host plants are potato and eggplant. In order to accommodate this new species, the genus Thecavermieulatus is emended. A key to the species of this genus is presented.

  4. The GalileoMobile starts its South American voyage - Astronomy education goes on tour through the Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Today marks the beginning of the GalileoMobile Project, a two-month expedition to bring the wonder and excitement of astronomy to young people in Chile, Bolivia and Peru. Supported by ESO and partners, a group of astronomers and educators will travel through a region of the Andes Mountains aboard the GalileoMobile, offering astronomical activities, such as workshops for students and star parties for the general public. Professional filmmakers on the trip will produce a multilingual documentary capturing the thrill of discovery through science, culture and travel. The GalileoMobile is a Special Project of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), which is a global celebration commemorating the first use of a telescope to view the Universe by the Italian astronomer Galileo four hundred years ago. The project will promote basic science education through astronomy by visiting schools and communities that have limited access to outreach programmes. The GalileoMobile will provide these underserved groups with hands-on activities and educational material from international partners. The van is fully equipped to offer unique sky-observing opportunities for young students and other locals, with star parties at night and solar observations during the day. The team will use various tools including IYA2009's handy Galileoscopes, which will be donated to the schools after the visits. By stimulating curiosity, critical thinking and a sense of wonder and discovery for the Universe and our planet, the GalileoMobile Project aims to encourage interest in astronomy and science, and exchange culturally different visions of the cosmos. Spearheading the initiative is a group of enthusiastic Latin American and European PhD students from the European Southern Observatory, the Max Planck Society, the University Observatory Munich, and the Stockholm University Observatory. This itinerant educational programme is intended to reach about 20 000 people during eight weeks in October

  5. Chemical and isotopic investigations of runoff in a mountainous watershed, Venezuelan Andes (Rio Bocono)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornieles, M.; Moreau, A.; Valles, V.; Travi, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The Rio Bocono watershed, located in the Western part of Venezuela on the South western side of Andes is considered by the 'Ministerio de1 Ambiente y de los Recursos Naturales Renovables' (MARN) as a priority zone for environmental management. The studies of relation between flow, dissolved elements and solid transport are essential to estimate soil degradation and sediment deposition which provokes loss of depth in the dam reservoir at the Southern margin of the basin. Because of the large surface which reach 1540 km 2 , the lack of equipment and the flash flood character of the river do not enable the flow mechanisms and transit times to be determined using usual hydrologic methods; therefore this problem has been approached by the way of chemical and isotopic investigation

  6. Mapping advanced argillic alteration zones with ASTER and Hyperion data in the Andes Mountains of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Yuddy; Goïta, Kalifa; Péloquin, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Hyperion hyperspectral sensor datasets to detect advanced argillic minerals. The spectral signatures of some alteration clay minerals, such as dickite and alunite, have similar absorption features; thus separating them using multispectral satellite images is a complex challenge. However, Hyperion with its fine spectral bands has potential for good separability of features. The Spectral Angle Mapper algorithm was used in this study to map three advanced argillic alteration minerals (alunite, kaolinite, and dickite) in a known alteration zone in the Peruvian Andes. The results from ASTER and Hyperion were analyzed, compared, and validated using a Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer field spectrometer. The alterations corresponding to kaolinite and alunite were detected with both ASTER and Hyperion (80% to 84% accuracy). However, the dickite mineral was identified only with Hyperion (82% accuracy).

  7. Forecasting the impact of global changes on the water resources of a mountainous catchment in the Chilean Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelland, D.; Campéon, C.; Dezetter, A.; Jourde, H.

    2012-04-01

    This study aims to simulate the complex interrelationships between climate forcing, human pressure and dynamics of groundwater and surface water of the upper Elqui catchment (5 660 km2) in the Chilean Andes. The water resources of this mountainous, semi-arid catchment has been undergoing a growing pressure because of high climate variability and of the economic mutations of various sectors (agriculture, tourism), which have impacted water availability of the area. Due to the agriculture-based development in the region, water scarcity is thus a matter of great concern for this basin. Hydrological simulations were performed with a conceptual model that takes into account a shallow reservoir supplied by precipitation and feeding evapotranspiration, surface/sub-surface runoff and infiltration, and (ii) a deep reservoir fed by infiltration and generating the baseflow. A third reservoir, in which fluxes are controlled by temperature, has been introduced to account for the snowmelt regime of the catchment. A 30-year period (1979-2008) was chosen to capture long-term hydro-climatic variability due to alternating ENSO and LNSO events. Then water uses (dam functioning, agricultural and domestic withdrawals) were integrated into the model. The model was calibrated and validated with streamflow data on the basis of a multi-objective function that aggregates a variety of goodness-of-fit criteria. Prospective climatic and anthropogenic scenarios were finally elaborated and forced into the model in order to propose midterm (2050 horizon) simulations. The model correctly reproduces the observed discharge at the basin outlet. Depending on the modelling complexity, NSE coefficients are about 0.82-0.90 over the calibration period (1979-1990) and 0.78-0.84 over the validation period (1991-2008). The volume error between observation and simulation is lower than 15% over the whole period studied. The dynamics of both the water level in the deep conceptual reservoir and the water table

  8. ANDES: An Underground Laboratory in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Claudio O.

    ANDES (Agua Negra Deep Experiment Site) is an underground laboratory, proposed to be built inside the Agua Negra road tunnel that will connect Chile (IV Region) with Argentina (San Juan Province) under the Andes Mountains. The Laboratory will be 1750 meters under the rock, becoming the 3rd deepest underground laboratory of this kind in the world, and the first in the Southern Hemisphere. ANDES will be an international Laboratory, managed by a Latin American consortium. The laboratory will host experiments in Particle and Astroparticle Physics, such as Neutrino and Dark Matter searches, Seismology, Geology, Geophysics and Biology. It will also be used for the development of low background instrumentation and related services. Here we present the general features of the proposed laboratory, the current status of the proposal and some of its opportunities for science.

  9. Glacier changes and climate trends derived from multiple sources in the data scarce Cordillera Vilcanota region, southern Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, N.; Huggel, C.; Rohrer, M.; Silverio, W.; Mark, B. G.; Burns, P.; Portocarrero, C.

    2013-01-01

    The role of glaciers as temporal water reservoirs is particularly pronounced in the (outer) tropics because of the very distinct wet/dry seasons. Rapid glacier retreat caused by climatic changes is thus a major concern, and decision makers demand urgently for regional/local glacier evolution trends, ice mass estimates and runoff assessments. However, in remote mountain areas, spatial and temporal data coverage is typically very scarce and this is further complicated by a high spatial and temporal variability in regions with complex topography. Here, we present an approach on how to deal with these constraints. For the Cordillera Vilcanota (southern Peruvian Andes), which is the second largest glacierized cordillera in Peru (after the Cordillera Blanca) and also comprises the Quelccaya Ice Cap, we assimilate a comprehensive multi-decadal collection of available glacier and climate data from multiple sources (satellite images, meteorological station data and climate reanalysis), and analyze them for respective changes in glacier area and volume and related trends in air temperature, precipitation and in a more general manner for specific humidity. While we found only marginal glacier changes between 1962 and 1985, there has been a massive ice loss since 1985 (about 30% of area and about 45% of volume). These high numbers corroborate studies from other glacierized cordilleras in Peru. The climate data show overall a moderate increase in air temperature, mostly weak and not significant trends for precipitation sums and probably cannot in full explain the observed substantial ice loss. Therefore, the likely increase of specific humidity in the upper troposphere, where the glaciers are located, is further discussed and we conclude that it played a major role in the observed massive ice loss of the Cordillera Vilcanota over the past decades.

  10. Glacier changes and climate trends derived from multiple sources in the data scarce Cordillera Vilcanota region, southern Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salzmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of glaciers as temporal water reservoirs is particularly pronounced in the (outer tropics because of the very distinct wet/dry seasons. Rapid glacier retreat caused by climatic changes is thus a major concern, and decision makers demand urgently for regional/local glacier evolution trends, ice mass estimates and runoff assessments. However, in remote mountain areas, spatial and temporal data coverage is typically very scarce and this is further complicated by a high spatial and temporal variability in regions with complex topography. Here, we present an approach on how to deal with these constraints. For the Cordillera Vilcanota (southern Peruvian Andes, which is the second largest glacierized cordillera in Peru (after the Cordillera Blanca and also comprises the Quelccaya Ice Cap, we assimilate a comprehensive multi-decadal collection of available glacier and climate data from multiple sources (satellite images, meteorological station data and climate reanalysis, and analyze them for respective changes in glacier area and volume and related trends in air temperature, precipitation and in a more general manner for specific humidity. While we found only marginal glacier changes between 1962 and 1985, there has been a massive ice loss since 1985 (about 30% of area and about 45% of volume. These high numbers corroborate studies from other glacierized cordilleras in Peru. The climate data show overall a moderate increase in air temperature, mostly weak and not significant trends for precipitation sums and probably cannot in full explain the observed substantial ice loss. Therefore, the likely increase of specific humidity in the upper troposphere, where the glaciers are located, is further discussed and we conclude that it played a major role in the observed massive ice loss of the Cordillera Vilcanota over the past decades.

  11. Assessing climate change impacts on water resources in remote mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, Wouter; De Bièvre, Bert

    2013-04-01

    From a water resources perspective, remote mountain regions are often considered as a basket case. They are often regions where poverty is often interlocked with multiple threats to water supply, data scarcity, and high uncertainties. In these environments, it is paramount to generate locally relevant knowledge about water resources and how they impact local livelihoods. This is often problematic. Existing environmental data collection tends to be geographically biased towards more densely populated regions, and prioritized towards strategic economic activities. Data may also be locked behind institutional and technological barriers. These issues create a "knowledge trap" for data-poor regions, which is especially acute in remote and hard-to-reach mountain regions. We present lessons learned from a decade of water resources research in remote mountain regions of the Andes, Africa and South Asia. We review the entire tool chain of assessing climate change impacts on water resources, including the interrogation and downscaling of global circulation models, translating climate variables in water availability and access, and assessing local vulnerability. In global circulation models, mountain regions often stand out as regions of high uncertainties and lack of agreement of future trends. This is partly a technical artifact because of the different resolution and representation of mountain topography, but it also highlights fundamental uncertainties in climate impacts on mountain climate. This problem also affects downscaling efforts, because regional climate models should be run in very high spatial resolution to resolve local gradients, which is computationally very expensive. At the same time statistical downscaling methods may fail to find significant relations between local climate properties and synoptic processes. Further uncertainties are introduced when downscaled climate variables such as precipitation and temperature are to be translated in hydrologically

  12. APROPIACIÓN INCA EN LA CORDILLERA DE CHILLA, SUROESTE DE LOS ANDES DEL ECUADOR: EL CASO DEL SITIO GUIÑAYZHU (Inca Appropriation in the Chilla Mountain Range, Southwest of the Andes of Ecuador: the Case of the Guiñayzhu Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jadán V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se discuten los resultados del trabajo realizado en el sitio Guiñayzhu, al suroeste de los Andes del Ecuador. Esta investigación revela que el sitio, además de presentar evidencias de poblaciones locales, tiene colcas o qullcas para el almacenaje de productos, terrazas de pirca y caminos empedrados entre otras instalaciones. Se interpreta que Guiñayzhu es uno de los sitios de la cordillera de Chilla que refleja la expansión del incario y expresa una efectiva dominación de esta región como un enclave estratégico del imperio en su avance hacia el norte. ENGLISH: In this article, the results of research carried out in Guiñayzhu, located at the southwest of the Andes of Ecuador, are discussed. This work reveals that in addition to presenting evidence of local populations, the site has colcas or qullqas for the storage of products, terraces of pirca, and roads paved with stone, among other constructions. Guiñayzhu is interpreted as one of the sites of the Chilla mountain range that reflects the expansion of the Inca and expresses an effective domination of this region, representing a strategic enclave of the empire in its advance northward.

  13. THE MOUNTAIN REGIONS IN CONTEXT OF STRATEGY 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONESCU Daniela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mountain regions in Romania and European Union represent a special territory of interest, with a huge economic, social, environmental and cultural potential. More, mountain area is considerate a natural-economic region and constitutes an important objective for regional development policy. The main sectors of mountain area are presented in agriculture and tourism fields that lead the key role in safeguarding the sensitive eco-system and thereby maintaining the general living and working space.Mountain areas should have a specific policy defined by the sustainable development principle, which meets the needs of the present without compromising the opportunities of future generations. The specific mountain policy aims to reduce the imbalance between favored and disadvantaged mountain regions, permanently marked by natural, economic, social, cultural and environmental constraints. In previous programming period, mountain regions among have profited from the intensive regional support, in specially, for constructing of and connecting them to fresh water and waste water networks, in particular for increasing of life quality. In context of 2020 Strategy, the Member States will concentrate investments on a small number of thematic objectives. In advanced regions, 60 % of funds will used for only two of these objectives (competitiveness of SME and research/innovation. The all less developed regions will received about 50% of Structural Funds In Romania, mountain representing 29.93% out of the total national surface and 20.14% from UAA (Utilised Agricultural Area of total national. The mountain territory has around 20% of the national population and is overlapping almost 100% with the Carpathian Mountains. Due to these conditions, Romania's regional development policy must take into account the specificities of mountain area, the problems they faced, and the requirements of 2020 Strategy.This paper presents the main aspects to be taken into account

  14. Quantitative Mineral Resource Assessment of Copper, Molybdenum, Gold, and Silver in Undiscovered Porphyry Copper Deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles G.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Vivallo S., Waldo; Celada, Carlos Mario; Quispe, Jorge; Singer, Donald A.; Briskey, Joseph A.; Sutphin, David M.; Gajardo M., Mariano; Diaz, Alejandro; Portigliati, Carlos; Berger, Vladimir I.; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Schulz, Klaus J.

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative information on the general locations and amounts of undiscovered porphyry copper resources of the world is important to exploration managers, land-use and environmental planners, economists, and policy makers. This publication contains the results of probabilistic estimates of the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America. The methodology used to make these estimates is called the 'Three-Part Form'. It was developed to explicitly express estimates of undiscovered resources and associated uncertainty in a form that allows economic analysis and is useful to decisionmakers. The three-part form of assessment includes: (1) delineation of tracts of land where the geology is permissive for porphyry copper deposits to form; (2) selection of grade and tonnage models appropriate for estimating grades and tonnages of the undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract; and (3) estimation of the number of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract consistent with the grade and tonnage model. A Monte Carlo simulation computer program (EMINERS) was used to combine the probability distributions of the estimated number of undiscovered deposits, the grades, and the tonnages of the selected model to obtain the probability distributions for undiscovered metals in each tract. These distributions of grades and tonnages then can be used to conduct economic evaluations of undiscovered resources in a format usable by decisionmakers. Economic evaluations are not part of this report. The results of this assessment are presented in two principal parts. The first part identifies 26 regional tracts of land where the geology is permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of Phanerozoic age to a depth of 1 km below the Earth's surface. These tracts are believed to contain most of South America's undiscovered resources of copper. The

  15. Evaluation of TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA performance in the Central Andes region and its dependency on spatial and temporal resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. M. Scheel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate time series are of major importance for base line studies for climate change impact and adaptation projects. However, for instance, in mountain regions and in developing countries there exist significant gaps in ground based climate records in space and time. Specifically, in the Peruvian Andes spatially and temporally coherent precipitation information is a prerequisite for ongoing climate change adaptation projects in the fields of water resources, disasters and food security. The present work aims at evaluating the ability of Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA to estimate precipitation rates at daily 0.25° × 0.25° scale in the Central Andes and the dependency of the estimate performance on changing spatial and temporal resolution. Comparison of the TMPA product with gauge measurements in the regions of Cuzco, Peru and La Paz, Bolivia were carried out and analysed statistically. Large biases are identified in both investigation areas in the estimation of daily precipitation amounts. The occurrence of strong precipitation events was well assessed, but their intensities were underestimated. TMPA estimates for La Paz show high false alarm ratio.

    The dependency of the TMPA estimate quality with changing resolution was analysed by comparisons of 1-, 7-, 15- and 30-day sums for Cuzco, Peru. The correlation of TMPA estimates with ground data increases strongly and almost linearly with temporal aggregation. The spatial aggregation to 0.5°, 0.75° and 1° grid box averaged precipitation and its comparison to gauge data of the same areas revealed no significant change in correlation coefficients and estimate performance.

    In order to profit from the TMPA combination product on a daily basis, a procedure to blend it with daily precipitation gauge measurements is proposed.

    Different sources of errors and uncertainties introduced by the sensors, sensor

  16. Climate Change Adaptation in the Carpathian Mountain Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werners, Saskia Elisabeth; Szalai, Sándor; Zingstra, Henk; Kőpataki, Éva; Beckmann, Andreas; Bos, Ernst; Civic, Kristijan; Hlásny, Tomas; Hulea, Orieta; Jurek, Matthias; Koch, Hagen; Kondor, Attila Csaba; Kovbasko, Aleksandra; Lakatos, M.; Lambert, Stijn; Peters, Richard; Trombik, Jiří; De Velde, Van Ilse; Zsuffa, István

    2016-01-01

    The Carpathian mountain region is one of the most significant natural refuges on the European continent. It is home to Europe’s most extensive tracts of montane forest, the largest remaining virgin forest and natural mountain beech-fir forest ecosystems. Adding to the biodiversity are semi-natural

  17. Angiosperm flora and biogeography of the páramo region of Colombia, northern Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Londoño, C.; Cleef, A.; Madriñan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Páramo is the neotropical high elevation ecosystem in the northern Andes and Central America consisting of multiple dissected open areas above 3000 m a.s.l. Complex evolutionary processes that occurred within these ecosystems gave rise to a unique tropical Andean flora. Previous phytogeographical

  18. Drainage - Structure Correlation in tectonically active Regions: Case studies in the Bolivian and Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Gerold; Parra, Mauricio; Kober, Florian

    2017-04-01

    It is widely accepted, that drainage patterns are often controlled by tectonics/climate and geology/rheology. Classical drainage patterns can be found 1) in fault-and-thrust belt, where rives follow the valleys parallel or cut perpendicular to strike trough the ridges, forming a trellis pattern, 2) at dome structures where the drainage form a radial pattern or 3) rectangular patterns in strongly fractured regions. In this study, we focus on fault-and-thrust belts, that undergone different phases of tectonic activity. According to classical models, the deformation is propagating into the foreland, hence being youngest at the frontal part and getting successively older towards the axis of the orogen. Drainage patterns in the more interior parts of the orogenic wedge should be then less influenced by the direction of structures, as landscape evolution is changing to a tectonic passive stage. This relationship might represent the transience and maturity of drainage pattern evolution. Here we study drainage patterns of the Bolivian and the eastern Colombian Andes by comparing the relative orientation of the drainage network with the orogen structural grain. The drainage is extracted from Digital Elevation Models (SRTM 30 m) and indexed by their Strahler Order. Order 1 channels have an upstream area of 1 km2. The direction of all segments is analyzed by linear directional mean function that results in the mean orientation of input channels with approx. 500 m average length. The orientation of structures for different structural domains is calculated using the same function on digitized faults and fold-axis. Rose diagrams show the length-weighted directional distribution of structures, of higher (>= 4) and of lower order (<= 3) channels. The structural trend in the Bolivian Andes is controlled by the orocline, where a predominant NW-SE trend turns into an N-S trend at 18°S and where the eastern orogen comprise from west to east, the Eastern Cordillera (EC), the

  19. Gastric cancer incidence and mortality is associated with altitude in the mountainous regions of Pacific Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Javier; Correa, Pelayo; Ferreccio, Catterina; Hernandez-Suarez, Gustavo; Herrero, Rolando; Cavazza-Porro, Maria; Dominguez, Ricardo; Morgan, Douglas

    2013-02-01

    In Latin America, gastric cancer is a leading cancer, and countries in the region have some of the highest mortality rates worldwide, including Chile, Costa Rica, and Colombia. Geographic variation in mortality rates is observed both between neighboring countries and within nations. We discuss epidemiological observations suggesting an association between altitude and gastric cancer risk in Latin America. In the Americas, the burden of gastric cancer mortality is concentrated in the mountainous areas along the Pacific rim, following the geography of the Andes sierra, from Venezuela to Chile, and the Sierra Madre and Cordillera de Centroamérica, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. Altitude is probably a surrogate for host genetic, bacterial, dietary, and environmental factors that may cluster in the mountainous regions. For example, H. pylori strains from patients of the Andean Nariño region of Colombia display European ancestral haplotypes, whereas strains from the Pacific coast are predominantly of African origin. The observation of higher gastric cancer rates in the mountainous areas is not universal: the association is absent in Chile, where risk is more strongly associated with the age of H. pylori acquisition and socio-economic determinants. The dramatic global and regional variations in gastric cancer incidence and mortality rates offer the opportunity for scientific discovery and focused prevention programs.

  20. Waste management outlook for mountain regions: Sources and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semernya, Larisa; Ramola, Aditi; Alfthan, Björn; Giacovelli, Claudia

    2017-09-01

    Following the release of the global waste management outlook in 2015, the United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment), through its International Environmental Technology Centre, is elaborating a series of region-specific and thematic waste management outlooks that provide policy recommendations and solutions based on current practices in developing and developed countries. The Waste Management Outlook for Mountain Regions is the first report in this series. Mountain regions present unique challenges to waste management; while remoteness is often associated with costly and difficult transport of waste, the potential impact of waste pollutants is higher owing to the steep terrain and rivers transporting waste downstream. The Outlook shows that waste management in mountain regions is a cross-sectoral issue of global concern that deserves immediate attention. Noting that there is no 'one solution fits all', there is a need for a more landscape-type specific and regional research on waste management, the enhancement of policy and regulatory frameworks, and increased stakeholder engagement and awareness to achieve sustainable waste management in mountain areas. This short communication provides an overview of the key findings of the Outlook and highlights aspects that need further research. These are grouped per source of waste: Mountain communities, tourism, and mining. Issues such as waste crime, plastic pollution, and the linkages between exposure to natural disasters and waste are also presented.

  1. Role of land use change in landslide-related sediment fluxes in tropical mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guns, M.; Vanacker, V.; Demoulin, A.

    2012-04-01

    Tropical mountain regions are characterised by high denudation rates. Landslides are known to be recurrent phenomena in active mountain belts, but their contribution to the overall sedimentary fluxes is not yet well known. Previous studies on sedimentary cascades have mostly focused on natural environments, without considering the impact of human and/or anthropogenic disturbances on sedimentary budgets. In our work, we hypothesise that human-induced land use change might alter the sediment cascade through shifts in the landslide magnitude-frequency relationship. We have tested this assumption in the Virgen Yacu catchment (approximately 11km2), in the Ecuadorian Cordillera Occidental. Landslide inventories and land use maps were established based on a series of sequential aerial photos (1963, 1977, 1984 and 1989), a HR Landsat image (2001) and a VHR WorldView2 image (2010). Aerial photographs were ortho-rectified, and coregistred with the WorldView2 satellite image. Field campaigns were realised in 2010 and 2011 to collect field-based data on landslide type and geometry (depth, width and length). This allowed us to establish an empirical relationship between landslide area and volume, which was then applied to the landslide inventories to estimate landslide-related sediment production rates for various time periods. The contribution of landslides to the overall sediment flux of the catchment was estimated by comparing the landslide-related sediment production to the total sediment yield. The empirical landslide area-volume relationship established here for the Ecuadorian Andes is similar to that derived for the Himalayas. It suggests that landslides are the main source of sediment in this mountainous catchment. First calculations indicate that human-induced land use change alters the magnitude-frequency relationship through strong increase of small landslides.

  2. Basaltic volcanic episodes of the Yucca Mountain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize briefly the distribution and geologic characteristics of basaltic volcanism in the Yucca Mountain region during the last 10--12 Ma. This interval largely postdates the major period of silicic volcanism and coincides with and postdates the timing of major extensional faulting in the region. Field and geochronologic data for the basaltic rocks define two distinct episodes. The patterns in the volume and spatial distribution of these basaltic volcanic episodes in the central and southern part of the SNVF are used as a basis for forecasting potential future volcanic activity in vicinity of Yucca Mountain. 33 refs., 2 figs

  3. Geodesy and contemporary strain in the Yucca Mountain region, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefer, W.R.; Coe, J.A.; Pezzopane, S.K.; Hunter, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    Geodetic surveys provide important information for estimating recent ground movement in support of seismotectonic investigations of the potential nuclear-waste storage site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Resurveys of established level lines document up to 22 millimeters of local subsidence related to the 1992 Little Skull Mountain earthquake, which is consistent with seismic data that show normal-slip rupture and with data from a regional trilateration network. Comparison of more recent surveys with a level line first established in 1907 suggests 3 to 13 centimeters of subsidence in the Crater Flat-Yucca Mountain structural depression that coincides with the Bare Mountain fault; small uplifts also were recorded near normal faults at Yucca Mountain. No significant deformation was recorded by a trilateration network over a 10-year period, except for coseismic deformation associated with the Little Skull Mountain earthquake, but meaningful results are limited by the short temporal period of that data set and the small rate of movement. Very long baseline interferometry that is capable of measuring direction and rates of deformation is likewise limited by a short history of observation, but rates of deformation between 8 and 13 millimeters per year across the basin and Range province are indicated by the available data

  4. Glaciation in the Andes during the Lateglacial and Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodbell, Donald T.; Smith, Jacqueline A.; Mark, Bryan G.

    2009-10-01

    This review updates the chronology of Andean glaciation during the Lateglacial and the Holocene from the numerous articles and reviews published over the past three decades. The Andes, which include some of the world's wettest and driest mountainous regions, offer an unparalleled opportunity to elucidate spatial and temporal patterns of glaciation along a continuous 68-degree meridional transect. The geographic and altitudinal extent of modern glaciers and the sensitivity of both modern and former glaciers to respond to changes in specific climatic variables reflect broad-scale atmospheric circulation and consequent regional moisture patterns. Glaciers in the tropical Andes and in the mid-latitude Andes are likely to have been far more sensitive to changes in temperature than glaciers in the dry subtropical Andes. Broad-scale temporal and spatial patterns of glaciation during the Lateglacial are apparent. In the southernmost Andes, the Lateglacial chronology appears to have a strong Antarctic signature with the best-dated moraines correlating closely with the Antarctic Cold Reversal. The southernmost Andes do not appear to have experienced a significant ice advance coeval with the Younger Dryas (YD) climatic reversal. At the other end of the Andes, from ˜0 to 9°N, a stronger YD connection may exist, but critical stratigraphic and geochronologic work is required before a YD ice advance can be fully demonstrated. In the central Andes of Peru, well-dated moraines record a significant ice readvance at the onset of the YD, but ice was retreating during much of the remaining YD interval. The spatial-temporal pattern of Holocene glaciation exhibits tantalizing but incomplete evidence for an Early to Mid-Holocene ice advance(s) in many regions, but not in the arid subtropical Andes, where moraines deposited during or slightly prior to the Little Ice Age (LIA) record the most extensive advance of the Holocene. In many regions, there is strong evidence for Neoglacial

  5. Modeling Urban Spatial Growth in Mountainous Regions of Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The scale and speed of urbanization in the mountainous regions of western China have received little attention from researchers. These cities are facing rapid population growth and severe environmental degradation. This study analyzed historical urban growth trends in this mountainous region to better understand the interaction between the spatial growth pattern and the mountainous topography. Three major factors—slope, accessibility, and land use type—were studied in light of their relationships with urban spatial growth. With the analysis of historical data as the basis, a conceptual urban spatial growth model was devised. In this model, slope, accessibility, and land use type together create resistance to urban growth, while accessibility controls the sequence of urban development. The model was tested and evaluated using historical data. It serves as a potential tool for planners to envision and assess future urban growth scenarios and their potential environmental impacts to make informed decisions.

  6. Regional climate change: Precipitation variability in mountainous part of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolova Nina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of paper is to analyze temporal and spatial changes in monthly precipitation as well as extremely dry and wet months in mountainous part of Bulgaria. Study precipitation variability in mountainous part is very important because this part is the region where the rivers take its source from. Extreme values of monthly precipitation are important information for better understanding of the whole variability and trends in precipitation time series. The mean investigated period is 1951-2005 and the reference period is so called temporary climate - 1961- 1990. Extreme dry precipitation months are defined as a month whose monthly precipitation is lower than 10% of gamma distribution in the reference period 1961-1990. Extreme wet months are determined with respect to 90% percentiles of gamma distribution (monthly precipitation is higher than 90%. The result of the research show that in mountainous part of Bulgaria during 1950s and 1960s number of extremely wet months is higher than number of dry months. Decreasing of monthly precipitation is a feature for 1980s. This dry period continues till 2004. The years 2000 makes impression as driest year in high mountains with about 7 extremely dry months. The second dry year is 1993. The negative precipitation anomaly is most clearly determined during last decade at study area. The present research points out that fluctuation of precipitation in mountainous part of Bulgaria are coinciding with regional and global climate trends.

  7. Forested communities of the pine mountain region, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Floyd; Robert Carter

    2013-01-01

    Seven landscape scale communities were identified in the Pine Mountain region having a mixture of Appalachian, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain species. The diagnostic environmental variables included elevation, B-horizon depth, A-horizon silt, topographic relative moisture index, and A-horizon potassium (K).

  8. Field guide to diseases & insects of the Rocky Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Health Protection. Rocky Mountain Region

    2010-01-01

    This field guide is a forest management tool for field identification of biotic and abiotic agents that damage native trees in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming, which constitute the USDA Forest Service's Rocky Mountain Region. The guide focuses only on tree diseases and forest insects that have significant economic, ecological, and/ or...

  9. Mallas y flujos : acción colectiva, cambio social, quinua y desarrollo regional indígena en los Andes Bolivianos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, P.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies collective action and social change in indigenous rural organisations (IRO) in the Bolivian Andes. I focus on the effects and importance that these organisations have in the historical process of regional development as social spaces that encapsulate different projects of

  10. Winter climate variability and classification in the Bulgarian Mountainous Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkova, Nadezhda; Koleva, Ekaterina

    2004-01-01

    The problems of snowiness and thermal conditions of winters are of high interest of investigations because of the more frequent droughts, occurred in the region. In the present study an attempt to reveal tendencies existing during the last 70 years of 20 th century in the course winter precipitation and,temperature as well as in some of the snow cover parameters. On the base of mean winter air temperature winters in the Bulgarian mountains were analyzed and classified. The main results of the study show that winter precipitation has decrease tendencies more significant in the highest parts of the mountains. On the other hand winter air temperature increases. It shows a relatively well-established maximum at the end of the studied period. In the Bulgarian mountains normal winters are about 35-40% of all winters. (Author)

  11. Estimating evapotranspiration in the central mountain region of Veracruz, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ballinas, Mónica; Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel; Barradas, Víctor L

    2015-01-01

    The global, regional and local hydrological cycle is strongly linked to vegetation distribution. The hydrological cycle is composed by precipitation, infiltration, runoff, transpiration and evaporation. Evaporation is influenced by high temperatures, high winds and low relative humidity. This work is focused on the study of evapotranspiration (ET) as the main variable of water loss in the water balance in the central mountain region of Veracruz, Mexico. ET was estimated using the Penman-Monte...

  12. Cultural ecosystem services of mountain regions: Modelling the aesthetic value

    OpenAIRE

    Schirpke, Uta; Timmermann, Florian; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Tasser, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Mountain regions meet an increasing demand for pleasant landscapes, offering many cultural ecosystem services to both their residents and tourists. As a result of global change, land managers and policy makers are faced with changes to this landscape and need efficient evaluation techniques to assess cultural ecosystem services. This study provides a spatially explicit modelling approach to estimating aesthetic landscape values by relating spatial landscape patterns to human perceptions via a...

  13. Glacier changes and climate trends derived from multiple sources in the data scarce Cordillera Vilcanota region, Southern Peruvian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    N. Salzmann; C. Huggel; M. Rohrer; W. Silverio; B. G. Mark; P. Burns; C. Portocarrero

    2012-01-01

    The role of glaciers as temporal water reservoirs is particularly pronounced in the (outer) tropics because of the very distinct wet/dry seasons. Rapid glacier retreat caused by climatic changes is thus a major concern, and decision makers demand urgently for regional/local glacier evolution trends, ice mass estimates and runoff assessments. However, in remote mountain areas, spatial and temporal data coverage is typically very scarce and this is further complicated by a high spatial and temp...

  14. ASTER Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In this image of the Andes along the Chile-Bolivia border, the visible and infrared data have been computer enhanced to exaggerate the color differences of the different materials. The scene is dominated by the Pampa Luxsar lava complex, occupying the upper right two-thirds of the scene. Lava flows are distributed around remnants of large dissected cones, the largest of which is Cerro Luxsar. On the middle left edge of the image are the Olca and Parumastrato volcanoes, which appear in blue due to a lack of vegetation (colored red in this composite). This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 60 kilometers (37 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. It was acquired on April 7, 2000.The image is located at 21 degrees south latitude, 68.3 degrees west longitude. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats

  15. Rock Glacier Response to Climate Change in the Argentinian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, J.; Korup, O.; Moreiras, S.

    2017-12-01

    Rock glaciers are bodies of frozen debris and ice that move under the influence of gravity in permafrost areas. Rock glaciers may store a large amount of sediments and play an important role as prime movers of debris in the Andean sediment cascade. However, little is known about how much sediment and water rock glaciers may store at the mountain-belt scale, and the few existing estimates vary considerably. We address this question for the Argentinian Andes, for which a new glacial inventory containing more than 6500 rock glaciers gives us the opportunity to analyse their relevance within the sediment cascade. We examine the inventory for catchments in five sub-regions, i.e. the Desert Andes (22°-31°S); the Central Andes (31°-36°S); the Northern Andes of Patagonia (36°-45°S); the Southern Andes of Patagonia (45°-52°S); and Tierra del Fuego (52°-55°S), together with climate variables of the WorldClim datasets, and digital topographic data, to estimate how rock-glacier extents may change under different past and future climate scenarios. We observe for the northern Desert Andes that rock glacier toes are at 4000 to 5000 m a.s.l. and a mean annual temperature range of 3° and 8°C, though most rock glaciers are in areas with mean annual temperatures between -5 and 5°C, marking a distinct thermal niche. Rock glaciers are traditionally viewed as diagnostic of sporadic alpine permafrost and their toes are often near the annual mean 0°C isotherm. However, we find that only rock glaciers in the southern Desert Andes and Central Andes are located where annual mean temperature is -2°C. Future scenarios project an increase of > four degrees in these areas, which may further degrade ground ice and potentially change the rates at which rock glaciers advance. Where active rock glaciers become inactive their coarse material, which was formerly bound by ice, may be released into the sediment cascade, whereas accelerating or rapidly downwasting rock glaciers may either

  16. First web-based database on total phenolics and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speisky, Hernan; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Gómez, Maritza; Fuentes, Jocelyn; Sandoval-Acuña, Cristian

    2012-09-12

    This paper reports the first database on antioxidants contained in fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America. The database ( www.portalantioxidantes.com ) contains over 500 total phenolics (TP) and ORAC values for more than 120 species/varieties of fruits. All analyses were conducted by a single ISO/IEC 17025-certified laboratory. The characterization comprised native berries such as maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ), murtilla ( Ugni molinae ), and calafate ( Barberis microphylla ), which largely outscored all other studied fruits. Major differences in TP and ORAC were observed as a function of the fruit variety in berries, avocado, cherries, and apples. In fruits such as pears, apples, apricots, and peaches, a significant part of the TP and ORAC was accounted for by the antioxidants present in the peel. These data should be useful to estimate the fruit-based intake of TP and, through the ORAC data, their antioxidant-related contribution to the diet of south Andes populations.

  17. Water beetles in mountainous regions in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MO. Segura

    Full Text Available Inventories provide information on the state of biodiversity at a site or for a geographic region. Species inventories are the basis for systematic study and critical to ecology, biogeography and identification of biological indicators and key species. They also provide key information for assessments of environmental change, for natural resource conservation or recovery of degraded ecosystems. Thus, inventories play a key role in planning strategies for conservation and sustainable use. This study aimed to inventory the fauna of water beetles, larvae and adults, in two mountainous regions in the state of São Paulo, in Serra da Mantiqueira (Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão and Pindamonhangaba region and in Serra do Mar (Santa Virgínia and Picinguaba Divisions as well as to generate information about the habitats used by the different genera recorded. Specimens were collected in lotic and lentic systems, between the years 2005 to 2010. In total 14,492 specimens were collected and 16 families and 50 genera of Coleoptera were identified. This study in mountainous regions showed a significant portion of the faunal composition of South America and the state of São Paulo. The composition of the fauna, in terms of richness and abundance by family, indicated the predominance of Elmidae, followed by Hydrophilidae and Dytiscidae. Despite the diversity found, the results of estimated richness indicated the need for additional sampling effort for both regions, since the curves of estimated richness did not reach an asymptote, suggesting that new species can be found in future surveys.

  18. Research on Structure Innovation of Agricultural Organization in China's Southwestern Mountainous Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Qiang; Luo, Min; Wang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Taking agricultural organization in China's southwestern mountainous regions as research object, on the basis of analysis of the status quo of agricultural organization development in China's southwestern mountainous regions, we use related theoretical knowledge on economics and organization science, we probe into the process of innovation and mechanism of action concerning the structure of agricultural organization in China's southwestern mountainous regions over the past 30 years. Finally w...

  19. Struggle and success in an inter-regional water conflict in the Peruvian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero, S.; Verzijl, A.

    2015-01-01

    Large hydraulic projects that aim to capture and control water flows are increasingly entering territories of local Andean communities. This is a story of pastoralists in the region of Huancavelica, Peru, who stepped up in defence of their local wetlands, pastures and water sources. After more than

  20. Geochemical Background and Baseline Values Determination and Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils of the Andes Mountain Range (Cajamarca-Huancavelica, Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Francés, Fernando; Alonso Rojo, Pilar; García Sánchez, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and one metalloid (As) as well as various parameters (pH, organic carbon, granulometric analysis and cation exchange capacity) were analyzed in 77 soil samples collected in the mining areas of La Zanja and Colquirrumi (Department of Cajamarca) and Julcani (Department of Huancavelica). Our study proposed geochemical baseline values for heavy metals in a natural region (La Zanja) from samples collected during the period of the environmental impact study (2006), that is, from an earlier period which occurred at the beginning of the exploitation of the current gold mine. The baseline values obtained were as follows: 8.26 mg·kg−1 for Cr; 56.97 mg·kg−1 for Ni; 22, 20 mg·kg−1 for the Cu; 47.42 mg·kg−1 for Zn; 27.50 mg·kg−1 for As; 4.36 mg·kg−1 for Cd; 4.89 mg·kg−1 for Hg, and 44.87 mg·kg−1 for Pb. Through the use of different indices of heavy metal contamination (geo-accumulation index (Igeo), improved Nemerow index (IIN) and potential ecological risk index (RI)), the degree of pollution caused by mining activities in two areas, Colquirrumi and Julcani, which have a high density of mining sites in operation, was determined. The values obtained from these indices indicated that the Colquirrumi region was the most contaminated, followed by Julcani. The area of La Zanja, despite being free of mining operations, presented slight diffuse pollution. Several positive correlations were obtained, with a high level of significance, between pH, organic carbon content, cation exchange capacity, and the Cr, Pb and Ni concentrations of the soils. The spatial distribution of the heavy metals was realized by means of the interpolation method of ordinary kriging. The results obtained and the experience gained in this work were necessary to facilitate the identification of soil contamination processes in high altitude areas of the Andes Western Cordillera (Peru) as a basis for taking appropriate

  1. Geochemical Background and Baseline Values Determination and Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils of the Andes Mountain Range (Cajamarca-Huancavelica, Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Francés, Fernando; Martinez-Graña, Antonio; Alonso Rojo, Pilar; García Sánchez, Antonio

    2017-07-31

    Concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and one metalloid (As) as well as various parameters (pH, organic carbon, granulometric analysis and cation exchange capacity) were analyzed in 77 soil samples collected in the mining areas of La Zanja and Colquirrumi (Department of Cajamarca) and Julcani (Department of Huancavelica). Our study proposed geochemical baseline values for heavy metals in a natural region (La Zanja) from samples collected during the period of the environmental impact study (2006), that is, from an earlier period which occurred at the beginning of the exploitation of the current gold mine. The baseline values obtained were as follows: 8.26 mg kg-1 for Cr; 56.97 mg kg-1 for Ni; 22, 20 mg kg-1 for the Cu; 47.42 mg kg-1 for Zn; 27.50 mg kg-1 for As; 4.36 mg kg-1 for Cd; 4.89 mg kg-1 for Hg, and 44.87 mg kg-1 for Pb. Through the use of different indices of heavy metal contamination (geo-accumulation index (Igeo), improved Nemerow index (IIN) and potential ecological risk index (RI)), the degree of pollution caused by mining activities in two areas, Colquirrumi and Julcani, which have a high density of mining sites in operation, was determined. The values obtained from these indices indicated that the Colquirrumi region was the most contaminated, followed by Julcani. The area of La Zanja, despite being free of mining operations, presented slight diffuse pollution. Several positive correlations were obtained, with a high level of significance, between pH, organic carbon content, cation exchange capacity, and the Cr, Pb and Ni concentrations of the soils. The spatial distribution of the heavy metals was realized by means of the interpolation method of ordinary kriging. The results obtained and the experience gained in this work were necessary to facilitate the identification of soil contamination processes in high altitude areas of the Andes Western Cordillera (Peru) as a basis for taking appropriate measures when restoring

  2. Improving Land Surface Temperature Retrievals over Mountainous Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio A. Bento

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms for Land Surface Temperature (LST retrieval from infrared measurements are usually sensitive to the amount of water vapor present in the atmosphere. The Satellite Application Facilities on Climate Monitoring and Land Surface Analysis (CM SAF and LSA SAF are currently compiling a 25 year LST Climate data record (CDR, which uses water vapor information from ERA-Int reanalysis. However, its relatively coarse spatial resolution may lead to systematic errors in the humidity profiles with implications in LST, particularly over mountainous areas. The present study compares LST estimated with three different retrieval algorithms: a radiative transfer-based physical mono-window (PMW, a statistical mono-window (SMW, and a generalized split-windows (GSW. The algorithms were tested over the Alpine region using ERA-Int reanalysis data and relied on the finer spatial scale Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling (COSMO model data as a reference. Two methods were developed to correct ERA-Int water vapor misestimation: (1 an exponential parametrization of total precipitable water (TPW appropriate for SMW/GSW; and (2 a level reduction method to be used in PMW. When ERA-Int TPW was used, the algorithm missed the right TPW class in 87% of the cases. When the exponential parametrization was used, the missing class rate decreased to 9%, and when the level reduction method was applied, the LST corrections went up to 1.7 K over the study region. Overall, the correction for pixel orography in TPW leads to corrections in LST estimations, which are relevant to ensure that long-term LST records meet climate requirements, particularly over mountainous regions.

  3. Causal Chains Arising from Climate Change in Mountain Regions: the Core Program of the Mountain Research Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Mountains are a widespread terrestrial feature, covering from 12 to 24 percent of the world's terrestrial surface, depending of the definition. Topographic relief is central to the definition of mountains, to the benefits and costs accruing to society and to the cascade of changes expected from climate change. Mountains capture and store water, particularly important in arid regions and in all areas for energy production. In temperate and boreal regions, mountains have a great range in population densities, from empty to urban, while tropical mountains are often densely settled and farmed. Mountain regions contain a wide range of habitats, important for biodiversity, and for primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy. Climate change interacts with this relief and consequent diversity. Elevation itself may accentuate warming (elevationi dependent warming) in some mountain regions. Even average warming starts complex chains of causality that reverberate through the diverse social ecological mountain systems affecting both the highlands and adjacent lowlands. A single feature of climate change such as higher snow lines affect the climate through albedo, the water cycle through changes in timing of release , water quality through the weathering of newly exposed material, geomorphology through enhanced erosion, plant communities through changes in climatic water balance, and animal and human communities through changes in habitat conditions and resource availabilities. Understanding these causal changes presents a particular interdisciplinary challenge to researchers, from assessing the existence and magnitude of elevation dependent warming and monitoring the full suite of changes within the social ecological system to climate change, to understanding how social ecological systems respond through individual and institutional behavior with repercussions on the long-term sustainability of these systems.

  4. A New Estimate of North American Mountain Snow Accumulation From Regional Climate Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesien, Melissa L.; Durand, Michael T.; Pavelsky, Tamlin M.; Kapnick, Sarah B.; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Junyi; Shum, C. K.

    2018-02-01

    Despite the importance of mountain snowpack to understanding the water and energy cycles in North America's montane regions, no reliable mountain snow climatology exists for the entire continent. We present a new estimate of mountain snow water equivalent (SWE) for North America from regional climate model simulations. Climatological peak SWE in North America mountains is 1,006 km3, 2.94 times larger than previous estimates from reanalyses. By combining this mountain SWE value with the best available global product in nonmountain areas, we estimate peak North America SWE of 1,684 km3, 55% greater than previous estimates. In our simulations, the date of maximum SWE varies widely by mountain range, from early March to mid-April. Though mountains comprise 24% of the continent's land area, we estimate that they contain 60% of North American SWE. This new estimate is a suitable benchmark for continental- and global-scale water and energy budget studies.

  5. Manganese Deposits in the Artillery Mountains Region, Mohave County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, S.G.; Webber, B.N.

    1944-01-01

    The manganese deposits of the Artillery Mountains region lie within an area of about 25 square miles between the Artillery and Rawhide Mountains, on the west side of the Bill Williams River in west-central Arizona. The richest croppings are on the northeast side of this area, among the foothills of the Artillery Mountains. They are 6 to 10 miles from Alamo. The nearest shipping points are Congress, about 50 miles to the east, and Aguila, about 50 miles to the southeast. The principal manganese deposits are part of a sequence of alluvial fan and playa material, probably of early Pliocene age, which were laid down in a fault basin. They are overlain by later Pliocene (?) basalt flows and sediments and by Quaternary basalt and alluvium. The Pliocene (?) rocks are folded into a shallow composite S1ncline ttat occupies the valley between the Artillery and Rawhide Mountains, and the folded rocks along either side of the valley, together with the overlying Quaternary basalt, are broken by faults that have produced a group of horsts, grabens, and step-fault blocks. The manganiferous beds, lie at two zones, 750 to 1,000 feet apart stratigraphically, each of which is locally as much as 300 to 400 feet thick. The main, or upper, zone contains three kinds of ore - sandstone ore, clay ore, and 'hard' ore. The sandstone and clay ores differ from the associated barren sandstone and clay, with which they are interlayered and into which they grade, primarily in containing a variable proportion of amorphous manganese oxides, besides iron oxides and clayey material such as are present in the barren beds. The 'hard' ore is sandstone that has been impregnated with opal and calcite and in which the original amorphous manganese oxides have been largely converted to psilomelane and manganite. The average manganese content of the sandstone and clay ores is between 3 and 4 percent and that of the 'hard' ore is between 6 and 7 percent. The ore contains an average of 3 percent of iron, 0

  6. Uncertainty of future projections of species distributions in mountainous regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Tang

    Full Text Available Multiple factors introduce uncertainty into projections of species distributions under climate change. The uncertainty introduced by the choice of baseline climate information used to calibrate a species distribution model and to downscale global climate model (GCM simulations to a finer spatial resolution is a particular concern for mountainous regions, as the spatial resolution of climate observing networks is often insufficient to detect the steep climatic gradients in these areas. Using the maximum entropy (MaxEnt modeling framework together with occurrence data on 21 understory bamboo species distributed across the mountainous geographic range of the Giant Panda, we examined the differences in projected species distributions obtained from two contrasting sources of baseline climate information, one derived from spatial interpolation of coarse-scale station observations and the other derived from fine-spatial resolution satellite measurements. For each bamboo species, the MaxEnt model was calibrated separately for the two datasets and applied to 17 GCM simulations downscaled using the delta method. Greater differences in the projected spatial distributions of the bamboo species were observed for the models calibrated using the different baseline datasets than between the different downscaled GCM simulations for the same calibration. In terms of the projected future climatically-suitable area by species, quantification using a multi-factor analysis of variance suggested that the sum of the variance explained by the baseline climate dataset used for model calibration and the interaction between the baseline climate data and the GCM simulation via downscaling accounted for, on average, 40% of the total variation among the future projections. Our analyses illustrate that the combined use of gridded datasets developed from station observations and satellite measurements can help estimate the uncertainty introduced by the choice of baseline

  7. Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina M. Rochefort; Laurie L. Kurth; Tara W. Carolin; Robert R. Mierendorf; Kimberly Frappier; David L. Steenson

    2006-01-01

    This chapter concentrates on subalpine parklands and alpine meadows of southern British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and western Montana. These areas lie on the flanks of several mountain ranges including the Olympics, the Cascades of Oregon and Washington, and the Coast Mountains in British Columbia.

  8. A modelling study of the seasonal snowpack energy balance at three sites along the Andes Cordillera. Regional climate and local effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, James; Mengual, Sebastian; MacDonell, Shelley

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal snowpack melt constitutes the main water source for large portions of extratropical South America, including central Chile and Western Argentina. The properties and distribution of snow in the Andes are threatened by rapid climate change, characterised by warming and drying. This study provides a first attempt at detailed description of the energy balance of the seasonal snowpack and its variability along a latitudinal gradient, which is also correlated with an elevation and precipitation gradient, in the Andes Cordillera. The Snowpack model was validated at semi-arid, Mediterranean and temperate humid sites, where meteorological and snowpack properties have been observed since year 2013. Site elevations decrease from north to south, whereas precipitation climatology increases with latitude. Results show that turbulent energy exchange becomes relatively more important in periods of low snow accumulation, with sensible heat fluxes having a greater effect in cooling the snowpack at the high-altitude, low latitude site. Likewise, daily melt-freeze cycles are important in maintaining positive cold contents throughout the accumulation season at this site, and contribute to extending the duration of snow cover despite low accumulation and high radiation loads. In contrast, the southernmost, lowest elevation site shows smaller daily temperature amplitude and a much more preponderant radiation component to the energy balance. This modelling exercise highlights the nonlinearities of snow dynamics at different geographical settings in a sparsely monitored mountain area of the world, as well as the need for further understanding in order to evaluate the sensitivity of snow-dominated watersheds to global warming and climate change.

  9. Using DInSAR as a tool to detect unstable terrain areas in an Andes region in Ecuador (South America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga Torres, Tannia

    2014-05-01

    Using DInSAR as a tool to detect unstable terrain areas in an Andes region in Ecuador (South America) 1. INTRODUCTION Monitoring landslides is a mandatory task in charge on the National Institute of Geological Research (INIGEMM) in Ecuador. It is a small country, supposedly will be faster doing monitoring, but what about its geographic characteristics? Lamentably, due to human and financial resources is not possible to put monitoring systems in unstable terrain areas. However, getting ALOS data to accessible price and using open source software to produce interferograms, could be a first step to know steep areas covered by vegetation and where mass movements are not visible. Under this statement, this study is part of the final research in a master study developed at CONAE during 2009-2011, with oral defense in August 2013. As a new technique used in Ecuador, the study processed radar data from ERS-1/2 and ALOS sensor PALSAR for getting differential interferograms, using ROI_PAC software. Stacking DInSAR is applied to get an average of displacement that indicates uplift and subsidence in the whole radar scene that covers two provinces in the Andes region. 2. PROBLEM Mass movements are present in the whole territory, independently of their magnitude and dynamic (slow or fast), they are a latent threat in winter season specially. There are registers of monitoring, such as two GPS's campaigns and artisanal extensometers, which are used to contrast with DInSAR results. However, the campaigns are shorter and extensometers are no trust on all. 3. METHODOLOGY Methodology has four phases of development: (1) Pre-processing of RAW data; (2) Processing of RAW data in ROI_PAC; (3) Post-processing for getting interferograms in units of cm per year; (4) Analysis of the results and comparison with ground truth. Sandwell & Price (1998) proposed Stacking technique to increase the fringes and decrease errors due to the atmosphere, to average several interferograms. L band penetrates

  10. Pedological and mineralogical investigations on a soil-paleosoil sequence within Andosols in the Western Cordillera of the Peruvian Andes (region Laramate, 14.5S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leceta Gobitz, Fernando; Mächtle, Bertil; Schukraft, Gerd; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Eitel, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    An integrated research project of environmental sciences focuses on a group of four Andosol profiles in Western flank of the Peruvian southern Andes. Aim of this study is to contribute to the reconstruction of the paleo environmental conditions in the Western Cordillera of the Peruvian Andes. Standard pedological and sedimentological analysis has been conducted in order to identify morphological and geochemical features generated by climatic variations during the middle and late Holocene. Though a provenance analysis of sediments, all potential lithological sources around the town of Laramate are being examined under the scanning electron microscope, in order to find significant mineralogical associations downward the soil-profile. Preliminary results reveal two edaphic cycles within a soil-paleo soil-sequence: a relative poor developed "Ah" topsoil, mostly composed by fine grain sediments, is underlain by a well preserved "2Ah" paleo soil; a "2Bwt" subsoil exhibits signs of alteration and clay translocation; parent material in slight weathered statement at "2C" culminates the sequence. Mineralogical analytical data supports the premise, that materials in the uppermost horizons are relatable to distal geological units of the Western and Eastern Cordillera, therefore also related to other described aeolian archives from the region: "Desert Margin Loess" at the Andean foot-zone and "Mixed Loess" in the Puna grassland. The amphibole varieties Actinolite, Mg-Hornblende and Edenite could be only distinguished within the soil sediments. The fluvial transport to its current position is excluded, insofar mentioned varieties stem from the granodiorites of Coastal Batholite (downstream the study area), and the vulcanites of the Anta und Andahuaylas Formation (eastward the continental divide). References: Eitel, B., et al. (2005). "Geoarchaeological evidence from desert loess in the Nazca-Palpa region, southern Peru : Palaeoenvironmental changes and their impact on Pre

  11. Neotectonic inversion of the Hindu Kush-Pamir mountain region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruleman, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Hindu Kush-Pamir region of southern Asia is one of Earth's most rapidly deforming regions and it is poorly understood. This study develops a kinematic model based on active faulting in this part of the Trans-Himalayan orogenic belt. Previous studies have described north-verging thrust faults and some strike-slip faults, reflected in the northward-convex geomorphologic and structural grain of the Pamir Mountains. However, this structural analysis suggests that contemporary tectonics are changing the style of deformation from north-verging thrusts formed during the initial contraction of the Himalayan orogeny to south-verging thrusts and a series of northwest-trending, dextral strike-slip faults in the modern transpressional regime. These northwest-trending fault zones are linked to the major right-lateral Karakoram fault, located to the east, as synthetic, conjugate shears that form a right-stepping en echelon pattern. Northwest-trending lineaments with dextral displacements extend continuously westward across the Hindu Kush-Pamir region indicating a pattern of systematic shearing of multiple blocks to the northwest as the deformation effects from Indian plate collision expands to the north-northwest. Locally, east-northeast- and northwest-trending faults display sinistral and dextral displacement, respectively, yielding conjugate shear pairs developed in a northwest-southeast compressional stress field. Geodetic measurements and focal mechanisms from historical seismicity support these surficial, tectono-morphic observations. The conjugate shear pairs may be structurally linked subsidiary faults and co-seismically slip during single large magnitude (> M7) earthquakes that occur on major south-verging thrust faults. This kinematic model provides a potential context for prehistoric, historic, and future patterns of faulting and earthquakes.

  12. [Gerontology in rural and mountains regions aged people in the country and in mountain regions (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gsell, O

    1977-04-01

    The gerontologic problems of people living in the country and in mountain regions always were neglected in comparison to those of townsmen. In the last decade an important structural change has happened, caused on the one side by the fact that more and more people leave the country for the towns, and by the problem of overaged persons in the country; on the other side this change is a consequence of improvement by modern technical acquisitions (more agricultural machines, silos), living hygiene and the tourism. The living conditions in the past and today in Switzerland are shown, referring to various publications. The ecological change also hits the aged people, financially by revenues, completion of private help organizations, rebuilding of homes for the aged persons in every village and regional nursing home, as well as household helps for those elderly people who still live in the country in their own houses. The qualitative differences between living conditions in the country and in town will in the near future be equalized--which is especially mentionned.

  13. The Impact Snow Albedo Feedback over Mountain Regions as Examined through High-Resolution Regional Climate Change Experiments over the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Theodore

    As the climate warms, the snow albedo feedback (SAF) will play a substantial role in shaping the climate response of mid-latitude mountain regions with transient snow cover. One such region is the Rocky Mountains of the western United States where large snow packs accumulate during the winter and persist throughout the spring. In this dissertation, the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF) configured as a regional climate model is used to investigate the role of the SAF in determining the regional climate response to forced anthropogenic climate change. The regional effects of climate change are investigated by using the pseudo global warming (PGW) framework, which is an experimental configuration in a which a mean climate perturbation is added to the boundary forcing of a regional model, thus preserving the large-scale circulation entering the region through the model boundaries and isolating the mesoscale climate response. Using this framework, the impact of the SAF on the regional energetics and atmospheric dynamics is examined and quantified. Linear feedback analysis is used to quantify the strength of the SAF over the Headwaters region of the Colorado Rockies for a series of high-resolution PGW experiments. This technique is used to test sensitivity of the feedback strength to model resolution and land surface model. Over the Colorado Rockies, and integrated over the entire spring season, the SAF strength is largely insensitive to model resolution, however there are more substantial differences on the sub-seasonal (monthly) timescale. In contrast, the SAF strength over this region is very sensitive to choice of land surface model. These simulations are also used to investigate how spatial and diurnal variability in warming caused by the SAF influences the dynamics of thermally driven mountain-breeze circulations. It is shown that, the SAF causes stronger daytime mountain-breeze circulations by increasing the warming on the mountains slopes thus enhancing

  14. Mountains Under Pressure: Evaluating Ecosystem Services and Livelihoods in the Upper Himalayan Region of Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhusal, Jagat K.; Chapagain, Prem Sagar; Regmi, Santosh; Gurung, Praju; Zulkafli, Zed; Karpouzoglou, T.D.; Pandeya, Bhopal; Buytaert, Wouter; Clark, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource-based livelihoods in mountainous regions are subject to new types of development as well as climate related pressures and vulnerabilities. On one hand, the integrity of the mountainous landscape is under pressure from the melting of glaciers, changes in water availability, rainfall

  15. Assessing the hydrologic response to wildfires in mountainous regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havel, Aaron; Tasdighi, Ali; Arabi, Mazdak

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to understand the hydrologic responses to wildfires in mountainous regions at various spatial scales. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to evaluate the hydrologic responses of the upper Cache la Poudre Watershed in Colorado to the 2012 High Park and Hewlett wildfire events. A baseline SWAT model was established to simulate the hydrology of the study area between the years 2000 and 2014. A procedure involving land use and curve number updating was implemented to assess the effects of wildfires. Application of the proposed procedure provides the ability to simulate the hydrologic response to wildfires seamlessly through mimicking the dynamic of the changes due to wildfires. The wildfire effects on curve numbers were determined comparing the probability distribution of curve numbers after calibrating the model for pre- and post-wildfire conditions. Daily calibration and testing of the model produced very good results. No-wildfire and wildfire scenarios were created and compared to quantify changes in average annual total runoff volume, water budgets, and full streamflow statistics at different spatial scales. At the watershed scale, wildfire conditions showed little impact on the hydrologic responses. However, a runoff increase up to 75 % was observed between the scenarios in sub-watersheds with high burn intensity. Generally, higher surface runoff and decreased subsurface flow were observed under post-wildfire conditions. Flow duration curves developed for burned sub-watersheds using full streamflow statistics showed that less frequent streamflows become greater in magnitude. A linear regression model was developed to assess the relationship between percent burned area and runoff increase in Cache la Poudre Watershed. A strong (R2 > 0.8) and significant (p statistics through application of flow duration curves revealed that the wildfires had a higher effect on peak flows, which may increase the risk of flash floods in post

  16. Dynamics of a Puelche foehn event in the Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Beusch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this numerical modelling study, we investigate a Puelche foehn event (25–26 March 2014 in the southern Andes – a region with sparse observations. The synoptic environment as well as the mesoscale structure and the dynamics of the easterly wind are examined with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF analyses and a simulation with the mesoscale non-hydrostatic limited-area weather prediction model COSMO with a grid spacing of 2.2 km.The large-scale synoptic situation leading to this Puelche event is characterized by a mid-tropospheric cut-off low above the mountain range, the formation of a coastal surface low, as well as high pressure extending over the southern Andes. Easterly winds extend throughout the entire troposphere, indicative of a deep foehn flow. In the free troposphere, the easterlies are geostrophically balanced and develop in association with increasing pressure to the south. In contrast, within the planetary boundary layer, the easterly winds occur predominantly due to an increasing cross-range large-scale pressure gradient with only a weak geostrophic component. Kinematic trajectories indicate that a significant part of the Puelche air mass originates from above an inversion on the upstream side of the Andes. Some air parcels, however, ascend on the upstream side to crest height as the boundary layer deepens during daytime and/or flow through gaps across the mountain range. Hence, this Puelche event shares characteristics of both a blocked and a non-blocked foehn type.

  17. The history of development of balneology in Mountain-Badakhshan autonomous region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobokhodjaev, I.Ya.; Davlatmamadov, Sh.M.

    1994-01-01

    This chapter of book is about the history of development of balneology in Mountain-Badakhshan autonomous region, about useful application of mineral sources on human organism not only for sick people, but on healthy people too

  18. Specialty Crop Profile: Blueberries for the Upper Piedmont and Mountain Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Bratsch, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Discusses blueberries as a small fruit crop for the upper Piedmont and mountain regions of Virginia. Provides information about best ways to plant the blueberries, mulching, irrigation, fertilization, pruning, harvesting and handling, marketing and more.

  19. Distribution of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) along an elevational gradient in the Andes Mountains of Colombia during the El Niño Southern Oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, Juan S; Moncada, Ligia I; Matta, Nubia E; Adler, Peter H

    2018-07-01

    Vector ecology is a key factor in understanding the transmission of disease agents, with each species having an optimal range of environmental requirements. Scarce data, however, are available for how interactions of local and broad-scale climate phenomena, such as seasonality and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), affect simuliids. We, therefore, conducted an exploratory study to examine distribution patterns of species of Simuliidae along an elevational gradient of the Otún River in the Colombian Andes, encompassing four ecoregions. Larval and pupal simuliids were sampled at 52 sites ranging from 1800 to 4750 m above sea level in dry and wet seasons and during the La Niña phase (2011-2012) and the El Niño phase (2015-2016) of the ENSO; physicochemical measurements were taken during the El Niño phase. Twenty-seven species in two genera (Gigantodax and Simulium) were collected. Species richness and occurrence in each ecoregion were influenced by elevation, seasonality, and primarily the warm El Niño and cool La Niña phases of the ENSO. The degree of change differed among ecoregions and was related to physicochemical factors, mainly with stream discharge. Some putative simuliid vectors of Leucocytozoon, such as G. misitu and S. muiscorum, markedly changed in distribution and occurrence, potentially influencing parasite transmission. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Adaptation to Climate Change in Panchase Mountain Ecological Regions of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar Adhikari; Himlal Baral; Craig Nitschke

    2018-01-01

    Rural mountain communities in developing countries are considered particularly vulnerable to environmental change, including climate change. Forests and agriculture provide numerous ecosystem goods and services (EGS) to local communities and can help people adapt to the impacts of climate change. There is however poor documentation on the role of EGS in people’s livelihood and adaptation practices. This study in the rural Panchase Mountain Ecological Region of Nepal identifies practices being...

  1. A computer simulation model to compute the radiation transfer of mountainous regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuguang; Zhao, Feng; Song, Rui

    2011-11-01

    In mountainous regions, the radiometric signal recorded at the sensor depends on a number of factors such as sun angle, atmospheric conditions, surface cover type, and topography. In this paper, a computer simulation model of radiation transfer is designed and evaluated. This model implements the Monte Carlo ray-tracing techniques and is specifically dedicated to the study of light propagation in mountainous regions. The radiative processes between sun light and the objects within the mountainous region are realized by using forward Monte Carlo ray-tracing methods. The performance of the model is evaluated through detailed comparisons with the well-established 3D computer simulation model: RGM (Radiosity-Graphics combined Model) based on the same scenes and identical spectral parameters, which shows good agreements between these two models' results. By using the newly developed computer model, series of typical mountainous scenes are generated to analyze the physical mechanism of mountainous radiation transfer. The results show that the effects of the adjacent slopes are important for deep valleys and they particularly affect shadowed pixels, and the topographic effect needs to be considered in mountainous terrain before accurate inferences from remotely sensed data can be made.

  2. Late Pleistocene glaciations of the arid subtropical Andes and new results from the Chajnantor Plateau, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dylan J.; Cesta, Jason M.; Galewsky, Joseph; Sagredo, Esteban

    2015-11-01

    The spatiotemporal pattern of glaciation along the Andes Mountains is an important proxy record reflecting the varying influence of global and regional circulation features on South American climate. However, the timing and extent of glaciation in key parts of the orogen, particularly the deglaciated arid Andes, are poorly constrained. We present new cosmogenic 10Be and 36Cl exposure ages for glacial features on and near the Chajnantor Plateau (23 °S). The new dates, although scattered due to cosmogenic inheritance, imply that the most recent extensive glacial occupation ended before or during the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). We discuss this new record in the context of published glacial chronologies from glacial features in Peru, Bolivia, and northern Chile rescaled using the latest cosmogenic 10Be production rate calibration for the tropical Andes. The results imply regionally synchronous moraine stabilization ca. 25-40 ka, 15-17 ka, and 12-14 ka, with the youngest of these moraines absent in records south of ∼20 °S, including in our new Chajnantor area chronology. This spatial pattern implicates easterly moisture in generating sufficient snowfall to glaciate the driest parts of the Andes, while allowing a role for westerly moisture, possibly modulated by the migration of the Southern Westerly Wind belt, in the regions near and south of the Atacama Desert.

  3. Mountain biking injuries requiring trauma center admission: a 10-year regional trauma system experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Peter T W; Jangra, Dalbhir; Ritchie, Alec H; Lower, Mary Ellen; Kasic, Sharon; Brown, D Ross; Baldwin, Greg A; Simons, Richard K

    2006-02-01

    Mountain biking has become an increasingly popular recreational and competitive sport with increasingly recognized risks. The purpose of this study was to review a population based approach to serious injuries requiring trauma center admission related to mountain biking, identify trends and develop directions for related injury prevention programs. Three trauma centers in the Greater Vancouver area exclusively serve a major mountain bike park and the North Shore Mountains biking trails. The Trauma Registries and the patient charts were reviewed for mountain bike injuries from 1992 to 2002. The data were analyzed according to demographics, distribution, and severity of injuries, and need for operative intervention. Findings were reviewed with injury prevention experts and regional and national mountain-biking stakeholders to provide direction to injury prevention programs. A total of 1,037 patients were identified as having bicycling-related injuries. Of these, 399 patients sustained 1,092 injuries while mountain biking. There was a threefold increase in the incidence of mountain biking injuries over a 10-year period. Young males were most commonly affected. Orthopedic injuries were most common (46.5%) followed by head (12.2%), spine (12%), chest (10.3%), facial (10.2%), abdominal (5.4%), genitourinary (2.2%), and neck injuries (1%). High operative rate was observed: 38% of injuries and 66% of patients required surgery. One patient died from his injuries. Injury prevention programs were developed and successfully engaged the target population. Mountain biking is a growing cause of serious injuries. Young males are principally at risk and serious injuries result from intended activity and despite protective equipment. Injury prevention programs were developed to address these concerns.

  4. CanWEA regional issues and wind energy project siting : mountainous areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Entremont, M. [Jacques Whitford Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Axys Environmental Consulting Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Planning and permitting considerations for wind energy project siting in mountainous areas were discussed. Mountainous regions have a specific set of environmental and socio-economic concerns. Potential disruptions to wildlife, noise, and visual impacts are a primary concern in the assessment of potential wind farm projects. Alpine habitats are unique and often contain fragile and endangered species. Reclamation techniques for mountainous habitats have not been extensively tested, and the sites are not as resilient as sites located in other ecosystems. In addition, alpine habitats are often migratory corridors and breeding grounds for threatened or endangered birds. In the winter months, alpine habitats are used by caribou, grizzly bears, and wolverine dens. Bats are also present at high elevations. It is often difficult to conduct baseline and monitoring studies in mountainous areas since alpine habitat is subject to rapid weather changes, and has a very short construction period. tabs., figs.

  5. Low-level radioactive waste facility siting in the Rocky Mountain compact region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, M.

    1983-09-01

    The puprose of the Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact is to develop a regional management system for low-level waste (LLW) generated in the six states eligible for membership: Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. Under the terms of the compact, any party state generating at least 20% of the region's waste becomes responsible for hosting a regional LLW management facility. However, the compact prescribes no system which the host state must follow to develop a facility, but rather calls on the state to fulfill its responsibility through reliance on its own laws and regulations. Few of the Rocky Mountain compact states have legislation dealing specifically with LLW facility siting. Authority for LLW facility siting is usually obtained from radiation control statutes and solid or hazardous waste statutes. A state-by-state analysis of the siting authorities of each of the Rock Mountain compact states as they pertain to LLW disposal facility siting is presented. Siting authority for LLW disposal facilities in the Rocky Mountain compact region runs from no authority, as in Wyoming, to general statutory authority for which regulations would have to be promulgated, as in Arizona and Nevada, to more detailed siting laws, as in Colorado and New Mexico. Barring an amendment to, or different interpretation of, the Utah Hazardous Waste Facility Siting Act, none of the Rocky Mountain States' LLW facility siting authorities preempt local veto authorities

  6. Characterization of Most Promising Sequestration Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region (RMCCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, Brian; Matthews, Vince

    2013-09-30

    The primary objective of the “Characterization of Most Promising Carbon Capture and Sequestration Formations in the Central Rocky Mountain Region” project, or RMCCS project, is to characterize the storage potential of the most promising geologic sequestration formations within the southwestern U.S. and the Central Rocky Mountain region in particular. The approach included an analysis of geologic sequestration formations under the Craig Power Station in northwestern Colorado, and application or extrapolation of those local-scale results to the broader region. A ten-step protocol for geologic carbon storage site characterization was a primary outcome of this project.

  7. Regional groundwater modeling of the saturated zone in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahola, M.; Sagar, B.

    1992-10-01

    Results of groundwater modeling of the saturated zone in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain are presented. Both a regional (200 x 200 km) and subregional (50 x 50 km) model were used in the analyses. Simulations were conducted to determine the impact of various disruptive that might take place over the life span of a proposed Yucca Mountain geologic conditions repository on the groundwater flow field, as well as changes in the water-table elevations. These conditions included increases in precipitation and groundwater recharge within the regional model, changes in permeability of existing hydrogeologic barriers, a:nd the vertical intrusion of volcanic dikes at various orientations through the saturated zone. Based on the regional analysis, the rise in the water-table under Yucca Mountain due to various postulated conditions ranged from only a few meters to 275 meters. Results of the subregional model analysis, which was used to simulate intrusive dikes approximately 4 kilometers in length in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, showed water-table rises ranging from a few meters to as much as 103 meters. Dikes oriented approximately north-south beneath Yucca Mountain produced the highest water-table rises. The conclusions drawn from this analysis are likely to change as more site-specific data become available and as the assumptions in the model are improved

  8. Sustainable Land Use in Mountain Regions Under Global Change: Synthesis Across Scales and Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Huber

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mountain regions provide essential ecosystem goods and services (EGS for both mountain dwellers and people living outside these areas. Global change endangers the capacity of mountain ecosystems to provide key services. The Mountland project focused on three case study regions in the Swiss Alps and aimed to propose land-use practices and alternative policy solutions to ensure the provision of key EGS under climate and land-use changes. We summarized and synthesized the results of the project and provide insights into the ecological, socioeconomic, and political processes relevant for analyzing global change impacts on a European mountain region. In Mountland, an integrative approach was applied, combining methods from economics and the political and natural sciences to analyze ecosystem functioning from a holistic human-environment system perspective. In general, surveys, experiments, and model results revealed that climate and socioeconomic changes are likely to increase the vulnerability of the EGS analyzed. We regard the following key characteristics of coupled human-environment systems as central to our case study areas in mountain regions: thresholds, heterogeneity, trade-offs, and feedback. Our results suggest that the institutional framework should be strengthened in a way that better addresses these characteristics, allowing for (1 more integrative approaches, (2 a more network-oriented management and steering of political processes that integrate local stakeholders, and (3 enhanced capacity building to decrease the identified vulnerability as central elements in the policy process. Further, to maintain and support the future provision of EGS in mountain regions, policy making should also focus on project-oriented, cross-sectoral policies and spatial planning as a coordination instrument for land use in general.

  9. Constructing Consistent Multiscale Scenarios by Transdisciplinary Processes: the Case of Mountain Regions Facing Global Change

    OpenAIRE

    Fridolin Simon. Brand; Roman Seidl; Quang Bao. Le; Julia Maria. Brändle; Roland Werner. Scholz

    2013-01-01

    Alpine regions in Europe, in particular, face demanding local challenges, e.g., the decline in the agriculture and timber industries, and are also prone to global changes, such as in climate, with potentially severe impacts on tourism. We focus on the Visp region in the Upper Valais, Switzerland, and ask how the process of stakeholder involvement in research practice can contribute to a better understanding of the specific challenges and future development of mountainous regions under global ...

  10. Approach to identification and development of mountain tourism regions and destinations in Serbia with special reference to the Stara Planina mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijić Saša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with theoretical-methodological issues of tourism offer planning and regulation of settlements in mountain destinations. The basic determinants of the development of mountain tourist regions destinations in EU countries, in which respectable development results have been achieved, first of all in terms of income, together with appropriately adjusted development and environmental management system, have been emphasized. The ongoing transition and structural processes in Serbia will have an impact on application of these experiences. At the same time, a basis for competitiveness of mountain regions will not be determined only by spatial capacity and geological location, but also by creative-innovative developing environment. Taking into account the spatial-functional criteria and criteria for the development and protection, the possible spatial definition of mountain tourist regions/destinations in Serbia are presented. The justifiability and positioning of tourism development projects are analyzed aiming at uniform regional development, where two segments of demand are of particularly importance, i.e. demand for mountain tourism services and for real estates in mountain centers. Furthermore, holders of tourism offer will be analyzed through a contemporary approach which may be defined as the development and noncommercial and market and commercial one. International criteria which are evaluated while selecting city/mountain destination for Winter Olympic Games are particularly analyzed. Considering experience of countries with higher level of development of mountain regions, the main starting point for positioning projects for sustainable development of tourist destinations are defined by specifying them according to specific local and regional conditions. A rational model for spatial organization of tourism offer is shown on the example of the Stara Planina tourist region.

  11. Association analysis of PRNP gene region with chronic wasting disease in Rocky Mountain elk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spraker Terry R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic wasting disease (CWD is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE of cervids including white-tailed (Odocoileus virginianus and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni, and moose (Alces alces. A leucine variant at position 132 (132L in prion protein of Rocky Mountain elk confers a long incubation time with CWD, but not complete resistance. However, variants in regulatory regions outside the open reading frame of PRNP have been associated with varying degrees of susceptibility to prion disease in other species, and some variants have been observed in similar regions of Rocky Mountain elk PRNP. Thus, additional genetic variants might provide increased protection, either alone or in combination with 132L. Findings This study provided genomic sequence of all exons for PRNP of Rocky Mountain elk. Many functional sites in and around the PRNP gene region were sequenced, and this report approximately doubled (to 75 the number of known variants in this region. A haplotype-tagging approach was used to reduce the number of genetic variants required to survey this variation in the PRNP gene region of 559 Rocky Mountain elk. Eight haplotypes were observed with frequencies over 1.0%, and one haplotype was present at 71.2% frequency, reflecting limited genetic diversity in the PRNP gene region. Conclusions The presence of 132L cut odds of CWD by more than half (Odds Ratio = 0.43; P = 0.0031, which was similar to a previous report. However after accounting for 132L, no association with CWD was found for any additional variants in the PRNP region (P > 0.05.

  12. Ground magnetic studies along a regional seismic-reflection profile across Bare Mountain, Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Ponce, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Ground magnetic data were collected along a 26-km-long regional seismic-reflection profile in southwest Nevada that starts in the Amargosa Desert, crosses Bare Mountain, Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain, and ends in Midway Valley. Parallel ground magnetic profiles were also collected about 100 m to either side of the western half of the seismic-reflection line. The magnetic data indicate that the eastern half of Crater Flat is characterized by closely-spaced faulting (1--2 km) in contrast to the western half of Crater Flat. Modeling of the data indicates that the Topopah Spring Tuff is offset about 250 m on the Solitario Canyon fault and about 50 m on the Ghost Dance fault. These estimates of fault offset are consistent with seismic-reflection data and geologic mapping. A broad magnetic high of about 500--600 nT is centered over Crater Flat. Modeling of the magnetic data indicates that the source of this high is not thickening and doming of the Bullfrog Tuff, but more likely lies below the Bullfrog Tuff. Possible source lithologies for this magnetic high include altered argillite of the Eleana Formation, Cretaceous or Tertiary intrusions, and mafic sills

  13. Andes 1997 Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Andes gravity data (6,151 records) were compiled by Professor Gotze and the MIGRA Group. This data base was received in April, 1997. Principal gravity...

  14. Past and future changes in frost day indices on Catskill Mountain Region of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in frost indices in the New York’s Catskill Mountains region, the location of water supply reservoirs for New York City, have potentially important implications. Frost day is defined as a day with Tmin < 0ºC. The objective of this study was to investigate past and predicted changes in minimu...

  15. Research on Structure Innovation of Agricultural Organization in China’s Southwestern Mountainous Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Taking agricultural organization in China’s southwestern mountainous regions as research object,on the basis of analysis of the status quo of agricultural organization development in China’s southwestern mountainous regions,we use related theoretical knowledge on economics and organization science,we probe into the process of innovation and mechanism of action concerning the structure of agricultural organization in China’s southwestern mountainous regions over the past 30 years.Finally we draw several general conclusions regarding structure innovation of agricultural organization in China’s southwestern mountainous regions as follows:first,the structure innovation of agricultural organization,a gradual process,proceeds ceaselessly along with ongoing progress and development of agriculture,and in this process,farmers always play a fundamental role;second,the structure innovation of agricultural organization is affected by many factors,and government institutional arrangement and change in market conditions is undoubtedly the most critical factor;third,the probable evolving direction of structure innovation of agricultural organization includes internal differentiation of the same form of agricultural organization,association of different forms of agricultural organization,and emergence of other forms of agricultural organization.

  16. [Rocky Mountain regional low-level waste compact development and establishment of disposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This Compact Issue Study was intended to determine if state institutions in the Rocky Mountain region could reduce low-level radioactive waste shipping and disposal costs through jointly shipping their low-level radioactive wastes. Public institutions in the state of Colorado were used as a test case for this study

  17. Development of Education Programs in Mountainous Regions to Enhance the Culture and Knowledge of Minority Nationalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shiyuan; Zhou, Guangda

    1989-01-01

    Describes the historical development of educational programs which could enhance the culture and knowledge of minorities in the mountainous regions of China. Identifies current major problems in minority education and lists statistical information for the school population. Provides guidelines for developing a minority education program. (KO)

  18. Andes: An intelligent homework helper

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Brett; Vanlehn, Kurt; Treacy, Don; Shelby, Bob; Wintersgill, Mary

    2007-03-01

    Andes (www.andes.pitt.edu) is an intelligent tutor homework system designed for use as the homework portion of an introductory physics course. It encourages students to use good problem solving techniques and provides immediate feedback on each step of a problem solution along with hints on request. I will discuss how Andes works, from a student perspective, and present research demonstrating its effectiveness as a pedagogical tool. Then, I will discuss using Andes as a tool for conducting education research, briefly reviewing several studies conducted using Andes. Finally, I will show how logs of student solutions to Andes problems can be used to develop cognitive models of student learning.

  19. Developing services for climate impact and adaptation baseline information and methodologies for the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, C.

    2012-04-01

    Impacts of climate change are observed and projected across a range of ecosystems and economic sectors, and mountain regions thereby rank among the hotspots of climate change. The Andes are considered particularly vulnerable to climate change, not only due to fragile ecosystems but also due to the high vulnerability of the population. Natural resources such as water systems play a critical role and are observed and projected to be seriously affected. Adaptation to climate change impacts is therefore crucial to contain the negative effects on the population. Adaptation projects require information on the climate and affected socio-environmental systems. There is, however, generally a lack of methodological guidelines how to generate the necessary scientific information and how to communicate to implementing governmental and non-governmental institutions. This is particularly important in view of the international funds for adaptation such as the Green Climate Fund established and set into process at the UNFCCC Conferences of the Parties in Cancun 2010 and Durban 2011. To facilitate this process international and regional organizations (World Bank and Andean Community) and a consortium of research institutions have joined forces to develop and define comprehensive methodologies for baseline and climate change impact assessments for the Andes, with an application potential to other mountain regions (AndesPlus project). Considered are the climatological baseline of a region, and the assessment of trends based on ground meteorological stations, reanalysis data, and satellite information. A challenge is the scarcity of climate information in the Andes, and the complex climatology of the mountain terrain. A climate data platform has been developed for the southern Peruvian Andes and is a key element for climate data service and exchange. Water resources are among the key livelihood components for the Andean population, and local and national economy, in particular for

  20. Facing unprecedented drying of the Central Andes? Precipitation variability over the period AD 1000–2100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neukom, Raphael; Salzmann, Nadine; Huggel, Christian; Rohrer, Mario; Calanca, Pierluigi; Acuña, Delia; Christie, Duncan A; Morales, Mariano S

    2015-01-01

    Projected future trends in water availability are associated with large uncertainties in many regions of the globe. In mountain areas with complex topography, climate models have often limited capabilities to adequately simulate the precipitation variability on small spatial scales. Also, their validation is hampered by typically very low station density. In the Central Andes of South America, a semi-arid high-mountain region with strong seasonality, zonal wind in the upper troposphere is a good proxy for interannual precipitation variability. Here, we combine instrumental measurements, reanalysis and paleoclimate data, and a 57-member ensemble of CMIP5 model simulations to assess changes in Central Andes precipitation over the period AD 1000–2100. This new database allows us to put future projections of precipitation into a previously missing multi-centennial and pre-industrial context. Our results confirm the relationship between regional summer precipitation and 200 hPa zonal wind in the Central Andes, with stronger Westerly winds leading to decreased precipitation. The period of instrumental coverage (1965–2010) is slightly dryer compared to pre-industrial times as represented by control simulations, simulations from the past Millennium, ice core data from Quelccaya ice cap and a tree-ring based precipitation reconstruction. The model ensemble identifies a clear reduction in precipitation already in the early 21st century: the 10 year running mean model uncertainty range (ensemble 16–84% spread) is continuously above the pre-industrial mean after AD 2023 (AD 2028) until the end of the 21st century in the RCP2.6 (RCP8.5) emission scenario. Average precipitation over AD 2071–2100 is outside the range of natural pre-industrial variability in 47 of the 57 model simulations for both emission scenarios. The ensemble median fraction of dry years (defined by the 5th percentile in pre-industrial conditions) is projected to increase by a factor of 4 until 2071

  1. Regional Comparative Unit Cost Studies for Maintenance and Operation of Physical Plants in Universities and Colleges in Central States Region and Rocky Mountain Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators, Corvallis, OR.

    Presented in this document are data pertaining to maintenance and operations costs at colleges and universities in the central states region and the Rocky Mountain region. The major accounts included in the cost analysis are: (1) physical plant administration, (2) building maintenance, (3) custodial services, (4) utilities, (5) landscape and…

  2. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 8. The southern Rocky Mountain region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, S.R.; Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    The Southern Rocky Mountain atlas assimilates five collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the four states that compose the Southern Rocky Mountain region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  3. Permafrost distribution map of San Juan Dry Andes (Argentina) based on rock glacier sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper Angillieri, María Yanina

    2017-01-01

    Rock glaciers are frozen water reservoirs in mountainous areas. Water resources are important for the local populations and economies. The presence of rock glaciers is commonly used as a direct indicator of mountain permafrost conditions. Over 500 active rock glaciers have been identified, showing that elevations between 3500 and 4500 m asl., a south-facing or east-facing aspect, areas with relatively low solar radiation and low mean annual air temperature (-4 to 0 °C) favour the existence of rock glaciers in this region. The permafrost probability model, for Dry Andes of San Juan Province between latitudes 28º30‧S and 32°30‧S, have been analyzed by logistic regression models based on the active rock glaciers occurrence in relation to some topoclimatic variables such as altitude, aspect, mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation and solar radiation, using optical remote sensing techniques in a GIS environment. The predictive performances of the model have been estimated by known rock glaciers locations and by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). This regional permafrost map can be applied by the Argentinean Government for their recent initiatives which include creating inventories, monitoring and studying ice masses along the Argentinean Andes. Further, this generated map provides valuable input data for permafrost scenarios and contributes to a better understanding of our geosystem.

  4. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Region, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S. Stuckless; D. O' Leary

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the Nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began about 10 Ma and continued as recently as about 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain.

  5. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Region, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.S. Stuckless; D. O'Leary

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the Nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began about 10 Ma and continued as recently as about 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain

  6. The role of social and economic context, and local knowledge for post-disaster reconstruction of high-mountain hazards: a case study from the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulce Burga, María; Vicuña, Luis; Jurt, Christine; Huggel, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Following the occurrence of an extreme event, specific and immediate actions are oriented to relieve basic needs and guarantee the subsistence of daily life. One of the priorities is focused on the reconstruction and relocation to areas away from possible hazard. However, on a long-term perspective, new contexts, concerns and priorities among the affected as well as the immigrated population foster new risk perceptions, which in many cases may include the returning or settlement in areas exposed to hazards. In Santa Teresa (Cusco, Peru), risk has been part of its history. In 1998, two very large debris flows from deglaciated areas, in January and February respectively, destroyed the old city located by the riverside of the Sacsara river; including the loss of lives, housing, loss of infrastructure and roads, electricity and water cuts, among other important losses. Today, the new city is located on a terrace above the river reach; and their current inhabitants, mainly migrants from different cities of the region of Cusco, have a different perspective of this experience. On the contrary, many of the inhabitants who experienced these events have returned to the risk areas where they lost everything, or they have settled in disaster prone areas. There is a set of factors, such as local knowledge (regarding space, economy, etc.) and new social contexts (such as the rise of tourism in risk areas, for example) that are implicit in the current narratives regarding hazard and risk. This work purposes the following questions: how does the social and economic context, as well as local knowledge influence risk perceptions? Are there any differences concerning risk perceptions between groups who decided to live in disaster prone areas and groups who are less exposed to risk? And which are the strategies within the groups regarding risk, considering how this concept is understood among them? In order to analyze these questions, this work is based on a case study in the

  7. A comparative review of multi-risk modelling methodologies for climate change adaptation in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Stefano; Torresan, Silvia; Schneiderbauer, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Keywords: Climate change, mountain regions, multi-risk assessment, climate change adaptation. Climate change has already led to a wide range of impacts on the environment, the economy and society. Adaptation actions are needed to cope with the impacts that have already occurred (e.g. storms, glaciers melting, floods, droughts) and to prepare for future scenarios of climate change. Mountain environment is particularly vulnerable to the climate changes due to its exposure to recent climate warming (e.g. water regime changes, thawing of permafrost) and due to the high degree of specialization of both natural and human systems (e.g. alpine species, valley population density, tourism-based economy). As a consequence, the mountain local governments are encouraged to undertake territorial governance policies to climate change, considering multi-risks and opportunities for the mountain economy and identifying the best portfolio of adaptation strategies. This study aims to provide a literature review of available qualitative and quantitative tools, methodological guidelines and best practices to conduct multi-risk assessments in the mountain environment within the context of climate change. We analyzed multi-risk modelling and assessment methods applied in alpine regions (e.g. event trees, Bayesian Networks, Agent Based Models) in order to identify key concepts (exposure, resilience, vulnerability, risk, adaptive capacity), climatic drivers, cause-effect relationships and socio-ecological systems to be integrated in a comprehensive framework. The main outcomes of the review, including a comparison of existing techniques based on different criteria (e.g. scale of analysis, targeted questions, level of complexity) and a snapshot of the developed multi-risk framework for climate change adaptation will be here presented and discussed.

  8. Soils of Mountainous Forests and Their Transformation under the Impact of Fires in Baikal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoshchekov, Yu. N.

    2018-04-01

    Data on postpyrogenic dynamics of soils under mountainous taiga cedar ( Pinus sibirica) and pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forests and subtaiga-forest-steppe pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forests in the Baikal region are analyzed. Ground litter-humus fires predominating in this region transform the upper diagnostic organic soil horizons and lead to the formation of new pyrogenic organic horizons (Opir). Adverse effects of ground fires on the stock, fractional composition, and water-physical properties of forest litters are shown. Some quantitative parameters of the liquid and solid surface runoff in burnt areas related to the slope gradient, fire intensity, and the time passed after the fire are presented. Pyrogenic destruction of forest ecosystems inevitably induces the degradation of mountainous soils, whose restoration after fires takes tens of years. The products of soil erosion from the burnt out areas complicate the current situation with the pollution of coastal waters of Lake Baikal.

  9. Performance of CMORPH, TMPA, and PERSIANN rainfall datasets over plain, mountainous, and glacial regions of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Yawar; Satgé, Frédéric; Hussain, Muhammad Babar; Martinez-Carvajal, Hernan; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Cárdenas-Soto, Martin; Roig, Henrique Llacer; Akhter, Gulraiz

    2018-02-01

    The present study aims at the assessment of six satellite rainfall estimates (SREs) in Pakistan. For each assessed products, both real-time (RT) and post adjusted (Adj) versions are considered to highlight their potential benefits in the rainfall estimation at annual, monthly, and daily temporal scales. Three geomorphological climatic zones, i.e., plain, mountainous, and glacial are taken under considerations for the determination of relative potentials of these SREs over Pakistan at global and regional scales. All SREs, in general, have well captured the annual north-south rainfall decreasing patterns and rainfall amounts over the typical arid regions of the country. Regarding the zonal approach, the performance of all SREs has remained good over mountainous region comparative to arid regions. This poor performance in accurate rainfall estimation of all the six SREs over arid regions has made their use questionable in these regions. Over glacier region, all SREs have highly overestimated the rainfall. One possible cause of this overestimation may be due to the low surface temperature and radiation absorption over snow and ice cover, resulting in their misidentification with rainy clouds as daily false alarm ratio has increased from mountainous to glacial regions. Among RT products, CMORPH-RT is the most biased product. The Bias was almost removed on CMORPH-Adj thanks to the gauge adjustment. On a general way, all Adj versions outperformed their respective RT versions at all considered temporal scales and have confirmed the positive effects of gauge adjustment. CMORPH-Adj and TMPA-Adj have shown the best agreement with in situ data in terms of Bias, RMSE, and CC over the entire study area.

  10. Development of State Interindustry Models for Rocky Mountain Region and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Kunin, Leonard

    1976-02-01

    Interindustry tables have been developed for the eight Rocky Mountain States and California. These tables are based on the 367-order 1967 national interindustry table. The national matrix was expanded to 404 sectors by disaggregating the seven minerals industries to 44 industries. The state tables can be used for energy and other resource analysis. Regional impacts of alternate development strategies can be evaluated with their use. A general computer program has been developed to facilitate construction of state interindustry tables.

  11. Paleozoic and mesozoic GIS data from the Geologic Atlas of the Rocky Mountain Region: Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeber, Aimee; Gunther, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists (RMAG) is, once again, publishing portions of the 1972 Geologic Atlas of the Rocky Mountain Region (Mallory, ed., 1972) as a geospatial map and data package. Georeferenced tiff (Geo TIFF) images of map figures from this atlas has served as the basis for these data products. Shapefiles and file geodatabase features have been generated and cartographically represented for select pages from the following chapters:• Phanerozoic Rocks (page 56)• Cambrian System (page 63)• Ordovician System (pages 78 and 79)• Silurian System (pages 87 - 89)• Devonian System (pages 93, 94, and 96 - 98)• Mississippian System (pages 102 and 103)• Pennsylvanian System (pages 114 and 115)• Permian System (pages 146 and 149 - 154)• Triassic System (pages 168 and 169)• Jurassic System (pages 179 and 180)• Cretaceous System (pages 197 - 201, 207 - 210, 215, - 218, 221, 222, 224, 225, and 227).The primary purpose of this publication is to provide regional-scale, as well as local-scale, geospatial data of the Rocky Mountain Region for use in geoscience studies. An important aspect of this interactive map product is that it does not require extensive GIS experience or highly specialized software.

  12. Changes in the Mountain Cryosphere and Potential Risks to Downstream Communities: Insights from the Indian Himalayan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Simon; Ballesteros, Juan Antonio; Huggel, Christian; Linsbauer, Andreas; Mal, Suraj; Singh Rana, Ranbir; Singh Randhawa, Surjeet; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Salzmann, Nadine; Singh Samant, Sher; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Mountain environments around the world are often considered to be amongst the most sensitive to the impacts of climate change. For people living in mountain communities, there are clear challenges to be faced as their livelihoods and subsistence are directly dependent on their surrounding natural environment. But what of the wider implications for societies and large urban settlements living downstream - why should they care about the climate-driven changes occurring potentially hundreds of kilometers away in the snow and ice capped mountains? In this contribution we address this question, drawing on studies and experiences gained within joint Indo-Swiss research collaborations focused on the Indian Himalayan states of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. With the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change currently embarking on the scoping of their 6th Assessment Cycle, which includes a planned Special Report on Oceans and the Cryosphere, this contribution provides a timely reminder of the importance of mountain regions, and potential far-reaching consequences of changes in the mountain cryosphere. Our studies highlight several key themes which link the mountain environment to the lowland populated areas, including the role of the mountain cryosphere as a water source, far-reaching hazards and disasters that can originate from mountain regions, the role of mountains in providing essential ecosystem services, the economic importance of tourism in mountain regions, and the importance of transportation routes which pass through mountain environments. These themes are intricately linked, as for example demonstrated during the 2013 Uttarakhand flood disaster where many of the approximately 6000 fatalities were tourists visiting high mountain pilgrimage sites. As a consequence of the disaster, tourists stayed away during subsequent seasons with significant economic impacts felt across the State. In Himachal Pradesh, a key national transportation corridor is the Rohtang pass

  13. Prioritising watersheds on the basis of regional flood susceptibility and vulnerability in mountainous areas through the use of indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelis, Carolina; Werner, Micha

    2013-04-01

    Settlements in peri-urban areas of many cities in mountainous areas such as in the Andes are susceptible to hazards such as flash floods and debris flows. Additionally these settlements are in many cases informal and thus vulnerable to such hazards, resulting in significant risk. Such watersheds are often quiet small, and generally there is little or no information from gauges to help characterise risk. To help identify watersheds in which flood management measures are to be targeted, a rapid assessment of risk is required. In this paper a novel approach is presented where indicators of susceptibility and vulnerability to flash floods were used to prioritize 106 mountain watersheds in Bogotá (Colombia). Variables recognized in literature to determine the dominant processes both in susceptibility and vulnerability to flash floods were used to construct the indicators. Susceptibility was considered to increase with flashiness and the possibility of debris flow events occurring. This was assessed through the use of an indicator composed of a morphometric indicator and a land use indicator. The former was constructed using morphological variables recognized in literature to significantly influence flashiness and occurrence of debris flows; the latter was constructed in terms of percentage of vegetation cover, urban area and bare soil. The morphometric indicator was compared with the results of a debris flow propagation algorithm to assess its capacity in indentifying the morphological conditions of a watershed that make it able to transport debris flows. Propagation was carried out through the use of the Modified Single Flow Direction algorithm, following previous identification of source areas by applying thresholds identified in the area-slope curve of the watersheds and empirical thresholds. Results show that the morphometric variables can be grouped in four categories: size, shape, hypsometry and energy, with the energy the component found to best explain the

  14. Geoid Model and Altitude at Mount Aconcagua Region (Argentina) from Airborne Gravity Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristina Pacino, M.; Jaeger, Eric; Forsberg, René

    2014-01-01

    Aconcagua is part of the Southern Andes in the Argentine Province of Mendoza and it is the highest mountain in the Americas. The Aconcagua region is mostly inaccessible for land surveys. The existing gravity data are sparsely distributed, and mainly along the route currently used to climb the mou...

  15. Piecewise Delamination Drives Uplift in the Atlas Mountains Region of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezada, M. J.; Humphreys, E.; Martin Davila, J.; mimoun, H.; Josep, G.; Palomeras, I.

    2013-12-01

    The elevation of the intra-continental Atlas Mountains of Morocco and surrounding regions requires a mantle component of buoyancy, and there is consensus that this buoyancy results from an abnormally thin lithosphere. Lithospheric delamination under the Atlas Mountains and thermal erosion caused by upwelling mantle have each been suggested as thinning mechanisms. We use seismic tomography to image the upper mantle of Morocco by inverting teleseimic p-wave delay times, complemented with local delays, recorded on a dense array of stations in the Iberian peninsula and Morocco. A surface wave model provides constraint on the shallower layers. We determine the geometry of lithospheric cavities and mantle upwelling beneath the Middle Atlas and central High Atlas, and image delaminated lithosphere at ~400 km beneath the Middle Atlas. We propose discontinuous delamination of an intrinsically unstable Atlas lithosphere, enabled by the presence of anomalously hot mantle, as a mechanism for producing the imaged structures. The Atlas lithosphere was made unstable by a combination of tectonic shortening and eclogite loading during Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic magmatism. The presence of hot mantle, sourced from regional upwellings in northern Africa or the Canary Islands, enabled the mobilization of this lithosphere. Flow around the retreating Alboran slab focused upwelling mantle under the Middle Atlas, where we image the most recent delamination. The Atlas Mountains of Morocco stand as an example of mantle-generated uplift and large-scale lithospheric loss in a mildly contractional orogen.

  16. Tourist phenomenon in Geoagiu Spa region within the Central Metaliferi Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dombay Ştefan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Central Metaliferi Mountains, situated in south-central side of the Apuseni Mountains, have a variety of natural and anthropic touristic potential, but, unfortunately, less known and not enough exploited. After conducting a survey in Geoagiu Spa we specifically recommend the following: increased number of one day tours, which are the main tourist destination in the region, many tours for visiting the major centers of cultural - historical monuments related to our past history, granting economic incentives for organizer of youth groups to attract the youth, diversification of tourist routes with thematic actions: curiosities of nature, environment, organizing sports events with different timetable covering all seasons and all series, attracting local and foreign investors by providing tax incentives and financial programs introducing touristic resort in the international circuit. .

  17. Groundwater Recharge and Flow Processes in Taihang Mountains, a Semi-humid Region, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Koichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Jie

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater flow/recharge variations in time and space are crucial for effective water management especially in semi-arid and semi-humid regions. In order to reveal comprehensive groundwater flow/recharge processes in a catchment with a large topographical relief and seasonal hydrological variations, intensive field surveys were undertaken at 4 times in different seasons (June 2011, August 2012, November 2012, February 2014) in the Wangkuai watershed, Taihang mountains, which is a main groundwater recharge area of the North China Plain. The groundwater, spring, stream water and reservoir water were taken, and inorganic solute constituents and stable isotopes of oxygen-18 and deuterium were determined on all water samples. Also, the stream flow rate and the depth of groundwater table were observed. The stable isotopic compositions and inorganic solute constituents in the groundwater are depleted and shown similar values as those of the surface water at the mountain-plain transitional area. Additionally, the groundwater in the vicinity of the Wangkuai Reservoir presents clearly higher stable isotopic compositions and lower d-excess than those of the stream water, indicating the groundwater around the reservoir is affected by evaporation same as the Wangkuai Reservoir itself. Hence, the surface water in the mountain-plain transitional area and Wangkuai Reservoir are principal groundwater recharge sources. An inversion analysis and simple mixing model were applied in the Wangkuai watershed using stable isotopes of oxygen-18 and deuterium to construct a groundwater flow model. The model shows that multi-originated groundwater flows from upstream to downstream along topography with certain mixing. In addition, the groundwater recharge occurs dominantly at the altitude from 421 m to 953 m, and the groundwater recharge rate by the Wangkuai Reservoir is estimated to be 2.4 % of the total groundwater recharge in the Wangkuai watershed. Therefore, the stream water and

  18. Impacts of glacier recession and declining meltwater on mountain societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, Mark; Molden, Olivia C.; Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2017-01-01

    . It identifies four main areas of existing research: (1) socioeconomic impacts; (2) hydropower; (3) agriculture, irrigation, and food security; and (4) cultural impacts. The article also suggests paths forward for social sciences, humanities, and natural sciences research that could more accurately detect......, including irrigation, agriculture, hydropower, potable water, livelihoods, recreation, spirituality, and demography. Unfortunately, research focusing on the human impacts of glacier runoff variability in mountain regions remains limited, and studies often rely on assumptions rather than concrete evidence...... about the effects of shrinking glaciers on mountain hydrology and societies. This article provides a systematic review of international research on human impacts of glacier meltwater variability in mountain ranges worldwide, including the Andes, Alps, greater Himalayan region, Cascades, and Alaska...

  19. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of the 2010–2015 Extreme Hydrological Drought across the Central Andes, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Rivera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2010–2015, the semi-arid Central Andes in Argentina (CAA experienced one of the most severe and long-lasting hydrological droughts on record. Since the snowmelt is the most important source of water, the reduced snowfall over the mountains propagated the drought signal through the streamflows in the adjacent foothills east of the Andes ranges. Motivated by the widespread impacts on the socio-economic activities in the region, this study aims to characterize the recent hydrological drought in terms of streamflow deficits. Based on streamflow data from 20 basins, we used the standardized streamflow index (SSI to characterize hydrological droughts during the period 1971–2016. We found that the regional extent of the 2010–2015 hydrological drought was limited to the basins located north of 38° S, with mean duration of 67 months and maximum drought severity exhibiting a heterogeneous pattern in terms of spatial distribution and time of occurrence. The drought event reached extreme conditions in 14 of the 15 basins in the CAA, being record-breaking drought in six of the basins. This condition was likely driven by a cooling in the tropical Pacific Ocean resembling La Niña conditions, which generated a decrease in snowfall over the Andes due to suppressed frontal activity.

  20. MARKETIZATION OF GREEN FOOD RESOURCES IN FOREST REGION OF THE CHANGBAI MOUNTAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yan

    2004-01-01

    The Changbai Mountains is rich in the resources of green food. At present, the low marketization of green food resources in the forest region of the Changbai Mountains becomes the bottleneck to restrict the benign development of its green food industry. With huge market demands at home and abroad, it is the urgent problem how to improve marketization process of green food resources and transfer the resources superiority into the market superiority in the region. According to the investigation, this paper analyzed the status quo and the cause of formation of low-marketization with the method of combining comparative research and practice research. It pointed out that necessary condition of marketization of green food resources in the forest region, such as strategy, economic environment, marketization allocation of sci-tech resources, etc. should be established. Furthermore, the concrete strategies of marketization of green food resources in the region such as market location, strategies of objective markets, combined strategy of marketing, etc. were advanced.

  1. Natural radionuclides in rocks and soils of the high-mountain regions of the Great Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvarova, T. A.; Abdulaeva, A. S.; Magomedov, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    The results of the radioecological survey in the high-mountain regions of the Great Caucasus at the heights from 2200 to 3800 m a.s.l. are considered. This survey encompassed the territories of Dagestan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Chechnya, Northern Ossetia-Alania, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia, and the Stavropol and Krasnodar regions. The natural γ background radiation in the studied regions is subjected to considerable fluctuations and varies from 6 to 40 μR/h. The major regularities of the migration of natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, and 40K in soils in dependence on the particular environmental conditions (the initial concentration of the radionuclides in the parent material; the intensity of pedogenesis; the intensity of the vertical and horizontal migration; and the geographic, climatic, and landscape-geochemical factors) are discussed.

  2. Application of a complex assessment of landslide hazards in mountain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna E. Boyko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main regional factors of occurrence and activation of landslides within the mountain region were examined. As a result of study of recommendations made by experts, geologists, and gap analysis of existing methods of forecasting the landslide process, an algorithm of comprehensive assessment of landslide hazard areas based on the construction of models in a GIS environment was proposed. These models describe the spatial patterns of landslides. All factors determining the tendency of the studies area to the landslide process development were divided into actual factors, reflecting the regional peculiarities of the territory and forming the landslide-prone slopes (static model, as well as triggering factors, initiating the landslide process and determining its activity (dynamic model. The first cartographic model was built, showing the distribution of the deterministic indirect indicator of landslide hazard, i.e. stability index.

  3. The effect of pre-Hispanic agriculture practices on soils in the Western Cordillera of the Peruvian Andes (region Laramate, 14.5°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leceta, Fernando; Mächtle, Bertil; Schukraft, Gerd; Eitel, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    ) could be also attested in the Laramate area. Retention of eroded loessic material transported against the terrace walls could be associated to periods of increased geomorphodynamics founded in the surroundings by 600 AD (Forbriger & Schittek 2011, unpublished raw data). References Branch, N., Kemp, R., Silva, B., Meddens F., Williams, A., Kendall, A., Vivanco Pomacanchari, C. (2007): Testing the sustainability and sensitivity to climatic change of terrace agricultural systems in the Peruvian Andes: a pilot study. Journal of Archaeological Science 34 (2007) 1-9. Eitel, B., Hecht, S., Mächtle, B., Schukraft, G., Kadereit, A., Wagner, G. A., Kromer, B., Unkel, I., Reindel, M. (2005): Geoarchaeological evidence from desert loess in the Nasca-Palpa region, southern Peru: Palaeoenvironmental changes and their impact on Pre-Columbian cultures. Archaeometry 47, 137-185. Mächtle, B. (2007): Geomorphologisch-bodenkundliche Untersuchungen zur Rekonstruktion der holozänen Umweltgeschichte in der nördlichen Atacama im Raum Palpa/Südperu. Dissertation, Heidelberger Geographische Arbeiten 123.- 227 S.

  4. Physical processes and effects of magmatism in the Yucca Mountain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, G.A.; Crowe, B.M.; Perry, F.V.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes initial studies related to the effects of volcanism on performance of the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository, and to the general processes of magmatism in the Yucca Mountain region. Volcanism or igneous activity can affect the repository performance by ejection of waste onto the earth's surface (eruptive effects), or by subsurface effects of hydrothermal processes and altered hydrology if an intrusion occurs within the repository block. Initial, conservative calculations of the volume of waste that might be erupted during a small-volume basaltic eruption (such as those which occurred in the Yucca Mountain region) indicate that regulatory limits might be exceeded. Current efforts to refine these calculations, based upon field studies at analog sites, are described. Studies of subsurface effects are just beginning, and are currently focused on field studies of intrusion properties and contact metamorphism at deeply eroded analog sites. General processes of magmatism are important for providing a physical basis for predictions of future volcanic activity. Initial studies have focused on modeling basaltic magma chambers in conjunction with petrographic and geochemical studies. An example of the thermal-fluid dynamic evolution of a small basaltic sill is described, based on numerical simulation. Quantification of eruption conditions can provide valuable information on the overall magmatic system. We are developing quantitative methods for mapping pyroclastic facies of small basaltic centers and, in combination with two-phase hydrodynamic simulation, using this information to estimate eruption conditions. Examples of such hydrodynamic simulations are presented, along with comparison to an historical eruption in Hawaii

  5. Survey of Pathogenic Chytrid Fungi (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and B. salamandrivorans) in Salamanders from Three Mountain Ranges in Europe and the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Joshua Curtis; Shepack, Alexander; Burkart, David; LaBumbard, Brandon; Scimè, Patrick; Baruch, Ethan; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2017-06-01

    Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is a virulent fungal pathogen that infects salamanders. It is implicated in the recent collapse of several populations of fire salamanders in Europe. This pathogen seems much like that of its sister species, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the agent responsible for anuran extinctions and extirpations worldwide, and is considered to be an emerging global threat to salamander communities. Bsal thrives at temperatures found in many mountainous regions rich in salamander species; because of this, we have screened specimens of salamanders representing 17 species inhabiting mountain ranges in three continents: The Smoky Mountains, the Swiss Alps, and the Peruvian Andes. We screened 509 salamanders, with 192 representing New World salamanders that were never tested for Bsal previously. Bsal was not detected, and Bd was mostly present at low prevalence except for one site in the Andes.

  6. Diseases and parasites in wolves of the Riding Mountain National Park region, Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronen, Astrid V; Sallows, Tim; Forbes, Graham J; Wagner, Brent; Paquet, Paul C

    2011-01-01

    We examined wolf (Canis lupus) blood and fecal samples from the Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP) region of Manitoba, Canada. In 601 fecal samples collected during two study periods in RMNP and the Duck Mountain Provincial Park and Forest (DMPPF) we found gastrointestinal helminth eggs from Alaria sp. (15.5%), Capillaria sp. (1.0%), taeniid tapeworms (30.8%), Toxascaris sp. (1.7%), Toxocara sp. (0.2%), Trichuris sp. (2.2%), and Moniezia sp. (0.5%). In addition, we found Demodex sp. (0.2%) and the protozoal cysts/oocysts of Sarcocystis sp. (37.3%), Cryptosporidium sp. (1.2%), coccidia (Isospora sp. or Eimeria sp.) (1.7%), and Giardia sp. (29.5%). No fecal shedding of canine parvovirus (CPV, n=387) was detected. All 18 blood samples collected in RMNP showed CPV exposure and eight of 18 blood samples indicated canine distemper virus (CDV) exposure. One wolf died from CDV. Our results are consistent with previous findings on pathogens affecting wolves and with high Giardia sp. prevalence in wolves inhabiting agricultural regions.

  7. Adaptation to Climate Change in Panchase Mountain Ecological Regions of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Adhikari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rural mountain communities in developing countries are considered particularly vulnerable to environmental change, including climate change. Forests and agriculture provide numerous ecosystem goods and services (EGS to local communities and can help people adapt to the impacts of climate change. There is however poor documentation on the role of EGS in people’s livelihood and adaptation practices. This study in the rural Panchase Mountain Ecological Region of Nepal identifies practices being used to adapt to a changing environment through key informant interviews and focus group discussions. At the household level, livelihood diversification, changes in cropping patterns and farming practices, use of multipurpose plant species and income-generation activities were identified as adaptation strategies. Among major strategies at the community level were community forestry-based climate adaptation plans of action for forest and water resource management. Landscape-level adaptation strategies were large-scale collaborative projects and programs, such as Ecosystem-based Adaptation and Chitwan Annapurna Landscape conservation; which had implications at both the local and landscape-level. A proper blending and integration of adaptation strategies from individual households through to the community and to the landscape level is needed for implementing effective adaptation in the region.

  8. Characteristics of soil seed bank in plantation forest in the rocky mountain region of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zeng-hui; YANG Yang; LENG Ping-sheng; DOU De-quan; ZHANG Bo; HOU Bing-fei

    2013-01-01

    We investigated characteristics (scales and composition) of soil seed banks at eight study sites in the rocky mountain region of Beijing by seed identification and germination monitoring.We also surveyed the vegetation communities at the eight study sites to explore the role of soil seed banks in vegetation restoration.The storage capacity of soil seed banks at the eight sites ranked from 766.26 to 2461.92 seedsm-2.A total of 23 plant species were found in soil seed banks,of which 63-80%of seeds were herbs in various soil layers and 60% of seeds were located in the soil layer at 0-5 cm depth.Biodiversity indices indicated clear differences in species diversity of soil seed banks among different plant communities.The species composition of aboveground vegetation showed low similarity with that based on soil seed banks.In the aboveground plant community,the afforestation tree species showed high importance values.The plant species originating from soil seed banks represented natural regeneration,which also showed relatively high importance values.This study suggests that in the rocky mountain region of Beijing the soil seed banks played a key role in the transformation from pure plantation forest to near-natural forest,promoting natural ecological processes,and the role of the seed banks in vegetation restoration was important to the improvement of ecological restoration methods.

  9. Apatite fission track dating and thermal history of Qing-He region in Altay Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Zengkuan; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Yuan Wanming; Dong Jinquan; Gao Shaokai

    2005-01-01

    Fission track ages (FTA) and track lengths of apatite from Qing-He diorite intrusion in Altay Mountains are measured. Apatite fission track ages of three diorite samples is range from (78±5) Ma to (95 ± 5) Ma, and the lengths of horizontal confined spontaneous fission tracks are (13.2 ± 1.2)-(13.5 ±1.3) μm. The distribution of the track length is narrow and symmetrical with a mean length of approximately 13.3 μm and a standard deviation of around 0.1 μm. The inverse modeling results show that thermal history of this region has four stages, two rapid uplift of this region still existed magmatic intrusion and tectonic movements in Yanshanian. (authors)

  10. Risk Assessment of Geologic Formation Sequestration in The Rocky Mountain Region, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the outcome of a targeted risk assessment of a candidate geologic sequestration site in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. Specifically, a major goal of the probabilistic risk assessment was to quantify the possible spatiotemporal responses for Area of Review (AoR) and injection-induced pressure buildup associated with carbon dioxide (CO₂) injection into the subsurface. Because of the computational expense of a conventional Monte Carlo approach, especially given the likely uncertainties in model parameters, we applied a response surface method for probabilistic risk assessment of geologic CO₂ storage in the Permo-Penn Weber formation at a potential CCS site in Craig, Colorado. A site-specific aquifer model was built for the numerical simulation based on a regional geologic model.

  11. Analysis and Comparison on the Flood Simulation in Typical Hilly & Semi-mountainous Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Qinghua; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Jiahong; Fu, Xiaoran; Zhang, Kun; Ma, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Water-logging and flood are both serious in hilly and semi-mountainous cities of China, but the related research is rare. Lincheng Economic Development Zone (EDZ) in Hebei Province as the typical city was selected and storm water management model (SWMM) was applied for flood simulation in this study. The regional model was constructed through calibrating and verifying the runoff coefficient of different flood processes. Different designed runoff processes in five-year, ten-year and twenty-year return periods in basic scenario and in the low impact development (LID) scenario, respectively, were simulated and compared. The result shows that: LID measures have effect on peak reduction in the study area, but the effectiveness is not significant; the effectiveness of lagging peak time is poor. These simulation results provide decision support for the rational construction of LID in the study area, and provide the references for regional rain flood management.

  12. Study on Regional Geology and Uranium Mineralization of Schwaner Mountains West and Central Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soepradto-Tjokrokardono; Djoko-Soetarno; MS; Liliek-Subiantoro; Retno-Witjahyati

    2004-01-01

    Uranium occurrences indication in Kalimantan has been discovered at metamorphic and granites rocks of Schwaner Mountains as the radioactivity and geochemical anomalies. A regional geology of Schwaner Mountains show a watershed of West and East Kalimantan consist of Pinoh metamorphic rocks that was intruded by tonalitic and granitic batholite. The goal of this study is to observe the mechanism of the Uranium occurrences related to the regional tectonic, metamorphic rocks, tonalite and granitic batholite. Permokarbonaferrous metamorphic rocks as the big masses of roof pendant within tonalite mass. The metamorphic rocks originally as the big masses of roof pendant within tonalite mass. The metamorphic rocks originally derived from sedimentary process that produce a high content of uranium as well as a fine grained volcanic material. This uranium is deposited within neritic facies. Those sediments have been metamorphosed by low grade Abukuma regional metamorphism at the condition about 540 o C and 2000 bar. In early Cretaceous Tonalite of Sep auk intruded the rock and both metamorphics and tonalites. Those rocks were intruded by Late Cretaceous alkalin granite of Sukadana. Those crystalline rocks overlaid by an unconformity-related Kampari and Tebidah Formations that including within Melawi Group of Tertiary age. Uranium mineralization as the centimetric-metric veins related to tectonic N 100 o -110 o E and N 50 o E lineaments. Uranium was interpreted as a volcanic sedimentary origin, than it re mobilized by low grade regional metamorphism process. This enuchment process was carried out by fluor, boron and other metalliferous mineral within hydrothermal solutions of Sukadana granite. (author)

  13. Historical range of variation assessment for wetland and riparian ecosystems, U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Gage; David J. Cooper

    2013-01-01

    This document provides an overview of historical range of variation concepts and explores their application to wetland and riparian ecosystems in the US Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region (Region 2), which includes National Forests and National Grasslands occurring in the states of Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, and South Dakota. For each of five ecosystem...

  14. Distribution of uranium 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in the ecological cycle in mountain regions of Central Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, Z.; Horsic, E.; Kljajic, R.; Bauman, A.

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of uranium, 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po in the uncultivated mountain regions of Central Yugoslavia was investigated. Samples of beef (meat and bones), milk, cheese, grass and podsolic soil were analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of these radionuclides in this ecologically unpolluted environment was no different from cultivated regions in other parts of the world. (UK)

  15. Unraveling the diversification history of grasshoppers belonging to the “Trimerotropis pallidipennis” (Oedipodinae: Acrididae species group: a hotspot of biodiversity in the Central Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Verónica Guzmán

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Andean Mountain range has been recognized as one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. The proposed mechanisms for such species diversification, among others, are due to the elevation processes occurring during the Miocene and the intensive glacial action during the Pleistocene. In this study we investigated the diversification history of the grasshopper Trimerotropis pallidipennis species complex which shows a particularly wide latitudinal and altitudinal distribution range across the northern, central and southern Andes in South America. Many genetic lineages of this complex have been so far discovered, making it an excellent model to investigate the role of the central Andes Mountains together with climatic fluctuations as drivers of speciation. Phylogenetics, biogeographic and molecular clock analyses using a multi-locus dataset revealed that in Peru there are at least two, and possibly four genetic lineages. Two different stocks originated from a common ancestor from North/Central America—would have dispersed toward southern latitudes favored by the closure of the Panama Isthmus giving rise to two lineages, the coastal and mountain lineages, which still coexist in Peru (i.e., T. pallidipennis and T. andeana. Subsequent vicariant and dispersal events continued the differentiation process, giving rise to three to six genetic lineages (i.e., clades detected in this study, which were geographically restricted to locations dispersed over the central Andes Mountains in South America. Our results provide another interesting example of “island diversification” motored by the topography plus unstable climatic conditions during the Pleistocene, pointing out the presence of a hotspot of diversification in the Andean region of Peru.

  16. Women as Drivers for a Sustainable and Social Inclusive Development in Mountain Regions – The Case of the Austrian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oedl-Wieser Theresia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Women in mountain regions play an important role regarding the agricultural production and ensuring sustainable livelihoods. Furthermore, they are active in climate change adaption and preservation of biodiversity. Despite these important activities and performances the vital role of women for a sustainable and social inclusive development in mountain regions is often invisible and not appreciated enough in society. There still exists structural discrimination of women which is caused by patriarchal societies, social and cultural norms as well as difficult economic situations. Considering the need to foster the dynamic and sustainable development of mountain regions all over the world, it is of paramount importance to reflect and integrate women’s issues, problems and needs to a larger extent in research, public policy and in worldwide decision-making agendas.

  17. Developing scenarios to assess future landslide risks: a model-based approach applied to mountainous regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacquie, Laure; Houet, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In the last century, European mountain landscapes have experienced significant transformations. Natural and anthropogenic changes, climate changes, touristic and industrial development, socio-economic interactions, and their implications in terms of LUCC (land use and land cover changes) have directly influenced the spatial organization and vulnerability of mountain landscapes. This study is conducted as part of the SAMCO project founded by the French National Science Agency (ANR). It aims at developing a methodological approach, combining various tools, modelling platforms and methods, to identify vulnerable regions to landslide hazards accounting for futures LUCC. It presents an integrated approach combining participative scenarios and a LULC changes simulation models to assess the combined effects of LUCC and climate change on landslide risks in the Cauterets valley (French Pyrenees Mountains) up to 2100. Through vulnerability and risk mapping, the objective is to gather information to support landscape planning and implement land use strategies with local stakeholders for risk management. Four contrasting scenarios are developed and exhibit contrasting trajectories of socio-economic development. Prospective scenarios are based on national and international socio-economic contexts relying on existing assessment reports. The methodological approach integrates knowledge from local stakeholders to refine each scenario during their construction and to reinforce their plausibility and relevance by accounting for local specificities, e.g. logging and pastoral activities, touristic development, urban planning, etc. A process-based model, the Forecasting Scenarios for Mountains (ForeSceM) model, developed on the Dinamica Ego modelling platform is used to spatially allocate futures LUCC for each prospective scenario. Concurrently, a spatial decision support tool, i.e. the SYLVACCESS model, is used to identify accessible areas for forestry in scenario projecting logging

  18. Regression-Correlation of Petrophysical Inter-Parameter of Igneous Rocks and Limestone from Kulonprogo Mountain Region, Yogyakarta Special Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Maryanto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i4.127Laboratory test of complete petrophysic parameters encompasing water absorption, compressive strength, Los Angeles abrasive strength, Rudellof abrasive strength, and wear resistance with Na2SO4 has been carried out for igneous and carbonate rocks taken from Kulonprogo Mountains region. Statistical verification of the data exhibits variation of correlation coefficients among parameters ranging from medium to very high value. The values of petrophysic test results are determined by the rock types. The result of this study is useful to estimate the accuracy of values of each parameter test result in Geological Survey Institute Laboratory using regression formula representing each relationship.

  19. MAPPING ECOSYSTEM SERVICES SUPPLY IN MOUNTAIN REGIONS: A CASE STUDY FROM SOUTH TYROL (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Schirpke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mountain regions provide many ecosystem services and spatially explicit assessments have to account for their specific topographic and climatic conditions. Moreover, it is fundamental to understand synergies and trade-offs of multiple ecosystem services. In this study, ecosystem services supply, including forage production, timber production, water supply, carbon sequestration, soil stability, soil quality, and the aesthetic value, was quantified in bio-physical terms on the landscape scale for South Tyrol. Mean ecosystem services values of the 116 municipalities were grouped in 5 clusters. The results indicate that carbon stock is the prevailing ecosystem service of valley municipalities. On contrast, they suffer from water deficit and depend on water supply from high mountain municipalities. Trade-offs can be also found between the aesthetic value on one hand and timber production, carbon sequestration and soil stability on the other hand. The latter are characteristic for municipalities dominated by forest. The resulting maps can support landscape planning, ecosystem management and conservation of biodiversity.

  20. Stream flow regime of springs in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range region, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Souza de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The stream flow regime of four springs located in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range region (MG was evaluated and correlated to the respective recharge area, relief characteristics, land cover and physical and hydrologic soil characteristics. The streamflow regime was characterized by monitoring of discharges, calculating the surface runoff and specific discharge and by modeling the discharge over the recession period using the Maillet method. As all recharge areas have similar relief the effect of it on the streamflow was not possible to identify. Analysis included determining the effect of drainage area size, soil characteristics and land cover on the indicators of the streamflow regime. Size of the recharge area had a positive influence on the indicators mean discharge and surface runoff volume and on the regulation of the streamflow regime (springs L4 and L1. The spring under the smallest area of influence provided the worst results for the above mentioned indicators (spring L3. The effect of forest cover (natural and planted, associated with soil characteristics, was evidenced by the indicators surface runoff (in depth and specific yield, both independent of the recharge area size (springs L4 and L2. The interaction of area size, soil characteristics and forest cover (natural and planted provided the best results for all indicators of streamflow regime in the springs studied in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range (spring L4.

  1. Production of high-resolution digital terrain models in mountain regions to support risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Forlani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Demand for high-accuracy digital terrain models (DTMs in the Alpine region has been steadily increasing in recent years in valleys as well as high mountains. In the former, the determination of the geo-mechanical parameters of rock masses is the main objective; global warming, which causes the retreat of glaciers and the reduction of permafrost, is the main drive of the latter. The consequence is the instability of rock masses in high mountains: new cost-effective monitoring techniques are required to deal with the peculiar characteristics of such environment, delivering results at short notice. After discussing the design and execution of photogrammetric surveys in such areas, with particular reference to block orientation and block control, the paper describes the production of DTMs of rock faces and glacier fronts with light instrumentation and data acquisition techniques, allowing highly automated data processing. To this aim, the PhotoGPS technique and structure from motion algorithms are used to speed up the orientation process, while dense matching area-based correlation techniques are used to generate the DTMs.

  2. Habitat assessment for giant pandas in the Qinling Mountain region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tian-Tian; Van Manen, Frank T.; Zhao, Na-Xun; Li, Ming; Wei, Fu-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Because habitat loss and fragmentation threaten giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), habitat protection and restoration are important conservation measures for this endangered species. However, distribution and value of potential habitat to giant pandas on a regional scale are not fully known. Therefore, we identified and ranked giant panda habitat in Foping Nature Reserve, Guanyinshan Nature Reserve, and adjacent areas in the Qinling Mountains of China. We used Mahalanobis distance and 11 digital habitat layers to develop a multivariate habitat signature associated with 247 surveyed giant panda locations, which we then applied to the study region. We identified approximately 128 km2 of giant panda habitat in Foping Nature Reserve (43.6% of the reserve) and 49 km2 in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve (33.6% of the reserve). We defined core habitat areas by incorporating a minimum patch-size criterion (5.5 km2) based on home-range size. Percentage of core habitat area was higher in Foping Nature Reserve (41.8% of the reserve) than Guanyinshan Nature Reserve (26.3% of the reserve). Within the larger analysis region, Foping Nature Reserve contained 32.7% of all core habitat areas we identified, indicating regional importance of the reserve. We observed a negative relationship between distribution of core areas and presence of roads and small villages. Protection of giant panda habitat at lower elevations and improvement of habitat linkages among core habitat areas are important in a regional approach to giant panda conservation.

  3. Vegetation and environmental dynamics in the Páramo of Jimbura region in the southeastern Ecuadorian Andes during the late Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villota, Andrea; León-Yánez, Susana; Behling, Hermann

    2012-12-01

    The last 15,000 years of vegetation, fire and climate history were reconstructed from the Laguna Natosa Peat bog core (3600 m elevation) in the Páramo of Jimbura region in the Cordillera Real, close to the Peruvian border of southern Ecuador in the southernmost part of the Andean depression. The pollen record, dated by 5 radiocarbon dates, indicates that during the late Glacial (ca. 15,000-12,000 cal yr BP) a gradual expansion of mountain forest, restricting the páramo vegetation to small patches, and a shift of the forest line to higher elevation took place; reflecting an increase in temperature. However, a clear signal of the warmer Bølling/Allerød interstadial and the cooler Younger Dryas period, are not reflected in the record. During the transition from the late Glacial to the early/mid-Holocene (ca. 12,000-4800 cal yr BP), tree taxa such as Hedyosmum and Podocarpaceae are well represented, suggesting that the upper forest line, especially in the mid-Holocene, reached slightly higher elevations than at present. Hence, páramo vegetation was limited, indicating warmer climatic conditions for the early to mid-Holocene period than today. The late Holocene from 4800 cal yr BP until the present is characterized by higher occurrences of páramo taxa. During this period, the upper forest line shifted downwards giving room to the expansion of the páramo vegetation to its current size. Fire was rare during the late Glacial period but became more frequent after about 8000 cal yr BP, probably due to the dry event during the mid-Holocene and increased human activity.

  4. Socio-economic vulnerability to climate change in the central mountainous region of eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel; Bonifacio-Bautista, Martín; Barradas, Víctor L

    2016-03-01

    Climate change effects are expected to be more severe for some segments of society than others. In Mexico, climate variability associated with climate change has important socio-economic and environmental impacts. From the central mountainous region of eastern Veracruz, Mexico, we analyzed data of total annual precipitation and mean annual temperature from 26 meteorological stations (1922-2008) and from General Circulation Models. We developed climate change scenarios based on the observed trends with projections to 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2100, finding considerable local climate changes with reductions in precipitation of over 700 mm and increases in temperature of ~9°C for the year 2100. Deforested areas located at windward were considered more vulnerable, representing potential risk for natural environments, local communities, and the main crops cultivated (sugarcane, coffee, and corn). Socio-economic vulnerability is exacerbated in areas where temperature increases and precipitation decreases.

  5. Risk and size estimation of debris flow caused by storm rainfall in mountain regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG; Genwei

    2003-01-01

    Debris flow is a common disaster in mountain regions. The valley slope, storm rainfall and amassed sand-rock materials in a watershed may influence the types of debris flow. The bursting of debris flow is not a pure random event. Field investigations show the periodicity of its burst, but no directive evidence has been found yet. A risk definition of debris flow is proposed here based upon the accumulation and the starting conditions of loose material in channel. According to this definition, the risk of debris flow is of quasi-periodicity. A formula of risk estimation is derived. Analysis of relative factors reveals the relationship between frequency and size of debris flow. For a debris flow creek, the longer the time interval between two occurrences of debris flows is, the bigger the bursting event will be.

  6. Abbreviated bibliography on energy development—A focus on the Rocky Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Jessica M.; Willis, Carolyn J.; Glavin, Levi W.

    2011-01-01

    Energy development of all types continues to grow in the Rocky Mountain Region of the western United States. Federal resource managers increasingly need to balance energy demands, effects on the natural landscape and public perceptions towards these issues. To assist in efficient access to valuable information, this abbreviated bibliography provides citations to relevant information for myriad of issues for which resource managers must contend. The bibliography is organized by seven large topics with various sup-topics: broad energy topics (energy crisis, conservation, supply and demand, etc.); energy sources (fossil fuel, nuclear, renewable, etc.); natural landscape effects (climate change, ecosystem, mitigation, restoration, and reclamation, wildlife, water, etc.); human landscape effects (attitudes and perceptions, economics, community effects, health, Native Americans, etc.); research and technology; international research; and, methods and modeling. A large emphasis is placed on the natural and human landscape effects.

  7. Fog water collection and reforestation at mountain locations in a western Mediterranean basin region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Ja; Estrela, Mj; Corell, D.; Fuentes, D.; Valdecantos, A.

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies carried out by the authors have shown the potential of fog water collection at several mountain locations in the Valencia region (western Mediterranean basin). This coastal region features typical conditions for a dry Mediterranean climate characterized by a pluviometric regime ranging from 400 to 600 mm with a strong annual dependence. Dry conditions together with land degradation that frequently results after recurrent fires occurred in the past make a difficult self-recovery for native forest vegetation so that some kind of human intervention is always recommended. In plots reforested with Mediterranean woody species, periods of more than 120 days without significant precipitation (>5 mm) result in mortality rates above 80% during the first summer in the field. The good potential of fog-water collection at certain mountain locations is considered in this study as an easily available water resource for the reforestation of remote areas where native vegetation cannot be reestablished by itself. A large flat panel made of UV-resistant HD-polyethylene monofilament mesh was deployed at a mountain location for bulk fog water harvesting. Water was stored in high-capacity tanks for the whole length of the experimental campaign and small timely water pulses localized deep in the planting holes were conducted during the summer dry periods. Survival rates and seedling performance of two forest tree species, Pinus pinaster and Quercus ilex, were quantified and correlated to irrigation pulses in a reforestation plot that took an area of about 2500 m2 and contained 620 1-year-old plants. Before and concurrently to the flat panel deployment, a passive omnidirectional fog-water collector of cylindrical shape was set in the area in combination to other environmental instruments such as a rain gauge, a wind direction and velocity sensor and a temperature and humidity probe. Proper orientation of the large flat panel was possible once the direction of local winds

  8. Community-based Monitoring of Water Resources in Remote Mountain Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, W.; Hannah, D. M.; Dewulf, A.; Clark, J.; Zulkafli, Z. D.; Karpouzoglou, T.; Mao, F.; Ochoa-Tocachi, B. F.

    2016-12-01

    Remote mountain regions are often represented by pockets of poverty combined with accelerated environmental change. The combination of harsh climatic and topographical conditions with limited infrastructure puts severe pressures on local livelihoods, many of which rely strongly on local ecosystem services (ESS) such as agricultural production and water supply. It is therefore paramount to optimise the management of ESS for the benefit of local people. This is hindered by a scarcity of quantitative data about physical processes such as precipitation and river flow as well as qualitative data concerning the management of water and land. National and conventional scientific monitoring networks tend to be insufficient to cover adequately the spatial and temporal gradients. Additionally, the data that are being collected often fail to be converted into locally relevant and actionable knowledge for ESS management. In such conditions, community-based monitoring of natural resources may be an effective way to reduce this knowledge gap. The participatory nature of such monitoring also enhances knowledge co-production and integration in locally-based decision-making processes. Here, we present the results of a 4-year consortium project on the use of citizen science technologies for ecosystem services management (Mountain-EVO). The project analyzed ecosystem service dynamics and decision-making processes and implemented a comparative analysis of experiments with community-based monitoring of water resources in 4 remote mountain regions, i.e. Peru, Nepal, Kyrgyzstan, and Ethiopia. We find that community-based monitoring can have a transformative impact on local ESS management, because of its potential to be more inclusive, polycentric, and context-driven as compared to conventional monitoring. However, the results and effectiveness of community-based approaches depend strongly on the natural and socio-economic boundary conditions. As such, this requires a tailored and bottom

  9. Soils Developed on Geomorphic Surfaces in the Mountain Region of the State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Fontana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The evaluation of soils in representative landscapes constitutes an opportunity to evaluate spatial distribution, discuss formation processes, and apply this knowledge to land use and management. In this sense, from the perspective of an environmentally diversified region, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the occurrence and understand the formation of soils in different geomorphic surfaces of a landscape from a mountain region in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The study was developed in the Pito Aceso microbasin in the municipality of Bom Jardim, composed of narrow valleys and a rugged mountain domain, with elevation between 640 and 1,270 m. In a representative landscape, the geomorphic surfaces were obtained from the slope segments and flow lines. On the geomorphic surfaces, soil profiles were described by their morphological properties, collected, and analyzed to describe the chemical and physical properties of each horizon. Geomorphological aspects and possible variations of the parent material directly affected pedogenesis and led to distinct soil classes in the landscape. Variation in the geomorphic surfaces directs the processes for soil formation under current conditions, as well as the preservation of polygenetic soils. Soils of lower development and with greater participation of the exchangeable cations were identified at the summit (talus deposit (Neossolo Litólico and Cambissolo Húmico and toeslope (colluvial-alluvial (Neossolo Flúvico, whereas more developed soils with lower nutrient content occur in the concave (Argissolos Vermelho and Amarelo and convex (Latossolo Amarelo backslope, except for the Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo in the shoulder, which had high exchangeable cations contents.

  10. Constructing Consistent Multiscale Scenarios by Transdisciplinary Processes: the Case of Mountain Regions Facing Global Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridolin Simon. Brand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alpine regions in Europe, in particular, face demanding local challenges, e.g., the decline in the agriculture and timber industries, and are also prone to global changes, such as in climate, with potentially severe impacts on tourism. We focus on the Visp region in the Upper Valais, Switzerland, and ask how the process of stakeholder involvement in research practice can contribute to a better understanding of the specific challenges and future development of mountainous regions under global change. Based on a coupled human-environment system (HES perspective, we carried out a formative scenario analysis to develop a set of scenarios for the future directions of the Visp region. In addition, we linked these regional scenarios to context scenarios developed at the global and Swiss levels via an external consistency analysis. This method allows the coupling of both the scenario building process and the scenarios as such. We used a functional-dynamic approach to theory-practice cooperation, i.e., the involvement of key stakeholders from, for example, tourism, forestry, and administration, differed in type and intensity during the steps of the research process. In our study, we experienced strong problem awareness among the stakeholders concerning the impacts of global change and local challenges. The guiding research question was commonly defined and problem ownership was more or less balanced. We arrived at six multiscale scenarios that open up future trajectories for the Visp region, and present generic strategies to cope with global and local challenges. The results show that local identity, spatial planning, community budget, and demographic development are important steering elements in the region's future development. We suggest that method-guided transdisciplinary processes result in a richer picture and a more systemic understanding, which enable a discussion of critical and surprising issues.

  11. Analysis of La Dehesa paleo-landslide. Central Pre-Andes of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia Baldis, Carla; Rothis, Luis Martín; Perucca, Laura; Esper Angillieri, María; Vargas, Horacio; Ponce, David; Allis, Carlos

    2018-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to consider the influence of Quaternary faults as likely triggering factor for rockslides occurrence in the Central Pre-Andes, a region with intense shallow seismic activity. A rockslide deposit was selected as study case, placed in the western flank of La Dehesa and Talacasto (DT) range (31°3‧37″ S and 68°46‧ 8″ W). Applied methodology includes the characterization of main discontinuities, reconstruction of the topography using a high-resolution digital elevation model, safety factor calculation along the sliding surface and, Newmark displacements estimation for three different hypothetical seismic scenarios, recreated from existing neotectonic local information. Equilibrium-limit method's results confirm that study case, La Dehesa rockslide (LDR), had a stable and safe slope's configuration under static conditions. However, a seismic horizontal coefficient between 0.2 and 0.3 decreases safety factor below the safety threshold. Newmark's displacements for different seismic reconstructed scenarios varies between 4.1 and 15.9 cm, values that agreed with a coherent failure process, likely triggered by Pleistocene to Holocene seismogenic sources in Central Pre-Andes. LDR trigger could be assigned mainly to an earthquake related to La Dehesa Quaternary fault (LDF) activity; however, similar movements produced by neighboring faults should not be discarded. LDR triggering related to climatic conditions is despised. Finally, the methodology presented in this work is easy to reproduce and may be applied to other rockslides located in the mountainous areas of the Central Pre-Andes of Argentina.

  12. Volcanic deformation in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S.; Fournier, T.; Pritchard, M.

    2009-05-01

    We present the results from an InSAR survey of volcanic activity in South America. We use data from the Japanese Space Agency's ALOS L-band radar satellite from 2006-2009. The L-band instrument provides better coherence in densely vegetated regions, compared to the shorter wave length C-band data. The survey reveals volcano related deformation in regions, north, central and southern, of the Andes volcanic arc. Since observations are limited to the austral summer, comprehensive coverage of all volcanoes is not possible. Yet, our combined observations reveal volcanic/hydrothermal deformation at Lonquimay, Llaima, Laguna del Maule, and Chaitén volcanoes, extend deformation measurements at Copahue, and illustrate temporal complexity to the previously described deformation at Cerro Hudson and Cordón Caulle. No precursory deformation is apparent before the large Chaitén eruption (VEI_5) of 2 May 2008, (at least before 16 April) suggesting rapid magma movement from depth at this long dormant volcano. Subsidence at Ticsani Volcano occurred coincident with an earthquake swarm in the same region.

  13. Application of statistical and dynamics models for snow avalanche hazard assessment in mountain regions of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchaninova, A.

    2012-04-01

    The estimation of extreme avalanche runout distances, flow velocities, impact pressures and volumes is an essential part of snow engineering in mountain regions of Russia. It implies the avalanche hazard assessment and mapping. Russian guidelines accept the application of different avalanche models as well as approaches for the estimation of model input parameters. Consequently different teams of engineers in Russia apply various dynamics and statistical models for engineering practice. However it gives more freedom to avalanche practitioners and experts but causes lots of uncertainties in case of serious limitations of avalanche models. We discuss these problems by presenting the application results of different well known and widely used statistical (developed in Russia) and avalanche dynamics models for several avalanche test sites in the Khibini Mountains (The Kola Peninsula) and the Caucasus. The most accurate and well-documented data from different powder and wet, big rare and small frequent snow avalanche events is collected from 1960th till today in the Khibini Mountains by the Avalanche Safety Center of "Apatit". This data was digitized and is available for use and analysis. Then the detailed digital avalanche database (GIS) was created for the first time. It contains contours of observed avalanches (ESRI shapes, more than 50 years of observations), DEMs, remote sensing data, description of snow pits, photos etc. Thus, the Russian avalanche data is a unique source of information for understanding of an avalanche flow rheology and the future development and calibration of the avalanche dynamics models. GIS database was used to analyze model input parameters and to calibrate and verify avalanche models. Regarding extreme dynamic parameters the outputs using different models can differ significantly. This is unacceptable for the engineering purposes in case of the absence of the well-defined guidelines in Russia. The frequency curves for the runout distance

  14. The Glaciation of the Ecuadorian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Carlos

    This pleasing book fills the gap in the knowledge about Pleistocene and recent glaciation between Colombia and Peru. A significant amount of data exists already for Colombia and Venezuela and for Peru, Bolivia, and, particularly, Chile. Hastenrath has now given us a description of glaciers and glaciation underneath the equator in the Andes.The book begins with brief summaries of the physiography and the atmospheric circulation, which give the general setting of Ecuador. Then follow detailed descriptions of the glaciers and glacial morphology of all the important mountains of the Western and Eastern Cordilleras. These are well illustrated, and a particularly useful feature is the comparison of old photographs and paintings of glaciers with modern photographs, many taken by the author. All illustrate the spectacular retreat of the glaciers in the Ecuadorian Andes during the last century and correlate quite well with observations elsewhere. This retreat is snown quantitatively in Table 4, in terms of decrease in glacier-covered area since the glacial advance of moraine stage III. The area of present-day glaciers is about 10% of the area during that stage (compared with about 1.5% in the Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuela). A series of maps show the glacial morphology of the mountains (unfortunately, some of the maps have been included within the binding, thus losing some information; they could have been reduced somewhat to fit a single page or, if too large, could have been included in the pocket, together with the map of Chimborazo-Carihuairazo).

  15. The effect of agricultural policy reforms on income inequality in Swiss agriculture - An analysis for valley, hill and mountain regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    Using FADN data, we analyse the development of income inequality in Swiss agriculture for the valley, hill and mountain regions over the period 1990–2009. While household income inequality remained stable, farm income inequality increased during this period. Estimated Gini elasticities show that

  16. The 2014 assessment of stream quality in the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountain region of southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste Journey; Paul M. Bradley; Peter Van Metre

    2016-01-01

    During the spring and summer of 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water- Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) assessed stream quality across the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountain region in the southeastern United States.

  17. Massive post-fire flowering events in a tropical mountain region of Brazil: high episodic supply of floral resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Augusto Conceição

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The species Vellozia sincorana L.B.Sm. & Ayensu is key to biodiversity conservation in the tropical mountain region of Brazil. The massive post-fire flowering of this endemic species provides a large, episodic supply of floral resources, mostly nectar, to animals.

  18. Contrasting neogene denudation histories of different structural regions in the transantarctic mountains rift flank constrained by cosmogenic isotope measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wateren, F.M. van der; Dunai, T.J.; Balen, R.T. van; Klas, W.; Verbers, A.L.L.M.; Passchier, S.; Herpers, U.

    1999-01-01

    Separate regions within the Transantarctic Mountains, the uplifted flank of the West Antarctic rift system, appear to have distinct Neogene histories of glaciation and valley downcutting. Incision of deep glacial outlet valleys occurred at different times throughout central and northern Victoria

  19. A Regional View of the Margin: Salmonid Abundance and Distribution in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Flebbe

    1994-01-01

    In the southern Appalachian Mountains, native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and introduced rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta are at the southern extremes of their distributions, an often overlooked kind of marginal habitat. At a regional scale composed of the states of Virginia...

  20. Equilibrium of vegetation and climate at the European rear edge. A reference for climate change planning in mountainous Mediterranean regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Labourdette, Diego; Martínez, Felipe; Martín-López, Berta; Montes, Carlos; Pineda, Francisco D

    2011-05-01

    Mediterranean mountains harbour some of Europe's highest floristic richness. This is accounted for largely by the mesoclimatic variety in these areas, along with the co-occurrence of a small area of Eurosiberian, Boreal and Mediterranean species, and those of Tertiary Subtropical origin. Throughout the twenty-first century, we are likely to witness a climate change-related modification of the biogeographic scenario in these mountains, and there is therefore a need for accurate climate regionalisations to serve as a reference of the abundance and distribution of species and communities, particularly those of a relictic nature. This paper presents an objective mapping method focussing on climate regions in a mountain range. The procedure was tested in the Cordillera Central Mountains of the Iberian Peninsula, in the western Mediterranean, one of the ranges occupying the largest area of the Mediterranean Basin. This regionalisation is based upon multivariate analyses and upon detailed cartography employing 27 climatic variables. We used spatial interpolation of data based on geographic information. We detected high climatic diversity in the mountain range studied. We identified 13 climatic regions, all of which form a varying mosaic throughout the annual temperature and rainfall cycle. This heterogeneity results from two geographically opposed gradients. The first one is the Mediterranean-Euro-Siberian variation of the mountain range. The second gradient involves the degree of oceanicity, which is negatively related to distance from the Atlantic Ocean. The existing correlation between the climatic regions detected and the flora existing therein enables the results to be situated within the projected trends of global warming, and their biogeographic and ecological consequences to be analysed.

  1. Potentials for development of spa tourism in region of Cer Mountain: Western Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of their particularities, thermal and mineral springs at the foothill of Cer Mountain deserve special analysis. This is the reason we wrote this article, aiming to take reader's attention to the touristic potentials of the spa zone of Cer Mountain and possibilities for its perspective development. From the medical and excursion-recreational tourism point of view, there is a possibility for combining the spa tourism with the complementary values of Cer Mountain.

  2. [Vulnerability of eco-economy in northern slope region of Tianshan Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-zhai; Li, Bo; Zhang, Xin-shi; Zhao, Wen-wu; Jiang, Guang-hui

    2008-04-01

    Based on the theoretical meaning of vulnerability, a vulnerability assessment of eco-econom in fifteen counties in the northern slope region of Tianshan Mountains was conducted. The ecosystem services change to land use was regarded as the impact, and based on the fourteen indices from resource holding, society development, and economy development statistic data, the adaptive ability was evaluated by using the methods of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy synthetic evaluation. On the basis of assessment results of impact and adaptive capacity, the fifteen counties were divided into five classes under the assessment principles, and the district with higher-class number was of more vulnerability. The first class included Usu City and Changji City, the second class included Hutubi County, Miquan County, Fukang City, Jimsar County, Qitai County and Mori Kazak Autonomous County, the third class included Karamay City and Urumqi City, the fourth class included Kuitun City and Shawan County, and the fifth class included Jinghe County, Shihezi City and Manas County. The vulnerability reflected the level of eco-environment change and socioeconomic development, and the vulnerability assessment could be a good way to ensure the sustainable development. Aiming to decrease the vulnerability, various districts belonging to different class of vulnerability should establish relevant tactics according to the vulnerability factors to accelerate the region's sustainable development.

  3. Psychopathology of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Adolescents Living in the Mountainous Region of Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Yen

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that Taiwanese aboriginal adolescents feature more severe psychopathology than non-aboriginal adolescents who live in the same mountainous region of southern Taiwan, and to test the hypothesis by controlling other individual and environmental factors. In this study, a total of 251 aboriginal and 79 non-aboriginal Taiwanese adolescents were enrolled. Their psychopathology was measured by the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale; demographic and family characteristics, and their affinity with their peer group and with their school were also assessed. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that aboriginal adolescents feature more severe psychopathology than non-aboriginal adolescents, and indicated that females and adolescents perceiving higher levels of family conflict and lower family support were more likely to experience more severe psychopathology than those perceiving the contrary. Those who devise strategies to improve the mental health of adolescents living in impoverished regions must take into consideration their ethnicity, gender, and family context when devising such treatment strategies.

  4. Decentralized electrification by small-scale hydraulic stations : a viable solution in mountainous regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahman Saidi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The installation of a small-scale hydroelectric generating station to supply electricity to the small community of Takordmi in Morocco was described. The community of Takordmi consists of 32 households located in the remote mountainous region of Morocco. Takordmi was without electrical power until 1992 when a small 15 kW Pelton turbine was installed to supply electricity to the residents. Water to power the turbine generator was supplied by a small stream with an output of 4 to 8 liters per second and a head of 535 meters. Since the unit was installed, the mean monthly consumption of the community has been only 115 kWh, which averages to 4 kWh per household. The success of the Takordmi project has prompted the electrification of several other small communities in the remote regions of Morocco either by similar micro-hydroelectric stations or by photovoltaic cells. This project, funded by the Republic of Austria, demonstrates that it is feasible to provide electricity to remote rural communities by using local sources of power. 3 figs

  5. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain Region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Camera, R.J.; Westenburg, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site-Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, ground-water quality at 19 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented. Data on ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations through time at selected monitoring locations. Data are included in this report from 1910 through 1992

  6. Influence of the orographic roughness of glacier valleys across the Transantarctic Mountains in an atmospheric regional model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdain, Nicolas C.; Gallee, Hubert [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2011-03-15

    Glacier valleys across the Transantarctic Mountains are not properly taken into account in climate models, because of their coarse resolution. Nonetheless, glacier valleys control katabatic winds in this region, and the latter are thought to affect the climate of the Ross Sea sector, frsater formation to snow mass balance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of the production of turbulent kinetic energy by the subgrid-scale orography in the Transantarctic Mountains using a 20-km atmospheric regional model. A classical orographic roughness length parametrization is modified to produce either smooth or rough valleys. A one-year simulation shows that katabatic winds in the Transantarctic Mountains are strongly improved using smooth valleys rather than rough valleys. Pressure and temperature fields are affected by the representation of the orographic roughness, specifically in the Transantarctic Mountains and over the Ross Ice Shelf. A smooth representation of escarpment regions shows better agreement with automatic weather station observations than a rough representation. This work stresses the need to improve the representation of subgrid-scale orography to simulate realistic katabatic flows. This paper also provides a way of improving surface winds in an atmospheric model without increasing its resolution. (orig.)

  7. Spatiotemporal analysis of the effect of climate change on vegetation health in the Drakensberg Mountain Region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukwada, Geoffrey; Manatsa, Desmond

    2018-05-24

    The impact of climate change on mountain ecosystems has been in the spotlight for the past three decades. Climate change is generally considered to be a threat to ecosystem health in mountain regions. Vegetation indices can be used to detect shifts in ecosystem phenology and climate change in mountain regions while satellite imagery can play an important role in this process. However, what has remained problematic is determining the extent to which ecosystem phenology is affected by climate change under increasingly warming conditions. In this paper, we use climate and vegetation indices that were derived from satellite data to investigate the link between ecosystem phenology and climate change in the Namahadi Catchment Area of the Drakensberg Mountain Region of South Africa. The time series for climate indices as well as those for gridded precipitation and temperature data were analyzed in order to determine climate shifts, and concomitant changes in vegetation health were assessed in the resultant epochs using vegetation indices. The results indicate that vegetation indices should only be used to assess trends in climate change under relatively pristine conditions, where human influence is limited. This knowledge is important for designing climate change monitoring strategies that are based on ecosystem phenology and vegetation health.

  8. Is tourism damaging ecosystems in the Andes? Current knowledge and an agenda for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Agustina; Monz, Christopher; Pickering, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Despite the popularity of tourism and recreation in the Andes in South America and the regions conservation value, there is limited research on the ecological impacts of these types of anthropogenic use. Using a systematic quantitative literature review method, we found 47 recreation ecology studies from the Andes, 25 of which used an experimental design. Most of these were from the Southern Andes in Argentina (13 studies) or Chile (eight studies) with only four studies from the Northern Andes. These studies documented a range of impacts on vegetation, birds and mammals; including changes in plant species richness, composition and vegetation cover and the tolerance of wildlife of visitor use. There was little research on the impacts of visitors on soils and aquatic systems and for some ecoregions in the Andes. We identify research priorities across the region that will enhance management strategies to minimise visitor impacts in Andean ecosystems.

  9. Quantifying the National Significance of Local Areas for Regional Conservation Planning: North Carolina’s Mountain Treasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Travis Belote

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Conservation scientists recognize that additional protected areas are needed to maintain biological diversity and ecological processes. As regional conservation planners embark on recommending additional areas for protection in formal ecological reserves, it is important to evaluate candidate lands for their role in building a resilient protected areas system of the future. Here, we evaluate North Carolina’s Mountain Treasures with respect to their (1 ecological integrity, (2 role in connecting existing core protected areas, (3 potential to diversify the ecosystem representation of reserves, and (4 role in maintaining hotspots of biologically-rich areas that are not well protected. Mountain Treasures represent a citizen inventory of roadless areas and serve as candidates for elevated levels of conservation protection on U.S. federal lands. We compared Mountain Treasures to other candidate lands throughout the country to evaluate their potential national significance. While the Mountain Treasures tended to be more impacted by human modifications than other roadless areas, they are as important as other roadless areas with respect to their role in connecting existing protected areas and diversifying representation of ecosystems in conservation reserves. However, Mountain Treasures tended to have a much higher biodiversity priority index than other roadless areas leading to an overall higher composite score compared to other roadless areas. Our analysis serves as an example of how using broad-scale datasets can help conservation planners assess the national significance of local areas.

  10. Faulting in the Yucca Mountain region: Critical review and analyses of tectonic data from the central Basin and Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrill, D.A.; Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.; Stamatakos, J.; Morris, A.P.; Spivey, K.H.; Wernicke, B.P.

    1996-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been proposed as the potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. The tectonic setting of Yucca Mountain presents several potential hazards for a proposed repository, such as potential for earthquake seismicity, fault disruption, basaltic volcanism, magma channeling along pre-existing faults, and faults and fractures that may serve as barriers or conduits for groundwater flow. Characterization of geologic structures and tectonic processes will be necessary to assess compliance with regulatory requirements for the proposed high level waste repository. In this report, we specifically investigate fault slip, seismicity, contemporary stain, and fault-slip potential in the Yucca Mountain region with regard to Key Technical Uncertainties outlined in the License Application Review Plan (Sections 3.2.1.5 through 3.2.1.9 and 3.2.2.8). These investigations center on (i) alternative methods of determining the slip history of the Bare Mountain Fault, (ii) cluster analysis of historic earthquakes, (iii) crustal strain determinations from Global Positioning System measurements, and (iv) three-dimensional slip-tendency analysis. The goal of this work is to assess uncertainties associated with neotectonic data sets critical to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses' ability to provide prelicensing guidance and perform license application review with respect to the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain

  11. Ground-based measurements of the vertical E-field in mountainous regions and the "Austausch" effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Roy; Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin; Mkrtchyan, Hripsime; Lynn, Barry; Reymers, Artur

    2017-06-01

    Past measurements of the atmospheric vertical electric field (Ez or potential gradient) at numerous land stations showed a strong response of the daily electric field to a morning local effect known as ;Austausch; - the transport of electrical charges due to increased turbulence. In mountainous regions, nocturnal charge accumulation, followed by an attachment process to aerosols near the surface in valleys, known as the electrode effect, is lifted as a charged aerosol layer by anabatic (upslope) winds during the morning hours due to solar heating. Ground-based measurements during fair weather days were conducted at three mountain stations in Israel and Armenia. We present results of the mean diurnal variation of Ez and make comparisons with the well-known Carnegie curve and with past measurements of Ez on mountains. We report a good agreement between the mean diurnal curves of Ez at various mountain stations and the time of local sunrise when the Ez is found to increase. We attribute this morning maximum to the Austausch (or exchange) layer effect. We support our findings with conduction and turbulent current measurements showing high values of ions and charged aerosols being transported by winds from morning to noon local time, and by model simulations showing the convergence of winds in the early morning hours toward the mountain peak.

  12. Patrilineal background of the She minority population from Chaoshan Fenghuang Mountain, an isolated mountain region, in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuhui; Chen, Guangcan; Huang, Haihua; Lin, Wenting; Guo, Dan; Zhao, Shukun; Tian, Dongping; Su, Min

    2017-07-01

    The She ethnic minority population is distributed in southern China. The origin of the She population has been controversial. The purpose of this work was to investigate the genomic diversity of She. The Chaoshan She population living in the Chaoshan Fenghuang mountain is a relatively isolated population. We detected 14 Y chromosome biallelic markers (Y-SNPs) and 6 Y chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci in Chaoshan She people. Y-SNP analysis showed the Chaoshan She was closely related to the Chaoshan Hakka, Chaoshanese, Tujia and Gaoshan national minority. Compared with the Fujian She, the Chaoshan She maintained a more southern native genetic structure. Y-STR analysis revealed the Chaoshan She population was more closely related to the Hakka population than the other Hans. We concluded the Chaoshan She population had a closer genetic relationship with the southern national minority and Hakka Han and it may be representative of She ancestors' patrilineal genetic structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Multidimensional poverty and catastrophic health spending in the mountainous regions of Myanmar, Nepal and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K; Agrawal, Nand Kishor; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Choudhury, Dhrupad; Tuladhar, Sabarnee; Holmgren, E Valdemar

    2017-01-18

    Economic burden to households due to out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) is large in many Asian countries. Though studies suggest increasing household poverty due to high OOPE in developing countries, studies on association of multidimensional poverty and household health spending is limited. This paper tests the hypothesis that the multidimensionally poor are more likely to incur catastrophic health spending cutting across countries. Data from the Poverty and Vulnerability Assessment (PVA) Survey carried out by the International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) has been used in the analyses. The PVA survey was a comprehensive household survey that covered the mountainous regions of India, Nepal and Myanmar. A total of 2647 households from India, 2310 households in Nepal and 4290 households in Myanmar covered under the PVA survey. Poverty is measured in a multidimensional framework by including the dimensions of education, income and energy, water and sanitation using the Alkire and Foster method. Health shock is measured using the frequency of illness, family sickness and death of any family member in a reference period of one year. Catastrophic health expenditure is defined as 40% above the household's capacity to pay. Results suggest that about three-fifths of the population in Myanmar, two-fifths of the population in Nepal and one-third of the population in India are multidimensionally poor. About 47% of the multidimensionally poor in India had incurred catastrophic health spending compared to 35% of the multidimensionally non-poor and the pattern was similar in both Nepal and Myanmar. The odds of incurring catastrophic health spending was 56% more among the multidimensionally poor than among the multidimensionally non-poor [95% CI: 1.35-1.76]. While health shocks to households are consistently significant predictors of catastrophic health spending cutting across country of residence, the educational attainment of the head of the household is

  14. Russian aeromagnetic surveys of the Prince Charles Mountains and adjacent regions into the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golynsky, Alexander; Golynsky, Dmitry; Kiselev, Alexander; Masolov, Valery

    2014-05-01

    Russian aeromagnetic investigations in the Prince Charles Mountains (PCM) and surrounding areas, seek to contribute data on the tectonics of Precambrian igneous belts and cratonic fragments, the crustal structure of the Lambert Rift system and other major aspects of Antarctic geology, critical to understanding continental growth processes (Golynsky et al., 2006). Over the past decade, the Polar Marine Geoscience Expedition projects acquired approximately 77,400 line-km of aeromagnetic data over the largely ice-covered regions of MacRobertson Land and Princess Elizabeth Land. The airborne surveys were performed with a standard profile spacing of 5 km and tie-line interval of 15-25 km. The total amount of the Russian aeromagnetic data collected in this region exceeded more than 165,000 line-km. Together with the PCMEGA and AGAP surveys (Damaske and McLean, 2005; Ferraccioli et al., 2011) the PMGE dataset forms the longest transect ever mapped in East Antarctica exceeding 1950 km in length. Several distinct crustal subdivisions are clearly differentiated in the magnetic data. The high-amplitude positive anomalies that extend around the Vestfold Hills and Rauer Islands are likely be attributed to the southern boundary of high-grade metamorphic Late Archean craton. The northern PCM that are composed by ~1 Ga orthogneiss and charnockite display a predominantly northeasterly trending magnetic fabric that continues to the eastern shoulder of the Lambert Rift. The aeromagnetic data from the Southern PCM reveal the spatial boundary of the Archaean Ruker Terrane that is characterized by a short-wavelength anomalies and the prominent Ruker Anomaly that is associated with a banded iron formation. The prominent alternating system of linear NE-SW positive and negative anomalies over the eastern shoulder of the Lambert Rift may reflect the western boundary of the Princess Elizabeth Land cratonic(?) block, although its relationships and tectonic origin remained largely ambiguous

  15. Green Tourism in Mountain Regions - Reducing Vulnerability and Promoting People and Place Centric Development in the Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. B. Singh; D. K. Mishra

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, mountain regions are attracting great attention to Indian tourists in general and foreign tourists in particular. The potential mountain resources for promoting green tourism are enormous in the form of natural and cultural heritage such as biosphere reserves, flora and fauna, lakes and rivers and traditional rural resources. In order to utilise tourism industry market, uncontrolled numbers of tourists and related haphazard infrastructural facilities in the vulnerable mountain regions pose serious environmental implications. The ecological pressures are threatening land, water and wild life resources through direct and indirect environmental impacts together with generation of solid and liquid wastes, so green tourism is emerging as an important task in order to develop new relationship between communities, government agencies and private sectors. The strategy focuses on ecological understanding, environmental protection and ecodevelopment. The major attributes of the green tourism include environmental conservation and education and distribution of income to local people based on strong partnership. Various knowledge systems go a long way for achieving the goals of the green tourism, which creates awareness about the value of environmental resources.Mountains have ecological, recreational, educational and scientific values, which need to be utilised in sustainable way. Various tourist activities and facilities need to be diversified in order to achieve multiple benefits including scientific field excursion,recreation in natural and cultural areas, community festivals and sport tourisms. Green tourism considers tourism development as an integral part of a national and regional development. The paper discusses the social, economic and environmental dimensions of the green tourism with particular reference to village tourism development programme taking empirical evidences from the Himalaya. Such programme also minimises biophysical and human

  16. Reasons for an outstanding plant diversity in the tropical Andes of Southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Richter

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term field studies in the scope of a multidisciplinary project in southern Ecuador revealed extraordinary high species numbers of many organismic groups. This article discusses reasons for the outstanding vascular plant diversity using a hierarchical scale-oriented top-down approach (Grüninger 2005, from the global scale to the local microscale. The global scale explains general (paleo- ecological factors valid for most parts of the humid tropics, addressing various hypotheses and theories, such as the “greater effective evolutionary time”, constant input of “accidentals”, the “seasonal variability hypothesis”, the “intermediate disturbance hypothesis”, and the impact of soil fertility. The macroscale focuses on the Andes in northwestern South America. The tropical Andes are characterised by many taxa of restricted range which is particularly true for the Amotape-Huancabamba region, i.e. the so called Andean Depression, which is effective as discrete phytogeographic transition as well as barrier zone. Interdigitation of northern and southern flora elements, habitat fragmentation, geological and landscape history, and a high speciation rate due to rapid genetic radiation of some taxa contribute to a high degree of diversification. The mesoscale deals with the special environmental features of the eastern mountain range, the Cordillera Real and surrounding areas in southern Ecuador. Various climatic characteristics, the orographic heterogeneity, the geologic and edaphic conditions as well as human impact are the most prominent factors augmenting plant species diversity. On microscale, prevailing regimes of disturbance and environmental stresses, the orographic basement, as well as the general role on the various mountain chains are considered. Here, micro-habitats e.g. niches for epiphytes, effects of micro-relief patterns, and successions after small-sized disturbance events are screened. Direct effects of human impact are

  17. Glacier shrinkage and water resources in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francou, Bernard; Coudrain, Anne

    For more than a century glaciers around the world have been melting as air temperatures rise due to a combination of natural processes and human activity. The disappearance of these glaciers can have wide-ranging effects, such as the creation of new natural hazards or changes in stream flow that could threaten water suppliesSome of the most dramatic melting has occurred in the Andes mountain range in South America. To highlight the climatic and glacial change in the Andes and to encourage the scientific community to strengthen the glacier observation network that stretches from Colombia to the Patagonian ice fields, the Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRENA), Perú, and the Institute of Research and Development (IRD), France, recently organized the second Symposium on Mass Balance of Andean Glaciers in Huaráz,Perú.

  18. False alarms and mine seismicity: An example from the Gentry Mountain mining region, Utah. Los Alamos Source Region Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.R.

    1992-09-23

    Mining regions are a cause of concern for monitoring of nuclear test ban treaties because they present the opportunity for clandestine nuclear tests (i.e. decoupled explosions). Mining operations are often characterized by high seismicity rates and can provide the cover for excavating voids for decoupling. Chemical explosions (seemingly as part of normal mining activities) can be used to complicate the signals from a simultaneous decoupled nuclear explosion. Thus, most concern about mines has dealt with the issue of missed violations to a test ban treaty. In this study, we raise the diplomatic concern of false alarms associated with mining activities. Numerous reports and papers have been published about anomalous seismicity associated with mining activities. As part of a large discrimination study in the western US (Taylor et al., 1989), we had one earthquake that was consistently classified as an explosion. The magnitude 3.5 disturbance occurred on May 14, 1981 and was conspicuous in its lack of Love waves, relative lack of high- frequency energy, low Lg/Pg ratio, and high m{sub b} {minus} M{sub s}. A moment-tensor solution by Patton and Zandt (1991) indicated the event had a large implosional component. The event occurred in the Gentry Mountain coal mining region in the eastern Wasatch Plateau, Utah. Using a simple source representation, we modeled the event as a tabular excavation collapse that occurred as a result of normal mining activities. This study raises the importance of having a good catalogue of seismic data and information about mining activities from potential proliferant nations.

  19. A Ten Step Protocol and Plan for CCS Site Characterization, Based on an Analysis of the Rocky Mountain Region, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, Brian; Matthews, Vince

    2013-09-15

    This report expresses a Ten-Step Protocol for CO2 Storage Site Characterization, the final outcome of an extensive Site Characterization analysis of the Rocky Mountain region, USA. These ten steps include: (1) regional assessment and data gathering; (2) identification and analysis of appropriate local sites for characterization; (3) public engagement; (4) geologic and geophysical analysis of local site(s); (5) stratigraphic well drilling and coring; (6) core analysis and interpretation with other data; (7) database assembly and static model development; (8) storage capacity assessment; (9) simulation and uncertainty assessment; (10) risk assessment. While the results detailed here are primarily germane to the Rocky Mountain region, the intent of this protocol is to be portable or generally applicable for CO2 storage site characterization.

  20. MEAT PERFORMANCE OF THE CZECH SPOTTED CATTLE BULLS BRED IN MOUNTAIN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VOŘÍŠKOVÁ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Chosen indicators of meat performance of 98 bulls of Czech Spotted cattle bred in elevation above 720 m above sea-level in the mountain region of Šumava are presented in the article. The fattening was realized in a barn with a deep litter. The feed ration consisted of haylage throughout the year. The bulls were divided into three groups according to their genotype - C100, C75-85R (CxR and C75-85A (CxA. The highest live weight at slaughter was achieved in the group C100 with 650 kg with the average age of 726 days and the weight of the carcasses of 363.8 kg. On the other hand, the worst results were achieved in the group CxA. For comparison a group of 14 bulls of the Holstein breed was created (H100, which was fattened in the same conditions. The bulls achieved their highest live weight before slaughter (664.6 kg, but at the highest age (743 days. Statistically significant differences were proven in the meat performance after individual fathers – the best results were documented with the offspring of the bull BO-837. After the separation of the set of bulls according to live weight at the end of fattening, the highest results were achieved by the group above 700 kg. The best class using the SEUROP method was achieved by the group with slaughtering live weight between 650 kg and 700 kg.

  1. Environmental impact assessment of mountain tourism in developing regions: A study in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geneletti, Davide; Dawa, Dorje

    2009-01-01

    Mountain tourism in developing countries is becoming a growing environmental concern due to extreme seasonality, lack of suitable infrastructures and planning, and interference with fragile ecosystems and protected areas. This paper presents a study devoted to assess the adverse environmental impacts of tourism, and in particular of trekking-related activities, in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya. The proposed approach is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) modeling and remote sensing imageries to cope with the lack of data that affect the region. First, stressors associated with trekking, and environmental receptors potentially affected were identified. Subsequently, a baseline study on stressors (trail use, waste dumping, camping, pack animal grazing and off-road driving) and receptors (soil, water, wildlife, vegetation) was conducted through field work, data collection, and data processing supported by GIS. Finally, impacts were modeled by considering the intensity of the stressors, and the vulnerability and the value of the receptors. The results were spatially aggregated into watershed units, and combined to generate composite impact maps. The study concluded that the most affected watersheds are located in the central and southeastern part of Ladakh, along some of the most visited trails and within the Hemis and the Tsokar Tsomoriri National parks. The main objective of the study was to understand patterns of tourism-induced environmental degradation, so as to support mitigation interventions, as well as the development of suitable tourism policies.

  2. [Natural regeneration of young Excentrodendron hsienmu in karst mountainous region in Southwest Guangxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Zhi-Yang; Su, Zhi-Yao; Peng, Yu-Hua; Hu, Qin-Fei; Huang, Xiao-Rong

    2013-09-01

    A field survey was conducted in the karst mountainous region in Pingguo County of Southwest Guangxi, China to explore the structural characteristics, spatial distribution pattern, and growth dynamics of young Excentrodendron hsienmu as well as the main environmental factors affecting the natural regeneration of the E. hsienmu population. In the study area, the population structure of the young E. hsienmu was stable, and exhibited a clumped spatial pattern for the seedlings and seedling sprouts. The ground diameter growth and height growth of the young E. hsienmu presented the same variation trend, i. e., the ground diameter increased with increasing height. The ground diameter growth and height growth of the E. hsienmu seedlings were limited by population density, i. e., decreased with increasing population density. The correlation analysis showed that the trees more than 2.5 m in height and the shrubs were the major stand factors affecting the natural regeneration of young E. hsienmu, while the herbs had no significant correlation with the regeneration. The percentage of covered rock also had no significant effects on the regeneration. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA showed that there existed significant differences in the height and ground diameter of young E. hsienmu at different slope degrees and slope positions. The population density, height, and ground diameter had significant differences across slope aspects. The natural regeneration of young E. hsienmu was comprehensively affected by the species biological characteristics, intraspecific competition, interspecific competition, heterogeneous habitat, and anthropogenic disturbances.

  3. Evaluating Satellite Products for Precipitation Estimation in Mountain Regions: A Case Study for Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarendra Lakhankar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation in mountain regions is often highly variable and poorly observed, limiting abilities to manage water resource challenges. Here, we evaluate remote sensing and ground station-based gridded precipitation products over Nepal against weather station precipitation observations on a monthly timescale. We find that the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM 3B-43 precipitation product exhibits little mean bias and reasonable skill in giving precipitation over Nepal. Compared to station observations, the TRMM precipitation product showed an overall Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.49, which is similar to the skill of the gridded station-based product Asian Precipitation-Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE. The other satellite precipitation products considered (Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP, the Climate Prediction Center Morphing technique (CMORPH, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS were less skillful, as judged by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, and, on average, substantially underestimated precipitation compared to station observations, despite their, in some cases, higher nominal spatial resolution compared to TRMM. None of the products fully captured the dependence of mean precipitation on elevation seen in the station observations. Overall, the TRMM product is promising for use in water resources applications.

  4. Natural radioactivity survey in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi Mountain Region Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askouri, N.A.; Hussain, M.O.; Al-Ojaily, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of natural radioactivity in a given region or country is essential to provide a reference base-line map to follow up a possible variation in future. In order to perform such measurement, the natural radioactivity was measured in different locations. The locations (50 sites) were distributed over Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi Mountain, starting from the city Al-Azeeziah in the eastern part to Wazen on the Tunisian border in the west. The measurements showed obvious variation from one site to another. The levels were fluctuating from (12.8 counts/minute) in Bir-Ayad to (45.7 counts/minute) in Gherian. In order to investigate the cause for such variation, samples were collected from (27) sites for detailed study. The levels of natural radioactivity were determined in the laboratory, and were ranging from (58.7 Bq/kg) in Bir-Ayad to (102.1 Bq/kg) in Gherian. The variation in measured radioactivity was related to the geological structures taken in six perpendicular sections, namely, Gharian, Yevren, Zintan, Nalut, Wazen and Al-Azeeziah taking the naturally occurred radioisotopes concentration of 4 0K, 232 Th and 238 U present in consideration.

  5. Studies on the evaluation of thermal belts and radiation fog over mountainous regions by LANDSAT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurose, Y.; Hayashi, Y.; Horiguchi, I.; Fukaishi, K.; Kanechika, O.; Ishida, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Sakai, T.; Yamauchi, Y.; Kohno, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Local meteorological phenomena and characteristics under conditions of nocturnal radiative cooling in winter were investigated using Landsat data and physiographic parameters over the hilly and mountainous regions of the western part of shikoku. (1) Relative elevation between thermal belts and underlying ground such as bottom of basin or valley was 400m on an average. (2) Thermal belts appeared in the zone between 400m and 1000m above the sea level in the western part of Shikoku. (3) Temperature of the thermal belts varied with the elevation in a ratio of about 1 degrees C/100m. This observation indicated that the thermal belt temperature was closely related to the altitude of the zone where the thermal belts originated. (4) Radiation fog was frequently recorded over some part along the Hiji river and over the area along Ootoyo to Motoyama; fog was present even at 10 a.m. (3 hours after sunrise). (5) Upper surface of the fog layer was located at 200m and 600m above the sea level in the Oozu basin and in the area along Ootoyo to Motoyama respectively. (6) In the Oozu basin, the distribution of hamlets on the mountainside was often recognized in the localities within the upper limit of foggy areas

  6. [Molluscicidal effect of film on ditches in mountainous schistosomiasis endemic regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Qing; Zhong, Bo; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Tang, Shu-Gui; Cao, Chun-Li; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Jia, Bin; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jian-Guo; Fu, Tao; Chen, Lin; Lu, Ding; Bao, Zi-Ping

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the molluscicidal effect of film on ditches in mountainous schistosomiasis endemic regions. A ditch with Oncomelania hupensis snails was selected as experimental field. The ditch was divided into 3 parts (groups): a niclosamide plus film covering group (film covering after spraying by wettable powder of 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt upon 2 g/m2), a film covering group (film covering directly without niclosamide spraying), and a control group (no molluscicidal measures). The snail investigation was performed 7, 10, 40, 60 d and 90 d after film covering. The temperatures outside and inside film were determined twice a day during the experiment. The temperature inside the film was significantly higher than that outside the film (t = 4.12, P film in the niclosamide plus film covering group and film covering group respectively; 96.58% and 93.06% ten days post-film respectively; both 100% forty days post-film. The multi-factor regression model indicated that covering film with niclosamide applying, extending film covering time, and increasing cumulate temperature inside film could enhance the molluscicidal effect. The film covering has well molluscicidal effect. The molluscicidal effect of covering film with niclosamide is better than that of covering film alone in short time. However, the covering film alone also has good molluscicidal effect when increasing covering time.

  7. Surface strain rate colour map of the Tatra Mountains region (Slovakia based on GNSS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednárik Martin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The surface deformation of the Tatra Mountains region in Western Carpathians can nowadays be studied directly thanks to precise geodetic measurements using the GNSS. The strain or stress tensor field is, however, a rather complex “data structure” difficult to present legibly and with sufficient resolution in the form of a classical map. A novel and promising approach to the solution of this problem is coding the three principal strain or stress values into the three colour channels (red, green, blue of an RGB colour. In our previous study, the colour depended on the stress tensor shape descriptors. In the current study, the adapted colouring scheme uses a subset of shape descriptors common to stress and strain, which differ only in the scaling factor. In this manner, we generate the colour map of the surface strain rate field, where the colour of each grid point carries the information about the shape of the strain rate tensor at that point. The resulting strain rate colour map can be displayed simultaneously with the map of the faults or elevations and be easily checked for the data or interpolation method errors and incompatibility with the geophysical and geological expectations.

  8. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Liang [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Yin, Yan, E-mail: yinyan@nuist.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Xiao, Hui [Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Yu, Xingna [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui [Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); and others

    2016-04-15

    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core–shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ± 6% and ± 14% for external mixture and ± 9% and ± 31% for core–shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate. - Highlights: • A spherical Mie

  9. Better utilization of ground water in the Piedmont and mountain region of the southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Ralph C.

    1979-01-01

    The development of water supplies for domestic consumption, and for those commercial and industrial uses requiring relatively pure water, has followed a pattern in the Piedmont and mountain areas of the southeast similar to that in most other humid areas. The first settlers utilized seepage springs on hillsides. Such springs occur along steep slopes where the water table intersects the land surface. As the population of the region grew, it became increasingly necessary to resort to shallow dug wells for domestic water supplies. Such wells also served as sources of water for the villages that developed, in time, around crossroad taverns. Seepage springs and dug wells are a satisfactory source of water in a virgin environment but are quickly polluted by careless waste-disposal practices. Thus disposal of domestic wastes in shallow pits resulted in epidemics of water-borne diseases as the villages grew into towns. This resulted in the third phase of water-supply development, which consisted of installing water lines and supplying water to homes from town-owned wells. In time, some of these wells became polluted and others failed to supply adequate water for the increasing needs of the larger urban areas. In the fourth phase these areas met their needs by drawing water from nearby streams. By the early years of this century it was possible to make this water palatable and relatively safe as a result of improvement in filtration methods. Streams, of course, have highly variable rates of flow and, as towns grew into small cities, the minimum flow of many streams was not adequate to meet the water-supply needs. This problem was solved in the fifth phase by building dams on the streams. We are still in this phase as we build larger and larger reservoirs to meet our growing water needs. Thus, through five phases of growth in the Piedmont and mountains we have advanced from the point where ground water was the sole source of supply to the point where it is the forgotten

  10. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Liang; Yin, Yan; Xiao, Hui; Yu, Xingna; Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui

    2016-01-01

    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core–shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ± 6% and ± 14% for external mixture and ± 9% and ± 31% for core–shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate. - Highlights: • A spherical Mie

  11. False alarms and mine seismicity: An example from the Gentry Mountain mining region, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    Mining regions are a cause of concern for monitoring of nuclear test ban treaties because they present the opportunity for clandestine nuclear tests (i.e. decoupled explosions). Mining operations are often characterized by high seismicity rates and can provide the cover for excavating voids for decoupling. Chemical explosions (seemingly as part of normal mining activities) can be used to complicate the signals from a simultaneous decoupled nuclear explosion. Thus, most concern about mines has dealt with the issue of missed violations to a test ban treaty. In this study, we raise the diplomatic concern of false alarms associated with mining activities. Numerous reports and papers have been published about anomalous seismicity associated with mining activities. As part of a large discrimination study in the western US (Taylor et al., 1989), we had one earthquake that was consistently classified as an explosion. The magnitude 3.5 disturbance occurred on May 14, 1981 and was conspicuous in its lack of Love waves, relative lack of high- frequency energy, low Lg/Pg ratio, and high m b - M s . A moment-tensor solution by Patton and Zandt (1991) indicated the event had a large implosional component. The event occurred in the Gentry Mountain coal mining region in the eastern Wasatch Plateau, Utah. Using a simple source representation, we modeled the event as a tabular excavation collapse that occurred as a result of normal mining activities. This study raises the importance of having a good catalogue of seismic data and information about mining activities from potential proliferant nations

  12. The stoneflies (Insecta, Plecoptera) of the Talladega Mountain region, Alabama, USA: distribution, elevation, endemism, and rarity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Scott A; Sheldon, Andrew L

    2018-01-01

    Background The Talladega Mountain region of eastern Alabama is the southernmost outlier of the ancient Appalachian Mountains, including the highest peaks and ranges in the state. Collections of stoneflies (Plecoptera) previously here have been sporadic yet has led to several new species descriptions in modern times (James 1974, James 1976, Stark and Szczytko 1976, Kondratieff and Kirchner 1996, Szczytko and Kondratieff 2015) and expanded our understanding of southeastern US stoneflies. During the period 2003-2012 we conducted an intensive inventory of the stonefly fauna of the Talladega Mountain region. We collected across all months from 192 unique localities, covering a broad range of stream sizes and elevation gradients present in the region. New information A total of 57 confirmed species across eight of the nine Nearctic families were collected as adults (Table 4), including four species described as new during the study period (Table 2). Leuctra crossi James, 1974 was easily the most common species collected. Median elevations per species ranged from 174 m ( Clioperla clio (Newman, 1839)) to 410 m ( Leuctra triloba Claassen, 1923 (Fig. 3). Dot distribution maps were included for all 57 species plus one for undetermined nymphs of Pteronarcys Newman, 1838 (Figs. 4-19). As many as seven species may be endemic to the region but sampling efforts northeastward into Georgia, plus additional focused sampling in Alabama and a comprehensive examination of all available material held in museums and personal collections, are needed for confirmation.

  13. Emissions implications of future natural gas production and use in the U.S. and in the Rocky Mountain region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Jeffrey D; Brinkman, Gregory L; Milford, Jana B

    2014-11-18

    Enhanced prospects for natural gas production raise questions about the balance of impacts on air quality, as increased emissions from production activities are considered alongside the reductions expected when natural gas is burned in place of other fossil fuels. This study explores how trends in natural gas production over the coming decades might affect emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for the United States and its Rocky Mountain region. The MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) energy system optimization model is used with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's nine-region database to compare scenarios for natural gas supply and demand, constraints on the electricity generation mix, and GHG emissions fees. Through 2050, total energy system GHG emissions show little response to natural gas supply assumptions, due to offsetting changes across sectors. Policy-driven constraints or emissions fees are needed to achieve net reductions. In most scenarios, wind is a less expensive source of new electricity supplies in the Rocky Mountain region than natural gas. U.S. NOx emissions decline in all the scenarios considered. Increased VOC emissions from natural gas production offset part of the anticipated reductions from the transportation sector, especially in the Rocky Mountain region.

  14. The Tropical Andes without Snow and Ice - Impacts, Uncertainties and Challenges Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuille, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change has lead to significant glacier retreat in the tropical Andes over the past several decades. Despite the apparent hiatus in warming along the Pacific coast, temperature continues to rise at higher elevations, putting smaller glaciers in lower lying mountain ranges on the verge of complete disappearance. As a result water availability and water quality in glacier-fed river systems will be reduced during the dry season. The lack of a seasonal snow cover in the tropics, which provides for an additional hydrologic buffer in mid-latitude mountain ranges, further exacerbates the situation. Altered precipitation regimes, including changes in total precipitation amount, changes in the rain/snow ratio, or changes in the wet season length will also affect water availability, but projections of these changes are currently fraught with uncertainty. The importance of glacier-fed water supply varies between regions and depends on the presence of other water regulators (reservoirs, wetlands), the length of the dry season and the trajectory of water demand (population growth, expanding economic activities). Here we will review downscaled CMIP5 model results for some of these mountain ranges and discuss the consequences of future warming and projected precipitation changes for the Andean cryosphere, while considering uncertainties associated with downscaling methodology, model dependency and choice of emission scenario. Adaptation strategies will be evaluated in the light of these results, discussing the need to pursue no-regret strategies, when implementing water conservation measures. Lessons learned from past adaptation and capacity building activities in the region will be discussed, emphasizing a) the need to strengthen the institutional standing of authorities involved in glacier research, b) alignment of capacity building and international cooperation with the national and regional needs and c) improvements to long-term climate and glacier monitoring programs

  15. Monitoring glacier variations in the Urubamba and Vilcabamba Mountain Ranges, Peru, using "Landsat 5" images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Wilson; Cerna, Marcos; Ordoñez, Julio; Frey, Holger; Giráldez, Claudia; Huggel, Christian

    2013-04-01

    The Urubamba and Vilcabamba mountain ranges are two geological structures belonging to the Andes in the southern part of Peru, which is located in the tropical region. These mountain ranges are especially located within the transition area between the Amazon region (altitudes close to 1'000 m a.s.l.) and the Andes. These mountains, with a maximum height of 6'280 m a.s.l. (Salkantay Snow Peak in the Vilcabamba range), are characterized by glaciers mainly higher than 5000 m a.s.l. Here we present a study on the evolution of the ice cover based on "Landsat 5" images from 1991 and 2011 is presented in this paper. These data are freely available from the USGS in a georeferenced format and cover a time span of more than 25 years. The glacier mapping is based on the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI). In 1991 the Vilcabamba mountain range had 221 km2 of glacier cover, being reduced to 116.4 km2 in 2011, which represents a loss of 48%. In the Urubamba mountain range, the total glacier area was 64.9 km2 in 1991 and 29.4 km2 in 2011, representing a loss of 54.7%. It means that the glacier area was halved during the past two decades although precipitation patterns show an increase in recent years (the wet season lasts from September to April with precipitation peaks in February and March). Glacier changes in these two tropical mountain ranges also impact from an economic point of view due to small local farming common in this region (use of water from the melting glacier). Furthermore, potential glacier related hazards can pose a threat to people and infrastructure in the valleys below these glaciers, where the access routes to Machu Picchu Inca City, Peru's main tourist destination, are located too.

  16. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  17. Andes Hantavirus Variant in Rodents, Southern Amazon Basin, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M. Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A. Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O.; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  18. MACROZOOBENTHOS OF MOUNTAIN RIVERS OF THE TRANSCARPATHIAN REGION AS A FORAGE BASE OF BENTHOPHAGOUS FISHES AND SAPROBITY INDICATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kruzhylina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study qualitative and qualitative indices of macrozoobenthos as one of main components of the forage base of benthophagous fishes in mountain river reaches of the Transcarpathian region and determination of their saprobity level. Methodology. Thhj,9.e study was carried out in summer period of 2009 in mountain river reaches of the Tisa river catchment. Zoobenthos samples were collected by a Surber sampler (25 × 25 cm on the bottoms of different fractions with different water flow rate (riffle, run, pool. Collection, processing and interpretation of the obtained data was carried out according to generally accepted hydrobiological methods developed for mountain river studies. Saprobity was of the studied rivers was calculated by Pantle-Buck formula. The Zelinka-Marvan saprobity index was used for calculations. Findings. Qualitative and quantitative macrozoobenthos indices have been studied. The number of zoobenthos on the investigated river sections ranged from 416 to 7712 ind./m2 with biomasses from 2.96 to 83.84 g/m2. The major portion of the zoobenthic biomass in the majority of rivers was due to caddis fly larvae composing up to 93% of the total biomass. An important role in the total biomass of the zoobenthos also belonged to mayfly (up to 53% and stonefly (up to 55% larvae and in lower degree amphipods (up to 39%, chironomid larvae (up to 14% and aquatic coleopterans (up to 5%. According to the calculated potential fish productivity, the mountain rivers can be apparently separated into three groups: little productive (4.2–12.7 kg/ha, medium productive (13.2–21.6 kg/ha and high productive (25.3–85.3 kg/ha. Mountain river reaches of the Transcarpathian region were found to belong to pure χ-saprobic, and о- і β-mesosaprobic zones, the saprobity index in which ranged from 0.35 (Rika river to 1.7 (Shipot river. Originality. For further calculation and assessment of brown trout (Salmo trutta and European grayling (Thymallus

  19. Modeling Soil Organic Carbon Variation Along Climatic and Topographic Trajectories in the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilan, C.; Grunwald, S.; Quiroz, R.; Zhu, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Andes represent the largest and highest mountain range in the tropics. Geological and climatic differentiation favored landscape and soil diversity, resulting in ecosystems adapted to very different climatic patterns. Although several studies support the fact that the Andes are a vast sink of soil organic carbon (SOC) only few have quantified this variable in situ. Estimating the spatial distribution of SOC stocks in data-poor and/or poorly accessible areas, like the Andean region, is challenging due to the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution and the wide range of coexistent ecosystems. Thus, the sampling strategy is vital in order to ensure the whole range of environmental covariates (EC) controlling SOC dynamics is represented. This approach allows grasping the variability of the area, which leads to more efficient statistical estimates and improves the modeling process. The objectives of this study were to i) characterize and model the spatial distribution of SOC stocks in the Central Andean region using soil-landscape modeling techniques, and to ii) validate and evaluate the model for predicting SOC content in the area. For that purpose, three representative study areas were identified and a suite of variables including elevation, mean annual temperature, annual precipitation and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), among others, was selected as EC. A stratified random sampling (namely conditioned Latin Hypercube) was implemented and a total of 400 sampling locations were identified. At all sites, four composite topsoil samples (0-30 cm) were collected within a 2 m radius. SOC content was measured using dry combustion and SOC stocks were estimated using bulk density measurements. Regression Kriging was used to map the spatial variation of SOC stocks. The accuracy, fit and bias of SOC models was assessed using a rigorous validation assessment. This study produced the first comprehensive, geospatial SOC stock assessment in this

  20. Constraints on sediment transfer from the Andes to the coast of northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnie, Steven; Liermann, Ariane; Dunai, Tibor; Dewald, Alfred; Heinze, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    While rates of denudation have been suggested as having the potential to link tectonic processes with climate in many settings, the roles that sediment transport must also play have been largely neglected. It is the transport, or not, of eroded material, not necessarily the rate at which that material is produced which is the critical factor in many models of tectonic-climatic interactions. The notable lack of sediment in sections of the Peru-Chile trench has been implicated as a key control of subduction zone processes and consequently Andean mountain building, but little empirical data on sediment transport in the region exists. Here, we present the initial results of a study aiming to constrain the westward transfer of sediment from the Andes Mountains to the Pacific Coast of northern Chile by using in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides. Fluvial sediments were collected at the mouths of several large catchments between 19° S and 26° S, where they drain into the Pacific, and also from upstream locations within each catchment. Sample sites were selected in order to investigate the cosmogenic nuclide derived basin-averaged denudation rates of the western flank of the Andes, and to compare this with the cosmogenic nuclide concentrations of fluvial sediments further downstream where the catchments exit to the coast. A simplistic interpretation of the cosmogenic 10Be concentrations as denudation rates gives results varying between ~10 and 300 m/Myr. We would expect the most rapid erosion to occur on the steeper, wetter western Andean flank and for slower erosion to be recorded from the more gentle sloping, hyperarid/arid regions between the foothills of the Andes and the Pacific coast. This pattern is observed in some basins but in others the nuclide concentrations imply the opposite, with several-fold higher erosion rates measured for the large catchments sampled at the coast in comparison to their mountainous Andean headwaters. One explanation for this unusual

  1. Assessing the Economic Situation of Small-Scale Farm Forestry in Mountain Regions: A Case Study in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Toscani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Austria is one of the few countries with a long tradition of monitoring the economic performance of forest holdings. The national Farm Accountancy Data Network also addresses some forestry-specific issues, given the high significance of farm forestry in this country. However, it is not possible to assess the profitability of small-scale farm forestry in mountainous regions based on a representative sample. In this paper, we demonstrate how information gaps can be overcome by means of economic modeling and present results of this approach for mountain forestry for the first time. In spite of the unfavorable conditions of an alpine setting, forestry tends to be of special significance for the viability and resilience of family farms in these regions. Sustainable forest management that safeguards the ecosystem services provided by forests relies mostly on the profitability of timber production. Thus, the economic development of farm forestry is a key factor in achieving targets 15.1 and 15.4 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals in mountain regions.

  2. Heavy metals content in degraded agricultural soils of a mountain region related to soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Pedreño, José; Belén Almendro-Candel, María; Gómez, Ignacio; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume; Zorpas, Antonis

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture has been practiced for long time in Mediterranean regions. Intensive agriculture and irrigation have developed mainly in the valleys and coastal areas. In the mountainous areas, dry farming has been practiced for centuries. Soils have been fertilized using mainly organic amendments. Plants extracted nutrients and other elements like heavy metals presented in soils and agricultural practices modified soil properties that could favor the presence of heavy metals. In this work, it has been checked the content of heavy metals in 100 agricultural soils samples of the NorthWest area of the province of Alicante (Spain) which has been long cultivated with cereals and olive trees, and now soils are abandoned and degraded because of the low agricultural yields. European policy has the aim to improve the sustainable agriculture and recover landscapes of mountain regions. So that, it is important to check the state of the soils (Marques et al. 2007). Soils samples (arable layer) were analyzed determining: pH (1:5, w/v, water extract), equivalent calcium carbonate content, organic matter by Walkley-Black method (Nelson and Sommers 1996), micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) extracted with DTPA (Lindsay and Norvell, 1978) and measured by atomic absorption spectrometry, and total content of metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb) measured in soil samples after microwave acid digestion (Moral et al. 1996), quantifying the content of metals by ICP analysis. The correlation between soil properties and metals. The results indicated that pH and carbonates are the most important properties of these soils correlated with the metals (both micronutrients and heavy metals). The available micronutrients (all of them) are close correlated with the pH and carbonates in soils. Moreover, heavy metals like Pb and Ni are related to available Mn and Zn. Keywords: pH, carbonates, heavy metals, abandoned soils. References: Lindsay,W.L., andW.A. Norvell. 1978. "Development of a DTPA Soil Test for Zinc, Iron

  3. Digital modelling of landscape and soil in a mountainous region: A neuro-fuzzy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viloria, Jesús A.; Viloria-Botello, Alvaro; Pineda, María Corina; Valera, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Research on genetic relationships between soil and landforms has largely improved soil mapping. Recent technological advances have created innovative methods for modelling the spatial soil variation from digital elevation models (DEMs) and remote sensors. This generates new opportunities for the application of geomorphology to soil mapping. This study applied a method based on artificial neural networks and fuzzy clustering to recognize digital classes of land surfaces in a mountainous area in north-central Venezuela. The spatial variation of the fuzzy memberships exposed the areas where each class predominates, while the class centres helped to recognize the topographic attributes and vegetation cover of each class. The obtained classes of terrain revealed the structure of the land surface, which showed regional differences in climate, vegetation, and topography and landscape stability. The land-surface classes were subdivided on the basis of the geological substratum to produce landscape classes that additionally considered the influence of soil parent material. These classes were used as a framework for soil sampling. A redundancy analysis confirmed that changes of landscape classes explained the variation in soil properties (p = 0.01), and a Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant differences (p = 0.01) in clay, hydraulic conductivity, soil organic carbon, base saturation, and exchangeable Ca and Mg between classes. Thus, the produced landscape classes correspond to three-dimensional bodies that differ in soil conditions. Some changes of land-surface classes coincide with abrupt boundaries in the landscape, such as ridges and thalwegs. However, as the model is continuous, it disclosed the remaining variation between those boundaries.

  4. Sphingomonas qilianensis sp. nov., Isolated from Surface Soil in the Permafrost Region of Qilian Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Ai-Lian; Feng, Xiao-Min; Nogi, Yuichi; Han, Lu; Li, Yonghong; Lv, Jie

    2016-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated X1(T), was isolated from the permafrost region of Qilian Mountains in northwest of China. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain X1(T) was a member of the genus Sphingomonas and shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Sphingomonas oligophenolica JCM 12082(T) (96.9%), followed by Sphingomonas glacialis CGMCC 1.8957(T) (96.7%) and Sphingomonas alpina DSM 22537(T) (96.4%). Strain X1(T) was able to grow at 15-30 °C, pH 6.0-10.0 and with 0-0.3% NaCl (w/v). The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 64.8 mol%. Strain X1(T)-contained Q-10 as the dominant ubiquinone and C(18:1)ω7c, C(16:1)ω7c, C(16:0) and C(14:0) 2-OH as the dominant fatty acids. The polar lipid profile of strain XI(T)-contained sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified glycolipid and two unidentified phospholipid. Due to the phenotypic and genetic distinctiveness and other characteristic studied in this article, we consider X1(T) as a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas and propose to name it Sphingomonas qilianensis sp. nov. The type strain is X1(T) (=CGMCC 1.15349(T) = KCTC 42862(T)).

  5. Mixed bird flocks: patterns of activity and species composition in a region of the Central Andes of Colombia Bandadas mixtas de aves: patrones de actividad y composición de especies en una región de la Cordillera Central de los Andes de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Arbeláez-Cortés

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mixed bird flocks are groups of individuals from different species that travel and forage together. Such groups are common in several bird communities around the world. We present species composition and activity patterns of mixed bird flocks in a region of the Central Andes of Colombia. We compared the number of species per flock, as well as the number of flocks among 3 different habitats. We tested hypotheses concerning the flocks daily activity and the co-occurrences of species within them. We recorded 75 species, and the species number per flock varied from 4 to 21. Our data suggest that habitat affects the number of flocks but not their species number, and that the activity of flocks is similar throughout the day. In addition, the association of birds in flocks is affected by interspecific facilitation, with some species co-occurrences found more times than expected by chance. We hypothesize that some tanager species could have a role in flock cohesion. We witnessed 2 predator attacks upon flocks, a number of agonistic interactions among flock members, and squirrels following bird flocks. Our results meet some general patterns described for mixed bird flocks.Las bandadas mixtas de aves son grupos de individuos de diferentes especies que viajan y forrajean juntos, y son comunes en varias comunidades de aves alrededor del mundo. Presentamos la composición de especies y los patrones de actividad de las bandadas mixtas de aves en una región de la Cordillera Central de los Andes Colombianos. Comparamos el número de especies por bandada y el número de bandadas en 3 hábitats distintos. Evaluamos hipótesis relacionadas con la actividad de las bandadas durante el día y la presencia simultánea de especies en estos grupos. Observamos 75 especies, y el número de especies por bandada varió entre 4 y 21. Nuestros datos indican que el hábitat parece afectar el número de bandadas pero no su número de especies y que la actividad de las bandadas

  6. Precipitation isotopes link regional climate patterns to water supply in a tropical mountain forest, eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Martha A.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2014-05-01

    Like many mountainous areas in the tropics, watersheds in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico have abundant rainfall and stream discharge and provide much of the water supply for the densely populated metropolitan areas nearby. Projected changes in regional temperature and atmospheric dynamics as a result of global warming suggest that water availability will be affected by changes in rainfall patterns. It is essential to understand the relative importance of different weather systems to water supply to determine how changes in rainfall patterns, interacting with geology and vegetation, will affect the water balance. To help determine the links between climate and water availability, stable isotope signatures of precipitation from different weather systems were established to identify those that are most important in maintaining streamflow and groundwater recharge. Precipitation stable isotope values in the Luquillo Mountains had a large range, from fog/cloud water with δ2H, δ18O values as high as +12 ‰, -0.73 ‰ to tropical storm rain with values as low as -127 ‰, -16.8 ‰. Temporal isotope values exhibit a reverse seasonality from those observed in higher latitude continental watersheds, with higher isotopic values in the winter and lower values in the summer. Despite the higher volume of convective and low-pressure system rainfall, stable isotope analyses indicated that under the current rainfall regime, frequent trade -wind orographic showers contribute much of the groundwater recharge and stream base flow. Analysis of rain events using 20 years of 15 -minute resolution data at a mountain station (643 m) showed an increasing trend in rainfall amount, in agreement with increased precipitable water in the atmosphere, but differing from climate model projections of drying in the region. The mean intensity of rain events also showed an increasing trend. The determination of recharge sources from stable isotope tracers indicates that water supply

  7. Segmented seismicity of the Mw 6.2 Baladeh earthquake sequence (Alborz mountains, Iran) revealed from regional moment tensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donner, Stefanie; Rössler, Dirk; Krüger, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The M w 6.2 Baladeh earthquake occurred on 28 May 2004 in the Alborz Mountains, northern Iran. This earthquake was the first strong shock in this intracontinental orogen for which digital regional broadband data are available. The Baladeh event provides a rare opportunity to study fault geometry...... model, regional waveform data of the mainshock and larger aftershocks (M w  ≥3.3) were inverted for moment tensors. For the Baladeh mainshock, this included inversion for kinematic parameters. All analysed earthquakes show dominant thrust mechanisms at depths between 14 and 26 km, with NW–SE striking...

  8. Analysis of datum-instability effect on calculated results of data from Longmen Mountain regional gravity network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Shaoan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A statistical correlation method is used to study the effect of instability of the calculation datum (used in traditional method of indirect adjustment on calculated gravity results, using data recorded by Long-men Mountain regional gravity network during 1996 – 2007. The result shows that when this effect is corrected, anomalous gravity changes before the 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake become obvious and characteristically distinctive. Thus the datum-stability problem must be considered when processing and analyzing data recorded by a regional gravity network.

  9. A changing world: Using nuclear techniques to investigate the impact of climate change on polar and mountainous regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are being used in polar and mountainous regions to study climate change and its impact on the quality of land, water and ecosystems in order to better conserve and manage these resources. Researchers from around the world will be using data from 13 benchmark sites to draw conclusions about the effects of the rapidly changing climate on the Arctic, mountains and the western part of Antarctica, which have alarmed communities, environmentalists, scientists and policy makers. Between July 2015 and July 2016 they will be using isotopic and nuclear techniques, as well as geochemical and biological analytical methods from other scientific disciplines. This will enable them to track soil and water, to monitor the movement of soil and sediment and to assess the effects of melting permafrost on the atmosphere, as well as on the land, water and fragile ecosystems of mountainous and polar regions. The measurements follow numerous on-site tests carried out since November 2014 to perfect the sampling technique.

  10. Dynamics of forest populations in the mountain resort region of the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalaya, Elena; Efimenko, Natalia; Slepykh, Olga; Slepykh, Viktor; Povolotskaya, Nina

    2017-04-01

    field maple. Succession of the oak replacement in natural stand of the vegetative origin can be explained with the soil fatigue under the oak forest inhibiting its own regrowth [2]. However, you can observe the same succession of the oak replacement by other native species in the artificial planting of the oak on the virgin meadow lands. Therefore, the exogenous factors proceeding against the background of global warming during the number of decades are the reason of the succession. The nature of this process demands further studying. References 1.Kazankin A.P. Ecological role of the mountain woods of the Caucasus. Novosibirsk: Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science publishing house, 2013. - 366 p. 2. Slepykh, V.V. Successions and bioclimate of oak groves in the resort region Caucasian MineralnyeVody / V.V.Slepykh, N.P.Povolotskaya// Resort medicine, № 3, 2015. - P. 18-27.

  11. Charles Darwin in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzo, Nelio; Bizzo, Luis Eduardo Maestrelli

    2006-01-01

    Considering geological time as an important epistemological obstacle to the construction of ideas on biological evolution, a study was carried out on the so-called "Darwin Papers". The conclusion was that Charles Darwin's excursion in the Andes during March-April 1835 was a crucial step in this regard. An expedition was carried out in…

  12. Unexpected Climatological Behavior of MLT Gravity Wave Momentum Flux in the Lee of the Southern Andes Hot Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWit, R. J.; Janches, D.; Fritts, D. C.; Stockwell, R. G.; Coy, L.

    2017-01-01

    The Southern Argentina Agile MEteor Radar (SAAMER), located at Tierra del Fuego (53.7degS, 67.7degW), has been providing near-continuous high-resolution measurements of winds and high-frequency gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes of the mesopause region since May 2008. As SAAMER is located in the lee of the largest seasonal GW hot spot on Earth, this is a key location to study GWs and their interaction with large-scale motions. GW momentum flux climatologies are shown for the first time for this location and discussed in light of these unique dynamics. Particularly, the large eastward GW momentum fluxes during local winter are surprising, as these observations cannot be explained by the direct upward propagation of expected large-amplitude mountain waves (MWs) through the eastward stratospheric jet. Instead, these results are interpreted as secondary GWs propagating away from stratospheric sources over the Andes accompanying MW breaking over the Southern Andes.

  13. An overview of the Yucca Mountain Global/Regional Climate Modeling Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, R.P.; Behl, Y.K.; Thompson, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a site characterization plan (SCP) to collect detailed information on geology, geohydrology, geochemistry, geoengineering, hydrology, climate, and meteorology (collectively referred to as ''geologic information'') of the Yucca Mountain site. This information will be used to determine if a mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) capable of isolating high-level radioactive waste without adverse effects to public health and safety over 10,000 years, as required by regulations 40 CFR Part 191 and 10 CFR Part 60, could be constructed at the Yucca Mountain site. Forecasts of future climates conditions for the Yucca Mountain area will be based on both empirical and numerical techniques. The empirical modeling is based on the assumption that future climate change will follow past patterns. In this approach, paleclimate records will be analyzed to estimate the nature, timing, and probability of occurrence of certain climate states such as glacials and interglacials over the next 10,000 years. For a given state, key climate parameters such as precipitation and temperature will be assumed to be the same as determined from the paleoclimate data. The numerical approach, which is the primary focus of this paper, involves the numerical solution of basic equations associated with atmospheric motions. This paper describes these equations and the strategy for solving them to predict future climate conditions around Yucca Mountain

  14. Characteristics of extreme precipitation in the Vosges Mountains region (north-eastern France)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minářová, Jana; Müller, Miloslav; Clappier, A.; Kašpar, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 13 (2017), s. 4529-4542 ISSN 0899-8418 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Vosges Mountains * extreme precipitation * heavy rainfall * WEI * synoptic conditions * precipitation * Grosswetterlagen * trend analysis Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 3.760, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/joc.5102/abstract

  15. Literature review and ethnohistory of Native American occupancy and use of the Yucca Mountain Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Olmsted, J.E.; Evans, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a review of the literature concerning Native American occupancy and use of the Yucca Mountain area and vicinity. It draws on a wide range of material, including early traveler reports, government documents, ethnographic and historical works, and local newspapers. The report complements two other concurrent studies, one focused on the cultural resources of Native American people in the study area and the other an ethnobotanical study of plant resources used by Native American people in the study area. The literature review has had two principal purposes: to determine the completeness of the Yucca Mountain Native American study design and to contribute to the understanding of the presence of Native American people in the Yucca Mountain area. A review of the existing literature about the Yucca Mountain area and southern Nye County, supplemented by the broader literature about the Great Basin, has verified three aspects of the study design. First, the review has aided in assessing the completeness of the list of Native American ethnic groups that have traditional or historical ties to the site. Second, it has aided in the production of a chronology of Native American activities that occurred on or near the site during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Third, it has helped to identify the location of cultural resources, including burials and other archaeological sites, in the study area and vicinity. 200 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs

  16. The ophiolitic North Fork terrane in the Salmon River region, central Klamath Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, C.J.; Irwin, W.P.; Jones, D.L.; Saleeby, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The North Fork terrane is an assemblage of ophiolitic and other oceanic volcanic and sedimentary rocks that has been internally imbricated and folded. The ophiolitic rocks form a north-trending belt through the central part of the region and consist of a disrupted sequence of homogeneous gabbro, diabase, massive to pillowed basalt, and interleaved tectonitic harzburgite. U-Pb zircon age data on a plagiogranite pod from the gabbroic unit indicate that at least this part of the igneous sequence is late Paleozoic in age.The ophiolitic belt is flanked on either side by mafic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, limestone, bedded chert, and argillite. Most of the chert is Triassic, including much of Late Triassic age, but chert with uncertain stratigraphic relations at one locality is Permian. The strata flanking the east side of the ophiolitic belt face eastward, and depositional contacts between units are for the most part preserved. The strata on the west side of the ophiolitic belt are more highly disrupted than those on the east side, contain chert-argillite melange, and have unproven stratigraphic relation to either the ophiolitic rocks or the eastern strata.Rocks of the North Fork terrane do not show widespread evidence of penetrative deformation at elevated temperatures, except an early tectonitic fabric in the harzburgite. Slip-fiber foliation in serpentinite, phacoidal foliation in chert and mafic rocks, scaly foliation in argillite, and mesoscopic folds in bedded chert are consistent with an interpretation of large-scale anti-formal folding of the terrane about a north-south hinge found along the ophiolitic belt, but other structural interpretations are tenable. The age of folding of North Fork rocks is constrained by the involvement of Triassic and younger cherts and crosscutting Late Jurassic plutons. Deformation in the North Fork terrane must have spanned a short period of time because the terrane is bounded structurally above and below by Middle or Late

  17. Regional patterns and proximal causes of the recent snowpack decline in the Rocky Mountains, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Gregory T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; McCabe, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    We used a first-order, monthly snow model and observations to disentangle seasonal influences on 20th century,regional snowpack anomalies in the Rocky Mountains of western North America, where interannual variations in cool-season (November–March) temperatures are broadly synchronous, but precipitation is typically antiphased north to south and uncorrelated with temperature. Over the previous eight centuries, regional snowpack variability exhibits strong, decadally persistent north-south (N-S) antiphasing of snowpack anomalies. Contrary to the normal regional antiphasing, two intervals of spatially synchronized snow deficits were identified. Snow deficits shown during the 1930s were synchronized north-south by low cool-season precipitation, with spring warming (February–March) since the 1980s driving the majority of the recent synchronous snow declines, especially across the low to middle elevations. Spring warming strongly influenced low snowpacks in the north after 1958, but not in the south until after 1980. The post-1980, synchronous snow decline reduced snow cover at low to middle elevations by ~20% and partly explains earlier and reduced streamflow and both longer and more active fire seasons. Climatologies of Rocky Mountain snowpack are shown to be seasonally and regionally complex, with Pacific decadal variability positively reinforcing the anthropogenic warming trend.

  18. Household Perceptions about the Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security in the Mountainous Region of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Poudel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study tried to understand the mountainous households’ perception of climate change and its impacts on food security in the Lamjung district of Nepal. The study attempted to find out changes in households food security and daily activities in the face of climate change for the last twenty years. The study started with the 150 household surveys along with participatory rural appraisal to understand the climate change perception of local people and its impact on dimensions of food security. Households expressed different levels of perception in terms of climate change on food security. The result shows that most of the mountainous households experienced increased temperature, less rainfall in winter, an increasing number of natural disasters and the emergence of insects for the last twenty years. They perceived the role of climate change in decreased crop production, decreased dairy products and increased household work. The situation of food security is likely to be more vulnerable to climate change in the future. It was also observed that households have been using different autonomous adaptation measures, such as high yielding crop varieties, enhanced irrigation systems and fertilizers, to cope with the changing climate. Finally, the study recommended policy instruments to enhance food security in the mountainous region amidst changing climate.

  19. THE DRAINAGE EFFICIENCY INDEX (DEI) AS AN MORPHOLOGIAL INDICATOR OF LANDSLIDE SPATIAL OCCURRENCE IN MOUNTAINOUS CATCHMENTS. A case of study applied in the mountainous region of Brazilian Southeastern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique Muniz Lima, Pedro; Luiza Coelho Netto, Ana; do Couto Fernandes, Manoel

    2016-04-01

    Morphometric parameters, acquired notoriety mainly after the Drainage Density proposition (Horton 1932, 1945) and after they were applied by geomorphologists on the perspective to understand landscape functionalities, quantifying their characteristics through parameters and indexes. After the drainage density, many other parameters which describe the basin characteristics, behavior and dynamics have been proposed. Among them, for example, the DEI was proposed by Coelho Netto and contributors during the 80's, while they were seek to understand the hydrological and erosive dynamics on Bananal river basin (Brazilian Southeastern). Through this investigations the DEI was created, revealing the importance of parameters as hollow and drainage density, conjugated to the topographic gradient (Meis et al. 1982) who prosecute controls on the water flow efficiency along the hollows in order to activate the regressive erosion of the main channel. Later on this index was applied on the basin scale in several works developed in mountainous regions, showing a remarkable correlation with the occurrence of landslides such as showed by Coelho Netto et al. (2007); that posteriorly use this index as one of the components of the landslide susceptibility map for the Tijuca Massif, located in Rio de Janeiro Municipality. This work aims to establish patterns of the DEI index values (applied to mountainous low order basins) and the relationship on the occurrence of Debriflows or shallow translational slides. For this, the DEI index was applied on 4 different study areas located on the Southeastern mountainous region of Brazil to address deeply the connection between the index and the occurrence of landslides of different types applied for first and second order basins. The major study area is the Córrego Dantas Basin, situated in Nova Friburgo municipality (RJ), which is a 53 km² basin was affected by 327 landslides caused by a heavy rainfall on January 2011; Coelho Netto et al. (in

  20. An Analysis of Rural Household Livelihood Change and the Regional Effect in a Western Impoverished Mountainous Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuansheng Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Taking Longnan, in the western Qinling Mountains region of Gansu province, China, as our study area, and using the Sixth National Population Census alongside household survey data, we analyze changes in household livelihoods, and consequent regional effects, following the instigation of the “Grain for Green” program in 1999. Our results show rural livelihood changes with respect to natural assets (e.g., reduction of arable land, planting structure changes, human assets (e.g., labor quality improvement, fluidity of population, financial assets (e.g., income channels widening, income increasing, physical assets (e.g., optimized production tools, and social assets (e.g., information network development, increased outreach opportunities. We suggest that increased household livelihoods play an important role in improving land space utilization efficiency, resource conservation and use, and the ecological environment. However, owing to the natural environment, there are also some problems, such as “hollows” in rural production and living spaces, as well as local environmental degradation. To address these issues, regions such as the western, mountainous, impoverished area of our study should establish a policy of using ecosystems, as well as agriculture, for development in order to improve household livelihoods, build an efficient spatial structure, and providing support for the creation of a resource-saving societal system.

  1. Hydrological response in catchments whit debris covered glaciers in the semi-arid Andes, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, A.; McPhee, J.; MacDonell, S.; Pellicciotti, F.; Ayala, A.

    2016-12-01

    Glaciers in the semi-arid Andes Cordillera in Chile have shrank rapidly during the 20th century. Negative mass balance contributes to increase the surface area of debris-covered glaciers. Recent research in Chile suggests that contributions from glaciers to summer season river flow in dry years is very important, however hydrological processes determining the glacier contribution are still poorly understood in the region. This work seeks to determine appropriate parameters for the simulation of melt volume in two watersheds dominated by debris-covered glaciers, in order to understand its variability in time and space, in the area with the largest population in Chile. The hydrological simulation is performed for the Tapado (30°S) and Pirámide (33ºS) glaciers, which can be defined as cold and temperate respectively. To simulate the hydrological behaviour we adopt the physically-based TOPographic Kinematic wave APproximation model (TOPKAPI-ETH). The hydrometeorological records necessary model runs have been collected through fieldwork from 2013 to 2015. Regarding the calibration of the model parameters melting ETI, its observed that the value for TF in Pirámide is a third of the value for Tapado glacier, while SRF is half in Tapado regarding to Pirámide. The runoff in the glaciers, the constant snow and ice storage are higher in Tapado regarding Pirámide. Results show a contribution of glacial outflow to runoff during 2015 of 55% in Tapado and 77% in Pirámide, with maximum contributions between January and March in Tapado and Pirámide between November and March, presenting the relevance of the permanence of snow cover during spring and shelter that provides debris-covered in reducing the melting glacier. The results have allowed to know the relevance of the glacier contribution to mountain streams, allowing to know the calibration parameters most relevant in the hydrology balance of glacier basins in the Andes.

  2. Hydrological Utility and Uncertainty of Multi-Satellite Precipitation Products in the Mountainous Region of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Pil Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-derived precipitation can be a potential source of forcing data for assessing water availability and managing water supply in mountainous regions of East Asia. This study investigates the hydrological utility of satellite-derived precipitation and uncertainties attributed to error propagation of satellite products in hydrological modeling. To this end, four satellite precipitation products (tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM multi-satellite precipitation analysis (TMPA version 6 (TMPAv6 and version 7 (TMPAv7, the global satellite mapping of precipitation (GSMaP, and the climate prediction center (CPC morphing technique (CMORPH were integrated into a physically-based hydrologic model for the mountainous region of South Korea. The satellite precipitation products displayed different levels of accuracy when compared to the intra- and inter-annual variations of ground-gauged precipitation. As compared to the GSMaP and CMORPH products, superior performances were seen when the TMPA products were used within streamflow simulations. Significant dry (negative biases in the GSMaP and CMORPH products led to large underestimates of streamflow during wet-summer seasons. Although the TMPA products displayed a good level of performance for hydrologic modeling, there were some over/underestimates of precipitation by satellites during the winter season that were induced by snow accumulation and snowmelt processes. These differences resulted in streamflow simulation uncertainties during the winter and spring seasons. This study highlights the crucial need to understand hydrological uncertainties from satellite-derived precipitation for improved water resource management and planning in mountainous basins. Furthermore, it is suggested that a reliable snowfall detection algorithm is necessary for the new global precipitation measurement (GPM mission.

  3. Natural gas across the Andes : a case study of an international business venture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, E.B.; Smith, B.

    2002-07-01

    This book describes the challenges and complexities of constructing the GasAndes pipeline from Argentinian gas fields across the Andes to Santiago in Chile. The project was a joint international effort between Canada's NOVA Corporation, Chile's Gasco and Gener, and Argentina's Compania General de Combustibles and Techint Compania Tecnica Internacional. The book relates how NOVA Gas International, together with its partners, accomplished the task of constructing the first major natural gas pipeline across the Andes mountains despite significant challenges such as steep mountain slopes, many river crossings, high altitude, high winds and bitter cold. It describes how the partnership developed and how political and socio-economic issues were dealt with. It demonstrates how business practices were modified to deal with local conditions and to ensure that the fragile environment of the Andean meadows was protected. It also describes how the builders of the pipeline addressed the concerns of communities along the pipeline route. The pipeline was constructed at a time when democracy was returning and market economies were shifting from a reduced role of government in the energy sector. The 463 km GasAndes pipeline has been in operation since August 7, 1997. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Cross-scale analysis of the region effect on vascular plant species diversity in southern and northern European mountain ranges.

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    Jonathan Lenoir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n = 403 in each region to quantify four diversity components: (i total number of species occurring in a region (total γ-diversity, (ii number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific γ-diversity, (iii pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot β-diversity and (iv number of species present per plot (plot α-diversity. We found strong region effects on total γ-diversity, habitat-specific γ-diversity and plot-to-plot β-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot α-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot α-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity

  5. The relationship of the Yucca Mountain repository block to the regional ground-water system: A geochemical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuska, N.A.; Hess, J.W.

    1989-08-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being studied by the Department of Energy and the State of Nevada as the site of a high-level nuclear waste repository. Geochemical and isotopic modeling were used in this study to define the relationship of the volcanic tuff aquifers and aquitards to the underlying regional carbonate ground-water system. The chemical evolution of a ground water as it passes through a hypothetical tuffaceous aquifer was developed using computer models PHREEQE, WATEQDR and BALANCE. The tuffaceous system was divided into five parts, with specific mineralogies, reaction steps and temperatures. The initial solution was an analysis of a soil water from Rainier Mesa. The ending solution in each part became the initial solution in the next part. Minerals consisted of zeolites, smectites, authigenic feldspars and quartz polymorphs from described diagentic mineral zones. Reaction steps were ion exchange with zeolites. The solution from the final zone, Part V, was chosen as most representative, in terms of pH, element molalities and mineral solubilities, of tuffaceous water. This hypothetical volcanic water from Part V was mixed with water from the regional carbonate aquifer, and the results compared to analyses of Yucca Mountain wells. Mixing and modeling attempts were conducted on wells in which studies indicated upward flow

  6. Big mountains but small barriers: population genetic structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis) in the Tsinling and Daba Mountain region of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Aibin; Li, Cheng; Fu, Jinzhong

    2009-04-09

    Amphibians in general are poor dispersers and highly philopatric, and landscape features often have important impacts on their population genetic structure and dispersal patterns. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic differentiation among amphibian populations are particularly pronounced for populations separated by mountain ridges. The Tsinling Mountain range of northern China is a major mountain chain that forms the boundary between the Oriental and Palearctic zoogeographic realms. We studied the population structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis) to test whether the Tsinling Mountains and the nearby Daba Mountains impose major barriers to gene flow. Using 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci, 523 individuals from 12 breeding sites with geographical distances ranging from 2.6 to 422.8 kilometers were examined. Substantial genetic diversity was detected at all sites with an average of 25.5 alleles per locus and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.504 to 0.855, and two peripheral populations revealed significantly lower genetic diversity than the central populations. In addition, the genetic differentiation among the central populations was statistically significant, with pairwise FST values ranging from 0.0175 to 0.1625 with an average of 0.0878. Furthermore, hierarchical AMOVA analysis attributed most genetic variation to the within-population component, and the between-population variation can largely be explained by isolation-by-distance. None of the putative barriers detected from genetic data coincided with the location of the Tsinling Mountains. The Tsinling and Daba Mountains revealed no significant impact on the population genetic structure of R. chensinensis. High population connectivity and extensive juvenile dispersal may account for the significant, but moderate differentiation between populations. Chinese wood frogs are able to use streams as breeding sites at high elevations, which may significantly contribute to the

  7. Big mountains but small barriers: Population genetic structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis in the Tsinling and Daba Mountain region of northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amphibians in general are poor dispersers and highly philopatric, and landscape features often have important impacts on their population genetic structure and dispersal patterns. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic differentiation among amphibian populations are particularly pronounced for populations separated by mountain ridges. The Tsinling Mountain range of northern China is a major mountain chain that forms the boundary between the Oriental and Palearctic zoogeographic realms. We studied the population structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis to test whether the Tsinling Mountains and the nearby Daba Mountains impose major barriers to gene flow. Results Using 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci, 523 individuals from 12 breeding sites with geographical distances ranging from 2.6 to 422.8 kilometers were examined. Substantial genetic diversity was detected at all sites with an average of 25.5 alleles per locus and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.504 to 0.855, and two peripheral populations revealed significantly lower genetic diversity than the central populations. In addition, the genetic differentiation among the central populations was statistically significant, with pairwise FST values ranging from 0.0175 to 0.1625 with an average of 0.0878. Furthermore, hierarchical AMOVA analysis attributed most genetic variation to the within-population component, and the between-population variation can largely be explained by isolation-by-distance. None of the putative barriers detected from genetic data coincided with the location of the Tsinling Mountains. Conclusion The Tsinling and Daba Mountains revealed no significant impact on the population genetic structure of R. chensinensis. High population connectivity and extensive juvenile dispersal may account for the significant, but moderate differentiation between populations. Chinese wood frogs are able to use streams as breeding sites at high

  8. Desarrollo de metgis, un sistema combinado de información geográfica, meteorológica y de cobertura de nieve de alta resolución, para la región andina Development of metgis, a combined high-resolution system of geographic, meteorological and snow cover information for the andes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Spreitzhofer

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de un proyecto de investigación interdisciplinario e internacional con participación de institutos de investigación de montaña y universidades de Estados Unidos, Austria, Suiza y Japón se construye MetGIS (Meteorological and Geographic Information System, un sistema Java de información geográfica y meteorológica para Sudamérica, focalizado en la región andina de Argentina, Chile y Perú. La sección geográfica incluye una topografía basada en datos SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Missión e información sobre las carreteras, las vías férreas, los ríos, las fronteras y las ciudades. Las gráficas de la topografía del terreno (la altitud, la pendiente y la orientación del mismo sirven como fondo para la información meteorológica y nivológica. Con éste sistema será posible visualizar en forma combinada las observaciones de varias redes, los resultados de los pronósticos numéricos de modelos como el MM5 y los errores de dichos modelos. Los campos analizados y pronosticados pueden ser transformados a escalas de mayor resolución, usando métodos apropiados tales como el de "downscaling" (VERA = Viena Enhanced Resolution Analysis. Respecto a los rasgos del sistema, relacionados específicamente con áreas de montaña, los datos SRTM combinados con VERA permiten dar una buena estimación de las áreas con temperaturas bajo cero y acumulación de nieve. Se planea integrar en el futuro el modelo suizo SNOWPACK que realiza simulaciones de la cubierta de nieve.Within the framework of an interdisciplinary international research project with contributions from mountain research institutes and universities of the USA, Austria, Switzerland and Japan, a Java-based combined meteorological and geographic information system (named MetGIS for South America is under development, with a special focus on the Andes region of Argentina, Chile and Peru. The geographic part of the system includes a topography based on data of the

  9. Scale of human mobility in the southern Andes (Argentina and Chile): A new framework based on strontium isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberena, Ramiro; Durán, Víctor A; Novellino, Paula; Winocur, Diego; Benítez, Anahí; Tessone, Augusto; Quiroga, María N; Marsh, Erik J; Gasco, Alejandra; Cortegoso, Valeria; Lucero, Gustavo; Llano, Carina; Knudson, Kelly J

    2017-10-01

    The goal of this article is to assess the scale of human paleomobility and ecological complementarity between the lowlands and highlands in the southern Andes during the last 2,300 years. By providing isotope results for human bone and teeth samples, we assess a hypothesis of "high residential mobility" suggested on the basis of oxygen isotopes from human remains. We develop an isotopic assessment of human mobility in a mountain landscape combining strontium and oxygen isotopes. We analyze bone and teeth samples as an approach to life-history changes in spatial residence. Human samples from the main geological units and periods within the last two millennia are selected. We present a framework for the analysis of bioavailable strontium based on the combination of the geological data with isotope results for rodent samples. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values from human samples indicate residential stability within geological regions along life history. When comparing strontium and oxygen values for the same human samples, we record a divergent pattern: while δ 18 O values for samples from distant regions overlap widely, there are important differences in 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values. Despite the large socio-economic changes recorded, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values indicate a persisting scenario of low systematic mobility between the different geological regions. Our results suggest that strontium isotope values provide the most germane means to track patterns of human occupation of distinct regions in complex geological landscapes, offering a much higher spatial resolution than oxygen isotopes in the southern Andes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of techniques for transforming regional climate model output to the potential repository site in support of Yucca Mountain future climate synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, H.W.; Zak, B.D.; Behl, Y.K.

    1995-06-01

    The report describes a preliminary evaluation of models for transforming regional climate model output from a regional to a local scale for the Yucca Mountain area. Evaluation and analysis of both empirical and numerical modeling are discussed which is aimed at providing site-specific, climate-based information for use by interfacing activities. Two semiempirical approaches are recommended for further analysis

  11. Riverine CO2 supersaturation and outgassing in a subtropical monsoonal mountainous area (Three Gorges Reservoir Region) of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyue; Ni, Maofei; Mao, Rong; Bush, Richard T.

    2018-03-01

    Rivers are an important source of CO2 to the atmosphere, however, mountainous rivers and streams with high emission rates are not well studied particularly in China. We report the first detailed investigation on monsoonal mountainous rivers in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) region, with a focus on the riverine CO2 partial pressure (pCO2), CO2 degassing and their potential controls. The pCO2 levels ranged from 50 to 6019 μatm with averages of 1573 (SD. ±1060) in dry Autumn and 1276 (SD. ±1166) μatm in wet Summer seasons. 94% of samples were supersaturated with CO2 with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium (410 μatm). Monsoonal precipitation controlled pCO2 seasonality, with both the maximal and minimal levels occurring in the wet season, and showing the overall effects of dilution. Riverine pCO2 could be predicted better in the dry season using pH, DO% and DTP, whereas pH and DOC were better predictors in the wet season. We conclude that in-situ respiration of allochthonous organic carbon, rather than photosynthesis, resulted in negative relationships between pCO2 and DO and pH, and thus CO2 supersaturation. Photosynthetic primary production was effectively limited by rapid flow velocity and short residence time. The estimated water-to-air CO2 emission rate in the TGR rivers was 350 ± 319 in the Autumn and lower, yet more variable at 326 ± 439 mmol/m2/d in Summer. Our calculated CO2 areal fluxes were in the upper-level magnitude of published data, demonstrating the importance of mountainous rivers and streams as a global greenhouse gas source, and urgency for more detailed studies on CO2 degassing, to address a global data gap for these environments.

  12. Multivariate characterization of elements accumulated in King Bolete Boletus edulis mushroom at lowland and high mountain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J; Kunito, T; Kubota, R; Bielawski, L; Frankowska, A; Falandysz, Justyna J; Tanabe, S

    2008-12-01

    Based on ICP-MS, ICP-OES, HG-AAS, CV-AAS and elementary instrumental analysis of King Bolete collected from four sites of different soil bedrock geochemistry considered could be as mushroom abundant in certain elements. King's Bolete fruiting bodies are very rich in K (> 20 mg/g dry weight), rich in Ca, Mg, Na, Rb and Zn (> 100 microg/g dw), and relatively also rich in Ag, Cd, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mn and Se (> 10 microg/g dw). The caps of King Bolete when compared to stipes around two-to three-fold more abundant are in Ag, Cd, Cs, Cu, Hg, K, Mg, Mo, N, Rb, Se and Zn. King Bolete collected at the lowland and mountain sites showed Ag, Ba, Co, Cr, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo and Na in caps in comparable concentrations, and specimens from the mountain areas accumulated more Cd and Sb. Elements such as Al, Pb and Rb occurred at relatively elevated concentration in King Bolete picked up at the metal ores-rich region of the Sudety Mountains. Because of high bioconcentration potential King Bolete at the background sites accumulate in fruiting bodies great concentrations of problematic elements such as Cd, Pb and Hg, i.e. up to nearly 20, 3 and 5 microg/g dw, on the average, respectively. The interdependence among determined mineral elements examined were using the principal components analysis (PCA) method. The PCA explained 56% of the total variance. The metals tend to cluster together (Ba, Cd, Cs, Cr, Ga, Rb, Se, Sr and V; K and Mg; Cu and Mo). The results provided useful environmental and nutritional background level information on 26 minerals as the composition of King Bolete from the sites of different bedrock soil geochemistry.

  13. On the Relationship between Holocene Geomorphic Evolution of Rivers and Prehistoric Settlements Distribution in the Songshan Mountain Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of Holocene geomorphic evolution of rivers around Songshan Mountain in relation to human frequentation in Prehistoric periods. The investigations were performed by means of an integration of GIS data processing; field surveys and particle size analysis. In 8000–3000 aBP; in the Songshan Mountain Region, large-scale river sedimentation occurred. This increased the elevation of river beds that were higher than today. After 3000 aBP; the upper reaches of the rivers experienced a down cut; while the lower reaches experienced continuing sedimentation. The data on the elevation of prehistoric settlements above the river levels were obtained from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs. These data were corrected according to the evolutionary features of fluvial landforms in order to obtain synchronous elevations above river levels of prehistoric settlements. The relationship between sediment distribution and the Holocene geomorphic evolution was investigated through the statistical analysis of the elevation above the river levels. Outputs from our analyses enabled us to differentiate three evolutionary stages. During the first one, related to Peiligang culture (9000–7500 aBP, populations mainly settled on both hilly relief and high plateaus depending on their agriculture production modes. During the second stage, from Yangshao (7500–5000 aBP to the Longshan period (5000–4000 aBP, settlements were mainly distributed on mountainous areas and hilly lands to avoid flooding and to develop agriculture. Finally, during the Xiashang culture (4000–3000 aBP, a large number of settlements migrated to the plain area to facilitate trade of goods and cultural exchanges.

  14. Slope Stability Analysis of Mountainous/Hilly regions of Nepal: A case study of Bhotekoshi Hydropower site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, A.; Gautam, S.; Kafle, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    Nepal is a mountainous, developing country that straddles the boundary between the Indian and Himalayan tectonic plates. In Nepal, landslides represent a major constraint on development, causing high levels of economic loss and substantial number of fatalities each year. There is a general consensus that the impacts of landslides in mountainous countries such as Nepal are increasing with time due to unstable slopes. The present study deals with the field investigation of slope stability in mountainous/hilly region of Nepal. Among the natural hazards that occur in regularly in Nepal, flood and landslides due to unstable slopes are by far the serious ones. They claim many human lives every year and cause other damages such as destruction and blockage of highway, destruction of hydropower, losses of livestock, crops and agricultural land. Slope Mass Rating system and stereographic projection has been carried out for analysis of slope stability using standard formats and parameters. It has been found that there are few major discontinuities that play the role for the rock/soil slides around the area. The major discontinuities are 235°/67°. These joint sets play the main role to the plane as well as wedge failures around the area. The rock mass rating of the slope has been found to be 27 and the slope mass rating has been found to be 37.8. The obtained slope mass rating value lies on IV class (Bad) that represents unstable slope having planner or big wedge failure and needs to be corrective measures in the slope. From stereographic projection, wedge failure of the slope has been seen according to the conditions of slope failure.

  15. A statistical adjustment approach for climate projections of snow conditions in mountain regions using energy balance land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaillie, Deborah; Déqué, Michel; Morin, Samuel; Lafaysse, Matthieu

    2017-04-01

    Projections of future climate change have been increasingly called for lately, as the reality of climate change has been gradually accepted and societies and governments have started to plan upcoming mitigation and adaptation policies. In mountain regions such as the Alps or the Pyrenees, where winter tourism and hydropower production are large contributors to the regional revenue, particular attention is brought to current and future snow availability. The question of the vulnerability of mountain ecosystems as well as the occurrence of climate-related hazards such as avalanches and debris-flows is also under consideration. In order to generate projections of snow conditions, however, downscaling global climate models (GCMs) by using regional climate models (RCMs) is not sufficient to capture the fine-scale processes and thresholds at play. In particular, the altitudinal resolution matters, since the phase of precipitation is mainly controlled by the temperature which is altitude-dependent. Simulations from GCMs and RCMs moreover suffer from biases compared to local observations, due to their rather coarse spatial and altitudinal resolution, and often provide outputs at too coarse time resolution to drive impact models. RCM simulations must therefore be adjusted using empirical-statistical downscaling and error correction methods, before they can be used to drive specific models such as energy balance land surface models. In this study, time series of hourly temperature, precipitation, wind speed, humidity, and short- and longwave radiation were generated over the Pyrenees and the French Alps for the period 1950-2100, by using a new approach (named ADAMONT for ADjustment of RCM outputs to MOuNTain regions) based on quantile mapping applied to daily data, followed by time disaggregation accounting for weather patterns selection. We first introduce a thorough evaluation of the method using using model runs from the ALADIN RCM driven by a global reanalysis over the

  16. Apatite fission-track dating of erosion in the eastern Andes, Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crough, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Three samples from a Triassic-age batholith in the eastern Andes northeast of La Paz, Bolivia yield apatitic fission-track ages of 11-13 Ma. Interpreting these young ages as due to uplift and erosion requires approximately 2.5-5.0 km of erosion in the past 12 Ma, an amount which is consistent with the known geology and which is typical of many active mountain ranges. (orig.)

  17. High-resolution dynamic downscaling of CMIP5 output over the Tropical Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichler, Thomas; Andrade, Marcos; Ohara, Noriaki

    2015-04-01

    Our project is targeted towards making robust predictions of future changes in climate over the tropical part of the South American Andes. This goal is challenging, since tropical lowlands, steep mountains, and snow covered subarctic surfaces meet over relatively short distances, leading to distinct climate regimes within the same domain and pronounced spatial gradients in virtually every climate quantity. We use an innovative approach to solve this problem, including several quadruple nested versions of WRF, a systematic validation strategy to find the version of WRF that best fits our study region, spatial resolutions at the kilometer scale, 20-year-long simulation periods, and bias-corrected output from various CMIP5 simulations that also include the multi-model mean of all CMIP5 models. We show that the simulated changes in climate are consistent with the results from the global climate models and also consistent with two different versions of WRF. We also discuss the expected changes in snow and ice, derived from off-line coupling the regional simulations to a carefully calibrated snow and ice model.

  18. Late cenozoic evolution of Fortymile Wash: Major change in drainage pattern in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada region during late miocene volcanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstrom, S.C.; Warren, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The site characterization of Yucca Mountain, NV as a potential high level nuclear waste repository includes study of the surficial deposits as a record of the paleoenvironmental history of the Yucca Mountain region. An important aspect of this history is an understanding of the evolution of paleogeography leading to establishment of the present drainage pattern. Establishment of drainage basin evolution is needed before geomorphic response to paleoclimate and tectonics can be assessed, because a major change in drainage basin geometry can predominantly affect the sedimentary record. Because alluvial aquifers are significant to regional hydrology, a major change in surface drainage resulting in buried alluvium could have hydrogeologic significance. In this paper, we report on geologic evidence for a major modification in surface drainage pattern in the Yucca Mountain region, resulting in the probable establishment of the Fortymile Wash drainage basin by latest Miocene time

  19. Comparison of Observed Temperature and Wind in Mountainous and Coastal Regions in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. S.

    2015-12-01

    For more than one year, temperature and wind are observed at several levels in three different environments in Korea. First site is located in a ski jump stadium in a mountain area and observations are performed at 5 heights. Second site is located in an agricultural land 1.4km inland from the seaside and the observing tower is 300m tall. Third site is located in the middle of sea 30km away from the seaside and the tower is 100m tall. The vertical gradients of air temperature are compared on the daily and seasonal bases. Not only the strengths of atmospheric stability are analyzed but also the times when the turnover of the signs of vertical gradients of temperature are occurred. The comparison is also applied to vertical gradients of wind speed and turning of wind direction due to surface slope and sea/land breeze. This study may suggest characteristics of local climate over different environments quantitatively.

  20. Diseño de la estrategia de Inglés con propósitos específicos en un contexto extracurricular para el aprendizaje del Inglés técnico médico en estudiantes de medicina de la Universidad Regional Autónoma de los Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Montes De Oca Sánchez, Irma Verónica

    2017-01-01

    1. Introducción. 2. Planteamiento de la propuesta de trabajo 3. Marco Teórico 4. Metodología 5. Resultados 6. Conclusiones y Recomendaciones. En el proceso de formación profesional del médico que realiza sus estudios en la Universidad Regional Autónoma de los Andes, se incluye la preparación en el dominio de competencias en inglés; misma que comprende el aprendizaje del inglés con propósitos generales (EGP) y no abarca el aprendizaje de aspectos específicos relacionados ...

  1. Exploring Conservation Options in the Broad-Leaved Korean Pine Mixed Forest of the Changbai Mountain Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis mixed forest (BKPF is one of the most biodiverse zonal communities in the northern temperate zone. Changbai Mountain in northeastern China contains one of the largest BKPFs in the region. The government of China has established a network of 23 nature reserves to protect the BKPF and the species that depend on it for habitat, including the endangered Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica. This study used the conservation planning software C-Plan to calculate the irreplaceability value of each unit to assess how efficiently and comprehensively the existing conservation network supports biodiversity and to identify gap areas that, if integrated into the network, would expand its protection capability. Results show a number of high-conservation-value planning units concentrated along certain ridges. The existing conservation network is structured such that the habitats of only 24 species (out of a total of 75 achieve established conservation targets. Of the other 51 species, 20 achieve less than 50% of their conservation targets. However, expanding the network to include high-conservation-value gap areas could achieve conservation targets for 64 species and could provide different degrees of protection to the other 11 species. Using C-Plan software can guide decision-making to expand the conservation network in this most precious of mountainous ecological zones.

  2. Natural foci of Borrelia lusitaniae in a mountain region of Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarageľová, Veronika Rusňáková; Mahríková, Lenka; Selyemová, Diana; Václav, Radovan; Derdáková, Markéta

    2016-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. It is caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex and transmitted to humans by ticks of the genus Ixodes. Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia valaisiana are the most common genospecies in Central Europe. In contrast, Borrelia lusitaniae predominates in Mediterranean countries such as Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Slovakia, its prevalence is low and restricted to only a few sites. The aim of our research was to study the expansion of ticks into higher altitudes in the ecosystem of the Malá Fatra mountains (north Slovakia) and their infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. pathogens. Questing ticks were collected by flagging in seven years (2004, 2006-2011) at three different altitudes: low (630-660 m above sea level (ASL)), intermediate (720-750 m ASL), and high (1040-1070 m ASL). Tick abundance was highest at the lowest altitude and lowest at the highest altitude. The average infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in nymphs and adults was 16.8% and 36.2%, respectively. The number of infected ticks decreased from 38.5% at the lowest altitude to 4.4% at the highest altitude. B. lusitaniae was the most frequently found genospecies (>60% of the ticks found positive for B. burgdorferi s.l.) in all sites in all the studied years with the exception of 2008 when B. afzelii predominated (62%). Our study confirms the spread of Ixodes ricinus ticks to higher altitudes in Slovakia. The discovery that our mountain study sites were a natural foci of B. lusitaniae was unexpected because this genospecies is usually associated with lizards and xerothermic habitats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Runoff and soil erosion of field plots in a subtropical mountainous region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, N. F.; Wang, L.; Shi, Z. H.

    2017-09-01

    Anthropogenic pressure coupled with strong precipitation events and a mountainous landscape have led to serious soil erosion and associated problems in the subtropical climate zone of China. This study analyzes 1576 rainfall-runoff-soil loss events at 36 experimental plots (a total of 148 plot-years of data) under a wide range of conditions in subtropical mountainous areas of China where slope farming is commonly practiced. The plots, which have standardized dimensions, represent five common types of land use and have four different slopes. Event-based analyses show that almost half of the total rainfall caused soil erosion in the study area. The dominant factor controlling the runoff coefficient is the slope gradient rather than the land use type. The maximum soil lossfor crop plots under steep tillage (35°) is 5004 t km-2 for a single event. Among the common local crops, the average soil loss values increase in the following order: buckwheat soil loss increase in the following order: red clover soil loss is caused by a small number of extreme events. The annual average soil loss of the 44 plots ranges from 19 to 4090 t km-2 year-1. The annual soil loss of plots of different land use types decrease in the following order: bare land (1533 t km-2 year-1) > cropland (1179 t km-2 year-1) > terraced cropland (1083 t km-2 year-1) > orchard land (1020 t km-2 year-1) > grassland (762 t km-2 year-1) > terraced orchard land (297 t km-2 year-1) > forest and grassland (281 t km-2 year-1).

  4. Assessment of the Suitability of High Resolution Numerical Weather Model Outputs for Hydrological Modelling in Mountainous Cold Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, K.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Hayashi, M.; Fang, X.; Gutmann, E. D.; Li, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The hydrology of mountainous cold regions has a large spatial variability that is driven both by climate variability and near-surface process variability associated with complex terrain and patterns of vegetation, soils, and hydrogeology. There is a need to downscale large-scale atmospheric circulations towards the fine scales that cold regions hydrological processes operate at to assess their spatial variability in complex terrain and quantify uncertainties by comparison to field observations. In this research, three high resolution numerical weather prediction models, namely, the Intermediate Complexity Atmosphere Research (ICAR), Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), and Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) models are used to represent spatial and temporal patterns of atmospheric conditions appropriate for hydrological modelling. An area covering high mountains and foothills of the Canadian Rockies was selected to assess and compare high resolution ICAR (1 km × 1 km), WRF (4 km × 4 km), and GEM (2.5 km × 2.5 km) model outputs with station-based meteorological measurements. ICAR with very low computational cost was run with different initial and boundary conditions and with finer spatial resolution, which allowed an assessment of modelling uncertainty and scaling that was difficult with WRF. Results show that ICAR, when compared with WRF and GEM, performs very well in precipitation and air temperature modelling in the Canadian Rockies, while all three models show a fair performance in simulating wind and humidity fields. Representation of local-scale atmospheric dynamics leading to realistic fields of temperature and precipitation by ICAR, WRF, and GEM makes these models suitable for high resolution cold regions hydrological predictions in complex terrain, which is a key factor in estimating water security in western Canada.

  5. StaMPS Improvement for Deformation Analysis in Mountainous Regions: Implications for the Damavand Volcano and Mosha Fault in Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Vajedian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR capability to detect slow deformation over terrain areas is limited by temporal decorrelation, geometric decorrelation and atmospheric artefacts. Multitemporal InSAR methods such as Persistent Scatterer (PS-InSAR and Small Baseline Subset (SBAS have been developed to deal with various aspects of decorrelation and atmospheric problems affecting InSAR observations. Nevertheless, the applicability of both PS-InSAR and SBAS in mountainous regions is still challenging. Correct phase unwrapping in both methods is hampered due to geometric decorrelation in particular when using C-band SAR data for deformation analysis. In this paper, we build upon the SBAS method implemented in StaMPS software and improved the technique, here called ISBAS, to assess tectonic and volcanic deformation in the center of the Alborz Mountains in Iran using both Envisat and ALOS SAR data. We modify several aspects within the chain of the processing including: filtering prior to phase unwrapping, topographic correction within three-dimensional phase unwrapping, reducing the atmospheric noise with the help of additional GPS data, and removing the ramp caused by ionosphere turbulence and/or orbit errors to better estimate crustal deformation in this tectonically active region. Topographic correction is done within the three-dimensional unwrapping in order to improve the phase unwrapping process, which is in contrast to previous methods in which DEM error is estimated before/after phase unwrapping. Our experiments show that our improved SBAS approach is able to better characterize the tectonic and volcanic deformation in the center of the Alborz region than the classical SBAS. In particular, Damavand volcano shows an average uplift rate of about 3 mm/year in the year 2003–2010. The Mosha fault illustrates left-lateral motion that could be explained with a fault that is locked up to 17–18 km depths and slips with 2–4 mm

  6. Diversidad de mariposas (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea y su relación con el paisaje de alta montaña en los Andes nororientales de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olarte-Quiñonez, C. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and their relationship with the highlands’ landscape in the northeastern Andes of Colombia The Andean region harbors a great variety of ecosystems, including the characteristic high mountain zones. The biological diversity in these zones, however, is declining as the result of changes in land use, particularly the introduction of agriculture and cattle ranching. Changes in the high mountain landscape can be appropriately monitored using diversity indicators such as butterflies, one of the most important indicator species. We chose twelve sampling points in the paramo (high altitude moor complexes Almorzadero, Santurbán and El Tamá, located in the northeastern region of Colombia to collect adult butterflies within transects of 100 x 4 m, along an altitudinal gradient of 500 m. We recorded 69 species, from five families. Diversity values of the diurnal butterfly communities varied among the different areas of vegetation coverage associated with each transect. Conserved vegetation coverage (i.e. dense forest, scrublands and scrublands, and paramo and subparamo showed the highest values of diversity, while perturbed coverage (i.e. fragmented forests, pastures and agriculture areas presented the lowest values of diversity. Analysis of the community structure showed that endemic butterfly species were associated with fragmented areas in the high mountains. Findings from this study, the first of its kind to determine changes in butterfly diversity in highlands in northeastern Colombia, may help to generate conservation strategies in places where there is high endemism and diversity

  7. Low-level gamma spectrometry of forest and moor soils from exposed mountain regions in Saxony (Erzgebirge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, N [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics; Preusse, W [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics; Degering, D [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics; Unterricker, S [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics

    1997-03-01

    In soils with distinct organic and mineral horizons, radionuclides (RN) can be used to understand geochemical migration processes. In the study presented here high sensitivity HPGe-detectors with active and passive shielding were employed to determine the low activity levels of various natural, cosmogenic and artificial RN. Soils of a spruce forest and a moor from exposed mountain regions in Saxony (Erzgebirge) were investigated as they provide a good example of layered soil systems with vertical transfer of chemical elements. Different soil horizons were sub-sampled as thin slices and analysed to examine the migration processes at sub-horizon level. The depth distributions of chemically different RN were studied considering the geochemical and pedological soil characteristics of the profiles. (orig.)

  8. Changing regional emissions of airborne pollutants reflected in the chemistry of snowpacks and wetfall in the Rocky Mountain region, USA, 1993–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, George P.; Miller, Debra C.; Morris, Kristi H.; McMurray, Jill A.; Port, Garrett M.; Caruso, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Wintertime precipitation sample data from 55 Snowpack sites and 17 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)/National Trends Network Wetfall sites in the Rocky Mountain region were examined to identify long-term trends in chemical concentration, deposition, and precipitation using Regional and Seasonal Kendall tests. The Natural Resources Conservation Service snow-telemetry (SNOTEL) network provided snow-water-equivalent data from 33 sites located near Snowpack- and NADP Wetfall-sampling sites for further comparisons. Concentration and deposition of ammonium, calcium, nitrate, and sulfate were tested for trends for the period 1993–2012. Precipitation trends were compared between the three monitoring networks for the winter seasons and downward trends were observed for both Snowpack and SNOTEL networks, but not for the NADP Wetfall network. The dry-deposition fraction of total atmospheric deposition, relative to wet deposition, was shown to be considerable in the region. Potential sources of regional airborne pollutant emissions were identified from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2011 National Emissions Inventory, and from long-term emissions data for the period 1996–2013. Changes in the emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide were reflected in significant trends in snowpack and wetfall chemistry. In general, ammonia emissions in the western USA showed a gradual increase over the past decade, while ammonium concentrations and deposition in snowpacks and wetfall showed upward trends. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide declined while regional trends in snowpack and wetfall concentrations and deposition of nitrate and sulfate were downward.

  9. Evaluating the relative impact of climate and economic changes on forest and agricultural ecosystem services in mountain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, Simon; Elkin, Ché; Huber, Robert

    2013-11-15

    Provisioning of ecosystem services (ES) in mountainous regions is predicted to be influenced by i) the direct biophysical impacts of climate change, ii) climate mediated land use change, and iii) socioeconomic driven changes in land use. The relative importance and the spatial distribution of these factors on forest and agricultural derived ES, however, is unclear, making the implementation of ES management schemes difficult. Using an integrated economic-ecological modeling framework, we evaluated the impact of these driving forces on the provision of forest and agricultural ES in a mountain region of southern Switzerland. Results imply that forest ES will be strongly influenced by the direct impact of climate change, but that changes in land use will have a comparatively small impact. The simulation of direct impacts of climate change affects forest ES at all elevations, while land use changes can only be found at high elevations. In contrast, changes to agricultural ES were found to be primarily due to shifts in economic conditions that alter land use and land management. The direct influence of climate change on agriculture is only predicted to be substantial at high elevations, while socioeconomic driven shifts in land use are projected to affect agricultural ES at all elevations. Our simulation results suggest that policy schemes designed to mitigate the negative impact of climate change on forests should focus on suitable adaptive management plans, accelerating adaptation processes for currently forested areas. To maintain provision of agricultural ES policy needs to focus on economic conditions rather than on supporting adaptation to new climate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Advances in global mountain geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaymaker, Olav; Embleton-Hamann, Christine

    2018-05-01

    Three themes in global mountain geomorphology have been defined and reinforced over the past decade: (a) new ways of measuring, sensing, and analyzing mountain morphology; (b) a new emphasis on disconnectivity in mountain geomorphology; and (c) the emergence of concerns about the increasing influence of anthropogenic disturbance of the mountain geomorphic environment, especially in intertropical mountains where population densities are higher than in any other mountain region. Anthropogenically induced hydroclimate change increases geomorphic hazards and risks but also provides new opportunities for mountain landscape enhancement. Each theme is considered with respect to the distinctiveness of mountain geomorphology and in relation to important advances in research over the past decade. The traditional reliance on the high energy condition to define mountain geomorphology seems less important than the presence of unique mountain landforms and landscapes and the distinctive ways in which human activity and anthropogenically induced hydroclimate change are transforming mountain landscapes.

  11. The Steens Mountain ( Oregon) geomagnetic polarity transition ( USA). 3. Its regional significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, E.A.; Larson, E.E.; Gromme, C.S.; Prevot, M.; Coe, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Study of the variations of direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field as recorded by the Miocene lava flows on Steens Mountain, SE Oregon, has resulted in a detailed description of total field behavior during a reversal in polarity. In addition to information about the polarity reversal itself, the detailed paleomagnetic record includes several thousand years of geomagnetic history preceding and following the polarity transition at 15.5 Ma. To test the feasibility of using this record as a means of correlation in this part of the western US, comparisons are made of reconnaissance and previously published paleomagnetic records obtained from what has been thought to be the Steens Basalt or rocks of equivalent age. Despite the fact that many of these earlier studies were not detailed and were not intended for correlation purposes, convincing similarities among some of the records are evident. The Steens Basalt paleomagnetic record does, indeed, have potential as a correlation tool during this time of widespread basaltic volcanism. Concludes that findings indicate no post-20 Ma differential rotation between S-E Washington and S-central Oregon, in contrast to previous interpretations. -from Authors

  12. Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) over mountainous region of Cameron Highlands- Batang Padang Catchment of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidek, L. M.; Mohd Nor, M. D.; Rakhecha, P. R.; Basri, H.; Jayothisa, W.; Muda, R. S.; Ahmad, M. N.; Razad, A. Z. Abdul

    2013-06-01

    The Cameron Highland Batang Padang (CHBP) catchment situated on the main mountain range of Peninsular Malaysia is of large economical importance where currently a series of three dams (Sultan Abu Bakar, Jor and Mahang) exist in the development of water resources and hydropower. The prediction of the design storm rainfall values for different return periods including PMP values can be useful to review the adequacy of the current spillway capacities of these dams. In this paper estimates of the design storm rainfalls for various return periods and also the PMP values for rainfall stations in the CHBP catchment have been computed for the three different durations of 1, 3 & 5 days. The maximum values for 1 day, 3 days and 5 days PMP values are found to be 730.08mm, 966.17mm and 969.0mm respectively at Station number 4513033 Gunung Brinchang. The PMP values obtained were compared with previous study results undertaken by NAHRIM. However, the highest ratio of 1 day, 3 day and 5 day PMP to highest observed rainfall are found to be 2.30, 1.94 and 1.82 respectively. This shows that the ratio tend to decrease as the duration increase. Finally, the temporal pattern for 1 day, 3day and 5 days have been developed based on observed extreme rainfall at station 4513033 Gunung Brinchang for the generation of Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) in dam break analysis.

  13. Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) over mountainous region of Cameron Highlands- Batang Padang Catchment of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidek, L M; Basri, H; Jayothisa, W; Nor, M D Mohd; Rakhecha, P R; Muda, R S; Ahmad, M N; Razad, A Z Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The Cameron Highland Batang Padang (CHBP) catchment situated on the main mountain range of Peninsular Malaysia is of large economical importance where currently a series of three dams (Sultan Abu Bakar, Jor and Mahang) exist in the development of water resources and hydropower. The prediction of the design storm rainfall values for different return periods including PMP values can be useful to review the adequacy of the current spillway capacities of these dams. In this paper estimates of the design storm rainfalls for various return periods and also the PMP values for rainfall stations in the CHBP catchment have been computed for the three different durations of 1, 3 and 5 days. The maximum values for 1 day, 3 days and 5 days PMP values are found to be 730.08mm, 966.17mm and 969.0mm respectively at Station number 4513033 Gunung Brinchang. The PMP values obtained were compared with previous study results undertaken by NAHRIM. However, the highest ratio of 1 day, 3 day and 5 day PMP to highest observed rainfall are found to be 2.30, 1.94 and 1.82 respectively. This shows that the ratio tend to decrease as the duration increase. Finally, the temporal pattern for 1 day, 3day and 5 days have been developed based on observed extreme rainfall at station 4513033 Gunung Brinchang for the generation of Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) in dam break analysis.

  14. Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Land-Water-Ecosystem Quality in Polar and Mountainous Regions: A New Interregional Project (INT5153)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dercon, Gerd [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Subprogramme, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, IAEA, Seibersdorf (Austria); Gerardo-Abaya, Jane [Division for Asia and the Pacific Section 2, Department of Technical Cooperation, IAEA, Vienna (Austria); Mavlyudov, Bulat [Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); others, and

    2014-07-15

    The INT5153 project aims to improve the understanding of the impact of climate change on fragile polar and mountainous ecosystems on both a local and global scale for their better management and conservation. Seven core and five related benchmark sites have been selected from different global regions for specific assessments of the impact of climate change with the following expected outcomes and outputs: Outcomes: • Improved understanding of the impact of climate change on the cryosphere in polar and mountainous ecosystems and its effects on landwater- ecosystem quality at both local and global scales. • Recommendations for improvement of regional policies for soil and agricultural water management, conservation, and environmental protection in polar and mountainous regions. Outputs: • Specific strategies to minimize the adverse effects of, and adapt to, reduced seasonal snow and glacier covered areas on land-water-ecosystem quality in polar and mountain regions across the world. • Enhanced interregional network of laboratories and institutions competent in the assessment of climate change impacts on the cryosphere and land-water-ecosystem quality, using isotopic and nuclear techniques. • Increased number of young scientists trained in the use of isotope and nuclear techniques to assess the impact of climate change on the cryosphere and land-water-ecosystem quality in polar and mountainous ecosystems. • Platform/database with global access for continuing work and monitoring of impact of climate change on fragile polar and mountainous ecosystems at local and global scales, as well as for communicating findings to policy makers and communities. • Improved understanding of the effects of climate change disseminated through appropriate publications, policy briefs, and through a dedicated internet platform. • Methodologies and protocols for investigations in specific ecosystems and conservation/adaptation measures for agriculture areas.

  15. Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Land-Water-Ecosystem Quality in Polar and Mountainous Regions: A New Interregional Project (INT5153)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dercon, Gerd; Gerardo-Abaya, Jane; Mavlyudov, Bulat

    2014-01-01

    The INT5153 project aims to improve the understanding of the impact of climate change on fragile polar and mountainous ecosystems on both a local and global scale for their better management and conservation. Seven core and five related benchmark sites have been selected from different global regions for specific assessments of the impact of climate change with the following expected outcomes and outputs: Outcomes: • Improved understanding of the impact of climate change on the cryosphere in polar and mountainous ecosystems and its effects on landwater- ecosystem quality at both local and global scales. • Recommendations for improvement of regional policies for soil and agricultural water management, conservation, and environmental protection in polar and mountainous regions. Outputs: • Specific strategies to minimize the adverse effects of, and adapt to, reduced seasonal snow and glacier covered areas on land-water-ecosystem quality in polar and mountain regions across the world. • Enhanced interregional network of laboratories and institutions competent in the assessment of climate change impacts on the cryosphere and land-water-ecosystem quality, using isotopic and nuclear techniques. • Increased number of young scientists trained in the use of isotope and nuclear techniques to assess the impact of climate change on the cryosphere and land-water-ecosystem quality in polar and mountainous ecosystems. • Platform/database with global access for continuing work and monitoring of impact of climate change on fragile polar and mountainous ecosystems at local and global scales, as well as for communicating findings to policy makers and communities. • Improved understanding of the effects of climate change disseminated through appropriate publications, policy briefs, and through a dedicated internet platform. • Methodologies and protocols for investigations in specific ecosystems and conservation/adaptation measures for agriculture areas

  16. Regionalization of soil base cation weathering for evaluating stream water acidification in the Appalachian Mountains, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, T.C.; Cosby, B.J.; Sullivan, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of base cation supply from mineral weathering (BC w ) is useful for watershed research and management. Existing regional approaches for estimating BC w require generalized assumptions and availability of stream chemistry data. We developed an approach for estimating BC w using regionally specific empirical relationships. The dynamic model MAGIC was used to calibrate BC w in 92 watersheds distributed across three ecoregions. Empirical relationships between MAGIC-simulated BC w and watershed characteristics were developed to provide the basis for regionalization of BC w throughout the entire study region. BC w estimates extracted from MAGIC calibrations compared reasonably well with BC w estimated by regression based on landscape characteristics. Approximately one-third of the study region was predicted to exhibit BC w rates less than 100 meq/m 2 /yr. Estimates were especially low for some locations within national park and wilderness areas. The regional BC w results are discussed in the context of critical loads (CLs) of acidic deposition for aquatic ecosystem protection. - Highlights: ► Base cation weathering (BC w ) estimates are needed to model critical load of acidity. ► Estimating BC w formerly required generalized assumptions and stream chemistry data. ► We describe a high-resolution approach for estimating BC w for regional application. - A new approach is described for deriving regional estimates of effective base cation weathering using empirical relationships with landscape characteristics.

  17. The Mass Elevation Effect of the Central Andes and Its Implications for the Southern Hemisphere's Highest Treeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui He

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the highest treelines in the world is at 4810 m above sea level on the Sajama Volcano in the central Andes. The climatological cause of that exceptionally high treeline position is still unclear. Although it has been suggested that the mass elevation effect (MEE explains the upward shift of treelines in the Altiplano region, the magnitude of MEE has not yet been quantified for that region. This paper defines MEE as the air temperature difference in summer at the same elevation between the inner mountains/plateaus (Altiplano and the free atmosphere above the adjacent lowlands of the Andean Cordillera. The Altiplano air temperature was obtained from the Global Historical Climatology Network-Monthly temperature database, and the air temperature above the adjacent lowlands was interpolated based on the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis 1 data set. We analyzed the mean air temperature differences for January, July, and the warm months from October to April. The air temperature was mostly higher on the Altiplano than over the neighboring lowlands at the same altitude. The air temperature difference increased from the outer Andean east-facing slope to the interior of the Altiplano in summer, and it increased from high latitudes to low latitudes in winter. The mean air temperature in the Altiplano in summer is approximately 5 K higher than it is above the adjacent lowlands at the same mean elevation, averaging about 3700 m above sea level. This upward shift of isotherms in the inner part of the Cordillera enables the treeline to climb to 4810 m, with shrub-size trees reaching even higher. Therefore, the MEE explains the occurrence of one of the world’s highest treelines in the central Andes.

  18. Mapping Asbestos-Cement Roofing with Hyperspectral Remote Sensing over a Large Mountain Region of the Italian Western Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Frassy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization estimates that 100 thousand people in the world die every year from asbestos-related cancers and more than 300 thousand European citizens are expected to die from asbestos-related mesothelioma by 2030. Both the European and the Italian legislations have banned the manufacture, importation, processing and distribution in commerce of asbestos-containing products and have recommended action plans for the safe removal of asbestos from public and private buildings. This paper describes the quantitative mapping of asbestos-cement covers over a large mountainous region of Italian Western Alps using the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer sensor. A very large data set made up of 61 airborne transect strips covering 3263 km2 were processed to support the identification of buildings with asbestos-cement roofing, promoted by the Valle d’Aosta Autonomous Region with the support of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency. Results showed an overall mapping accuracy of 80%, in terms of asbestos-cement surface detected. The influence of topography on the classification’s accuracy suggested that even in high relief landscapes, the spatial resolution of data is the major source of errors and the smaller asbestos-cement covers were not detected or misclassified.

  19. Electrical Conductive Mechanism of Gas Hydrate-Bearing Reservoirs in the Permafrost Region of Qilian Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, C.; Zou, C.; Tang, Y.; Liu, A.; Hu, X.

    2017-12-01

    In the Qilian Mountain, gas hydrates not only occur in pore spaces of sandstones, but also fill in fractures of mudstones. This leads to the difficulty in identification and evaluation of gas hydrate reservoir from resistivity and velocity logs. Understanding electrical conductive mechanism is the basis for log interpretation. However, the research is insufficient in this area. We have collected well logs from 30 wells in this area. Well logs and rock samples from DK-9, DK-11 and DK-12 wells were used in this study. The experiments including SEM, thin section, NMR, XRD, synthesis of gas hydrate in consolidated rock cores under low temperature and measurement of their resistivity and others were performed for understanding the effects of pore structure, rock composition, temperature and gas hydrate on conductivity. The results show that the porosity of reservoir of pore filling type is less than 10% and its clay mineral content is high. As good conductive passages, fractures can reduce resistivity of water-saturated rock. If fractures in the mudstone are filled by calcite, resistivity increases significantly. The resistivity of water-saturated rock at 2°C is twice of that at 18°C. The gas hydrate formation process in the sandstone was studied by resistivity recorded in real time. In the early stage of gas hydrate formation, the increase of residual water salinity may lead to the decrease of resistivity. In the late stage of gas hydrate formation, the continuity decrease of water leads to continuity increase of resistivity. In summary, fractures, rock composition, temperature and gas hydrate are important factors influencing resistivity of formation. This study is helpful for more accurate evaluation of gas hydrate from resistivity log. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of the National Special Program for Gas Hydrate Exploration and Test-production (GZH201400302).

  20. Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and relationship to the regional stress field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, J.M.; Healy, J.H.; Hickman, S.H.; Zoback, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements and acoustic borehole televiewer logs were run in holes USW G-1 and USW G-2 at Yucca Mountain as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations for the U. S. Department of Energy. Eight tests in the saturated zone, at depths from 646 to 1288 m, yielded values of the least horizontal stress S/sub h/ that are considerably lower than the vertical principal stress S/sub v/. In tests for which the greatest horizontal principal stress S/sub H/ could be determined, it was found to be less than S/sub v/, indicating a normal faulting stress regime. The borehole televiewer logs showed the presence of long (in excess of 10 m), vertical, drilling-induced fractures in the first 300 m below the water table. These are believed to form by the propagation of small preexisting cracks under the excess downhole fluid pressures (up to 5.2 MPa) applied during drilling. The presence of these drilling-induced hydrofractures provides further confirmation of the low value of the least horizontal stresses. A least horizontal principal stress direction of N60 0 W--N65 0 W is indicated by the orientation of the drilling-induced hydrofractures (N25 0 E--N30 0 E), and the orientation of stress-induced well bore breakouts in the lower part of USW G-2 (N65 0 W). This direction is in good agreement with indicators of stress direction from elsewhere at the Nevada Test Site. The observed stress magnitudes and directions were examined for the possibility of slip on preexisting faults. Using these data, the Coulomb criterion for frictional sliding suggests that for coefficients of friction close to 0.6, movement on favorably oriented faults could be expected

  1. Cultural perspectives concerning adolescent use of tobacco and alcohol in the Appalachian mountain region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael G; Toborg, Mary A; Denham, Sharon A; Mande, Mary J

    2008-01-01

    Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and alcohol use. With 4 grants from the National Institutes of Health, 34 focus groups occurred between 1999 and 2003 in 17 rural Appalachian jurisdictions in 7 states. These jurisdictions ranged between 4 and 8 on the Rural-Urban Continuum Codes of the Economic Research Service of the US Department of Agriculture. Of the focus groups, 25 sought the perspectives of women in Appalachia, and 9, opinions of adolescents. The family represented the key context where residents of Appalachia learn about tobacco and alcohol use. Experimentation with tobacco and alcohol frequently commenced by early adolescence and initially occurred in the context of the family home. Reasons to abstain from tobacco and alcohol included a variety of reasons related to family circumstances. Adults generally displayed a greater degree of tolerance for adolescent alcohol use than tobacco use. Tobacco growing represents an economic mainstay in many communities, a fact that contributes to the acceptance of its use, and many coal miners use smokeless tobacco since they cannot light up in the mines. The production and distribution of homemade alcohol was not a significant issue in alcohol use in the mountains even though it appeared not to have entirely disappeared. Though cultural factors support tobacco and alcohol use in Appalachia, risk awareness is common. Messages tailored to cultural themes may decrease prevalence.

  2. A low-altitude mountain range as an important refugium for two narrow endemics in the Southwest Australian Floristic Region biodiversity hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppel, Gunnar; Robinson, Todd P.; Wardell-Johnson, Grant W.; Yates, Colin J.; Niel, Van Kimberly P.; Byrne, Margaret; Schut, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Low-altitude mountains constitute important centres of diversity in landscapes with little topographic variation, such as the Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR). They also provide unique climatic and edaphic conditions that may allow them to function as refugia. We

  3. Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Wolf (Canis lupus Breeding Areas in a Mountainous Region of Central Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bassi

    Full Text Available Wolves (Canis lupus in Italy represent a relict west European population. They are classified as vulnerable by IUCN, though have increased in number and expanded their range in recent decades. Here we use 17 years of monitoring data (from 1993 to 2010 collected in a mountainous region of central Italy (Arezzo, Tuscany in an ecological niche-based model (MaxEnt to characterize breeding sites (i.e. the areas where pups were raised within home ranges, as detected from play-back responses. From a suite of variables related to topography, habitat and human disturbance we found that elevation and distance to protected areas were most important in explaining the locality of wolf responses. Rendezvous sites (family play-back response sites typically occurred between 800 and 1200 m a.s.l., inside protected areas, and were usually located along mountain chains distant from human settlements and roads. In these areas human disturbance is low and the densities of ungulates are typically high. Over recent years, rendezvous sites have occurred closer to urban areas as the wolf population has continued to expand, despite the consequent human disturbance. This suggests that undisturbed landscapes may be reaching their carrying capacity for wolves. This, in turn, may lead to the potential for increased human-wolf interactions in future. Applying our model, both within and beyond the species' current range, we identify sites both within the current range and also further afield, that the species could occupy in future. Our work underlines the importance of the present protected areas network in facilitating the recolonisation by wolves. Our projections of suitability of sites for future establishment as the population continues to expand could inform planning to minimize future wolf-human conflicts.

  4. Incentives for Collaborative Governance: Top-Down and Bottom-Up Initiatives in the Swedish Mountain Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Eckerberg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Governance collaborations between public and private partners are increasingly used to promote sustainable mountain development, yet information is limited on their nature and precise extent. This article analyzes collaboration on environment and natural resource management in Swedish mountain communities to critically assess the kinds of issues these efforts address, how they evolve, who leads them, and what functional patterns they exhibit based on Margerum's (2008 typology of action, organizational, and policy collaboration. Based on official documents, interviews, and the records of 245 collaborative projects, we explore the role of the state, how perceptions of policy failure may inspire collaboration, and the opportunities that European Union funds have created. Bottom-up collaborations, most of which are relatively recent, usually have an action and sometimes an organizational function. Top-down collaborations, however, are usually organizational or policy oriented. Our findings suggest that top-down and bottom-up collaborations are complementary in situations with considerable conflict over time and where public policies have partly failed, such as for nature protection and reindeer grazing. In less contested areas, such as rural development, improving tracks and access, recreation, and fishing, there is more bottom-up, action-oriented collaboration. State support, especially in the form of funding, is central to explaining the emergence of bottom-up action collaboration. Our findings show that the state both initiates and coordinates policy networks and retains a great deal of power over the nature and functioning of collaborative governance. A practical consequence is that there is great overlap—aggravated by sectorized approaches—that creates a heavy workload for some regional partners.

  5. Does Geology Matter? Post-Hurricane Maria Landslide Distribution Across the Mountainous Regions of Puerto Rico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerovski-Darriau, C.; Bessette-Kirton, E.; Schulz, W. H.; Kean, J. W.; Godt, J.; Coe, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Heavy rainfall from Hurricane Maria—category 4 hurricane that made landfall Sept 20, 2017 on Puerto Rico and produced >500 mm of rain—caused widespread landsliding in mountainous regions throughout the territory. Landslides impacted roads, bridges, and reservoirs—cutting off communities, hindering recovery efforts, and affecting water quality and storage capacity. FEMA tasked the USGS with determining the level of imminent threat posed by landslides to life and property, and helping inform recovery efforts. The USGS landslide response team remotely quantified the spatial density of landslides, then deployed to Puerto Rico to assess damage in the field. These are our initial findings from work currently underway. We used post-hurricane satellite (WorldView 0.5 m resolution) and aerial (Sanborn and QuantumSpatial at 0.15 m resolution) imagery collected Sept 26-Oct 8, 2017 to visually estimate landslide concentration and determine the heaviest hit regions. We divided the territory into 2 x 2 km grids and classified each cell as no visible landslides, 25 LS/km2. Hurricane-induced defoliation made landslides readily visible in the imagery as areas of exposed soil or rock with morphology typical of landslides. This method proved to be a rapid way to visualize the spatial distribution of landslides to direct our field efforts. In the field, we found it was a conservative estimate. Landslides occurred in steep areas along the storm track, but high-density pockets occurred in the municipalities of Barranquitos, Jayuya, Lares, Naranjito, Utuado. Assuming Maria produced sufficient rainfall to trigger landslides in all mountainous regions, what controls the density and failure style? We found the highest slide densities disproportionately occurred in the Utuado granodiorite (60% of the unit was >25 LS/km2). Most of the landslides failed as shallow, translational slides. Bedrock slope failures were scarce. Some geologic units, with sufficient topographic relief, generated

  6. Rocky Mountain Regional CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity and Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laes, Denise; Eisinger, Chris; Esser, Richard; Morgan, Craig; Rauzi, Steve; Scholle, Dana; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

    2013-08-30

    The purpose of this study includes extensive characterization of the most promising geologic CO{sub 2} storage formations on the Colorado Plateau, including estimates of maximum possible storage capacity. The primary targets of characterization and capacity analysis include the Cretaceous Dakota Formation, the Jurassic Entrada Formation and the Permian Weber Formation and their equivalents in the Colorado Plateau region. The total CO{sub 2} capacity estimates for the deep saline formations of the Colorado Plateau region range between 9.8 metric GT and 143 metric GT, depending on assumed storage efficiency, formations included, and other factors.

  7. Glacier Monitoring and Capacity Building: Important Ingredients for Sustainable Mountain Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel U. Nussbaumer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Glacier observation data from major mountain regions of the world are key to improving our understanding of glacier changes: they deliver fundamental baseline information for climatological, hydrological, and hazard assessments. In many mountain ecosystems, as well as in the adjacent lowlands, glaciers play a crucial role in freshwater provision and regulation. This article first presents the state of the art on glacier monitoring and related strategies within the framework of the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G. Both in situ measurements of changes in glacier mass, volume, and length as well as remotely sensed data on glacier extents and changes over entire mountain ranges provide clear indications of climate change. Based on experiences from capacity-building activities undertaken in the Tropical Andes and Central Asia over the past years, we also review the state of the art on institutional capacity in these regions and make further recommendations for sustainable mountain development. The examples from Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, and Kyrgyzstan demonstrate that a sound understanding of measurement techniques and of the purpose of measurements is necessary for successful glacier monitoring. In addition, establishing durable institutions, capacity-building programs, and related funding is necessary to ensure that glacier monitoring is sustainable and maintained in the long term. Therefore, strengthening regional cooperation, collaborating with local scientists and institutions, and enhancing knowledge sharing and dialogue are envisaged within the GTN-G. Finally, glacier monitoring enhances the resilience of the populations that depend on water resources from glacierized mountains or that are affected by hazards related to glacier changes. We therefore suggest that glacier monitoring be included in the development of sustainable adaptation strategies in regions with glaciated mountains.

  8. DEM-based delineation for improving geostatistical interpolation of rainfall in mountainous region of Central Himalayas, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Madhuri; Singh, Chander Kumar; Bakimchandra, Oinam; Basistha, Ashoke

    2017-10-01

    In mountainous region with heterogeneous topography, the geostatistical modeling of the rainfall using global data set may not confirm to the intrinsic hypothesis of stationarity. This study was focused on improving the precision of the interpolated rainfall maps by spatial stratification in complex terrain. Predictions of the normal annual rainfall data were carried out by ordinary kriging, universal kriging, and co-kriging, using 80-point observations in the Indian Himalayas extending over an area of 53,484 km2. A two-step spatial clustering approach is proposed. In the first step, the study area was delineated into two regions namely lowland and upland based on the elevation derived from the digital elevation model. The delineation was based on the natural break classification method. In the next step, the rainfall data was clustered into two groups based on its spatial location in lowland or upland. The terrain ruggedness index (TRI) was incorporated as a co-variable in co-kriging interpolation algorithm. The precision of the kriged and co-kriged maps was assessed by two accuracy measures, root mean square error and Chatfield's percent better. It was observed that the stratification of rainfall data resulted in 5-20 % of increase in the performance efficiency of interpolation methods. Co-kriging outperformed the kriging models at annual and seasonal scale. The result illustrates that the stratification of the study area improves the stationarity characteristic of the point data, thus enhancing the precision of the interpolated rainfall maps derived using geostatistical methods.

  9. Soil movements and surface erosion rates on rocky slopes in the mountain areas of the karst region of Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. B.; Bai, X. Y.; Long, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The karst region of Southwest China with an area of 54 × 104 km2 is one of the largest karst areas in the world and experiences subtropical climate. Hill-depressions are common landforms in the mountain areas of this region. Downslope soil movement on the ground by surface water erosion and soil sinking into underground holes by creeping or pipe erosion are mayor types of soil movements on rocky carbonate slopes. The 137Cs technique was used to date the sediment deposits in six karst depressions, to estimate average surface erosion rates on slopes from their catchments. The estimates of soil loss rates obtained from this study evidenced considerable variability. A value of 1.0 t km-2 year-1 was obtained for a catchment under original dense karst forest, but the erosion rates ranged between 19.3 t km-2 year-1 and 48.7 t km-2 year-1 in four catchments under secondary forest or grasses, where the original forest cover had been removed in the Ming and Qing dynasties, several hundred years ago. The highest rate of 1643 t km-2 year-1 was obtained for a catchment underlain by clayey carbonate rocks, where the soil cover was thicker and more extensive than in the other catchments and extensive land reclamation for cultivation had occurred during the period 1979-1981, immediately after the Cultural Revolution.

  10. The Role of Regional Factors in Structuring Ouachita Mountain Stream Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance R. Williams; Christopher M. Taylor; Melvin L. Warren; J. Alan Clingenpeel

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - We used Basin Area Stream Survey data from the USDA Forest Service, Ouachita National Forest to evaluate the relationship between regional fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages and environmental variability (both natural and anthropogenic). Data were collected for three years (1990-1992) from six hydrologically variable stream systems in...

  11. Ozone air pollution in the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains and Kiev region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleg Blum; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; William Manning; Ludmila Popovicheva

    1998-01-01

    Ambient concentrations of ozone (O3) were measured at five highland forest locations in the Ukrainian Carpathians and in two lowland locations in the Kiev region during August to September 1995 by using O3 passive samplers. The ozone passive samplers were calibrated against a Thermo Environmental Model 49 ozone monitor...

  12. A synthesis of the Jurassic system in the southern Rocky Mountain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, F.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter includes important stratigraphic revisions and nomenclatural changes made especially in the Colorado Plateau region in recent years. For the purpose of the discussion, these rocks are divided into six divisions. The stratigraphy and depositional environments of the rocks are discussed, along with the economic resources of these rocks which include uranium and hydrocarbons

  13. How a geomorphosite inventory can contribute to regional sustainable development? The case of the Simen Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauerhofer, Lukas; Reynard, Emmanuel; Asrat, Asfawossen; Hurni, Hans; Wildlife Conservation Authority, Ethiopian

    2016-04-01

    This research aimed at investigating how an inventory of geomorphosites can foster or improve the knowledge and management of geomorphological heritages in the context of developing countries. Accordingly, a geomorphosite inventory in the Simen Mountains National Park (SMNP), Ethiopia was conducted following the method of Reynard et al. (2015). The national context of geoheritage and geoconservation in Ethiopia was appraised and a road map for the management of the inventoried sites in the SMNP was elaborated. Ethiopia hosts numerous geoheritage sites, some of which of highest international significance. Therefore, geotourism has recently been promoted throughout the country (Asrat et al., 2008). Despite numerous trials of the scientific community, there is not yet a national policy for geoconservation in the country. Many parts of Ethiopia are underdeveloped in terms of economic subsistence and infrastructure, making these immediate priorities over conservation efforts. Nevertheless, this study showed that the Simen Mountains have the potential to become a UNESCO Global Geopark and that geosites could be used to develop geotourism within SMNP, and that development and conservation are not contradictory. Twenty-one geomorphosites were identified and assessed. Diverse geomorphological contexts including fluvial, structural, glacial, periglacial, anthropic and organic characterize the SMNP. The temporal stages, which allow the reconstitution of the morphogenesis of the Simen Mountains, are the Cenozoic volcanism, Last Glacial Maximum, Holocene as well as historic/modern landscape modification. Four synthesis maps were elaborated to present the results of the assessment. The average scientific value of the inventoried geomorphosites is very high compared to other inventories realized using the same method. This is particularly due to the extremely high integrity of the sites. Almost all geomorphosites are in a good state of conservation and only few sites are

  14. Moisture source in the Hyblean Mountains region (south-eastern Sicily, Italy): Evidence from stable isotopes signature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassa, Fausto [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa, 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy)]. E-mail: f.grassa@pa.ingv.it; Favara, Rocco [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa, 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Valenza, Mariano [Dipartimento CFTA, Universita di Palermo, Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36, 90123, Palermo (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Here the authors present results of an isotope study on precipitation collected during a 2-a period from a rain-gauge network consisting of 6 stations located at different elevations in the Hyblean Mountains (HM) region, in south-eastern Sicily. The slope of the local meteoric water line ({delta}D = 6.50 {delta} {sup 18}O + 9.87) obtained for the region suggests that precipitation is affected by evaporation during rainfall events. The main variations in rainwater isotope composition are due to seasonal effects and elevation. An average {sup 2}H excess value of +21.2 per mille was found for precipitation events less affected by evaporation (i.e. when the rainfall was >65 mm/month). The spatial distribution of O isotope composition of precipitation shows a negative gradient from east and south to the inner areas. The depositional rate of Cl, used as a tracer of the origin of air masses, is highest at the coastal rain-gauges (SR and MRG stations) and lowest on the northern flank of the HM region (SC station). Based on these findings, a model is proposed for the origin of precipitation in the HM region, which assumes that a Mediterranean-derived component is the main source of moisture in the studied area. D/H and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratios of inferred meteoric recharge waters were also compared with the isotope composition of waters collected from the main local springs and wells. The best linear fit of the {delta} {sup 18}O vs {delta}D relationship for Hyblean groundwater is {delta}D = 4.85 {delta} {sup 18}O-2.01. The enrichment of heavy isotopes in Hyblean groundwater is probably due to evaporation occurring after precipitation events or to a recharging contribution from surface waters (lakes or rivers) enriched in heavy isotopes.

  15. Moisture source in the Hyblean Mountains region (south-eastern Sicily, Italy): Evidence from stable isotopes signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassa, Fausto; Favara, Rocco; Valenza, Mariano

    2006-01-01

    Here the authors present results of an isotope study on precipitation collected during a 2-a period from a rain-gauge network consisting of 6 stations located at different elevations in the Hyblean Mountains (HM) region, in south-eastern Sicily. The slope of the local meteoric water line (δD = 6.50 δ 18 O + 9.87) obtained for the region suggests that precipitation is affected by evaporation during rainfall events. The main variations in rainwater isotope composition are due to seasonal effects and elevation. An average 2 H excess value of +21.2 per mille was found for precipitation events less affected by evaporation (i.e. when the rainfall was >65 mm/month). The spatial distribution of O isotope composition of precipitation shows a negative gradient from east and south to the inner areas. The depositional rate of Cl, used as a tracer of the origin of air masses, is highest at the coastal rain-gauges (SR and MRG stations) and lowest on the northern flank of the HM region (SC station). Based on these findings, a model is proposed for the origin of precipitation in the HM region, which assumes that a Mediterranean-derived component is the main source of moisture in the studied area. D/H and 18 O/ 16 O ratios of inferred meteoric recharge waters were also compared with the isotope composition of waters collected from the main local springs and wells. The best linear fit of the δ 18 O vs δD relationship for Hyblean groundwater is δD = 4.85 δ 18 O-2.01. The enrichment of heavy isotopes in Hyblean groundwater is probably due to evaporation occurring after precipitation events or to a recharging contribution from surface waters (lakes or rivers) enriched in heavy isotopes

  16. Assessing Watershed-Wildfire Risks on National Forest System Lands in the Rocky Mountain Region of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Haas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires can cause significant negative impacts to water quality with resultant consequences for the environment and human health and safety, as well as incurring substantial rehabilitation and water treatment costs. In this paper we will illustrate how state-of-the-art wildfire simulation modeling and geospatial risk assessment methods can be brought to bear to identify and prioritize at-risk watersheds for risk mitigation treatments, in both pre-fire and post-fire planning contexts. Risk assessment results can be particularly useful for prioritizing management of hazardous fuels to lessen the severity and likely impacts of future wildfires, where budgetary and other constraints limit the amount of area that can be treated. Specifically we generate spatially resolved estimates of wildfire likelihood and intensity, and couple that information with spatial data on watershed location and watershed erosion potential to quantify watershed exposure and risk. For a case study location we focus on National Forest System lands in the Rocky Mountain Region of the United States. The Region houses numerous watersheds that are critically important to drinking water supplies and that have been impacted or threatened by large wildfires in recent years. Assessment results are the culmination of a broader multi-year science-management partnership intended to have direct bearing on wildfire management decision processes in the Region. Our results suggest substantial variation in the exposure of and likely effects to highly valued watersheds throughout the Region, which carry significant implications for prioritization. In particular we identified the San Juan National Forest as having the highest concentration of at-risk highly valued watersheds, as well as the greatest amount of risk that can be mitigated via hazardous fuel reduction treatments. To conclude we describe future opportunities and challenges for management of wildfire-watershed interactions.

  17. Modeling flash floods in ungauged mountain catchments of China: A decision tree learning approach for parameter regionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragettli, S.; Zhou, J.; Wang, H.; Liu, C.; Guo, L.

    2017-12-01

    Flash floods in small mountain catchments are one of the most frequent causes of loss of life and property from natural hazards in China. Hydrological models can be a useful tool for the anticipation of these events and the issuing of timely warnings. One of the main challenges of setting up such a system is finding appropriate model parameter values for ungauged catchments. Previous studies have shown that the transfer of parameter sets from hydrologically similar gauged catchments is one of the best performing regionalization methods. However, a remaining key issue is the identification of suitable descriptors of similarity. In this study, we use decision tree learning to explore parameter set transferability in the full space of catchment descriptors. For this purpose, a semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model is set up for 35 catchments in ten Chinese provinces. Hourly runoff data from in total 858 storm events are used to calibrate the model and to evaluate the performance of parameter set transfers between catchments. We then present a novel technique that uses the splitting rules of classification and regression trees (CART) for finding suitable donor catchments for ungauged target catchments. The ability of the model to detect flood events in assumed ungauged catchments is evaluated in series of leave-one-out tests. We show that CART analysis increases the probability of detection of 10-year flood events in comparison to a conventional measure of physiographic-climatic similarity by up to 20%. Decision tree learning can outperform other regionalization approaches because it generates rules that optimally consider spatial proximity and physical similarity. Spatial proximity can be used as a selection criteria but is skipped in the case where no similar gauged catchments are in the vicinity. We conclude that the CART regionalization concept is particularly suitable for implementation in sparsely gauged and topographically complex environments where a proximity

  18. NASA's High Mountain Asia Team (HiMAT): collaborative research to study changes of the High Asia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, A. A.; Houser, P.; Kapnick, S. B.; Kargel, J. S.; Kirschbaum, D.; Kumar, S.; Margulis, S. A.; McDonald, K. C.; Osmanoglu, B.; Painter, T. H.; Raup, B. H.; Rupper, S.; Tsay, S. C.; Velicogna, I.

    2017-12-01

    The High Mountain Asia Team (HiMAT) is an assembly of 13 research groups funded by NASA to improve understanding of cryospheric and hydrological changes in High Mountain Asia (HMA). Our project goals are to quantify historical and future variability in weather and climate over the HMA, partition the components of the water budget across HMA watersheds, explore physical processes driving changes, and predict couplings and feedbacks between physical and human systems through assessment of hazards and downstream impacts. These objectives are being addressed through analysis of remote sensing datasets combined with modeling and assimilation methods to enable data integration across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Our work to date has focused on developing improved high resolution precipitation, snow cover and snow water equivalence products through a variety of statistical uncertainty analysis, dynamical downscaling and assimilation techniques. These and other high resolution climate products are being used as input and validation for an assembly of land surface and General Circulation Models. To quantify glacier change in the region we have calculated multidecadal mass balances of a subset of HMA glaciers by comparing commercial satellite imagery with earlier elevation datasets. HiMAT is using these tools and datasets to explore the impact of atmospheric aerosols and surface impurities on surface energy exchanges, to determine drivers of glacier and snowpack melt rates, and to improve our capacity to predict future hydrological variability. Outputs from the climate and land surface assessments are being combined with landslide and glacier lake inventories to refine our ability to predict hazards in the region. Economic valuation models are also being used to assess impacts on water resources and hydropower. Field data of atmospheric aerosol, radiative flux and glacier lake conditions are being collected to provide ground validation for models and remote sensing

  19. Observational evidences on the modulation of the South American Low Level Jet east of the Andes according the ENSO variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. M. Silva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The differences on the phase and wavelength of the quasi-stationary waves over the South America generated by El Niño (EN and La Niña (LN events seem to affect the daily evolution of the South American Low Level Jet east of the Andes (SALLJ. For the austral summer period of 1977–2004 the SALLJ episodes detected according to Bonner criterion 1 show normal to above-normal frequency in EN years, and in LN years the episodes show normal to below-normal frequency.

    During EN and LN years the SALLJ episodes were associated with positive rainfall anomalies over the La Plata Basin, but more intense during LN years. During EN years the increase in the SALLJ cases were associated to intensification of the Subtropical Jet (SJ around 30° S and positive Sea Level Pressure (SLP anomalies over the western equatorial Atlantic and tropical South America, particularly over central Brazil. This favored the intensification of the northeasterly trade winds over the northern continent and it channeled by the Andes mountain to the La Plata Basin region where negative SLP are found. The SALLJ cases identified during the LN events were weaker and less frequent when compared to those for EN years. In this case the SJ was weaker than in EN years and the negative SLP anomalies over the tropical continent contributed to the inversion of the northeasterly trade winds. Also a southerly flow anomaly was generated by the geostrophic balance due to the anomalous blocking over southeast Pacific and the intense cyclonic transient over the southern tip of South America. As result the warm tropical air brought by the SALLJ encounters the cold extratropical air from the southerly winds over the La Plata basin. This configuration can increase the conditional instability over the La Plata basin and may explain the more intense positive rainfall anomalies in SALLJ cases during LN years than in EN years.

  20. Classification of debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers in the Andes of central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Jason R.; Bellisario, Antonio C.; Ferrando, Francisco A.

    2015-07-01

    In the Dry Andes of Chile (17 to 35° S), debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers are differentiated from true glaciers based on the percentage of surface debris cover, thickness of surface debris, and ice content. Internal ice is preserved by an insulating cover of thick debris, which acts as a storage reservoir to release water during the summer and early fall. These landforms are more numerous than glaciers in the central Andes; however, the existing legislation only recognizes uncovered or semicovered glaciers as a water resource. Glaciers, debris-covered glaciers, and rock glaciers are being altered or removed by mining operations to extract valuable minerals from the mountains. In addition, agricultural expansion and population growth in this region have placed additional demands on water resources. In a warmer climate, as glaciers recede and seasonal water availability becomes condensed over the course of a snowmelt season, rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers contribute a larger component of base flow to rivers and streams. As a result, identifying and locating these features to implement sustainable regional planning for water resources is important. The objective of this study is to develop a classification system to identify debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers based on the interpretation of satellite imagery and aerial photographs. The classification system is linked to field observations and measurements of ice content. Debris-covered glaciers have three subclasses: surface coverage of semi (class 1) and fully covered (class 2) glaciers differentiates the first two forms, whereas debris thickness is critical for class 3 when glaciers become buried with more than 3 m of surface debris. Based on field observations, the amount of ice decreases from more than 85%, to 65-85%, to 45-65% for semi, fully, and buried debris-covered glaciers, respectively. Rock glaciers are characterized by three stages. Class 4 rock glaciers have pronounced

  1. Accelerated construction of a regional DNA-barcode reference library: Caddisflies (Trichoptera) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Robinson, J.L.; Geraci, C.J.; Parker, C.R.; Flint, O.S.; Etnier, D.A.; Ruiter, D.; DeWalt, R.E.; Jacobus, L.M.; Hebert, P.D.N.

    2011-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) barcoding is an effective tool for species identification and lifestage association in a wide range of animal taxa. We developed a strategy for rapid construction of a regional DNA-barcode reference library and used the caddisflies (Trichoptera) of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) as a model. Nearly 1000 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences, representing 209 caddisfly species previously recorded from GSMNP, were obtained from the global Trichoptera Barcode of Life campaign. Most of these sequences were collected from outside the GSMNP area. Another 645 COI sequences, representing 80 species, were obtained from specimens collected in a 3-d bioblitz (short-term, intense sampling program) in GSMNP. The joint collections provided barcode coverage for 212 species, 91% of the GSMNP fauna. Inclusion of samples from other localities greatly expedited construction of the regional DNA-barcode reference library. This strategy increased intraspecific divergence and decreased average distances to nearest neighboring species, but the DNA-barcode library was able to differentiate 93% of the GSMNP Trichoptera species examined. Global barcoding projects will aid construction of regional DNA-barcode libraries, but local surveys make crucial contributions to progress by contributing rare or endemic species and full-length barcodes generated from high-quality DNA. DNA taxonomy is not a goal of our present work, but the investigation of COI divergence patterns in caddisflies is providing new insights into broader biodiversity patterns in this group and has directed attention to various issues, ranging from the need to re-evaluate species taxonomy with integrated morphological and molecular evidence to the necessity of an appropriate interpretation of barcode analyses and its implications in understanding species diversity (in contrast to a simple claim for barcoding failure).

  2. Chernobyl fallout radionuclides in soil, plant and honey of a mountain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuric, G.; Todorovic, D.; Popovic, D.

    1997-01-01

    Honey bee and the products (honey, pollen, wax, propolis) are generally considered as efficient bioindicators of the environmental pollution. Honey bee activity upon a territory is well defined both in space and time and honey bee itself is easier to control than other animal bioindicators (birds, fish, wild animals). Networks of bee hives near nuclear and industrial installations are therefore often used for, environment pollution research and control. The investigations started in 1983/84. Gamma exposure and Cs-137 activity measurements provided information on ''zero status'' of the radioecological situation in the region. During the nuclear plant accident at Chernobyl in April 1986 and afterworks through the year, over two hundred samples of honey, grass and meadow flora have been examined. Investigations of the radioactivity in soils, meadow flora and honey in the region continued up to 1991 and afterwards. The vertical distribution of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in different soils provided data on the migration rate through soil and on concentration factors for different phases of the ''soil-plant-honey'' ecosystem

  3. The Participatory Construction of Agro-Ecological Knowledge As A Soil Conservation Strategy In The Mountain Region of Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Assis Renato Linhares

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in the mountain region of Rio de Janeiro State is characterized by intensive soil use and input. Such mountainous environments are vulnerable to climate events; thus, the current article presents a report on methods applied to exchange academic and traditional knowledge. The aim is to expand farmers’ perception about the need of implementing agro-ecological practices, mainly soil management practices, which are important for agricultural sustainability in mountainous environments. The study was conducted in a Nova Friburgo family production unit, in the mountain region of Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil. It consisted of implementing three observation and soil organic-matter management units. The idea was to reduce the incidence of clubroot of crucifers disease caused by Plasmidiophora brassicae. The soil fauna was discussed with local farmers, with emphasis on the association between ecological processes and soil management. The present study improved the discussion with farmers and the need of introducing other innovative conservation practices such as no-tillage system and participatory research based on agro-ecological propositions.

  4. Phytogeography of the vascular páramo flora of Ramal de Guaramacal (Andes, Venezuela) and its ties to other páramo floras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuello, N.L.; Cleef, A.M.; Aymard, G.

    2010-01-01

    Ramal de Guaramacal is an outlier and lower elevation mountain range located at the northeastern end of the Venezuelan Andes. Phytogeographical patterns and affinities of the low altitude and wet vascular páramo flora of Ramal de Guaramacal, have been studied with emphasis in to the analysis of the

  5. Land-use effect on hydropedology in a mountainous region of Southeastern Brazil

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    Leandro Campos Pinto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, the Mantiqueira Range, southeastern region, shelters the last remnants of the ecologically important Upper Montane Tropical Forest. since extensive exploration that has been taking place in this biome for decades, the influence of land-use changes on hydropedology in these areas must be investigated once major land-use changes have been observed. This study aims to evaluate the land-use influence on soil drainable porosity (SDP in a headwater watershed located in the Mantiqueira Range region, and to validate the proposed methods based on micromorphological and hydrological indicators. The native vegetation of the study area is Atlantic forest that occupies 62% of the area, and the remaining 38% has been used for pasture. Thirty nine combinations of environmental variables were tested, each one generating a map for predicting SDP. The performance of the spatial prediction of SDP was assessed using 20% of the data from the total number of samples collected throughout the watershed. The least values of SDP are due to the process of removal of native forest and replacement by pasture. Areas with high to moderate SDP are associated with native forest fragments demonstrating the effects of the Atlantic Forest on the water infiltration and groundwater recharge processes, given by the greater contribution of baseflow in a forested catchment located within the studied watershed. The analysis of soil micromorphological images provided useful supporting information on the soil porosity system and along with hydrological properties of the watershed helped understand the SDP behavior on subsurface and groundwater storage capacity.

  6. Hydrochemical and environmental isotope analysis of groundwater and surface water in a dry mountain region in Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Carina; Dame, Juliane; Nüsser, Marcus

    2018-05-08

    This case study examines the geological imprint and land use practices on water quality in the arid Huasco Valley against the backdrop of ongoing water conflicts surrounding competing demands for agriculture and mining. The study is based on a detailed analysis of spatial and temporal variations of monthly surface and bi-monthly groundwater quality samples measured during the Chilean summer of 2015/16. Additional information on source regions and river-groundwater interactions were collected using stable water isotopes. Regarding the geological impact on water quality, high concentrations of Ca 2+ , SO 4 2- and HCO 3 - indicate a strong influence of magmatic rocks, which constitute this high mountain basin, on the hydrochemistry. Piper and Gibbs-diagrams revealed that all samples show a homogenous distribution dominated by rock-water interactions. Measured NO 3 - concentrations in surface water are generally low. However, groundwater aquifers exhibit higher concentrations. Mn is the only heavy metal with elevated concentrations in surface water, which are possibly related to mining activities. The results illustrate that both surface and groundwater can be classified as suitable for irrigation. In addition, groundwater has been found to be suitable as drinking water. High similarities in isotopic signatures indicate a strong connection between surface and groundwater. Isotopic analyses suggest a strong influence of evaporation. This combined approach of hydrogeochemical and isotopic analysis proved to be a helpful tool in characterizing the catchment and can serve as a basis for future sustainable water management.

  7. Genetic structure and evolutionary history of three alpine sclerophyllous oaks in East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains and adjacent regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Feng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (EH-HM region has a high biodiversity and harbours numerous endemic alpine plants. This is probably the result of combined orographic and climate oscillations occurring since late Tertiary. Here, we determined the genetic structure and evolutionary history of alpine oak species (including Q. spinosa, Q. aquifolioides and Q. rehderiana using both cytoplasmic-nuclear markers and ecological niche models (ENMs, and elucidated the impacts of climate oscillations and environmental heterogeneity on their population demography. Our results indicate there were mixed genetic structure and asymmetric contemporary gene flow within them. The ENMs revealed a similar demographic history for the three species expanded their ranges from the last interglacial (LIG to the last glacial maximum (LGM, which was consistent with effective population sizes changes. Effects of genetic drift and fragmentation of habitats were responsible for the high differentiation and the lack of phylogeographic structure. Our results support that geological and climatic factors since Miocene triggered the differentiation, evolutionary origin and range shifts of the three oak species in the studied area and also emphasize that a multidisciplinary approach combining molecular markers, ENMs and population genetics can yield deep insights into diversification and evolutionary dynamics of species.

  8. Genetic Structure and Evolutionary History of Three Alpine Sclerophyllous Oaks in East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains and Adjacent Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Zheng, Qi-Jian; Qian, Zeng-Qiang; Yang, Jia; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Li, Zhong-Hu; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (EH-HM) region has a high biodiversity and harbors numerous endemic alpine plants. This is probably the result of combined orographic and climate oscillations occurring since late Tertiary. Here, we determined the genetic structure and evolutionary history of alpine oak species (including Quercus spinosa, Quercus aquifolioides , and Quercus rehderiana ) using both cytoplasmic-nuclear markers and ecological niche models (ENMs), and elucidated the impacts of climate oscillations and environmental heterogeneity on their population demography. Our results indicate there were mixed genetic structure and asymmetric contemporary gene flow within them. The ENMs revealed a similar demographic history for the three species expanded their ranges from the last interglacial (LIG) to the last glacial maximum (LGM), which was consistent with effective population sizes changes. Effects of genetic drift and fragmentation of habitats were responsible for the high differentiation and the lack of phylogeographic structure. Our results support that geological and climatic factors since Miocene triggered the differentiation, evolutionary origin and range shifts of the three oak species in the studied area and also emphasize that a multidisciplinary approach combining molecular markers, ENMs and population genetics can yield deep insights into diversification and evolutionary dynamics of species.

  9. Strong topographic sheltering effects lead to spatially complex treeline advance and increased forest density in a subtropical mountain region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Sarah; Chen, Jan-Chang; Chen, Chaur-Tzuhn; Jump, Alistair S

    2014-12-01

    Altitudinal treelines are typically temperature limited such that increasing temperatures linked to global climate change are causing upslope shifts of treelines worldwide. While such elevational increases are readily predicted based on shifting isotherms, at the regional level the realized response is often much more complex, with topography and local environmental conditions playing an important modifying role. Here, we used repeated aerial photographs in combination with forest inventory data to investigate changes in treeline position in the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan over the last 60 years. A highly spatially variable upslope advance of treeline was identified in which topography is a major driver of both treeline form and advance. The changes in treeline position that we observed occurred alongside substantial increases in forest density, and lead to a large increase in overall forest area. These changes will have a significant impact on carbon stocking in the high altitude zone, while the concomitant decrease in alpine grassland area is likely to have negative implications for alpine species. The complex and spatially variable changes that we report highlight the necessity for considering local factors such as topography when attempting to predict species distributional responses to warming climate. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Poverty targeting and income impact of subsidised credit on accessed households in the Northern Mountainous Region of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Xuan Luan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the data of 1338 rural households in the Northern Mountainous Region of Vietnam to examine the extent to which subsidised credit targets the poor and its impacts. Principal Component Analysis and Propensity Score Matching were used to evaluate the depth of outreach and the income impact of credit. To address the problem of model uncertainty, the approach of Bayesian Model Average applied to the probit model was used. Results showed that subsidised credit successfully targeted the poor households with 24.10% and 69.20% of clients falling into the poorest group and the three bottom groups respectively. Moreover, those who received subsidised credit make up 83% of ethnic minority households. These results indicate that governmental subsidies are necessary to reach the poor and low income households, who need capital but are normally bypassed by commercial banks. Analyses also showed that ethnicity and age of household heads, number of helpers, savings, as well as how affected households are by shocks were all factors that further explained the probability at which subsidised credit has been assessed. Furthermore, recipients obtained a 2.61% higher total income and a 5.93% higher farm income compared to non-recipients. However, these small magnitudes of effects are statistically insignificant at a 5% level. Although the subsidised credit is insufficient to significantly improve the income of the poor households, it possibly prevents these households of becoming even poorer.

  11. Mapping Plant Functional Types over Broad Mountainous Regions: A Hierarchical Soft Time-Space Classification Applied to the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danlu Cai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on global climate change requires plant functional type (PFT products. Although several PFT mapping procedures for remote sensing imagery are being used, none of them appears to be specifically designed to map and evaluate PFTs over broad mountainous areas which are highly relevant regions to identify and analyze the response of natural ecosystems. We present a methodology for generating soft classifications of PFTs from remotely sensed time series that are based on a hierarchical strategy by integrating time varying integrated NDVI and phenological information with topography: (i Temporal variability: a Fourier transform of a vegetation index (MODIS NDVI, 2006 to 2010. (ii Spatial partitioning: a primary image segmentation based on a small number of thresholds applied to the Fourier amplitude. (iii Classification by a supervised soft classification step is based on a normalized distance metric constructed from a subset of Fourier coefficients and complimentary altitude data from a digital elevation model. Applicability and effectiveness is tested for the eastern Tibetan Plateau. A classification nomenclature is determined from temporally stable pixels in the MCD12Q1 time series. Overall accuracy statistics of the resulting classification reveal a gain of about 7% from 64.4% compared to 57.7% by the MODIS PFT products.

  12. Landslide hazard assessment along a mountain highway in the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) using remote sensing and computational models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Akhouri P.; Kumar, Santosh

    2013-10-01

    Landslide hazard assessments using computational models, such as artificial neural network (ANN) and frequency ratio (FR), were carried out covering one of the important mountain highways in the Central Himalaya of Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). Landslide influencing factors were either calculated or extracted from spatial databases including recent remote sensing data of LANDSAT TM, CARTOSAT digital elevation model (DEM) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite for rainfall data. ANN was implemented using the multi-layered feed forward architecture with different input, output and hidden layers. This model based on back propagation algorithm derived weights for all possible parameters of landslides and causative factors considered. The training sites for landslide prone and non-prone areas were identified and verified through details gathered from remote sensing and other sources. Frequency Ratio (FR) models are based on observed relationships between the distribution of landslides and each landslide related factor. FR model implementation proved useful for assessing the spatial relationships between landslide locations and factors contributing to its occurrence. Above computational models generated respective susceptibility maps of landslide hazard for the study area. This further allowed the simulation of landslide hazard maps on a medium scale using GIS platform and remote sensing data. Upon validation and accuracy checks, it was observed that both models produced good results with FR having some edge over ANN based mapping. Such statistical and functional models led to better understanding of relationships between the landslides and preparatory factors as well as ensuring lesser levels of subjectivity compared to qualitative approaches.

  13. Composition of Solid Waste in Al Jabal Al Akhdar, a Mountain Region Undergoing Rapid Urbanization in Northern Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah I. Al-Mahrouqi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data on the generation and composition of waste in rural areas worldwide. The present study analyzed the composition of solid waste in Al Jabal Al Akhdar, a rural mountain region in the Sultanate of Oman, which is presently experiencing a rapid rate of urbanization due to tourism development. The solid wastes here are generated by the municipality collecting waste from residential, commercial, institutional and recreational areas, the military from a training camp and a few non-governmental private companies from their camps and hotels. The whole load from each of the three sources was manually segregated each month from June 2013 – May 2014. The results indicated that plastic is the dominant category in the wastes collected by the municipality and accounts for 26.7%, followed by paper (17.9% and then food (14.4%. Food is the dominant category in the wastes collected by the military and private companies and accounts for 36.5% and 45.5% respectively. Management issues associated with solid waste are briefly considered. The study concluded that the municipality should implement an improved system for the collection of plastic waste and initiate a system for recycling it; the military and private companies should reduce the quantities of food waste by improved planning and management of the catering services.

  14. Ethnoveterinary treatments by dromedary camel herders in the Suleiman Mountainous Region in Pakistan: an observation and questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raziq, Abdul; de Verdier, Kerstin; Younas, Muhammad

    2010-06-21

    The Suleiman mountainous region is an important cradle of animal domestication and the habitat of many indigenous livestock breeds. The dromedary camel is a highly appreciated and valued animal and represents an important genetic resource. Camel herders, living in remote areas, have developed their own ways to treat diseases in camels, based on a long time of experience. Information about the diseases and the ethnoveterinary practices performed was collected from a total of 90 herders and healers by interviews and participant observations. The respondents classified the diseased in major and minor fractions. Clinical signs were given in detail. Mange followed by trypanosomosis and orf were considered the most prevalent diseases, and also caused the greatest economic losses. Orf was regarded the most complex disease. The season was considered to have great influence on the occurrence of the diseases. A variety of different treatments were described, such as medicinal plants, cauterization, odorant/fly repellents, pesticides, larvicides, cold drink, yogurt and supportive therapy (hot food, hot drink). There is paramount need to document and validate the indigenous knowledge about animal agriculture in general and ethnoveterinary practices in particular. This knowledge is rapidly disappearing and represents a cultural heritage as well as a valuable resource for attaining food security and sovereignty.

  15. Woody species diversity in forest plantations in a mountainous region of Beijing, China: effects of sampling scale and species selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Zhang

    Full Text Available The role of forest plantations in biodiversity conservation has gained more attention in recent years. However, most work on evaluating the diversity of forest plantations focuses only on one spatial scale; thus, we examined the effects of sampling scale on diversity in forest plantations. We designed a hierarchical sampling strategy to collect data on woody species diversity in planted pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr., planted larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr., and natural secondary deciduous broadleaf forests in a mountainous region of Beijing, China. Additive diversity partition analysis showed that, compared to natural forests, the planted pine forests had a different woody species diversity partitioning pattern at multi-scales (except the Simpson diversity in the regeneration layer, while the larch plantations did not show multi-scale diversity partitioning patterns that were obviously different from those in the natural secondary broadleaf forest. Compare to the natural secondary broadleaf forests, the effects of planted pine forests on woody species diversity are dependent on the sampling scale and layers selected for analysis. Diversity in the planted larch forest, however, was not significantly different from that in the natural forest for all diversity components at all sampling levels. Our work demonstrated that the species selected for afforestation and the sampling scales selected for data analysis alter the conclusions on the levels of diversity supported by plantations. We suggest that a wide range of scales should be considered in the evaluation of the role of forest plantations on biodiversity conservation.

  16. Limits and possibilities for building “territories of development” in the Rio de Janeiro mountain region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Carneiro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to evaluate two inter-municipal projects involving family farmers in the social construction of territories of development. Our starting point is the hypothesis that the building of this territoriality is mediated by a political culture that imposes limits and conditions territorial dynamics. The municipality of Nova Friburgo has been taken as a point of reference for the mapping of projects and/or actions that mobilize multi-functional farmers located in other municipalities of the mountainous region of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Based on a rapid characterization of the development trajectory of the chosen universe and on the problematization of the category of territory, we seek to elucidate the way in which a constitutive trait of Brazilian society – patronage and clientelism – operates within the context of family farmers’ quest for territorial construction, as social actors and as the primary beneficiaries of the public policies that have been implemented in recent times Keywords: Sustainable territorial development, public policies, family farming, clientelism.

  17. Composition of the root mycorrhizal community associated with Coffea arabica in Fifa Mountains (Jazan region, Saudi Arabia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdhi, Mosbah; Tounekti, Taieb; Al-Turki, Turki Ali; Khemira, Habib

    2017-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) constitute a key functional group of soil biota that can greatly contribute to crop productivity and ecosystem sustainability. They improve nutrient uptake and enhance the ability of plants to cope with abiotic stresses. The presence of AMF in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plant roots have been reported in several locations but not in Saudi Arabia despite the fact that coffee has been in cultivation here since ancient times. The objective of the present study was to investigate the diversity of AMF communities colonizing the roots of coffee trees growing in two sites of Fifa Mountains (south-west Saudi Arabia): site 1 at 700 m altitude and site 2 at 1400 m. The AMF large subunit rDNA regions (LSU) were subjected to nested PCR, cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Microscopic observations indicated higher mycorrhizal intensity (24.3%) and spore density (256 spores/100 g of soil) in site 2 (higher altitude). Phylogenetic analysis revealed 10 phylotypes, six belonging to the family Glomeraceae, two to Claroideoglomercea, one to Acaulosporaceae and one to Gigasporaceae family. Glomus was the dominant genus at both sites and the genus Gigaspora was detected only at site 2. This is the first study reporting the presence of AMF in coffee roots and the composition of this particular mycorrhizal community in Saudi Arabia. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Multi year aerosol characterization in the tropical Andes and in adjacent Amazonia using AERONET measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Daniel; Andrade-Flores, Marcos; Eck, Thomas F.; Stein, Ariel F.; O'Neill, Norman T.; Lyamani, Hassan; Gassó, Santiago; Whiteman, David N.; Veselovskii, Igor; Velarde, Fernando; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2017-10-01

    This work focuses on the analysis of columnar aerosol properties in the complex geophysical tropical region of South America within 10-20° South and 50-70° West. The region is quite varied and encompasses a significant part of Amazonia (lowlands) as well as high mountains in the Andes (highlands,∼4000 m a.s.l.). Several AERONET stations were included to study the aerosol optical characteristics of the lowlands (Rio Branco, Ji Parana and Cuiaba in Brazil and Santa Cruz in Bolivia) and the highlands (La Paz, Bolivia) during the 2000-2014 period. Biomass-burning is by far the most important source of aerosol in the lowlands, particularly during the dry season (August-October). Multi-annual variability was investigated and showed very strong burning activity in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2010. This resulted in smoke characterized by correspondingly strong, above-average AODs (aerosol optical depths) and homogeneous single scattering albedo (SSA) across all the stations (∼0.93). For other years, however, SSA differences arise between the northern stations (Rio Branco and Ji Parana) with SSAs of ∼0.95 and the southern stations (Cuiaba and Santa Cruz) with lower SSAs of ∼0.85. Such differences are explained by the different types of vegetation burned in the two different regions. In the highlands, however, the transport of biomass burning smoke is found to be sporadic in nature. This sporadicity results in highly variable indicators of aerosol load and type (Angstrom exponent and fine mode fraction) with moderately significant increases in both. Regional dust and local pollution are the background aerosol in this highland region, whose elevation places it close to the free troposphere. Transported smoke particles were generally found to be more optical absorbing than in the lowlands: the hypothesis to explain this is the significantly higher amount of water vapor in Amazonia relative to the high mountain areas. The air-mass transport to La Paz was investigated using

  19. Cripple Creek and other alkaline-related gold deposits in the Southern Rocky Mountains, USA: Influence of regional tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Ludington, S.

    2002-01-01

    Alkaline-related epithermal vein, breccia, disseminated, skarn, and porphyry gold deposits form a belt in the southern Rocky Mountains along the eastern edge of the North American Cordillera. Alkaline igneous rocks and associated hydrothermal deposits formed at two times. The first was during the Laramide orogeny (about 70-40 Ma), with deposits restricted spatially to the Colorado mineral belt (CMB). Other alkaline igneous rocks and associated gold deposits formed later, during the transition from a compressional to an extensional regime (about 35-27 Ma). These younger rocks and associated deposits are more widespread, following the Rocky Mountain front southward, from Cripple Creek in Colorado through New Mexico. All of these deposits are on the eastern margin of the Cordillera, with voluminous calc-alkaline rocks to the west. The largest deposits in the belt include Cripple Creek and those in the CMB. The most important factor in the formation of all of the gold deposits was the near-surface emplacement of relatively oxidized volatile-rich alkaline magmas. Strontium and lead isotope compositions suggest that the source of the magmas was subduction-modified subcontinental lithosphere. However, Cripple Creek alkaline rocks and older Laramide alkaline rocks in the CMB that were emplaced through hydrously altered LREE-enriched rocks of the Colorado (Yavapai) province have 208Pb/204Pb ratios that suggest these magmas assimilated and mixed with significant amounts of lower crust. The anomalously hot, thick, and light crust beneath Colorado may have been a catalyst for large-scale transfer of volatiles and crustal melting. Increased dissolved H2O (and CO2, F, Cl) of these magmas may have resulted in more productive gold deposits due to more efficient magmatic-hydrothermal systems. High volatile contents may also have promoted Te and V enrichment, explaining the presence of fluorite, roscoelite (vanadium-rich mica) and tellurides in the CMB deposits and Cripple Creek as

  20. An analysis of surface air temperature trends and variability along the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franquist, Eric S.

    Climate change is difficult to study in mountainous regions such as the Andes since steep changes in elevation cannot always be resolved by climate models. However, it is important to examine temperature trends in this region as rises in surface air temperature are leading to the melting of tropical glaciers. Local communities rely on the glacier-fed streamflow to get their water for drinking, irrigation, and livestock. Moreover, communities also rely on the tourism of hikers who come to the region to view the glaciers. As the temperatures increase, these glaciers are no longer in equilibrium with their current climate and are receding rapidly and decreasing the streamflow. This thesis examines surface air temperature from 858 weather stations across Ecuador, Peru, and Chile in order to analyze changes in trends and variability. Three time periods were studied: 1961--1990, 1971--2000, and 1981--2010. The greatest warming occurred during the period of 1971--2000 with 92% of the stations experiencing positive trends with a mean of 0.24°C/decade. There was a clear shift toward cooler temperatures at all latitudes and below elevations of 500 m during the most recent time period studied (1981--2010). Station temperatures were more strongly correlated with the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), than the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). A principal component analysis confirmed ENSO as the main contributor of variability with the most influence in the lower latitudes. There were clear multidecadal changes in correlation strength for the PDO. The PDO contributed the most to the increases in station temperature trends during the 1961--1990 period, consistent with the PDO shift to the positive phase in the middle of this period. There were many strong positive trends at individual stations during the 1971--2000 period; however, these trends could not fully be attributed to ENSO, PDO, or SAM, indicating anthropogenic effects of

  1. Glacialmorphological reconstruction of glacier advances and glacial lake outburst floods at the Cachapoal glacier in the Dry Central Andes of Chile (34°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrizaga, Lasafam; Charrier, Reynaldo

    2013-04-01

    Throughout the Andes Mountain range of South America a general trend of glacier shrinkage has taken place in the last century. Only a few glaciers have shown a rather non-continuous trend of glacier retreat and temporally advanced or even surged during the mid-19th to 20th century. One of the earliest assumed glacier surges has occurred in the upper Cachapoal catchment area at the homonymous glacier. In climatic respect the Cachapoal glacier is located in the transition zone from the most southern part of the Dry Central Andes of Chile to the more humid zone of the Wet Andes. The region is affected mainly by winter precipitation deriving from the Westerlies. The debris-covered, 12 km-long Cachapoal glacier represents one of the largest valley glaciers in the Central Andes. It is an avalanche-fed glacier with an almost 1500 m-high head wall in its upper catchment area flowing down from Picos del Barroso (5180 m) and terminates at an elevation of 2630 m a.s.l. with a bifurcated glacier tongue. A large moraine complex, almost 2 km in length and 500 m in width, separates the two glacier lobes. During times of advanced glacier tongue positions the Ríos Molina and Cachapoal may be have blocked independently at two distinct localities which are situated about 2300 m apart from each other. A blockage with temporal lake formation has occurred at least in the years 1848, 1955 and 1981 (cf. Plagemann 1887, Peña 1981), from which the rupture of the earliest glacier barrier has been the most devastating. This event is locally reminded as "la gran avenida en seco" in the historical record. Geomorphological evidence of the past historical and modern glacier expansions is given in the proglacial area by a fresh dead-ice hummocky topography and glacial trimlines at the valley flanks. More down valley broad outwash plains and boulder clusters indicate past high energy floods produced by glacier lake outbursts. Regarding the small size of the catchment area of the Río Molina

  2. Indirect quantification of fine root production in a near tropical wet mountainous region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X.; Zhang, J.; Huang, C.

    2016-12-01

    The main functions of fine root (defined as diameter floristic) and external (environmental) factors into account, including litter production, canopy density (leaf area index), leaf nutrients (N, K, Ca, Mg, P), weather and/or soil physical conditions (air temperature, humidity, precipitation, solar radiation and soil moisture). The study was conducted in near tropical broadleaf (700 m asl) and conifer (1700 m asl) forests in northeastern Taiwan, generally receiving more than 4000 mm of precipitation per year. For each site, 16 50-cm long minirhizotron tubes were installed. Fine root images were acquired every three weeks. Growth and decline, newly presence and absence of fine roots were delineated by image processing algorithms to derive fine-root productivity through time. Aforementioned internal and external attributes were simultaneously collected as well. Some of these variables were highly correlated and were detrended using principal component analysis. We found that these transformed variables (mainly associated with litter production, precipitation and solar radiation) can delineate the spatiotemporal dynamics of root production well (r2 = 0.87, p = 0.443). In conclusion, this study demonstrated the feasibility of utilized aboveground variables to indirectly assess fine root growth, which could be further developed for the regional scale mapping with aid of remote sensing.

  3. Origin and Distribution of PAHs in Ambient Particulate Samples at High Mountain Region in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-hui Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the deposition and transport of PAHs in southern China, a measurement campaign was conducted at a high-elevation site (the summit of Mount Heng, 1269 m A.S.L. from April 4 to May 31, 2009, and a total of 39 total suspended particulate samples were collected for measurement of PAH concentrations. The observed particulate-bound PAHs concentrations ranged from 1.63 to 29.83 ng/m3, with a mean concentration of 6.03 ng/m3. BbF, FLA, and PYR were the predominant compounds. Good correlations were found between individual PAHs and meteorological parameters such as atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, and ambient temperature. The backward trajectory analysis suggested that particulate samples measured at the Mount Heng region were predominantly associated with the air masses from southern China, while the air masses transported over northern and northwestern China had relative higher PAHs concentrations. Based on the diagnostic ratios and factor analysis, vehicular emission, coal combustion, industry emission, and unburned fossil fuels were suggested to be the PAHs sources at Mount Heng site. However, the reactivity and degradation of individual PAHs could influence the results of PAH source profiles, which deserves further investigations in the future.

  4. The influence of regional urbanization and abnormal weather conditions on the processes of human climatic adaptation on mountain resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artamonova, M.; Golitsyn, G.; Senik, I.; Safronov, A.; Babyakin, A.; Efimenko, N.; Povolotskaya, N.; Topuriya, D.; Chalaya, E.

    2012-04-01

    in patients with coronary heart disease, hypertension stage I-II syndrome disadaptative using the transcranial mezo diencephalic modulation / L.I.Zherlitsina, N.V. Efimenko, N.P. Povolotskaya, I.I. Velikanov. the Patent for the invention No.2422128, RU (11) 2 422 128 (13) C1 from 6/27/2011; Bull.13). We have observed that such anthropogenic characteristics as accumulation of aerosol with the size of particles 500-5000 nanometers in the lower atmosphere in the quantity more than 60 particles/sm3 (getting to alveoli); decrease in quantity of negative ions (N-) lower than 200 ions/sm3, high coefficient of ions unipolarity (N+/N-) - more than 4-6; mass concentration of aerosol more than 150 mkg/m3 and other modules of the environment can act as limited markers for the forecast of dangerous NAR, SAD and taking of urgent radical preventive measures. These techniques of medical weather forecast and meteo prevention can be used in other mountain regions of the world. The studies were performed by support of the Program "Basic Sciences for Medicine" and RFBR project No.10-05-01014_a.

  5. Remotely Sensed Estimation of Net Primary Productivity (NPP and Its Spatial and Temporal Variations in the Greater Khingan Mountain Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We improved the CASA model based on differences in the types of land use, the values of the maximum light use efficiency, and the calculation methods of solar radiation. Then, the parameters of the model were examined and recombined into 16 cases. We estimated the net primary productivity (NPP using the NDVI3g dataset, meteorological data, and vegetation classification data from the Greater Khingan Mountain region, China. We assessed the accuracy and temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of NPP in the Greater Khingan Mountain region from 1982 to 2013. Based on a comparison of the results of the 16 cases, we found that different values of maximum light use efficiency affect the estimation more than differences in the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR. However, the FPARmax and the constant Tε2 values did not show marked effects. Different schemes were used to assess different model combinations. Models using a combination of parameters established by scholars from China and the United States produced different results and had large errors. These ideas are meaningful references for the estimation of NPP in other regions. The results reveal that the annual average NPP in the Greater Khingan Mountain region was 760 g C/m2·a in 1982–2013 and that the inter-annual fluctuations were not dramatic. The NPP estimation results of the 16 cases exhibit an increasing trend. In terms of the spatial distribution of the changes, the model indicated that the values in 75% of this area seldom or never increased. Prominent growth occurred in the areas of Taipingling, Genhe, and the Oroqen Autonomous Banner. Notably, NPP decreased in the southeastern region of the Greater Khingan Mountains, the Hulunbuir Pasture Land, and Holingol.

  6. Gold deposits in the Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region, Qinling mountains, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Zhang, Z.; Xu, W.; Qiu, Yumin; Deng, J.

    2002-01-01

    The gold-rich Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region in eastern Shaanxi and western Henan provinces, central China, lies about 30-50 km inland of the southern margin of the North China craton. More than 100 gold deposits and occurrences are concentrated in the Xiaoqinling (west), Xiaoshan (middle), and Xiong'ershan (east) areas. Late Archean gneiss of the Taihua Group, and Middle Proterozoic metavolcanic rocks of the Xiong'er Group are the main host rocks for the deposits. Mesozoic granitoids (ca. 178-104 Ma) are present in most gold districts, but deposits are typically hosted in the Precambrian basement rocks hundreds of meters to as far as 10 km from the intrusions and related hornfels zones. Deposits in the Xiaoqinling and Xiaoshan areas are best classified as orogenic gold deposits, with ores occurring in a number of distinct belts both in quartz veins and disseminated in altered metamorphic rocks. Alteration assemblages are dominated by quartz, sericite, pyrite, and carbonate minerals. The ore-forming fluids were low salinity, CO2-rich, and characterized by isotopically heavy ??18O. Four deposits (Dongchuang, Wenyu, Yangzhaiyu, and Dahu) in the Xiaoqinling area each contain resources of about 1 Moz Au. Some of the gold deposits in the Xiong'ershan area represent more shallowly emplaced tellurium-enriched orogenic systems, which include resources of approximately 1-1.5 Moz Au at Shanggong and Beiling (or Tantou). Others are epithermal deposits (e.g., Qiyugou and Dianfang) that are hosted in volcanic breccia pipes. Isotopic dates for all gold deposits, although often contradictory, generally cluster between 172-99 Ma and are coeval with emplacement of the post-kinematic granitoids. The gold deposits formed during a period of relaxation of far-field compressional stresses, clearly subsequent to the extensive Paleozoic-early Mesozoic accretion of are terranes and the Yangtze craton onto the southern margin of the North China craton. Hydrothermal and magmatic events

  7. Baseflow characterization of the inter-mountainous regions of northern Idaho and eastern Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Murillo, R.; Brooks, E. S.; Boll, J.; Elliot, W.

    2012-12-01

    Baseflow is one of the most important components of the streamflow regime of any river or creek since it provides continuous habitat to aquatic biota; regulates water temperature and dissolved oxygen during summer; and functions as an essential supply for drinking water and irrigation in most temperate regions. Understanding which factors control how water is released to streams during baseflow periods has become critical for watershed management worldwide, especially, in arid and semiarid areas. This study analyzed storage-discharge relationships of 26 watersheds of northern Idaho and eastern Washington using Brutsaert and Nieber (1977) baseflow recession analysis. Daily streamflow and precipitation records ranged from 7 to 70 years. Mean annual precipitation fluctuated from 536 to 1,312 mm. Drainage basin areas varied from 6.35 to 12,357 km2, with streamgage elevation ranging from 536 to 2,172 m. Mean watershed slope varied from 9.24 to 46.53%. Because of the non-uniqueness watershed shapes, illustrated by the natural spectrum of data points, organic correlation analysis was used to determine the recession coefficients (kb). Numerous climatic attributes and geomorphology characteristics were evaluated as potential predictors of kb rates using a Pearson's correlation matrix. Baseflow coefficients ranged from 0.015 to 0.08 day-1. The mean characteristic timescale for baseflow drainage was found to be 33±15 days with extremes of 12.5 and 66.7 days. Watersheds dominated by basalt features showed the lowest drainage times (12.5-20.0 days). The drainage time increased as the metamorphic and sedimentary rock composition increased (33.3-66.7 days). Watersheds mainly composed by granitic features ranged from 29.1 to 50.0 days. The ratio of mean annual precipitation (MAP) to annual potential evapotranspiration (PET), also known as Aridity Index (AI), was found to explain 67% of kb variability. Mean watershed slope exhibited a moderate negative correlation of -0.57. Other

  8. Correction of Excessive Precipitation over Steep Mountains in a General Circulation Model (GCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Winston C.

    2012-01-01

    Excessive precipitation over steep and high mountains (EPSM) is a well-known problem in GCMs and regional climate models even at a resolution as high as 19km. The affected regions include the Andes, the Himalayas, Sierra Madre, New Guinea and others. This problem also shows up in some data assimilation products. Among the possible causes investigated in this study, we found that the most important one, by far, is a missing upward transport of heat out of the boundary layer due to the vertical circulations forced by the daytime subgrid-scale upslope winds, which in turn is forced by heated boundary layer on the slopes. These upslope winds are associated with large subgrid-scale topographic variance, which is found over steep mountains. Without such subgrid-scale heat ventilation, the resolvable-scale upslope flow in the boundary layer generated by surface sensible heat flux along the mountain slopes is excessive. Such an excessive resolvable-scale upslope flow in the boundary layer combined with the high moisture content in the boundary layer results in excessive moisture transport toward mountaintops, which in turn gives rise to excessive precipitation over the affected regions. We have parameterized the effects of subgrid-scale heated-slope-induced vertical circulation (SHVC) by removing heat from the boundary layer and depositing it in the layers higher up when topographic variance exceeds a critical value. Test results using NASA/Goddard's GEOS-5 GCM have shown that the EPSM problem is largely solved.

  9. Relationship between landslide processes and land use-land cover changes in mountain regions: footprint identification approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitta, Marcello; Pregnolato, Marco; Pedoth, Lydia; Schneiderbauer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The present investigation aims to better understand the relationship between landslide events and land use-land cover (LULC) changes. Starting from the approach presented last year at national level ("In search of a footprint: an investigation about the potentiality of large datasets and territorial analysis in disaster and resilience research", Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 16, EGU2014-11253, 2014) we focused our study at regional scale considering South Tyrol, a mountain region in Italy near the Austrian border. Based on the concept exploited in the previous work, in which a disaster footprint was shown using land features and changes maps, in this study we start from the hypothesis that LULC can have a role in activation of landslides events. In this study, we used LULC data from CORINE and from a regional map called REAKART and we used the Italian national database IFFI (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia, Italian inventory of landslides) from which it is possible to select the landslides present in the national inventory together with other vector layers (the urban areas - Corine Land Cover 2000, the roads and railways, the administrative boundaries, the drainage system) and raster layers (the digital terrain model, digital orthophoto TerraItaly it2000, Landsat satellite images and IGM topographic map). Moreover it's possible to obtain information on the most important parameters of landslides, view documents, photos and videos. For South Tyrol, the IFFI database is updated in real time. In our investigation we analyzed: 1) LULC from CORINE and from REAKART, 2) landslides occurred nearby a border of two different LULC classes, 3) landslides occurred in a location in which a change in LULC classification in observed in time, 4) landslides occurred nearby road and railroad. Using classification methods and statistical approaches we investigated relationship between the LULC and the landslides events. The results confirm that specific LULC classes are

  10. Modeling flash floods in ungauged mountain catchments of China: A decision tree learning approach for parameter regionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragettli, S.; Zhou, J.; Wang, H.; Liu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Flash floods in small mountain catchments are one of the most frequent causes of loss of life and property from natural hazards in China. Hydrological models can be a useful tool for the anticipation of these events and the issuing of timely warnings. Since sub-daily streamflow information is unavailable for most small basins in China, one of the main challenges is finding appropriate parameter values for simulating flash floods in ungauged catchments. In this study, we use decision tree learning to explore parameter set transferability between different catchments. For this purpose, the physically-based, semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model PRMS-OMS is set up for 35 catchments in ten Chinese provinces. Hourly data from more than 800 storm runoff events are used to calibrate the model and evaluate the performance of parameter set transfers between catchments. For each catchment, 58 catchment attributes are extracted from several data sets available for whole China. We then use a data mining technique (decision tree learning) to identify catchment similarities that can be related to good transfer performance. Finally, we use the splitting rules of decision trees for finding suitable donor catchments for ungauged target catchments. We show that decision tree learning allows to optimally utilize the information content of available catchment descriptors and outperforms regionalization based on a conventional measure of physiographic-climatic similarity by 15%-20%. Similar performance can be achieved with a regionalization method based on spatial proximity, but decision trees offer flexible rules for selecting suitable donor catchments, not relying on the vicinity of gauged catchments. This flexibility makes the method particularly suitable for implementation in sparsely gauged environments. We evaluate the probability to detect flood events exceeding a given return period, considering measured discharge and PRMS-OMS simulated flows with regionalized parameters

  11. Mountainous Region Wind Power Project Features and Turbine Hoisting Technology%山区风电工程特点与风机吊装技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张栋

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,domestic mountainous region wind power location is allocated in higher and higher altitude, thereby leading to more and more difficult turbine installation.How to safely and efficiently complete turbine installation is an important issue faced by all wind power construction enterprises.Hebei Bashang Luotuogou Stage II wind power field is adopted as an example in the paper.Mountainous region wind power project features and turbine hoisting technologies are summarized and analyzed,thereby providing some guidance experience for installing more mountainous region turbines.%近年来国内山区风电场所处海拔越来越高,风机安装难度越来越大,如何保证在紧张的工期内安全高效地完成风机安装,是每个风电施工企业面临的重要课题。本文以河北坝上骆驼沟二期风电场为例,对山区风电工程特点和风机吊装技术进行总结分析,以期对更多山区风机安装作一些指导。

  12. Impact of cattle grazing on soil and vegetation - a case study in a mountainous region of Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, Andreas; Foldal, Cecilie; Jandl, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In mountainous regions of Austria and of many other European countries, climate change may cause a further intensification of grassland management. Therefore, the effects of intensive cattle grazing on selected soil chemical and physical properties, above- and below-ground phytomass, forage quality, plant species composition and plant species richness at the scale of a representative paddock in a mountainous region of Austria were investigated. At the study site (Styrian Enns valley; 675 m a.s.l.), climate is relatively cool and humid, with a mean annual air temperature of 6.7°C and a mean annual precipitation of 970 mm, of which 66% falls during the vegetation period (April-October). The soil is a deep, base-rich Cambisol with a loamy sand texture. The paddock investigated has a total area of about 2 ha and had been grazed by dairy cows (Brown Swiss) five times per grazing season. The stocking density was 4 cows ha-1 during 180 days from early May to the end of October with a grazing time of about 8 hours per day. The strip grazed permanent pasture was manured annually for a long time, mostly with cattle slurry. Vegetation surveys were carried out using the method of Braun-Blanquet. Above- and below-ground phytomass, forage quality and mineral element concentration in the harvestable above-ground plant biomass were determined by using standard methods. During the grazing season surface soil samples (0-10 cm depth) for chemical analyses were collected before each grazing period (5 analyses of composite samples per site). At the beginning and the end of the grazing season also soil samples for physical analyses were taken from the topsoil (0-15 cm depth). Heavy cattle treading led to a substantial soil compaction especially in the 5-10 cm layer and to a deterioration of topsoil structure. The porous crumb structure was replaced by a compact platy structure. The topsoil was enriched with nutrients (mainly nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and boron). The degree of

  13. Vulnerability to climate change and community based adaptation in the Peruvian Andes, a stepwise approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lasage, R.; Muis, S.; Sardella, C.S.E.; van Drunen, M.A.; Verburg, P.H.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier water. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region.

  14. Transboundary protected area proposals along the Southern Andes of Chile and Argentina: Status of current efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Keller

    2007-01-01

    An evolving network of protected areas along the southern Andes of Chile and Argentina-the heart of Patagonia-are in various stages of evaluation and potential Transboundary Protected Area designations. This paper examines three such efforts. The first proposal is the North Andean-Patagonia Regional Eco-Corridor, which was the subject of a recent bilateral meeting...

  15. Assessment of radargrammetric DSMs from TerraSAR-X Stripmap images in a mountainous relief area of the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Cleber Gonzales; Paradella, Waldir Renato; da Silva, Arnaldo de Queiroz

    The Brazilian Amazon is a vast territory with an enormous need for mapping and monitoring of renewable and non-renewable resources. Due to the adverse environmental condition (rain, cloud, dense vegetation) and difficult access, topographic information is still poor, and when available needs to be updated or re-mapped. In this paper, the feasibility of using Digital Surface Models (DSMs) extracted from TerraSAR-X Stripmap stereo-pair images for detailed topographic mapping was investigated for a mountainous area in the Carajás Mineral Province, located on the easternmost border of the Brazilian Amazon. The quality of the radargrammetric DSMs was evaluated regarding field altimetric measurements. Precise topographic field information acquired from a Global Positioning System (GPS) was used as Ground Control Points (GCPs) for the modeling of the stereoscopic DSMs and as Independent Check Points (ICPs) for the calculation of elevation accuracies. The analysis was performed following two ways: (1) the use of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and (2) calculations of systematic error (bias) and precision. The test for significant systematic error was based on the Student's-t distribution and the test of precision was based on the Chi-squared distribution. The investigation has shown that the accuracy of the TerraSAR-X Stripmap DSMs met the requirements for 1:50,000 map (Class A) as requested by the Brazilian Standard for Cartographic Accuracy. Thus, the use of TerraSAR-X Stripmap images can be considered a promising alternative for detailed topographic mapping in similar environments of the Amazon region, where available topographic information is rare or presents low quality.

  16. Increased vulnerability to wildfires and post fire hydro-geomorphic processes in Portuguese mountain regions: what has changed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes A. N.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to understand the frequency of forest fires, post-fire off-site hydrological response and erosional processes from a social and ecological perspective in two basins located in the central cordillera, Portugal. It also discusses the driving forces that contribute towards increasing the social-ecological vulnerability of systems in the face of hazards and emphasizes the importance of learning from disasters. Based on the historical incidence of wildfires, it is possible to identify several areas affected by two, three or four fires, since 1975. Following the two major fires, in 1987 and 2005, flash floods, intense soil erosion and sedimentation processes were generated, causing severe damage. Significant socioeconomic, political and ecological changes have been affecting mountain regions in the last decades. Approximately 80% of the population and more than 90% of the livestock have disappeared, common lands have been afforested with Pinus pinaster, and several agricultural plots have been abandoned. These factors have all contributed towards creating non- or submanaged landscapes that have led to a dramatic increase in the magnitude and frequency of wildfires and to post-fire hydrological and erosional processes when heavy rainfall occurs. Moreover, the low population density, high level of population ageing and very fire-prone vegetation that now covers large areas of both basins, contribute to a situation of extreme socio-ecological vulnerability, meaning that disasters will continue to occur unless resilience can be restored to improve the capacity to cope with this high susceptibility to hazards.

  17. Prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome and partial fetal alcohol syndrome in a Rocky Mountain Region City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Keaster, Carol; Bozeman, Rosemary; Goodover, Joelene; Blankenship, Jason; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Brooks, Marita; Hasken, Julie; Gossage, J Phillip; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) in the United States (US) are not well known. This active case ascertainment study in a Rocky Mountain Region City assessed the prevalence and traits of children with FAS and PFAS and linked them to maternal risk factors. Diagnoses made by expert clinical dysmorphologists in multidisciplinary case conferences utilized all components of the study: dysmorphology and physical growth, neurobehavior, and maternal risk interviews. Direct parental (active) consent was obtained for 1278 children. Averages for key physical diagnostic traits and several other minor anomalies were significantly different among FAS, PFAS, and randomly-selected, normal controls. Cognitive tests and behavioral checklists discriminated the diagnostic groups from controls on 12 of 14 instruments. Mothers of children with FAS and PFAS were significantly lower in educational attainment, shorter, later in pregnancy recognition, and suffered more depression, and used marijuana and methamphetamine during their pregnancy. Most pre-pregnancy and pregnancy drinking measures were worse for mothers of FAS and PFAS. Excluding a significant difference in simply admitting drinking during the index pregnancy (FAS and PFAS=75% vs. 39.4% for controls), most quantitative intergroup differences merely approached significance. This community's prevalence of FAS is 2.9-7.5 per 1000, PFAS is 7.9-17.7 per 1000, and combined prevalence is 10.9-25.2 per 1000 or 1.1-2.5%. Comprehensive, active case ascertainment methods produced rates of FAS and PFAS higher than predicted by long-standing, popular estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mercury Speciation and Bioaccumulation In Riparian and Upland Food Webs of the White Mountains Region, New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenhouse, N.; Gebauer, R.; Lowe, W.; McFarland, K.; Bank, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The soils and foods webs associated with mid to high elevation, forested, headwater streams are potential hotspots for mercury methylation and bioaccumulation but are not well studied. We tested the hypothesis that spatial variation in mercury bioaccumulation in upland taxa associated with headwater streams can be explained by variation in soil conditions promoting Hg methylation such as soil moisture, pH, and sulfur and organic matter content. We sampled at high (c. 700m) and mid elevation (c. 500m) in northern hardwood forest adjacent to and away from (75m) replicate headwater streams in the Hubbard Brook and Jeffers Brook watersheds of the White Mountains region, New Hampshire, USA. These forested watersheds differed primarily in soil calcium content and pH. We measured and assessed spatial variation in total Hg (THg) and methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations in soils, insects, spiders, salamanders and birds. We also tested whether trophic position, as determined by nitrogen stable isotopes, was a major predictor of Hg bioaccumulation across these riparian and upland forest taxa. We found elevated levels of THg in all measured components of the food web, and conditions for methylation were better in the upland forest sites compared to the riparian sites located adjacent to headwater streams. Both THg and MeHg in biota were positively correlated with trophic position as indicated by 15N enrichment. In fact, trophic position was a better predictor of THg and MeHg content than spatial location, but the spatial patterning of bioaccumulation differed among taxa. Our data show that that significant Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification can occur in soils and food webs of mid to high elevation temperate deciduous forests of the Northeast. They also suggest that mercury methylation in forested watersheds is a widespread phenomenon and not limited to areas with high soil moisture, such as lotic environments.

  19. Altitudinal gradients, midwinter melt, and wind effects on snow accumulation in semiarid midlatitude Andes under La Niña conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, A.; McPhee, J.; Vargas, X.

    2014-04-01

    The Andes Cordillera remains a sparsely monitored and studied snow hydrology environment in comparison to similar mountain ranges in the Northern Hemisphere. In order to uncover some of the key processes driving snow water equivalent (SWE) spatial variability, we present and analyze a distributed SWE data set, sampled at the end of accumulation season 2011. Three representative catchments across the region were monitored, obtaining measurements in an elevation range spanning 2000 to 3900 m asl and from 32.4° to 34.0°S in latitude. Climatic conditions during this season corresponded to a moderate La Niña phenomenon, which is generally correlated with lower-than normal accumulation. Collected measurements can be described at the regional and watershed extents by altitudinal gradients that imply an increase by a factor of two in snow depth between 2200 and 3000 m asl, though with significant variability at the upper sites. In these upper sites, we found north-facing, wind-sheltered slopes showing 25% less average SWE values than south-facing, wind-exposed ones. This suggests that under these conditions, solar radiation dominated wind transport effects in controlling end-of-winter variability. Nevertheless, we found clusters of snow depth measurements above 3000 m asl that can be explained by wind exposure differences. This is the first documented snow depth data set of this spatial extent for this region, and it is framed within an ongoing research effort aimed at improving understanding and modeling of snow hydrology in the extratropical Andes Cordillera.

  20. Risk-based consequences of extreme natural hazard processes in mountain regions - Multi-hazard analysis in Tyrol (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Stötter, Johann

    2010-05-01

    Reinsurance companies are stating a high increase in natural hazard related losses, both insured and economic losses, within the last decades on a global scale. This ongoing trend can be described as a product of the dynamic in the natural and in the anthroposphere. To analyze the potential impact of natural hazard process to a certain insurance portfolio or to the society in general, reinsurance companies or risk management consultants have developed loss models. However, those models are generally not fitting the scale dependent demand on regional scales like it is appropriate (i) for analyses on the scale of a specific province or (ii) for portfolio analyses of regional insurance companies. Moreover, the scientific basis of most of the models is not transparent documented and therefore scientific evaluations concerning the methodology concepts are not possible (black box). This is contrary to the scientific principles of transparency and traceability. Especially in mountain regions like the European Alps with their inherent (i) specific characteristic on small scales, (ii) the relative high process dynamics in general, (iii) the occurrence of gravitative mass movements which are related to high relief energy and thus only exists in mountain regions, (iv) the small proportion of the area of permanent settlement on the overall area, (v) the high value concentration in the valley floors, (vi) the exposition of important infrastructures and lifelines, and others, analyses must consider these circumstances adequately. Therefore, risk-based analyses are methodically estimating the potential consequences of hazard process on the built environment standardized with the risk components (i) hazard, (ii) elements at risk, and (iii) vulnerability. However, most research and progress have been made in the field of hazard analyses, whereas the other both components are not developed accordingly. Since these three general components are influencing factors without any

  1. Identificación, caracterización y dinámica de las geoformas glaciales y periglaciales en la Cordillera de los Andes a través de sensores remotos

    OpenAIRE

    Falaschi, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo de Tesis Doctoral tuvo el objetivo de estudiar los glaciares y glaciares de escombros en tres regiones montañosas a lo largo de la Cordillera de los Andes Argentina: Monte San Lorenzo (Provincia de Santa Cruz), Volcán Domuyo (Provincia de Neuquén), y Nevados de Cachi (Provincia de Salta). Cada uno de estos sitios presenta características climáticas propias, representativas de tres porciones particulares de los Andes: Andes Patagónicos Meridionales, Andes Centrales Meridion...

  2. On a possibility to use the remote sensing techniques for glaciological analysis in mountain regions of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Semakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ALOS/AVNIR-2 satellite data (2007–2010 allowed estimating areas of glaciers, change in the areas for 50 years, and the number and areas of new naturally-dammed lakes in the mountain regions of Uzbekistan. Boundaries of these gla‑ ciers together with the ALOS/PALSAR data (2010 were used as the basis to determine position of the firn line. It was revealed that since 1980s elevation range of the line gradually decreased. The relationship between average elevation of the firn line and the upper limit of the juniper tree occurrence as well as changing of this relation since 1980s are consid‑ ered. The revealed lakes served as the basis for verification of probabilistic model of the moraine-dammed lake forma‑ tions due to the glacier recessions in the basins under consideration. It was shown that the GIS-techniques based on the use of this model together with data on glaciation and the relief digital model may significantly simplify searching of new lakes. Application of a system of the mudflow movement modeling makes possible to estimate a risk level in a case of a lake bursting. Current information about changing elevations of the glacier surfaces was obtained duet to the radar inter‑ ferometry and the altimeter data. The digital model of the river Pskem upper course (the DEM had been built using the satellite TerraSAR‑X/TanDEM‑X data (2011–2012. All datasets of the elevations were checked for horizontal shifts of the relief digital models relative to the ICESat profiles (2003–2008. Evaluation of accuracy and morphological analysis of all the relief models for the investigated region were also made. DEMs differencing, the difference between ICESat measure‑ ments and DEM, nearby ICESat footprints within one track and between the tracks were carried out to assess the change in elevations of the glacier surfaces. Average rate of the surface lowering of an individual glacier with the maximal number of footprints (7 in the track

  3. Characterizing the emission implications of future natural gas production and use in the U.S. and Rocky Mountain region: A scenario-based energy system modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Jeffrey

    The recent increase in U.S. natural gas production made possible through advancements in extraction techniques including hydraulic fracturing has transformed the U.S. energy supply landscape while raising questions regarding the balance of environmental impacts associated with natural gas production and use. Impact areas at issue include emissions of methane and criteria pollutants from natural gas production, alongside changes in emissions from increased use of natural gas in place of coal for electricity generation. In the Rocky Mountain region, these impact areas have been subject to additional scrutiny due to the high level of regional oil and gas production activity and concerns over its links to air quality. Here, the MARKAL (MArket ALlocation) least-cost energy system optimization model in conjunction with the EPA-MARKAL nine-region database has been used to characterize future regional and national emissions of CO 2, CH4, VOC, and NOx attributed to natural gas production and use in several sectors of the economy. The analysis is informed by comparing and contrasting a base case, business-as-usual scenario with scenarios featuring variations in future natural gas supply characteristics, constraints affecting the electricity generation mix, carbon emission reduction strategies and increased demand for natural gas in the transportation sector. Emission trends and their associated sensitivities are identified and contrasted between the Rocky Mountain region and the U.S. as a whole. The modeling results of this study illustrate the resilience of the short term greenhouse gas emission benefits associated with fuel switching from coal to gas in the electric sector, but also call attention to the long term implications of increasing natural gas production and use for emissions of methane and VOCs, especially in the Rocky Mountain region. This analysis can help to inform the broader discussion of the potential environmental impacts of future natural gas production

  4. Heavy metals in precipitation waters under conditions of varied anthropopressure in typical of European low mountain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabajczyk A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The environment is a dynamic system, subject to change resulting from a variety of physicochemical factors, such as temperature, pressure, pH, redox potential and human activity. The quantity and variety of these determinants cause the inflow of substances into individual environmental elements to vary in both time and space, as well as in terms of substance types and quantities. The energy and matter flow in the environment determines its integrity, which means that the processes occurring in one element of the environment affect the others. A certain measure of the energy and matter flow is the migration of chemical substances in various forms from one place to another. In a particular geographical space, under natural conditions, a specific level of balance between individual processes appears; in areas subject to anthropopressure, the correlations are different. In small areas, varying deposition volumes and chemism of precipitation waters which reach the substratum directly can both be observed. The study area is similar in terms of geological origins as well as morphological, structural and physico-chemical properties, and is typical of European low mountain regions. A qualitative and quantitative study of wet atmospheric precipitation was conducted between February 2009 and May 2011 in the Bobrza river catchment in the Holy Cross (Świętokrzyskie Mountains (Poland, at three sampling sites of varying land development and distance from sources of various acidic-alkaline emissions. Field and laboratory work was conducted over 29 months, from February 2009 to May 2011. Atmospheric precipitation measurements were carried out in a continuous manner by means of a Hellman rain gauge (200cm2. The collecting surface was placed at ground level (0m AGL. The application of a collecting funnel and an adequately prepared polyethylene collecting can in the rain gauge enabled the measurement of precipitation volume and water sampling for chemical

  5. Between Andes and Amazon: the genetic profile of the Arawak-speaking Yanesha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Chiara; Heggarty, Paul; Yang Yao, Daniele; Ferri, Gianmarco; De Fanti, Sara; Sarno, Stefania; Ciani, Graziella; Boattini, Alessio; Luiselli, Donata; Pettener, Davide

    2014-12-01

    The Yanesha are a Peruvian population who inhabit an environment transitional between the Andes and Amazonia. They present cultural traits characteristic of both regions, including in the language they speak: Yanesha belongs to the Arawak language family (which very likely originated in the Amazon/Orinoco lowlands), but has been strongly influenced by Quechua, the most widespread language family of the Andes. Given their location and cultural make-up, the Yanesha make for an ideal case study for investigating language and population dynamics across the Andes-Amazonia divide. In this study, we analyze data from high and mid-altitude Yanesha villages, both Y chromosome (17 STRs and 16 SNPs diagnostic for assigning haplogroups) and mtDNA data (control region sequences and 3 SNPs and one INDEL diagnostic for assigning haplogroups). We uncover sex-biased genetic trends that probably arose in different stages: first, a male-biased gene flow from Andean regions, genetically consistent with highland Quechua-speakers and probably dating back to Inca expansion; and second, traces of European contact consistent with Y chromosome lineages from Italy and Tyrol, in line with historically documented migrations. Most research in the history, archaeology and linguistics of South America has long been characterized by perceptions of a sharp divide between the Andes and Amazonia; our results serve as a clear case-study confirming demographic flows across that 'divide'. © 2014 The Authors. American journal of physical Anthropology published by Wiley Periodocals, Inc.

  6. Phytogeography of the vascular páramo flora of Ramal de Guaramacal (Andes, Venezuela) and its ties to other páramo floras

    OpenAIRE

    Cuello, N.L.; Cleef, A.M.; Aymard, G.

    2010-01-01

    Ramal de Guaramacal is an outlier and lower elevation mountain range located at the northeastern end of the Venezuelan Andes. Phytogeographical patterns and affinities of the low altitude and wet vascular páramo flora of Ramal de Guaramacal, have been studied with emphasis in to the analysis of the floristic connections of the Guaramacal páramo flora with the neighboring dry páramos of the Sierra Nevada de Mérida and other páramo floras of the northern Andes and Central America. A total of 25...

  7. Experimental Evaluation of Performance of Constant Power Prime-Mover Driven Isolated 3-φ SEIG for Pico-Hydro Power Generation System in Remote Mountainous Region of Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathore Umesh C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental evaluation of the performance of 3-φ self-excited induction generator (SEIG suitable for pico-hydro power generation system feeding domestic load in remote mountainous region. The use of induction generators is most suitable for renewable energy conversion systems due to their enormous advantages over conventional synchronous generators. Important features of induction generators include the simplicity in construction, ruggedness, simplified control, ease in maintenance and small size per generated kW. The performance characteristics of 3-φ SEIG feeding isolated load are evaluated using MATLAB-Simulink model based on the prevalent renewable energy sources inputs and loading conditions in mountainous terrain of Himalayas. The results are validated using an experimental set-up comprising of 3-φ, 3 HP induction motor run as 3- φ induction generator driven by 5HP, 4-pole DC shunt motor acting as prime-mover.

  8. Water Resources by 2100 in Mountains with Declining Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniston, M.

    2015-12-01

    Future shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns, and changes in the behavior of snow and ice - and possibly the quasi-disappearance of glaciers - in many mountain regions will change the quantity, seasonality, and possibly also the quality of water originating in mountains and uplands. As a result, changing water availability will affect both upland and populated lowland areas. Economic sectors such as agriculture, tourism or hydropower may enter into rivalries if water is no longer available in sufficient quantities or at the right time of the year. The challenge is thus to estimate as accurately as possible future changes in order to prepare the way for appropriate adaptation strategies and improved water governance. The European ACQWA project, coordinated by the author, aimed to assess the vulnerability of water resources in mountain regions such as the European Alps, the Central Chilean Andes, and the mountains of Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan) where declining snow and ice are likely to strongly affect hydrological regimes in a warmer climate. Based on RCM (Regional Climate Model) simulations, a suite of cryosphere, biosphere and economic models were then used to quantify the environmental, economic and social impacts of changing water resources in order to assess how robust current water governance strategies are and what adaptations may be needed to alleviate the most negative impacts of climate change on water resources and water use. Hydrological systems will respond in quantity and seasonality to changing precipitation patterns and to the timing of snow-melt in the studied mountain regions, with a greater risk of flooding during the spring and droughts in summer and fall. The direct and indirect impacts of a warming climate will affect key economic sectors such as tourism, hydropower, agriculture and the insurance industry that will be confronted to more frequent natural disasters. The results from the ACQWA project suggest that there is a need for a

  9. REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF INORGANIC NITROGEN YIELD AND RETENTION IN HIGH-ELEVATION ECOSYSTEMS OF THE SIERRA NEVADA AND ROCKY MOUNTAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yields and retention of inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and nitrate concentrations in surface runoff are summarized for 28 high elevation watersheds in the Sierra Nevada, California and Rocky Mountains of Wyoming and Colorado. Catchments ranged in elevation from 2475 to 3603 m and from...

  10. Impacts of conflict on land use and land cover in the Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan and northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsevski, Virginia B.

    The Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan makes up the northern most part of the Afromontane conservation 'biodiversity hotspot' due to the numerous species of plants and animals found here, some of which are endemic. At the same time, this area (including the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu region of northern Uganda) has witnessed decades of armed conflict resulting from the Sudan Civil War and the presence of the Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The objective of my research was to investigate the impact of war on land use and land cover using a combination of satellite remote sensing data and semi-structured interviews with local informants. Specifically, I sought to (1) assess and compare changes in forest cover and location during both war and peace; (2) compare trends in fire activity with human population patterns; and (3) investigate the underlying causes influencing land use patterns related to war. I did this by using a Disturbance Index (DI), which isolates un-vegetated spectral signatures associated with deforestation, on Landsat TM and ETM+ data in order to compare changes in forest cover during conflict and post-conflict years, mapping the location and frequency of fires in subsets of the greater study area using MODIS active fire data, and by analyzing and summarizing information derived from interviews with key informants. I found that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) and that change in net forest cover remained largely unchanged for the two time periods. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by gains in forest cover, potentially indicating opposing patterns in human population movements and land use activities within these two areas. For the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) region

  11. Glacial lakes of the Central and Patagonian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan; Glasser, Neil F.; Reynolds, John M.; Harrison, Stephan; Anacona, Pablo Iribarren; Schaefer, Marius; Shannon, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence and increased frequency of high-magnitude Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) in the Chilean and Argentinean Andes suggests this region will be prone to similar events in the future as glaciers continue to retreat and thin under a warming climate. Despite this situation, monitoring of glacial lake development in this region has been limited, with past investigations only covering relatively small regions of Patagonia. This study presents new glacial lake inventories for 1986, 2000 and 2016, covering the Central Andes, Northern Patagonia and Southern Patagonia. Our aim was to characterise the physical attributes, spatial distribution and temporal development of glacial lakes in these three sub-regions using Landsat satellite imagery and image datasets available in Google Earth and Bing Maps. Glacial lake water volume was also estimated using an empirical area-volume scaling approach. Results reveal that glacial lakes across the study area have increased in number (43%) and areal extent (7%) between 1986 and 2016. Such changes equate to a glacial lake water volume increase of 65 km3 during the 30-year observation period. However, glacial lake growth and emergence was shown to vary sub-regionally according to localised topography, meteorology, climate change, rate of glacier change and the availability of low gradient ice areas. These and other factors are likely to influence the occurrence of GLOFs in the future. This analysis represents the first large-scale census of glacial lakes in Chile and Argentina and will allow for a better understanding of lake development in this region, as well as, providing a basis for future GLOF risk assessments.

  12. CO{sub 2} Sequestration Capacity and Associated Aspects of the Most Promising Geologic Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region: Local-Scale Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laes, Denise; Eisinger, Chris; Morgan, Craig; Rauzi, Steve; Scholle, Dana; Scott, Phyllis; Lee, Si-Yong; Zaluski, Wade; Esser, Richard; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

    2013-07-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of individual local-­scale CCS site characterization studies conducted in Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. These site-­ specific characterization analyses were performed as part of the “Characterization of Most Promising Sequestration Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region” (RMCCS) project. The primary objective of these local-­scale analyses is to provide a basis for regional-­scale characterization efforts within each state. Specifically, limits on time and funding will typically inhibit CCS projects from conducting high-­ resolution characterization of a state-­sized region, but smaller (< 10,000 km{sup 2}) site analyses are usually possible, and such can provide insight regarding limiting factors for the regional-­scale geology. For the RMCCS project, the outcomes of these local-­scale studies provide a starting point for future local-­scale site characterization efforts in the Rocky Mountain region.

  13. Rapid Diversification and Time Explain Amphibian Richness at Different Scales in the Tropical Andes, Earth's Most Biodiverse Hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Carl R; Lambert, Shea M; Wiens, John J

    2017-12-01

    The Tropical Andes make up Earth's most species-rich biodiversity hotspot for both animals and plants. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary processes underlying this extraordinary richness remain uncertain. Here, we examine the processes that generate high richness in the Tropical Andes relative to other regions in South America and across different elevations within the Andes, using frogs as a model system. We combine distributional data, a newly generated time-calibrated phylogeny for 2,318 frog species, and phylogenetic comparative methods to test the relative importance of diversification rates and colonization times for explaining Andean diversity at different scales. At larger scales (among regions and families), we find that faster diversification rates in Andean clades most likely explain high Andean richness. In contrast, at smaller temporal and spatial scales (within family-level clades within the Andes), diversification rates rarely explain richness patterns. Instead, we show that colonization times are important for shaping elevational richness patterns within the Andes, with more species found in habitats colonized earlier. We suggest that these scale-dependent patterns might apply to many other richness gradients. Recognition of this scale dependence may help to reconcile conflicting results among studies of richness patterns across habitats, regions, and organisms.

  14. Where There's Smoke: Using Satellites to Monitor Impact of Human Activities on Agriculture and Glaciers in the Andes and Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, J. L.; Banach, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Burning of agricultural fields are important sources of black carbon deposition on mountain glaciers in the Andes and Himalayas. Fire is commonly used to support agricultural and pasture management, specifically to remove excess crop residue and other agricultural waste, but these fires can spread into wildland areas during the dry season. Occasionally, agricultural burning causes extreme air pollution events, like occurred in New Delhi, India in October 2016. Satellite data provides a monitoring method of human-caused fire near glaciers that is open-source, easily replicable, and free- to low-cost. We will be able to determine if the climate-smart intervention strategies have reduced or eliminated open burning in these glacier-adjacent agricultural regions. Historic fire and fire emission records have been constructed for the Andean and Himalayan regions, with finer-scale assessments of the regions where farm-level training for conservation agriculture and no-burn techniques are taking place, going back to 2003. Present-day and future (2017-2020) fires and emissions will be mapped and recorded to compare to the historical record, providing an independent assessment and monitoring of how effective the no-burn climate-smart agriculture intervention strategies are at the farm-, village-, region-, and country-level. We can then compare this with our ground-based observations from regional partners for further verification. Using geospatial and geoscience data and methods is important for the success of this project and allows for full transparency of the effectiveness of climate-smart agricultural interventions to improve crop yields for farmers in South America and South Asia while also slowing the melt of the Third Pole.

  15. Multiscale Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Economic Development in an Interprovincial Boundary Region: Junction Area of Tibetan Plateau, Hengduan Mountain, Yungui Plateau and Sichuan Basin, Southwestern China Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifei Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An interprovincial boundary region is a new subject of economic disparity study in China. This study explored the multi-scale spatio-temporal dynamics of economic development from 1995 to 2010 in the interprovincial boundary region of Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou, a mountain area and also the junction area of Tibetan Plateau, Hengduan Mountain, Yungui Plateau and Sichuan Basin in southwestern China. A quantitative study on county GDP per capita for different scales of administrative regions was conducted using the Theil index, Markov chains, a geographic information system and exploratory spatial data analysis. Results indicated that the economic disparity was closely related with geographical unit scale in the study area: the smaller the unit, the bigger the disparity, and the regional inequality gradually weakened over time. Moreover, significant positive spatial autocorrelation and clustering of economic development were also found. The spatial pattern of economic development presented approximate circle structure with two cores in the southwest and northeast. The Panxi region in the southwest core and a part of Hilly Sichuan Basin in the northeast core were considered to be hot spots of economic development. Most areas in the east and central region were persistently trapped in the low level of a balanced development state, with a poverty trap being formed in the central and south part. Geographical conditions and location, administrative barriers and the lack of effective growth poles may be the main reasons for the entire low level of balanced development. Our findings suggest that in order to achieve a high level of balanced development, attention should be paid beyond developing transportation and other infrastructure. Breaking down the rigid shackles of administrative districts that hinder trans-provincial cooperation and promoting new regional poles in the Yunnan-Guizhou region may have great significance for the study area.

  16. A comparative study of artificial neural network, adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system and support vector machine for forecasting river flow in the semiarid mountain region

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhibin; Wen, Xiaohu; Liu, Hu; Du, Jun

    2014-02-01

    Data driven models are very useful for river flow forecasting when the underlying physical relationships are not fully understand, but it is not clear whether these data driven models still have a good performance in the small river basin of semiarid mountain regions where have complicated topography. In this study, the potential of three different data driven methods, artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and support vector machine (SVM) were used for forecasting river flow in the semiarid mountain region, northwestern China. The models analyzed different combinations of antecedent river flow values and the appropriate input vector has been selected based on the analysis of residuals. The performance of the ANN, ANFIS and SVM models in training and validation sets are compared with the observed data. The model which consists of three antecedent values of flow has been selected as the best fit model for river flow forecasting. To get more accurate evaluation of the results of ANN, ANFIS and SVM models, the four quantitative standard statistical performance evaluation measures, the coefficient of correlation (R), root mean squared error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NS) and mean absolute relative error (MARE), were employed to evaluate the performances of various models developed. The results indicate that the performance obtained by ANN, ANFIS and SVM in terms of different evaluation criteria during the training and validation period does not vary substantially; the performance of the ANN, ANFIS and SVM models in river flow forecasting was satisfactory. A detailed comparison of the overall performance indicated that the SVM model performed better than ANN and ANFIS in river flow forecasting for the validation data sets. The results also suggest that ANN, ANFIS and SVM method can be successfully applied to establish river flow with complicated topography forecasting models in the semiarid mountain regions.

  17. Conflict or synergy? Understanding interaction between municipalities and village commons (regole in polycentric governance of mountain areas in the Veneto Region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Favero

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A particular challenge for mountainous areas in Italy is the definition of suitable governance models for local resources. Several solutions have been proposed over time, resulting in the co-existence of a number of decision-making centers. A crucial role is played by municipalities, but, in recent years, village commons – regola (singular / regole (plural in the local language – have been re-constituted as institutions with local power. In this dynamic context, little is known on how municipalities and regole interact. This paper aims at improving the understanding of local governance of mountain areas in the Veneto Region, from the viewpoint of municipalities, which represent the political, legal and administrative authority. The analysis is grounded in the polycentric governance literature, especially crucial in drawing attention to level and extent of cooperation, trustworthiness, mutual learning and effort for adaptation. Tensions, conflicts and conflict-resolution mechanisms were also assessed. We carried out a survey of 14 municipalities containing regole within their administrative jurisdictions. The results of our work provide evidence that this relationship is mostly a synergistic one. Municipalities showed adaptive capacity in mirroring values and views of the regole and proved willing to share responsibilities. Their decisions were formulated whilst taking into account the need for creating the appropriate linkages with local communities. Where conflicts or discontent have emerged, they have been mostly resolved, or considered as reflecting a need for greater coordination. This outcome can be looked upon as a local polycentric governance innovation that so far has only partially received policy support at the regional level. We conclude that municipalities will continue to play a central role in regulation of local-level socio-economic dynamics, remaining the institutional reference point for mountainous areas in the Veneto

  18. Tectonic, volcanic, and climatic geomorphology study of the Sierras Pampeanas Andes, northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, A. L.; Strecker, M. R.; Fielding, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    A proposed analysis of Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) data extends current research in the Sierras Pampeanas and the Puna of northwestern Argentina to the determination - by the digital analysis of mountain-front sinuousity - of the relative age and amount of fault movement along mountain fronts of the late-Cenozoic Sierras Pampeanas basement blocks; the determination of the age and history of the boundary across the Andes at about 27 S latitude between continuing volcanism to the north and inactive volcanism to the south; and the determination of the age and extent of Pleistocene glaciation in the High Sierras, as well as the comparative importance of climatic change and tectonic movements in shaping the landscape. The integration of these studies into other ongoing geology projects contributes to the understanding of landform development in this active tectonic environment and helps distinguish between climatic and tectonic effects on landforms.

  19. High-resolution DEMs for High-mountain Asia: A systematic, region-wide assessment of geodetic glacier mass balance and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shean, D. E.; Arendt, A. A.; Osmanoglu, B.; Montesano, P.

    2017-12-01

    High Mountain Asia (HMA) constitutes the largest glacierized region outside of the Earth's polar regions. Although available observations are limited, long-term records indicate sustained regional glacier mass loss since 1850, with increased loss in recent decades. Recent satellite data (e.g., GRACE, ICESat-1) show spatially variable glacier mass balance, with significant mass loss in the Himalaya and Hindu Kush and slight mass gain in the Karakoram. We generated 4000 high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) from sub-meter commercial stereo imagery (DigitalGlobe WorldView/GeoEye) acquired over glaciers in High-mountain Asia from 2002-present (mostly 2013-present). We produced a regional 8-m DEM mosaic for 2015 and estimated 15-year geodetic mass balance for 40000 glaciers larger than 0.1 km2. We are combining with other regional DEM sources to systematically document the spatiotemporal evolution of glacier mass balance for the entire HMA region. We also generated monthly to interannual DEM and velocity time series for high-priority sites distributed across the region, with >15-20 DEMs available for some locations from 2010-present. These records document glacier dynamics, seasonal snow accumulation/redistribution, and processes that affect glacier mass balance (e.g., ice-cliff retreat, debris cover evolution). These efforts will provide basin-scale assessments of snow/ice melt runoff contributions for model cal/val and downstream water resources applications. We will continue processing all archived and newly available commercial stereo imagery for HMA, and will release all DEMs through the HiMAT DAAC.

  20. A preliminary assessment of earthquake ground shaking hazard at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and implications to the Las Vegas region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, I.G.; Green, R.K.; Sun, J.I. [Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Oakland, CA (United States); Pezzopane, S.K. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Abrahamson, N.A. [Abrahamson (Norm A.), Piedmont, CA (United States); Quittmeyer, R.C. [Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    As part of early design studies for the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, the authors have performed a preliminary probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of ground shaking. A total of 88 Quaternary faults within 100 km of the site were considered in the hazard analysis. They were characterized in terms of their probability o being seismogenic, and their geometry, maximum earthquake magnitude, recurrence model, and slip rate. Individual faults were characterized by maximum earthquakes that ranged from moment magnitude (M{sub w}) 5.1 to 7.6. Fault slip rates ranged from a very low 0.00001 mm/yr to as much as 4 mm/yr. An areal source zone representing background earthquakes up to M{sub w} 6 1/4 = 1/4 was also included in the analysis. Recurrence for these background events was based on the 1904--1994 historical record, which contains events up to M{sub w} 5.6. Based on this analysis, the peak horizontal rock accelerations are 0.16, 0.21, 0.28, and 0.50 g for return periods of 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 10,000 years, respectively. In general, the dominant contributor to the ground shaking hazard at Yucca Mountain are background earthquakes because of the low slip rates of the Basin and Range faults. A significant effect on the probabilistic ground motions is due to the inclusion of a new attenuation relation developed specifically for earthquakes in extensional tectonic regimes. This relation gives significantly lower peak accelerations than five other predominantly California-based relations used in the analysis, possibly due to the lower stress drops of extensional earthquakes compared to California events. Because Las Vegas is located within the same tectonic regime as Yucca Mountain, the seismic sources and path and site factors affecting the seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain also have implications to Las Vegas. These implications are discussed in this paper.

  1. A preliminary assessment of earthquake ground shaking hazard at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and implications to the Las Vegas region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, I.G.; Green, R.K.; Sun, J.I.; Pezzopane, S.K.; Abrahamson, N.A.; Quittmeyer, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    As part of early design studies for the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, the authors have performed a preliminary probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of ground shaking. A total of 88 Quaternary faults within 100 km of the site were considered in the hazard analysis. They were characterized in terms of their probability o being seismogenic, and their geometry, maximum earthquake magnitude, recurrence model, and slip rate. Individual faults were characterized by maximum earthquakes that ranged from moment magnitude (M w ) 5.1 to 7.6. Fault slip rates ranged from a very low 0.00001 mm/yr to as much as 4 mm/yr. An areal source zone representing background earthquakes up to M w 6 1/4 = 1/4 was also included in the analysis. Recurrence for these background events was based on the 1904--1994 historical record, which contains events up to M w 5.6. Based on this analysis, the peak horizontal rock accelerations are 0.16, 0.21, 0.28, and 0.50 g for return periods of 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 10,000 years, respectively. In general, the dominant contributor to the ground shaking hazard at Yucca Mountain are background earthquakes because of the low slip rates of the Basin and Range faults. A significant effect on the probabilistic ground motions is due to the inclusion of a new attenuation relation developed specifically for earthquakes in extensional tectonic regimes. This relation gives significantly lower peak accelerations than five other predominantly California-based relations used in the analysis, possibly due to the lower stress drops of extensional earthquakes compared to California events. Because Las Vegas is located within the same tectonic regime as Yucca Mountain, the seismic sources and path and site factors affecting the seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain also have implications to Las Vegas. These implications are discussed in this paper

  2. Dose assessment from exposure to radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations in the dwellings of sub-mountainous region of Jammu and Kashmir, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, M.; Dr. B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, Punjab; Kumar, A.; Mehra, R.; Mishra, R.

    2018-01-01

    The present work deals with the assessment of annual inhalation dose due to exposure of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations in the villages situated in sub-mountainous region of Jammu and Kashmir, India. The distribution of the data and the homogeneity of medians among different seasons and dwellings were assessed with the Shapiro-Wilk test and the Mann-Whitney test. The estimated total annual inhalation dose in these villages varied from 0.5 to 1.9 mSv year -1 which is less than the prescribed limit by ICRP (2008). Thus, the investigated area is safe from irradiation of radon, thoron and their progeny. (author)

  3. Regional Operations Research Program for Commercialization of Geothermal Energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final Technical Report, January 1980--March 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The scope of work is as described in New Mexico State University Proposal 80-20-207. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  4. Integrated Vulnerability and Impacts Assessment for Natural and Engineered Water-Energy Systems in the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountain Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wolfsberg, Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Middleton, Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountains (SWSRM), energy production, energy resource extraction, and other high volume uses depend on water supply from systems that are highly vulnerable to extreme, coupled hydro-ecosystem-climate events including prolonged drought, flooding, degrading snow cover, forest die off, and wildfire. These vulnerabilities, which increase under climate change, present a challenge for energy and resource planners in the region with the highest population growth rate in the nation. Currently, analytical tools are designed to address individual aspects of these regional energy and water vulnerabilities. Further, these tools are not linked, severely limiting the effectiveness of each individual tool. Linking established tools, which have varying degrees of spatial and temporal resolution as well as modeling objectives, and developing next-generation capabilities where needed would provide a unique and replicable platform for regional analyses of climate-water-ecosystem-energy interactions, while leveraging prior investments and current expertise (both within DOE and across other Federal agencies).

  5. A millennium of metallurgy recorded by lake sediments from Morococha, Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Colin A; Abbott, Mark B; Wolfe, Alexander P; Kittleson, John L

    2007-05-15

    To date, information concerning pre-Colonial metallurgy in South America has largely been limited to the archaeological record of artifacts. Here, we reconstruct a millennium of smelting activity in the Peruvian Andes using the lake-sediment stratigraphy of atmospherically derived metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, Sb, Bi, and Ti) and lead isotopic ratios (206Pb/ 207Pb) associated with smelting from the Morococha mining region in the central Peruvian Andes. The earliest evidence for metallurgy occurs ca. 1000 A.D., coinciding with the fall of the Wari Empire and decentralization of local populations. Smelting during this interval appears to have been aimed at copper and copper alloys, because of large increases in Zn and Cu relative to Pb. A subsequent switch to silver metallurgy under Inca control (ca. 1450 to conquest, 1533 A.D.) is indicated by increases in Pb, Sb, and Bi, a conclusion supported by further increases of these metals during Colonial mining, which targeted silver extraction. Rapid development of the central Andes during the 20th century raised metal burdens by an order of magnitude above previous levels. Our results represent the first evidence for pre-Colonial smelting in the central Peruvian Andes, and corroborate the sensitivity of lake sediments to pre-Colonial metallurgical activity suggested by earlier findings from Bolivia.

  6. Possible evidence for contemporary doming of the Adirondack Mountains, New York, and suggested implications for regional tectonics and seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isachsen, Y.W.

    1975-01-01

    The Adirondack Mountain massif is a dissected elongate dome having a north-northeast axis about 190 km long, and an east-west dimension of about 140 km. The dome exposes a core of Proterozoic metamorphic rocks from which the Paleozoic cover rocks have been eroded, except in several north-northeast-trending graben. The minimum amplitude of the dome, based on a 'reconstruction' of the Proterozoic-Paleozoic unconformity is 1600 m. The Adirondack dome is an anomalous feature of the eastern edge of the North American craton. It differs from other uplifts in the Interior Lowlands of the craton not only in terms of the greater combined amplitude and area of its uplift, but in the present high elevation of its Mountains (up to 1600 m) which are unequalled on the craton except along the Rocky Mountain front and in the Torngat Mountains of northernmost Labrador. This prompted an interest in the possibility that the Adirondack dome has undergone neotectonic regeneration and may be undergoing domical uplift at the present time. Accordingly, leveling records were consulted at the National Geodetic Survey data base in Rockville, Maryland, and used to construct leveling profiles. The most informative of these extends north-south along the block-faulted eastern flank of the Adirondack dome, extending from Saratoga Springs to Rouses Point, a distance of 245 km. A comparison of the level lines for 1955 and 1973 demonstrates that arching has occurred. An uplift of 40 mm along the central portion of the line, and a corresponding subsidence of 50 mm at the northern end, has produced a net increase in the amplitude of arching of 90 mm in the 18-year interval. This differential uplift, particularly with subsidence at the northern end, argues for a tectonic rather than glacio-isostatic mechanism. Pending releveling across the center of the Adirondack dome, it is tempting to extrapolate the releveling profile and suggest that the Adirondacks as a whole may be undergoing contemporary doming

  7. Regional difference of the start time of the recent warming in Eastern China: prompted by a 165-year temperature record deduced from tree rings in the Dabie Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiufang; Liu, Yu; Duan, Bingchuang; Sun, Changfeng

    2018-03-01

    Tree-ring studies from tropical to subtropical regions are rarer than that from extratropical regions, which greatly limit our understanding of some critical climate change issues. Based on the tree-ring-width chronology of samples collected from the Dabie Mountains, we reconstructed the April-June mean temperature for this region with an explained variance of 46.8%. Five cold (1861-1869, 1889-1899, 1913-1920, 1936-1942 and 1952-1990) and three warm (1870-1888, 1922-1934 and 2000-2005) periods were identified in the reconstruction. The reconstruction not only agreed well with the instrumental records in and around the study area, but also showed good resemblance to previous temperature reconstructions from nearby regions, indicating its spatial and temporal representativeness of the temperature variation in the central part of eastern China. Although no secular warming trend was found, the warming trend since 1970 was unambiguous in the Dabie Mountains (0.064 °C/year). Further temperature comparison indicated that the start time of the recent warming in eastern China was regional different. It delayed gradually from north to south, starting at least around 1940 AD in the north part, around 1970 AD in the central part and around 1980s in the south part. This work enriches the high-resolution temperature reconstructions in eastern China. We expect that climate warming in the future would promote the radial growth of alpine Pinus taiwanensis in the subtropical areas of China, therefore promote the carbon capture and carbon storage in the Pinus taiwanensis forest. It also helps to clarify the regional characteristic of recent warming in eastern China.

  8. Andes: An Intelligent Homework System for Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Brett; VanLehn, K.; Hausmann, R.; Treacy, D.; Shelby, R.

    2006-12-01

    We know that students benefit from solving homework problems under the guidance of an expert (human) tutor. The Andes system (http://www.andes.pitt.edu) is designed for students to solve homework problems under the guidance of an expert computer tutor. Andes encourages students to use sound problem solving techniques and provides immediate right/wrong feedback on each step of a solution. On request, Andes also provides hints based on previous student actions. I will discuss how Andes works, from a student's perspective, and summarize research that demonstrates its effectiveness as a pedagogical tool. I will also discuss how Andes can function as a tool for conducting educational research, presenting an investigation of students' hint usage as an example.

  9. Evaluating a Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter snow cover data assimilation method to estimate SWE within a high-resolution hydrologic modeling framework across Western US mountainous regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaida, C. M.; Andreadis, K.; Reager, J. T., II; Famiglietti, J. S.; Levoe, S.

    2017-12-01

    Accurately estimating how much snow water equivalent (SWE) is stored in mountainous regions characterized by complex terrain and snowmelt-driven hydrologic cycles is not only greatly desirable, but also a big challenge. Mountain snowpack exhibits high spatial variability across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales due to a multitude of physical and climatic factors, making it difficult to observe or estimate in its entirety. Combing remotely sensed data and high resolution hydrologic modeling through data assimilation (DA) has the potential to provide a spatially and temporally continuous SWE dataset at horizontal scales that capture sub-grid snow spatial variability and are also relevant to stakeholders such as water resource managers. Here, we present the evaluation of a new snow DA approach that uses a Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) in tandem with the Variable Infiltration Capacity macro-scale hydrologic model across the Western United States, at a daily temporal resolution, and a horizontal resolution of 1.75 km x 1.75 km. The LETKF is chosen for its relative simplicity, ease of implementation, and computational efficiency and scalability. The modeling/DA system assimilates daily MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain Size (MODSCAG) fractional snow cover over, and has been developed to efficiently calculate SWE estimates over extended periods of time and covering large regional-scale areas at relatively high spatial resolution, ultimately producing a snow reanalysis-type dataset. Here we focus on the assessment of SWE produced by the DA scheme over several basins in California's Sierra Nevada Mountain range where Airborne Snow Observatory data is available, during the last five water years (2013-2017), which include both one of the driest and one of the wettest years. Comparison against such a spatially distributed SWE observational product provides a greater understanding of the model's ability to estimate SWE and SWE spatial variability

  10. Assurance of risk assessment and protection distant transportation and fall out of pollutants under large anthropogenic on nuclear power stations due to mountainous regional peculiarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitskishvili, M.; Tsitskishvili, N.; Kordzakhia, G.; Valiaev, A.; Kazakov, S.; Aitmatov, I.; Petrov, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: All types of industrial activities require the norms of protection, assessment of corresponding risks to preserve the pollution and degradation of corresponding areas. To make available the sustainable development of the country the risk assessment of possible accidents on the big enterprises is foreseen that provides preparedness of the country and possibility of the prevention measures and mitigation of the accidents. While big anthropogenic accidents in mountainous countries - the main paths for transportation of the pollution are the rivers and sea basins. Due to overpopulation of these areas assessment of the pollution risks are very important. Problem of forecast and distant atmospheric transportation of the toxic products and corresponding risk assessment under anthropogenic damages is multi-component and depends on meteorological conditions and frontier layer of atmosphere. Generally, for real relief and basic fields the problem is not solved yet especially taking into consideration the big level and shortest time of the process being of the natural anthropogenic accidents in mountainous regions. Usually, geostropic drawing for determined relief is used. Integral differential equations taking into consideration a physical- chemical characteristic of the pollutants, their transformations, fall out, coagulations, washing out and self rectification in general cannot be solved. In last time essential success in formalization of above-mentioned equations i.e. carrying out some simplifications give possibility to establish necessary modeling on the basis of numerical calculations. In the most general case forecasting model is essentially limited because of bulky size of accounting schemes and necessity of powerful and high-speed computers. Main ways of achievement of further success is connected with so called 'seasonal typification' with applied a priory calculation of probabilistic picture of the pollutants concentration fields, as well as

  11. Can small island mountains provide relief from the Subtropical Precipitation Decline? Simulating future precipitation regimes for small island nations using high resolution Regional Climate Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, J.; Terando, A. J.; Misra, V.; Wootten, A.

    2017-12-01

    Small island nations are vulnerable to changes in the hydrologic cycle because of their limited water resources. This risk to water security is likely even higher in sub-tropical regions where anthropogenic forcing of the climate system is expected to lead to a drier future (the so-called `dry-get-drier' pattern). However, high-resolution numerical modeling experiments have also shown an enhancement of existing orographically-influenced precipitation patterns on islands with steep topography, potentially mitigating subtropical drying on windward mountain sides. Here we explore the robustness of the near-term (25-45 years) subtropical precipitation decline (SPD) across two island groupings in the Caribbean, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. These islands, forming the boundary between the Greater and Lesser Antilles, significantly differ in size, topographic relief, and orientation to prevailing winds. Two 2-km horizontal resolution regional climate model simulations are used to downscale a total of three different GCMs under the RCP8.5 emissions scenario. Results indicate some possibility for modest increases in precipitation at the leading edge of the Luquillo Mountains in Puerto Rico, but consistent declines elsewhere. We conclude with a discussion of potential explanations for these patterns and the attendant risks to water security that subtropical small island nations could face as the climate warms.

  12. Human impacts to mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  13. Tritium dating of underground water from the Jian River valley and Houjialiang loess platform in the basin side-band of the East-Mountain Region of Taiyuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Songsheng; Wu Qinghua

    1991-01-01

    The tritium content is measured in underground water from the basin side-band of the East-Mountain Region of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, and hence the age, i.e. resident time, of underground water is estimated. The region belongs to deep water-poor zone in a long loess ridge situated in a loess hill plateau. The level of underground water is 40-80 m deep hidden. In the runway and the scouring channel the aqueous bed is of river pebble and cobble, with a level of 2-10 m in depth. The age of underground water from different wells were determined to be 23a, 14a, 25a, 41a and 53a respectively

  14. Chronology of Miocene-Pliocene deposits at Split Mountain Gorge, Southern California: A record of regional tectonics and Colorado River evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, R.J.; Fluette, A.; McDougall, K.; Housen, B.A.; Janecke, S.U.; Axen, G.J.; Shirvell, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    Late Miocene to early Pliocene deposit at Split Mountain Gorge, California, preserve a record of basinal response to changes in regional tectonics, paleogeography, and evolution of the Colorado River. The base of the Elephant Trees Formation, magnetostratigraphically dated as 8.1 ?? 0.4 Ma, provides the earliest well-dated record of extension in the southwestern Salton Trough. The oldest marine sediments are ca. 6.3 Ma. The nearly synchronous timing of marine incursion in the Salton Trough and northern Gulf of California region supports a model for localization of Pacific-North America plate motion in the Gulf ca. 6 Ma. The first appearance of Colorado River sand at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary (5.33 Ma) suggests rapid propagation of the river to the Salton Trough, and supports a lake-spillover hypothesis for initiation of the lower Colorado River. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  15. Variability of morphological needle traits of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. among populations from mountain and lowland regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łabiszak Bartosz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was to examine interpopulational needle traits variability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. from four mountain, one foothill and three lowland, natural populations located in Poland. This choice of locations was motivated by the presumed different origins of mountainous populations and the necessity to demonstrate how closely they are related to lowland populations. Variation in the studied populations was determined using seven morphological traits of needles: 1 - needle length, 2 - number of stomatal rows on the flat side of a needle, 3 - number of stomata per 2 mm of needle length on the flat side, 4 - number of stomatal rows on the convex side of a needle, 5 - number of stomata per 2 mm of needle length on the convex side, 6 - number of serrations per 2 mm of the needle length on the left side and 7 - number of serrations per 2 mm of the needle length on the right side. Biometric data were analysed statistically, and it was found that (i needle traits differentiate studied populations; (ii the postulated division of the population into two groups is reflected in the obtained results; and (iii a particularly strong relationship was found between two relict pine populations from the Pieniny (Sokolica, Kazalnica, Czertezik and Tatra Mts. (Wielke Koryciska, which may be the result of the common origins and history of these two populations

  16. Water towers of the Great Basin: climatic and hydrologic change at watershed scales in a mountainous arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts of climate change in the Great Basin will manifest through changes in the hydrologic cycle. Downscaled climate data and projections run through the Basin Characterization Model (BCM) produce time series of hydrologic response - recharge, runoff, actual evapotranspiration (AET), and climatic water deficit (CWD) - that directly affect water resources and vegetation. More than 50 climate projections from CMIP5 were screened using a cluster analysis of end-century (2077-2099) seasonal precipitation and annual temperature to produce a reduced subset of 12 climate futures that cover a wide range of macroclimate response. Importantly, variations among GCMs in summer precipitation produced by the SW monsoon are captured. Data were averaged within 84 HUC8 watersheds with widley varying climate, topography, and geology. Resultant time series allow for multivariate analysis of hydrologic response, especially partitioning between snowpack, recharge, runoff, and actual evapotranspiration. Because the bulk of snowpack accumulation is restricted to small areas of isolated mountain ranges, losses of snowpack can be extreme as snowline moves up the mountains with warming. Loss of snowpack also affects recharge and runoff rates, and importantly, the recharge/runoff ratio - as snowpacks fade, recharge tends to increase relative to runoff. Thresholds for regime shifts can be identified, but the unique topography and geology of each basin must be considered in assessing hydrologic response.

  17. PREREQUISITES FOR CALENDAR RITUALISM INTEGRATION TO THE PROCESS OF SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS OF MODERN SCHOOL OF MOUNTAIN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Lappo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The profit of involving calendar holidays in the process of school children bringing up is proved in the article. The author confirms that there are many good customs and rituals with deep bringing up content. Ethnic Hutsul traditions had symbolic meaning and contributed their moral bringing up. The number of examples about children's upbringing in Hutsul families is given here, which helps in training them to religious and secular traditions. It is also said about holiday rituals, where small Hutsul children were involved. A lot of Hutsul customs and rituals have already been forgotten. But the author appeals to their renascence. The author is sure of it because customs and rituals form upbringing tradition, which proved its effectiveness during many centuries. Partly, it is important to meet children to new traditions of modern mountain schools of Hutsulshchyna (Hutsulland to form true valuable orientation. Only this is the basis of the personality spiritual world. The author proposes to reveal the celebrations of ancient traditions such holidays as: Christmas, Easter, Trinity. During these holidays Hutsul people tried to do a lot of charity things, helping sick people, visiting ill, and making mention of the departed. That's why it is important that the modern pupils of mountain schools not only new, but followed public calendar traditions. It has to be not only following certain ritual actions, but it has to be the ability to the spiritual perception of Hutsul cultural heritage.

  18. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

  19. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  20. Mountains as early warning indicators of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The panoramic splendor and complexity of mountain environments have inspired and challenged humans for centuries. These areas have been variously perceived as physical structures to be conquered, as sites of spiritual inspiration, and as some of the last untamed natural places on Earth. In our time, the perception that "mountains are forever" may provide solace to those seeking stability in a rapidly changing world. However, changes in the hydrology and in the abundance and species composition of the native flora and fauna of mountain ecosystems are potential bellwethers of global change, because these systems have a propensity to amplify environmental changes within specific portions of this landscape. Mountain areas are thus sentinels of climate change. We are seeing effects today in case histories I present from the Himalaya's, Andes, Alps, and Rocky Mountains. Furthermore, these ecosystem changes are occurring in mountain areas before they occur in downstream ecosystems. Thus, mountains are early warning indicators of perturbations such as climate change. The sensitivity of mountain ecosystems begs for enhanced protection and worldwide protection. Our understanding of the processes that control mountain ecosystems—climate interactions, snowmelt runoff, biotic diversity, nutrient cycling—is much less developed compared to downstream ecosystems where human habitation and development has resulted in large investments in scientific knowledge to sustain health and agriculture. To address these deficiencies, I propose the formation of an international mountain research consortium.

  1. Late Pleistocene glacial fluctuations in Cordillera Oriental, subtropical Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Mateo A.; Kaplan, Michael R.; Strelin, Jorge A.; Astini, Ricardo A.; Schaefer, Joerg M.; Caffee, Marc W.; Schwartz, Roseanne

    2017-09-01

    The behavior of subtropical glaciers during Middle to Late Pleistocene global glacial maxima and abrupt climate change events, specifically in Earth's most arid low-latitude regions, remains an outstanding problem in paleoclimatology. The present-day climate of Cordillera Oriental, in arid northwestern Argentina, is influenced by shifts in subtropical climate systems, including the South American Summer Monsoon. To understand better past glacier-subtropical climates during the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 26.5-19 ka) and other time periods, we combined geomorphic features with forty-two precise 10Be ages on moraine boulders and reconstructed paleo-equilibrium line altitudes (ELA) at Nevado de Chañi (24°S) in the arid subtropical Andes. We found a major glacial expansion at ∼23 ± 1.6 ka, that is, during the global LGM. Additional glacial expansions are observed before the global LGM (at ∼52-39 ka), and after, at 15 ± 0.5 and 12 ± 0.6 ka. The ∼15 ka glacial event was found on both sides of Chañi and the ∼12 ka event is only recorded on the east side. Reconstructed ELAs of the former glaciers exhibit a rise from east to west that resembles the present subtropical climate trajectory from the Atlantic side of the continent; hence, we infer that this climate pattern must have been present in the past. Based on comparison with other low-latitude paleoclimate records, such as those from lakes and caves, we infer that both temperature and precipitation influenced past glacial occurrence in this sector of the arid Andes. Our findings also imply that abrupt deglacial climate events associated with the North Atlantic, specifically curtailed meridional overturning circulation and regional cooling, may have had attendant impacts on low subtropical Southern Hemisphere latitudes, including the climate systems that affect glacial activity around Nevado de Chañi.

  2. Changing Precipitation Patterns or Waning Glaciers? Identifying Water Supply Vulnerabilities to Climate Change in the Bolivian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Z. S.; McIntosh, J. C.; Papuga, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Bolivian Andes have become an iconic example for the impacts of climate change. Glaciers are rapidly melting and some have already completely disappeared. More than 75 percent of the water consumed by 2 million people living on the flanks of the Bolivian Andes comes from mountains and it is often cited that the dwindling ice threatens the water supply of the expanding and destitute population living in the twin cities of La Paz and El Alto. However, the wet and the warm seasons and the cold and dry seasons coincide, causing high precipitation and ice melt—and therefore high streamflows—to occur only in the austral summer (October-March); during the austral winter, cold conditions limit glacier melt. This suggests that reductions in the water supply could be influenced more by changing precipitation amounts than continued glacial mass-wasting. We hypothesize that precipitation is the principal component of groundwater recharge for the aquifers at the base of the central Cordillera Real. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes from rivers partially fed by glaciers, groundwater, and glacial melt water can help determine the relative contribution of precipitation and glacial melt to important water supplies. During the dry season in August 2010, we sampled 23 sites that follow the flow path of water in the Condiriri watershed, beginning in the glacial headwaters and ending several kilometers upriver from Lake Titicaca. We collected five samples at the toe of the Pequeño Alpamayo glacier and four samples from three tributary rivers that drain glaciated headwaters, which include meltwater from the Pequeño Alpamayo glacier. W also collected 14 water samples from shallow and deep wells in rural communities within 40 kilometers of the glaciers. If the isotopic values of groundwater are similar to rain values, as we suspect, precipitation is likely the largest contributor to groundwater resources in the region and will suggest that changing precipitation patterns present the

  3. Integrating river incision rates over timescales in the Ecuadorian Andes: from uplift history to current erosion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campforts, Benjamin; Govers, Gerard; Vanacker, Veerle; Tenorio, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    River profile development is studied at different timescales, from the response to uplift over millions of years over steady state erosion rates over millennia to the response to a single event, such as a major landslide. At present, few attempts have been made to compare data obtained over various timescales. Therefore we do not know to what extent data and model results are compatible: do long-term river profile development models yield erosion rates that are compatible with information obtained over shorter time spans, both in terms of absolute rates and spatial patterns or not? Such comparisons could provide crucial insights into the nature of river development and allow us to assess the confidence we may have when predicting river response at different timescales (e.g. Kirchner et al., 2001). A major issue hampering such comparison is the uncertainty involved in the calibration of long-term river profile development models. Furthermore, calibration data on different timescales are rarely available for a specific region. In this research, we set up a river profile development model similar to the one used by Roberts & White (2010) and successfully calibrated it for the northern Ecuadorian Andes using detailed uplift and sedimentological data. Subsequently we used the calibrated model to simulate river profile development in the southern Ecuadorian Andes. The calibrated model allows to reconstruct the Andean uplift history in southern Ecuador, which is characterized by a very strong uplift phase during the last 5 My. Erosion rates derived from the modeled river incision rates were then compared with 10Be derived basin-wide erosion rates for a series of basins within the study area. We found that the model-inferred erosion rates for the last millennia are broadly compatible with the cosmogenic derived denudation rates, both in terms of absolute erosion rates as well as in terms of their spatial distribution. Hence, a relatively simple river profile development

  4. Hydrological interaction between glacier and páramos in the tropical Andes: implications for water resources availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacís, Marcos; Cadier, Eric; Mena, Sandra; Anaguano, Marcelo; Calispa, Marlon; Maisisncho, Luis; Galárraga, Remigio; Francou, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    there is low precipitation. This additional contribution from glacier melt will reinforce the capacity to transform precipitation into runoff at the saturation zone of this high land catchment. As a consequence, the hydrologic behavior of these catchments could be negatively affected by disappearing glacier contribution under the climate change context predicted by the IPCC for this region. This could be also the case for catchments from other glacierized mountains located in the tropical Andes, where water supply for surrounding populations, high land ecosystems (locally known as páramos), and in some cases other economic activities such as agriculture will be in jeopardy.

  5. Studying the Effects of Amazonian Land Cover Change on Glacier Mass Balance in the Tropical Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, B. G.; Fernandez, A.; Gabrielli, P.; Montenegro, A.; Postigo, J.; Hellstrom, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent research has highlighted several ongoing environmental changes occurring across Tropical South America, including Andean glacier retreat, drought, as well as changes in land-use and land-cover. As the regional climate of the area is mostly characterized by land-ocean interactions, the atmospheric convection in the Amazon, and the effect of the Andes on circulation patterns, it follows that changes in one of those regions may affect the other. Most scholars who have studied the causes of tropical glaciers' fluctuations have not analyzed the linkages with changes in the Amazon with the same attention paid to the influence of Pacific sea surface temperature. Here we study the response of glacier surface mass balance in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru (10°S), to a scenario where the Amazonian rainforest is replaced by savannas. We ran climatic simulations at 2-km spatial resolution utilizing the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model considering two scenarios: (a) control (CRTL), with today's rainforest extent; and (b) land cover change (LCC), where all the rainforest was replaced by savanna. WRF output was in turn ingested into a glacier energy and mass balance (GEMB) model that we validate by reconstructing both the accumulated mass balance from available observations, and the altitudinal distribution of mass balance in the region. Seasonal comparison between CRTL and LCC scenarios indicates that forest replacement by savanna results in more positive glacier mass balance. This shift to more positive mass balance contrasts with a (WRF) modeled rise in the elevation of the freezing line (0°C) between 30 to 120 m for the LCC scenario. Our results are surprising because most previous studies have shown that reducing Amazon forest cover diminishes rainfall and increases temperature, suggesting that glaciers should lose mass. We hypothesize and discuss implications of possible land-atmospheric processes that might drive this tropical glacier response to

  6. The System Nobody Sees: Irrigated Wetland Management and Alpaca Herding in the Peruvian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Verzijl, A.; Guerrero Quispe, S.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, attention in regional, national, and international water governance arenas has focused on high-altitude wetlands. However, existing local water management practices in these wetlands are often overlooked. This article looks at the irrigation activities of alpaca herders in the community of Ccarhuancho in the Central Andes of Peru. For more than two centuries, they have been constructing small-scale irrigation canals to maintain and expand the local wetlands, called bofedales. Th...

  7. The economic viability of value-based food chain for dairy farms in mountain regions: an econometric analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Prišenk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The attention of this paper is drawn to analyze the economic potential of involvement of farmers into the small-medium sized value-based food chain (VBFC. The survey represents a solid dana basis from which econometric modelling approach was further developed. Empirical results reveal the positive economic viability on a general level; this means more stable purchase price of raw milk for dairy farms, which are the part of value-based food chain. Results point at inelastic demand for milk and milk related products. Furthermore, there are some accompanying and underlying indirect social benefits, such as production of high-quality food products, more stable and constant demand for raw milk, steady payments and better social situation. The last one is especially important for the farms operating in less-favored mountain areas where the survey was actually conducted.

  8. [Effect of artificial mountain climate on the functional state of higher regions of the central nervous system in man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezovskiĭ, V A; Levashov, M I

    2009-01-01

    The study included 97 patients with vegetative vascular dystonia and chronic non-specific pulmonary diseases exposed to artificial high-altitude climate in an Orotron climatic chamber during 2 weeks. Atmospheric conditions maintained in the chamber had the following parameters: partial pressure of oxygen--147-160 gPa, relative humidity--60-70%, air temperature--16-18 degrees C, light aeroion content--up to 6000 cub.cm. It was shown that the exposure to artificial mountain climatic conditions enhanced functional mobility of nervous processes and decreased the length of the sensorimotor reactions of the patients. Individual differences in the change of parameters being measured depended on the degree of initial functional flexibility of nervous processes.

  9. Dynamics of forest ecosystems regenerated on burned and harvested areas in mountain regions of Siberia: characteristics of biological diversity, structure and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Danilin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex estimation of forest ecosystems dynamics based on detailing characteristics of structure, growth and productivity of the stands and describing general geographical and biological management options for preserving their biodiversity and sustaining stability are discussed in the paper by describing examples of tree stands restored on burned and logged areas in mountain regions of Siberia. On vast areas in Siberia, characterized as sub-boreal, subarid and with a strongly continental climate, forests grow on seasonally frozen soils and in many cases are surrounded by vast steppe and forest-steppe areas and uplands. Developing criteria for sustainability of mountain forest ecosystems is necessary for forest resource management and conservation. It is therefore important to obtain complex biometric characteristics on forest stands and landscapes and to thoroughly study their structure, biological diversity and productivity. Morphometric methods, Weibull simulation and allometric equations were used to determine the dimensional hierarchies of coenopopulation individuals. Structure and productivity of the aboveground stand components were also studied.

  10. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae) Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ming-Li; Yin, Lin-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF). SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity.

  11. Small-scale variations of climate change in mountainous forested terrain - a regional study from H.J. Andrews Long Term Ecological Research site in Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honzakova, Katerina; Hoffmann, Peter; Jones, Julia; Thomas, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    There has been conflicting evidence as to whether high elevations are experiencing more pronounced climate warming than lower elevations in mountainous regions. In this study we analyze temperature records from H.J. Andrews Long Term Ecological Research, Oregon, USA and several nearby areas, comprising together 28 stations located in Cascade Mountains. The data, starting in 1958, are first checked for quality and homogenized using the Standard Normal Homogeneity Test. As a reference, composite climate time series based on the Global Historic Climate Network is created and together with cross-referencing against station records used to correct breaks and shifts in the data. In the next step, we investigate temperature patterns of the study site from 1958 to 2016 and compare them for valley and hill stations. In particular, we explore seasonality and inter-annual variability of the records and trends of the last day of frost. Additionally, 'cold' sums (positive and negative) are calculated to obtain a link between temperature and ecosystems' responses (such as budbreaks). So far, valley stations seem to be more prone to climate change than ridge or summit stations, contrary to current thinking. Building on previous knowledge, we attempt to provide physical explanations for the temperature records, focusing on wind patterns and associated phenomena such as cold air drainage and pooling. To aid this we analyze wind speed and direction data available for some of the stations since 1996, including seasonality and inter-annual variability of the observed flows.

  12. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF. SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity.

  13. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  14. Changing Student Attitudes using Andes, An Intelligent Homework System

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Brett; Vanlehn, Kurt; Treacy, Don; Shelby, Bob; Wintersgill, Mary

    2007-03-01

    The size of introductory physics lectures often inhibits personal homework assistance and timely corrective feedback. Andes, an intelligent homework help system designed for two semesters of introductory physics, can fill this need by encouraging students to use sound problem solving techniques and providing immediate feedback on each step of a solution. On request, Andes provides principles-based hints based on previous student actions. A multi-year study at the U.S. Naval Academy demonstrates that students using Andes perform better than students working the same problems as graded pencil and paper homeworks. In addition, student attitude surveys show that Andes is preferred over other homework systems. These findings have implications for student attitudes toward, and mastery of, physics. See http://www.andes.pitt.edu for more information.

  15. National coal resource assessment non-proprietary data: Location, stratigraphy, and coal quality for selected tertiary coal in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Romeo M.; Ochs, A.M.; Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.S.; Roberts, S.B.; Keighin, C.W.; Murphy, E.C.; Cavaroc, V.V.; Johnson, R.C.; Wilde, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the objectives of the National Coal Resource Assessment in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region was to compile stratigraphic and coal quality-trace-element data on selected and potentially minable coal beds and zones of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene) and equivalent formations. In order to implement this objective, drill-hole information was compiled from hard-copy and digital files of the: (1) U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) offices in Casper, Rawlins, and Rock Springs, Wyoming, and in Billings, Montana, (2) State geological surveys of Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming, (3) Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality in Cheyenne, (4) U.S. Office of Surface Mining in Denver, Colorado, (5) U.S. Geological Survey, National Coal Resource Data System (NCRDS) in Reston, Virginia, (6) U.S. Geological Survey coal publications, (7) university theses, and (8) mining companies.

  16. Valorisation of vernacular farm buildings for the sustainable development of rural tourism in mountain areas of the Adriatic-Ionian macro-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Statuto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rural buildings play a central role on the environmental characteristics of the extra-urban land. They accompanied in the centuries the development of agricultural activities by humans, who was so able to breed cattle, to grow and yield crops, and to store, transform and process agricultural products in a functional and efficient way, working into intensive conditions, so being unaffected by the external climate. On the other hand, constructions built by the farmer-man marked the territory, influencing and steering the spontaneous development of nature, while leading to production that enabled humanity to get food. Vernacular farm buildings, often used as seasonal settlements, are in some cases organised in areas of mountain pasture for summer cattle grazing. Even if in most case they were abandoned during recent years - since people living there moved to more comfortable residences within urban settlements - their contemporary potential for preserving traditional cattle-raising procedures and dairy products, rich cultural-historical heritage and perspectives of organised tourism activities, appears a very intriguing task to be approached. Rural tourism - including agro-, eco- and cultural tourism - offers indeed new opportunities for enjoying the extra-urban land in close contact with naturally untouched landscapes. It enables to appreciate some traditional aspects that the new industrialised modern society may have forgotten. The opportunities offered by rural tourism could help in the development of environmentally friendly tourism, which is growing three times faster than those choosing mainstream trips. With the aim to valorise the vernacular rural buildings in some mountain areas of the Adriatic-Ionian macro-region, in the present paper a first approach was proposed, through the implementation of a geographical information system aimed to survey the current situation into two different mountain areas within this macro-region, located in

  17. New lakes in de-glaciating high-mountain regions - a challenge for integrative research about hazard protection and sustainable use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberli, W.

    2012-12-01

    As a consequence of rapid glacier vanishing, an increasing number of smaller and larger lakes are forming in high-mountain regions worldwide. Such new lakes can be touristic landscape attractions and may also represent interesting potentials for hydropower production. However, they more and more often come into existence at the foot of very large and steep icy mountain walls, which are progressively destabilizing due to changing surface and subsurface ice conditions. The probability of far-reaching flood and debris flow catastrophes caused by impact waves from large rock/ice avalanches into lakes may still appear to be small now but steadily increases for long time periods to come. Corresponding projects related to hazard protection and sustainable use should be combined in an integrative and participatory planning process. This planning process must start soon, because the development in nature is fast and most likely accelerating. Technical tools for creating the necessary scientific knowledge basis at local to regional scales exist and can be used. The location of future new lakes in topographic bed depressions of now still glacier-covered areas can be quite safely assessed on the basis of morphological criteria or by applying ice thickness estimates using digital terrain information. Models for ice-thickness estimates couple the depth to bedrock via the basal shear stress with the surface slope and provide a (relative) bed topography which is much more robust than the (absolute) value of the calculated ice thickness. Numerical models at various levels of sophistication can be used to simulate possible future glacier changes in order to establish the probable time of lake formation and the effects of glacier shrinking on runoff seasonality and water supply. The largest uncertainties thereby relate to the large uncertainties of (absolute) ice thickness and mass/energy fluxes at the surface (climate scenarios, precipitation and albedo changes, etc.). Combined

  18. Morphometric analysis of landslide in the Mountain Region of the State of Rio de Janeiro in Brazi: the case study of D'anta's watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Araújo, João Paulo; da Silva, Lúcia Maria; Avear, Marcello; Dourado, Francisco; Ferreira Fernandes, Nelson

    2013-04-01

    Mass movements are recurrent phenomena in the whole Mountain Region of the State of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. These events actively participate in the relief evolution and are also responsible for many damages and loss of human lives. The triggering of these events depends on the natural environment and the preparatory and immediate action of the physical, biotic and human agents responsible for these processes. This work is based on the hypothesis in which the topographical conditions have a major effect on the spatial distribution of translational landslides caused by decreased of the internal resistance of the material mobilized. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the topographical conditions favorable to landslide triggering based on morphometric analysis in a pilot watershed - D'antás watershed - located in the mountainous region of the State of Rio de Janeiro. The indices include the topographic wetness index (TWI), contributing area, slope angle and elevation and were derived from 5-m grid digital terrain model, computed on a Geographic Information System (GIS). The maps produced allowed the analysis of topographic influence on the landslides distribution from the indices of frequency classes (F), concentration of scars (CC) and potential of landslide (PL). The landscape sectors that are more likely to be affected by landslides were the ones where the elevation ranges from 1070m - 1187m, slope angle between 40.95° and 47.77°, contributing area between (log10) 1.32 m² - 1.95 m² and topographic wetness index between 7.11 to 9.59. This work provides important information which may help in the decision-making process, using fewer data and indices of easy application. Finally, the results obtained will subsidize of a landslide susceptibility map through the implementation of the conditional probability method aimed at predicting and mitigating of the damage caused by landslides.

  19. Assessment of the Potential to Reduce Emissions from Road Transportation, Notably NOx, Through the Use of Alternative Vehicles and Fuels in the Great Smoky Mountains Region; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.

    2001-01-01

    Air pollution is a serious problem in the region of the Great Smoky Mountains. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) may designate non-attainment areas by 2003 for ozone. Pollutants include nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO(sub 2)), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lead, and particulate matter (PM), which are health hazards, damage the environment, and limit visibility. The main contributors to this pollution are industry, transportation, and utilities. Reductions from all contributors are needed to correct this problem. While improvements are projected in each sector over the next decades, the May 2000 Interim Report issued by the Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI) suggests that the percentage of NOx emissions from transportation may increase. The conclusions are: (1) It is essential to consider the entire fuel cycle in assessing the benefits, or disadvantages, of an alternative fuel option, i.e., feedstock and fuel production, in addition to vehicle operation; (2) Many improvements to the energy efficiency of a particular vehicle and engine combination will also reduce emissions by reducing fuel use, e.g., engine efficiency, reduced weight, drag and tire friction, and regenerative braking; (3) In reducing emissions it will be important to install the infrastructure to provide the improved fuels, support the maintenance of advanced vehicles, and provide emissions testing of both local vehicles and those from out of state; (4) Public transit systems using lower emission vehicles can play an important role in reducing emissions per passenger mile by carrying passengers more efficiently, particularly in congested areas. However, analysis is required for each situation; (5) Any reduction in emissions will be welcome, but the problems of air pollution in our region will not be solved by a few modest improvements. Substantial reductions in emissions of key pollutants are required both in East Tennessee and in

  20. Coupled geohazards at Southern Andes (Copahue-Lanín volcanoes): Chile's GEO supersite proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Luis E.; Cordova, Loreto

    2017-04-01

    Southern Andes are a young and active mountain belt where volcanism and tectonic processes (and those related to the hydrometeorological conditions controlled by this geological setting) pose a significant threat to the growing communities nearby. This proposal focus on a ca. 200 km long segment of the Southern Andes where 9 stratovolcanoes and 2 distributed volcanic fields are located, just along a tectonic corridor defined by the northern segment of the Liquiñe-Ofqui Faul System (LOFS), a long-lived active strike-slip fault running for 1200 km. Volcanoes in this area take part of the central province of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (37-41°S), particularly the northermost portion that is limited at the south by an Andean tranverse fault (Lanalhue Fault, which define the Villarrica-Lanin volcanic chain) and run along the horse-tail array of the LOFS to the north. Most of the stravolcanoes are atop of the LOFS main branch with only 3 exceptions (Callaqui, Tolhuaca and Lanín) 15-20 km away, but related to transverse faults. Hazards in the segment derive from the activity of some of the most active volcanoes in South America (e.g., Villarrica, Llaima), others with long-lasting weak activity (e.g., Copahue) or some volcanoes with low frequency but high magnitude eruptions in the geological record. Only since the beggining of the 20th century 80 eruptions have been recorded in this area. In addition, activity of the LOFS has been detected prior to some eruptions and coeval with some others (e.g., Lonquimay 1989). A strong two-way coupling between tectonics and volcanism has been proposed for the segment but only recently detected by geophysical techniques or numerical modelling. Tectonic triggered landslides are frequent in this region together with debris flows at erupting ice-covered volcanoes or stream headed at high altitude basins. The latter scenario seems to be worst at present because of global climate change. Ground-based monitoring networks for both

  1. Small mammals of the Mongolian mountain steppe region near Erdensant: insights from live-trapping and bird pellet remains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L. Isaac

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little is known of the distribution, abundance and ecology of small mammals in Mongolia and as a result there is scant knowledge of the effects of environmental and anthropogenic factors on small mammal populations. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of small mammals in mountain steppe habitat from live-trapping and analysis of mammal remains from raptor pellets and below nests. During live-trapping, root voles ( Microtus oeconemus were the most commonly caught species accounting for 47.5 % of captures, striped hamsters ( Cricetulus barabensis and pika ( Ochotona hyperborea accounted for 30 % and 22.5 % of captures respectively. Temperature influenced trapping success, with small mammals appearing to avoid being active at temperatures over 20 ̊C. The three species caught on the trapping grid appeared to avoid competition for resources through both temporal and spatial differences in the use of available habitat. Mammals identified from raptor pellets and other remains included the grey hamster ( Cricatulus migratorius , Siberian marmot ( Marmota sibirica , red fox ( Vulpes vulpes , long-tailed souslik ( Citellus undulatus and the Daurian mole ( Myospalax aspalax. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance to the conservation of mammals in Mongolia and their co-existence with livestock and humans.

  2. AREAS OF ENDEMISM IN THE SOUTHERN CENTRAL ANDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone Aagesen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza la distribución de especies de plantas vasculares endémicas de la porción sur de los Andes centrales (sudoeste de Bolivia y noroeste de Argentina. En el análisis se incluyeron 540 especies endémicas de la región estudiada (aproximadamente 720.600 km2. La mayoría de las especies endémicas se halla en ambientes semiáridos, entre 1500-3500 m s.m., encontrándose principalmente en valles, laderas y mesetas del topográficamente complejo sur de los Andes centrales. Las áreas de endemismos aquí halladas se presentan consecuentemente en ambientes áridos y no en ambientes húmedos subtropicales de las Yungas tucumano-bolivianas, a pesar de que en esta última región la diversidad de plantas vasculares es mayor. Se identificaron un total de 17 patrones de distribución bien definidos, y parcialmente solapados. El patrón de distribución más amplio define un área general de endemismos para los Andes centrales. Esta área se extiende a lo largo de casi toda la región y está delimitada por especies que se distribuyen en ambientes desérticos a sub-húmedos en laderas, valles o regiones altoandinas. Casi todas las restantes áreas de endemismo se encuentran anidadas dentro del patrón de distribución amplio antes citado, superponiéndose en el sentido norte-sur a lo largo de pendientes y valles de los Andes y de las Sierras Pampeanas. A pesar del sesgo observado en la distribución hacia ambientes áridos, aproximadamente la mitad de las especies endémicas están restringidas a unas pocas áreas de alto endemismo, las que se encuentran en yuxtaposición con las zonas más lluviosas de la región. Estas áreas de alto endemismo incluyen los rangos de hábitat más amplios de la región en términos de altitud y precipitación, siendo las especies endémicas igualmente variables en sus requerimientos de humedad y elevación. Las unidades fitogeográficas previamente definidas por diversos autores no fueron encontradas

  3. Long-term carbon accumulation in Andes peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, Yizet; Moreira-turq, Patricia; Willems, Bram; Espinoza, Raul; Turq, Bruno; Apaéstegui, James; Llanos, Romina

    2017-04-01

    High-altitude peatlands of the Andes still remain relatively unexplored since most of the studies on carbon capture in tropical soils have focused on peatlands in low altitude areas, leaving aside the importance of the study of high mountain wetlands, currently called "bofedales" located between 3000 and 5000 masl, covering most of the Andes mountains in South America. These peatlands in turn may also represent important paleoclimatic records. In this study, we investigated three peatland cores (APA-01, APA2-01, and APA2-02) at different altitudes (4210 m, 4420 m and 4432 m, respectively) in high Andean Peatlands of southern Peru. The peatland studied is located at the headwater basin Cachi River, in the town of Ayacucho, Peru. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role played by past climatic changes on the peatlands carbon accumulation. Each core was sectioned centimeter by centimeter and sub samples (n = 31) were collected for radiocarbon dating by AMS (acceleration mass spectrometer) and were used to create a sedimentological model based on the program Clam2.2R. The concentrations of carbon and nitrogen were determined from a C / H / N elemental analyzer and the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) were also analyzed. The bulk density was determined based on the volume occupied by the sediment (g /cm3). Finally, the carbon accumulation rate (gC m-2año-1) was determined. The three cores were characterized by two sedimentary units, the results present in the first sedimentary unit of APA01 an average long-term carbon accumulation rate of 59 gC m-2año-1, APA2-01 with 32 gC m-2año-1 and finally APA2-02 with 24 gC m-2año-1; for the second sedimentary unit we have: APA01 on average 17 gC m-2año-1, APA2-01 with 33 gC m-2año-1 and finally APA2-02 with 49 gC m-2año-1. In conclusion, we can say that the carbon accumulation rate for the first sedimentary unit of the three cores decreases as the altitude increases; on the other hand, we have the

  4. Mountaineering Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Maher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Mountaineering Tourism Edited by Ghazali Musa, James Higham, and Anna Thompson-Carr. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge, 2015. xxvi + 358 pp. Hardcover. US$ 145.00. ISBN 978-1-138-78237-2.

  5. Assessing the effect of soil use changes on soil moisture regimes in mountain regions. (Catalan Pre-Pyrenees NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaiza Usuga, Juan Carlos; Jarauta Bragulat, Eusebio; Porta Casanellas, Jaume; Poch Claret, Rosa Maria

    2010-01-01

    Soil moisture regimes under different land uses were observed and modeled in a representative forest basin in the Catalonian Pre-Pyrenees, more specifically in the Ribera Salada catchment (222.5 km2). The vegetation cover in the catchment consists of pasture, tillage and forest. A number of representative plots for each of these land cover types were intensely monitored during the study period. The annual precipitation fluctuates between 516 and 753 mm, while the soil moisture content oscillates between 14 and 26% in the middle and low lying areas of the basin, and between 21 and 48% in shady zones near the river bed, and in the higher parts of the basin. Soil moisture and rainfall are controlled firstly by altitude, with the existence of two climatic types in the basin (sub-Mediterranean and sub-alpine), and further, by land use. Two models were applied to the estimated water moisture regimes: the Jarauta Simulation Newhall model (JSM) and the Newhall simulation model (NSM) were found to be able to predict the soil moisture regimes in the basin in the different combinations of local abiotic and biotic factors. The JSM results are more precise than the results obtained using another frequently used method, more specifically the Newhall Simulation Model (NSM), which has been developed to simulate soil moisture regimes. NSM was found to overestimate wet soil moisture regimes. The results show the importance of the moisture control section size and Available Water Capacity (AWC) of the profile, in the moisture section control state and variability. The mountain soils are dominated by rustic and occasionally xeric regimes. Land use changes leading to an increase in forest areas would imply drier soil conditions and therefore drier soil water regimes. These effects are most evident in degraded shallow and stony soils with low AWC.

  6. Sensitivity of mountain ecosystems to human-accelerated soil erosion. Contrasting geomorphic response between tropical and semi-arid ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Veerle; Bellin, Nicolas; Schoonejans, Jerome; Molina, Armando; Kubik, Peter W.

    2014-05-01

    Human-induced land cover changes are causing important adverse effects on the ecological services rendered by mountain ecosystems, and the number of case-studies of the impact of humans on soil erosion and sediment yield has mounted rapidly. A modelling framework that is specifically adapted to mountain environments is currently lacking. Most studies make use of general river basin models that were originally parameterized and calibrated for temperate, low relief landscapes. Transposing these modelling concepts directly to steep environments with shallow and stony soils often leads to unrealistic model predictions, as model input parameters are rarely calibrated for the range of environmental conditions found in mountain regions. Here, we present a conceptual model that evaluates erosion regulation as a function of human disturbances in vegetation cover. The basic idea behind this model is that soil erosion mechanisms are independent of human impact, but that the frequency-magnitude distributions of erosion rates change as a response to human disturbances. Pre-disturbance (or natural) erosion rates are derived from in-situ produced 10Be concentrations in river sediment, while post-disturbance (or modern) erosion rates are derived from sedimentation rates in small catchments. In its simplicity, the model uses vegetation cover change as a proxy of human disturbance in a given vegetation system. The model is then calibrated with field measurements from two mountainous sites with strongly different vegetation dynamics, climatic and geological settings: the Tropical Andes, and the Spanish Betic Cordillera. Natural erosion processes are important in mountainous sites, and natural erosion benchmarks are primordial to assess human-induced changes in erosion rates. While the Spanish Betic Cordillera is commonly characterized as a degraded landscape, there is no significant change in erosion due to human disturbance for uncultivated sites. The opposite is true for the

  7. Timing of last deglaciation in the Cantabrian Mountains (Iberian Peninsula; North Atlantic Region) based on in situ-produced 10Be exposure dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Domínguez-Cuesta, María José; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Pallàs, Raimon; Aumaître, Georges; Bourlès, Didier L.; Keddadouche, Karim; Aster Team

    2017-09-01

    The Last Glacial Termination led to major changes in ice sheet coverage that disrupted global patterns of atmosphere and ocean circulation. Paleoclimate records from Iberia suggest that westerly episodes played a key role in driving heterogeneous climate in the North Atlantic Region. We used 10Be Cosmic Ray Exposure (CRE) dating to explore the glacier response of small mountain glaciers (ca. 5 km2) that developed on the northern slope of the Cantabrian Mountains (Iberian Peninsula), an area directly under the influence of the Atlantic westerly winds. We analyzed twenty boulders from three moraines and one rock glacier arranged as a recessional sequence preserved between 1150 and 1540 m above sea level (a.s.l.) in the Monasterio valley (Redes Natural Park). Results complement previous chronologic data based on radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence from the Monasterio valley, which suggest a local Glacial Maximum (local GM) prior to 33 ka BP and a long-standing glacier advance at 24 ka coeval to the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Resultant 10Be CRE ages suggest a progressive retreat and thinning of the Monasterio glacier over the time interval 18.1-16.7 ka. This response is coeval with the Heinrich Stadial 1, an extremely cold and dry climate episode initiated by a weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Glacier recession continued through the Bølling/Allerød period as indicate the minimum exposure ages obtained from a cirque moraine and a rock glacier nested within this moraine, which yielded ages of 14.0 and 13.0 ka, respectively. Together, they suggest that the Monasterio glacier experienced a gradual transition from glacier to rock glacier activity as the AMOC started to strengthen again. Glacial evidence ascribable to the Younger Dryas cooling was not dated in the Monasterio valley, but might have occurred at higher elevations than evidence dated in this work. The evolution of former glaciers documented in the

  8. Two new species of Leptanilloides Mann, 1823 (Formicidae: Dorylinae from the Andes of southern Ecuador

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    Thibaut Delsinne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Leptanilloides are described: L. copalinga Delsinne & Donoso sp. nov., and L. prometea Delsinne & Donoso sp. nov., based on workers collected in the leaf litter and soil of the Andes of southern Ecuador. Both species belong to the L. biconstricta species-group (formally diagnosed here. The metatibial gland, considered a synapomorphy for Dorylinae, is observed in L. prometea sp. nov. but seems absent in L. copalinga sp. nov. We provide a COI DNA barcode for both species and a revised key for the worker caste of all known species in the genus. We also describe a single male identified as a potential new Leptanilloides species on the basis of morphology. Furthermore, its mitochondrial COI gene sequence does not match any previously barcoded species. However, we refrain from giving it a specific name because of our lack of knowledge about the worker caste. So far, half of the 14 Leptanilloides species have been discovered above 1500 m in the mountain forests or páramos of the Ecuadorian Andes, confirming, if needed, the biological significance of these threatened habitats.

  9. Sensitivity Analysis of a Land-Use Change Model with and without Agents to Assess Land Abandonment and Long-Term Re-Forestation in a Swiss Mountain Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandle, M.; Langendijk, G.; Peter, S.; Brunner, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    Land abandonment and the subsequent re-forestation are important drivers behind the loss of ecosystem services in mountain regions. Agent-based models can help to identify global change impacts on farmland abandonment and can test policy and management options to counteract this development.

  10. Drivers Motivating Community Health Improvement Plan Completion by Local Public Health Agencies and Community Partners in the Rocky Mountain Region and Western Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Anne; Wolf, Holly J; Scallan, Elaine; Case, Jenny; Kellar-Guenther, Yvonne

    There are numerous drivers that motivate completion of community health improvement plans (CHIPs). Some are more obvious and include voluntary public health accreditation, state requirements, federal and state funding, and nonprofit hospital requirements through IRS regulations. Less is known about other drivers, including involvement of diverse partners and belief in best practices, that may motivate CHIP completion. This research investigated the drivers that motivated CHIP completion based on experiences of 51 local public health agencies (LPHAs). An explanatory mixed-methods design, including closed- and open-ended survey questions and key informant interviews, was used to understand the drivers that motivated CHIP completion. Analysis of survey data involved descriptive statistics. Classical content analysis was used for qualitative data to clarify survey findings. The surveys and key informant interviews were conducted in the Rocky Mountain Region and Western Plains among 51 medium and large LPHAs in Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. More than 50% of respondents were public health directors; the balance of the respondents were division/program directors, accreditation coordinators, and public health planners. CHIP completion. Most LPHAs in the Rocky Mountains and Western Plains have embraced developing and publishing a CHIP, with 80% having completed their plan and another 13% working on it. CHIP completion is motivated by a belief in best practices, with LPHAs and partners seeing the benefit of quality improvement activities linked to the CHIP and the investment of nonprofit hospitals in the process. Completing a CHIP is strengthened through engagement of diverse partners and a well-functioning partnership. The future of CHIP creation depends on LPHAs and partners investing in the CHIP as a best practice, dedicating personnel to CHIP activities, and enhancing leadership skills to contribute to a synergistic

  11. Spatial Analysis of the Distribution of Small Businesses in the Eastern Villages of Gilan Province with Emphasis on the Tourism Sector in Mountainous Regions

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    Mehdi Hajilo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of small businesses in rural areas as a key strategy for sustaining the population and improving the quality of life of villagers has always been a concern for many developed and developing countries. Some rural areas provide their villagers with favorable conditions for the development of businesses in order to enjoy the potential in the field of tourism. Sustainable development in these areas can be achieved with systematic attention and planning. In the present work, the spatial analysis of the distribution of small businesses in the eastern parts of Gilan Province was studied with an emphasis on tourism in mountainous regions. The study population consisted of all villages in the east part of Gilan Province, and the sample included all businesses officially supported by the Omid Entrepreneurship Fund. The research method was a descriptive analytic in which GIS software and the G statistic were used for the analysis of spatial correlation, clustering, hot and cold spots analysis and buffer zones. Finally, the results of the study showed that the spatial distribution of businesses in different economic sectors (agriculture, industry, services and tourism were different between 2011 and 2016 in the way the cluster pattern was formed in agricultural and service activities. A cluster pattern cannot be considered in the tourism and industrial activities, but there is a random (point pattern; in this regard, the results indicate the importance of the factor of distance between the village and the city center in the distribution of tourism businesses. In addition, the highest levels of support for businesses were in the agricultural and services sectors, while the lowest support was in industry and tourism. Finally, the results showed that the distribution of businesses in all activities was much higher in the plains and valleys as compared to the mountainous and hill areas.

  12. Impacts of Spatial Climatic Representation on Hydrological Model Calibration and Prediction Uncertainty: A Mountainous Catchment of Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sparse climatic observations represent a major challenge for hydrological modeling of mountain catchments with implications for decision-making in water resources management. Employing elevation bands in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool-Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SWAT2012-SUFI2 model enabled representation of precipitation and temperature variation with altitude in the Daning river catchment (Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China where meteorological inputs are limited in spatial extent and are derived from observations from relatively low lying locations. Inclusion of elevation bands produced better model performance for 1987–1993 with the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE increasing by at least 0.11 prior to calibration. During calibration prediction uncertainty was greatly reduced. With similar R-factors from the earlier calibration iterations, a further 11% of observations were included within the 95% prediction uncertainty (95PPU compared to the model without elevation bands. For behavioral simulations defined in SWAT calibration using a NSE threshold of 0.3, an additional 3.9% of observations were within the 95PPU while the uncertainty reduced by 7.6% in the model with elevation bands. The calibrated model with elevation bands reproduced observed river discharges with the performance in the calibration period changing to “very good” from “poor” without elevation bands. The output uncertainty of calibrated model with elevation bands was satisfactory, having 85% of flow observations included within the 95PPU. These results clearly demonstrate the requirement to account for orographic effects on precipitation and temperature in hydrological models of mountainous catchments.

  13. Geodiversity and geohazards of the Susa Valley (W-Alps, Italy): combining scientific research and new technologies for enhanced knowledge and proactive management of geoheritage in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco; Bacenetti, Marco; Perotti, Luigi; Giordano, Enrico; Ghiraldi, Luca; Palomba, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    Mountain regions have a range of geological and geomorphological features that make them very attractive for tourism activities. As a consequence, increased human "pressure" causes impacts on geoheritage sites and higher geomorphological risks. These effects are magnified by active geomorphic processes characterizing mountains areas, highly sensitive to climate change. In term of "human sensitivity", several sociological surveys have shown that "perceived risk", not "real risk", influences people's behavior towards natural hazards. The same approach can be applied to geodiversity and geoheritage. Based on these assumptions, we considered the possible strategic roles played by diffusion of scientific research and application of new technologies: 1) to enhance awareness, either of geodiversity or environmental dynamics and 2) to improve knowledge, both on geoheritage management and natural risk reduction. Within the activities of the "ProGEO-Piemonte Project" (Progetti d'Ateneo 2011, cofunded by Universita? degli Studi di Torino and Compagnia di San Paolo Bank Foundation), we performed a systematic review of geodiversity and natural hazards information in the Piemonte Region (NW-Italy). Then we focused our attention on the Susa Valley, an area of the Western Alps where the geoheritage is affected by very active morphodynamics, as well as by a growing tourism, after the 2006 winter Olympics. The Susa Valley became one of the 9 strategic geothematic areas have been selected to represent the geodiversity of the Piemonte region, each characterized by high potential for enhancement of public understanding of science, and recreation activities supported by local communities. Then we contributed to the awareness-raising communication strategy of the "RiskNat project" (Interreg Alcotra 2007-2013, Action A.4.3) by synthesizing geoscience knowledge on the Susa Valley and information on slope instabilities and models/prevention measures/warning systems. Visual representations

  14. Use of reservoir deposits to reconstruct the recent changes in sediment yields from a small granite catchment in the Yimeng Mountain region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunqi; Long, Yi; Li, Bao; Xu, Shujian; Wang, Xiaoli; Liao, Jia

    2017-09-01

    Information on recent changes in sediment yields from small catchments provides a better understanding of temporal trends in soil loss from certain physical and human-influenced landscapes that have been subjected to recent environmental changes, and will help bridge the current knowledge gap that exists between hillslope erosion and sediment transport in rivers. The Yimeng Mountain region, characterized by alternating granite and limestone, is one of the most susceptible regions to soil erosion in northern China, and has been subjected to intensive anthropogenic activity in recent years. Soil loss from areas underlain by granite is particularly obvious, and is the main sediment source for the Yihe River. In this study, we used reservoir deposits to estimate the changes in sediment yields over the past 50 years from a small catchment underlain by granite, namely the Jiangzhuang catchment in the Yimeng Mountain region. Three cores were collected from the Jiangzhuang Reservoir in the catchment. The activities of 137Cs and 210Pbex at different depths, clay (grain size reference to human activity and environmental change in the catchment. The chronologies of the cores were established by 137Cs and 210Pbex dating. The area-specific sediment yield (SSY) for different time periods since dam construction was estimated from each core by referring to the original capacity curve of the reservoir. The results indicate that the depth profiles of 137Cs, 210Pbex, clay, and SOC contents in cores from the Jiangzhuang Reservoir reflect the general history of human disturbances on the catchment over the past 50 years. The estimated SSY value from each core for each period ranged from 7.2 ± 2.7 to 23.7 ± 8.3 t ha- 1 y- 1, with a mean of 12.5 ± 4.6 t ha- 1 y- 1. SSY decreased during 1954-1972, and then showed a general tendency to increase. The temporal pattern of the sediment yield largely reflects the history of environmental change influenced by human activity in the catchment.

  15. Patterns of LGM precipitation in the U.S. Rocky Mountains: results from regional application of a glacier mass/energy balance and flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, E. M.; Laabs, B. J.; Refsnider, K. A.; Plummer, M. A.; Jacobsen, R. E.; Wollenberg, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Global climate model (GCM) simulations of the last glacial maximum (LGM) in the western United States predict changes in atmospheric circulation and storm tracks that would have resulted in significantly less-than-modern precipitation in the Northwest and northern Rockies, and significantly more-than-modern precipitation in the Southwest and southern Rockies. Model simulations also suggest that late Pleistocene pluvial lakes in the intermontane West may have modified local moisture regimes in areas immediately downwind. In this study, we present results of the application of a coupled energy/mass balance and glacier-flow model (Plummer and Phillips, 2003) to reconstructed paleoglaciers in Rocky Mountains of Utah, New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming to assess the changes from modern climate that would have been necessary to sustain each glacier in mass-balance equilibrium at its LGM extent. Results demonstrate that strong west-to-east and north-to-south gradients in LGM precipitation, relative to present, would be required if a uniform LGM temperature depression with respect to modern is assumed across the region. At an assumed 7oC temperature depression, approximately modern precipitation would have been necessary to support LGM glaciation in the Colorado Front Range, significantly less than modern precipitation to support glaciation in the Teton Range, and almost twice modern precipitation to sustain glaciers in the Wasatch and Uinta ranges of Utah and the New Mexico Sangre de Cristo Range. The observed west-to-east (Utah-to-Colorado) LGM moisture gradient is consistent with precipitation enhancement from pluvial Lake Bonneville, decreasing with distance downwind from the lake. The north-to-south (Wyoming-to-New Mexico) LGM moisture gradient is consistent with a southward LGM displacement of the mean winter storm track associated with the winter position of the Pacific Jet Stream across the western U.S. Our analysis of paleoglacier extents in the Rocky Mountain

  16. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Is Associated with Chronic Mountain Sickness in the Andean Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Jose R.; Alvarez, Giancarlo; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Ju Preciado, Hugo F.; Macarlupu, Jose-Luis; Rivera-Ch, Maria; Rodriguez, Jorge; Favier, Judith; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Espinoza, Jose R., Giancarlo Alvarez, Fabiola León-Velarde, Hugo F. Ju Preciado, Jose-Luis Macarlupu, Maria Rivera-Ch, Jorge Rodriguez, Judith Favier, Anne-Paule Gimenez-Roqueplo, and Jean-Paul Richalet. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A is associated with chronic mountain sickness in Andean population. High Alt Med Biol. 15:146–154, 2014.—A study of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) with a candidate gene—vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)—was carried out in a Peruvian population living at high altitude in Cerro de Pasco (4380 m). The study was performed by genotyping of 11 tag SNPs encompassing 2.2 kb of region of VEGFA gene in patients with a diagnosis of CMS (n=131; 49.1±12.7 years old) and unrelated healthy controls (n=84; 47.2±13.4 years old). The VEGFA tag SNP rs3025033 was found associated with CMS (p0.36, p<0.01), suggesting selection is operating on the VEGF gene. Our results suggest that VEGFA is associated with CMS in long-term residents at high altitude in the Peruvian Andes. PMID:24971768

  17. Drainage isolation and climate change-driven population expansion shape the genetic structures of Tuber indicum complex in the Hengduan Mountains region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bang; Zhao, Qi; Xu, Jianping; Qin, Jiao; Yang, Zhu L

    2016-02-24

    The orogenesis of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the Quaternary climate changes have played key roles in driving the evolution of flora and fauna in Southwest China, but their effects on higher fungi are poorly addressed. In this study, we investigated the phylogeographic pattern of the Tuber indicum species complex, an economically important fungal group distributed in the Hengduan Mountains region. Our data confirmed the existence of two distinct lineages, T. indicum and T. himalayense, within this species complex. Three geographic groups (Groups W, N and C) were revealed within T. indicum, with Group W found in the paleo-Lancang River region, while Groups N and C corresponded to the two banks along the contemporary Jinsha River, suggesting that rivers have acted as barriers for gene flow among populations from different drainages. Historical range expansion resulted from climate changes was inferred in Group C, contributing to the observed gene flow among geographic populations within this group. Although no significant geographic structure was identified in T. himalayense, evidence of drainage isolation for this species was also detected. Our findings demonstrate that both topographic changes and Quaternary climate oscillations have played important roles in driving the genetic structures of the T. indicum species complex.

  18. Hydrogeological approach to the regional analysis of low flow in medium and small streams of the hilly and mountainous areas of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikić Zoran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During the long rainless spells of the dry season, flows in medium and small streams get reduced to what is generally known as "low flow". For ungauged streams, the controlling "low flows" are determined using the regional analysis method. In the presently described exploration, the method applied was based on the assumption that dry weather discharges in medium and small rivers depended on the hydrogeological conditions. The controlling effect of hydrogeology on the natural low flow in medium and small streams of the hilly and mountainous part of Serbia was analyzed applying the theory of multiple linear regression. The thirty-day minimum mean 80 and 95 per cent exceedance flows were taken for dependent variables, and quantified hydrogeological elements as independent variables. The analysis covered streams that had small or medium size catchment areas. The treated example encompassed sixty-one gauged catchments. The resulting regional relations for the thirty day minimum mean 80 and 95 per cent exceedance flows are presented in this paper. The quality of the established relation was controlled by relevant statistic tests.

  19. Glacier loss and hydro-social risks in the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Bryan G.; French, Adam; Baraer, Michel; Carey, Mark; Bury, Jeffrey; Young, Kenneth R.; Polk, Molly H.; Wigmore, Oliver; Lagos, Pablo; Crumley, Ryan; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.; Lautz, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Accelerating glacier recession in tropical highlands and in the Peruvian Andes specifically is a manifestation of global climate change that is influencing the hydrologic cycle and impacting water resources across a range of socio-environmental systems. Despite predictions regarding the negative effects of long-term glacier decline on water availability, many uncertainties remain regarding the timing and variability of hydrologic changes and their impacts. To improve context-specific understandings of the effects of climate change and glacial melt on water resources in the tropical Andes, this article synthesizes results from long-term transdisciplinary research with new findings from two glacierized Peruvian watersheds to develop and apply a multi-level conceptual framework focused on the coupled biophysical and social determinants of water access and hydro-social risks in these settings. The framework identifies several interacting variables-hydrologic transformation, land cover change, perceptions of water availability, water use and infrastructure in local and regional economies, and water rights and governance-to broadly assess how glacier change is embedded with social risks and vulnerability across diverse water uses and sectors. The primary focus is on the Santa River watershed draining the Cordillera Blanca to the Pacific. Additional analysis of hydrologic change and water access in the geographically distinct Shullcas River watershed draining the Huaytapallana massif towards the city of Huancayo further illuminates the heterogeneous character of hydrologic risk and vulnerability in the Andes.

  20. Groundwater acidification in the Senne region, Teutoburger Wald mountains -will the specification of limiting values protect drinking water?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luekewille, A.; Heuwinkel, B.

    1990-01-01

    The Senne region is a pleistocene glacial outwash landscape in northern Germany. It is particularly sensitive to entries of airborne pollution with acids and acidifying agents. The shallow groundwater is already acidified down to a depth of about 10 meters. This is proved by the low pH values ( [de

  1. CARACTERIZACIÓN FÍSIOGRÁFICA DE LA PUNA DE SAJAMA, CORDILLERA OCCIDENTAL DE LOS ANDES (BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Javier Santa Cecilia Mateos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aproxima a la realidad física de la cordillera Occidental de los Andes. Un espacio geográfico donde los caracteres geológicos relacionados con el vulcanismo adquieren una relevancia especial en la configuración del paisaje andino. Los nevados y llanuras intermedias o altiplanos, son los dos elementos que constituyen la imagen de la puna andina, un territorio situado por encima de los 4.000 metros, ámbito intermedio entre los valles húmedos o yungas y las más altas cumbres de los Andes. A la singularidad volcánica habría que añadir la relacionada con el modelado glaciar, los aspectos hidrográficos y la biogeografia en esta área. El artículo toma como ejemplo de estudio la puna de Sajama en eldepartamento de Oruro, en la frontera boliviano-chilena.Abstract. This article approaches the physical reality of the Western Cordillera of the Andes. A geographical space where characters related geological volcanism are of particular importance in shaping the landscape Andean. The intermediate plains or mountains and plateaus, are the two elements that make up the image of the Andean puna, an area located above 4,000 meters, the middle ground between Yungas wet valley and the highest peaks of the Andes. A volcanic uniqueness should add that related to glacier modeling, hydrographic aspects and biogeography in this area. The article uses the example of the highlands of Sajama study in thedepartment of Oruro in Bolivian-Chilean border.

  2. Over three millennia of mercury pollution in the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Colin A.; Balcom, Prentiss H.; Biester, Harald; Wolfe, Alexander P.

    2009-01-01

    We present unambiguous records of preindustrial atmospheric mercury (Hg) pollution, derived from lake-sediment cores collected near Huancavelica, Peru, the largest Hg deposit in the New World. Intensive Hg mining first began ca. 1400 BC, predating the emergence of complex Andean societies, and signifying that the region served as a locus for early Hg extraction. The earliest mining targeted cinnabar (HgS) for the production of vermillion. Pre-Colonial Hg burdens peak ca. 500 BC and ca. 1450 AD, corresponding to the heights of the Chavín and Inca states, respectively. During the Inca, Colonial, and industrial intervals, Hg pollution became regional, as evidenced by a third lake record ≈225 km distant from Huancavelica. Measurements of sediment-Hg speciation reveal that cinnabar dust was initially the dominant Hg species deposited, and significant increases in deposition were limited to the local environment. After conquest by the Inca (ca. 1450 AD), smelting was adopted at the mine and Hg pollution became more widely circulated, with the deposition of matrix-bound phases of Hg predominating over cinnabar dust. Our results demonstrate the existence of a major Hg mining industry at Huancavelica spanning the past 3,500 years, and place recent Hg enrichment in the Andes in a broader historical context. PMID:19451629

  3. Bioclimatic changes and landslide recurrence in the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro: are we ready to face the next landslide disaster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiza Coelho Netto, Ana; Facadio, Ana Carolina; Pereira, Roberta; Lima, Pedro Henrique

    2017-04-01

    Paleo-environmental studies point out an alternation of wet and dry periods during the Holocene in southeastern Brazil, marked by the expansion and retraction of the humid tropical rainforest in alternation with the campos de altitude vegetation ('high altitude grassland'); successive episodes of natural fire were recorded from 10,000 to 4,000 years BP in the mountainous region of SE-Brazil, reflecting warm-dry conditions. Present seasonal climatic variability is indicated by an increasing dry spell frequency throughout the XX and early XXI centuries together with an increasing rainfall concentration in the summer when extreme daily totals (above 100 mm) become progressively more frequent. Historical land use changes, at both regional and local scales, are mostly related to this climatic variability. Therefore extreme rainfall induced landslides have been responsible for severe disasters as recorded along the Atlantic slopes of Serra do Mar. The extreme one occurred in January 2011, affecting the municipalities of Nova Friburgo, Teresópolis and Petrópolis. Studies in Nova Friburgo shown the occurrence of 3.622 landslides scars within an area of 421 km2; this rainfall event reached the expected average monthly rainfall (300 mm) in less than 10 hours. The D'Antas creek basin (53 km2) was the most affected area by landslides; 86% of 326 scars where associated with shallow translational mechanisms among which 67% occurred within shallow concave up topographic hollows of 32° slope angle in average. Most of these landslide scars occurred in granite rocks and degraded vegetation due to historical land use changes (last 200 years) including secondary forest (64%) and grasslands (25%). The present-day association between extreme rainfall induced landslides and human induced vegetation changes seem to reflect similar geomorphic responses to natural Holocene bioclimatic changes; a common phenomenon between the two periods is fire (natural fire in the past time and man

  4. Controls on the deposition and preservation of the Cretaceous Mowry Shale and Frontier Formation and equivalents, Rocky Mountain region, Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2013-01-01

    Regional variations in thickness and facies of clastic sediments are controlled by geographic location within a foreland basin. Preservation of facies is dependent on the original accommodation space available during deposition and ultimately by tectonic modification of the foreland in its postthrusting stages. The preservation of facies within the foreland basin and during the modification stage affects the kinds of hydrocarbon reservoirs that are present. This is the case for the Cretaceous Mowry Shale and Frontier Formation and equivalent strata in the Rocky Mountain region of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. Biostratigraphically constrained isopach maps of three intervals within these formations provide a control on eustatic variations in sea level, which allow depositional patterns across dip and along strike to be interpreted in terms of relationship to thrust progression and depositional topography. The most highly subsiding parts of the Rocky Mountain foreland basin, near the fold and thrust belt to the west, typically contain a low number of coarse-grained sandstone channels but limited sandstone reservoirs. However, where subsidence is greater than sediment supply, the foredeep contains stacked deltaic sandstones, coal, and preserved transgressive marine shales in mainly conformable successions. The main exploration play in this area is currently coalbed gas, but the enhanced coal thickness combined with a Mowry marine shale source rock indicates that a low-permeability, basin-centered play may exist somewhere along strike in a deep part of the basin. In the slower subsiding parts of the foreland basin, marginal marine and fluvial sandstones are amalgamated and compartmentalized by unconformities, providing conditions for the development of stratigraphic and combination traps, especially in areas of repeated reactivation. Areas of medium accommodation in the most distal parts of the foreland contain isolated marginal marine shoreface and deltaic sandstones

  5. Approximation and spatial regionalization of rainfall erosivity based on sparse data in a mountainous catchment of the Yangtze River in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbrodt-Stitt, Sarah; Bosch, Anna; Behrens, Thorsten; Hartmann, Heike; Shi, Xuezheng; Scholten, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    In densely populated countries like China, clean water is one of the most challenging issues of prospective politics and environmental planning. Water pollution and eutrophication by excessive input of nitrogen and phosphorous from nonpoint sources is mostly linked to soil erosion from agricultural land. In order to prevent such water pollution by diffuse matter fluxes, knowledge about the extent of soil loss and the spatial distribution of hot spots of soil erosion is essential. In remote areas such as the mountainous regions of the upper and middle reaches of the Yangtze River, rainfall data are scarce. Since rainfall erosivity is one of the key factors in soil erosion modeling, e.g., expressed as R factor in the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation model, a methodology is needed to spatially determine rainfall erosivity. Our study aims at the approximation and spatial regionalization of rainfall erosivity from sparse data in the large (3,200 km(2)) and strongly mountainous catchment of the Xiangxi River, a first order tributary to the Yangtze River close to the Three Gorges Dam. As data on rainfall were only obtainable in daily records for one climate station in the central part of the catchment and five stations in its surrounding area, we approximated rainfall erosivity as R factors using regression analysis combined with elevation bands derived from a digital elevation model. The mean annual R factor (R a) amounts for approximately 5,222 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) a(-1). With increasing altitudes, R a rises up to maximum 7,547 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) a(-1) at an altitude of 3,078 m a.s.l. At the outlet of the Xiangxi catchment erosivity is at minimum with approximate R a=1,986 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) a(-1). The comparison of our results with R factors from high-resolution measurements at comparable study sites close to the Xiangxi catchment shows good consistance and allows us to calculate grid-based R a as input for a spatially high-resolution and area-specific assessment of

  6. The impact of rise of the Andes and Amazon landscape evolution on diversification of lowland terra-firme forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixo, A.; Wilkinson, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Since the 19th Century, the unmatched biological diversity of Amazonia has stimulated a diverse set of hypotheses accounting for patterns of species diversity and distribution in mega-diverse tropical environments. Unfortunately, the evidence supporting particular hypotheses to date is at best described as ambiguous, and no generalizations have emerged yet, mostly due to the lack of comprehensive comparative phylogeographic studies with thorough trans-Amazonian sampling of lineages. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of diversification estimated from mitochondrial gene trees for 31 lineages of birds associated with upland terra-firme forest, the dominant habitat in modern lowland Amazonia. The results confirm the pervasive role of Amazonian rivers as primary barriers separating sister lineages of birds, and a protracted spatio-temporal pattern of diversification, with a gradual reduction of earlier (1st and 2nd) and older (> 2 mya) splits associated with each lineage in an eastward direction (the easternmost tributaries of the Amazon, the Xingu and Tocantins Rivers, are not associated with any splits older than > 2 mya). This "younging-eastward" pattern may have an abiotic explanation related to landscape evolution. Triggered by a new pulse of Andean uplift, it has been proposed that modern Amazon basin landscapes may have evolved successively eastward, away from the mountain chain, starting ~10 mya. This process was likely based on the deposition of vast fluvial sediment masses, known as megafans, which apparently extended in series progressively eastward from Andean sources. The effects on drainage patterns are apparent from the location of axial rivers such as the Negro / Orinoco and Madeira which lie at the distal ends of major megafan ramparts at cratonic margins furthest from the Andes. Megafan extension plausibly explains the progressive extinction of the original Pebas wetland of west-central Amazonia by the present fluvial landsurfaces where

  7. Erosion taken place in mountainous regions by effect of the forest fires; Erosion producida en las regiones montanosas por efecto de los incendios forestales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carignano, Claudio A; Cioccale, Marcela A

    1992-07-01

    This paper presents the first part of an investigation about the effect of the fire in the forest in a basin, which is a hydric reserve and supplies with potable water to a big region of Sierras Chicas, in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. The combination of the unprotected soil, by the lack of vegetation due to the fire, the climate conditions, the gradient and the lithology produce an increase over the processes of erosion. Different thematic maps were necessary join all the information, to determine the relation between the fires affected areas and the erosion processes, besides the regional climate conditions were considered as a fundamental factor.

  8. A Million-Year Record of Glaciation in the Tropical Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Seltzer, G. O.; Rodbell, D. T.; Farber, D. L.; Finkel, R. C.

    2004-12-01

    We present a longterm record of glaciation in the tropical Andes based on cosmogenic dating (10Be) of boulders on moraines. Well-preserved moraines in deglaciated valleys bordering the Junin Plain in central Peru ( ˜11° S, 76° W, 4000 m) were deposited during several glacial cycles extending back more than one million years before present (1 Myr BP). The presence of boulders with zero-erosion 10Be exposure ages >1 Myr constrains boulder erosion rates to relatively low values. For boulders at high altitudes, however, even low boulder erosion rates (0.3 to 0.5 m/Myr) make calculated old exposure ages markedly older [e.g., ˜20% older for a zero-erosion age of 400,000 10Be years (400 10Be kyr)]. Exposure ages recalculated with boulder erosion rates of 0.3 m/Myr straddle interglacial marine isotope stage (MIS) 11 ( ˜430-390 kyr BP), fall within glacial MIS 12 ( ˜480-430 kyr BP), but skip over glacial MIS 16 ( ˜670-630 kyr BP), perhaps the largest ice volume of the past 2 Myr. Increasing the erosion rate used in the calculations to 0.5 m/Myr moves ages into both MIS 11 and MIS 16. If we assume that the older Andean glaciations were indeed synchronous with global ice volume, our data suggest that boulder preservation cannot be treated as a simple linear process. Conversely, the data may be suggesting correctly that glaciation of the tropical Andes was not synchronous with the global glaciations as inferred from the marine isotope record. Our chronology for the last glacial maximum (LGM) in the region supports the idea of asynchrony between the global ice volume record and the terrestrial record of glaciation in the tropical Andes. The LGM in the Junin region of Peru and in the Cordillera Real of Bolivia (16° S 68° W) occurred ˜34 to 22 10Be kyr BP and was less extensive than older glaciations. Asynchrony between the LGM in the Northern Hemisphere ( ˜21 kyr BP) and the tropical Andes suggests that previous glaciations in the tropical Andes may have been

  9. Sr and Nd isotopic and trace element compositions of Quaternary volcanic centers of the Southern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futa, K.; Stern, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Isotopic compositions of samples from six Quaternary volcanoes located in the northern and southern extremities of the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ, 33-46??S) of the Andes and from four centers in the Austral Volcanic Zone (AVZ, 49-54??S) range for 87Sr 86Sr from 0.70280 to 0.70591 and for 143Nd 144Nd from 0.51314 to 0.51255. The ranges are significantly greater than previously reported from the southern Andes but are different from the isotopic compositions of volcanoes in the central and northern Andes. Basalts and basaltic andesites from three centers just north of the Chile Rise-Trench triple junction have 87Sr 86Sr, 143Nd 144Nd, La Yb, Ba La, and Hf Lu that lie within the relatively restricted ranges of the basic magmas erupted from the volcanic centers as far north as 35??S in the SVZ of the Andes. The trace element and Sr and Nd isotopic characteristics of these magmas may be explained by source region contamination of subarc asthenosphere, with contaminants derived from subducted pelagic sediments and seawater-altered basalts by dehydration of subducted oceanic lithosphere. In the northern extremity of the SVZ between 33?? and 34??S, basaltic andesites and andesites have higher 87Sr 86Sr, Rb Cs, and Hf Lu, and lower 143Nd 144Nd than basalts and basaltic andesites erupted farther south in the SVZ, which suggests involvement of components derived from the continental crust. In the AVZ, the most primitive sample, high-Mg andesite from the southernmost volcanic center in the Andes (54??S) has Sr and Nd isotopic compositions and K Rb and Ba La similar to MORB. The high La Yb of this sample suggests formation by small degrees of partial melting of subducted MORB with garnet as a residue. Samples from centers farther north in the AVZ show a regionally regular northward increase in SiO2, K2O, Rb, Ba, Ba La, and 87Sr 86Sr and decrease in MgO, Sr, K Rb, Rb Cs, and 143Nd 144Nd, suggesting increasingly greater degrees of fractional crystallization and associated intra

  10. Implications of seismic reflection and potential field geophysical data on the structural framework of the Yucca Mountain--Crater Flat region, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocher, T.M.; Langenheim, V.E.; Hunter, W.C.

    1998-01-01

    Seismic reflection and gravity profiles collected across Yucca Mountain, Nevada, together with geologic data, provide evidence against proposed active detachment faults at shallow depth along the pre-Tertiary-Tertiary contact beneath this potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. The new geophysical data show that the inferred pre-Tertiary-Tertiary contact is offset by moderate-to-high-angle faults beneath Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain, and thus this shallow surface cannot represent an active detachment surface. The reflection lines reveal that the Amargosa Desert rift zone is an asymmetric half-graben having a maximum depth of about 4 km and a width of about 25 km. The east-dipping Bare Mountain fault that bounds this graben to the west can be traced by seismic reflection data to a depth of at least 3.5 km and possibly as deep as 6 km, with a constant dip of 64 degree ± 5 degree. Along the profile the transition from east- to west-dipping faults occurs at or just west of the Solitario Canyon fault, which bounds the western side of Yucca Mountain. The interaction at depth of these east- and west-dipping faults, having up to hundreds of meters offset, is not imaged by the seismic reflection profile. Understanding potential seismic hazards at Yucca Mountain requires knowledge of the subsurface geometry of the faults near Yucca Mountain, since earthquakes generally nucleate and release the greatest amount of their seismic energy at depth. The geophysical data indicate that many fault planes near the potential nuclear waste facility dip toward Yucca Mountain, including the Bare Mountain range-front fault and several west-dipping faults east of Yucca Mountain. Thus, earthquake ruptures along these faults would lie closer to Yucca Mountain than is often estimated from their surface locations and could therefore be more damaging

  11. Mountains: top down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodwell, George M

    2004-11-01

    Mountainous regions offer not only essential habitat and resources, including water, to the earth's more than 6 billion inhabitants, but also insights into how the global human habitat works, how it is being changed at the moment as global climates are disrupted, and how the disruption may lead to global biotic and economic impoverishment. At least 600 million of the earth's more than 6 billion humans dwell in mountainous regions. Such regions feed water into all the major rivers of the world whose valleys support most of the rest of us. At least half of the valley dwellers receive part or all of their water from montane sources, many from the melt water of glaciers, others from the annual snow melt. Glaciers are retreating globally as the earth warms as a result of human-caused changes in the composition of the atmosphere. Many are disappearing, a change that threatens municipal water supplies virtually globally. The warming is greatest in the higher latitudes where the largest glaciers such as those of Greenland and the Antarctic Continent have become vulnerable. The melting of ice in the northern hemisphere raises serious concerns about the continued flow of the Gulf Stream and the possibility of massive climatic changes in Scandinavia and northern Europe. Mountains are also biotic islands in the sea life, rich in endemism at the ecotype level. The systematic warming of the earth changes the environment out from under these genetically specialized strains (ecotypes) which are then maladapted and vulnerable to diseases of all types. The process is systematic impoverishment in the pattern conspicuous on mountain slopes with increasing exposure to climatic extremes. It is seen now in the increased mortality and morbidity of plants as climatic changes accumulate. The seriousness of the global climatic disruption is especially clear in any consideration of mountains. It can and must be addressed constructively despite the adamancy of the current US administration.

  12. Isotope techniques to identify recharge areas of springs for rainwater harvesting in the mountainous region of Gaucher area, Chamoli district, Uttarakhand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivanna, K.; Tirumalesh, K.; Noble, J.; Joseph, T.B.; Singh, Gursharan; Joshi, A.P.; Khati, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental isotope techniques have been employed to identify the recharge areas of springs in India, in order to construct artificial recharge structures for rainwater harvesting and groundwater augmentation for their rejuvenation. A model project was taken up in the mountainous region of Gaucher area, Chamoli District, Uttarakhand for this purpose. The springs in this regions are seasonal and are derived from seepage waters flowing through the shallow weathered and fractured zone. The chemistry of high-altitude springs is similar to that of precipitation, whereas water-rock interactions contributes to increased mineralization in low-altitude springs. The stable isotopic variation in precipitation suggests that the altitude effect for Gaucher area is -0.55% for δ 18 O and -3.8% for δ 2 H per 100 m rise in altitude. Based on local geology, geomorphology, hydrochemistry and isotope information, the possible recharge areas inferred for valleys 1, 2 and 3 are located at altitudes of 1250, 1330 and 1020 m amsl respectively. Water conservation and recharge structures such as subsurface dykes, check bunds and contour trenches were constructed at the identified recharge areas in the respective valleys for controlling the subsurface flow, rainwater harvesting and groundwater augmentation respectively. As a result, during and after the following monsoon, the discharge rates of the springs not only increased significantly, but also did not dry up even during the dry period. The study shows that the isotope techniques can be effectively used in identifying recharge areas of springs in the Himalayan region. It also demonstrates the advantage of isotope techniques over conventional methods. (author)

  13. Evaluation of Climate Change in northeastern China by means of d13C in tree-rings in the Great Xiang'An mountains region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiqin; Lopez Caceres, Maximo Larry; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Wang, Xiaochun; Liu, Binhui

    2017-04-01

    The northeastern forest region of China represents one of the southern boundary of the Asian boreal forest and also represents the boundary between humid- semi humid area and arid- semi arid area of China. These forests are mainly dominated by larch (Larix gmelinii) stands with small areas covered by birch and pine forests. Increases in air temperature and precipitation caused by climate change are expected to have a great effect on forest ecosystems boundaries. Accordingly, from 1963-2006, air temperature has increased 1.5℃ in this region. Tree-ring chronologies are commonly used as indicator of climate changes and in recent decades the combination with carbon stable isotopes has shown a higher resolution in the results. Since this combine technique has not been used in northeastern China, we applied this combined technique to reconstruct the climate in the Great Xing'an mountains of northeastern China. Preliminary results showed that tree growth has increased in the middle and southernmost site in the last century while in the northernmost site it decreased for the same period which is in agreement with the mean air temperature increase from south to north in this region under negligible changes in precipitation regime. In contrast, tree-ring δ13C shows a gradual but steady increase along the three sites selected for our study, however the highest being observed in the middle site which experience the largest increased in air temperature in the last decade. This appears to indicate that increases in air temperature produced a stress in the stomatal conductance that so far has translated into tree ring growth decline.

  14. Effects of climate and geochemistry on soil organic matter stabilization and greenhouse gas emissions along altitudinal transects in different mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griepentrog, Marco; Bodé, Samuel; Boudin, Mathieu; Dercon, Gerd; Doetterl, Sebastian; Matulanya, Machibya; Msigwa, Anna; Vermeir, Pieter; Boeckx, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are strongly influenced by climate change and soils are key compartments of the global carbon (C) cycle in terms of their potential to store or release significant amounts of C. This study is part of the interregional IAEA Technical Cooperation Project ``Assessing the Impact of Climate Change and its Effects on Soil and Water Resources in Polar and Mountainous Regions (INT5153)'' aiming to improve the understanding of climate change impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) in fragile polar and high mountainous ecosystems at local and global scale for their better management and conservation. The project includes 13 benchmark sites situated around the world. Here we present novel data from altitudinal transects of three different mountain regions (Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania; Mount Gongga, China; Cordillera Blanca, Peru). All altitudinal transects cover a wide range of natural ecosystems under different climates and soil geochemistry. Bulk soil samples (four field replicates per ecosystem) were subjected to a combination of aggregate and particle-size fractionation followed by organic C, total nitrogen, stable isotope (13C, 15N) and radiocarbon (14C) analyses of all fractions. Bulk soils were further characterized for their geochemistry (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Si, P) and incubated for 63 days to assess greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, NO, N2O). Further, stable C isotopic signature of CO2 was measured to determine the isotopic signature of soil respiration (using Keeling plots) and to estimate potential respiration sources. The following four ecosystems were sampled at an altitudinal transect on the (wet) southern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro: savannah (920m), lower montane rain forests with angiosperm trees (2020m), upper montane cloud forest with gymnosperm trees (2680m), subalpine heathlands (3660m). Both forests showed highest C contents followed by subalpine and savannah. The largest part of SOC was found in particulate organic matter

  15. A mountain environmental virtual observatory (Mountain-EVO) to support participatory monitoring in a network of Andean catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Ochoa Tocachi, Boris; De Bievre, Bert; Zulkafli, Zed

    2015-04-01

    The tropical Andes are a hotspot of environmental change. The combination of dramatic land-use change with global climate change, demographic growth, and increasing water demand is causing extreme pressures on water resources. This is of particular concern to rural upland communities. They are facing a double challenge of maintaining their own livelihoods with dwindling natural resources, and at the same time supporting downstream ecosystem services such as a well buffered stream flow and good water quality. This challenge is complicated further by the acute lack of data on the hydrological functioning of Andean catchments. The factors controlling their hydrological response are extremely variable in space and time, including meteorological forcing, land cover types, soil properties and geology. This makes it very difficult to predict accurately the impact of human activities such as land use, ecosystem management, and watershed investments. Such predictions are essential for policy-making and sustainable ecosystem management. To tackle the issue of hydrological data scarcity in the tropical Andes, an initiative was set up to implement a network of hydrological monitoring of upland catchments in a pairwise fashion. Using a trading-space-for-time approach, the initiative intends to use these data to improve predictions about the impact of land-use changes and other ecosystem management practices on the hydrological response. Currently, over 25 catchments are being monitored for precipitation and streamflow in 9 sites located in Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, and Venezuela. The sites are supported by local stakeholders and communities in a participatory monitoring scheme that otherwise would be impractical or prohibitively expensive. To overcome the technical challenges of monitoring hydrological variables in remote mountain areas, the initiative has set up a web-based infrastructure to support local technicians and stakeholders. Additionally, using open data standards such

  16. Climatic Cycles and Gradients of the El Niño Core Region in North Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rütger Rollenbeck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climatic processes in northern Peru are evaluated on surface observation independent of modelling studies. The region is characterized by regular oscillations, but episodic El Niño-events introduce strong disturbances. Conceptual models based on observations, remote sensing data, and output of regional climate models are compared with data from a new station network. The results show regular oscillations of all climate variables on the annual and daily time scale. The daily cycle is probably associated with thermotidal forcings, causing gravity waves to emanate from the Andes Cordillera. Main factors are the interaction of large scale pressure systems like the Southeast Pacific High and the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ. Also, there are regional factors: an extended sea-breeze system, the barrier-effect of the Andes, additional energy input by elevated radiation absorption at the mountain slopes, local wind systems, and the variations of the sea surface temperature. At the coast, a low-level jet works as a thermodynamic energy sink, suppressing deep convection and supporting the aridity. Those patterns are found in most of the station data and the processes of this climate can generally be confirmed. The overturning of this stable system with the onset of El Niño-conditions is possibly caused by disruptions of the regional circulation.

  17. Spatial variability of sediment erosion processes using GIS analysis within watersheds in a historically mined region, Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Laura M.; Gray, Floyd; Wissler, Craig A.; Guertin, D. Phillip

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a geographic information system (GIS) is used to integrate and accurately map field studies, information from remotely sensed data, watershed models, and the dispersion of potentially toxic mine waste and tailings. The purpose of this study is to identify erosion rates and net sediment delivery of soil and mine waste/tailings to the drainage channel within several watershed regions to determine source areas of sediment delivery as a method of quantifying geo-environmental analysis of transport mechanisms in abandoned mine lands in arid climate conditions. Users of this study are the researchers interested in exploration of approaches to depicting historical activity in an area which has no baseline data records for environmental analysis of heavily mined terrain.

  18. Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

  19. Analysis of meteorology and emission in haze episode prevalence over mountain-bounded region for early warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Leelasakultum, Ketsiri

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the main causes of haze episodes in the northwestern Thailand to provide early warning and prediction. In an absence of emission input data required for chemical transport modeling to predict the haze, the climatological approach in combination with statistical analysis was used. An automatic meteorological classification scheme was developed using regional meteorological station data of 8years (2001-2008) which classified the prevailing synoptic patterns over Northern Thailand into 4 patterns. Pattern 2, occurring with high frequency in March, was found to associate with the highest levels of 24h PM(10) in Chiangmai, the largest city in Northern Thailand. Typical features of this pattern were the dominance of thermal lows over India, Western China and Northern Thailand with hot, dry and stagnant air in Northern Thailand. March 2007, the month with the most severe haze episode in Chiangmai, was found to have a high frequency of occurrence of pattern 2 coupled with the highest emission intensities from biomass open burning. Backward trajectories showed that, on haze episode days, air masses passed over the region of dense biomass fire hotspots before arriving at Chiangmai. A stepwise regression model was developed to predict 24h PM(10) for days of meteorology pattern 2 using February-April data of 2007-2009 and tested with 2004-2010 data. The model performed satisfactorily for the model development dataset (R(2)=87%) and test dataset (R(2)=81%), which appeared to be superior over a simple persistence regression of 24h PM(10) (R(2)=76%). Our developed model had an accuracy over 90% for the categorical forecast of PM(10)>120μg/m(3). The episode warning procedure would identify synoptic pattern 2 and predict 24h PM(10) in Chiangmai 24h in advance. This approach would be applicable for air pollution episode management in other areas with complex terrain where similar conditions exist. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Dynamics and modeling of water content of ten shrub species in their growth period in Maoershan Mountain region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sen; Yan, Xue-Jiao

    2012-12-01

    Based on the two successive years observation of the water content of ten representative shrub species in Maoershan Mountain region of Northeast China, this paper studied the dynamics of the water content of these shrub species during their growth period and related affecting factors, with the prediction models of the shrub water content established. For the ten shrub species, their minimal water content during growth period was higher than 100% , and most of the species had a water content higher than 200% within the period from the late phase of leaf-unfolding to early phase of leaf-falling. Euonymus verrucosus, Sorbaria sorbifolia, and Sambucus williamsii were incombustible in their whole growth period due to the extremely high water content, while Syringa reticulate, Philadelphus schrenkii, Euonymus verrucosus, Spiraea chamaedryfolia, Lonicera maackii, Lonicera ruprechtiana, and Rhamnus parvifolia were combustible only in the phases of budding and leaf-falling. Soil moisture content and daily maximum temperature had effects on the water content of most (7) of the ten shrubs, and canopy drought severity index affected the water content of 5 of the ten shrubs. The established 9 prediction models could explain more than 35% of the water content variance of the shrub species, with a mean MRE of 35.9% and a mean MRE of 13.4%.

  1. Establishment of Aedes aegypti (L.) in mountainous regions in Mexico: Increasing number of population at risk of mosquito-borne disease and future climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equihua, Miguel; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Benítez, Griselda; Estrada-Contreras, Israel; Sandoval-Ruiz, César A; Mendoza-Palmero, Fredy S

    2017-02-01

    The study was conducted in the central region of Veracruz Mexico, in the metropolitan area of Xalapa. It is a mountainous area where Aedes aegypti (L.) is not currently endemic. An entomological survey was done along an elevation gradient using the Ae. aegypti occurrences at different life cycle stages. Seven sites were sampled and a total of 24 mosquito species were recorded: 9 species were found in urban areas, 18 in non-urban areas with remnant vegetation, and 3 occurred in both environments. Ae. aegypti was found only in the urban areas, usually below 1200m a.s.l., but in this study was recorded for the first time at 1420m a.s.l. These occurrences, together with additional distribution data in the state of Veracruz were used to developed species distribution models using Maxlike software in R to identify the current projected suitable areas for the establishment of this vector and the human populations that might be affected by dengue transmission at higher elevations. Its emergence in previously unsuitable places appears to be driven by both habitat destruction and biodiversity loss associated with biotic homogenization. A border study using data from the edges of the vector's distribution might allow sensitive monitoring to detect any changes in this mosquito's distribution pattern, and any changes in the anthropic drivers or climate that could increase transmission risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Serologic evidence for exposure to Rickettsia rickettsii in eastern Arizona and recent emergence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in this region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demma, Linda J; Traeger, Marc; Blau, Dianna; Gordon, Rondeen; Johnson, Brian; Dickson, Jeff; Ethelbah, Rudy; Piontkowski, Stephen; Levy, Craig; Nicholson, William L; Duncan, Christopher; Heath, Karen; Cheek, James; Swerdlow, David L; McQuiston, Jennifer H

    2006-01-01

    During 2002 through 2004, 15 patients with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) were identified in a rural community in Arizona where the disease had not been previously reported. The outbreak was associated with Rickettsia rickettsii in an unexpected tick vector, the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), which had not been previously associated with RMSF transmission in the United States. We investigated the extent of exposure to R. rickettsii in the local area through serologic evaluations of children and dogs in 2003-2004, and in canine sera from 1996. Antibodies to R. rickettsii at titers > or = 32 were detected in 10% of children and 70% of dogs in the outbreak community and 16% of children and 57% of dogs in a neighboring community. In comparison, only 5% of canine samples from 1996 had anti-R. rickettsii antibodies at titers > or = 32. These results suggest that exposures to RMSF have increased over the past 9 years, and that RMSF may now be endemic in this region.

  3. [Influence of fire disturbance on aboveground deadwood debris carbon storage in Huzhong forest region of Great Xing'an Mountains, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Da; He, Hong-shi; Wu, Zhi-wei; Liang, Yu; Huang, Chao; Luo, Xu; Xiao, Jiang-tao; Zhang, Qing-long

    2015-02-01

    Based on the field inventory data, the aboveground deadwood debris carbon storage under different fire severities was analyzed in Huzhong forest region of Great Xing' an Mountains. The results showed that the fire severity had a significant effect on aboveground deadwood debris carbon storage. The deadwood debris carbon storage was in the order of high-severity > low-severity > unburned in Larix gmelinii stands, and mixed conifer-broadleaf stands ( L. gmelinii and Betula platyphylla), and in the order of high severity > unburned > low-severity in B. platyphylla stands. Fire disturbance significantly changed the component percentage of the deadwood debris carbon storage. The component percentage of snags increased and litter decreased with the increasing fire severity. Logs and stumps did not change significantly with the increasing fire severity. The spatial variation of deadwood debris carbon storage in forests burned with low-severity fire was higher than that in unburned forests. The spatial variation of deadwood debris carbon storage with high-severity fires was lowest. This spatial variation needed to be accounted when calculating forest deadwood debris carbon storage.

  4. Explaining the mechanisms through which regional atmospheric circulation variability drives summer temperatures and glacial melt in western High Mountain Asia (HMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Li, Xiaofeng; Pritchard, David

    2017-04-01

    Comprehension of mechanisms by which atmospheric circulation influences sub-regional temperature and water resources variability in high-elevation mountainous catchments is of great scientific urgency due to the dependency of large downstream populations on the river flows these basins provide. In this work we quantify a regional atmospheric pattern, the Karakoram Zonal Shear (KZS), with a very pronounced annual cycle which we standardise into a dimensionless (seasonal) circulation metric the Karakoram Zonal Index (KZI). Going beyond previous regional circulation metrics such as the "middle-upper tropospheric temperature index" (MUTTI) or the Webster and Yang Monsoonal Index (WYMI) which have focused solely on the South Asian Summer Monsoon (June to September) season, the KZS/KZI provides an indicator which captures the influence and interactions of the westerly jet throughout the entire annual cycle. Use of the KZS and KZI have led us to identify a further regional atmospheric system, the Karakoram Vortex, which propagates "warm high" (anticyclonic postitive temperature anomaly) and "cold low" (cyclonic negative temperature anomaly) patterns across a very broad swath of Central and South Asia in winter but over a much more constrained area of western HMA in summer. The KV exerts this temperature influence through a combination of adiabatic effects and large-scale advection. Quantify KV influence, the KZI shows strong and statistically significantly near surface (2m) air temperatures both across western HMA both as observed through local meteorological stations and as estimated by an ensemble of global meteorological reanalyses. We show that this strong influence on temperature translates to important consequences for meltwater generation from highly glaciated Indus river tributaries which is logical given that previous studies have established the role of air temperature in modulating glacially-derived river flows in western HMA. By improving the understanding of

  5. Pertinent spatio-temporal scale of observation to understand suspended sediment yield control factors in the Andean region: the case of the Santa River (Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera, S. B.; Condom, T.; Vauchel, P.; Guyot, J.-L.; Galvez, C.; Crave, A.

    2013-11-01

    Hydro-sedimentology development is a great challenge in Peru due to limited data as well as sparse and confidential information. This study aimed to quantify and to understand the suspended sediment yield from the west-central Andes Mountains and to identify the main erosion-control factors and their relevance. The Tablachaca River (3132 km2) and the Santa River (6815 km2), located in two adjacent Andes catchments, showed similar statistical daily rainfall and discharge variability but large differences in specific suspended-sediment yield (SSY). In order to investigate the main erosion factors, daily water discharge and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) datasets of the Santa and Tablachaca rivers were analysed. Mining activity in specific lithologies was identified as the major factor that controls the high SSY of the Tablachaca (2204 t km2 yr-1), which is four times greater than the Santa's SSY. These results show that the analysis of control factors of regional SSY at the Andes scale should be done carefully. Indeed, spatial data at kilometric scale and also daily water discharge and SSC time series are needed to define the main erosion factors along the entire Andean range.

  6. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters

  7. EL ROL DEL ANTICICLÓN PACÍFICO EN LA CAÍDA DE NIEVE EN LOS ANDES ÁRIDOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnobio G. Poblete

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to study in depth the role the anticyclone subtropical eastern South Pacific (ASPSO on the nival precipitation in the arid Andes, its seasonal variability, fluctuations in the long and medium scale and associations with snowfall. For this reason, the incidence on the ratio of precipitation, the SST in the South Pacific Ocean, precipitable water, wind zonal, Radiation in Outgoing Long Wave and Omega were analyzed. The methodology consisted in the evaluation of the ASPSO through the definition of an index, based on Santiago de Chile (PSGO measured surface atmospheric pressure. This would allow its surveillance and the processing of its temporal behavior in the statistical analysis. The results showed significant time - space associations within the involved variables, which confirmed in all cases the negative impact of ASPSO related to snowfall in the Andes mountains. period 1909-2015.

  8. Soil organic matter dynamics at the paramo and puna highlands in the Andean mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles Muñoz, M.; Faz, Ángel; Mermut, Ahmet R.; Zornoza, Raúl

    2014-05-01

    Mountains and uplands represent the most diverse and fragile ecosystems in the world, cover about 20% of the terrestrial surface and are distributed across all continents and major ecoregions. The Andean Plateau is the main mountain range of the American continent and one of the largest in the world with more than 7,500 km. The soil organic matter is a corner stone in the fertility management of the Andean agriculture as well as in the erosion control. However, its role is still much unknown in these ecosystems. Moreover, the influence of current global climatic change on soil organic C reservoirs and dynamics is still not clearly understood. The aim of this work was to review the soil C dynamics and the implication of the soil organic matter in the fertility management, erosion control, conservation of biodiversity and global climate change to improve the knowledge on the mountain Andean highlands. Climate, landscape, soil C pools, biomass and management were studied. In general, the Andean climate is affected by three main factors: ocean currents, winds and orography characterized by an abrupt topography. The entire Andean belt is segmented into the Northern, Central and Southern Andes. Northern Andes are called paramo and are characterized by humid climate while Central and Southern Andes dryer zones are called puna. Most of the region is tectonically and volcanically active. Sedimentary rocks predominated in the paramo while sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic ones prevailed in the puna. The most common soils were Andosols, Regosols, Umbrisols and Histosols. The cold and wet climate and the low atmospheric pressure favored organic matter accumulation in the soil. The accumulation of organic matter is further enhanced by the formation of organomineral complexes strongly resistant to the microbial breakdown mainly in the paramo. High organic C contents were observed in the paramo (10%) oppositely to the low contents found in the dryer puna (1%). The C/N ratio

  9. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chelyabinsk region (Ural mountains, Russia) through trace-elements and radionuclides: Temporal and spatial trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherchintsev, V.D.; Frontasyeva, M.V.; Lyapunov, S.M.; Smirnov, L.I.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains the first results on the analysis of the moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi which were used to study heavy metal atmospheric deposition in the vicinity of Magnitogorsk, the center of the iron steel industry of Russia. Moss samples were collected along Bannoe Lake, located 30 km north-west of Magnitogorsk, and were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithernal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor in Dubna, and by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) at the Geological Institute of RAS, Moscow. Results for a total of 38 elements were obtained, including Pb, Cd, and Cu determined by AAS. The element concentrations in moss samples from this area were compared with those available for the so-called 'Black Triangle' (the territory bordering Poland, Czechia and Slovakia), obtained by the same moss biomonitoring technique. The level of the concentrations of Fe, Cr, and V in the vicinity of Magnitogorsk was found to be 2-2.5 times higher than that of the mean values determined for the 'Black Triangle'; the level of Ni and Cd is of the same order as in the most polluted area of Europe. The concentrations of Zn and Cu tend to be higher in the 'Black Triangle'. The level of As is about 3 times higher in the Urals, whereas concentration of Pb is higher in Europe by a factor of 5. It appeared that concentration of Sb in the examined area has the highest ever published for levels in mosses from atmospheric deposition. The scanning electron microscope adjacent to the XRF analyzer (SEM-XRF) was used to examine the surface of the moss samples. Photographs of identified iron spherulas along with other aerosol particles were made at magnification of 3,500 to 5,000 times. Information on fieldwork in the northern part of the Chelyabinsk region in July, 1998 is reported. (author)

  10. Individual aerosol particles in ambient and updraft conditions below convective cloud bases in the Oman mountain region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeniuk, T. A.; Bruintjes, R. T.; Salazar, V.; Breed, D. W.; Jensen, T. L.; Buseck, P. R.

    2014-03-01

    An airborne study of cloud microphysics provided an opportunity to collect aerosol particles in ambient and updraft conditions of natural convection systems for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Particles were collected simultaneously on lacey carbon and calcium-coated carbon (Ca-C) TEM grids, providing information on particle morphology and chemistry and a unique record of the particle's physical state on impact. In total, 22 particle categories were identified, including single, coated, aggregate, and droplet types. The fine fraction comprised up to 90% mixed cation sulfate (MCS) droplets, while the coarse fraction comprised up to 80% mineral-containing aggregates. Insoluble (dry), partially soluble (wet), and fully soluble particles (droplets) were recorded on Ca-C grids. Dry particles were typically silicate grains; wet particles were mineral aggregates with chloride, nitrate, or sulfate components; and droplets were mainly aqueous NaCl and MCS. Higher numbers of droplets were present in updrafts (80% relative humidity (RH)) compared with ambient conditions (60% RH), and almost all particles activated at cloud base (100% RH). Greatest changes in size and shape were observed in NaCl-containing aggregates (>0.3 µm diameter) along updraft trajectories. Their abundance was associated with high numbers of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and cloud droplets, as well as large droplet sizes in updrafts. Thus, compositional dependence was observed in activation behavior recorded for coarse and fine fractions. Soluble salts from local pollution and natural sources clearly affected aerosol-cloud interactions, enhancing the spectrum of particles forming CCN and by forming giant CCN from aggregates, thus, making cloud seeding with hygroscopic flares ineffective in this region.

  11. Airflow and air quality simulations over the western mountainous region with a four-dimensional data assimilation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tetsuji; Kao, Chih-Yue; Bunker, Susan

    We apply a three-dimensional meteorological model with a four-dimensional data assimilation (4-DDA) technique to simulate diurnal variations of wind, temperature, water vapor, and turbulence in a region extending from the west coast to east of the Rockies and from northern Mexico to Wyoming. The wind data taken during the 1985 SCENES ( Subregional Cooperative Electric Utility, Dept. of Defense, National Park Service, and Environmental Protection Agency Study on Visibility) field experiments are successfully assimilated into the model through the 4-DDA technique by 'nudging' the modeled winds toward the observed winds. The modeled winds and turbulence fields are then used in a Lagrangian random-particle statistical model to investigate how pollutants from potential sources are transported and diffused. Finally, we calculate the ground concentrations through a kernel density estimator. Two scenarios in different weather patterns are investigated with simulation periods up to 6 days. One is associated with the evolution of a surface cold front and the other under a high-pressure stagnant condition. In the frontal case, the impact of air-mass movement on the ground concentrations of pollutants released from the Los Angeles area is well depicted by the model. Also, the pollutants produced from Los Angeles can be transported to the Grand Canyon area within 24 h. However, if we use only the data that were obtained from the regular NWS rawinsonde network, whose temporal and spatial resolutions are coarser than those of the special network, the plume goes north-northeast and never reaches the Grand Canyon area. In the stagnant case, the pollutants meander around the source area and can have significant impact on local air quality.

  12. Bofedales: high altitude peatlands of the central Andes Bofedales: turberas de alta montaña de los Andes centrales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO A SQUEO

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an exceptional group of alpine peatlands in the world situated in the arid grasslands of the central Andes. The peatlands in northern Chile occur in the most arid part of their range. Members of the Juncaceae are the primary peat-forming plant species. Fresh and mildly saline groundwaters originate from glaciers, snowmelt and rain are the water sources for the northern Chile peatlands. Paleoecological investigations suggest that some peatlands are recent features of the landscape having developed within the last three thousand years or less. These peatlands are unique, extremely fragile water features sensitive to climate changes and human disturbances such as regional mining activity. Much more work is required to develop scientifically based sound management and conservation programs for the rare plants and animals that live in them and to ensure the future livelihoods of the indigenous peoples who depend on themExiste un grupo excepcional de turberas (bofedales de alta montaña en el mundo situados en la estepa árida de los Andes centrales. Los bofedales en el norte de Chile están presentes en la parte más árida de su rango. Las principales especies de plantas responsables de la formación de turba corresponden a miembros de Juncaceae. El agua fresca y medianamente salina de los bofedales proviene de agua subterránea asociada a riachuelos proveniente de glaciares, derretimiento de nieve y lluvia. Investigaciones paleoecológicas sugieren que algunos bofedales son integrantes recientes del paisaje, habiéndose desarrollado durante los últimos tres mil años o menos. Estos bofedales son entidades únicas, extremadamente frágiles por su dependencia del agua, sensibles a los cambios climáticos y vulnerables a la alteración humana tal como la actividad minera en la región. Se requiere mucho más trabajo para desarrollar programas de manejo y conservación, con sólidas bases científicas, de las plantas y animales que viven en

  13. Mineral weathering experiments to explore the effects of vegetation shifts in high mountain region (Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Dahms, Dennis; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Blum, Alex; Goetze, Jens; Wells, Aaron; Egli, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Climate change influences the evolution of soil and landscape. With changing climate, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions. It is unknown in many respects to what extent soils will react to warming and vegetation change. The aim of this study was to identify possible consequences for soils in a dry-alpine region with respect to weathering of primary minerals and leaching of elements under expected warming climate conditions due to shifts in vegetation. To achieve this, a field empirical approach was used in combination with laboratory weathering experiments simulating several scenarios. Study sites located in Sinks Canyon and in Stough Basin of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA, encompass ecotones that consist of tundra, forest, or sagebrush (from moist to dry, with increasing temperature, respectively). All soils are developed on granitoid moraines. The mineralogy of the soils along the altitudinal sequence was analysed using cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction, and revealed clear mineral transformations: biotite and plagioclase were both weathered to smectite while plagioclase also weathered to kaolinite. Cooler, wetter, altitude-dependent conditions seemed to promote weathering of these primary minerals. To test the impact of soil solutions from different ecotones on mineral weathering, aqueous extracts from topsoils (A horizons) were reacted with subsoils (B horizons) in batch experiments. Aqueous extracts of topsoil samples were generated for all three ecotones, and these solutions were characterized. For the batch experiments, the topsoil extracts were reacted for 1800 hours with the subsoil samples of the same ecotone, or with the subsoil samples from higher altitude ecotones. Solutions collected periodically during the experiments were measured using ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Dissolved Ca, Mg and K were mainly controlled by the chemical weathering of oligoclase, K-feldspar and biotite. With increasing altitude (and consequently

  14. Genetic diversity and population structure of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in three natural regions of southwestern Colombia using mitochondrial sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Franco, Jenny Johana; Velasco-Cuervo, Sandra Marcela; Aguirre-Ramirez, Elkin; González Obando, Ranulfo; Carrejo, Nancy Soraya; Toro-Perea, Nelson

    2017-02-01

    Anastrepha striata is widely distributed across the Americas and is a pest of economically important crops, especially crops of the Myrtaceae family. Insect population structures can be influenced by the presence of physical barriers or characteristics associated with habitat differences. This study evaluated the effect of the Western Andes on the population structure of A. striata. Individuals were collected from Psidium guajava fruits from three natural regions of southwestern Colombia (Pacific Coast, mountainous region and the inter-Andean valley of the Cauca River). Based on a 1318 bp concatenated of the genes Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6), 14 haplotypes with few changes among them (between 1 and 3) were found. There was only one dominant haplotype in all three regions. No genetic structure associated with the three eco-geographical regions of the study was found. Moreover, the Western Andes are not an effective barrier for the genetic isolation of the populations from the Pacific Coast compared with the inter-Andean valley populations. This genetic homogeneity could be partially due to anthropogenic intervention, which acts as a dispersal agent of infested fruits. Another hypothesis to explain the lack of structure would be the relatively recent arrival of A. striata to the region, as indicated by an analysis of the demographic history, which reveals a process of population expansion. This study represents the first attempt to understand the population genetics of A. striata in Colombia and could contribute to the integral management of this pest.

  15. Impact of Santiago de Chile urban atmospheric pollution on anthropogenic trace elements enrichment in snow precipitation at Cerro Colorado, Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereceda-Balic, F.; Palomo-Marín, M. R.; Bernalte, E.; Vidal, V.; Christie, J.; Fadic, X.; Guevara, J. L.; Miro, C.; Pinilla Gil, E.

    2012-02-01

    Seasonal snow precipitation in the Andes mountain range is evaluated as an environmental indicator of the composition of atmospheric emissions in Santiago de Chile metropolitan area, by measuring a set of representative trace elements in snow samples by ICP-MS. Three late winter sampling campaigns (2003, 2008 and 2009) were conducted in three sampling areas around Cerro Colorado, a Central Andes mountain range sector NE of Santiago (36 km). Nevados de Chillán, a sector in The Andes located about 500 km south from the metropolitan area, was selected as a reference area. The experimental results at Cerro Colorado and Nevados de Chillán were compared with previously published data of fresh snow from remote and urban background sites. High snow concentrations of a range of anthropogenic marker elements were found at Cerro Colorado, probably derived from Santiago urban aerosol transport and deposition combined with the effect of mining and smelting activities in the area, whereas Nevados de Chillán levels roughly correspond to urban background areas. Enhanced concentrations in surface snow respect to deeper samples are discussed. Significant differences found between the 2003, 2008 and 2009 anthropogenic source markers profiles at Cerro Colorado sampling points were correlated with changes in emission sources at the city. The preliminary results obtained in this study, the first of this kind in the southern hemisphere, show promising use of snow precipitation in the Central Andes as a suitable matrix for receptor model studies aimed at identifying and quantifying pollution sources in Santiago de Chile.

  16. Investigations on vertical crustal movements in the Venezuelan Andes by gravimetric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, H.

    1978-01-01

    A precise gravimetric network has been installed in the Venezuelan Andes to study eventual gravity changes due to vertical tectonic movements. The design and the measurements of the network are described and the accuracy is estimated. In the center of the region a local gravity network has been reobserved three times. The detected variations are discussed. In order to obtain a genuine statement as far as possible about the significance of observed gravity changes, requirements for the procedure of monitoring precise gravity networks are pointed out.

  17. Landscape-based discretization for modeling of hydrological processes in the semi-arid Andes Cordillera: a case study in Morales Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videla Giering, Y. A., III; McPhee, J. P.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Improved understanding of cryosphere processes in the Subtropical Andes is essencial to secure water supply in Central Chile. An ongoing challenge is to identify the main controls on snow accumulation and ablation at multiple scales. In this study, we use the Cold Regions hydrological model (CRHM) to simulate the evolution of seasonal snow cover in the basin of the Estero Morales between the period 2000-2016. The model was forced with radiation, temperature, humidity, wind and precipitation data obtained from downscaled Era-Interim outputs. The basin was disaggregated spatially through representative hydrological processes and and geomorphological into HRU's. 22% of snow in the basin is subject to reallocation by topographic effects, while net short wave radiation would explain major changes in snowmelt. 80% of summer runoff comes from glacial melting, while temperature and soil properties are key factors controlling infiltration and contribution to the runoff at all times of the year. The model results indicate that 78.2% of precipitation corresponds to snow while 21.8% to rain. The flow rates of snowmelting are the main component in the water balance, accounting for approximately 62.8% of the total rainfall. It is important to point out that during the total period of modeling (2010-2016), it was noted that the 23.08% of the total annual flow corresponds to glacial melting, however for the period 2010 - 2015 this percentage increases to 45.3%, in spite of this were not observed variations in the volume of subsurface and groundwater flow. This suggests first: that systems such as analyzed in this article, have a great importance because they are fragile in terms of response and the ground due to its topographic features (such as slope and conductivity) is not able to store large percentages of resources until the end of the summer season; and second, to understand that mountain systems with presence of glaciers, naturally are regulated compared to sudden changes

  18. Finanzas de la Universidad de Los Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Aura Casal de Altuve

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo primario de este artículo es el de fungir de base comparativa para otros estudios de países latinoamericanos que podrían estar considerando síntomas similares en el área de la investigación contable. El punto de partida lo representa un estudio de caso de los profesores del Departamento de Contabilidad y Finanzas de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Sociales de la Universidad de los Andes. El artículo analiza la relación entre investigación y enseñanza y si el departamento está o no cumpliendo con sus objetivos. Un objetivo secundario consiste en la determinación de los posibles factores que han tenido una influencia significativa en el desempeño de la investigación y de la enseñanza por parte de los investigadores. Basándose en entrevistas y recolección directa de datos, se consideran las estrategias institucionales para fijar los objetivos de las actividades de investigación

  19. Unraveling Tropical Mountain Hydroclimatology by Coupling Autonomous Sensor Observations and Climate Modeling: Llanganuco Valley, Cordillera Blanca, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrom, R. A.; Fernandez, A.; Mark, B. G.; Covert, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Northern Peru will face critical water resource issues in the near future as permanent ice retreats. Much of current global and regional climate research neglects the meteorological forcing of lapse rates and valley wind dynamics on critical components of the Peruvian Andes' water-cycle. In 2004 and 2005 we installed an autonomous sensor network (ASN) within the glacierized Llanganuco Valley, Cordillera Blanca (9°S), consisting of discrete, cost-effective, automatic temperature loggers located along the valley axis and anchored by two automatic weather stations. Comparisons of these embedded atmospheric measurements from the ASN and climate modeling (CM) by dynamical downscaling using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model elucidate distinct diurnal and seasonal characteristics of the mountain valley winds and lapse rates. Wind, temperature, humidity, and cloud simulations by WRF suggest that thermally driven valley winds converging with easterly flow aloft enhance late afternoon and evening cloud development which helps explain detected nocturnal precipitation maxima measured by the ASN. We attribute sustained evapotranspiration (ET), as estimated by the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith model, to an abundance of glacial melt-water during the dry season and strong pre-noon solar heating during the wet season. Furthermore, the extreme diurnal variability of along-valley-axis lapse rates and valley wind detected from ground observations and confirmed by dynamical downscaling demonstrate the importance of realistic scale parameterizations of the boundary layer to improve regional CM projections in mountainous regions. Our findings portray ET as an integral yet poorly represented process in Andean hydroclimatology. We show that coupling ASN and CM can improve understanding of multi-scale atmospheric and associated hydrological processes in mountain valleys.

  20. The contribute of DInSAR techniques to landslide hazard evaluation in mountain and hilly regions: a case study from Agno Valley (North-Eastern Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Agostini, A.; Floris, M.; Pasquali, P.; Barbieri, M.; Cantone, A.; Riccardi, P.; Stevan, G.; Genevois, R.

    2012-04-01

    In the last twenty years, Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques have been widely used to investigate geological processes, such as subsidence, earthquakes and landslides, through the evaluation of earth surface displacements caused by these processes. In the study of mass movements, contribution of interferometry can be limited due to the acquisition geometry of RADAR images and the rough morphology of mountain and hilly regions which represent typical landslide-prone areas. In this study, the advanced DInSAR techniques (i.e. Small Baseline Subset and Persistent Scatterers techniques), available in SARscape software, are used. These methods involve the use of multiple acquisitions stacks (large SAR temporal series) allowing improvements and refinements in landslide identification, characterization and hazard evaluation at the basin scale. Potential and limits of above mentioned techniques are outlined and discussed. The study area is the Agno Valley, located in the North-Eastern sector of Italian Alps and included in the Vicenza Province (Veneto Region, Italy). This area and the entire Vicenza Province were hit by an exceptional rainfall event on November 2010 that triggered more than 500 slope instabilities. The main aim of the work is to verify if spatial information available before the rainfall event, including ERS and ENVISAT RADAR data from 1992 to 2010, were able to predict the landslides occurred in the study area, in order to implement an effectiveness forecasting model. In the first step of the work a susceptibility analysis is carried out using landslide dataset from the IFFI project (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia, Landslide Italian Inventory) and related predisposing factors, which consist of morphometric (elevation, slope, aspect and curvature) and non-morphometric (land use, distance of roads and distance of river) factors available from the Veneto Region spatial database. Then, to test the prediction, the

  1. Diversification of clearwing butterflies with the rise of the Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Silva, Donna Lisa; Elias, Marianne; Willmott, Keith; Mallet, James; Day, Julia J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the greatest butterfly diversity on Earth occurring in the Neotropical Andes and Amazonia, there is still keen debate about the origins of this exceptional biota. A densely sampled calibrated phylogeny for a widespread butterfly subtribe, Oleriina (Nymphalidae: Ithomiini) was used to estimate the origin, colonization history and diversification of this species-rich group. Neotropics. Ancestral elevation and biogeographical ranges were reconstructed using data generated from detailed range maps and applying the dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis model using stratified palaeogeographical time slice matrices. The pattern of diversification through time was examined by comparing constant and variable rate models. We also tested the hypothesis that a change in elevation is associated with speciation. The Oleriina likely originated in the Andes in the Early to Middle Miocene and rapidly diversified to include four genera all of which also originated in the Andes. These clades, together with four species groups, experienced varying spatial and temporal patterns of diversification. An overall early burst and decreasing diversification rate is identified, and this pattern is reflected for most subclades. Changes in the palaeogeological landscape, particularly the prolonged uplift of the Andes, had a profound impact on the diversification of the subtribe. The Oleriina mostly remained within the Andes and vicariant speciation resulted in some instances. Dynamic dispersal occurred with the disappearance of geological barriers such as the Acre System and the subtribe exploited newly available habitats. Our results confirm the role of the Andean uplift in the evolution of Neotropical biodiversity.

  2. A cloud-based home health care information sharing system to connect patients with home healthcare staff -A case report of a study in a mountainous region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Shinichi; Utsumi, Momoe; Sasayama, Satoshi; Dekigai, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a cloud system, the e-Renraku Notebook (e-RN) for sharing of home care information based on the concept of "patient-centricity". In order to assess the likelihood that our system will enhance the communication and sharing of information between home healthcare staff members and home-care patients, we selected patients who were residing in mountainous regions for inclusion in our study. We herein report the findings.Eighteen staff members from 7 medical facilities and 9 patients participated in the present study.The e-RN was developed for two reasons: to allow patients to independently report their health status and to have staff members view and respond to the information received. The patients and staff members were given iPads with the pre-installed applications and the information being exchanged was reviewed over a 54-day period.Information wa