Sample records for andes chile estimated

  1. Use of time series of optical and SAR images in the estimation of snow cover for the optimization of water use in the Andes of Argentina and Chile (United States)

    Salinas de Salmuni, Graciela; Cabezas Cartes, Ricardo; Menicocci, Felix


    This paper describes the progress in the bilateral cooperation project between academic and water resources management institutions from the Andes region of Argentina and Chile. The study zone is located in fragile ecosystems and mountain areas of the Andes (limit zone between the Province of San Juan, Argentina, and the IV Region of Coquimbo, Chile), with arid climate, where snow precipitates in the headwaters of watershed feed the rivers of the region by melting, which are the only source of water for human use, productive and energetic activities, as well as the native flora and fauna. CONAE, the Argentine Space Agency, participates in the Project through the provision of satellite data to the users and by this it contributes to ensuring the continuity of the results of the project. Also, it provides training in digital image processing. The project also includes the participation of water resource management institutions like Secretaria de Recursos Hidricos of Argentina and the Centro de Información de Recursos Naturales de Chile (CIREN), and of academic institution like the University of San Juan (Argentina) and University of La Serena (Chile). These institutions benefit from the incorporation of new methodologies advanced digital image processing and training of staff (researcher, lecturers, PhD Students and technical). Objectives: 1-Improve water distribution incorporating space technology for application in the prediction models of the stream flow. 2- Conduct an inventory of glaciers as well as studies in selected watersheds in the Andean region, aiming to know the water resource, its availability and potential risks to communities in the region. 3. Contribute to vulnerability studies in biodiversity Andean watersheds. Results: For estimation Snow cover Area, the MODIS images are appropriate due their high temporal resolution and allows for monitoring large areas (greater than 10 km) The proposed methodology (Use of snow index, NSDI) is appropriate for

  2. Black carbon and other light-absorbing impurities in the Andes of Northern Chile (United States)

    Rowe, P. M.; Cordero, R.; Warren, S. G.; Pankow, A.; Jorquera, J.; Schrempf, M.; Doherty, S. J.; Cabellero, M.; Carrasco, J. F.; Neshyba, S.


    Black carbon (BC) and other light-absorbing impurities in snow absorb solar radiation and thus have the potential to accelerate glacial retreat and snowmelt. In Chile, glaciers and seasonal snow are important sources of water for irrigation and domestic uses. In July 2015 (Austral winter) we sampled snow in the western Andes in a north-south transect of Chile from 18 S to 34 S. Most of the sampled snow had fallen during a single synoptic event, during 11-13 July. The snow was melted and passed through 0.4 micrometer nuclepore filters. Preliminary estimates indicate that (1) the ratio of BC to dust in snow increases going south from Northern to Central Chile, and (2) in snow sampled during the two weeks following the snowstorm, the impurities were concentrated in the upper 5 cm of snow, indicating that the surface layer became polluted over time by dry deposition.

  3. Transboundary protected area proposals along the Southern Andes of Chile and Argentina: Status of current efforts (United States)

    Peter Keller


    An evolving network of protected areas along the southern Andes of Chile and Argentina-the heart of Patagonia-are in various stages of evaluation and potential Transboundary Protected Area designations. This paper examines three such efforts. The first proposal is the North Andean-Patagonia Regional Eco-Corridor, which was the subject of a recent bilateral meeting...

  4. Assessing glacier melt contribution to streamflow at Universidad Glacier, central Andes of Chile

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    C. Bravo


    Full Text Available Glacier melt is an important source of water for high Andean rivers in central Chile, especially in dry years, when it can be an important contributor to flows during late summer and autumn. However, few studies have quantified glacier melt contribution to streamflow in this region. To address this shortcoming, we present an analysis of meteorological conditions and ablation for Universidad Glacier, one of the largest valley glaciers in the central Andes of Chile at the head of the Tinguiririca River, for the 2009–2010 ablation season. We used meteorological measurements from two automatic weather stations installed on the glacier to drive a distributed temperature-index and runoff routing model. The temperature-index model was calibrated at the lower weather station site and showed good agreement with melt estimates from an ablation stake and sonic ranger, and with a physically based energy balance model. Total modelled glacier melt is compared with river flow measurements at three sites located between 0.5 and 50 km downstream. Universidad Glacier shows extremely high melt rates over the ablation season which may exceed 10 m water equivalent in the lower ablation area, representing between 10 and 13 % of the mean monthly streamflow at the outlet of the Tinguiririca River Basin between December 2009 and March 2010. This contribution rises to a monthly maximum of almost 20 % in March 2010, demonstrating the importance of glacier runoff to streamflow, particularly in dry years such as 2009–2010. The temperature-index approach benefits from the availability of on-glacier meteorological data, enabling the calculation of the local hourly variable lapse rate, and is suited to high melt regimes, but would not be easily applicable to glaciers further north in Chile where sublimation is more significant.

  5. Meteorological drivers of ablation processes on a cold glacier in the semiarid Andes of Chile


    S. MacDonell; C. Kinnard; T. Mölg; L. Nicholson; J. Abermann


    Meteorological and surface change measurements collected during a 2.5 yr period are used to calculate surface mass and energy balances at 5324 m a.s.l. on Guanaco Glacier, a cold-based glacier in the semi-arid Andes of Chile. Meteorological conditions are marked by extremely low vapour pressures (annual mean of 1.1 hPa), strong winds (annual mean of 10 m s−1), high shortwave radiation receipt (mean annual 295 W m−2) and low precipitation rates (mean annual 45 mm w.e.). Net shortwave radi...

  6. Classification of debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers in the Andes of central Chile (United States)

    Janke, Jason R.; Bellisario, Antonio C.; Ferrando, Francisco A.


    In the Dry Andes of Chile (17 to 35° S), debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers are differentiated from true glaciers based on the percentage of surface debris cover, thickness of surface debris, and ice content. Internal ice is preserved by an insulating cover of thick debris, which acts as a storage reservoir to release water during the summer and early fall. These landforms are more numerous than glaciers in the central Andes; however, the existing legislation only recognizes uncovered or semicovered glaciers as a water resource. Glaciers, debris-covered glaciers, and rock glaciers are being altered or removed by mining operations to extract valuable minerals from the mountains. In addition, agricultural expansion and population growth in this region have placed additional demands on water resources. In a warmer climate, as glaciers recede and seasonal water availability becomes condensed over the course of a snowmelt season, rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers contribute a larger component of base flow to rivers and streams. As a result, identifying and locating these features to implement sustainable regional planning for water resources is important. The objective of this study is to develop a classification system to identify debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers based on the interpretation of satellite imagery and aerial photographs. The classification system is linked to field observations and measurements of ice content. Debris-covered glaciers have three subclasses: surface coverage of semi (class 1) and fully covered (class 2) glaciers differentiates the first two forms, whereas debris thickness is critical for class 3 when glaciers become buried with more than 3 m of surface debris. Based on field observations, the amount of ice decreases from more than 85%, to 65-85%, to 45-65% for semi, fully, and buried debris-covered glaciers, respectively. Rock glaciers are characterized by three stages. Class 4 rock glaciers have pronounced

  7. Pre-Andean peraluminous and metaluminous leucogranitoid suites in the High Andes of central Chile (United States)

    Parada, Miguel A.

    Two distinct pre-Andean leucogranitoid suites are recognized in the High Andes of Central Chile (30°31'S): the Hacienda Vieja and Monte Grande Suites (HVS and MGS). Both represent the transition from upper Paleozoic orogenic magmatism to Andean orogenic igneous activity (post-Triassic). The HVS comprises medium-grained peraluminous leucogranites and leucogranodiorites, whereas the MGS includes medium- to fine-grained and porphyritic leucogranites of metaluminous character. The mineralogy of the HVS leucogranitoids consists mainly of plagioclase, quartz, interstitial microcline, biotite ± muscovite ± cordierite, and small andalusite-bearing inclusions. The MGS leucogranites are characterized by large amounts of quartz, plagioclase, and perthitic K-feldspar, and minor Fe-hornblende, Fe-hedenbergite, and biotite. The two suites have a small range of composition caused mainly by intrasuite plagioclase-dominated fractionation. Calculations based on compositions of feldspar, muscovite, biotite, and FeTi oxides indicate that the HVS plutons crystallized at higher total pressure (˜3.0 Kb), lower temperature (˜670°) and higher oxygen fugacities than those of the MGS (P,˜1 Kb; T,˜750°C). Although fractionation of a mantle-derived magma is not ruled out in the origin of the MGS, the two suites may be the products of partial fusion at different crustal depths, and hence H 2O contents of semipelitic protolith in the case of the HVS, and Ca-poor quartzo-feldspathic ( s.l.) rocks in the case of the MGS. Crustal melting was probably induced by a long-lived thermal perturbation caused by voluminous upper Paleozoic mantle-derived magma injection and decompression of the crust linked to an extensional tectonic regime.

  8. Coupled geohazards at Southern Andes (Copahue-Lanín volcanoes): Chile's GEO supersite proposal (United States)

    Lara, Luis E.; Cordova, Loreto


    Southern Andes are a young and active mountain belt where volcanism and tectonic processes (and those related to the hydrometeorological conditions controlled by this geological setting) pose a significant threat to the growing communities nearby. This proposal focus on a ca. 200 km long segment of the Southern Andes where 9 stratovolcanoes and 2 distributed volcanic fields are located, just along a tectonic corridor defined by the northern segment of the Liquiñe-Ofqui Faul System (LOFS), a long-lived active strike-slip fault running for 1200 km. Volcanoes in this area take part of the central province of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (37-41°S), particularly the northermost portion that is limited at the south by an Andean tranverse fault (Lanalhue Fault, which define the Villarrica-Lanin volcanic chain) and run along the horse-tail array of the LOFS to the north. Most of the stravolcanoes are atop of the LOFS main branch with only 3 exceptions (Callaqui, Tolhuaca and Lanín) 15-20 km away, but related to transverse faults. Hazards in the segment derive from the activity of some of the most active volcanoes in South America (e.g., Villarrica, Llaima), others with long-lasting weak activity (e.g., Copahue) or some volcanoes with low frequency but high magnitude eruptions in the geological record. Only since the beggining of the 20th century 80 eruptions have been recorded in this area. In addition, activity of the LOFS has been detected prior to some eruptions and coeval with some others (e.g., Lonquimay 1989). A strong two-way coupling between tectonics and volcanism has been proposed for the segment but only recently detected by geophysical techniques or numerical modelling. Tectonic triggered landslides are frequent in this region together with debris flows at erupting ice-covered volcanoes or stream headed at high altitude basins. The latter scenario seems to be worst at present because of global climate change. Ground-based monitoring networks for both

  9. Altitudinal vegetation belts in the high-Andes of central Chile (33°S Pisos altitudinales de vegetación en los Andes de Chile central (33°S

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    Lohengrin A. Cavieres


    Full Text Available The limits of alpine vegetation belts have been established mainly based on physiognomic criteria. However, a more objective approach for fixing limits of vegetation belts are methods based on species composition and relative abundance of each species. While these methods are more time consuming, they are more detailed and permit the detection of physical factors affecting the limits of vegetation belts. In this paper we: 1 describe the altitudinal changes of vegetation above timberline, 2 compare vegetation belts defined with physiognomy and two floristic methods (a qualitative one based on altitudinal changes in species composition, and a quantitative one based on changes in dominant species; and 3 detect some environmental factors responsible for the altitudinal distribution of alpine vegetation between 2100 and 3700 masl in the Andes of Santiago, central Chile (33°S. There was a complete agreement between the different methods in delimiting the subalpine belt. However, in the lower alpine belt (the cushion's belt floristic methods subdivided it in 2-3 sub-belts. In the floristic methods, elevations 3500-3700 that formed the higher alpine belt segregated in separate ways because they have no species in common. Physiognomic descriptions lose relevant information about species distribution, especially at higher elevations. Mean annual temperature and nitrogen content of soil are the main environmental factors affecting the altitudinal limits of vegetation belts in the central Chilean AndesLa delimitación de los pisos altitudinales de vegetación andina se ha basado principalmente en criterios fisionómicos. Sin embargo, un criterio más objetivo para la delimitación es usar métodos basados en la composición y abundancia relativa de las especies presentes. Mientras estos métodos requieren de un mayor esfuerzo de muestreo, son más detallados y permiten detectar factores físicos involucrados en la delimitación altitudinal de la vegetaci

  10. Chile. (United States)


    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the

  11. Slope and climate variability control of erosion in the Andes of central Chile


    Carretier, Sébastien; Regard, V.; Vassallo, R.; Aguilar, G.; Martinod, J.; Riquelme, R.; Pepin, E.; Charrier, R.; Hérail, Gérard; Farias, M.; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Vargas, G.; Lagane, Christelle


    Climate and topography control millennial-scale mountain erosion, but their relative impacts remain matters of debate. Conflicting results may be explained by the influence of the erosion threshold and daily variability of runoff on long-term erosion. However, there is a lack of data documenting these erosion factors. Here we report suspended-load measurements, derived decennial erosion rates, and Be-10-derived millennial erosion rates along an exceptional climatic gradient in the Andes of ce...

  12. Photosynthetic performance of Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae in a high-elevation site of the Andes of central Chile Desempeño fotosintético de Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae en los Andes de Chile central

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    Full Text Available Photosynthesis of Colobanthus quitensis and mesoclimatic conditions of air temperature and light intensity during the growing season were investigated at 2,650 m in the central Chilean Andes. On three typical days of the growing period (January, March and May, CO2 exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. In addition, a series of fluorescence response curves with increasing light intensity at different temperatures were performed to estimate the propensity of Andean C. quitensis populations to be photoinhibited. Net Photosynthesis (Pn was low (ca. 2.0 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 during the morning and noon in days with high photosynthetic active radiation (PAR, above 1,800 mmol photons m-2s-1. Pn increased in the afternoon (3.5-4.8 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 when PAR decreased to ca. 1,400 mmol photons m-2s-1 and leaf temperature were ca. 20 °C. Fv/Fm in the diurnal periods was between 0.7-0.75 without evidence of photoinhibition. Leaves at 15 and 22 °C exhibited a slow decrease of F PSII with the increase in actinic light intensity, although the fraction of reaction centers open (expressed by qP remained higher at 22 °C. NPQ was saturated at light intensities close to 500 mmol photons m-2s-1 in leaves at 22 °C and at higher intensities at 15 °C, suggesting that NPQ could be a mechanism of energy dissipation at high light intensity and high leaf temperature in the field. Our results indicated that C. quitensis is not photodamaged during the diurnal cycle and that the low Pn registered during some diurnal periods are likely to be related with photorespiration, which has been suggested as an efficient protective mechanism for photoinhibition in alpine plants. Our results are also compared with the photosynthetic performance of C. quitensis populations from the maritime AntarcticSe estudió la fotosíntesis de Colobanthus quitensis y las condiciones mesoclimáticas de temperatura del aire e intensidad lumínica a 2.650 m en los Andes de Chile central. Se

  13. The Ordovician magmatic arc in the northern Chile-Argentina Andes between 21° and 26° south latitude (United States)

    Niemeyer, Hans; Götze, Jens; Sanhueza, Marcos; Portilla, Carolina


    A continental magmatic arc (the Famatinian magmatic arc) was developed on the western margin of Gondwana during the Early to Middle Ordovician. This has a northwestern orientation in the northern Chile-Argentina Andes between 21° and 26° south latitude with a northeastern directed subduction zone and developed on a continental crust represented by a metamorphic basement. A paleogeographical scheme for the Ordovician magmatic arc is proposed and two tectonic environments can be recognized from our own data and data from the literature: forearc and arc. The Cordón de Lila Complex can be assigned to a forearc position. Here the turbiditic flows become paralell to the northwestern elongation of the magmatic arc. The sedimentation in the frontal-arc high platform of the forearc is represented by stromatolitic limestones and a zone of phosphate production. The internal structure of the arc can be inferred from the petrographic composition of the turbidites: basaltic and andesitic lavas, dacitic and/or rhyolitic lavas and ash fall tuffs. Also the Quebrada Grande Formation was developed on the forearc. Plutonic Ordovician rocks testify the continuity of the magmatic arc. The data about the basement exposed in the present paper do not support the existence of the Arequipa-Antofalla Terrane.

  14. [Epidemiological characterization of bites on people, as emergency care record: Province of Los Andes, Chile]. (United States)

    Villagra, Vania; Cáceres, Dante; Alvarado, Sergio; Salinas, Elizabeth; Caldera, M Loreto; Lucero, Erick; Viviani, Paola; Torres, Marisa


    Bites constitute a public health problem worldwide. To characterize epidemiologically bites by animals happened in the province of Los Andes (2005-2007). Descriptive, retrospective epidemiological study. Studied variables: Bitten person (BP), accident by bite, biting animal and bite. It was not feasible to obtain more updated information by law of patient protection. 2,360 BP were assisted in the emergency unit of San Juan de Dios Hospital and Rio Blanco clinic. An annual average rate of 729 BP/100,000 inhabitants and 1.99 daily average was recorded. The male gender was most affected (53.5%) and the age group from 6 to 10 years old. (Rate: .521/100,000). Most frequent topographic location was the lower limb, except in children under 5 year olds in whom predominated head and neck. The biting animal according to frequency was: the dog (67.1%) spider (7.1%) and cat (3.9%). The animal property was 35.6% known and 30.7% own. The most frequent problems were: nonspecific allergy; toxic effect by spider bites and among the infections, the disease made by cat’s scratch stands out. Regarding the record system, the biting animal complaint was applied to 47.6% of the BP and the 92.8% of the recorded information was incomplete. Bites reported higher rates in the province of Los Andes than the average of the country (729 versus 188/100,000), standing out the higher magnitude in 6 to 10 year-old-children. It is noticed that the record is low and incomplete. In this province, no bite control programs or updated studies have been carried out.

  15. Variaciones de un glaciar de montaña en los Andes de Chile central en las últimas dos décadas

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    Full Text Available VARIATIONS D’UN GLACIER DE MONTAGNE DANS LES ANDES DU CHILI CENTRAL AU COURS DES DEUX DERNIÈRES DÉCENNIES. Les résultats du bilan de masse du glacier Echaurren Norte sont présentés. Il s’agit d’un glacier de montagne de 0,4 km2 situé dans les Andes du Chili central, à 50 km à l’est de Santiago, à une altitude moyenne de 3 750 m. Ce programme de la Direction Générale d’Eaux du Chili a permis de recueillir régulièrement une information sur les bilans de masse pendant 18 ans, entre les années 1975 et 1993. C’est le seul registre de bilan de masse d’un glacier au Chili. L’ablation pendant la période de fonte a été de 252 cm d’eau en moyenne annuelle, avec une accumulation hivernale moyenne de 280 cm d’eau. Le bilan net est positif pour la période, mais on observe une grande variation interannuelle. Le bilan positif du glacier Echaurren Norte contraste avec le recul généralisé des autres glaciers du Chili central. Se presentan resultados del balance de masa del glaciar Echaurren Norte, un glaciar de montaña de 0,4 km2 ubicado a una altitud media de 3 750 m.s.n.m., en los Andes de Chile central, 50 km al este de Santiago. Los datos, recolectados como parte de un programa regular de la Dirección General de Aguas, Chile, cubren un período de 18 años, desde 1975 a 1993 y constituyen el único registro de balance de masa de un glaciar en Chile. La ablación durante el período de deshielo fue de 252 cm eq. en agua anuales en promedio, con una acumulación invernal promedio de 280 cm eq. en agua. El balance neto para el período es positivo, pero existe una gran variación interanual. El balance positivo del glaciar Echaurren Norte contrasta con el retroceso generalizado en otros glaciares de Chile central. VARIATIONS OF A MOUNTAIN GLACIER IN THE CENTRAL CHILEAN ANDES DURING THE LAST TWENTY YEARS. Mass balance results for Echaurren Norte Glacier are presented. This mountain glacier, with an area of 0,4 km2, is located at

  16. The Loma Seca tuff and the Calabozos caldera: a major ash-flow and caldera complex in the southern Andes of central Chile. (United States)

    Hildreth, W.; Grunder, A.L.; Drake, Robert E.


    A composite ring-structure caldera of Late Pleistocene age, 26 X 14km in size, has been discovered and mapped near the Andean crest in central Chile (35o 30'S). Rhyolitic to dacitic zoned ashflow sheets, each representing 150-300 km3 of magma, were erupted 0.8, 0.3 and 0.15 m.y. ago; the youngest of the associated collapses was closely followed by resurgent doming of the caldera floor and the development of a longitudinal graben. Post-caldera eruption of dacite and andesite have persisted into Holocene time and active hot springs are abundant along caldera-marginal and resurgent fault systems, suggesting a significant geothermal energy resource. The ash-flow magmatism has been no less important in this segment of the glaciated S Andes than in the arid central Andes and may well be accounted for by the existence of thicker crust in both regions.- L.H.

  17. Impact of Santiago de Chile urban atmospheric pollution on anthropogenic trace elements enrichment in snow precipitation at Cerro Colorado, Central Andes (United States)

    Cereceda-Balic, F.; Palomo-Marín, M. R.; Bernalte, E.; Vidal, V.; Christie, J.; Fadic, X.; Guevara, J. L.; Miro, C.; Pinilla Gil, E.


    Seasonal snow precipitation in the Andes mountain range is evaluated as an environmental indicator of the composition of atmospheric emissions in Santiago de Chile metropolitan area, by measuring a set of representative trace elements in snow samples by ICP-MS. Three late winter sampling campaigns (2003, 2008 and 2009) were conducted in three sampling areas around Cerro Colorado, a Central Andes mountain range sector NE of Santiago (36 km). Nevados de Chillán, a sector in The Andes located about 500 km south from the metropolitan area, was selected as a reference area. The experimental results at Cerro Colorado and Nevados de Chillán were compared with previously published data of fresh snow from remote and urban background sites. High snow concentrations of a range of anthropogenic marker elements were found at Cerro Colorado, probably derived from Santiago urban aerosol transport and deposition combined with the effect of mining and smelting activities in the area, whereas Nevados de Chillán levels roughly correspond to urban background areas. Enhanced concentrations in surface snow respect to deeper samples are discussed. Significant differences found between the 2003, 2008 and 2009 anthropogenic source markers profiles at Cerro Colorado sampling points were correlated with changes in emission sources at the city. The preliminary results obtained in this study, the first of this kind in the southern hemisphere, show promising use of snow precipitation in the Central Andes as a suitable matrix for receptor model studies aimed at identifying and quantifying pollution sources in Santiago de Chile.

  18. The effect of offset on fracture permeability of rocks from the Southern Andes Volcanic Zone, Chile (United States)

    Pérez-Flores, P.; Wang, G.; Mitchell, T. M.; Meredith, P. G.; Nara, Y.; Sarkar, V.; Cembrano, J.


    The Southern Andes Volcanic Zone (SVZ) represents one of the largest undeveloped geothermal provinces in the world. Development of the geothermal potential requires a detailed understanding of fluid transport properties of its main lithologies. The permeability of SVZ rocks is altered by the presence of fracture damage zones produced by the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS) and the Andean Transverse Faults (ATF). We have therefore measured the permeability of four representative lithologies from the volcanic basement in this area: crystalline tuff, andesitic dike, altered andesite and granodiorite. For comparative purposes, we have also measured the permeability of samples of Seljadalur basalt, an Icelandic rock with widely studied and reported hydraulic properties. Specifically, we present the results of a systematic study of the effect of fractures and fracture offsets on permeability as a function of increasing effective pressure. Baseline measurements on intact samples of SVZ rocks show that the granodiorite has a permeability (10-18 m2), two orders of magnitude higher than that of the volcanic rocks (10-20 m2). The presence of throughgoing mated macro-fractures increases permeability by between four and six orders of magnitude, with the highest permeability recorded for the crystalline tuff. Increasing fracture offset to produce unmated fractures results in large increases in permeability up to some characteristic value of offset, beyond which permeability changes only marginally. The increase in permeability with offset appears to depend on fracture roughness and aperture, and these are different for each lithology. Overall, fractured SVZ rocks with finite offsets record permeability values consistent with those commonly found in geothermal reservoirs (>10-16 m2), which potentially allow convective/advective flow to develop. Hence, our results demonstrate that the fracture damage zones developed within the SVZ produce permeable regions, especially within the

  19. Meteorological drivers of ablation processes on a cold glacier in the semi-arid Andes of Chile

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    S. MacDonell


    Full Text Available Meteorological and surface change measurements collected during a 2.5 yr period are used to calculate surface mass and energy balances at 5324 m a.s.l. on Guanaco Glacier, a cold-based glacier in the semi-arid Andes of Chile. Meteorological conditions are marked by extremely low vapour pressures (annual mean of 1.1 hPa, strong winds (annual mean of 10 m s−1, shortwave radiation receipt persistently close to the theoretical site maximum during cloud-free days (mean annual 295 W m−2; summer hourly maximum 1354 W m−2 and low precipitation rates (mean annual 45 mm w.e.. Snowfall occurs sporadically throughout the year and is related to frontal events in the winter and convective storms during the summer months. Net shortwave radiation provides the greatest source of energy to the glacier surface, and net longwave radiation dominates energy losses. The turbulent latent heat flux is always negative, which means that the surface is always losing mass via sublimation, which is the main form of ablation at the site. Sublimation rates are most strongly correlated with net shortwave radiation, incoming shortwave radiation, albedo and vapour pressure. Low glacier surface temperatures restrict melting for much of the period, however episodic melting occurs during the austral summer, when warm, humid, calm and high pressure conditions restrict sublimation and make more energy available for melting. Low accumulation (131 mm w.e. over the period and relatively high ablation (1435 mm w.e. means that mass change over the period was negative (−1304 mm w.e., which continued the negative trend recorded in the region over the last few decades.

  20. Dynamics of a large, restless, rhyolitic magma system at Laguna del Maule, southern Andes, Chile (United States)

    Singer, Brad S.; Andersen, Nathan L.; Le Mével, Hélène; Feigl, Kurt L.; DeMets, Charles; Tikoff, Basil; Thurber, Clifford H.; Jicha, Brian R.; Cardonna, Carlos; Córdova, Loreto; Gil, Fernando; Unsworth, Martyn J.; Williams-Jones, Glyn; Miller, Craig W.; Fierstein, Judith; Hildreth, Edward; Vazquez, Jorge A.


    Explosive eruptions of large-volume rhyolitic magma systems are common in the geologic record and pose a major potential threat to society. Unlike other natural hazards, such as earthquakes and tsunamis, a large rhyolitic volcano may provide warning signs long before a caldera-forming eruption occurs. Yet, these signs—and what they imply about magma-crust dynamics—are not well known. This is because we have learned how these systems form, grow, and erupt mainly from the study of ash flow tuffs deposited tens to hundreds of thousands of years ago or more, or from the geophysical imaging of the unerupted portions of the reservoirs beneath the associated calderas. The Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field, Chile, includes an unusually large and recent concentration of silicic eruptions. Since 2007, the crust there has been inflating at an astonishing rate of at least 25 cm/yr. This unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of a large rhyolitic system while magma migration, reservoir growth, and crustal deformation are actively under way is stimulating a new international collaboration. Findings thus far lead to the hypothesis that the silicic vents have tapped an extensive layer of crystal-poor, rhyolitic melt that began to form atop a magmatic mush zone that was established by ca. 20 ka with a renewed phase of rhyolite eruptions during the Holocene. Modeling of surface deformation, magnetotelluric data, and gravity changes suggest that magma is currently intruding at a depth of ~5 km. The next phase of this investigation seeks to enlarge the sets of geophysical and geochemical data and to use these observations in numerical models of system dynamics.

  1. Energy from the Andes. The hydropower plant La Confluencia in Chile; Energie aus den Anden. Die Wasserkraftanlage La Confluencia in Chile

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    Mueller, Mathias [Hochschule Regensburg (Germany). Bauingenieurwesen


    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the hydropower plant La Confluencia situated nearly 150 km south of Santiago de Chile (Chile). La Confluencia is a project development of a Norwegian-Australian joint venture of SN Power utilities (Oslo, Norway) and Pacific Hydro (Melbourne, Australia). Constructora Hochtief Tecsa (Santiago, Chile) took over the order to construct the plant completely including planning, construction, equipment and operation. The system concept was developed in collaboration with Poeyry Energy (Zurich, Switzerland). The plant design was devised in cooperation with Intertechne (Curitiba, Brazil), EDIC Ingenieros (Santiago, Chile) and Geocontrol (Madrid, Spain).

  2. Volcanologic and petrologic evolution of Antuco-Sierra Velluda, Southern Andes, Chile (United States)

    Martínez, Paola; Singer, Brad S.; Roa, Hugo Moreno; Jicha, Brian R.


    The Andean Southern Volcanic Zone comprises > 30 active arc front volcanoes that grew over periods of hundreds of thousands of years. Quantifying the rates at which these volcanoes grow is key to appreciating geological hazards, clarifying petrologic evolution, and exploring possible relationships between volcanism, ice loading, and climate. The integration of precise geochronology and geologic mapping, together with new lava compositions and volume estimates, reveal the evolution of the Antuco-Sierra Velluda volcanic complex at 37.2°S. Thirty-one new 40Ar/39Ar age determinations illuminate a punctuated eruptive history that spans at least 430 kyr. Sierra Velluda comprises 130 km3 and began to grow prior to 426.8 ka. A lacuna in the volcanic record between 343.5 and 150.4 ka coincides with glaciations associated with marine isotope stages (MIS) 10 and 8, although shallow intrusions were emplaced at 207.0 and 190.0 ka. Antuco began to grow rapidly on the northeast flank of Sierra Velluda, erupting > 60 km3 of lava during three phases: (1) an early phase that began at 150.4 ka, (2) a post-MIS 2 phase between 16.3 and 6.2 ka, and (3) a post-sector collapse phase after 6.2 ka. Volcanism has been continuous during the last 100 kyr, with an average rate of cone growth during this period of 0.46 km3/kyr that has accelerated by about 50% during the past 6 kyr. Whereas Sierra Velluda erupted basaltic andesitic to andesitic (53.5 to 58.7 wt% SiO2) lavas, during the last expansion of glaciers between 130 and 17 ka, Early Antuco erupted a wider spectrum of lavas, ranging from basaltic andesite to dacite (52.0 to 64.5 wt% SiO2). Notably, eruptions following the last glacial termination at 17 ka produced basalts and basaltic andesites (50.9-53.7% SiO2), and following the 6.2 ka cone collapse they have been exclusively olivine basalt (50.9-53.0% SiO2) with > 5 wt% MgO. Thermodynamic and trace element modeling suggests that lavas from Sierra Velluda and Early Antuco reflect

  3. Late cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the Patagonian Andes between 42oS and 52oS, southern Chile assessed using fission-track thermochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, S.N; Herve, F; Stockhert, B.; Brix, M.R.; Adriasola, A


    Fission-track (FT) analysis has been applied in the Patagonian Andes of southern Chile to assess the late Cenozoic geomorphic and tectonic response of the overriding plate to subduction of the Chile rise active oceanic spreading centre (Thomson et al., 2001). The timing and nature of tectonic uplift and denudation along the southern parts of the major transpression intra-arc Liquine-Ofqui fault (LOF) system have also been investigated (Thomson, 2001, submitted). Results from 130 FT ages (72 zircon and 58 apatite ages) and 39 apatite track length measurements reveal initiation of rapid cooling and denudation at ca. 30 Ma at the western margin of southern continental South America. This was followed by a ca. 200km eastward migration of the locus of maximum denudation to the position of the present day topographic divide between ca. 30 Ma and ca. 12 to 10 Ma. East of the Andean divide less than 3 km of denudation has occurred since the Late Cretaceous. Enhanced denudation is interpreted to be the result of increased tectonic uplift driven by a large increase in convergence rates at ca. 28 to 26 Ma that triggered orographically enhanced precipitation on the west-side of the Patagonian Andes allowing increased erosion by fluvial incision and mass transport processes. The eastward migration of the locus of maximum denudation can be related to either coeval eastward migration of the retro-arc deformation front, the effects of subduction erosion in the overriding plate at the Peru-Chile trench or shallowing of the angle of subduction. Away from the influence of the LOF the process of spreading centre subduction and collision itself coincides with an overall slow-down in denudation rates in the overriding plate most likely caused by a major reduction in the main tectonic force driving tectonic uplift in the upper plate to subduction. In contrast to the Andes south of ca. 46 o S, increased cooling and denudation related to transpression induced rock uplift and erosion along

  4. Crustal balance and crustal flux from shortening estimates in the Central Andes (United States)

    Hindle, David; Kley, Jonas; Oncken, Onno; Sobolev, Stephan


    The Central Andes of South America form the second largest high elevation plateau on earth. Extreme elevations have formed on a noncollisional margin with abundant associated arc magmatism. It has long been thought that the crustal thickness necessary to support Andean topography was not accounted for by known crustal shortening alone. We show that this may in part be due to a two-dimensional treatment of the problem. A three-dimensional analysis of crustal shortening and crustal thickness shows that displacement of material towards the axis of the bend in the Central Andes has added a significant volume of crust not accounted for in previous comparisons. We find that present-day crustal thickness between 12°S and 25°S is accounted for (∼-10% to ∼+3%)with the same shortening estimates, and the same assumed initial crustal thickness as had previously led to the conclusion of a ∼25-35% deficit in shortening relative to volume of crustal material. We suggest that the present-day measured crustal thickness distribution may not match that predicted due to shortening, and substantial redistribution of crust may have occurred by both erosion and deposition at the surface and lower crustal flow in regions of the thermally weakened middle and lower crust.

  5. The Quaternary calc-alkaline volcanism of the Patagonian Andes close to the Chile triple junction: geochemistry and petrogenesis of volcanic rocks from the Cay and Maca volcanoes (˜45°S, Chile) (United States)

    D'Orazio, M.; Innocenti, F.; Manetti, P.; Tamponi, M.; Tonarini, S.; González-Ferrán, O.; Lahsen, A.; Omarini, R.


    Major- and trace-element, Sr-Nd isotopes, and mineral chemistry data were obtained for a collection of volcanic rock samples erupted by the Cay and Maca Quaternary volcanoes, Patagonian Andes (˜45°S, Chile). Cay and Maca are two large, adjacent stratovolcanoes that rise from the Chiloe block at the southern end of the southern volcanic zone (SVZ) of the Andes. Samples from the two volcanoes are typical medium-K, calc-alkaline rocks that form two roughly continuous, largely overlapping series from subalkaline basalt to dacite. The overall geochemistry of the samples studied is very similar to that observed for most volcanoes from the southern SVZ. The narrow range of Sr-Nd isotope compositions ( 87Sr/ 86Sr=0.70389-0.70431 and 143Nd/ 144Nd=0.51277-0.51284) and the major- and trace-element distributions indicate that the Cay and Maca magmas differentiated by crystal fractionation without significant contribution by crustal contamination. This is in accordance with the thin (Maca magmas is investigated by means of the relative concentration of fluid mobile (e.g. Ba) and fluid immobile (e.g. Nb, Ta, Zr, Y) elements and other relevant trace-element ratios (e.g. Sr/Y). The results indicate that small amounts (Maca volcanoes and that, despite the very young age (Maca magma sources to the northern edge of the slab window generated by the subduction of the Chile ridge under the South American plate, we did not find any geochemical evidence for a contribution of a subslab asthenospheric mantle. However, this mantle has been used to explain the peculiar geochemical features (e.g. the mild alkalinity and relatively low ratios between large ion lithophile and high field strength elements) of the Hudson volcano, which is located even closer to the slab window than the Cay and Maca volcanoes are.

  6. Estimation de l'aléa sismique dans les Andes nord équatoriennes

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    Full Text Available Les Andes Nord équatoriennes ont connu de nombreux séismes historiques destructeurs. Pour caractériser l’aléa sismique de la région andine, nous avons fait une révision critique de la sismicité historique et de l’ensemble des failles actives de l’Équateur. Les deux sources majeures de l’aléa sismique sont respectivement la subduction superficielle pour la région côtière et le système transpressif des hautes Andes pour la région andine. Ce système est composé de failles décrochantes dextres d’orientation N30-35°E (failles du Rio Chingual-La Sofia et Pallatanga qui limitent respectivement au Nord et au Sud des failles inverses N-S du relais compressif de la vallée interandine (failles de Quito et de Latacunga. L’étude des mécanismes au foyer superficiels des Andes équatoriennes nous a permis de calculer une vitesse de raccourcissement crustal de 4.6 mm/a selon une direction N92°E et d’estimer des temps de récurrence et des périodes de retour. Un séisme de Mw = 5 pourrait se produire tous les 0.5 an, de Mw = 6 tous les 4.5 ans, de Mw = 7 tous les 45.4 ans. De même, sur une période de temps de 33 ans, 66 séismes de Mw=5 peuvent être attendus, 7 séismes de Mw=6 et 1 séisme de Mw=7. Enfin, nous avons estimé pour l’ensemble des sources sismogènes de la région andine des magnitudes maximales probables et des temps de récurrence. Un séisme de magnitude 7 à 7.5 peut se produire sur la faille du Rio Chingual tous les 400±440 ans et de magnitude 6.7 à 7.2 tous les 380±320 ans sur la faille de Pallatanga. Dans la vallée interandine, la faille de Quito est susceptible d’engendrer un séisme de magnitude 6.6 à 7.6 tous les 930±300 ans. LA AMENAZA SÍSMICA EN LOS ANDES ECUATORIANOS. Los Andes del Norte del Ecuador son una región sismogénica mayor, donde se puede contabilizar muchos terremotos históricos destructores. A fin de determinar la amenaza sísmica sobre la región andina, se hizo la asociaci

  7. Low-pressure evolution of arc magmas in thickened crust: The San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain, Central Andes, Northern Chile (United States)

    Godoy, Benigno; Wörner, Gerhard; Kojima, Shoji; Aguilera, Felipe; Simon, Klaus; Hartmann, Gerald


    Magmatism at Andean Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ), or Central Andes, is strongly influenced by differentiation and assimilation at high pressures that occurred at lower levels of the thick continental crust. This is typically shown by high light to heavy rare earth element ratios (LREE/HREE) of the erupted lavas at this volcanic zone. Increase of these ratios with time is interpreted as a change to magma evolution in the presence of garnet during evolution of Central Andes. Such geochemical signals could be introduced into the magmas be high-pressure fractionation with garnet on the liquidus and/or assimilation from crustal rocks with a garnet-bearing residue. However, lavas erupted at San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain show no evidence of garnet fractionation in their trace element patterns. This volcanic chain is located in the active volcanic arc, between 22°00‧S and 22°30‧S, over a continental crust ˜70 km thick. Sampled lavas show Sr/Y and Sm/Yb ratios Chile. We relate our geochemical observations to shallow crustal evolution of primitive magmas involving a high degree of assimilation of upper continental crust. We emphasize that low pressure AFC- (Assimilation Fractional Crystallization) type evolution of the San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain reflects storage, fractionation, and contamination of mantle-derived magmas at the upper felsic crust (<40 km depth). The ascent of mantle-derived magmas to mid-crustal levels is related with the extensional regime that has existed in this zone of arc-front offset since Late-Miocene age, and the relatively thin portion of mafic lower crust observed below the volcanic chain.

  8. Parasite loads and altitudinal distribution of Liolaemus lizards in the central Chilean Andes Cargas parasitarias y distribución de lagartijas Liolaemus en los Andes de Chile central

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    Full Text Available This study compared the distributions of ten species of Liolaemus lizards in the central Chilean Andes to the distributions of four types of parasites: malaria-causing Plasmodium, gut nematodes, ticks, and mites. We wanted to see if parasite numbers might be a factor in determining distributional limits of the lizards. We found that there was no evidence of malarial infestation of the lizards, that ticks were almost absent, that more often than not mite numbers decreased at the distributional limits of the lizards, and that gut nematodes confined to the herbivorous lizards in our sample may well be beneficial rather than detrimental. Rather than parasitism, other biotic interactions (e.g., predation or competition are more likely candidates as factors influencing lizard elevational distributions, as are abiotic characteristics such as microhabitat availabilities and thermal factorsEste estudio compara las distribuciones de diez especies de lagartijas Liolaemus en los Andes de Chile central, con las distribuciones de cuatro tipos de parásitos: Plasmodium causantes de malaria, nemátodos intestinales, garrapatas y ácaros. Quisimos verificar si los números de parásitos pudieran ser un factor determinante de los límites de distribución de las lagartijas. Encontramos que no había evidencia de infestación por malaria en las lagartijas; que las garrapatas estaban casi ausentes; que los números de ácaros más a menudo decrecían que aumentaban en los límites distribucionales de las lagartijas; y que los nemátodos intestinales confinados a las lagartijas herbívoras en nuestra muestra bien podían ser beneficiosos antes que dañinos. Más bien que parasitismo, otras interacciones bióticas (e.g., depredación o competencia son candidatos más probables como factores que influyen las distribuciones altitudinales de las lagartijas, además de características abióticas tales como la disponibilidad de microhábitats y los factores térmicos

  9. Cost of Capital Estimation for Highway Concessionaires in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Vergara-Novoa


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the cost of capital estimation for highway concessionaires in Chile. We estimated the cost of equity and the cost of debt and determined the capital structure for each one of twenty-four concessionaires that operate highways. We based our estimations on the developments of Sharpe (1964, Modigliani and Miller (1958, and Maquieira (2009, which were also compared with the Brusov et al. (2015 developments. We collected stock prices for different highway concessionaires around the world from Google Finance and Reuters’ websites in order to determine the Beta of equity using a representative company. After that, we estimated the cost of equity considering Hamada (1969 and a Capital Asset Pricing Model. Then, we estimated the cost of capital using the cost of debt and the capital structure of Chile’s highway concessionaires. With all above, we were able to determine the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC for highway concessions which ranges from 5.49 to 6.62%.

  10. Depositación atmosférica de nitrógeno en un transecto valle longitudinal-cordillera de Los Andes, centro-sur de Chile Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen in a transect from the Central Valley to Cordillera de Los Andes, south-central Chile

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    Full Text Available El aumento de las actividades agrícolas y ganaderas en el centro-sur de Chile puede producir elevadas emisiones de nitrógeno hacia la atmósfera (mayormente NH3. El amoniaco es transportado por corrientes de aire y depositado en el suelo y vegetación. El presente estudio evalúa la depositación atmosférica de compuestos nitrogenados (NO3- y NH4+ en la química de las precipitaciones en un transecto altitudinal de 66 km, desde los alrededores de la ciudad de Osorno (40º 35' S, 72º 57' O, 55 m de altitud hasta la cordillera de Los Andes, Parque Nacional Puyehue (40º 46' S, 72º 11' O, 1.120 m de altitud. En siete sitios, durante el período anual junio-1999 hasta mayo-2000, se registró la precipitación y mensualmente se colectaron muestras de agua para determinar: pH, conductividad y las concentraciones de NO3- y NH4+. La precipitación anual se incrementó desde 1.103 mm en la zona de Osorno hasta 6.799 mm en el sector Antillanca, Parque Nacional Puyehue. Los valores promedio anual del pH registraron escasa variación desde 6,3 en el valle central hasta 5,8 en la cordillera de Los Andes. La conductividad presentó los máximos valores en la proximidad de Osorno (22,9 myS cm-1 para descender a través del transecto en zonas intermedias y alcanzar en la Cordillera de los Andes un valor de 11,3 myS cm-1. Las concentraciones promedio de NO3-Nen la lluvia fluctuaron entre 52,3 myg L-1 en la zona agrícola-ganadera y 6,9 myg L-1 en los bosques del Parque Nacional Puyehue. Las concentraciones de NH4-N variaron entre 699,4 myg L-1 en el sector de Osorno y 37,8 myL-1 en la cordillera de Los Andes. Los valores de N-inorgánico poseen una marcada tendencia estacional en el sector agrícola, con valores máximos en primavera-verano y los mínimos en invierno. Las tasas anuales de depositación atmosférica de NO3-N fluctuaron entre 0,53 y 0,57 kg ha-1 año-1 y las de NH4-N fueron entre 6,4 y 2,8 kg ha-1 año-1 para los sitios agrícola-ganaderos de

  11. Chile. (United States)


    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  12. Scale of human mobility in the southern Andes (Argentina and Chile): A new framework based on strontium isotopes. (United States)

    Barberena, Ramiro; Durán, Víctor A; Novellino, Paula; Winocur, Diego; Benítez, Anahí; Tessone, Augusto; Quiroga, María N; Marsh, Erik J; Gasco, Alejandra; Cortegoso, Valeria; Lucero, Gustavo; Llano, Carina; Knudson, Kelly J


    The goal of this article is to assess the scale of human paleomobility and ecological complementarity between the lowlands and highlands in the southern Andes during the last 2,300 years. By providing isotope results for human bone and teeth samples, we assess a hypothesis of "high residential mobility" suggested on the basis of oxygen isotopes from human remains. We develop an isotopic assessment of human mobility in a mountain landscape combining strontium and oxygen isotopes. We analyze bone and teeth samples as an approach to life-history changes in spatial residence. Human samples from the main geological units and periods within the last two millennia are selected. We present a framework for the analysis of bioavailable strontium based on the combination of the geological data with isotope results for rodent samples. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values from human samples indicate residential stability within geological regions along life history. When comparing strontium and oxygen values for the same human samples, we record a divergent pattern: while δ 18 O values for samples from distant regions overlap widely, there are important differences in 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values. Despite the large socio-economic changes recorded, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values indicate a persisting scenario of low systematic mobility between the different geological regions. Our results suggest that strontium isotope values provide the most germane means to track patterns of human occupation of distinct regions in complex geological landscapes, offering a much higher spatial resolution than oxygen isotopes in the southern Andes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Recent temperature trends in the South Central Andes reconstructed from sedimentary chrysophyte stomatocysts in Laguna Escondida (1742 m a.s.l., 38°28 S, Chile) (United States)

    De Jong, R.; Schneider, T.; Hernández-Almeida, I.; Grosjean, M.


    In this study we present a quantitative, high resolution reconstruction of past austral winter length in the Chilean Andes at 38°S from AD 1920 to 2009. For Laguna Escondida, a nearly pristine lake situated on the flanks of the Andes at 1740 m above sea level, past variability in the duration of the winter season (Days T4 °C) was reconstructed. Because high elevation meteorological stations are absent in this region, the reconstruction provides novel insights into recent temperature trends in the central-southern Andes. As a cold-season temperature proxy, we used chrysophyte stomatocysts. This novel proxy for cold season temperature was so far applied successfully in the European Alps and Pyrenees but has not yet been tested in the Southern Hemisphere. The reconstruction in this study was based on a newly developed Transfer Function to estimate Days T4 °C (number of consecutive days with surface water temperatures at or below 4 °C) from sedimentary stomatocyst assemblages (R2boot = 0.8, RMSEPboot = 28.7 days (= half the standard deviation)). To develop a high quality TF model, sediment traps and thermistors were placed in thirty remote lakes along an altitude gradient (420-2040 m a.s.l.). Complete materials and data were collected in 24 lakes after one year. Detailed statistical analyses indicate that modern stomatocysts primarily respond to the length of the cold season. The TF model was then applied to the sedimentary stomatocysts from a 210Pb-dated short core of L. Escondida. Comparison to independent reanalysis data showed that reconstructed changes in Days T4°C provides detailed information on winter-spring temperature variability since AD 1920. The reconstruction shows that recent warming (onset in AD 1980) in the southern Chilean Andes was not exceptional in the context of the past century. This is in strong contrast to studies from the Northern Hemisphere. The finding is also in contrast to the cooling temperature trends which were detected using

  14. A new species of Phymaturus of the P. mallimaccii Group from the Andes of central Chile (Iguania: Liolaemidae

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    Jaime Troncoso-Palacios


    Full Text Available A new species of Phymaturus from the Provincia Mountain in the San Ramón Mountains in the Metropolitan Region of Chile is described. It is a member of the P. palluma Group and the P. mallimaccii subgroup. The new species can be distinguished from other members of the P. mallimaccii subgroup by having a highly fragmented subocular scale (4 or 5, a preocular scale that is smaller than the canthal, males having a olive dorsum with a diffuse pattern of light bands on the paravertebral fields and a light triangle between the shoulders, which has the apex of the triangle oriented toward the snout. The distribution of new species lies south of that of other members of the P. mallimaccii subgroup, from which it is completely isolated. The low abundance of the new species is noteworthy. Information about the natural history of the lizard is provided and some aspects of unnamed populations of Chilean Phymaturus are discussed.

  15. Late Holocene summer temperatures in the central Andes reconstructed from the sediments of high-elevation Laguna Chepical, Chile (32° S

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    R. de Jong


    Full Text Available High-resolution reconstructions of climate variability that cover the past millennia are necessary to improve the understanding of natural and anthropogenic climate change across the globe. Although numerous records are available for the mid- and high-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, global assessments are still compromised by the scarcity of data from the Southern Hemisphere. This is particularly the case for the tropical and subtropical areas. In addition, high elevation sites in the South American Andes may provide insight into the vertical structure of climate change in the mid-troposphere. This study presents a 3000 yr-long austral summer (November to February temperature reconstruction derived from the 210Pb- and 14C-dated organic sediments of Laguna Chepical (32°16' S, 70°30' W, 3050 m a.s.l., a high-elevation glacial lake in the subtropical Andes of central Chile. Scanning reflectance spectroscopy in the visible light range provided the spectral index R570/R630, which reflects the clay mineral content in lake sediments. For the calibration period (AD 1901–2006, the R570/R630 data were regressed against monthly meteorological reanalysis data, showing that this proxy was strongly and significantly correlated with mean summer (NDJF temperatures (R3 yr = −0.63, padj = 0.01. This calibration model was used to make a quantitative temperature reconstruction back to 1000 BC. The reconstruction (with a model error RMSEPboot of 0.33 °C shows that the warmest decades of the past 3000 yr occurred during the calibration period. The 19th century (end of the Little Ice Age (LIA was cool. The prominent warmth reconstructed for the 18th century, which was also observed in other records from this area, seems systematic for subtropical and southern South America but remains difficult to explain. Except for this warm period, the LIA was generally characterized by cool summers. Back to AD 1400, the results from this study compare remarkably well

  16. Expanding Geophysical and Geochemical Investigation of Causes of Extraordinary Unrest at the Laguna del Maule (Rhyolitic) Volcanic Field, Southern Andes, Chile (United States)

    Singer, B. S.


    The Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field, Chile, includes an unusually large and recent concentration of silicic eruptions. Since 2007 the crust here has been inflating at an astonishing rate of 25 cm/yr. Findings thus far lead to the hypothesis that the silicic vents have tapped an extensive layer of crystal-poor, rhyolitic melt that began to form atop a magmatic mush zone that was established by ~20 ka with a renewed phase of rhyolite eruptions during the Holocene. Modeling of surface deformation, magnetotelluric data, and gravity changes suggest that magma is currently intruding at a depth of ~5 km. Swarms of volcano-tectonic and long period earthquakes, mostly of M San Juan-Argentina, Nanyang Technological University-Singapore, SERNAGEOMIN, OVDAS, USGS, and SEGEMAR-Argentina. Team members will be introduced in this presentation. Our approach includes augmenting the OVDAS array of 6 permanent seisic stations with 40 additional instruments to conduct tomographic, receiver function and ambient noise studies. We continue to collect 4-D gravity data from 37 stations. Surface deformation is monitored via cGPS at 5 permanent receivers and InSAR data. A magnetotelluric survey across the Andes at 36o S is planned. Geochemical studies include mineral zoning and U-Th disequilibrium of zircons to constrain the timing of magma intrusion and mixing events prior to the current unrest. The overall aim is to integrate these observations and to construct numerical models of system dynamics. We are developing communications protocols and a web site to facilitate sharing of findings among the team members and with the public.

  17. Mycorrhizal compatibility and symbiotic seed germination of orchids from the Coastal Range and Andes in south central Chile. (United States)

    Herrera, Hector; Valadares, Rafael; Contreras, Domingo; Bashan, Yoav; Arriagada, Cesar


    Little is known about Orchidaceae plants in Chile and their mycorrhizal associations, a key issue for designing protective actions for endangered species. We investigated root fungi from seven terrestrial orchid species to identify potential mycorrhizal fungi. The main characteristics of Rhizoctonia-like fungi were observed under light microscopy, and isolates were identified through PCR-ITS sequencing. Molecular identification of fungal sequences showed a high diversity of fungi colonizing roots. Fungal ability to germinate seeds of different orchids was determined in symbiotic germination tests; 24 fungal groups were isolated, belonging to the genera Tulasnella, Ceratobasidium, and Thanatephorus. Furthermore, dark septate and other endophytic fungi were identified. The high number of Rhizoctonia-like fungi obtained from adult orchids from the Coastal mountain range suggests that, after germination, these orchids may complement their nutritional demands through mycoheterotrophy. Nonetheless, beneficial associations with other endophytic fungi may also co-exist. In this study, isolated mycorrhizal fungi had the ability to induce seed germination at different efficiencies and with low specificity. Germin ation rates were low, but protocorms continued to develop for 60 days. A Tulasnella sp. isolated from Chloraea gavilu was most effective to induce seed germination of different species. The dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi did not show any effect on seed development; however, their widespread occurrence in some orchids suggests a putative role in plant establishment.

  18. Comparative study of lahars generated by the 1961 and 1971 eruptions of Calbuco and Villarrica volcanoes, Southern Andes of Chile (United States)

    Castruccio, Angelo; Clavero, Jorge; Rivera, Andrés


    The Villarrica and Calbuco volcanoes, of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone, are two of the most active volcanoes in Chile and have erupted several times in the XX century. The 1961 eruption at Calbuco volcano generated lahars on the North, East and Southern flanks, while the 1971 eruption at Villarrica volcano generated lahars in almost all the drainages towards the north, west and south of the volcano. The deposits from these eruptions in the Voipir and Chaillupén River (Villarrica) and the Tepú River (Calbuco) are studied. The 1971 lahar deposits on Villarrica volcano show a great number of internal structures such as lamination, lenses, grading of larger clasts and a great abundance of large floating blocks on top of the deposits. The granulometry can be unimodal or bimodal with less than 5% by weight of silt + clay material. SEM images reveal a great variety of forms and compositions of clasts. The 1961 lahar deposits on Calbuco volcano have a scarce number of internal structures, steeper margins and features of hot emplacement such as semi-carbonized vegetal rests, segregation pipes and a more consolidated matrix. The granulometry usually is bimodal with great quantities of silt + clay material (> 10% by weight). SEM images show a uniformity of composition and forms of clasts. Differences on deposits reveal different dynamics on both lahars. The Villarrica lahar was generated by sudden melt of ice and snow during the paroxysmal phase of the 1971 eruption, when a high fountain of lava was formed. The melted water flowed down on the flanks of the volcano and incorporated sediments to become transition flows, highly energetic and were emplaced incrementally. Dilution of the flows occurs when the lahars reached unconfined and flatter areas. In cases where the lahar flow found large water streams, dilution is enhanced. The Calbuco lahars were generated by the dilution of block and ash pyroclastic flows by flowing over the ice or snow or by entering active rivers

  19. Mafic enclaves in dacitic domes and their relation with La Poruña scoria cone, Central Andes, northern Chile (United States)

    González-Maurel, O. P.; Gallmeyer, G.; Godoy, B.; Menzies, A.; le Roux, P. J.; Harris, C.


    ógico Chileno, 2: 307 - 310; Tierney et al., 2016. Geology, 44(8): 683 - 686; Wörner et al., 2000. Revista Geológica de Chile, 27(2): 205 - 240

  20. The Amazon-Laurentian connection as viewed from the Middle Proterozoic rocks in the central Andes, western Bolivia and northern Chile (United States)

    Tosdal, R.M.


    Middle Proterozoic rocks underlying the Andes in western Bolivia, western Argentina, and northern Chile and Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif in southern Peru?? from the Arequipa-Antofalla craton. These rocks are discontinuously exposed beneath Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks, but abundant crystalline clasts in Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the western altiplano allow indirect samples of the craton. Near Berenguela, western Bolivia, the Oligocene and Miocene Mauri Formation contains boulders of granodiorite augen gneiss (1171??20 Ma and 1158??12 Ma; U-Pb zircon), quartzose gneiss and granofels that are inferred to have arkosic protoliths (1100 Ma source region; U-Pb zircon), quartzofeldspathic and mafic orthogneisses that have amphibolite- and granulite-facies metamorphic mineral assemblages (???1080 Ma metamorphism; U-Pb zircon), and undeformed granitic rocks of Phanerozoic(?) age. The Middle Proterozoic crystalline rocks from Berenguela and elsewhere in western Bolivia and from the Middle Proterozoic Bele??n Schist in northern Chile generally have present-day low 206Pb/204Pb ( 15.57), and elevated 208Pb/204Pb (37.2 to 50.7) indicative of high time-averaged Th/U values. The Middle Proterozoic rocks in general have higher presentday 206Pb/204Pb values than those of the Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif (206Pb/204Pb between 16.1 and 17.1) but lower than rocks of the southern Arequipa-Antofalla craton (206Pb/204Pb> 18.5), a difference inferred to reflect Grenvillian granulite metamorphism. The Pb isotopic compositions for the various Proterozoic rocks lie on common Pb isotopic growth curves, implying that Pb incorporated in rocks composing the Arequipa-Antofalla craton was extracted from a similar evolving Pb isotopic reservoir. Evidently, the craton has been a coherent terrane since the Middle Proterozoic. Moreover, the Pb isotopic compositions for the Arequipa-Antofalla craton overlap those of the Amazon craton, thereby supporting a link

  1. Comparison of Airborne LiDAR and Satellite Hyperspectral Remote Sensing to Estimate Vascular Plant Richness in Deciduous Mediterranean Forests of Central Chile

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    Andrés Ceballos


    Full Text Available The Andes foothills of central Chile are characterized by high levels of floristic diversity in a scenario, which offers little protection by public protected areas. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of this diversity must be gained in order to aid in conservation management. Heterogeneous environmental conditions involve an important number of niches closely related to species richness. Remote sensing information derived from satellite hyperspectral and airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data can be used as proxies to generate a spatial prediction of vascular plant richness. This study aimed to estimate the spatial distribution of plant species richness using remote sensing in the Andes foothills of the Maule Region, Chile. This region has a secondary deciduous forest dominated by Nothofagus obliqua mixed with sclerophyll species. Floristic measurements were performed using a nested plot design with 60 plots of 225 m2 each. Multiple predictors were evaluated: 30 topographical and vegetation structure indexes from LiDAR data, and 32 spectral indexes and band transformations from the EO1-Hyperion sensor. A random forest algorithm was used to identify relevant variables in richness prediction, and these variables were used in turn to obtain a final multiple linear regression predictive model (Adjusted R2 = 0.651; RSE = 3.69. An independent validation survey was performed with significant results (Adjusted R2 = 0.571, RMSE = 5.05. Selected variables were statistically significant: catchment slope, altitude, standard deviation of slope, average slope, Multiresolution Ridge Top Flatness index (MrRTF and Digital Crown Height Model (DCM. The information provided by LiDAR delivered the best predictors, whereas hyperspectral data were discarded due to their low predictive power.

  2. Importance of water quality on plant abundance and diversity in high-alpine meadows of the Yerba Loca Natural Sanctuary at the Andes of north-central Chile Importancia de la calidad del agua sobre la abundancia y diversidad vegetal en vegas altoandinas del Santuario Natural Yerba Loca en los Andes de Chile centro-norte

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    Full Text Available Porphyry Cu-Mo deposits have influenced surface water quality in high-Andes of north-central Chile since the Miocene. Water anomalies may reduce species abundance and diversity in alpine meadows as acidic and metal-rich waters are highly toxic to plants The study assessed the importance of surface water quality on plant abundance and diversity in high-alpine meadows at the Yerba Loca Natural Santuary (YLNS, central Chile (33°15' S, 70°18' W. Hydrochemical and plant prospecting were carried out on Piedra Carvajal, Chorrillos del Plomo and La Lata meadows the growing seasons of 2006 and 2007. Direct gradient analysis was performed through canonical correspondence analysis (CCA to look for relationships among water chemistry and plant factors. High variability in water chemistry was found inside and among meadows, particularly for pH, sulphate, electric conductivity, hardness, and total dissolved Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Fe. Data on species abundance and water chemical factors suggests that pH and total dissolved Cu are very important factor determining changes in plant abundance and diversity in study meadows. For instance, Festuca purpurascens, Colobanthus quitensis, and Arenaria rivularis are abundant in habitals with Cu-rich waters while Festuca magellanica, Patosia clandestina, Plantago barbata, Werneria pygmea, and Erigeron andícola are abundant in habitals with dilute waters.Los megadepósitos de pórfidos de Cu-Mo han influido sobre la calidad de las aguas superficiales en las zonas altoandinas del centro-norte de Chile desde el Mioceno. Estas alteraciones en la calidad de las aguas podrían afectar negativamente a la vegetación presente en las vegas altoandinas, ya que las aguas acidas y ricas en metales son altamente tóxicas para las plantas. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la calidad de las aguas en la abundancia y diversidad florística de las vegas altoandinas del Santuario de la Naturaleza Yerba Loca (SNYL, en Chile central (33

  3. Nurse effect in seedling establishment: facilitation and tolerance to damage in the Andes of central Chile Efecto nodriza en el establecimiento de plántulas: facilitación y tolerancia al daño en los Andes de Chile central

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    Full Text Available Nurse effects, which occur when one plant species enhances the survival or growth of another plant species, are predicted to be most relevant in stressful environments. These effects are particulary important during seedling establishment due to their vulnerability to both biotic and abiotic factors, such as herbivory and drought. Tolerance to herbivory reflects the degree to which plants are able to regrow and reproduce after damage, and should vary with resource availability. In the high Andes of central Chile, the cushion plant Laretia acaulis (Apiaceae acts as a buffer against environmental stress, enhancing survival of several associated plant species. We hypothesized that tolerance to herbivory of seedlings growing inside the canopy of L. acaulis should be greater than that of seedlings growing outside the cushion plant. We conducted a field experiment to test this hypothesis for two native perennial species in the high Andes of central Chile: Hordeum comosum (Poaceae and Haplopappus anthylloides (Asteraceae. Seedlings of each species were planted inside and outside L. acaulis cushions and half of them received manual damage (50 % foliar tissue removed. Seedlings growing inside the nurse species showed high survival independent of the damage treatment. Whereas position (inside or outside the cushion plant did not affect tolerance of Haplopappus anthylloides, it significantly affected tolerance of Hordeum comosum. Thus, we found similar survival of damaged and control seedlings of H. comosum inside the cushions, but survival of damaged seedlings in the bare ground was lower than that of control seedlings. We verified the occurrence of nurse effects of Laretia acaulis on the establishment of both species, and detected enhancement of tolerance to damage in Hordeum comosum in this stressful habitatSe ha sugerido que el efecto nodriza, el cual se evidencia cuando una especie vegetal incrementa la supervivencia o el crecimiento de otra, es m

  4. The Influence of Shear-Thinning and Crustal Yield Strength on Lava Flow Evolution: a Case Study from Volcanoes of the Southern Andes of Chile (United States)

    Castruccio, A.; Contreras, M.; Gho, R.


    Lava flow modeling is a complex challenge as the advance and emplacement of these flows is controlled by parameters that are constantly evolving such as the effusion rate, topography, rheology and cooling effects. Current models of lava flows use a Bingham rheology and assume that the main retarding force is the internal rheology that is changing downstream and trough time due to cooling effects. However, field evidence from active lava flows and the resulting deposits indicates that an external crust forms due to cooling processes. Very few works have addressed the influence of the crust on the dynamics and advance rate of lava flows but increasing evidence suggests that it cannot be neglected. On the other hand, numerous works during the last decade has shown that crystal-bearing magmas have a complex rheology with a strain-rate dependence on viscosity and consequently, the Bingham model can represent accurately the rheology of lava only over a limited range of conditions. In this work we studied the lava flow evolution and deposits of several historical eruptions from Villarrica (2 cases), Llaima, Mirador, Calbuco and Lonquimay volcanoes in the Southern Andes of Chile. We used a simple 2-D model that simulates the evolution of the front of the flow that is being fed by lava pouring down from a fixed-wall channel at the back of the frontal zone. We used a Herschel-Bulkley rheology as it captures yield strength and shear-thinning behavior. We also included in the analysis the evolution of a set of well-documented eruptions from Hawaii and Etna using published data. Our results indicate that short-lived eruptions, with effusion rates greater than 100 m^3/s that last only a couple of days are controlled by an almost constant rheology of the front as the apparent increasing in viscosity through time can be explained by the shear-thinning behavior, because when effusion rate decreases, the velocity and consequently the strain-rate of the flow decreases, implying an

  5. PAH fluxes in the Laja Lake of south central Chile Andes over the last 50 years: Evidence from a dated sediment core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroz, Roberto; Popp, Peter; Urrutia, Roberto; Bauer, Coretta; Araneda, Alberto; Treutler, Hanns-Christian; Barra, Ricardo


    This paper reports the occurrence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) deposition inferred from a sediment core of an Andean lake in south central Chile. Sediments were carefully collected from one of the deepest section of the lake and sliced every 1 cm. The samples were analyzed for PAHs, 137 Cs, 210 Pb, organic carbon and grain-size. The stratigraphic chronology and the sedimentation rates were estimated using the sedimentary signature left by the 137 Cs and 210 Pb fallout as temporal markers. PAHs were quantified by HPLC-fluorescence detection (HPLC-Fluorescence). 15 priority EPA PAHs were analyzed in this study. Based on these results, PAH deposition over the last 50 years was estimated (a period characterized by an important intervention in the area). PAH concentration ranged from 226 to 620 ng g -1 d.w. The highest concentrations of PAHs were found in the core's bottom. The PAH profile is dominated by the presence of perylene indicating a natural source of PAH. In addition, two clear PAH deposition periods could be determined: the most recent with two-four rings PAHs, the older one with five-seven rings predomination. Determined fluxes where 71 to 972 μg m -2 year -1 , dominated by perylene deposition. PAH levels and fluxes are lower compared to the levels found in sediments from remote lakes in Europe and North America. It is concluded that the main source of PAHs into the Laja Lake sediments are of natural origin

  6. Seismic hazard in low slip rate crustal faults, estimating the characteristic event and the most hazardous zone: study case San Ramón Fault, in southern Andes (United States)

    Estay, Nicolás P.; Yáñez, Gonzalo; Carretier, Sebastien; Lira, Elias; Maringue, José


    Crustal faults located close to cities may induce catastrophic damages. When recurrence times are in the range of 1000-10 000 or higher, actions to mitigate the effects of the associated earthquake are hampered by the lack of a full seismic record, and in many cases, also of geological evidences. In order to characterize the fault behavior and its effects, we propose three different already-developed time-integration methodologies to define the most likely scenarios of rupture, and then to quantify the hazard with an empirical equation of peak ground acceleration (PGA). We consider the following methodologies: (1) stream gradient and (2) sinuosity indexes to estimate fault-related topographic effects, and (3) gravity profiles across the fault to identify the fault scarp in the basement. We chose the San Ramón Fault on which to apply these methodologies. It is a ˜ 30 km N-S trending fault with a low slip rate (0.1-0.5 mm yr-1) and an approximated recurrence of 9000 years. It is located in the foothills of the Andes near the large city of Santiago, the capital of Chile (> 6 000 000 inhabitants). Along the fault trace we define four segments, with a mean length of ˜ 10 km, which probably become active independently. We tested the present-day seismic activity by deploying a local seismological network for 1 year, finding five events that are spatially related to the fault. In addition, fault geometry along the most evident scarp was imaged in terms of its electrical resistivity response by a high resolution TEM (transient electromagnetic) profile. Seismic event distribution and TEM imaging allowed the constraint of the fault dip angle (˜ 65°) and its capacity to break into the surface. Using the empirical equation of Chiou and Youngs (2014) for crustal faults and considering the characteristic seismic event (thrust high-angle fault, ˜ 10 km, Mw = 6.2-6.7), we estimate the acceleration distribution in Santiago and the hazardous zones. City domains that are under

  7. Estimates of Carbon Reservoirs in High-Altitude Wetlands in the Colombian Andes

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    Enrique Javier Peña


    Full Text Available The observed increase in emission of greenhouse gases, with attendant effects on global warming, have raised interests in identifying sources and sinks of carbon in the environment. Terrestrial carbon (C sequestration involves capture of atmospheric C through photosynthesis and storage in biota, soil and wetlands. Particularly, wetland systems function primarily as long-term reservoirs for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 and as sources of atmospheric methane (CH4. The objective of this study was to evaluate the patterns of carbon reservoirs in two high-altitude wetlands in the central Andean mountain of Colombia. Carbon cycle in both systems is related mainly with the plant biomass dynamics from the littoral zone. Thus, total organic carbon concentrate an average up to 329 kg of N ha-1 and 125 kg of P ha-1 every year vs only 17 kg N ha-1 and 6 kg P ha-1 in the water column of the limnetic zone in the wetland, evidencing spatial differences in carbon concentrations for these types of ecosystems. Results revealed that these systems participate in the balance and sequestration of carbon in the Colombian Andes.

  8. Estimating detection and density of the Andean cat in the high Andes (United States)

    Reppucci, Juan; Gardner, Beth; Lucherini, Mauro


    The Andean cat (Leopardus jacobita) is one of the most endangered, yet least known, felids. Although the Andean cat is considered at risk of extinction, rigorous quantitative population studies are lacking. Because physical observations of the Andean cat are difficult to make in the wild, we used a camera-trapping array to photo-capture individuals. The survey was conducted in northwestern Argentina at an elevation of approximately 4,200 m during October–December 2006 and April–June 2007. In each year we deployed 22 pairs of camera traps, which were strategically placed. To estimate detection probability and density we applied models for spatial capture–recapture using a Bayesian framework. Estimated densities were 0.07 and 0.12 individual/km2 for 2006 and 2007, respectively. Mean baseline detection probability was estimated at 0.07. By comparison, densities of the Pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo), another poorly known felid that shares its habitat with the Andean cat, were estimated at 0.74–0.79 individual/km2 in the same study area for 2006 and 2007, and its detection probability was estimated at 0.02. Despite having greater detectability, the Andean cat is rarer in the study region than the Pampas cat. Properly accounting for the detection probability is important in making reliable estimates of density, a key parameter in conservation and management decisions for any species.

  9. Nueva localidad para Alsodes tumultuosus Veloso, Iturra & Galleguillos, 1979 (Amphibia, Alsodidae en la Cordillera de los Andes, Region de O’Higgins, Chile

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    Diego Ramírez Álvarez


    Full Text Available Alsodes tumultuosus Veloso, Iturra & Galleguillos, 1979 es un anfibio endémico de Chile, descrito y hasta hace poco conocido únicamente en su localidad tipo, los arroyos cordilleranos del Sector La Parva, en la región Metropolitana. En este artículo se detalla el hallazgo de una nueva localidad para esta especie, en la región de O’Higgins, aproximadamente a 100 kilómetros al sur de La Parva. Este hallazgo, sugiere la ampliación del rango de distribución de esta especie al cordón cordillerano Andino de la región de O’Higgins, y señala la necesidad de efectuar mayores prospecciones e investigación de la especie, que permitan definir claramente su estado de conservación en Chile.

  10. Geometry of the inverted Cretaceous Chañarcillo Basin based on 2-D gravity and field data - an approach to the structure of the western Central Andes of northern Chile (United States)

    Martínez, F.; Maksymowicz, A.; Ochoa, H.; Díaz, D.


    This paper discusses an integrated approach that provides new ideas about the structural geometry of the NNE-striking, Cretaceous Chañarcillo Basin located along the eastern Coastal Cordillera in the western Central Andes of northern Chile (27-28° S). The results obtained from the integration of two transverse (E-W) gravity profiles with previous geological information show that the architecture of this basin is defined by a large NNE-SSE-trending and east-vergent anticline ("Tierra Amarilla Anticlinorium"), which is related to the positive reactivation of a former Cretaceous normal fault (Elisa de Bordos Master Fault). Moreover, intercalations of high and low gravity anomalies and steep gravity gradients reveal a set of buried, west-tilted half-grabens associated with a synthetic normal fault pattern. These results, together with the uplift and folding style of the Cretaceous synextensional deposits recognized within the basin, suggest that its structure could be explained by an inverted fault system linked to the shortening of pre-existing Cretaceous normal fault systems. Ages of the synorogenic deposits exposed unconformably over the frontal limb of the Tierra Amarilla Anticlinorium confirm a Late Cretaceous age for the Andean deformation and tectonic inversion of the basin.

  11. A further contribution to the knowledge of two inadequately known species of geophilid centipedes from the Andes of South-Central Chile, currently assigned to the genus Plateurytion Attems, 1909 (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha). (United States)

    Pereira, Luis Alberto


    Two poorly known species of geophilid centipedes from the Andes of South-Central Chile, i.e., Plateurytion mundus (Chamberlin, 1955) and Plateurytion zapallar (Chamberlin, 1955) (Myriapoda: Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha), are herein redescribed and illustrated after type specimens of both taxa and new material of the latter, rectifying the condition of the coxosternites of the second maxillae, which are medially joined through a narrow, hyaline and non-areolate membranous isthmus only (instead of "broadly fused as in Pachymerium", as stated by Chamberlin), this being consistent with the current generic assignment of these species under Plateurytion Attems, 1909. New data on many morphological features of specific value, until now unknown, are also given for both taxa. Plateurytion zapallar is reported for the first time from Coquimbo region, 11 Km N of Los Vilos (Elqui province), Valparaíso region, Quebrada Huaquén, Pichicuy (Petorca province), La Campana National Park (Quillota province), and Quebrada el Tigre, Cachagua (Valparíso province). A key for identification of the South American species currently included in Plateurytion is given.

  12. Satellite-Based Estimation of Water Discharge and Runoff in the Magdalena River, Northern Andes of Colombia (United States)

    Restrepo, J. D.; Escobar Correa, R.; Kettner, A.; Brakenridge, G. R.


    The Magdalena River and its most important tributary, the Cauca, drain the northern Andes of Colombia. During the wet season, flood events affect the whole region and cause huge damage in low-income communities. Mitigation of such natural disasters in Colombia lacks science-supported tools for evaluating river response to extreme climate events. Here we introduce near-real-time estimations of river discharge towards technical capacity building for evaluation of flood magnitudes and variability along the Magdalena and Cauca. We use the River Watch version 3 system of the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (DFO) at five selected measurement sites on the two rivers. For each site, two different rating curves were constructed to transform microwave signal from TRMM, AMSR-E, AMRS-2, and GPM satellites into river discharge. The first rating curves were based on numerical discharge estimates from a global Water Balance Model (WBM); the second were obtained from the relationship between satellite signal and measured river discharge at ground gauging stations at nearby locations. Determination coefficients (R2) between observed versus satellite-derived daily discharge data, range from 0.38 to 0.57 in the upper basin, whereas in the middle of the basin R2 values vary between 0.47 and 0.64. In the lower basin, observed R2 values are lower and range from 0.32 to 0.4. Once time lags between the microwave satellite signal and river discharge from either WBM estimates or ground-based gauging stations are taken into account, the R2 values increase considerably. The time series of satellite-based river discharge during the 1998 - 2016 period show high inter-annual variability as well as strong pulses associated with the ENSO (La Niña/El Niño) cycle. Numerical runoff magnitude estimates at peaks of extreme climatic anomalies are more correlated than stream flows measured at ground-based gauging stations. In fluvial systems such as the Magdalena, characterized by high spatial variability

  13. Seismicity preliminary results in a geothermal and volcano activity area: study case Liquiñe-Ofqui fault system in Southern Andes, Chile (United States)

    Estay, N. P.; Yáñez Morroni, G.; Crempien, J. G. F.; Roquer, T.


    Fluid transport through the crust takes place in domains with high permeability. For this reason, fault damage zones are a main feature where fluids may circulate unimpeded, since they have much larger permeability than normal country rocks. With the location of earthquakes, it is possible to infer fault geometry and stress field of the crust, therefore we can determine potential places where fluid circualtion is taking place. With that purpose, we installed a seismic network in an active volcanic-geothermal system, the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS), located in Puyuhuapi, Southern Andes (44°-45°S). This allowed to link epicentral seismicity, focal mechanisms and surface expression of fluid circulation (hot-springs and volcanos). The LOFS is composed by two NS-striking dextral master faults, and several secondary NE-striking dextral and normal faults. Surface manifestation of fluid circulation in Puyuhuapi area are: 1) six hot-springs, most of them spatially associated with different mapped faults; 2) seven minor eruptive centers aligned over a 10-km-along one of the master NS-striking fault, and; 3) the Melimouyu strato-volcano without any spatial relationship with mapped faults. The network consists of 6 short period seismometers (S31f-2.0a sensor of IESE, with natural frequency of 2Hz), that were installed between July 2016 and August 2017; also 4 permanent broad-band seismometers (Guralp 6TD/ CD 24 sensor) which belong to the Volcano Observatory of Southern Andes (OVDAS). Preliminary results show a correlation between seismicity and surface manifestation of fluid circulation. Seismicity has a heterogeneous distribution: most of the earthquake are concentrated is the master NS-striking fault with fluid circulation manifestations; however along the segments without surface manifestation of fluids do not have seismicity. These results suggest that fluid circulation mostly occur in areas with high seismicity, and thus, the increment in fluid pressure enhances

  14. Resignificación de la muerte en los Andes: La festividad de Wiñay Pacha o todas las almas en Santiago de Chile

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    Francisca Fernández Droguett


    Full Text Available Desde el 2009 diversas organizaciones y agrupaciones de danza y música andina, han comenzado a conmemorar el día de difuntos en la ciudad de Santiago, denominándola Wiñay Pacha o Todas Almas. El siguiente artículo tiene por objetivo caracterizar esta práctica festiva desde los elementos culturales que configuran la visión de la muerte de los pueblos indígenas de Los Andes, a través de la vivencia del duelo y la forma de conmemorar a los difuntos, para luego reflexionar el modo en que se ha ido resignificando en el contexto urbano, mediante la revisión de su origen como festividad y su expresión como reivindicación de otros modos de vivenciar la muerte. La investigación se aborda desde una aproximación etnográfica, utilizando para la recopilación de datos la revisión bibliográfica, observación participante y entrevistas en profundidad.

  15. Glacier surface mass balance and freshwater runoff modeling for the entire Andes Cordillera (United States)

    Mernild, Sebastian H.; Liston, Glen E.; Yde, Jacob C.


    Glacier surface mass balance (SMB) observations for the Andes Cordillera are limited and, therefore, estimates of the SMB contribution from South America to sea-level rise are highly uncertain. Here, we simulate meteorological, snow, glacier surface, and hydrological runoff conditions and trends for the Andes Cordillera (1979/80-2013/14), covering the tropical latitudes in the north down to the sub-polar latitudes in the far south, including the Northern Patagonia Ice Field (NPI) and Southern Patagonia Ice Field (SPI). SnowModel - a fully integrated energy balance, blowing-snow distribution, multi-layer snowpack, and runoff routing model - was used to simulate glacier SMBs for the Andes Cordillera. The Randolph Glacier Inventory and NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications products, downscaled in SnowModel, allowed us to conduct relatively high-resolution simulations. The simulated glacier SMBs were verified against independent directly-observed and satellite gravimetry and altimetry-derived SMB, indicating a good statistical agreement. For glaciers in the Andes Cordillera, the 35-year mean annual SMB was found to be -1.13 m water equivalent. For both NPI and SPI, the mean SMB was positive (where calving is the likely reason for explaining why geodetic estimates are negative). Further, the spatio-temporal freshwater river runoff patterns from individual basins, including their runoff magnitude and change, were simulated. For the Andes Cordillera rivers draining to the Pacific Ocean, 86% of the simulated runoff originated from rain, 12% from snowmelt, and 2% from ice melt, whereas, for example, for Chile, the water-source distribution was 69, 24, and 7%, respectively. Along the Andes Cordillera, the 35-year mean basin outlet-specific runoff (L s-1 km-2) showed a characteristic regional hourglass shape pattern with highest runoff in both Colombia and Ecuador and in Patagonia, and lowest runoff in the Atacama Desert area.

  16. An inventory and estimate of water stored in firn fields, glaciers, debris-covered glaciers, and rock glaciers in the Aconcagua River Basin, Chile (United States)

    Janke, Jason R.; Ng, Sam; Bellisario, Antonio


    An inventory of firn fields, glaciers, debris-covered glaciers, and rock glaciers was conducted in the Aconcagua River Basin of the semiarid Andes of central Chile. A total of 916 landforms were identified, of which rock glaciers were the most abundant (669) and occupied the most total area. Glaciers and debris-covered glaciers were less numerous, but were about five times larger in comparison. The total area occupied by glaciers and debris-covered glaciers was roughly equivalent to the total area of rock glaciers. Debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers were subcategorized into six ice-content classes based on interpretation of surface morphology with high-resolution satellite imagery. Over 50% of rock glaciers fell within a transitional stage; 85% of debris-covered glaciers were either fully covered or buried. Most landforms occupied elevations between 3500 and 4500 m. Glaciers and firn occurred at higher elevations compared to rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers. Rock glaciers had a greater frequency in the northern part of the study area where arid climate conditions exist. Firn and glaciers were oriented south, debris-covered glaciers west, and rock glaciers southwest. An analysis of water contribution of each landform in the upper Andes of the Aconcagua River Basin was conducted using formulas that associate the size of the landforms to estimates of water stored. Minimum and maximum water storage was calculated based on a range of debris to ice content ratios for debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers. In the Aconcagua River Basin, rock glaciers accounted for 48 to 64% of the water stored within the landforms analyzed; glaciers accounted for 15 to 25%; debris-covered glaciers were estimated at 15 to 19%; firn fields contained only about 5 to 8% of the water stored. Expansion of agriculture, prolonged drought, and removal of ice-rich landforms for mining have put additional pressure on already scarce water resources. To develop long

  17. Deciphering the Role of Tectonic and Climatic Processes on the Landscape Development of the Patagonian Andes Along the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System, Chile (United States)

    Buscher, J.; Morata, D.; Arancibia, G.; Cembrano, J. M.


    Transpressional plate boundaries often exhibit a correlation between plate obliquity and crustal deformation, but establishing spatial and temporal constraints on this relationship is challenging. The presence of continuous rugged topography along many transpressional fault zones as well as along-fault translation of crustal blocks can obscure the link between plate boundary geometry and mountain belt development. The Liquiñe-Ofqui fault system in the Patagonian Andes is an intra-arc dextral-reverse fault zone linked to oblique plate convergence between the Nazca and South America plates that represents a model setting for studying transpressional landscape development. The topography along the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault system is characterized by glacially and fluvially carved rocks of the Patagonian batholith interspersed by a chain of volcanoes that extends subparallel to the fault zone. Available structural and low-temperature thermochronometry data from the region suggest that both transpressional exhumation and glacial erosion have contributed to the long-term development of the orogen (Cembrano et al., 2002; Thomson, 2002; Thomson et al., 2010). Of particular interest is a near-field locus of young cooling ages thought to reflect shear heating along the fault zone (Thomson, 2002) or focused glacial erosion (Thomson et al., 2010; Herman and Brandon, 2015). To help quantify the topographic response to tectonic and climatic processes along the fault zone, we have evaluated first-order topographic features (gross distribution of elevation, relief and slope) and conducted river profile analyses (stream length-gradient, normalized channel steepness and stream convexity indices) using SRTM digital elevation data for comparison with low-temperature thermochronometry data. Preliminary results suggest that the distribution of topographic and river profile features varies with location along the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault system.

  18. Spatial coincidence and similar geochemistry of Late Triassic and Eocene-Oligocene magmatism in the Andes of northern Chile: evidence from the MMH porphyry type Cu-Mo deposit, Chuquicamata District (United States)

    Zentilli, Marcos; Maksaev, Victor; Boric, Ricardo; Wilson, Jessica


    The MMH porphyry type copper-molybdenum deposit in northern Chile is the newest mine in the Chuquicamata District, one of largest copper concentrations on Earth. Mineralized Eocene-Oligocene porphyry intrusions are hosted by essentially barren Triassic granodiorites. Despite a century of exploitation, geologists still have problems in the mine distinguishing the Triassic granodiorite from the most important ore-carrying Eocene porphyries in the district. To resolve the problem, internally consistent high-quality geochemical analyses of the Triassic and Tertiary intrusives were carried out: explaining the confusion, they show that the rock units in question are nearly identical in composition and thus respond equally to hydrothermal alteration. In detail, the only difference in terms of chemical composition is that the main Eocene-Oligocene porphyries carry relatively less Fe and Ni. Unexpectedly, the mineralized Eocene-Oligocene porphyries have consistently less U and Th than other Tertiary intrusions in the district, a characteristic that may be valuable in exploration. The supergiant copper-molybdenum deposits in the Central Andes were formed within a narrow interval between 45 and 31 Ma, close to 7% of the 200 My duration of "Andean" magmatism, which resulted from subduction of oceanic lithosphere under South America since the Jurassic. Although recent work has shown that subduction was active on the margin since Paleozoic times, pre-Andean (pre-Jurassic) "Gondwanan" magmatism is often described as being very different, having involved crustal melting and the generation of massive peraluminous rhyolites and granites. This study shows that the indistinguishable Late Triassic and Eocene-Oligocene intrusions occupy the same narrow NS geographic belt in northern Chile. If it is accepted that magma character may determine the potential to generate economic Cu-Mo deposits, then Late Triassic volcano-plutonic centres in the same location in the South American margin

  19. Spatial coincidence and similar geochemistry of Late Triassic and Eocene-Oligocene magmatism in the Andes of northern Chile: evidence from the MMH porphyry type Cu-Mo deposit, Chuquicamata District (United States)

    Zentilli, Marcos; Maksaev, Victor; Boric, Ricardo; Wilson, Jessica


    The MMH porphyry type copper-molybdenum deposit in northern Chile is the newest mine in the Chuquicamata District, one of largest copper concentrations on Earth. Mineralized Eocene-Oligocene porphyry intrusions are hosted by essentially barren Triassic granodiorites. Despite a century of exploitation, geologists still have problems in the mine distinguishing the Triassic granodiorite from the most important ore-carrying Eocene porphyries in the district. To resolve the problem, internally consistent high-quality geochemical analyses of the Triassic and Tertiary intrusives were carried out: explaining the confusion, they show that the rock units in question are nearly identical in composition and thus respond equally to hydrothermal alteration. In detail, the only difference in terms of chemical composition is that the main Eocene-Oligocene porphyries carry relatively less Fe and Ni. Unexpectedly, the mineralized Eocene-Oligocene porphyries have consistently less U and Th than other Tertiary intrusions in the district, a characteristic that may be valuable in exploration. The supergiant copper-molybdenum deposits in the Central Andes were formed within a narrow interval between 45 and 31 Ma, close to 7% of the 200 My duration of "Andean" magmatism, which resulted from subduction of oceanic lithosphere under South America since the Jurassic. Although recent work has shown that subduction was active on the margin since Paleozoic times, pre-Andean (pre-Jurassic) "Gondwanan" magmatism is often described as being very different, having involved crustal melting and the generation of massive peraluminous rhyolites and granites. This study shows that the indistinguishable Late Triassic and Eocene-Oligocene intrusions occupy the same narrow NS geographic belt in northern Chile. If it is accepted that magma character may determine the potential to generate economic Cu-Mo deposits, then Late Triassic volcano-plutonic centres in the same location in the South American margin

  20. ANDES: An Underground Laboratory in South America (United States)

    Dib, Claudio O.

    ANDES (Agua Negra Deep Experiment Site) is an underground laboratory, proposed to be built inside the Agua Negra road tunnel that will connect Chile (IV Region) with Argentina (San Juan Province) under the Andes Mountains. The Laboratory will be 1750 meters under the rock, becoming the 3rd deepest underground laboratory of this kind in the world, and the first in the Southern Hemisphere. ANDES will be an international Laboratory, managed by a Latin American consortium. The laboratory will host experiments in Particle and Astroparticle Physics, such as Neutrino and Dark Matter searches, Seismology, Geology, Geophysics and Biology. It will also be used for the development of low background instrumentation and related services. Here we present the general features of the proposed laboratory, the current status of the proposal and some of its opportunities for science.

  1. Estimating Monthly Solar Radiation in South-Central Chile Estimación de Radiación Solar Mensual en la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Álvarez


    Full Text Available Solar radiation is a key component in process-based models. The amount of this energy depends on the location, time of the year, and atmospheric conditions. Several equations and models have been developed for different conditions using historical data from weather station networks or satellite measurements. However, solar radiation estimates are too local since they rely on weather stations or have a resolution that is too coarse when working with satellites. In this study, we estimated monthly global solar radiation for the south-central region of Chile using the r.sun model and validated it with observations from automatic weather stations. We analyzed the performance of global radiation results with the Hargreaves-Samani (HS and Bristow-Campbell (BC models. Estimates from a calibrated rsun model accounted for 89% of the variance (r² = 0.89 in monthly mean values for 15 locations in the research area. The model performed very well for a wide area and conditions in Chile when we compared it with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global solar radiation using the rsun model could be improved through calibration of ground measurements and more precise cloudiness estimates as they become available. With additional procedures, the rsun model could be used to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly solar radiation.La radiación solar es un componente clave en los modelos basados en procesos. La cantidad de esta energía depende de la ubicación, época del año, y también de las condiciones atmosféricas. Varias ecuaciones y modelos han sido desarrollados para diferentes condiciones, utilizando datos históricos de las redes de estaciones meteorológicas o de las mediciones por satélite. Sin embargo, las estimaciones de la radiación solar son demasiado locales con estaciones meteorológicas, o con una resolución muy gruesa cuando se trabaja con satélites. En el presente estudio se estimó radiación solar global

  2. Child Migrants with and without Parents: Census-based estimates of scale and characteristics in Argentina, Chile and South Africa


    Shahin Yaqub


    This paper studies child migration in Argentina, Chile and South Africa. It defines child migrants as under 18 year olds whose usual residence was in a different country or province five years prior to census. The paper estimates the scale of child migration; compares relative magnitudes of internal and international migration; and considers sensitivity to alternative definitions of migration. Second, it examines family structures within which migrant children live at destinations, defining c...

  3. Glacial Hazards in Chile: Processes, Assessment, Mitigation and Risk Management Strategies (United States)

    Glasser, N. F.; Wilson, R.; Casassa, G., Sr.; Reynolds, J.; Harrison, S.; Shannon, S. R.; Schaefer, M.; Iribarran, P.


    Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) are capable of travelling considerable distances from their source and they represent one of the most important glacial hazards. In line with observations in other parts of the world, the frequency of GLOF events in Chile has increased in recent decades highlighting the need to quantify the flood risk posed to downstream areas. This poster presents the work of the `Glacial Hazards in Chile' project which aims to (1) better understand the processes that govern the development of GLOFs in Chile, (2) estimate the socio-economic effects of GLOFs in Chile, and (3) provide a GLOF risk assessment framework that can be applied to Chile and other lower income countries globally. As an initial step towards the completion of these aims, we have recently compiled the first glacial lake inventory for the central and Patagonian Andes, which details the temporal development of glacial lakes in this region over the past three decades. This analysis was used to identify two lakes of interest that were visited during a fieldwork expedition in February 2017. The first of these, Lago Chileno in Patagonia, has recently produced a large GLOF causing significant damage to the downstream floodplain, whilst the second was identified as one of the fastest growing lakes in the central Andes. Both these lakes were surveyed using aerial imagery acquired with a drone and a custom-built bathymetry boat, data from which will help to improve our understanding of the physical processes associated with glacial lake development and failure within the Chilean Andes.

  4. Estimating the health benefits from natural gas use in transport and heating in Santiago, Chile. (United States)

    Mena-Carrasco, Marcelo; Oliva, Estefania; Saide, Pablo; Spak, Scott N; de la Maza, Cristóbal; Osses, Mauricio; Tolvett, Sebastián; Campbell, J Elliott; Tsao, Tsao Es Chi-Chung; Molina, Luisa T


    Chilean law requires the assessment of air pollution control strategies for their costs and benefits. Here we employ an online weather and chemical transport model, WRF-Chem, and a gridded population density map, LANDSCAN, to estimate changes in fine particle pollution exposure, health benefits, and economic valuation for two emission reduction strategies based on increasing the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in Santiago, Chile. The first scenario, switching to a CNG public transportation system, would reduce urban PM2.5 emissions by 229 t/year. The second scenario would reduce wood burning emissions by 671 t/year, with unique hourly emission reductions distributed from daily heating demand. The CNG bus scenario reduces annual PM2.5 by 0.33 μg/m³ and up to 2 μg/m³ during winter months, while the residential heating scenario reduces annual PM2.5 by 2.07 μg/m³, with peaks exceeding 8 μg/m³ during strong air pollution episodes in winter months. These ambient pollution reductions lead to 36 avoided premature mortalities for the CNG bus scenario, and 229 for the CNG heating scenario. Both policies are shown to be cost-effective ways of reducing air pollution, as they target high-emitting area pollution sources and reduce concentrations over densely populated urban areas as well as less dense areas outside the city limits. Unlike the concentration rollback methods commonly used in public policy analyses, which assume homogeneous reductions across a whole city (including homogeneous population densities), and without accounting for the seasonality of certain emissions, this approach accounts for both seasonality and diurnal emission profiles for both the transportation and residential heating sectors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rock glaciers, Western Andes, Chile, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The research area is located along a transect from 18 deg S to 29 deg S in the Chilean Altiplano, the western part of the high intramontane plateau in the Central...

  6. Estimation of real evapotranspiration and its variation in Mediterranean landscapes of central-southern Chile (United States)

    Olivera-Guerra, L.; Mattar, C.; Galleguillos, M.


    Evapotranspiration (ETd) is a key controller in the ecohydrological processes of semi-arid landscapes. This is the case of the dry land in Chile's central-southern zone, where forestry, farming and livestock activities must adapt to precipitation with considerable year-on-year variations. In this study, the spatial distribution of ETd was estimated in relation to the land use map and physical parameters of the soil. The ETd was estimated through the Simplified Surface Energy Balance Index (S-SEBI) using data from weather stations and remote data provided by the ASTER and MODIS sensors for November 2004 and 2006, respectively. The spatial variability of ETd was compared among different plant types, soil textural classes and depths using non-parametric statistical tests. In this comparison, the highest rates of ETd were obtained in the forest covers with values of 7.3 ± 0.8 and 8.4 ± 0.8 mm d-1 for 2004 and 2006, respectively. The lowest values were estimated for pastures and shrublands with values of 3.5 ± 1.2 mm d-1 and for crops with rates of 4.4 ± 1.6 mm d-1. Comparison of the ETd of the native forest covers and plantations of exotic species showed statistically significant differences; however, no great variation was noted, at least in the study months. Additionally, the highest rates of ETd were found in the clay loam textures (6.0 ± 1.8 and 6.4 ± 2.0 mm d-1) and the lowest rates in the sandy loam soils (3.7 ± 1.6 and 3.9 ± 1.6 mm d-1) for 2004 and 2006, respectively. The results enable analysis of the spatial patterns of the landscape in terms of the relation between water consumption, ET and the biophysical characteristics of a Mediterranean ecosystem. These results form part of the creation of tools useful in the optimization of decision-making for the management and planning of water resources and soil use in territories with few measuring instruments.

  7. Rainfall erosivity in Central Chile (United States)

    Bonilla, Carlos A.; Vidal, Karim L.


    SummaryOne of the most widely used indicators of potential water erosion risk is the rainfall-runoff erosivity factor ( R) of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). R is traditionally determined by calculating a long-term average of the annual sum of the product of a storm's kinetic energy ( E) and its maximum 30-min intensity ( I30), known as the EI30. The original method used to calculate EI30 requires pluviograph records for at most 30-min time intervals. Such high resolution data is difficult to obtain in many parts of the world, and processing it is laborious and time-consuming. In Chile, even though there is a well-distributed rain gauge network, there is no systematic characterization of the territory in terms of rainfall erosivity. This study presents a rainfall erosivity map for most of the cultivated land in the country. R values were calculated by the prescribed method for 16 stations with continuous graphical record rain gauges in Central Chile. The stations were distributed along 800 km (north-south), and spanned a precipitation gradient of 140-2200 mm yr -1. More than 270 years of data were used, and 5400 storms were analyzed. Additionally, 241 spatially distributed R values were generated by using an empirical procedure based on annual rainfall. Point estimates generated by both methods were interpolated by using kriging to create a map of rainfall erosivity for Central Chile. The results show that the empirical procedure used in this study predicted the annual rainfall erosivity well (model efficiency = 0.88). Also, an increment in the rainfall erosivities was found as a result of the rainfall depths, a regional feature determined by elevation and increasing with latitude from north to south. R values in the study area range from 90 MJ mm ha -1 h -1 yr -1 in the north up to 7375 MJ mm ha -1 h -1 yr -1 in the southern area, at the foothills of the Andes Mountains. Although the map and the estimates could be improved in the future by

  8. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Chile has an area of 740,760 square kilometers. The capital is Santiago. The country is 4,183 km. long and ranges from 22.5 to about 354 km. in width. Its chief topographic features para]lei each other - the Coastal Range, Andes Mountains and Central Valley. The Coastal Range rises to 2,130 meters in the north, but averages from 610 to 700 meters high generally. The range plunges into the Pacific Ocean far south of Valparaiso and reappears in the southern archipelagic islands. The Andes extend along nearly the entire length of Chile and contain 100 volcanoes. Andean peaks range mostly from 3,000 to 6,700 meters in elevation. In southern Chile the Andes are lower, and contain about a dozen major lakes. The mountains disappear in Chilean Patagonia, but reappear at Cape Horn. The Central Valley lies between the Coastal Range and the Andes, being best defined in the midland region as a 64 to 72 km sloping plain. It is the Chilean heartland with three-quarters of the country's population. Salt basins are found over much of northern Chile in the very arid desert, while the region south of the Gulf of Reloncavi consists of unpopulated islands, fjords, channels and heavily forested mountains. The Strait of Magellan, the Tierra del Fuego archipelago and a flat grassland area make up the extreme southern end of the country. Much of Chile is subject to flash floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides and avalanches. In September 1976 the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCEN) was given exclusive rights to negotiate contracts with private companies for the exploration, development and mining of uranium and other radioactive minerals. The new law provides the CCEN with considerable flexibility in the terms of the contracts. Pre-964 owners of uranium deposits may reach agreements with foreign companies to mine the uranium, but since 1964 all uranium has belonged to the state. Uranium produced in the country can only be exported after Chile's needs have been met. The

  9. Estimates of stress drop and crustal tectonic stress from the 27 February 2010 Maule, Chile, earthquake: Implications for fault strength (United States)

    Luttrell, K.M.; Tong, X.; Sandwell, D.T.; Brooks, B.A.; Bevis, M.G.


    The great 27 February 2010 Mw 8.8 earthquake off the coast of southern Chile ruptured a ???600 km length of subduction zone. In this paper, we make two independent estimates of shear stress in the crust in the region of the Chile earthquake. First, we use a coseismic slip model constrained by geodetic observations from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and GPS to derive a spatially variable estimate of the change in static shear stress along the ruptured fault. Second, we use a static force balance model to constrain the crustal shear stress required to simultaneously support observed fore-arc topography and the stress orientation indicated by the earthquake focal mechanism. This includes the derivation of a semianalytic solution for the stress field exerted by surface and Moho topography loading the crust. We find that the deviatoric stress exerted by topography is minimized in the limit when the crust is considered an incompressible elastic solid, with a Poisson ratio of 0.5, and is independent of Young's modulus. This places a strict lower bound on the critical stress state maintained by the crust supporting plastically deformed accretionary wedge topography. We estimate the coseismic shear stress change from the Maule event ranged from-6 MPa (stress increase) to 17 MPa (stress drop), with a maximum depth-averaged crustal shear-stress drop of 4 MPa. We separately estimate that the plate-driving forces acting in the region, regardless of their exact mechanism, must contribute at least 27 MPa trench-perpendicular compression and 15 MPa trench-parallel compression. This corresponds to a depth-averaged shear stress of at least 7 MPa. The comparable magnitude of these two independent shear stress estimates is consistent with the interpretation that the section of the megathrust fault ruptured in the Maule earthquake is weak, with the seismic cycle relieving much of the total sustained shear stress in the crust. Copyright 2011 by the American

  10. Chile; Recent Economic Developments


    International Monetary Fund


    This paper examines the sources of growth in Chile and compares Chile’s experience with that of other countries. Two alternative measures of the sources of growth for Chile are presented to facilitate comparisons with other studies. The first measure adjusts factor inputs for the degree of utilization (using the unemployment rate), and the second measure introduces an index of the quality of factor inputs. The paper presents estimates of potential output of Chile for 1971–95, and also discuss...

  11. Snow process estimation over the extratropical Andes using a data assimilation framework integrating MERRA data and Landsat imagery (United States)

    Cortés, Gonzalo; Girotto, Manuela; Margulis, Steven


    A data assimilation framework was implemented with the objective of obtaining high-resolution retrospective snow water equivalent (SWE) estimates over several Andean study basins. The framework integrates Landsat fractional snow covered area (fSCA) images, a land surface and snow depletion model, and the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis as a forcing data set. The outputs are SWE and fSCA fields (1985-2015) at a resolution of 90 m that are consistent with the observed depletion record. Verification using in-situ snow surveys showed significant improvements in the accuracy of the SWE estimates relative to forward model estimates, with increases in correlation (0.49-0.87) and reductions in root mean square error (0.316 m to 0.129 m) and mean error (-0.221 m to 0.009 m). A sensitivity analysis showed that the framework is robust to variations in physiography, fSCA data availability and a priori precipitation biases. Results from the application to the headwater basin of the Aconcagua River showed how the forward model versus the fSCA-conditioned estimate resulted in different quantifications of the relationship between runoff and SWE, and different correlation patterns between pixel-wise SWE and ENSO. The illustrative results confirm the influence that ENSO has on snow accumulation for Andean basins draining into the Pacific, with ENSO explaining approximately 25% of the variability in near-peak (1 September) SWE values. Our results show how the assimilation of fSCA data results in a significant improvement upon MERRA-forced modeled SWE estimates, further increasing the utility of the MERRA data for high-resolution snow modeling applications.

  12. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile (United States)


    1985. 2. Corey G, Ferreccio C, Garcia J, Maldonado A, Schenone H. Flores B. (1983) Estudio epidemiologico en manipuladores de alimentos en servicio de ... salud San Felipe - Los Andes. Boletin del instituto de salud publica, 24+95-99. 3. Diaz M, Munoz V, Durruty J, Osorio M, Arriagada M, Reyes H, Lynch MB...Chile. 111:609-615. 11. Ministerio de Salud , Republica de Chile. (1982) Informe de gobierno de Chile. Proceedings of the XXI Conference sanitaria

  13. Glacial lakes of the Central and Patagonian Andes (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan; Glasser, Neil F.; Reynolds, John M.; Harrison, Stephan; Anacona, Pablo Iribarren; Schaefer, Marius; Shannon, Sarah


    The prevalence and increased frequency of high-magnitude Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) in the Chilean and Argentinean Andes suggests this region will be prone to similar events in the future as glaciers continue to retreat and thin under a warming climate. Despite this situation, monitoring of glacial lake development in this region has been limited, with past investigations only covering relatively small regions of Patagonia. This study presents new glacial lake inventories for 1986, 2000 and 2016, covering the Central Andes, Northern Patagonia and Southern Patagonia. Our aim was to characterise the physical attributes, spatial distribution and temporal development of glacial lakes in these three sub-regions using Landsat satellite imagery and image datasets available in Google Earth and Bing Maps. Glacial lake water volume was also estimated using an empirical area-volume scaling approach. Results reveal that glacial lakes across the study area have increased in number (43%) and areal extent (7%) between 1986 and 2016. Such changes equate to a glacial lake water volume increase of 65 km3 during the 30-year observation period. However, glacial lake growth and emergence was shown to vary sub-regionally according to localised topography, meteorology, climate change, rate of glacier change and the availability of low gradient ice areas. These and other factors are likely to influence the occurrence of GLOFs in the future. This analysis represents the first large-scale census of glacial lakes in Chile and Argentina and will allow for a better understanding of lake development in this region, as well as, providing a basis for future GLOF risk assessments.

  14. Andes: An intelligent homework helper (United States)

    van de Sande, Brett; Vanlehn, Kurt; Treacy, Don; Shelby, Bob; Wintersgill, Mary


    Andes ( is an intelligent tutor homework system designed for use as the homework portion of an introductory physics course. It encourages students to use good problem solving techniques and provides immediate feedback on each step of a problem solution along with hints on request. I will discuss how Andes works, from a student perspective, and present research demonstrating its effectiveness as a pedagogical tool. Then, I will discuss using Andes as a tool for conducting education research, briefly reviewing several studies conducted using Andes. Finally, I will show how logs of student solutions to Andes problems can be used to develop cognitive models of student learning.

  15. Is tourism damaging ecosystems in the Andes? Current knowledge and an agenda for future research. (United States)

    Barros, Agustina; Monz, Christopher; Pickering, Catherine


    Despite the popularity of tourism and recreation in the Andes in South America and the regions conservation value, there is limited research on the ecological impacts of these types of anthropogenic use. Using a systematic quantitative literature review method, we found 47 recreation ecology studies from the Andes, 25 of which used an experimental design. Most of these were from the Southern Andes in Argentina (13 studies) or Chile (eight studies) with only four studies from the Northern Andes. These studies documented a range of impacts on vegetation, birds and mammals; including changes in plant species richness, composition and vegetation cover and the tolerance of wildlife of visitor use. There was little research on the impacts of visitors on soils and aquatic systems and for some ecoregions in the Andes. We identify research priorities across the region that will enhance management strategies to minimise visitor impacts in Andean ecosystems.

  16. Applications of NASA Earth Observation Imagery in Google Earth Engine to Estimate Glacier Trends and Water Availability in Chile's Aconcagua Watershed (United States)

    Webb, M. J.; Babis, B.; Deland, S.; McGurk, G.


    The Aconcagua basin of Central Chile, just north of the capital city of Santiago, is characterized by the glaciated Andes to the east, which supply meltwater runoff to the lower fertile river valleys. Known for the production of fruit and vegetable crops, the region is experiencing stressed hydrologic resources as a result of anomalous climate conditions and anthropogenic water consumption. Traditionally, the wet and cool winter months account for 80 percent of Aconcagua's total annual precipitation, while dry and warm conditions prevail during the summer months. Consequently, the basin depends on seasonal glacial accumulation to provide water storage for the dry season when up to 67 percent of water is derived from glacial runoff. Overall, 70 percent of regional water is consumed by agricultural practices, specifically the fruit and vegetable farming that thrives in Aconcagua's Mediterranean-type climate. Globally, weather intensification and the rising zero-degree isotherm are poised to threaten the stability and longevity of glacial water resources. In recent years, Chile has experienced periods of prolonged drought as well as glacier shrinkage. The Aconcagua basin is especially vulnerable to these changes as a consequence of its agricultural economies and reliance on sub-tropical glaciers for water resources. Aconcagua is among the top three regions contributing to Chile's gross domestic product (GDP). Furthermore, in 2011 the Chilean government announced plans to increase the national land under irrigation by 57 percent by 2022. In partnership with the Chilean Ministry of Agriculture, the objective of this research was to integrate NASA Earth observations in conjunction with in situ river discharge measurements into Google Earth Engine to enhance regional understanding of current and future climate conditions in Chile. The remotely-sensed datasets included Landsat TM/OLI derived glacial extent, Terra MODIS snow cover and surface temperature, and Aqua AMSR

  17. Temporal and spatial evaluation of satellite-based rainfall estimates across the complex topographical and climatic gradients of Chile (United States)

    Zambrano-Bigiarini, Mauricio; Nauditt, Alexandra; Birkel, Christian; Verbist, Koen; Ribbe, Lars


    Accurate representation of the real spatio-temporal variability of catchment rainfall inputs is currently severely limited. Moreover, spatially interpolated catchment precipitation is subject to large uncertainties, particularly in developing countries and regions which are difficult to access. Recently, satellite-based rainfall estimates (SREs) provide an unprecedented opportunity for a wide range of hydrological applications, from water resources modelling to monitoring of extreme events such as droughts and floods.This study attempts to exhaustively evaluate - for the first time - the suitability of seven state-of-the-art SRE products (TMPA 3B42v7, CHIRPSv2, CMORPH, PERSIANN-CDR, PERSIAN-CCS-Adj, MSWEPv1.1, and PGFv3) over the complex topography and diverse climatic gradients of Chile. Different temporal scales (daily, monthly, seasonal, annual) are used in a point-to-pixel comparison between precipitation time series measured at 366 stations (from sea level to 4600 m a.s.l. in the Andean Plateau) and the corresponding grid cell of each SRE (rescaled to a 0.25° grid if necessary). The modified Kling-Gupta efficiency was used to identify possible sources of systematic errors in each SRE. In addition, five categorical indices (PC, POD, FAR, ETS, fBIAS) were used to assess the ability of each SRE to correctly identify different precipitation intensities.Results revealed that most SRE products performed better for the humid South (36.4-43.7° S) and Central Chile (32.18-36.4° S), in particular at low- and mid-elevation zones (0-1000 m a.s.l.) compared to the arid northern regions and the Far South. Seasonally, all products performed best during the wet seasons (autumn and winter; MAM-JJA) compared to summer (DJF) and spring (SON). In addition, all SREs were able to correctly identify the occurrence of no-rain events, but they presented a low skill in classifying precipitation intensities during rainy days. Overall, PGFv3 exhibited the best performance everywhere


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Ni Made


    Full Text Available A large-scale earthquake and tsunami affect thousands of people and cause serious damages worldwide every year. Quick observation of the disaster damage is extremely important for planning effective rescue operations. In the past, acquiring damage information was limited to only field surveys or using aerial photographs. In the last decade, space-borne images were used in many disaster researches, such as tsunami damage detection. In this study, SAR data of ALOS/PALSAR satellite images were used to estimate tsunami damage in the form of inundation areas in Talcahuano, the area near the epicentre of the 2010 Chile earthquake. The image processing consisted of three stages, i.e. pre-processing, analysis processing, and post-processing. It was conducted using multi-temporal images before and after the disaster. In the analysis processing, inundation areas were extracted through the masking processing. It consisted of water masking using a high-resolution optical image of ALOS/AVNIR-2 and elevation masking which built upon the inundation height using DEM image of ASTER-GDEM. The area result was 8.77 Km2. It showed a good result and corresponded to the inundation map of Talcahuano. Future study in another area is needed in order to strengthen the estimation processing method.

  19. Late Paleozoic to Triassic magmatism in the north-central High Andes, Chile: New insights from SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology and O-Hf isotopic signatures in zircon (United States)

    Hernández González, Álvaro; Deckart, Katja; Fanning, Mark; Arriagada, César


    The Chilean High Andes (28o- 31oS) comprises a vast number of late Paleozoic - Triassic granitoids which give information about the last stages of Gondwana assemblage. Particularly, previous studies determined two tectonic configurations during this time: subduction related compressional setting (late Carboniferous - Late Permian) and non-subduction post-collisional extensional setting (Late Permian - Triassic), as the last stage of Gondwana assemblage. However, new O-Hf isotopic data along new U-Pb SHRIMP ages in zircon have shown that this model should be modified and updated to the new analytical data available. δ18O values indicate a strong change in the tectonic configuration approximately 270 Ma (earliest middle Permian) and thus, units can be divided into 2 mayor groups: late Carboniferous to earliest middle Permian and middle Permian to Triassic. The oldest group shows slightly low values of ɛHfi (ca. +1 to -4) with high δ18O (ca. >6.5 o/oo), indicating an elevated supracrustal component and the addition of less radiogenic continental-like material, which along significant residence time (TDM2: Mesoproterozoic) can be interpreted as magmas formed at depth in a subduction-related continental arc, and contaminated with supracrustal material and/or oceanic sediments transported through the subducted slab to the mantle-wedge. Subsequently, middle Permian - Triassic rocks show a wider range of ɛHfi values (ca. +3 to -3) with relatively low, mantle-like δ18O (ca. 4.5-6.5 o/oo), indicating a source of magmas without the addition of supracrustal material for some plutons, whilst for others, a slight input. The higher positive values of ɛHfi can be related to the influence of new juvenile material in the source of some magmas. This isotopic data can be interpreted as rocks formed as the result of melting of an old thinned mafic crust (with mantle-like δ18O values characteristic of this type of rocks) with limited addition of supracrustal material; in

  20. Calbuco Volcano and minor eruptive centers distributed along the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone, Chile (41° 42° S): contrasting origin of andesitic and basaltic magma in the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes (United States)

    López-Escobar, L.; Parada, M. A.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Frey, F. A.; Kempton, P. D.; Moreno, H.


    Calbuco volcano is a Late Pleistocene-Holocene composite stratovolcano located at 41°20' S, in the southern region of the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes (SSVZ; 37° 46° S). In contrast to basalt and basaltic andesite, which are the dominant lava types on the volcanic front from 37° to 42° S, Calbuco lavas are porphyritic andesites which contain a wide variety of crustal xenoliths. They have SiO2 contents in the 55 60% range, and have comparatively low K2O, Rb, Ba, Th and LREF abundances relative to other SSVZ centers. Incompatible element abundance ratios are similar to those of most SSVZ volcanics, but 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd are respectively higher and lower than those of adjacent volcanic centers. Basalts from nearby Osorno stratovolcano, 25 km to the northeast, are similar to other basaltic SSVZ volcanoes. However, basalts from several minor eruptive centers (MEC), located east of Calbuco and Osorno volcano along the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone (LOFZ), are enriched in Ba, Nb, Th and LREE, and have higher La/Yb and lower Ba/La, K/La and Rb/La. 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd in MEC basalts are respectively lower and higher than those of Osorno and Calbuco lavas. We suggest that MEC basalts were produced by lower extents of mantle melting than basalts from Osorno and other SSVZ stratovolcanoes, probably as a result of lower water content in the source of MEC basalts. Calbuco andesites formed from basaltic parents similar to Osorno basalts, by moderate pressure crystallization of a hornblende-bearing assemblage accompanied by crustal assimilation. Hornblende stability in the Calbuco andesites was promoted by the assimilation of hydrous metasedimentary crustal rocks, which are also an appropriate endmember for isotopic trends, together with magma storage at mid-crustal depths. The unique characteristics of Calbuco volcano, i.e. the stability of hornblende at andesitic SiO2 contents, low 143Nd/144Nd and high 87Sr/86Sr, and abundant crustal xenoliths, provide

  1. Micro X-ray Fluorescence Study of Late Pre-Hispanic Ceramics from the Western Slopes of the South Central Andes Region in the Arica y Parinacota Region, Chile: A New Methodological Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flewett, S.; Saintenoy, T.; Sepulveda, M.; Mosso, E. F.; Robles, C.; Vega, K.; Gutierrez, S.; Romero, A.; Finney, L.; Maxey, E.; Vogt, S.


    Archeological ceramic paste material typically consists of a mix of a clay matrix and various millimeter and sub-millimeter sized mineral inclusions. Micro X-ray Fluorescence (μXRF) is a standard compositional classification tool, and in this work we propose and demonstrate an improved fluorescence map processing protocol where the mineral inclusions are automatically separated from the clay matrix to allow independent statistical analysis of the two parts. Application of this protocol allowed us to improve enhance the differentiation discrimination between different ceramic shards compared with the standard procedure of comparing working with only the spatially averaged elemental concentrations. Using the new protocol, we performed an initial compositional classification of a set of 83 ceramic shards from the western slopes of the south central Andean region in the Arica y Parinacota region of present-day far northern Chile. Comparing the classifications obtained using the new versus the old (average concentrations only) protocols, we found that some samples were erroneously classified with the old protocol. From an archaeological perspective, a very broad and heterogeneous sample set was used in this study due to the fact that this was the first such study to be performed on ceramics from this region. This allowed a general overview to be obtained, however further work on more specific sample sets will be necessary to extract concrete archaeological conclusions.

  2. Lithospheric Structure and Isostasy of Central Andes: Implication for plate Coupling (United States)

    Mahatsente, R.; Rutledge, S.


    A significant section of the Peru-Chile convergent zone is building up stresses. The interseismic coupling in northern and southern Peru is significantly high indicating, elastic energy accumulation since the 1746 and 1868 earthquakes of magnitude 8.6 and 8.8 , respectively. Similar seismic patterns have also been observed in Central Chile. The plate interface beneath Central Chile is highly coupled, and the narrow zones of low coupling separate seismic gaps. The reasons for the seismic gaps and plate coupling are yet unknown, but the configuration of the slab is thought to be the main factor. Here, we assessed the locking mechanism and isostatic state of the Central Andes based on gravity models of the crust and upper mantle structure. The density models are based on satellite gravity data and are constrained by velocity models and earthquake hypocenters. The gravity models indicate a high-density batholithic structure in the fore-arc, overlying the subducting Nazca plate. This high-density body pushes downward on the slab, causing the slab to lock with the overlying continental plate. The increased compressive stress closer to the trench, due to the increased contact area between the subducting and overriding plates, may have increased the plate coupling in the Central Andes. Thus, trench parallel crustal thickness and density variations along the Central Andes and buoyancy force on the subducting Nazca plate may control plate coupling and asperity generation. The western part of the Central Andes may be undercompensated. There is a residual topography of 800 m in the western part of the Central Andes that cannot be explained by the observed crustal thicknesses. Thus, part of the observed topography in the western part of the Central Andes may be dynamically supported by mantle wedge flow below the overriding plate.

  3. Cloud cover and UV index estimates in Chile from satellite-derived and ground-based data (United States)

    Damiani, A.; Cordero, R. R.; Cabrera, S.; Laurenza, M.; Rafanelli, C.


    Data of Lambertian equivalent reflectivity (LER) in ultraviolet (UV)-A range recorded by Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) series aboard Nimbus 7 and Earth Probe and by Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on EOS Aura have been analyzed over eight Chilean locations spanning from about 18° to 62° S (i.e. including Profesor Julio Escudero station, Antarctic peninsula), covering years 1978-2011. Generally the distribution of the reflectivity is similar for both TOMS datasets. A slightly better agreement has been found for the most southern locations while a small discordance appears for northern locations. The latter could be partly due to actual differences in the cloud cover conditions. On the other hand, OMI LER data differ from TOMS ones in almost all locations. Daily cloud modification factor (CMF) values from ground-based global solar irradiance measurements have been compared with OMI LER-based CMF data. The northernmost and southernmost locations characterized by prevalent clear sky and winter snow conditions, respectively, showed the worse agreement with a correlation coefficient r = 0.63 and 0.71, while other stations showed a better correlation (i.e. r = 0.83 and r = 85). Clear sky ground UV index values for Santiago de Chile have been estimated for years 1979-2011 by means of an empirical reconstruction model based on data recorded by a multichannel radiometer. It allowed computing a ground-based CMF for years 1996-2011 and comparing it with satellite data. Results show that OMI CMF based on gridded cell LER data introduces significant differences with respect to equivalent TOMS CMF. On the contrary, the use of overpass LER data allows to evaluate changes in cloudiness and, by using the model, reconstructing the actual UV index. Nevertheless, LER CMF overestimates actual cloud cover conditions in winter. The trend in reconstructed satellite (ground) based UV index during summer months is + 3.3 ± 0.9% (+ 11.9 ± 2.5%)/decade for years 1979-2011 (1997

  4. The Glaciation of the Ecuadorian Andes (United States)

    Schubert, Carlos

    This pleasing book fills the gap in the knowledge about Pleistocene and recent glaciation between Colombia and Peru. A significant amount of data exists already for Colombia and Venezuela and for Peru, Bolivia, and, particularly, Chile. Hastenrath has now given us a description of glaciers and glaciation underneath the equator in the Andes.The book begins with brief summaries of the physiography and the atmospheric circulation, which give the general setting of Ecuador. Then follow detailed descriptions of the glaciers and glacial morphology of all the important mountains of the Western and Eastern Cordilleras. These are well illustrated, and a particularly useful feature is the comparison of old photographs and paintings of glaciers with modern photographs, many taken by the author. All illustrate the spectacular retreat of the glaciers in the Ecuadorian Andes during the last century and correlate quite well with observations elsewhere. This retreat is snown quantitatively in Table 4, in terms of decrease in glacier-covered area since the glacial advance of moraine stage III. The area of present-day glaciers is about 10% of the area during that stage (compared with about 1.5% in the Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuela). A series of maps show the glacial morphology of the mountains (unfortunately, some of the maps have been included within the binding, thus losing some information; they could have been reduced somewhat to fit a single page or, if too large, could have been included in the pocket, together with the map of Chimborazo-Carihuairazo).

  5. Preliminary re-evaluation of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in Chile: from Arica to Taitao Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Leyton


    Full Text Available Chile is one of the most seismically active countries in the world; indeed, having witnessed very large earthquakes associated with high horizontal peak ground accelerations, the use of probabilistic hazard assessment is an important tool in any decision-making. In the present study, we review all the available information to improve the estimation of the probabilistic seismic hazard caused by two main sources: shallow interplate, thrust earthquakes and intermediate depth, intraplate earthquakes. Using previously defined seismic zones, we compute Gutenberg-Richter laws and, along with appropriate attenuation laws, revaluate the probabilistic seismic hazard assessments in Chile. We obtain expected horizontal peak ground acceleration with a 10% of probability of being exceeded in 50 years, reaching from 0.6 g up 1.0 g in the coast and between 0.4 g and 0.6 g towards the Andes Mountains, with larger values in Northern part of the country. The present study improves our knowledge of geological hazards in Chile, enabling the mitigation of important human and material losses due to large earthquakes in the future.

  6. Jürgen Stock: From One End of the Andes to the Other (United States)

    Vivas, A. K.; Stock, M. J.


    Jürgen Stock (1923-2004) will always be remembered for his work on astronomical site testing. He led the efforts to find the best place for CTIO, and his work had a large influence in the setting of other observatories in Chile. He was the first director of CTIO (1963-1966). After his time in Chile, he moved to the other end of the Andes and was in charge of the site selection and the construction of the only professional observatory in Venezuela, the Llano del Hato National Observatory.

  7. Rock Glacier Response to Climate Change in the Argentinian Andes (United States)

    Drewes, J.; Korup, O.; Moreiras, S.


    Rock glaciers are bodies of frozen debris and ice that move under the influence of gravity in permafrost areas. Rock glaciers may store a large amount of sediments and play an important role as prime movers of debris in the Andean sediment cascade. However, little is known about how much sediment and water rock glaciers may store at the mountain-belt scale, and the few existing estimates vary considerably. We address this question for the Argentinian Andes, for which a new glacial inventory containing more than 6500 rock glaciers gives us the opportunity to analyse their relevance within the sediment cascade. We examine the inventory for catchments in five sub-regions, i.e. the Desert Andes (22°-31°S); the Central Andes (31°-36°S); the Northern Andes of Patagonia (36°-45°S); the Southern Andes of Patagonia (45°-52°S); and Tierra del Fuego (52°-55°S), together with climate variables of the WorldClim datasets, and digital topographic data, to estimate how rock-glacier extents may change under different past and future climate scenarios. We observe for the northern Desert Andes that rock glacier toes are at 4000 to 5000 m a.s.l. and a mean annual temperature range of 3° and 8°C, though most rock glaciers are in areas with mean annual temperatures between -5 and 5°C, marking a distinct thermal niche. Rock glaciers are traditionally viewed as diagnostic of sporadic alpine permafrost and their toes are often near the annual mean 0°C isotherm. However, we find that only rock glaciers in the southern Desert Andes and Central Andes are located where annual mean temperature is -2°C. Future scenarios project an increase of > four degrees in these areas, which may further degrade ground ice and potentially change the rates at which rock glaciers advance. Where active rock glaciers become inactive their coarse material, which was formerly bound by ice, may be released into the sediment cascade, whereas accelerating or rapidly downwasting rock glaciers may either

  8. Prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism in the Cenozoic Abanico Formation, Andes of central Chile (33°50'S: chemical and scale controls on mineral assemblages, reaction progress and the equilibrium state Metamorfismo de facies prehnita-pumpellyita en la Formación Abanico del Cenozoico, Andes centrales de Chile (33°50'S: controles químicos y de escala sobre las asociaciones minerales, el progreso de la reacción y el estado de equilibrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Muñoz


    Full Text Available In the El Volcan and Rodeo de los Bueyes areas, Andean Principal Cordillera (east of Santiago; 33°50'S, an Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene volcanic series belonging to the Abanico Formation (Late Eocene-Early Miocene is exposed. The rock successions outcropping in both areas, ca. 3,300 m total thickness, have been affected by very low-grade, non-deformative metamorphism in the prehnite-pumpellyite facies. This is represented by the widespread development of secondary mineral assemblages composed of epidote, mixed-layer chlorite-smectite, albite, quartz, white mica, and titanite. These mineral assemblages also contain pumpellyite, prehmte or prehnite+actinolite in a few samples. Chemical characteristics, such as low compositional variability of mixed-layer chlorite-smectite and actino-lite independent from the metadomain where these phases are hosted, along with a high proportion of chlorite layers in the former, suggest that these phases closely represent the whole rock effective bulk composition. On the contrary, pumpellyite compositions show a higher variability and a strong metadomain control evidencing its lower equilibration kinetics and leaving only those that grow in the rock matrix as the more closely representative of a whole rock effective bulk compositional control. Mineral assemblages from both areas show evidence of having been formed during the same metamorphic event where reactions have ocurred equivalently between them. However, local differences in chemical variables controlling this process are recognizable. A higher CO2 concentration in the fluids during the metamorphism in the El Volcán area than in the Rodeo de los Bueyes area is suggested by the scarce development of prehnite and the ubiquitous presence of calcite in the metamorphic assemblages of the former. Pressure and temperature of this metamorphic event have been roughly estimated to be lower than 2-3 kbar and 320°C, respectively.En las areas de El Volcán y Rodeo de

  9. Observations of the Breakdown of Mountain Waves Over the Andes Lidar Observatory at Cerro Pachon on 8/9 July 2012 (United States)

    Hecht, J. H.; Fritts, D. C.; Wang, L.; Gelinas, L. J.; Rudy, R. J.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P. D.; Smith, S.; Franke, S. J.


    Although mountain waves (MWs) are thought to be a ubiquitous feature of the wintertime southern Andes stratosphere, it was not known whether these waves propagated up to the mesopause region until Smith et al. (2009) confirmed their presence via airglow observations. The new Andes Lidar Observatory at Cerro Pachon in Chile provided the opportunity for a further study of these waves. Since MWs have near-zero phase speed, and zero wind lines often occur in the winter upper mesosphere (80 to 100 km altitude) region due to the reversal of the zonal mean and tidal wind, MW breakdown may routinely occur at these altitudes. Here we report on very high spatial/temporal resolution observations of the initiation of MW breakdown in the mesopause region. Because the waves are nearly stationary, the breakdown process was observed over several hours; a much longer interval than has previously been observed for any gravity wave breakdown. During the breakdown process observations were made of initial horseshoe-shaped vortices, leading to successive vortex rings, as is also commonly seen in Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of idealized and multiscale gravity wave breaking. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) structures were also observed to form. Comparing the structure of observed KHI with the results of existing DNS allowed an estimate of the turbulent kinematic viscosity. This viscosity was found to be around 25 m2/s, a value larger than the nominal viscosity that is used in models.

  10. Soil erosion and sedimentation rates in a small eutrophic lake in southern Chile estimated by 210Pb isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisternas, M.; Urrutia, R.; Araneda, A.; Debels, P.; Rios, F.


    The purpose of this research is to study the effects of historical land use patterns on soil erosion within the San Pedro Lake watershed (Concepcion, VIII Region, Chile). To this end, a geochronological reconstruction of the last 50 years was accomplished by 210 Pb isotope and photo-interpretation analysis through the use of GIS. The erosion rate has varied from 0.40 t ha -1 y -1 in 1955 to 0.86 t ha -1 y -1 in 1994. The decrease in native forest was closely coupled with the increase in exotic forestry. The Total Change, meaning the land use change without considering each typology, shows a constant trend indicating a greater degree of anthropogenic intervention. As opposed to the expected, there is no relationship between land use typologies and erosion rates, however it is possible to recognise some degree of dependency between Total Change and erosion values. It is concluded that over the last 50 years the soil erosion processes in the San Pedro Lake watershed may have been more regulated more by land use changes than by land use typologies themselves. (author)

  11. Charles Darwin in the Andes (United States)

    Bizzo, Nelio; Bizzo, Luis Eduardo Maestrelli


    Considering geological time as an important epistemological obstacle to the construction of ideas on biological evolution, a study was carried out on the so-called "Darwin Papers". The conclusion was that Charles Darwin's excursion in the Andes during March-April 1835 was a crucial step in this regard. An expedition was carried out in…

  12. Assesing the temporal and spatial performance of satellite-based rainfall estimates across the complex topographical and climatic gradients of Chile (United States)

    Zambrano-Bigiarini, Mauricio; Nauditt, Alexandra; Birkel, Christian; Verbist, Koen; Ribbe, Lars


    Accurate representation of the real spatio-temporal variability of catchment rainfall inputs is currently severely limited. Moreover, spatially interpolated catchment precipitation is subject to large uncertainties, particularly in developing countries and regions which are difficult to access. Recently, satellite-based rainfall estimates (SRE) provide an unprecedented opportunity for a wide range of hydrological applications, from water resources modelling to monitoring of extreme events such as droughts and floods. This study attempts to exhaustively evaluate -for the first time- the suitability of seven state-of-the-art SRE products (TMPA 3B42v7, CHIRPSv2, CMORPH, PERSIANN-CDR, PERSIAN-CCS-adj, MSWEPv1.1 and PGFv3) over the complex topography and diverse climatic gradients of Chile. Different temporal scales (daily, monthly, seasonal, annual) are used in a point-to-pixel comparison between precipitation time series measured at 366 stations (from sea level to 4600 m a.s.l. in the Andean Plateau) and the corresponding grid cell of each SRE (rescaled to a 0.25° grid if necessary). The modified Kling-Gupta efficiency was used to identify possible sources of systematic errors in each SRE. In addition, five categorical indices (PC, POD, FAR, ETS, fBIAS) were used to assess the ability of each SRE to correctly identify different precipitation intensities. Results revealed that most SRE products performed better for the humid South (36.4-43.7°S) and Central Chile (32.18-36.4°S), in particular at low- and mid-elevation zones (0-1000 m a.s.l.) compared to the arid northern regions and the Far South. Seasonally, all products performed best during the wet seasons autumn and winter (MAM-JJA) compared to summer (DJF) and spring (SON). In addition, all SREs were able to correctly identify the occurrence of no rain events, but they presented a low skill in classifying precipitation intensities during rainy days. Overall, PGFv3 exhibited the best performance everywhere and

  13. Estimates of stress changes from the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake: the influence on crustal faults and volcanos (United States)

    Keiding, M.; Heidbach, O.; Moreno, M.; Baez, J. C.; Melnick, D.; Kukowski, N.


    The south-central Chile margin is an active plate boundary where the accumulated stress in the subduction interface is released frequently by megathrust earthquakes (Mw>8.5). The Maule earthquake of February 27 2010 affected about 500 km of the plate boundary producing spectacular tectonic deformation and a devastating tsunami. A compilation of pre-, co-, and post-earthquake geologic and geodetic data offers the opportunity of gain insight into the processes that control strain accumulation and stress changes associated to megathrust events. The fore-arc deformation is primarily controlled by the stresses that are transferred through the locked parts of the plate interface and the release of stresses during megathrust events. During a great interplate faulting event, upper plate faults, rooted in the plate interface, can play a key role in controlling fluid pressurization. Hence, the hydraulic behavior of splay faults may induce variations of shear strength and may promote dynamic slip weakening along a crustal fault. Furthermore, the co-seismic stress transfer from megathrust earthquakes can severely affect nearby volcanos promoting eruptions and local deformation. InSAR and time-series of continuous GPS in the aftermath of the Maule earthquake show evidences of activation of the NW-striking Lanalhue fault system as well as pressure increase at the Antuco volcano. We build a 3D geomechanical-numerical model that consists of 1.8 million finite elements and incorporates realistic geometries adapted from geophysical data sets as well as the major crustal faults in the region. An updated co-seismic slip model is obtained based on a joint inversion of InSAR and GPS data. The model is used to compute stress changes in the upper plate in order to investigate how the Maule earthquake may have affected the crustal faults and volcanoes in the region.

  14. Climate change impacts on municipal, mining, and agricultural water supplies in Chile (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Pablo Garcia-Chevesich


    Agricultural and municipal water supply interests in Chile rely heavily on streams which flow from the Andes Mountains. The highly productive Copiapo agricultural region, on the southern edge of the Atacama Desert, is a major supplier of fruit and other crops for the Northern American market during winter. This region relies entirely on snow and icemelt streams to...

  15. Weathering as the limiting factor of denudation in the Western escarpment of the Andes (United States)

    Abbühl, L. M.; Schlunegger, F.; Kracht, O.; Ramseyer, K.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; Aldahan, A.; von Blanckenburg, F.


    A crucial issue in process geomorphology is the search for the scale and the extent to which precipitation, and climate in general, influences the nature and the rates of sediment transfer (weathering, erosion, sediment transport and deposition). We present an analysis of the possible interplay between precipitation, weathering and denudation rates for the western Andean slope between the Cordillera and the Pacific coast. It is based on morphometric studies and quantitative 10Be denudation rate estimates of three transverse river systems (Piura at 5°S, Pisco at 13°S, and Lluta at 18°S) draining the Western escarpment of the Peruvian and North Chilean Andes. The systems originate at elevations >3000 m above sea level, cover an area between 3000 and 10'000 km2 and discharge into the Pacific Ocean. The precipitation rate pattern implies a hyperarid climate at the coast, and semi-arid to semi-humid conditions in the Cordillera where the streams rise. There, climatic conditions are generally controlled by the easterlies that deliver moisture from the Atlantic Ocean via the low level Andean jet. The precipitation rate pattern of the Cordillera shows a North-South decreasing trend, from ca. 1000 mm/yr in Northern Peru to 150 mm/yr in Northern Chile. In these higher regions of the drainage basins, hillslopes are convex with nearly constant curvatures and are mantled by a >1 m thick regolith cover. In addition, hillslope erosion is limited to the regolith-bedrock interface. We interpret these geomorphic features to indicate weathering-controlled sediment discharge. In the lower river segments, beyond tectonic knickzones, regular precipitation is almost absent. For the case of the Piura river in Northern Peru, precipitation in this segment occurs in relation to highly episodic El Niño events related to the westerlies. This results in a supply-limited sediment discharge, leading to predominance of channelized processes on the hillslopes, a spare regolith cover and an

  16. Crustal-scale electrical conductivity anomaly beneath inflating Lazufre volcanic complex, Central Andes (United States)

    Budach, Ingmar; Brasse, Heinrich; Díaz, Daniel


    Large-scale surface deformation was observed at Lazufre volcanic center in the Central Andes of Northern Chile/Northwestern Argentina by means of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). Uplift started there after 1998 and increased dramatically in the following years up to a rate of 3 cm/a. Lazufre is now one of the largest deforming volcano systems on Earth, but the cause for uplift - likely influx of magmatic material into the crust - is still poorly understood. In the beginning of 2010 a magnetotelluric survey was conducted to delineate the electrical conductivity distribution in the area. Several long-period magnetotelluric (LMT) sites and two broadband magnetotelluric (BBMT) sites were set up on an EW trending profile crossing the volcanic center; furthermore some LMT sites were arranged circularly around Lazufre complex and adjacent Lastarria volcano. Data were processed using an algorithm for robust and remote reference transfer function estimation. Electrical strike directions were estimated and induction arrows were derived. Although electrical strike is rather ambiguous, in a first step a 2-D resistivity model was calculated. The most prominent feature of this model is a well conducting structure rising from the upper mantle to the shallow crust beneath the center of elevation. This can be interpreted as partial melts ascending from the asthenospheric wedge and feeding a potential magma reservoir beneath Lazufre volcanic center. An improved model is finally achieved by 3-D inversion, supporting this feature. We assume that these rising melts are the source of the observed uplift at Lazufre complex.

  17. Methane fluxes from a wet puna ecosystem in the Peruvian Andes (United States)

    Jones, Sam; Diem, Torsten; Priscila Huaraca Quispe, Lidia; Quispe Ccahuana, Adan Julian; Meir, Patrick; Arn Teh, Yit


    Discrepancies exist between top-down and bottom-up estimates of the tropical South American atmospheric methane budget. This suggests that current source-sink inventories fail to adequately characterise the landscapes of the region. This may be particularly true of Andean environments where very few field observations have been made. The high tropical Andes, between tree and permanent snow-lines, is home to diverse grass, shrub and giant rosette dominated ecosystems known variously from Venezuela to northern Chile and Argentina as paramo, jalca and puna. In humid regions these are characterised by wet, organic-rich mineral soils, peat-forming wetlands and shallow lakes. Such conditions are likely to promote methane production and potentially represent a regionally significant source to the atmosphere that should be considered. We report on methane fluxes from a bunch-grass dominated puna habitat at 3500 m above sea level in south-eastern Peru. Mean annual temperature and precipitation are 11 °C and 2500 mm, respectively. Temperature is aseasonal but experiences considerable diurnal variations with overnight frosting common-place. In contrast, rainfall is intensely episodic and has a pronounced wet season between September and March. Sampling encompassed a range of topographic features, such as grassland on freely draining, gently inclined or steep slopes and depressions containing bogs, over a 3 ha ridge to basin transition. Monthly sampling was carried out between January 2011 and June 2013 to investigate seasonal variability in methane fluxes. Intensive sampling campaigns were conducted to investigate spatial and short-term variations on a daily basis in two nine-day campaigns during wet and dry season. The site was a net source of methane to the atmosphere during the period of study. Methane fluxes were dominated by emissions from bogs, whereas, freely draining grassland exhibited weak source or marginal sink activity. Temporal variations were most notable at

  18. Serious fungal infections in Chile. (United States)

    Alvarez Duarte, E; Denning, D W


    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Chile are unknown. Here, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases from data obtained from clinical reports, WHO reports, Chilean census, OECD reports and comprehensive literature search available on PubMed and SciELO, among other scientific resources. Due the lack of official data about fungal diseases, frequencies were calculated based on the specific populations at risk. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 3108/100,000. Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimate 878 candidaemia cases and 132 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Due to the low incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Chile, limited numbers of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis are likely: a total of 1212, 25% following TB. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 296 patients following leukaemia therapy, transplantation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 1.7/100,000. In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS) were estimated to be around 97.9/100,000 and 127/100,000 respectively, in 675,772 adult asthmatics and 1700 CF patients. Given a 38,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population, with around 2189 new cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) annually, cryptococcal meningitis and Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated at 0.12/100,000 and 4.3/100,000, respectively. In total, 325,000 (1.9%) people in Chile develop serious fungal infections annually. Respiratory fungal disease predominates in Chile; a national action plan for fungal disease is urgently needed, including epidemiological studies to validate the estimates.





    El volcán Calbuco (41,3° S), corresponde a un estrafovolcán ubicado en los Andes del Sur de Chile, cuyos productos son principalmente de composición andesitica silícea y que posee un registro eruptivo violento, que incluye la generación de flujos de lava, 177p.

  20. Holocene tephra-fall deposits of southern and austral Andes volcanic zones (33-54oS): eruption recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo, J.A.; Polanco, E.; Lara, L; Moreno, H; Stern, C.R


    Radiometric 14 C dating is a very useful tool to study the chronostratigraphy of pyroclastic deposits. In addition, 14 C ages are essential parameters for the estimation of the recurrence time of the explosive volcanic activity. The origin, distribution and relative age of mappable Holocene tephra-fall deposits of the Southern Andes Volcanic Zone (SVZ) and Austral Andes Volcanic Zone (AVZ) from 33 o S-54 o S, were studied and their recurrence period is analysed (au)

  1. A closer look to the San Ramón fault seismicity in the west Andean thrust front of Santiago, Chile (United States)

    Vargas Easton, G.; Ammirati, J. B.; Potin, B.; Abrahami, R.; Rebolledo, S.; Barrientos, S. E.


    In Central Chile, most of the recorded seismicity is linked with the subduction of the Nazca plate and associated intra-slab deformation, under the South American plate. More to the east, a much smaller portion of the regional seismicity ( 5%) is related to thrusting deformation of the western cordilleran front of the south Central Andes. Although large earthquakes are far less frequent on this shallow region than on the plate boundary, paleoseismic studies evidenced the occurrence of at least 2 major episodes (Mw 7-7.5) over the past 17 kyr, associated with the San Ramón fault; the most obvious manifestation of the west Andean thrust system. The Santiago basin, located in the central valley at the western flank of the Andes, hosts close to 50% of the total Chilean population and thus receives particular attention. In order to better understand the seismicity of the San Ramón fault, the Chilean National Seismological Center (CSN) improved its permanent network with seven new broadband seismic stations, located around and over this geological structure. Because the number of events recorded is very large, we use a multiband array detection and seismic source location method to differentiate events associated with the San Ramón's system and those coming from other seismogenic zones. Our results show that the San Ramón fault and the west Andean thrust system in general, present seismic activity characterized by low magnitude events (Ml < 2.5). Preliminary seismic locations show focal depths around 8-12 km, in good agreement with the estimated depth of the west-vergent main décollement level associated to the western cordilleran front. In the future, event locations, magnitude and focal mechanism estimations will be improved in order to present a more complete catalog for a better assessment of seismic hazard in this region, together with the general tectonic evolution of the western cordilleran front of the south Central Andes.

  2. Risk Preferences Estimation for Small Raspberry Producers in the Bío-Bío Region, Chile Estimación de Preferencias por Riesgo para Pequeños Productores de Frambuesa de la Región del Bío-Bío, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Toledo T


    Full Text Available Decisions are strongly influenced by risk and risk preferences of decision makers; however, in Chile there are few studies in the agricultural sector focused on this topic. The present paper analyzes the risk preferences of small producers of raspberries (Rubus idaeus L. and the production function associated with their production system in the Bio-Bio Region of Chile. Under a mean-variance approach, the estimation procedure uses a flexible utility function to incorporate a variety of risk preference alternatives. Three different estimation procedures were used: Least Squares Estimation, Seemingly Unrelated Regression and Full Information Maximum Likelihood, which revealed the same conclusions. Results showed that small farmers are risk averse (γ = 0.104 and present increasing relative and absolute aversion to risk (θ = 0.099 Las decisiones son fuertemente influenciadas por el riesgo y las preferencias por riesgo de los agentes que las toman, sin embargo, en Chile existen pocos estudios en el sector agrícola que se enfoquen en este tema. El presente estudio analiza las preferencias por riesgo de pequeños productores de frambuesa (Rubus idaeus L., y la función de producción asociada a este sistema productivo, en la Región del Bío-Bío, Chile. Utilizando un modelo de media-varianza, se estima una función de utilidad flexible de manera de incorporar diferentes alternativas de preferencias por riesgo. Para la estimación se utilizaron tres procedimientos: Mínimos Cuadrados Ordinarios, Sistemas de Ecuaciones Aparentemente no Relacionadas y Máxima Verosimilitud con Información Completa, arrojando similares resultados. Los resultados revelan que los productores son aversos al riesgo (γ = 0,104 y tienen aversión absoluta y relativa creciente (θ = 0,099 < 1 y θ < γ, respectivamente. Se rechazan las hipótesis de neutralidad (γ = 0 y aversión absoluta constante al riesgo (θ = 1, con un 94% y un 99% de confianza, respectivamente. La

  3. Crustal seismicity in central Chile (United States)

    Barrientos, S.; Vera, E.; Alvarado, P.; Monfret, T.


    Both the genesis and rates of activity of shallow intraplate seismic activity in central Chile are poorly understood, mainly because of the lack of association of seismicity with recognizable fault features at the surface and a poor record of seismic activity. The goal of this work is to detail the characteristics of seismicity that takes place in the western flank of the Andes in central Chile. This region, located less than 100 km from Santiago, has been the site of earthquakes with magnitudes up to 6.9, including several 5+ magnitude shocks in recent years. Because most of the events lie outside the Central Chile Seismic Network, at distances up to 60 km to the east, it is essential to have adequate knowledge of the velocity structure in the Andean region to produce the highest possible quality of epicentral locations. For this, a N-S refraction line, using mining blasts of the Disputada de Las Condes open pit mine, has been acquired. These blasts were detected and recorded as far as 180 km south of the mine. Interpretation of the travel times indicates an upper crustal model consisting of three layers: 2.2-, 6.7-, and 6.1-km thick, overlying a half space; their associated P wave velocities are 4.75-5.0 (gradient), 5.8-6.0 (gradient), 6.2, and 6.6 km/s, respectively. Hypocentral relocation of earthquakes in 1986-2001, using the newly developed velocity model, reveals several regions of concentrated seismicity. One clearly delineates the fault zone and extensions of the strike-slip earthquake that took place in September 1987 at the source of the Cachapoal River. Other regions of activity are near the San José volcano, the source of the Maipo River, and two previously recognized lineaments that correspond to the southern extension of the Pocuro fault and Olivares River. A temporary array of seismographs, installed in the high Maipo River (1996) and San José volcano (1997) regions, established the hypocentral location of events with errors of less than 1 km

  4. Mass balance and hydrological contribution of glaciers in northern and central Chile (United States)

    MacDonell, Shelley; Vivero, Sebastian; McPhee, James; Ayala, Alvaro; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Campos, Cristian; Caro, Dennys; Ponce, Rodrigo


    Water is a critical resource in the northern and central regions of Chile, as the area supports more than 40% of the country's population, and the regional economy depends on agricultural production and mining, which are two industries that rely heavily on a consistent water supply. Due to relatively low rates of rainfall, meltwater from snow and ice bodies in the highland areas provides a key component of the annual water supply in these areas. Consequently, accurate estimates of the rates of ablation of the cryosphere (i.e. snow and ice) are crucial for predicting current supply rates, and future projections. Whilst snow is generally a larger contributor of freshwater, during periods of drought, glaciers provide a significant source. This study aims to determine the contribution of glaciers to two catchments in northern and central Chile during a 2.5 year period, which largely consisted of extreme dry periods, but also included the recent El Niño event. This study combined field and modelling studies to understand glacier and rock glacier contributions in the Tapado (30°S), Yeso (33°S) catchments. In the field we undertook glaciological mass balance monitoring of three glaciers, monitored albedo and snow line changes using automatic cameras for three glaciers, measured discharge continuously at several points, installed six automatic weather stations and used thermistors to monitor thermal regime changes of two rock glaciers. The combination of these datasets where used to drive energy balance and hydrological models to estimate the contribution of ice bodies to streamflow in the two studied catchments. Over the course of the study all glaciers maintained a negative mass balance, however glaciers in central Chile lost more mass, which is due to the higher melt rates experienced due to lower elevations and higher temperatures. Areas free of debris generally contributed more to streamflow than sediment covered regions, and snow generally contributed more over

  5. Glacial recession in the Tropical Andes from the Little Ice Age: the case of Ampato Volcanic Complex (Southern Peru (United States)

    Alcalá, J.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.


    Europa (Cordillera Cantábrica, NO de España). Análisis morfológico y reconstrucción del avance glaciar histórico. Rev. C & G., 19 (3-4), 79-94. Hastenrath, S. L. (2009): Past glaciation in the tropics. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28: 790-798. Jomelli, V.; Favier, V.; Rabatel, A.; Brunstein, D.; Hoffmann, G.; and Francou, B. (2009): Fluctuations of glaciers in the tropical Andes over the last millennium and palaeoclimatic implications: A review. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.10.033. Kaser, G., Osmaston, H.A., 2002. Tropical glaciers. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Mark, B. (2008): Tracing tropical Andean glaciers over space and time: Some lessons and transdisciplinary implications. Global and Planetary Change, 60: 101-114. Osmaston, H. (2005): Estimates of glacier equilibrium line altitudes by the Area _ Altitude, the Area _ Altitude Balance Ratio and the Area _ Altitude Balance Index Methods and their validation. Quaternary International, 138-139: 22-31. Rabatel, A., Jomelli, V., Naveau, P., Francou, B., Grancher, D. (2005). Dating of Little Ice Age glacier fluctuations in the tropical Andes: Charquini glaciers, Bolivia, 16ºS. C. R. Geoscience, 337: 1311-1322. Rabatel, A., Francou, B., Jomelli, V., Naveau, P., Grancher, D. (2008). A chronology of the Little Ice Age in the tropical Andes of Bolivia (16º S) and its implications for climate reconstruction. Quaternary Research, 70: 198-212. Ramirez, E., Francou, B., Ribstein, P., Descloitres, M., Guerin, R., Mendoza, J., Gallaire, R., Pouyaud, B., Jordan, E., 2001. Small glaciers disappearing in the tropical Andes: a case study in Bolivia: Glaciar Chacaltaya (16°S). Journal of Glaciology 47 (157), 187-194. Soruco, A.; Vincent, C.; Francou, B.; Ribstein, P.; Berger, T.; Sicart, J. E.; Wagnon, P.; Arnaud, Y.; Favier, V.; and Lejeune, Y. (2009): Mass balance of Glacier Zongo, Bolivia, between 1956 and 2006, using glaciological, hydrological and geodetic methods

  6. Meteorological Conditions of Floods In The Chilean Andes Mountains (United States)

    Vergara, J.

    Catastrophic floods occurred on mountains River during 2000 and 2001. The meteo- rological conditions of flood during the last five years have analyzed. For example, the flood of June 29 of 2000 occurred after one of extremely wettest June of the last 40 years were snowfall was 991cm in the Aconcagua Valley. Infrequently storms activ- ity generated a huge snowfall and rainfall over the Andes mountains on June of 2000 (1525mm in El Maule Valley) and the end of the unusually period, the flood was trig- gered by rising temperatures on the mountains and heavy rain (199mm in 24 hours) fall over the fresh snow on the morning of June 29 and floods wave developed and moved down along of the all river located on Central part of Chile, the foods peak was 2970.5m3/s on the El Maule basin in the morning of June 29. The regional meteoro- logical models with the hydrological forecasting was used for alert of the floods.

  7. Use of remote sensing tools for severity analysis and greenhouse gases estimation in large forest fires. Case study of La Rufina forest fire, VI Region of L. G. B. O´Higgins, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vidal


    Full Text Available Wildfires destroy thousands of hectares of vegetation every year in Chile, a phenomenon that has steadily increased over time, both in terms of the number of fires and the area affected. Since 1985 until 2016 have occurred 1,476 wildfires severe in intensity (> 200 ha, that burned a total of about 1,243,407 ha of vegetation, and an average of 40,000 ha affected per year. Depending on the type and intensity of the fire, there are different levels of severity with which the fire affects the vegetation, a variation that is crucial for the estimation GEI in the event. The purpose of this research was to analyze the burn severity of Rufina wildfires occurred in 1999, in the VI Region of L. G. B. O’Higgins in Chile, south of the capital Santiago, using Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery, including in the analysis the estimated greenhouse gases emitted in relation to with the vegetation and burn severity. Burn severity was estimated through the Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR and GEI with the equation proposed by IPCC in 2006, which was adjusted with the combustion efficiency coefficients proposed by De Santis et al. (2010. The results show that around 16,783 ha were affected by fires of different severity and the native forest and tree plantations were affected by high severity. The ton of GEI for each level of burn severity and type of vegetation was estimated, being carbon dioxide (CO2 the main GEI emitted to the atmosphere in the fire. The highest emissions occurred in the areas of grasslands and scrublands, with high severity, with values ranging between 186 and 170 t/ha respectively

  8. Chile: Its Conventional Threats (United States)


    tdf.htm>. Internet. Accessed 30 October 2004. 20 21 BIBLIOGRAPHY Barros, Van Buren Mario. Historia Diplomatica de Chile . Santiago: Editorial Andres...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT CHILE : ITS CONVENTIONAL THREATS by Lieutenant Colonel Claudio Toledo Chilean Army Dr. Gabriel Marcella Project...3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Chile Its Conventional Threats 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  9. Chile's agricultural diversification


    Arnade, Carlos Anthony; Sparks, Amy


    Chile's fruit sector, both in production and exports, has grown significantly since 1974. At that time, Chile introduced structural reforms in its economy which assured that market principles would operate regarding land ownership. Also, the government began a 'hands-off' policy which basically allowed free-market principles to prevail. As a result of these conditions operating in the economy, Chile's agricultural sector diversified from producing largely annual crops and wool to also produci...

  10. Andes Mountain Snow Distribution, Properties, and Trend: 1979-2014 (United States)

    Mernild, Sebastian H.; Liston, Glen E.; Hiemstra, Christopher A.


    Andes snow presence, absence, properties, and water amount are key components of Earth's changing climate system that incur far-reaching physical ramifications. Modeling developments permit relatively high-resolution (4-km horizontal grid; 3-h time step) Andes snow estimates for 1979-2014. SnowModel, in conjunction with land cover, topography, and 35-years of NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) atmospheric reanalysis data, was used to create a spatially distributed, time-evolving, snow-related dataset that included air temperature, snow precipitation, snow-season timing and length, maximum snow water equivalent depth, and average snow density. Regional variability is a dominant feature of the modeled snow-property trends from an area northeast of Quito (latitude: 2.65°S to 0.23°N) to Patagonia (latitude: 52.15°S to 46.44°S). For example, the Quito area annual snow cover area changed -45%, -43% around Cusco (latitude: 14.75°S to 12.52°S), -5% east of Santiago (including the Olivares Basin), and 25% in Patagonia. The annual snow covered area for the entire Andes decreased 13%, mainly in the elevation band between 4,000-5,000 m a.s.l. In spite of strong regional variability, the data clearly show a general positive trend in mean annual air temperature and precipitation, and a decreasing trend in snow precipitation, snow precipitation days, and snow density. Also, the snow-cover onset is later and the snow-cover duration - the number of snow cover days - decreased.

  11. Subvolcanic contact metasomatism at El Laco Volcanic Complex, Central Andes Metasomatismo de contacto subvolcánico en el Complejo Volcánico El Laco, Andes centrales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Naranjo


    Full Text Available Studies of drill cores from the Pasos Blancos area at El Laco in the central Andes, northern Chile, give evidence of an intense and extensive subvolcanic contact-metasomatic process. This process resulted from shallow-level emplacement of very volatile-rich iron-oxide magma, with discharge of volatiles that resulted in extensive fracturing of overlying volcanic rocks. The brecciated rocks were altered (mainly extensive scapolitization and formation of pyroxene by hot magmatic fluids emitted from the cooling intrusion , and accompanied by magnetite deposition. With time and decreasing temperature, the metasomatic fluids evolved to fluids of hydrothermal character, and a final recent geothermal event took place that deposited superficial gypsum over a large part of the El Laco Volcanic Complex.Estudios realizados en testigos de sondajes en el area de Pasos Blancos en El Laco, en los Andes Centrales del norte de Chile, dan evidencias de un intenso y extenso proceso subvolcánico de metasomatismo de contacto. Este proceso es el resultado de un emplazamiento a poca profundidad de un magma de óxido de fierro muy rico en volátiles y cuya descarga de gases produjo un intenso fracturamiento de las rocas sobrepuestas. Las rocas brechizadas fueron alteradas (principalmente una extensa escapolitización y formación de piroxeno, junto con la depositación de magnetita, por los fluidos magmáticos calientes emitidos por la intrusión durante su enfriamiento. Los fluidos metasomáticos evolucionaron en el tiempo y con la disminución de temperatura, a fluidos de carácter hidrotermal y finalmente tuvo lugar un evento geotérmico reciente, el cual depositó yeso superficial en gran parte del Complejo Volcánico El Laco.

  12. Chile 1920-1980. (United States)

    Drake, Paul W.


    Annotated bibliography on the history of Chile during 60 years in the middle of the twentieth century is presented. A general outline of major Chilean developments during this period is presented to aid college level history instructors develop curriculum on Chile. Outline topics are the end of the Parliamentary Republic, 1920-31; popular front…

  13. IDRC in Chile

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers at PUCC also studied residential energy use, the need to use wood fuel more efficiently, and the potential for small- and medium-scale hydroelectric power generation. Chile's energy management policies drew on this research. IDRC. IDRC in Chile. INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE. R.

  14. Ethnographic model of acoustic use of space in the southern Andes for an archaeo-musicological investigation (United States)

    Perez de Arce, Jose


    Studies of ritual celebrations in central Chile conducted in the past 15 years show that the spatial component of sound is a crucial component of the whole. The sonic compositions of these rituals generate complex musical structures that the author has termed ''multi-orchestral polyphonies.'' Their origins have been documented from archaeological remains in a vast region of southern Andes (southern Peru, Bolivia, northern Argentina, north-central Chile). It consists of a combination of dance, space walk-through, spatial extension, multiple movements between listener and orchestra, and multiple relations between ritual and ambient sounds. The characteristics of these observables reveal a complex schematic relation between space and sound. This schema can be used as a valid hypothesis for the study of pre-Hispanic uses of acoustic ritual space. The acoustic features observed in this study are common in Andean ritual and, to some extent are seen in Mesoamerica as well.

  15. Sr and Nd isotopic and trace element compositions of Quaternary volcanic centers of the Southern Andes (United States)

    Futa, K.; Stern, C.R.


    Isotopic compositions of samples from six Quaternary volcanoes located in the northern and southern extremities of the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ, 33-46??S) of the Andes and from four centers in the Austral Volcanic Zone (AVZ, 49-54??S) range for 87Sr 86Sr from 0.70280 to 0.70591 and for 143Nd 144Nd from 0.51314 to 0.51255. The ranges are significantly greater than previously reported from the southern Andes but are different from the isotopic compositions of volcanoes in the central and northern Andes. Basalts and basaltic andesites from three centers just north of the Chile Rise-Trench triple junction have 87Sr 86Sr, 143Nd 144Nd, La Yb, Ba La, and Hf Lu that lie within the relatively restricted ranges of the basic magmas erupted from the volcanic centers as far north as 35??S in the SVZ of the Andes. The trace element and Sr and Nd isotopic characteristics of these magmas may be explained by source region contamination of subarc asthenosphere, with contaminants derived from subducted pelagic sediments and seawater-altered basalts by dehydration of subducted oceanic lithosphere. In the northern extremity of the SVZ between 33?? and 34??S, basaltic andesites and andesites have higher 87Sr 86Sr, Rb Cs, and Hf Lu, and lower 143Nd 144Nd than basalts and basaltic andesites erupted farther south in the SVZ, which suggests involvement of components derived from the continental crust. In the AVZ, the most primitive sample, high-Mg andesite from the southernmost volcanic center in the Andes (54??S) has Sr and Nd isotopic compositions and K Rb and Ba La similar to MORB. The high La Yb of this sample suggests formation by small degrees of partial melting of subducted MORB with garnet as a residue. Samples from centers farther north in the AVZ show a regionally regular northward increase in SiO2, K2O, Rb, Ba, Ba La, and 87Sr 86Sr and decrease in MgO, Sr, K Rb, Rb Cs, and 143Nd 144Nd, suggesting increasingly greater degrees of fractional crystallization and associated intra

  16. Eso's Situation in Chile (United States)


    that the best VLT site would be the Paranal Mountain, 700 km north of La Silla and 130 km south of Antofagasta, the capital of the Second Region in Chile. In October 1988, the Chilean Government by an official act donated the land surrounding Paranal (in all 725 sq. km) to ESO. As is the case for La Silla, this would serve to protect the planned, incredibly sensitive mega-telescope against all possible future sources of outside interference. The donation was made on the condition that ESO would indeed proceed with the construction of the VLT at Paranal within the next five years. The corresponding decision was taken by the ESO Council in December 1990. The construction of the VLT observatory site at Paranal started immediately thereafter, thus fulfilling the condition attached to the donation. The construction of the VLT is now well advanced. In Europe, the main parts of the first VLT unit 8.2-metre telescope will be pre-assembled later this year and the first two of the enormous mirrors are being polished. In Chile, the extensive landscaping of the Paranal peak was finished in 1993, during which around 300,000 cubic metres of rock and soil was removed to provide a 100x100 sq. metres platform for the VLT, and the concrete foundations are now ready. The installation of the first telescope enclosure can now begin and the next will start later this year. The first of the four telescopes is expected to start observations in late 1997. All in all, ESO has until now committed about 70 percent of the expected total investment for the VLT, estimated to be approximately 570 million DEM. THE OWNERSHIP OF PARANAL According to information later received, the Chilean Ministry of National Properties ("Bienes Nacionales") inscribed in 1977 in its name various lands in the commune of Taltal, including the area of the Paranal peak. At that time, i.e. ten years before ESO decided to construct the VLT, nobody in this Organisation could imagine that this telescope would one day be

  17. Dense and Dry Mantle Between the Continental Crust and the Oceanic Slab: Folding, Faulting and Tearing in the Slab in the Pampean Flat Slab, Southern Central Andes Evidenced by 3D Body Wave Tomography Along the 2015 Illapel, Chile Earthquake Rupture Area (United States)

    Comte, D.; Farías, M.; Roecker, S. W.; Brandon, M. T.


    The 2015 Illapel interplate earthquake Mw 8.4 generated a large amount of aftershocks that was recorded by the Chile-Illapel Aftershock Experiment (CHILLAX) during a year after the mainshock. Using this database, along with previous seismological campaigns, an improved 3D body wave tomographic image was obtained, allowing us to visualize first-order lithospheric discontinuities. This new analysis confirms not only the presence of this dense block, but also that the Benioff zone extends with a 30° dip even below the 100 km depth, where the Nazca plate has been interpreted to be flat. Recent results of seismic anisotropy show that the oceanic plate has been detached at depths greater than 300 km. We propose that: i) The dry, cold mantle beneath the continental crust is an entrapped mantle, cooled by the slab flattening, while the western part would be hydrated by slab-derived fluid; ii) The Nazca plate would be faulted and is now subducting with a normal dip beneath the flattened slab segment. Considering that the slab segment is detached from deeper part of the subducted plate, slab pull on the flat segment would be reduced, decreasing its eastward advance. In the western side, the flat segment of the slab has been observed to be slightly folded. We propose that the current normal subduction is related to the slab break-off resulting from the loss of a slab-pull force, producing the accretion of the slab beneath the dry and cold mantle. Considering that the flat slab segment does not occur at depths shallower than 100 km, rollback of the slab is not expected. In turn, suction forces would have induced the shortening in the flat segment considering its eastward slowing down due to slab break-off, thus producing a breakthrough faulting. This proposition implies that the underplated flat slab segment, along with the overlying dense and dry mantle may be delaminated by gravitional instabilities and ablative subduction effects.

  18. On the generation of coastal lows in central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutllant, J.


    Previous studies of the coastal-low occurrences in central Chile have been aimed at the formulation of a conceptual model to explain observed features in connection with applied studies. The most prominent weather pattern associated with CL occurrences, (type A), coincides with the onset of a warm, middle-troposphere ridge over central Chile, and a surface high over northern Argentina. The synoptic forcing of the low is related to weak frontal disturbances that travel equatorwards. They result in a thickening of the marine layer that becomes blocked by the coastal escarpment, at the time of the onset of the ridge aloft. The blocking of the stable air above the subsidence inversion by the Andes is also hypothesized. The analysis of the subsidence inversion, the geometry of the coastal and Andes mountain ranges, and a scale analysis of the non-dimensional governing equations for the generation of the coastal lows, following the approach of Reason and Steyn (1990); leads to the conclusion that both blocking actions are strong and persistent in central Chile. An interactive mechanism between the upper and lower blocking effects is postulated to explain the cyclonic vorticity and the initial steering of the coastal lows. The scale analysis of the governing equations for the propagation stage of the low suggests that, departing for the South African case, non-linearity is important here, and that solitary Kelvin waves could be expected. Theoretical phase propagation speeds and Rossby radii are found to range between 8 and 15 m s-1 and 100-250 km, respectively. The importance of strong southerly winds ahead of the low and weak winds at its trailing edge is also stressed, as another major departure from the coastal-low behaviour elsewhere. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  19. Diversity of the genus Polylepis (Rosaceae, Sanguisorbeae in the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Mendoza


    Full Text Available This study provides information on the diversity of Peruvian species of Polylepis. Nineteen (19 species are reported here (more than 70% of the 27 species registered for the whole Andean region. As a result, Peru could be considered as the country with the largest diversity of Polylepis species, in comparison with Bolivia (13, Ecuador (7, Argentina (4, Colombia (3, Chile (2, and Venezuela (1. The species occur in 19 departments of Peru, with the majority of them in Cusco (10 and Ayacucho (8. Species diversity is mostly concentrated in the Peruvian southern Andes (15 species, with the region becoming the potential center of diversification of the genus Polylepis. Regarding their altitudinal distribution, the greatest diversity (18 is found between 3000 and 4000 m.

  20. Andes: An Intelligent Homework System for Introductory Physics (United States)

    van de Sande, Brett; VanLehn, K.; Hausmann, R.; Treacy, D.; Shelby, R.


    We know that students benefit from solving homework problems under the guidance of an expert (human) tutor. The Andes system ( is designed for students to solve homework problems under the guidance of an expert computer tutor. Andes encourages students to use sound problem solving techniques and provides immediate right/wrong feedback on each step of a solution. On request, Andes also provides hints based on previous student actions. I will discuss how Andes works, from a student's perspective, and summarize research that demonstrates its effectiveness as a pedagogical tool. I will also discuss how Andes can function as a tool for conducting educational research, presenting an investigation of students' hint usage as an example.

  1. Chile - Selected Issues


    International Monetary Fund


    This Selected Issues paper for Chile describes the postcrisis recovery experience. The recovery from the 2008–2009 global crisis has been markedly different both among advanced and emerging economies. The steady improvement in the labor wedge-distortions related to the consumption leisure decision helped support the recovery. In Chile, the growth generated by this improvement, was sufficient to overcome the relatively weak performance of efficiency (TFP). Chile’s recovery has been characteriz...

  2. Hydrological Modeling of Highly Glacierized Basins (Andes, Alps, and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Omani


    Full Text Available The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT was used to simulate five glacierized river basins that are global in coverage and vary in climate. The river basins included the Narayani (Nepal, Vakhsh (Central Asia, Rhone (Switzerland, Mendoza (Central Andes, Argentina, and Central Dry Andes (Chile, with a total area of 85,000 km2. A modified SWAT snow algorithm was applied in order to consider spatial variation of associated snowmelt/accumulation by elevation band across each subbasin. In previous studies, melt rates varied as a function of elevation because of an air temperature gradient while the snow parameters were constant throughout the entire basin. A major improvement of the new snow algorithm is the separation of the glaciers from seasonal snow based on their characteristics. Two SWAT snow algorithms were evaluated in simulation of monthly runoff from the glaciered watersheds: (1 the snow parameters are lumped (constant throughout the entire basin and (2 the snow parameters are spatially variable based on elevation bands of a subbasin (modified snow algorithm. Applying the distributed SWAT snow algorithm improved the model performance in simulation of monthly runoff with snow-glacial regime, so that mean RSR decreased to 0.49 from 0.55 and NSE increased to 0.75 from 0.69. Improvement of model performance was negligible in simulations of monthly runoff from the basins with a monsoon runoff regime.

  3. Seasonal and elevational contrasts in temperature trends in Central Chile between 1979 and 2015 (United States)

    Burger, F.; Brock, B.; Montecinos, A.


    We analyze trends in temperature from 18 temperature stations and one upper air sounding site at 30°-35° S in central Chile between 1979-2015, to explore geographical and season temperature trends and their controls, using regional ocean-atmosphere indices. Significant warming trends are widespread at inland stations, while trends are non-significant or negative at coastal sites, as found in previous studies. However, ubiquitous warming across the region in the past 8 years, suggests the recent period of coastal cooling has ended. Significant warming trends are largely restricted to austral spring, summer and autumn seasons, with very few significant positive or negative trends in winter identified. Autumn warming is notably strong in the Andes, which, together with significant warming in spring, could help to explain the negative mass balance of snow and glaciers in the region. A strong Pacific maritime influence on regional temperature trends is inferred through correlation with the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) index and coastal sea surface temperature, but the strength of this influence rapidly diminishes inland, and the majority of valley, and all Andes, sites are independent of the IPO index. Instead, valley and Andes sites, and mid-troposphere temperature in the coastal radiosonde profile, show correlation with the autumn Antarctic Oscillation which, in its current positive phase, promotes subsidence and warming at the latitude of central Chile.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnobio G. Poblete


    Full Text Available This article aims to study in depth the role the anticyclone subtropical eastern South Pacific (ASPSO on the nival precipitation in the arid Andes, its seasonal variability, fluctuations in the long and medium scale and associations with snowfall. For this reason, the incidence on the ratio of precipitation, the SST in the South Pacific Ocean, precipitable water, wind zonal, Radiation in Outgoing Long Wave and Omega were analyzed. The methodology consisted in the evaluation of the ASPSO through the definition of an index, based on Santiago de Chile (PSGO measured surface atmospheric pressure. This would allow its surveillance and the processing of its temporal behavior in the statistical analysis. The results showed significant time - space associations within the involved variables, which confirmed in all cases the negative impact of ASPSO related to snowfall in the Andes mountains. period 1909-2015.

  5. ANDES: Statistical tools for the ANalyses of DEep Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denison Mark R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advancements in DNA sequencing technologies have allowed researchers to progress from the analyses of a single organism towards the deep sequencing of a sample of organisms. With sufficient sequencing depth, it is now possible to detect subtle variations between members of the same species, or between mixed species with shared biomarkers, such as the 16S rRNA gene. However, traditional sequencing analyses of samples from largely homogeneous populations are often still based on multiple sequence alignments (MSA, where each sequence is placed along a separate row and similarities between aligned bases can be followed down each column. While this visual format is intuitive for a small set of aligned sequences, the representation quickly becomes cumbersome as sequencing depths cover loci hundreds or thousands of reads deep. Findings We have developed ANDES, a software library and a suite of applications, written in Perl and R, for the statistical ANalyses of DEep Sequencing. The fundamental data structure underlying ANDES is the position profile, which contains the nucleotide distributions for each genomic position resultant from a multiple sequence alignment (MSA. Tools include the root mean square deviation (RMSD plot, which allows for the visual comparison of multiple samples on a position-by-position basis, and the computation of base conversion frequencies (transition/transversion rates, variation (Shannon entropy, inter-sample clustering and visualization (dendrogram and multidimensional scaling (MDS plot, threshold-driven consensus sequence generation and polymorphism detection, and the estimation of empirically determined sequencing quality values. Conclusions As new sequencing technologies evolve, deep sequencing will become increasingly cost-efficient and the inter and intra-sample comparisons of largely homogeneous sequences will become more common. We have provided a software package and demonstrated its

  6. Caravan-submm, A Fisrt Black Hole Imager at Andes (United States)

    Miyoshi, M.; Kasuga, T.; Ishitsuka Iba, J. K.; Oka, T.; Sekido, M.; Takefuji, K.; Takahashi, M.; Saida, H.; Takahashi, R.


    We introduce our Peruvian-Japanese black hole imaging project, Caravan-submm at Andes. By constructing a sub-millimeter wavelength (submm) VLBI network at Andes we aim to get images of black hole horizon and the surroundings of Sgr A*. The array contains at least two fixed VLBI stations and one mobile VLBI station.

  7. [Domestic violence in Chile]. (United States)

    León, Tomás; Grez, Marcela; Prato, Juan Andrés; Torres, Rafael; Ruiz, Sergio


    According to recent surveys, there is a high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Chile. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs with the MesH terms "Chile", "Mental Health", "Health", "Domestic Violence", to explore the impact of DV on health in Chile. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were prospective, exploring the influence of DV on maternal-infant health. Nine studies explored the influence of DV on mental health in adults. DV was associated with deranged mental health indicators specially anxiety and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Similar results were observed among mothers who were victims of violence and their children. It is concluded that DV is a complex phenomenon with serious effects on health. However the number of studies on the subject is low and new follow up studies are required. Predictive models for DV and effective preventive measures are urgently needed.

  8. An InSAR survey of the central Andes: Constraints on magma chamber geometry and mass balance in a volcanic arc (United States)

    Pritchard, M. E.; Simons, M.


    The central Andes (14-28o S) has a high density of volcanoes, but a sparse human population, such that the activity of most volcanoes is poorly constrained. We use InSAR to conduct the first systematic observations of deformation at nearly 900 volcanoes (about 50 of which are classified ``potentially active'') during the 1992-2002 time interval. We find volcanic deformation in four locations. Subsidence is seen at Robledo (or Cerro Blanco) caldera, Argentina. We observe inflation at the stratovolcano Uturuncu, Bolivia, near stratovolcano Hualca Hualca, Peru, and in a region not associated with any known edifice on the border between Chile and Argentina that we call ``Lazufre'' because it lies between volcanoes Lastarria and Cordon del Azufre. The deformation pattern can be well explained by a uniform point-source source of inflation or deflation, but we compare these model results with those from a tri-axial point-source ellipsoid to test the robustness of estimated source depth and source strength (inferred here to be volume change). We further explore the sensitivity of these parameters to elastic half-space and layered-space models of crustal structure, and the influence of local topography. Because only one satellite look direction is available for most time periods, a variety of models are consistent with our observations. If we assume that inflation is due solely to magmatic intrusion, we can compare the rate of magma intrusion to volcanic extrusion during the decade for which data is available and the longer-term geologic rate. For the last decade, the ratio of volume intruded to extruded is between about 1-10, which agrees with previous geologic estimates in this and other volcanic arcs. The combined rate of intrusion and extrusion is within an order of magnitude of the inferred geologic rate.

  9. Changing Student Attitudes using Andes, An Intelligent Homework System (United States)

    van de Sande, Brett; Vanlehn, Kurt; Treacy, Don; Shelby, Bob; Wintersgill, Mary


    The size of introductory physics lectures often inhibits personal homework assistance and timely corrective feedback. Andes, an intelligent homework help system designed for two semesters of introductory physics, can fill this need by encouraging students to use sound problem solving techniques and providing immediate feedback on each step of a solution. On request, Andes provides principles-based hints based on previous student actions. A multi-year study at the U.S. Naval Academy demonstrates that students using Andes perform better than students working the same problems as graded pencil and paper homeworks. In addition, student attitude surveys show that Andes is preferred over other homework systems. These findings have implications for student attitudes toward, and mastery of, physics. See for more information.

  10. Quantifying Wide-Area Continental Deformation: Palinspastic Reconstruction of the Northern Andes (United States)

    Montes, C.; Rodriguez-Corcho, A. F.; Hoyos, N.; Cardona, A.; Bayona, G.


    The northern Andes could either be called a very wide plate margin, or an area of intraplate distributed deformation. At its apex, the northern Andes reach 5500 m elevation, nearly 600 km inboard from the margin (this is as far inland as the Sierras Pampeanas in Argentina). This part of the Andean belt is characterized by northeast-trending, wide deformation belts that turn eastwardly to define the sharp southern Caribbean plate boundary to the east. Regardless of kinematic model preferences, or reconstruction methodologies, any attempt to map deformation in the northern Andes and the southern Caribbean plate should honor known strain datasets and chronology of deformation in a way that allows quantification of wide- area deformation. We compiled all available strain datasets. These include shortening estimates, paleomagnetic declination data, and discrete kinematic markers. Shortening in the northern Andes has traditionally been estimated by constructing cross-sections perpendicular to the main structural trends, therefore missing any along-strike deformation. Recent GPS data confirms that modern convergence vectors are oblique to main structural trends, not orthogonal. Despite differences in interpretation and structural style, cross-sections across the Eastern cordillera of Colombia show roughly consistent shortening values. A paleomagnetic dataset shows that large vertical-axis clockwise rotations are dominant in the northwestern corner of South America and southern Caribbean margin, but absent in the Eastern cordillera. Vertical-axis rotations are again large in the Central American arc. Paleogeographic piercing points such as stranded high-grade clasts, displaced metamorphic belts, and provenance analyses, constrain strike-slip faulting, where often several hundreds of kilometers of displacement can be inferred. Combining all of these datasets into a single kinematic reconstruction (using freeware GPlates), that also respects known timing of deformation

  11. IDRC in Chile

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    labour market trends and align educa- tional programs with the skills needed by industry. Researchers at PUC also studied residential energy use ... IDRC represented “the possibility of keeping ideas alive” during the Pinochet dictatorship, says Ricardo Lagos, an IDRC- supported researcher who went on to become Chile's ...

  12. IDRC in Chile

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Latin Americans benefit from the potential of open data. □ Indigenous farmers cope ... Fast-Start Financing. Duration: 2012–2015. Grantee: Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Water resources in the populous Maipo. River Basin are under stress from competing demands and climate change effects. Researchers are ...





    La historia de Chile está cruzada por el conflicto entre la cultura moderna europea y las culturas indígenas. El tiempo lineal impuesto por el Estado nacional ha dejado al descubierto su irresponsabilidad con el tiempo indígena de los Andes. Esta temporalidad expresa una profunda y sustentable «ontología arcaica». Tras el fin de la Guerra Fría, y la postdictadura de Pinochet, esta propuesta se vuelve acuciante con las demandas políticas y los desafíos epistémicos indígenas del siglo XXI. En...

  14. Contrasting climate change impact on river flows from high-altitude catchments in the Himalayan and Andes Mountains. (United States)

    Ragettli, Silvan; Immerzeel, Walter W; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    Mountain ranges are the world's natural water towers and provide water resources for millions of people. However, their hydrological balance and possible future changes in river flow remain poorly understood because of high meteorological variability, physical inaccessibility, and the complex interplay between climate, cryosphere, and hydrological processes. Here, we use a state-of-the art glacio-hydrological model informed by data from high-altitude observations and the latest climate change scenarios to quantify the climate change impact on water resources of two contrasting catchments vulnerable to changes in the cryosphere. The two study catchments are located in the Central Andes of Chile and in the Nepalese Himalaya in close vicinity of densely populated areas. Although both sites reveal a strong decrease in glacier area, they show a remarkably different hydrological response to projected climate change. In the Juncal catchment in Chile, runoff is likely to sharply decrease in the future and the runoff seasonality is sensitive to projected climatic changes. In the Langtang catchment in Nepal, future water availability is on the rise for decades to come with limited shifts between seasons. Owing to the high spatiotemporal resolution of the simulations and process complexity included in the modeling, the response times and the mechanisms underlying the variations in glacier area and river flow can be well constrained. The projections indicate that climate change adaptation in Central Chile should focus on dealing with a reduction in water availability, whereas in Nepal preparedness for flood extremes should be the policy priority.

  15. Contemporary recent extension and compression in the central Andes (United States)

    Tibaldi, A.; Bonali, F. L.


    Although extension in the high Andes vs. compression in the lowlands has already been widely discussed in the literature, for the first time we recognized both extensional and contractional structures that developed contemporaneously during late Pliocene-Quaternary times in a wide area of the central Andean chain (about 90,000 km2), where crustal earthquake data are missing. This area comprises north-eastern Chile, south-western Bolivia and north-western Argentina, and extends from the Puna Plateau to the Altiplano-volcanic belt. Late Pliocene-Quaternary folds, with hinge lines trending NNE-SSW to N-S, are mostly located along the westernmost part of the volcanic belt and the eastern part of the Western Cordillera. Locally, there are coeval reverse faults, parallel to the folds, which reach up to the surface; particularly, the Miscanti Ridge, Tolocha Fault and La Casualidad Ridge may be the morphostructural expression of tens-km-long fault-propagation folds, which locally show topographic scarps hundreds of meters high. North and east of the contractional structures, we found evidence of late Pliocene-Quaternary normal faults striking N-S in the southern part of the study area, and NW-SE in the northern part. Well-developed grabens are present in the higher areas of the volcanic belt and in the transition zone with the Puna Plateau. The surface rupture zones of normal fault swarms range 8-24 km in length, with single fault strands up to 18 km long, which are typical of tectonic structures. The distribution in space and time of the studied contractional and extensional structures indicates that they originated in the same time period; we thus address the challenging question regarding the possible origin of the stress sources, by analysing possible causes such as volcanotectonics, high topography, orogeny collapse, and gravitational spreading of the orogen, in relation also with the role played by inherited structures. We finally analyse the relations between the

  16. Groundwater origin and recharge in the hyperarid Cordillera de la Costa, Atacama Desert, northern Chile. (United States)

    Herrera, Christian; Gamboa, Carolina; Custodio, Emilio; Jordan, Teresa; Godfrey, Linda; Jódar, Jorge; Luque, José A; Vargas, Jimmy; Sáez, Alberto


    The Cordillera de la Costa is located along the coastline of northern Chile, in the hyperarid Atacama Desert area. Chemical and isotopic analyses of several small coastal springs and groundwater reservoirs between 22.5 °S and 25.5 °S allow understanding groundwater origin, renewal time and the probable timing of recharge. The aquifers are mostly in old volcanic rocks and alluvial deposits. All spring waters are brackish, of the sodium chloride type due to intensive concentration of precipitation due aridity and for deep groundwater to additional water-rock interaction in slowly renewed groundwater and mixing with deep seated brines. The heavy δ 18 O and δ 2 H values in spring water are explained by recharge by the arrival of moist air masses from the Pacific Ocean and the originally lighter values in the deep wells can be associated to past recharge by air masses coming from the Atlantic Ocean. Current recharge is assumed almost nil but it was significant in past wetter-than-present periods, increasing groundwater reserves, which are not yet exhausted. To explain the observed chloride content and radiocarbon ( 14 C) activity, a well-mixed (exponential) flow model has been considered for aquifer recharge. The average residence time of groundwater feeding the springs has been estimated between 1 and 2kyr, up to 5kyr and between 7 and 13kyr for deep well water, assuming that current recharge is much less than during the previous wetter period. The recharge period feeding the coastal springs could have been produced 1 to 5kyr BP, when the area was already inhabited, and recharge in the Michilla mine was produced during the 10 to 14.5kyr BP CAPE (Central Andean Pluvial Event) pluvial events of the central Andes. The approximate coincidence of turnover time with the past wet periods, as revealed by paleoclimate data, points to significant recharge during them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening for new accumulator plants in Andes Range mines (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria


    accumulated considerable concentrations of Cu and Zn. The species from the genus Bidens (Asteraceae) were able not only to accumulate high shoot As concentrations (> 1000 μg g-1 in B. cynapiifolia from Peru) but also considerable amounts of Pb (B. humilis from Chile). The highest Cu shoot concentrations were found in Mullinum spinosum (870 μg g-1) and in B. cynapiifolia (620 μg g-1). The shoot accumulation of Zn was highest in Baccharis amdatensis (>1900 μg g-1) and in Rumex crispus (1300 μg g-1) from the Ag mine in Ecuador (Bech et al., 2002). In the Peruvian Andes, B. triplinervia can be considered interesting for phytostabilization, due to its capacity to restrict the accumulation of elevated amounts of Pb and Zn in the shoots.

  18. Snow cover dynamics in Andean watersheds of Chile (32.0-39.5° S) during the years 2000-2016 (United States)

    Stehr, Alejandra; Aguayo, Mauricio


    Andean watersheds present important snowfall accumulation mainly during the winter, which melts during the spring and part of the summer. The effect of snowmelt on the water balance can be critical to sustain agriculture activities, hydropower generation, urban water supplies and wildlife. In Chile, 25 % of the territory between the region of Valparaiso and Araucanía comprises areas where snow precipitation occurs. As in many other difficult-to-access regions of the world, there is a lack of hydrological data of the Chilean Andes related to discharge, snow courses, and snow depths, which complicates the analysis of important hydrological processes (e.g. water availability). Remote sensing provides a promising opportunity to enhance the assessment and monitoring of the spatial and temporal variability of snow characteristics, such as the snow cover area (SCA) and snow cover dynamic (SCD). With regards to the foregoing questions, the objective of the study is to evaluate the spatiotemporal dynamics of the SCA at five watersheds (Aconcagua, Rapel, Maule, Biobío and Toltén) located in the Chilean Andes, between latitude 32.0 and 39.5° S, and to analyse its relationship with the precipitation regime/pattern and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. Those watersheds were chosen because of their importance in terms of their number of inhabitants, and economic activities depending on water resources. The SCA area was obtained from MOD10A2 for the period 2000-2016, and the SCD was analysed through a number of statistical tests to explore observed trends. In order to verify the SCA for trend analysis, a validation of the MOD10A2 product was done, consisting of the comparison of snow presence predicted by MODIS with ground observations. Results indicate that there is an overall agreement of 81 to 98 % between SCA determined from ground observations and MOD10A2, showing that the MODIS snow product can be taken as a feasible remote sensing tool for SCA estimation in

  19. Spent Fuel in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López Lizana, F.


    The government has made a complete and serious study of many different aspects and possible road maps for nuclear electric power with strong emphasis on safety and energy independence. In the study, the chapter of SFM has not been a relevant issue at this early stage due to the fact that it has been left for later implementation stage. This paper deals with the options Chile might consider in managing its Spent Fuel taking into account foreign experience and factors related to safety, economics, public acceptance and possible novel approaches in spent fuel treatment. The country’s distinctiveness and past experience in this area taking into account that Chile has two research reactors which will have an influence in the design of the Spent Fuel option. (author)

  20. Identidad Docente en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia González Castro


    Full Text Available Este ensayo invita a pensar el discurso identitario docente en Chile, desde la perspectiva de la tropología, entendida como ejes textuales sobre los cuales se figura la realidad y que son efecto de la interacción comunicativa entre integrantes de un colectivo social, que comparten una enciclopedia o repertorio de experiencias comunes que permiten asignar sentido a un mensaje.

  1. Arguedasmachine: Modernity and Affect in the Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Beasley-Murray


    Full Text Available Peruvian writer José María Arguedas’s final book, an unfinished and posthumously published novel entitled El zorro de arriba y el zorro de abajo, is set in the coastal boomtown of Chimbote during the late 1960s. Rapid industrialization has led to the town being dominated by fish-processing factories belching out smoke, and surrounded by slums in which thousands of recent immigrants from the Andes eke out a living at the margins of this intense capitalist exploitation. The novel’s main concern is with these margins, with the slums or barriadas in which all of Peru’s cultures and languages are thrown together in chaos and misery, if also in vital intercommunication and restless striving. But at the center of the novel is a strange scene of epiphany that takes place at the heart of the industrial enterprise.

  2. Atmospheric transmissivity: Distribution and empirical estimation around the central andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baigorria, G.A.; Villegas, E.B.; Trebejo, I.; Carlos, J.F.; Quiroz, R.


    This study of the distribution in space and time of atmospheric transmissivity takes into account the fact that, in complex terrain, many factors affect this variable; thus, it is not possible to use the generalizations that can be applied under more homogeneous conditions. Climatic controls,

  3. Crustal contributions to arc magmatism in the Andes of Central Chile (United States)

    Hildreth, W.; Moorbath, S.


    Fifteen andesite-dacite stratovolcanoes on the volcanic front of a single segment of the Andean arc show along-arc changes in isotopic and elemental ratios that demonstrate large crustal contributions to magma genesis. All 15 centers lie 90 km above the Benioff zone and 280??20 km from the trench axis. Rate and geometry of subduction and composition and age of subducted sediments and seafloor are nearly constant along the segment. Nonetheless, from S to N along the volcanic front (at 57.5% SiO2) K2O rises from 1.1 to 2.4 wt %, Ba from 300 to 600 ppm, and Ce from 25 to 50 ppm, whereas FeO*/MgO declines from >2.5 to 1.4. Ce/Yb and Hf/Lu triple northward, in part reflecting suppression of HREE enrichment by deep-crustal garnet. Rb, Cs, Th, and U contents all rise markedly from S to N, but Rb/Cs values double northward - opposite to prediction were the regional alkali enrichment controlled by sediment subduction. K/Rb drops steeply and scatters greatly within many (biotite-free) andesitic suites. Wide diversity in Zr/Hf, Zr/Rb, Ba/Ta, and Ba/La within and among neighboring suites (which lack zircon and alkali feldspar) largely reflects local variability of intracrustal (not slab or mantle) contributions. Pb-isotope data define a limited range that straddles the Stacey-Kramers line, is bracketed by values of local basement rocks, in part plots above the field of Nazca plate sediment, and shows no indication of a steep (mantle+sedimentary) Pb mixing trend. 87Sr/86Sr values rise northward from 0.7036 to 0.7057, and 143Nd/144Nd values drop from 0.5129 to 0.5125. A northward climb in basal elevation of volcanic-front edifices from 1350 m to 4500 m elevation coincides with a Bougueranomaly gradient from -95 to -295 mgal, interpreted to indicate thickening of the crust from 30-35 km to 50-60 km. Complementary to the thickening crust, the mantle wedge beneath the front thins northward from about 60 km to 30-40 km (as slab depth is constant). The thick northern crust contains an abundance of Paleozoic and Triassic rocks, whereas the proportion of younger arc-intrusive basement increases southward. Primitive basalts are unknown anywhere along the arc. Base-level isotopic and chemical values for each volcano are established by blending of subcrustal and deep-crustal magmas in zones of melting, assimilation, storage and homogenization (MASH) at the mantle-crust transition. Scavenging of mid-to upper-crustal silicic-alkalic melts and intracrustal AFC (prominent at the largest center) can subsequently modify ascending magmas, but the base-level geochemical signature at each center reflects the depth of its MASH zone and the age, composition, and proportional contribution of the lowermost crust. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

  4. A parametric and non-parametric metamodeling approach for the bias-correction of Satellite Rainfall Estimates using rain gauge measurements. Cases of study: Magdalena Basin (Colombia), Imperial Basin (Chile) and Paraiba do Sul (Brazil). (United States)

    Rebolledo Coy, M. A.; Villanueva, O. M. B.; Bartz-Beielstein, T.; Ribbe, L.


    Rainfall measurement plays an important role on the understanding and modeling of the water cycle. However, the assessment of scarce data regions using common rain gauge information, cannot be done using a straightforward approach. Some of the main problems concerning rainfall assessment are; the lack of a sufficiently dense grid of ground stations in extensive areas and the unstable spatial accuracy of the Satellite Rainfall Estimates (SREs). Following previous works on SREs analysis and bias-correction, we generate an ensemble model that corrects the bias error on a seasonal and yearly basis using six different state-of-the-art SREs (TRMM 3B42RT, TRMM 3B42v7, PERSIANN-CDR, CHIRPSv2, CMORPH and MSWEPv1.2) in a point-to-pixel approach for the studied period (2003-2015). Three different basins; Magdalena in Colombia, Imperial in Chile and Paraiba do Sul in Brazil are evaluated. Using Gaussian process regression and Bayesian robust regression we model the behavior of the ground stations and evaluate its goodness-of-fit by using the modified Kling-Gupta efficiency (KGE'). Following this evaluation, the models are re-fitted by taking into account the error distribution in each point and the corresponding KGE' is evaluated again. Both models were specified using the probabilistic language STAN. To improve the efficiency of the Gaussian model a clustering of the data was implemented. We also compared the performance of both models in term of uncertainty and stability against the raw input concluding that both models represent better the study areas. The results show that the error displays an exponential behavior for days where precipitation was present, this allows the models to be corrected according to the observed rainfall values. The seasonal evaluations also show improved performance in relation to the yearly evaluations. The use of bias-corrected SREs for hydrologic purposes in scarce data regions is highly recommended in order to merge the punctual values from

  5. Behavioral problems and tobacco use among adolescents in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caris Luis


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between behavioral problems and tobacco smoking among adolescent students in Chile. METHODS: Data were drawn from a study that included questionnaire surveys of 46 907 school-attending adolescents in all 13 of the administrative regions of Chile. Assessments were based on an adapted, Spanish-language version of the Drug Use Screening Inventory. The conditional form of the logistic regression model was used for analysis, with matching of students on individual schools, and with further statistical adjustments for sex, age, and selected risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco smoking among the adolescents was very high across all of Chile, with a level between 56% and 65% in each of the 13 regions. The estimated odds of tobacco use in youths at the highest level of behavioral problems was about twice that for youths at the lowest levels, both before and after controlling for sex, age, lack of participation in recreational activities, level of irritability, and levels of problems with school, family attention, and mental health. CONCLUSIONS: These findings help to complement and complete the evidence of prior studies on tobacco smoking among adolescents with behavior problems, including recent research on Central American youths. Although the magnitude of observed associations in Chile was not as great as that for the associations found in Central America, both the strength of these associations and their statistical significance were observed throughout Chile. This is the first study in Chile on potentially causal relationships such as these.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Alicia Giamportone


    Full Text Available Las guerras de la independencia de las Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata, Chile y Perú tuvieron como acontecimiento sustancial la campaña libertadora liderada por el general San Martín. En este contexto, la formación del ejército de Los Andes adquirió un papel preponderante como protagonista de los éxitos que condujeron hacia la independencia. En el presente trabajo se analizan las acciones de gobierno llevadas a cabo por el general José de San Martín cuando asume el doble propósito de ser el Gobernador Intendente de Cuyo y preparar el Ejército de Los Andes, en el período comprendido desde agosto de 1814 hasta enero de 1817. Como resultados se comprueba la importancia que la región de Cuyo protagonizó en el contexto político y militar del proceso de revolución e independencia y especialmente se destaca el desempeño del pueblo cuyano y su colaboración con el ejército de Los Andes, tanto en recursos materiales, animales, minerales como humanos.

  7. Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic deformation and exhumation of the Chilean Frontal Cordillera (28°-29°S), Central Andes (United States)

    Martínez, Fernando; Parra, Mauricio; Arriagada, César; Mora, Andrés; Bascuñan, Sebastián; Peña, Matías


    The Frontal Cordillera in northern Chile is located over the flat-slab subduction segment of the Central Andes. This tectonic province is characterized by a thick-skinned structural style showing evidence of tectonic inversion and basement-involved compressive structures. Field data, U-Pb geochronological and apatite fission track data were used to unravel partially the tectonic history of the area. Previous U-Pb ages of synorogenic deposits exposed on the flanks of basement-core anticlines indicate that Andean deformation started probably during Late Cretaceous with the tectonic inversion of Triassic and Jurassic half-grabens. New U-Pb ages of the synorogenic Quebrada Seca Formation suggest that this deformation continued during Paleocene (66-60 Ma) with the reverse faulting of pre-rift basement blocks. The analysis of new apatite fission-track data shows that a rapid and coeval cooling related to exhumation of the pre-rift basement blocks occurred during Eocene times. This exhumation event is interpreted for first time in the Chilean Frontal Cordillera and it could have occurred simultaneously with the propagation of basement-involved structures. The age of this exhumation event coincides with the Incaic orogenic phase, which is interpreted as the most important to the Central Andes in terms of shortening, uplift and exhumation.

  8. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help...

  9. Rule of Repression in Chile. (United States)

    American Indian Journal, 1979


    This report on the current condition of the Mapuche Indians of Chile is edited from a document on the "Situation of Human Rights in Chile" and details the repressive and inhumane treatment of the largest indigenous ethnic minority in the country. (Author/RTS)

  10. Bayesian spatiotemporal interpolation of rainfall in the Central Chilean Andes (United States)

    Ossa-Moreno, Juan; Keir, Greg; McIntyre, Neil


    Water availability in the populous and economically significant Central Chilean region is governed by complex interactions between precipitation, temperature, snow and glacier melt, and streamflow. Streamflow prediction at daily time scales depends strongly on accurate estimations of precipitation in this predominantly dry region, particularly during the winter period. This can be difficult as gauged rainfall records are scarce, especially in the higher elevation regions of the Chilean Andes, and topographic influences on rainfall are not well understood. Remotely sensed precipitation and topographic products can be used to construct spatiotemporal multivariate regression models to estimate rainfall at ungauged locations. However, classical estimation methods such as kriging cannot easily accommodate the complicated statistical features of the data, including many 'no rainfall' observations, as well as non-normality, non-stationarity, and temporal autocorrelation. We use a separable space-time model to predict rainfall using the R-INLA package for computationally efficient Bayesian inference, using the gridded CHIRPS satellite-based rainfall dataset and digital elevation models as covariates. We jointly model both the probability of rainfall occurrence on a given day (using a binomial likelihood) as well as amount (using a gamma likelihood or similar). Correlation in space and time is modelled using a Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) with a Matérn spatial covariance function which can evolve over time according to an autoregressive model if desired. It is possible to evaluate the GMRF at relatively coarse temporal resolution to speed up computations, but still produce daily rainfall predictions. We describe the process of model selection and inference using an information criterion approach, which we use to objectively select from competing models with various combinations of temporal smoothing, likelihoods, and autoregressive model orders.

  11. Estimación de mortalidad natural e incertidumbre para congrio dorado (Genypterus blacodes Schneider, 1801 en la zona sur-austral de Chile Estimation of natural mortality and uncertainty in pink cusk-eel (Genypterus blacodes Schneider, 1801 in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Wiff


    Full Text Available El congrio dorado (Genypterus blacodes es un pez demersal de gran importancia económica en la pesquería multiespecífica y multiflota que opera en la zona sur-austral de Chile (41°28'-57°00'S. Desde principio de los años noventas se consideró para efectos de la evaluación poblacional la existencia de un único stock. Sin embargo, varios antecedentes relacionados con la historia de vida y demografía han conducido a que, desde el año 2005, la evaluación de esta especie se realice bajo dos stocks administrativos, uno en la zona norte (41°28'-47°00'S y otro en la zona sur (47°00'-57°00'S. La separación de stocks produce una demanda por actualización de parámetros de historia de vida, entre éstos la mortalidad natural (M. En este trabajo se estimó M para el congrio dorado mediante métodos empíricos aplicados por zona y sexo. La incertidumbre en M fue incorporada a través de remuestreo de Monte Carlo considerando dos fuentes de error, una proveniente de los parámetros de historia de vida que alimentan los modelos empíricos y otra, proveniente de los coeficientes que los definen. El promedio de M mediante los diferentes métodos mostró, para una determinada zona, importantes diferencias entre sexos, como también para sexos conjuntos entre zonas de pesca. Los individuos de la zona norte presentaron mayor M que aquellos provenientes de la zona sur y los coeficientes de variación por método son altamente dependientes del tipo de error incorporado. El método de Pauly (1980 parece ser el más adecuado para el congrio dorado entregando valores de M para sexos conjuntos de 0,27 año-1 (IC: 0,13-0,47 en la zona norte y 0,23 año-1 (IC: 0,11-0,40 en la zona sur.Pink cusk-eel (Genypterus blacodes is a demersal fish of high economic importance for the multi-species and multi-fleet fishery operating off far-southern Chile (41°28'-57°00'S. Since the early 1990s, the existence of a single stock was assumed for purposes of stock

  12. Protecting Dark Skies in Chile (United States)

    Smith, R. Chris; Sanhueza, Pedro; Phillips, Mark


    Current projections indicate that Chile will host approximately 70% of the astronomical collecting area on Earth by 2030, augmenting the enormous area of ALMA with that of three next-generation optical telescopes: LSST, GMTO, and E-ELT. These cutting-edge facilities represent billions of dollars of investment in the astronomical facilities hosted in Chile. The Chilean government, Chilean astronomical community, and the international observatories in Chile have recognized that these investments are threatened by light pollution, and have formed a strong collaboration to work at managing the threats. We will provide an update on the work being done in Chile, ranging from training municipalities about new lighting regulations to exploring international recognition of the dark sky sites of Northern Chile.

  13. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)


    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  14. Country profile: Chile. (United States)


    The first case of AIDS in Chile was diagnosed in 1984. There have been 1060 cases reported since then throughout the country, or 8.2 cases for every 100,000 Chileans. 92.8% of all people with AIDS in Chile are male, with the male:female AIDS patient ratio increasing from 12.9:1 for the period 1984-1991 to 15.2:1 currently. This increase in the proportion of male AIDS cases suggests the existence of a rapidly increasing male HIV infection rate. 82% of reported cases are the result of unprotected sexual intercourse, 66.8% of which are among males who identify themselves as homosexual or bisexual. The 7.2:1 ratio of homosexual/bisexual transmission to heterosexual transmission for 1984-1989, however, declined to 3.9:1 for 1990-1994, indicating an increase in the extent of HIV/AIDS transmission through sex between men and women. Heterosexual sex is the reported means of transmission for 15.2% of currently identified AIDS cases in Chile. The mode of transmission was unknown for 10% of reported cases, due to vertical transmission among 1%, and the result of the direct exchange of blood among 7%. 60% of these latter cases were reported among IV drug users, 20% were reported as the result of blood transfusion, and 16% were reported in hemophiliacs. Most transmissions by blood transfusion occurred before 1987, when blood product controls were implemented. Infection due to IV drug use grew to 69.8% of such blood-related cases in 1990-94, compared to just 29.4% of cases in 1984-89. 81.5% of all cases are among people aged 20-49 years, with 64.1% of cases among individuals aged 30-49. Those under age 20 comprise 2.3% of total cases and those aged 20-29 years comprise 17.4%.

  15. The Occurrence of Fog in Chile. (United States)

    Cereceda, Pilar; Schemenauer, Robert S.


    The topography in Chile is extremely complex and many types of fog are found; both factors complicate the presentation of the data. Despite this, measurements from standard meteorological stations suggest a latitudinal maximum in fog frequency between 35° and 40°S for coastal stations. This is supported by data from inland stations in Chile and the available observations from Argentina on the Atlantic coast of South America. Along the Chilean coast the average number of days with fog ranges from 3 to 59 per year. The variation in fog frequencies is related to persistent synoptic-scale circulation patterns and to ocean currents.Specialized fog observations wore made at three remote locations in northern Chile to determine fog frequencies on the coastal mountains. The sites were in a very add region (26°-28°S) near a large-scale fog-water collection project. Fog frequencies as high as 189 days per year with another 84 days of patchy fog were reported at an altitude of 860 m. These are 3-15 times higher than at low-elevation coastal locations at similar latitudes. Clearly, observations from standard meteorological stations are not suitable for estimating higher-elevation fog frequencies.

  16. Robotics research in Chile

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    Javier Ruiz-del-Solar


    Full Text Available The development of research in robotics in a developing country is a challenging task. Factors such as low research funds, low trust from local companies and the government, and a small number of qualified researchers hinder the development of strong, local research groups. In this article, and as a case of study, we present our research group in robotics at the Advanced Mining Technology Center of the Universidad de Chile, and the way in which we have addressed these challenges. In 2008, we decided to focus our research efforts in mining, which is the main industry in Chile. We observed that this industry has needs in terms of safety, productivity, operational continuity, and environmental care. All these needs could be addressed with robotics and automation technology. In a first stage, we concentrate ourselves in building capabilities in field robotics, starting with the automation of a commercial vehicle. An important outcome of this project was the earn of the local mining industry confidence. Then, in a second stage started in 2012, we began working with the local mining industry in technological projects. In this article, we describe three of the technological projects that we have developed with industry support: (i an autonomous vehicle for mining environments without global positioning system coverage; (ii the inspection of the irrigation flow in heap leach piles using unmanned aerial vehicles and thermal cameras; and (iii an enhanced vision system for vehicle teleoperation in adverse climatic conditions.

  17. Finanzas de la Universidad de Los Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Aura Casal de Altuve


    Full Text Available El objetivo primario de este artículo es el de fungir de base comparativa para otros estudios de países latinoamericanos que podrían estar considerando síntomas similares en el área de la investigación contable. El punto de partida lo representa un estudio de caso de los profesores del Departamento de Contabilidad y Finanzas de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Sociales de la Universidad de los Andes. El artículo analiza la relación entre investigación y enseñanza y si el departamento está o no cumpliendo con sus objetivos. Un objetivo secundario consiste en la determinación de los posibles factores que han tenido una influencia significativa en el desempeño de la investigación y de la enseñanza por parte de los investigadores. Basándose en entrevistas y recolección directa de datos, se consideran las estrategias institucionales para fijar los objetivos de las actividades de investigación

  18. Quantitative Temperature Reconstructions from Holocene and Late Glacial Lake Sediments in the Tropical Andes using Chironomidae (non-biting midges) (United States)

    Matthews-Bird, F.; Gosling, W. D.; Brooks, S. J.; Montoya, E.; Coe, A. L.


    Chironomidae (non-biting midges) is a family of two-winged aquatic insects of the order Diptera. They are globally distributed and one of the most diverse families within aquatic ecosystems. The insects are stenotopic, and the rapid turnover of species and their ability to colonise quickly favourable habitats means chironomids are extremely sensitive to environmental change, notably temperature. Through the development of quantitative temperature inference models chironomids have become important palaeoecological tools. Proxies capable of generating independent estimates of past climate are crucial to disentangling climate signals and ecosystem response in the palaeoecological record. This project has developed the first modern environmental calibration data set in order to use chironomids from the Tropical Andes as quantitative climate proxies. Using surface sediments from c. 60 lakes from Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador we have developed an inference model capable of reconstructing temperatures, with a prediction error of 1-2°C, from fossil assemblages. Here we present the first Lateglacial and Holocene chironomid-inferred temperature reconstructions from two sites in the tropical Andes. The first record, from a high elevation (4153 m asl) lake in the Bolivian Andes, shows persistently cool temperatures for the past 15 kyr, punctuated by warm episodes in the early Holocene (9-10 kyr BP). The chironomid-inferred Holocene temperature trends from a lake sediment record on the eastern Andean flank of Ecuador (1248 m asl) spanning the last 5 millennia are synchronous with temperature changes in the NGRIP ice core record. The temperature estimates suggest along the eastern flank of the Andes, at lower latitudes (~1°S), climate closely resemble the well-established fluctuations of the Northern Hemisphere for this time period. Late-glacial climate fluctuations across South America are still disputed with some palaeoecological records suggesting evidence for Younger Dryas

  19. Geophysical variables and behavior: LX. Lonquimay and Alhué, Chile: tension from volcanic and earthquake hazard. (United States)

    Larraín, P; Simpson-Housley, P


    This study assesses the effect of trait anxiety scores on subjects' responses to volcanic eruption hazard and earthquake hazard in Lonquimay and Alhué, respectively. Lonquimay is located in the southern Chilean Andes and Alhué is located in central Chile in the Coastal Range. The former was afflicted by a volcanic eruption which commenced on Christmas Day 1988 and the latter by an earthquake on March 3, 1985. Expectations of high damage and fear from a radio hazard prediction were associated with high trait-anxiety scores in the Alhué sample while positive adjustments to extenuate the hazard effect reached significance for the Lonquimay sample.

  20. Gas discharges from four remote volcanoes in northern Chile (Putana, Olca, Irruputuncu and Alitar): a geochemical survey


    Thomas Darrah; Orlando Vaselli; Felipe Aguilera; Franco Tassi; Eduardo Medina


    We analyzed gas samples collected from fumaroles and bubbling pools at Irruputuncu, Putana, Olca and Alitar volcanoes located in the central Andes volcanic zone (northern Chile). The Irruputuncu and Putana fumarolic discharges showed outlet temperatures ranging from 83 ˚C to 240 ˚C and from 82 ˚C to 88 ˚C, respectively. The chemical and isotopic (3He/4He, d13C-CO2, d18O-H2O and dD-H2O) compositions of these discharges were similar to medium-to-high temperature volcanic gases from other active...

  1. A satellite geodetic survey of large-scale deformation of volcanic centres in the central Andes. (United States)

    Pritchard, Matthew E; Simons, Mark


    Surface deformation in volcanic areas usually indicates movement of magma or hydrothermal fluids at depth. Stratovolcanoes tend to exhibit a complex relationship between deformation and eruptive behaviour. The characteristically long time spans between such eruptions requires a long time series of observations to determine whether deformation without an eruption is common at a given edifice. Such studies, however, are logistically difficult to carry out in most volcanic arcs, as these tend to be remote regions with large numbers of volcanoes (hundreds to even thousands). Here we present a satellite-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) survey of the remote central Andes volcanic arc, a region formed by subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate beneath continental South America. Spanning the years 1992 to 2000, our survey reveals the background level of activity of about 900 volcanoes, 50 of which have been classified as potentially active. We find four centres of broad (tens of kilometres wide), roughly axisymmetric surface deformation. None of these centres are at volcanoes currently classified as potentially active, although two lie within about 10 km of volcanoes with known activity. Source depths inferred from the patterns of deformation lie between 5 and 17 km. In contrast to the four new sources found, we do not observe any deformation associated with recent eruptions of Lascar, Chile.

  2. 3-D modeling of magnetotelluric data in the Paniri-Toconce volcanic chain, Central Andes. (United States)

    Mancini, R.; Brasse, H.; Diaz, D.


    The research is located in the San Pedro-Toconce volcanic chain in the central volcanic zone of the Andes, North Chile. This area is interesting because of its proximity to several active volcanic centers, the geysers field of El Tatio and the recently opened geothermal plant Cerro Pabellon. Thermobarometry studies made in the area point to magma accumulated at 8 km below Lavas de Chao, and depths greater than 24 km below Toconce and Cerro de Leon. Regional geophysical studies show a distribution of conductive bodies around the complex, but the resolution of these studies at shallow depths are not conclusive. Data from wells show the possible presence of a large geothermal system in the southwest part of the complex, with depths of 2 km. Twenty broadband magnetotelluric (MT) stations were measured in the vicinity of the complex and combined with 15 long period MT stations measured in the 1990s, aiming at characterizing the deep conductive structures previously observed in the area, with magmatic bodies associated with the adjacent volcanic system. The results of a 3-D inversion show several conductive anomalies around the complex. Analyses of conductivity together with the 3-D models obtained indicate the presence of a geothermal system to the southwest of the complex with maximum depths of about 5 km, and two possible magmatic chambers below Paniri volcano and between Paniri and San Pedro volcanoes. In addition, the presence of a highly conductive structure to the east is obtained, associated with the Altiplano-Puna magma body (APMB).

  3. Radiation doses in neuroangiography for a clinical hospital in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara, F.; Valenzuela, E.


    The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of radiation to the patient in neuroangiography procedures diagnostic and therapy in a Chile's Hospital, using a biplane angiographic system Siemens model ArtisZee. This research was conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the support of their radiation protection programs for patients

  4. Diversification in the Andes: age and origins of South American Heliotropium lineages (Heliotropiaceae, Boraginales). (United States)

    Luebert, Federico; Hilger, Hartmut H; Weigend, Maximilian


    The uplift of the Andes was a major factor for plant diversification in South America and had significant effects on the climatic patterns at the continental scale. It was crucial for the formation of the arid environments in south-eastern and western South America. However, both the timing of the major stages of the Andean uplift and the onset of aridity in western South America remain controversial. In this paper we examine the hypothesis that the Andean South American groups of Heliotropium originated and diversified in response to Andean orogeny during the late Miocene and a the subsequent development of aridity. To this end, we estimate divergence times and likely biogeographical origins of the major clades in the phylogeny of Heliotropium, using both Bayesian and likelihood methods. Divergence times of all Andean clades in Heliotropium are estimated to be of late Miocene or Pliocene ages. At least three independent Andean diversification events can be recognized within Heliotropium. Timing of the diversification in the Andean lineages Heliotropium sects.Heliothamnus, Cochranea, Heliotrophytum, Hypsogenia, Plagiomeris, Platygyne clearly correspond to a rapid, late Miocene uplift of the Andes and a Pliocene development of arid environments in South America. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Regionalisation of Hydrological Indices to Assess Land-Use Change Impacts in the Tropical Andes (United States)

    Buytaert, W.; Ochoa Tocachi, B. F.


    Andean ecosystems are major water sources for cities and communities located in the Tropical Andes; however, there is a considerable lack of knowledge about their hydrology. Two problems are especially important: (i) the lack of monitoring to assess the impacts of historical land-use and cover change and degradation (LUCCD) at catchment scale, and (ii) the high variability in climatic and hydrological conditions that complicate the evaluation of land management practices. This study analyses how a reliable LUCCD impacts assessment can be performed in an environment of high variability combined with data-scarcity and low-quality records. We use data from participatory hydrological monitoring activities in 20 catchments distributed along the tropical Andes. A set of 46 hydrological indices is calculated and regionalized by relating them to 42 physical catchment properties. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is performed to maximise available data while minimising redundancy in the sets of variables. Hydrological model parameters are constrained by estimated indices, and different behavioural predictions are assembled to provide a generalised response on which we assess LUCCD impacts. Results from this methodology show that the attributed effects of LUCCD in pair-wise catchment comparisons may be overstated or hidden by different sources of uncertainty, including measurement inaccuracies and model structural errors. We propose extrapolation and evaluation in ungauged catchments as a way to regionalize LUCCD predictions and to provide statistically significant conclusions in the Andean region. These estimations may deliver reliable knowledge to evaluate the hydrological impact of different watershed management practices.

  6. Analysis of La Dehesa paleo-landslide. Central Pre-Andes of Argentina (United States)

    Tapia Baldis, Carla; Rothis, Luis Martín; Perucca, Laura; Esper Angillieri, María; Vargas, Horacio; Ponce, David; Allis, Carlos


    The main objective of this paper is to consider the influence of Quaternary faults as likely triggering factor for rockslides occurrence in the Central Pre-Andes, a region with intense shallow seismic activity. A rockslide deposit was selected as study case, placed in the western flank of La Dehesa and Talacasto (DT) range (31°3‧37″ S and 68°46‧ 8″ W). Applied methodology includes the characterization of main discontinuities, reconstruction of the topography using a high-resolution digital elevation model, safety factor calculation along the sliding surface and, Newmark displacements estimation for three different hypothetical seismic scenarios, recreated from existing neotectonic local information. Equilibrium-limit method's results confirm that study case, La Dehesa rockslide (LDR), had a stable and safe slope's configuration under static conditions. However, a seismic horizontal coefficient between 0.2 and 0.3 decreases safety factor below the safety threshold. Newmark's displacements for different seismic reconstructed scenarios varies between 4.1 and 15.9 cm, values that agreed with a coherent failure process, likely triggered by Pleistocene to Holocene seismogenic sources in Central Pre-Andes. LDR trigger could be assigned mainly to an earthquake related to La Dehesa Quaternary fault (LDF) activity; however, similar movements produced by neighboring faults should not be discarded. LDR triggering related to climatic conditions is despised. Finally, the methodology presented in this work is easy to reproduce and may be applied to other rockslides located in the mountainous areas of the Central Pre-Andes of Argentina.

  7. Nuclear energy evolution in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir Dupouy, J.


    The interest about the nuclear in Chile, as is the case in other countries, began at the end of World War Two. That initial interest did not have a big national impact, since the secrecy that characterized the first years of the nuclear era restrained the acquisition of technological information. Since August 1945 up to our days, scientifical, political and international people and events have chronologically marked the evolution of nuclear energy in Chile. (Author)

  8. El proceso emprendedor en Chile


    José Miguel Benavente


    Este estudio analiza los factores que afectan en forma positiva y negativa el proceso de creación de emprendimientos dinámicos en Chile. Se basa en una encuesta a 200 empresas jóvenes, la cual es parte de una muestra de casi 2000 empresas de América Latina. El presente estudio se enfoca básicamente en el segmento de nuevos emprendimientos existentes en Chile.

  9. Preliminary Results From the CAUGHT Experiment: Investigation of the North Central Andes Subsurface Using Receiver Functions and Ambient Noise Tomography (United States)

    Ryan, J. C.; Ward, K. M.; Porter, R. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.


    Jamie Ryan, Kevin M. Ward, Ryan Porter, Susan Beck, George Zandt, Lara Wagner, Estela Minaya, and Hernando Tavera The University of Arizona The University of North Carolina San Calixto Observatorio, La Paz, Bolivia IGP, Lima, Peru In order to investigate the interplay between crustal shortening, lithospheric removal, and surface uplift we have deployed 50 broadband seismometers in northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru as part of the interdisciplinary Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project. The morphotectonic units of the central Andes from west to east, consist of the Western Cordillera, the active volcanic arc, the Altiplano, an internally drained basin (~4 km elevation), the Eastern Cordillera, the high peaks (~6 km elevation) of an older fold and thrust belt, the Subandean zone, the lower elevation active fold and thrust belt, and the foreland Beni basin. Between northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru, the Altiplano pinches out north of Lake Titicaca as the Andes narrow northward. The CAUGHT seismic instruments were deployed between 13° to 18° S latitudes to investigate the crust and mantle lithosphere of the central Andes in this transitional zone. In northwest Bolivia, perpendicular to the strike of the Andes, there is a total of 275 km of documented upper crustal shortening (15° to 17°S) (McQuarrie et al, 2008). Associated with the shortening is crustal thickening and possibly lithospheric removal as the thickening lithospheric root becomes unstable. An important first order study is to compare upper crustal shortening estimates with present day crustal thickness. To estimate crustal thickness, we have calculated receiver functions using an iterative deconvolution method and used common conversion point stacking along the same profile as the geologically based shortening estimates. In our preliminary results, we observed a strong P to S conversion corresponding to the Moho at approximately 60-65 km depth underneath the

  10. Exhumation of the Western Cordillera of the Peruvian Andes (5-12°S) (United States)

    Michalak, M.; Hall, S. R.; Farber, D.; Hourigan, J. K.


    The topography of mountain belts is the first-order morphological expression of the dynamical forces that drive plate tectonics. Despite recent advances in techniques that quantify tectonic and geomorphologic processes, characterizing the near and far-field forces that form mountainous topography at a continental scale remains challenging. The South American Andes are an example of a long-lived orogen that is morphologically and tectonically segmented. For example, the Northern Peruvian Andes are a region characterized by flat-slab subduction, no active volcanism and a relatively narrow section of high topography, in contrast to the central Andes, which contain the broad Altiplano-Puna plateau, active volcanism and normal-angle subduction. Current models of Andean orogenesis based on paleoelevation estimates, thermochronology data, and structural analysis suggest that most of the high topography evolved sometime in the last 20Ma, possibly characterized by a period of punctuated uplift from 10-6Ma. However, as many of these data are from the central Andes, they may not be directly applicable to the entire Andean chain. Therefore, it is critical to investigate areas outside of the central Andean region using similar techniques to test the applicability of these models elsewhere in the Andes. For this study, we use (U-Th)/He low-temperature thermochronology to characterize the shallow crustal cooling history from three sites in the Western Cordillera of the Peruvian Andes, across seven degrees of latitude (5°S to 12°S). Near-vertical sample transects were taken in three river valleys that expose the Jurassic through Eocene granitoids of the 1,600km long Coastal Batholith of Peru. By using both apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometers we are able to quantify crustal exhumation rates as well as detect temporal and spatial accelerations and decelerations of exhumation. This new dataset, combined with existing crystallization ages of the plutonic sequence of the

  11. Prediction of extreme floods in the Central Andes by means of Complex Networks (United States)

    Boers, Niklas; Bookhagen, Bodo; Barbosa, Henrique; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen; Marengo, Jose


    Based on a non-linear synchronisation measure and complex network theory, we present a novel framework for the prediction of extreme events of spatially embedded, interrelated time series. This method is general in the sense that it can be applied to any type of spatially sampled time series with significant interrelations, ranging from climate observables to biological or stock market data. In this presentation, we apply our method to extreme rainfall in South America and show how this leads to the prediction of more than 60% (90% during El Niño conditions) of extreme rainfall events in the eastern Central Andes of Bolivia and northern Argentina, with only 1% false alarms. From paleoclimatic to decadal time scales, the Central Andes continue to be subject to pronounced changes in climatic conditions. In particular, our and past work shows that frequency as well as magnitudes of extreme rainfall events have increased significantly during past decades, calling for a better understanding of the involved climatic mechanisms. Due to their large spatial extend and occurrence at high elevations, these extreme events often lead to severe floods and landslides with disastrous socioeconomic impacts. They regularly affect tens of thousands of people and produce estimated costs of the order of several hundred million USD. Alongside with the societal value of predicting natural hazards, our study provides insights into the responsible climatic features and suggests interactions between Rossby waves in polar regions and large scale (sub-)tropical moisture transport as a driver of subseasonal variability of the South American monsoon system. Predictable extreme events result from the propagation of extreme rainfall from the region of Buenos Aires towards the Central Andes given characteristic atmospheric conditions. Our results indicate that the role of frontal systems originating from Rossby waves in polar latitudes is much more dominant for controlling extreme rainfall in


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available La historia de Chile está cruzada por el conflicto entre la cultura moderna europea y las culturas indígenas. El tiempo lineal impuesto por el Estado nacional ha dejado al descubierto su irresponsabilidad con el tiempo indígena de los Andes. Esta temporalidad expresa una profunda y sustentable «ontología arcaica». Tras el fin de la Guerra Fría, y la postdictadura de Pinochet, esta propuesta se vuelve acuciante con las demandas políticas y los desafíos epistémicos indígenas del siglo XXI. En el «círculo de la vida» estos pueblos reclaman presencia, pasado y futuro: su historia. Este trabajo es resultado del proyecto de investigación de la Universidad de Santiago de Chile sobre la historia y la cultura de los pueblos indígenas en Chile en los siglos XX y XXI (Fondecyt 1121083, 2012-2014.

  13. Carbon stabilization mechanisms in soils in the Andes (United States)

    Jansen, Boris; Cammeraat, Erik


    The volcanic ash soils of the Andes contain very large stocks of soil organic matter (SOM) per unit area. Consequently, they constitute significant potential sources or sinks of the greenhouse gas CO2. Climate and/or land use change potentially have a strong effect on these large SOM stocks. To clarify the role of chemical and physical stabilisation mechanisms in volcanic ash soils in the montane tropics, we investigated carbon stocks and stabilization mechanisms in the top- and subsoil along an altitudinal transect in the Ecuadorian Andes. The transect encompassed a sequence of paleosols under forest and grassland (páramo), including a site where vegetation cover changed in the last century. We applied selective extraction techniques, performed X-ray diffraction analyses of the clay fraction and estimated pore size distributions at various depths in the top- and subsoil along the transect. In addition, from several soils the molecular composition of SOM was further characterized with depth in the current soil as well as the entire first and the top of the second paleosol using GC/MS analyses of extractable lipids and Pyrolysis-GC/MS analyses of bulk organic matter. Our results show that organic carbon stocks in the mineral soil under forest a páramo vegetation were roughly twice as large as global averages for volcanic ash soils, regardless of whether the first 30cm, 100cm or 200cm were considered. We found the carbon stabilization mechanisms involved to be: i) direct stabilization of SOM in organo-metallic (Al-OM) complexes; ii) indirect protection of SOM through low soil pH and toxic levels of Al; and iii) physical protection of SOM due to a very high microporosity of the soil (Tonneijck et al., 2010; Jansen et al. 2011). When examining the organic carbon at a molecular level, interestingly we found extensive degradation of lignin in the topsoil while extractable lipids were preferentially preserved in the subsoil (Nierop and Jansen, 2009). Both vegetation

  14. Climate variability of the tropical Andes since the late Pleistocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bräuning


    Full Text Available Available proxy records witnessing palaeoclimate of the tropical Andes are comparably scarce. Major implications of palaeoclimate development in the humid and arid parts of the Andes are briefly summarized. The long-term behaviour of ENSO has general significance for the climatic history of the Andes due to its impact on regional circulation patterns and precipitation regimes, therefore ENSO history derived from non-Andean palaeo-records is highlighted. Methodological constraints of the chronological precision and the palaeoclimatic interpretation of records derived from different natural archives, such as glacier sediments and ice cores, lake sediments and palaeo-wetlands, pollen profiles and tree rings are addressed and complementary results concerning former climatic conditions are discussed in terms of possible implications of former atmospheric circulation patterns and main climatic forcing factors. During the last years, increasing tree-ring information is getting available from the tropical Andes, providing high-resolution climate-sensitive records covering the past centuries for the study of climate variability.

  15. Climate variability of the tropical Andes since the late Pleistocene (United States)

    Bräuning, A.


    Available proxy records witnessing palaeoclimate of the tropical Andes are comparably scarce. Major implications of palaeoclimate development in the humid and arid parts of the Andes are briefly summarized. The long-term behaviour of ENSO has general significance for the climatic history of the Andes due to its impact on regional circulation patterns and precipitation regimes, therefore ENSO history derived from non-Andean palaeo-records is highlighted. Methodological constraints of the chronological precision and the palaeoclimatic interpretation of records derived from different natural archives, such as glacier sediments and ice cores, lake sediments and palaeo-wetlands, pollen profiles and tree rings are addressed and complementary results concerning former climatic conditions are discussed in terms of possible implications of former atmospheric circulation patterns and main climatic forcing factors. During the last years, increasing tree-ring information is getting available from the tropical Andes, providing high-resolution climate-sensitive records covering the past centuries for the study of climate variability.

  16. Healthy and Sustainable Horticulture Production in the Central Andes

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Healthy and Sustainable Horticulture Production in the Central Andes. Horticultural production in mid-altitude Andean valleys uses substantial amounts of highly hazardous and mutagenic pesticides. But, it is a growing source of income for farm families and fresh vegetables for metropolitan markets. Preliminary research ...

  17. Reflections on Andes' Goal-Free User Interface (United States)

    VanLehn, Kurt


    Although the Andes project produced many results over its 18 years of activity, this commentary focuses on its contributions to understanding how a goal-free user interface impacts the overall design and performance of a step-based tutoring system. Whereas a goal-aligned user interface displays relevant goals as blank boxes or empty locations that…

  18. Permafrost distribution map of San Juan Dry Andes (Argentina) based on rock glacier sites (United States)

    Esper Angillieri, María Yanina


    Rock glaciers are frozen water reservoirs in mountainous areas. Water resources are important for the local populations and economies. The presence of rock glaciers is commonly used as a direct indicator of mountain permafrost conditions. Over 500 active rock glaciers have been identified, showing that elevations between 3500 and 4500 m asl., a south-facing or east-facing aspect, areas with relatively low solar radiation and low mean annual air temperature (-4 to 0 °C) favour the existence of rock glaciers in this region. The permafrost probability model, for Dry Andes of San Juan Province between latitudes 28º30‧S and 32°30‧S, have been analyzed by logistic regression models based on the active rock glaciers occurrence in relation to some topoclimatic variables such as altitude, aspect, mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation and solar radiation, using optical remote sensing techniques in a GIS environment. The predictive performances of the model have been estimated by known rock glaciers locations and by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). This regional permafrost map can be applied by the Argentinean Government for their recent initiatives which include creating inventories, monitoring and studying ice masses along the Argentinean Andes. Further, this generated map provides valuable input data for permafrost scenarios and contributes to a better understanding of our geosystem.

  19. Country watch: Chile. (United States)

    Frasca, T


    Confidentiality is a critical issue in the conduct of HIV tests in Chile. Though HIV testing is confidential in the public health system (through the use of a coding system), syphilis tests which are conducted simultaneously with HIV, require clients to provide their identity as well as address. In response to this concern, the National AIDS Commission has launched training programs in all 26 public health services for staff involved with HIV/AIDS programs. The training programs allow professional staff and volunteers to understand the importance of confidentiality. Nevertheless, cases of breaches of confidentiality have been reported, raising doubts as to the ability of the system to maintain confidentiality. These cases often occur at the hospitals or clinics where staff is insensitive to the needs of their clients and oblivious of their rights. Hence, it is highlighted that to reinforce confidentiality, patients, advocacy groups, human rights activists and health care administrators must pay attention to the many ways in which confidentiality is breached.

  20. complejidad en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Bustamante-Ubilla


    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene por objetivo caracterizar el clima organizacional al interior de 2 hospitales dealta complejidad de Chile, determinando las dimensiones más y menos influyentes. Para su desarrollose aplicó un cuestionario que consta de 71 variables agrupadas en 14 dimensiones a una muestra de561 funcionarios. La interpretación de los resultados se realizó a través del análisis del valor prome-dio estandarizado y su confiabilidad ratificada mediante el alfa de Cronbach. A partir de lo anterior, sedeterminó que las dimensiones que influyen por encima del promedio fueron: identidad, motivaciónlaboral y responsabilidad; en tanto que las dimensiones que muestran un nivel de impacto por debajodel promedio resultaron ser: equipo y distribución de personas y material, administración del conflictoy comunicación.© 2015 Universidad ICESI. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo lalicencia CC BY (

  1. Country watch: Chile. (United States)

    Montoya Leiva, M


    Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented.

  2. Craniofacial chronological microdifferentiation of human prehistoric populations of the Azapa valley, northern Chile Microdiferenciación cronológica craneofacial de poblaciones humanas prehistóricas del Valle de Azapa, norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Archeological evidence suggest that the cultural developments occurred in the highlands around lake Titicaca in the Central Andes, exerted influence on the cultural elaborations of the human groups that peopled the valley of Azapa, close to the city of Arica, and the Pacific coast of northern Chile. In this communication we show by means of a distance analysis, that a craniofacial differentiation accompanied the process of cultural evolution in the valley. The biological influence of Tiwanaku is partially reflected in craniofacial morphology, providing preliminary evidence that cultural changes were associated to intermittent gene flow from the highlands, specially during the Alto Ramírez and San Miguel phasesLos desarrollos culturales ocurridos en el altiplano en el área circumtiticaca en los Andes centrales, ejercieron influencia sobre las elaboraciones culturales de los grupos humanos que poblaban el Valle de Azapa cercano a la ciudad de Arica y la costa del norte de Chile. En esta comunicación presentamos un análisis de distancias que demostró que una diferenciación craniofacial acompaño en el valle el proceso de evolución cultural. La influencia biológica de Tiwanaku se refleja parcialmente en la morfología craniofacial, proporcionando evidencia preliminar de que los cambios culturales en el valle se realizaron acompañados de flujo génico intermitente desde el altiplano, especialmente durante las fases Alto Ramírez y San Miguel

  3. Convective initiation in the vicinity of the subtropical Andes (United States)

    Rasmussen, K. L.; Houze, R.


    Extreme convection tends to form in the vicinity of mountain ranges, and the Andes in subtropical South America help spawn some of the most intense convection in the world. An investigation of the most intense storms for 11 years of TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) data shows a tendency for squall lines to initiate and develop in this region with the canonical leading convective line/trailing stratiform structure. The synoptic environment and structures of the extreme convection and MCSs in subtropical South America are similar to those found in other regions of the world, especially the United States. In subtropical South America, however, the topographical influence on the convective initiation and maintenance of the MCSs is unique. A capping inversion in the lee of the Andes is important in preventing premature triggering. The Andes and other mountainous terrain of Argentina focus deep convective initiation in a narrow region. Subsequent to initiation, the convection often evolves into propagating mesoscale convective systems similar to those seen over the Great Plains of the U. S. and produces damaging tornadoes, hail, and floods across a wide agricultural region. Numerical simulations conducted with the NCAR Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model extend the observational analysis and provide an objective evaluation of storm initiation, terrain effects, and development mechanisms. The simulated mesoscale systems closely resemble the storm structures seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar as well as the overall shape and character of the storms shown in GOES satellite data. A sensitivity experiment with different configurations of topography, including both decreasing and increasing the height of the Andes Mountains, provides insight into the significant influence of orography in focusing convective initiation in this region. Lee cyclogenesis and a strong low-level jet are modulated by the height of the Andes Mountains and directly affect the character

  4. Modernitet og forbrugskultur i Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando


    I de sidste årtier er Chile blevet et egentligt forbrugersamfund. Udbredelsen af forbrugskulturen og forbrugerismen er centrale fænomener i chilenernes dagligliv og har nået et omfang, som har konsekvenser for de borgere, der ikke kan deltage fuldt ud heri, noget som er typisk for et samfund med en...... ujævn økonomisk udvikling og med store sociale forskelle. Denne proces er ikke et produkt af en stille, fredelig og naturlig samfundsudvikling, således som magteliten og de toneangivende intellektuelle i Chile har fremstillet det. Som jeg vil vise, er skabelsen af et egentlig forbrugssamfund knyttet til...... til i dag. Ifølge disse er Chile blevet et moderne samfund netop i kraft af, at Chile er et ægte forbrugersamfund med alt, hvad dette indebærer, såvel materielt som symbolsk. For det tredje er billedet af Chile som en ”supermoderne” nation i den latinamerikanske kontekst en udbredt forestilling hos...

  5. Apacheta, a new geothermal prospect in Northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urzua, Luis; Powell, Tom; Cumming, William B.; Dobson, Patrick


    The discovery of two high-temperature fumaroles, with gas geochemistry compatible with an economic geothermal system, established Apacheta as one of the most attractive geothermal exploration prospects in northern Chile. These remote fumaroles at 5,150 m elevation were first sampled in 1999 by ENAP and its partners, following up on the reports of a CODELCO water exploration well that flowed small amounts of dry steam at 4,540 m elevation in the valley 4.5 km east of the fumaroles. The prospect is associated with a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic complex located within a NW-trending graben along the axis of the high Andes. The regional water table is 4,200 masl. There are no hot springs, just the 88 degrees C steam well and the 109 degrees and 118 degrees C fumaroles with gas compositions that indicate reservoir temperatures of greater than or equal to 250 degrees C, using a variety of gas geothermometers. An MT-TDEM survey was completed in 2001-2002 by Geotermica del Norte (SDN), an ENAP-C ODELCO partnership, to explore the Apacheta geothermal concession. The survey results indicated that base of the low resistivity clay cap has a structural apex just west of the fumaroles, a pattern typically associated with shallow permeability within a high temperature geothermal resource. SGN plans to drill at least one exploration well in 2002-03 to characterize a possible economic resource at Apacheta.

  6. Modelling increased landslide susceptibility near highways in the Andes of southern Ecuador (United States)

    Brenning, Alexander; Muenchow, Jannes


    Modelling increased landslide susceptibility near highways in the Andes of southern Ecuador A. Brenning (1), J. Muenchow (1) (1) Department of Geography, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Loebdergraben 32, 07743 Jena, Germany Mountain roads are affected by and also affect themselves landslide suceptibility. Especially in developing countries, inadequate drainage systems and mechanical destabilization of hillslopes by undercutting and overloading are known processes through which road construction and maintenance can enhance landslide activity within the immediate surroundings of road infrastructure. In the Andes of southern Ecuador, strong precipitation gradients as well as lithological differences provide an excellent study site in which the relationship between highways and landslide susceptibility and its regional differentiation can be studied. This study uses Generalized Additive Models (GAM) to investigate patterns of landslide susceptibility along two paved interurban highways in the tropical Andes of southern Ecuador. The relationship of landslides to distance from road is modeled while accounting for topographic, climatic and lithological predictors as possible confounders and modifiers, focusing on the odds ratio of landslide occurrence at 25 m versus 200 m distance from the highway. Spatial attention is given to uncertainties in estimated odds ratios of landslide occurrence using spatial block bootstrap techniques. The GAM is able to represent nonlinear additive terms as well as bivariate smooth interaction terms, providing a good tradeoff between model complexity and interpretability. The estimated odds of landslide occurrence were 18-21 times higher near the highway than at 200 m distance, based on different analyses, with lower 95% confidence limits always >13. (Semi-) parametric estimates confirmed this general range of values but suggests slightly higher odds ratios (95% confidence interval: 15.5-25.3). Highway-related effects were observed to

  7. Antecedentes geobotánicos de una cuenca andina de Chile Central

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    Quintanilla Pérez, V.


    Full Text Available Like any other mountain ecosystem; the Andes Mountains show an outstanding phytoecological specificity. This is because of the influence of ecological conditions; as well as the presence of special vegetation groups. These groups of plants show a well defined structure and functionality; arising from the adaptation of biological behavior to the regional altitude. Nevertheless; despite the rigourous climatic conditions; plants do have access to water supplies. A latitudinal vegetation distribution is proposed; based on three vegetation belts: montane; subandine and andine. A remarkable similarity can be noticed between the montane plant communities and those corresponding to the central lower valleys. In addition; the influence of geomorphological processes on plant life and its distribution is presented. Finally; a case study in the highlands of the Andes; Santiago de Chile; is discussed.

    [fr] Comme tous les systèmes de montagne du monde; les Andes du Chili Central présentent une identité phytoécologique; qui se manifeste par l'action des conditions écologiques très particulières et par la présence de groupements végétaux qui montrent une individualité par rapport à ces caractères structurels et fonctionels; résultant de l'adaptation des plantes aux effets de l'altitude; avec des conditions climatiques difficiles; mais pourtant avec la possibilité de profiter des reserves du sol en eau. Dans ces montagnes on a établi une zonation en altitude; et on peut distinguer trois étages: montagnard; subandin et andin. Les seuils altimétriques des étages changent selon les versants; mais tous présentent une certaine richesse d'espèces endémiques. Cependant on remarque les ressemblances floristiques de l'étage montagnard avec les vallées centrales du pays. On présente aussi un aperçu des effets de la dynamique agressive des processus géomorphologiques de montagne sur la vie des plantes; avec une étude de cas dans les

  8. Wildfires in Chile: A review (United States)

    Úbeda, Xavier; Sarricolea, Pablo


    This paper reviews the literature examining the wildfire phenomenon in Chile. Since ancient times, Chile's wildfires have shaped the country's landscape, but today, as in many other parts of the world, the fire regime - pattern, frequency and intensity - has grown at an alarming rate. In 2014, > 8000 fires were responsible for burning c. 130,000 ha, making it the worst year in Chile's recent history. The reasons for this increase appear to be the increment in the area planted with flammable species; the rejection of these landscape modifications on the part of local communities that target these plantations in arson attacks; and, the adoption of intensive forest management practices resulting in the accumulation of a high fuel load. These trends have left many native species in a precarious situation and forest plantation companies under considerable financial pressure. An additional problem is posed by fires at the wildland urban interface (WUI), threatening those inhabitants that live in Chile's most heavily populated cities. The prevalence of natural fires in Chile; the relationship between certain plant species and fire in terms of seed germination strategies and plant adaptation; the relationship between fire and invasive species; and, the need for fire prevention systems and territorial plans that include fire risk assessments are some of the key aspects discussed in this article. Several of the questions raised will require further research, including just how fire-dependent the ecosystems in Chile are, how the forest at the WUI can be better managed to prevent human and material damage, and how best to address the social controversy that pits the Mapuche population against the timber companies.

  9. Modeling Soil Organic Carbon Variation Along Climatic and Topographic Trajectories in the Central Andes (United States)

    Gavilan, C.; Grunwald, S.; Quiroz, R.; Zhu, L.


    The Andes represent the largest and highest mountain range in the tropics. Geological and climatic differentiation favored landscape and soil diversity, resulting in ecosystems adapted to very different climatic patterns. Although several studies support the fact that the Andes are a vast sink of soil organic carbon (SOC) only few have quantified this variable in situ. Estimating the spatial distribution of SOC stocks in data-poor and/or poorly accessible areas, like the Andean region, is challenging due to the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution and the wide range of coexistent ecosystems. Thus, the sampling strategy is vital in order to ensure the whole range of environmental covariates (EC) controlling SOC dynamics is represented. This approach allows grasping the variability of the area, which leads to more efficient statistical estimates and improves the modeling process. The objectives of this study were to i) characterize and model the spatial distribution of SOC stocks in the Central Andean region using soil-landscape modeling techniques, and to ii) validate and evaluate the model for predicting SOC content in the area. For that purpose, three representative study areas were identified and a suite of variables including elevation, mean annual temperature, annual precipitation and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), among others, was selected as EC. A stratified random sampling (namely conditioned Latin Hypercube) was implemented and a total of 400 sampling locations were identified. At all sites, four composite topsoil samples (0-30 cm) were collected within a 2 m radius. SOC content was measured using dry combustion and SOC stocks were estimated using bulk density measurements. Regression Kriging was used to map the spatial variation of SOC stocks. The accuracy, fit and bias of SOC models was assessed using a rigorous validation assessment. This study produced the first comprehensive, geospatial SOC stock assessment in this

  10. Synthetic Seismogram Study of the Eastern Central Andes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Minaya, Estela; Lazaro, Evanz; Aliaga, Percy; Gonzalez, Magaly; Cano, Wilfredo


    ...)-particularly in two seismic gaps located in southern Peru and northern Chile. In these places, two large earthquakes occurred in the 19th century, in 1868 and in 1877, establishing the possibility of the seismic gap hypothesis...

  11. A dynamical analysis of the seismic activity of Villarrica volcano (Chile) during September-October 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarraga, Marta [Departamento de Volcanologia. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:; Carniel, Roberto [Dipartimento di Georisorse e Territorio, Universita di Udine, Via Cotonificio 114, 33100 Udine (Italy)], E-mail:; Ortiz, Ramon; Garcia, Alicia [Departamento de Volcanologia. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Moreno, Hugo [Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria de Chile (SERNAGEOMIN), Temuco, IX Region (Chile)


    Although Villarrica volcano in Chile is one of the most active in the southern Andes, the literature studying its seismic activity is relatively scarce. An interesting problem recently tackled is the possibility for a regional tectonic event to trigger a change in the volcanic activity of this basaltic to basaltic-andesitic volcano, which is in turn reflected in the time evolution of the properly volcanic seismicity, especially in the form of a continuous volcanic tremor. In this work, we conduct a spectral, dynamical and statistical analysis of the tremor recorded during September and October 2000, in order to characterize the anomalous behaviour of the volcano following a tectonic event recorded on 20th September 2000. The observed dynamical transitions are compared with remote sensing and visual observations describing the changes in the eruptive style of the volcano.

  12. Climatic Controls on Fluvial Cut-and-Fill Cycles in Drainages with In-stream Wetlands in the Central Andes (United States)

    Rech, J. A.; Latorre, C.


    Fluvial systems that possess in-stream wetlands, or marshes, are common in arid environments where water-tables are emergent and large discharge events uncommon. These streambeds are protected from erosion by a dense cover of hydrophyllic and phreatophytic vegetation. Along the Pacific slope of the Central Andes in northern Chile (~20°-26°S), which includes some of the driest sectors of the Atacama Desert, in-stream wetlands occur in deeply incised bedrock canyons on the Andean slope and piedmont. Over the last several years we have compiled a detailed record of late Pleistocene and Holocene vegetation changes along the Pacific slope of the Andes through the collection, analysis, and radiocarbon determination of over 180 rodent middens. Rodent middens record past changes in precipitation levels by tracking the downslope migrations of plant species into the hyperarid desert. We have also assembled a record of the cut-and-fill cycles of several fluvial systems with in-stream wetlands located at various distances (5-50 km) from the zone of ground-water recharge in the High Andes through stratigraphic mapping and the radiocarbon dating of over 100 samples of organic material within these wetlands. Combined, this well-dated record of hillslope vegetation and stream aggradation and incision allows us to assess the influence of climatic change on stream processes, including the nature of stream response, the sensitivity of different stream systems to climatic change, and the response times of streams to climate changes that vary in distance from ground-water recharge zones. The combined data set shows that in-stream wetland aggradation is directly linked to changes in climate, with aggradation occurring during wetter climatic periods when water tables are high. Incision occurs during dry climatic periods when water tables are lower and streambed sediments are no longer anchored by dense vegetation. Streams that are closer to ground-water recharge zones are more

  13. Vernal Point and Seismic Activity in Tibet Mountains and Andes Mountains (United States)

    Chavez-Sumarriva, Israel; Chavez-Campos, Teodosio; Chavez S, Nadia


    The gravitational influence of the sun and moon on the equatorial bulges of the mantle of the rotating earth causes the precession of the earth. The retrograde motion of the vernal point through the zodiacal band is 26,000 years and passes through each constellation in an average of 2000 years (Milankovitch subcycle). The vernal point retrogrades one precessional degree approximately in 72 years (Gleissberg-cycle), and approximately enters into the Aquarius constellation (declination 11.5° S) on March 20, 1940. On earth this entry was verify through: a) stability of the magnetic equator in the south central zone of Peru and in the north zone of Bolivia (11.5º South latitude) since 1940 b) the greater intensity of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) in Peru and Bolivia since 1940. Besides, there was a long history of studies of coupling between earthquake-ionosphere. In IUGG (Italy-2007), Cusco was proposed as a prime meridian that was based on: (1) the new prime meridian (72º W == 0º) was parallel to the Andes and its projection the meridian (108° E == 180º) intersects the Tibetan plate (Asia). (2) On earth these two areas present the greatest thickness of the crust with an average depth of 70 kilometers. The aim was to synchronize the earth sciences phenomena (e.g. geology, geophysics, etc.). The coordinate system had the vernal point from meridian (72º W== 0º) and March 20, 1940. The retrograde movement of the vernal point was the first precessional degree (2012 = 1940 + 72). The west coast of South America (parallel to meridian 72º W== 0º) was a segment of the circum-pacific seismic belt where more than two thirds of major earthquakes in the world happened. During the first precessional degree (1940 +72 ==2012) seismic activity were: (a) near the new prime meridian (72° W == 0°) occurs in: (a1) Haiti (18.4° N, 72.5° W), January 12, 2010 with magnitude of 7.0 Mw. (a2) Chile (36.28° S, 73.23° W), February 27, 2010 with Magnitude of 8.8 Mw. (a3) Chile (35

  14. The high Andes, gene flow and a stable hybrid zone shape the genetic structure of a wide-ranging South American parrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaefer H Martin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the gene flow in some organisms is strongly affected by physical barriers and geographical distance, other highly mobile species are able to overcome such constraints. In southern South America, the Andes (here up to 6,900 m may constitute a formidable barrier to dispersal. In addition, this region was affected by cycles of intercalating arid/moist periods during the Upper/Late Pleistocene and Holocene. These factors may have been crucial in driving the phylogeographic structure of the vertebrate fauna of the region. Here we test these hypotheses in the burrowing parrot Cyanoliseus patagonus (Aves, Psittaciformes across its wide distributional range in Chile and Argentina. Results Our data show a Chilean origin for this species, with a single migration event across the Andes during the Upper/Late Pleistocene, which gave rise to all extant Argentinean mitochondrial lineages. Analyses suggest a complex population structure for burrowing parrots in Argentina, which includes a hybrid zone that has remained stable for several thousand years. Within this zone, introgression by expanding haplotypes has resulted in the evolution of an intermediate phenotype. Multivariate regressions show that present day climatic variables have a strong influence on the distribution of genetic heterogeneity, accounting for almost half of the variation in the data. Conclusions Here we show how huge barriers like the Andes and the regional environmental conditions imposed constraints on the ability of a parrot species to colonise new habitats, affecting the way in which populations diverged and thus, genetic structure. When contact between divergent populations was re-established, a stable hybrid zone was formed, functioning as a channel for genetic exchange between populations.

  15. An InSAR-based survey of volcanic deformation in the central Andes (United States)

    Pritchard, M. E.; Simons, M.


    We extend an earlier interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) survey covering about 900 remote volcanos of the central Andes (14°-27°S) between the years 1992 and 2002. Our survey reveals broad (10s of km), roughly axisymmetric deformation at 4 volcanic centers: two stratovolcanoes are inflating (Uturuncu, Bolivia, and Hualca Hualca, Peru); another source of inflation on the border between Chile and Argentina is not obviously associated with a volcanic edifice (here called Lazufre); and a caldera (Cerro Blanco, also called Robledo) in northwest Argentina is subsiding. We explore the range of source depths and volumes allowed by our observations, using spherical, ellipsoidal and crack-like source geometries. We further examine the effects of local topography upon the deformation field and invert for a spherical point-source in both elastic half-space and layered-space crustal models. We use a global search algorithm, with gradient search methods used to further constrain best-fitting models. Inferred source depths are model-dependent, with differences in the assumed source geometry generating a larger range of accepted depths than variations in elastic structure. Source depths relative to sea level are: 8-18 km at Hualca Hualca; 12-25 km for Uturuncu; 5-13 km for Lazufre, and 5-10 km at Cerro Blanco. Deformation at all four volcanoes seems to be time-dependent, and only Uturuncu and Cerro Blanco were deforming during the entire time period of observation. Inflation at Hualca Hualca stopped in 1997, perhaps related to a large eruption of nearby Sabancaya volcano in May 1997, although there is no obvious relation between the rate of deformation and the eruptions of Sabancaya. We do not observe any deformation associated with eruptions of Lascar, Chile, at 16 other volcanoes that had recent small eruptions or fumarolic activity, or associated with a short-lived thermal anomaly at Chiliques volcano. We posit a hydrothermal system at Cerro Blanco to explain the

  16. Las sociedades anónimas cruzan los Andes: los inversores chilenos en Neuquén al comenzar el siglo XX

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    Graciela Blanco


    Full Text Available El territorio de Neuquén, en el norte de la Patagonia, atrajo la mirada de diversos inversores privados a partir del avance militar que realizó el Estado nacional sobre los grupos indígenas y de la conquista de las tierras del sur argentino; tierras que fueron ofrecidas a particulares en propiedad o arrendamiento en condiciones muy beneficiosas. Este trabajo analiza la conformación en Chile, en los primeros años del siglo XX, de sociedades anónimas que explicitaban como objetivo central la intención de comprar tierras a ambos lados de la Cordillera de los Andes para la explotación agroganadera y la comercialización, y estudia específicamente el origen, itinerario y organización productiva de una de esas sociedades en Neuquén.Neuquen territory, in the north of the Patagonia, attracted the look of diverse investors after from the military advance that realized the national State on the indigenous groups and of the conquest of the lands of the Argentine's south, lands that were offered to individuals in property or lease in very beneficial conditions. This work analyzes the conformation in Chile, in the first years of the 20th century, of joint-stock companies that stated explicitly as central aim the intention of buying lands on both sides of the Mountain chain of the Andes for the agricultural and livestock exploitation and the commercialization, and there studies specifically the origin, itinerary and productive organization of one of these companies in Neuquen.

  17. Aridity changes in the temperate-Mediterranean transition of the Andes since ad 1346 reconstructed from tree-rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, Duncan A.; Quesne, Carlos le [Universidad Austral de Chile, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); Boninsegna, Jose A.; Morales, Mariano S.; Villalba, Ricardo [Instituto Argentino de Nivologia, Glaciologia y Ciencias Ambientales, IANIGLA, Departamento de Dendrocronologia e Historia Ambiental, Mendoza (Argentina); Cleaveland, Malcolm K.; Stahle, David W. [University of Arkansas Fayetteville, Tree-Ring Laboratory, Department of Geosciences, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Lara, Antonio [Universidad Austral de Chile, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Austral de Chile, Forest Ecosystem Services under Climatic Fluctuations (Forecos), Valdivia (Chile); Mudelsee, Manfred [Climate Risk Analysis, Hanover (Germany); Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)


    The Andes Cordillera acts as regional ''Water Towers'' for several countries and encompasses a wide range of ecosystems and climates. Several hydroclimatic changes have been described for portions of the Andes during recent years, including glacier retreat, negative precipitation trends, an elevation rise in the 0 isotherm, and changes in regional streamflow regimes. The Temperate-Mediterranean transition (TMT) zone of the Andes (35.5 -39.5 S) is particularly at risk to climate change because it is a biodiversity hotspot with heavy human population pressure on water resources. In this paper we utilize a new tree-ring network of Austrocedrus chilensis to reconstruct past variations in regional moisture in the TMT of the Andes by means of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). The reconstruction covers the past 657 years and captures interannual to decadal scales of variability in late spring-early summer PDSI. These changes are related to the north-south oscillations in moisture conditions between the Mediterranean and Temperate climates of the Andes as a consequence of the latitudinal position of the storm tracks forced by large-scale circulation modes. Kernel estimation of occurrence rates reveals an unprecedented increment of severe and extreme drought events during the last century in the context of the previous six centuries. Moisture conditions in our study region are linked to tropical and high-latitude ocean-atmospheric forcing, with PDSI positively related to Nino-3.4 SST during spring and strongly negatively correlated with the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) during summer. Geopotential anomaly maps at 500-hPa show that extreme dry years are tightly associated with negative height anomalies in the Ross-Amundsen Seas, in concordance with the strong negative relationship between PDSI and AAO. The twentieth century increase in extreme drought events in the TMT may not be related to ENSO but to the positive AAO trend during late-spring and

  18. Peltephilidae and Mesotheriidae (Mammalia) from late Miocene strata of Northern Chilean Andes, Caragua (United States)

    Montoya-Sanhueza, Germán; Moreno, Karen; Bobe, René; Carrano, Matthew T.; García, Marcelo; Corgne, Alexandre


    Until now, only one Cenozoic fossil mammal from the Chilean Precordillera (Arica and Parinacota Region) has been reported, Caraguatypotherium munozi (Mesotheriidae: Notoungulata). In this study, we describe a fourth specimen of C. munozi and a new armadillo species, Epipeltephilus caraguensis (Peltephilidae: Cingulata), both collected from a new site closer to the fossiliferous outcrops of the Caragua area (Serravallian - Tortonian). E. caraguensis differs from other members of the family in having: two sulci in the articular surface of the mobile osteoderm; having a tubular, rough and raised anterior edge; a conspicuous transverse depression; and four widely spaced foramina. This taxon represents the youngest known peltephilid from intermediate latitudes and indicates a wide geographic distribution (Patagonia to Central Andes) of the family just prior to its extinction. The new mesothere specimen is 19% larger than previous records. The revision of the dental features of C. munozi allowed the identification of an ambiguous trait in its original diagnosis, i.e. an enamel fracture was misinterpreted with the presence of a posterior sulcus on the talonid of the m3, suggesting that further taxonomic and systematic revision for the Caragua mesothere is necessary. Although the fossil record from the Caragua area is still scarce, mesotheriines seem to be abundant at this latitude, just as has been observed at several early to late Miocene sites such as Chucal (Chile), Cerdas and Nazareno (Bolivia), as well as in southern regions such as Arroyo Chasicó and Mendoza (Argentina). The presence of a new peltephilid species in Caragua sustains the hypothesis of provincialism during the Miocene in intermediate latitudes. Our findings also provide further support for probable faunal movements between intermediate and higher latitudes rather than to lower ones.

  19. Comparative phylogeography of co-distributed Phrygilus species (Aves, Thraupidae) from the Central Andes. (United States)

    Álvarez-Varas, R; González-Acuña, D; Vianna, J A


    The Neotropical ecoregion has been an important place of avian diversification where dispersal and allopatric events coupled with periods of active orogeny and climate change (Late Pliocene-Pleistocene) have shaped the biogeography of the region. In the Neotropics, avian population structure has been sculpted not only by geographical barriers, but also by non-allopatric factors such as natural selection and local adaptation. We analyzed the genetic variation of six co-distributed Phrygilus species from the Central Andes, based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers in conjunction with morphological differentiation. We examined if Phrygilus species share patterns of population structure and historical demography, and reviewed the intraspecific taxonomy in part of their geographic range. Our results showed different phylogeographic patterns between species, even among those belonging to the same phylogenetic clade. P. alaudinus, P. atriceps, and P. unicolor showed genetic differentiation mediated by allopatric mechanisms in response to specific geographic barriers; P. gayi showed sympatric lineages in northern Chile, while P. plebejus and P. fruticeti showed a single genetic group. We found no relationship between geographic range size and genetic structure. Additionally, a signature of expansion was found in three species related to the expansion of paleolakes in the Altiplano region and the drying phase of the Atacama Desert. Morphological analysis showed congruence with molecular data and intraspecific taxonomy in most species. While we detected genetic and phenotypic patterns that could be related to natural selection and local adaptation, our results indicate that allopatric events acted as a major factor in the population differentiation of Phrygilus species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An analysis of surface air temperature trends and variability along the Andes (United States)

    Franquist, Eric S.

    Climate change is difficult to study in mountainous regions such as the Andes since steep changes in elevation cannot always be resolved by climate models. However, it is important to examine temperature trends in this region as rises in surface air temperature are leading to the melting of tropical glaciers. Local communities rely on the glacier-fed streamflow to get their water for drinking, irrigation, and livestock. Moreover, communities also rely on the tourism of hikers who come to the region to view the glaciers. As the temperatures increase, these glaciers are no longer in equilibrium with their current climate and are receding rapidly and decreasing the streamflow. This thesis examines surface air temperature from 858 weather stations across Ecuador, Peru, and Chile in order to analyze changes in trends and variability. Three time periods were studied: 1961--1990, 1971--2000, and 1981--2010. The greatest warming occurred during the period of 1971--2000 with 92% of the stations experiencing positive trends with a mean of 0.24°C/decade. There was a clear shift toward cooler temperatures at all latitudes and below elevations of 500 m during the most recent time period studied (1981--2010). Station temperatures were more strongly correlated with the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), than the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). A principal component analysis confirmed ENSO as the main contributor of variability with the most influence in the lower latitudes. There were clear multidecadal changes in correlation strength for the PDO. The PDO contributed the most to the increases in station temperature trends during the 1961--1990 period, consistent with the PDO shift to the positive phase in the middle of this period. There were many strong positive trends at individual stations during the 1971--2000 period; however, these trends could not fully be attributed to ENSO, PDO, or SAM, indicating anthropogenic effects of

  1. Severe mortality impact of the 1957 influenza pandemic in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone; Fuentes, Rodrigo


    INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies of the 1957 influenza pandemic are scarce, particularly from lower income settings. METHODS: We analyzed the spatial-temporal mortality patterns of the 1957 influenza pandemic in Chile including detailed age-specific mortality data from a large city and inves......INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies of the 1957 influenza pandemic are scarce, particularly from lower income settings. METHODS: We analyzed the spatial-temporal mortality patterns of the 1957 influenza pandemic in Chile including detailed age-specific mortality data from a large city...... and investigated risk factors for severe mortality impact across regions. RESULTS: Chile exhibited two waves of excess mortality in winter 1957 and 1959 with a cumulative excess mortality rate of 12 per 10,000, and a ~10-fold mortality difference across provinces. High excess-mortality rates were associated...... with high baseline mortality (R2=41.8%; P=0.02), but not with latitude (P>0.7). Excess mortality rates increased sharply with age. Transmissibility declined from R=1.4-2.1 to R=1.2-1.4 between the two pandemic waves. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated A/H2N2 mortality burden in Chile is the highest on record...

  2. A crustal model for the Venezuelan Andes using converted phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morandi, Maria T; Madrid, Juan


    The seismological network of the Venezuelan Andes consist of 10 permanent stations covering approximately 300 Km 2 along the Bocono fault. The Bocono fault is a section of the Bocono Moron El Pilar fault system in northern Venezuela, which is the main tectonic feature on the boundary of the Caribbean and the South American plates. In this work, are analyzed some of the earthquakes from the Bucaramanga Nest (in the northeastern part of Colombia) to obtain the thickness of the crust under the stations of the Venezuelan Andes seismological network. The identification of these and other phases consist of analyzing the total energy of the seismic signal (the energigrams) and the seismograms together. The results show a maximum crustal thickness of 62 km under the highest station (4.100 m) and a minimum thickness of 43 Km below one of the station nearest to the city of Merida

  3. Glacier shrinkage and water resources in the Andes (United States)

    Francou, Bernard; Coudrain, Anne

    For more than a century glaciers around the world have been melting as air temperatures rise due to a combination of natural processes and human activity. The disappearance of these glaciers can have wide-ranging effects, such as the creation of new natural hazards or changes in stream flow that could threaten water suppliesSome of the most dramatic melting has occurred in the Andes mountain range in South America. To highlight the climatic and glacial change in the Andes and to encourage the scientific community to strengthen the glacier observation network that stretches from Colombia to the Patagonian ice fields, the Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRENA), Perú, and the Institute of Research and Development (IRD), France, recently organized the second Symposium on Mass Balance of Andean Glaciers in Huaráz,Perú.

  4. Synchronous interhemispheric Holocene climate trends in the tropical Andes. (United States)

    Polissar, Pratigya J; Abbott, Mark B; Wolfe, Alexander P; Vuille, Mathias; Bezada, Maximiliano


    Holocene variations of tropical moisture balance have been ascribed to orbitally forced changes in solar insolation. If this model is correct, millennial-scale climate evolution should be antiphased between the northern and southern hemispheres, producing humid intervals in one hemisphere matched to aridity in the other. Here we show that Holocene climate trends were largely synchronous and in the same direction in the northern and southern hemisphere outer-tropical Andes, providing little support for the dominant role of insolation forcing in these regions. Today, sea-surface temperatures in the equatorial Pacific Ocean modulate rainfall variability in the outer tropical Andes of both hemispheres, and we suggest that this mechanism was pervasive throughout the Holocene. Our findings imply that oceanic forcing plays a larger role in regional South American climate than previously suspected, and that Pacific sea-surface temperatures have the capacity to induce abrupt and sustained shifts in Andean climate.

  5. Zeolitización de rocas andesíticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plana, F.


    Full Text Available The study of some andesites from King George Island (South Shetland Islands, Anctartica has pointed out the existence of a hydrothermal alteration process going rise to a zeolitic secondary minerals of low-temperature assemblages. Two paragenesis have been identified (Smectite-Bytownite-Mordenite, Smectite-Albite-Laumontite which reflecting different conditions durign the hydrothermal alteration of these andesitic rocksEl estudio de rocas andesíticas de la Isla King George (Archipiélago de las Shetland del Sur, Antártida pone de manifiesto la existencia de procesos de alteración hidrotermal con la formación de minerales zeolíticos secundarios pertenecientes a asociaciones de baja temperatura. Se han identificado dos paragénesis (Esmectitas-Bytownita-Mordenita, Esmectitas-AlbitaLaumontita que reflejan distintas condiciones durante la alteración hidrotermal de dichas rocas andesíticas.

  6. The biomethane potential in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiffert, M.; Kaltschmitt, M.; Miranda, J.A.


    Within the last decade natural gas gained considerable importance in Chile. The contribution of natural gas within the energy system will increase in the future by predicted 3.6% annually until the year 2015. Due to limited resources within its own country, the energy system of Chile depends on natural gas imports preferential from Argentina. Therefore, the aim of several stakeholders from policy and industry is to reduce the share of imported primary energy within the overall energy system. In order to reach this goal, the use of domestic resources and particularly the utilisation of biomass as one of the most important renewable sources of energy in Chile could play an important role. Against this background, the goal of this paper is the analysis of the technical potentials of biomethane as a substitute for natural gas. For the production of biomethane the anaerobic or bio-chemical (i.e. Biogas) as well as the thermo-chemical conversion pathways (i.e. Bio-SNG) are considered. The results of this analysis show that biomass converted to biomethane is a promising energy provision option for Chile and it contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  7. Forest nursery management in Chile (United States)

    Rene Escobar R.; Manuel Sanchez O.; Guillermo Pereira C.


    The forest economy in Chile is based on products from artificial reforestation efforts on approximately 2 million ha. From these, about 1.5 million ha (75%) are planted with Pinus radiata, 400,000 ha (20%) with species of Eucalyptus, principally E. globulus and E. nitens, and the rest (5%) composed by other...

  8. Chemical and isotopic investigations of runoff in a mountainous watershed, Venezuelan Andes (Rio Bocono)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornieles, M.; Moreau, A.; Valles, V.; Travi, Y.


    The Rio Bocono watershed, located in the Western part of Venezuela on the South western side of Andes is considered by the 'Ministerio de1 Ambiente y de los Recursos Naturales Renovables' (MARN) as a priority zone for environmental management. The studies of relation between flow, dissolved elements and solid transport are essential to estimate soil degradation and sediment deposition which provokes loss of depth in the dam reservoir at the Southern margin of the basin. Because of the large surface which reach 1540 km 2 , the lack of equipment and the flash flood character of the river do not enable the flow mechanisms and transit times to be determined using usual hydrologic methods; therefore this problem has been approached by the way of chemical and isotopic investigation

  9. Characteristic of Dystrustepts in the Venezuelan Andes Características dos Dystrustepts nos Andes Venezuelanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Ochoa


    Full Text Available The majority (60 % of the soils in the Venezuelan Andes are Inceptisols, a large percentage of which are classified as Dystrustepts by the US Soil Taxonomy, Second Edition of 1999. Some of these soils were classified as Humitropepts (high organic - C-OC-soils and Dystropepts by the Soil Taxonomy prior to 1999, but no equivalent large group was created for high-OC soils in the new Ustepts suborder. Dystrusepts developed on different materials, relief and vegetation. Their properties are closely related with the parent material. Soils developed on transported deposits or sediments have darker and thicker A horizons, a slightly acid reaction, greater CEC and OC contents than upland slope soils. Based on the previous classification into large groups (Humitropepts and Dystropepts we found that: Humitropepts have a slightly less acid and higher values of CEC than Dystropepts. These properties or characteristics seem to be related to the fact that Humitropepts have a higher clay and OC content than the Dystropepts. Canonical discrimination analysis showed that the variables that discriminate the two great soil groups from each other are OC and silt. Data for Humitropepts are grouped around the OC vector (defining axis 3, principal component analysis, while Dystropepts are associated with the clay and sand vectors, with significant correlation. Given the importance of OC for soil properties, we propose the creation of a new large group named Humustepts for the order Inceptisol, suborder Ustepts.Boa parte dos solos dos Andes Venezuelanos (60 % é classificada como "Inceptisol", e uma grande percentagem deles é Dystrustepts nas versões do Soil Taxonomy. Outros foram classificados como Humitropepts - solos com altos teores de C de compostos orgânicos (CO. Os Dystrustepts desenvolvem-se sobre diferentes materiais, relevo e vegetação. Suas características têm estreita relação com o tipo de material de origem. Os Dystrustepts desenvolvidos sobre

  10. Chiliques volcano, Chile (United States)


    A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U

  11. Within plate seismicity analysis in the segment between the high Cordillera and the Precordillera of northern Mendoza (Southern Central Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Olivar


    Full Text Available Crustal seismicity in northwestern Mendoza Province in Argentina, corresponding to the transition zone between the Chilean-Pampean flat subduction zone (26.5–33.5°S and the Southern Central Andes normal subduction zone to the south, is studied in order to i identify its relationship with the mapped structure, ii determine deformational mechanisms and iii constrain the geometry of the fold and thrust belt in the lower crust. Through this, we aim to determine which are the structures that contribute to Andean construction, east of the Frontal Cordillera in Argentina and at the western Principal Cordillera in Chile. Data from a temporary local seismic network are reprocessed in order to achieve a precise location of hypocenters and, whenever possible, to build focal mechanisms. Results are interpreted and compared with previous seismic studies and structural models. Analyzed seismicity is grouped around the eastern front of Frontal Cordillera, with hypocenters mainly at depths of 25–40 km. Contrastingly, earthquakes in the Principal Cordillera to the west are located at the axial Andean sector and Chilean slope, with depths shallower than 15 km. Obtained focal mechanisms indicate mainly strike-slip displacements, left lateral at Frontal Cordillera and right lateral at Principal Cordillera. Based on these observations, new possible structural models are proposed, where seismogenic sources could be either associated with inherited basement structures from the Cuyania-Chilenia suture; or correspond to deep-blind thrusts linked with a deeper-than-previously-assumed decollement that could be shared between Frontal Cordillera and western Precordillera. This deeper decollement would coincide in turn with the one determined from receiver function analysis for the eastern Sierras Pampeanas in previous works, potentially implying a common decollement all through the fold and thrust belt configuration. Apart from this, a new interpretation of

  12. Tectonics of the northern Venezuelan Andes from satellite images analysis (United States)

    Dhont, D.; Backé, G.; Hervouët, Y.


    The northern part of the Venezuelan (or Merida) Andes is a complex area comprising a Cretaceous to Quaternary sedimentary sequence that recorded two main stages of deformation: (1) the uplifting of the Carribean belt in the Cretaceous-Eocene (Carribean stage), which is superimposed by (2) the building of the Venezuelan Andes since the Miocene (Andean stage). The study area is located at the junction between the Merida Andes and the Caribbean belt, and constitutes a key zone to understand the transition between these two orogens. Our aim is to implement the structural mapping in order to propose a new model of deformation at regional scale. The methodology is based on analysis of Landsat TM, SPOT, radarsat and DEM images, and is complemented by geological studies in the field. Integration of this complementary data set into a GIS enables a new understanding of the tectonics of the northern Venezuelan Andes during the Neogene-Quaternary. We focused on three main areas where the structures are clearly exposed. In the Mene Grande area, our structural analysis allows to precise the geometry and timing of deformations. The Cerro la Galera anticline is a fault bend fold propagating to the SW that developped along the Burro Negro fault during the Eocene-Oligocene and then eroded. The Cerro La Luna (or Cerro Misoa) is a pop-up structure that developped later during the Andean stage. In the Jirajara area, we have evidenced a releasing-bend basin at left-stepping offset of the Valera fault. To the east, this basin is surrounded by the relief of the Serrania de Jirajara which gravitationally collapses towards the lowland of the basin. In the Sierra de Barragua area, we mapped the left-lateral strike-slip Rio Diquiva fault 25 km east of the Valera fault. This fault is a major structure bounding two distincts areas of sedimentation during the Eocene. The synthesis of these observations shows that the northern Venezuelan Andes consist in a mosaic of independent crustal blocks

  13. What controls millennial-scale denudation rates across the Central Andes? (United States)

    Zeilinger, Gerold; Korup, Oliver; Schlunegger, Fritz; Kober, Florian


    Sustainable planning of erosion control measures in the Central Andes requires robust knowledge about natural denudation rates. We explore a large dataset combining new and published 10Be (and 26Al) catchment-wide denudation rates from a swath at 17 to 19° S spanning the Western Cordillera that rises from sea level to 5500 m elevation; the Altiplano at ~4000 m; the Eastern Cordillera with elevations up to 6500 m; the Interandean Zone; the Subandean Zone; and the Chaco Plain at 300 m. The selected catchments span a large spread regarding morphometric and climate properties where mean slope angles range from 1 to 31°, and mean precipitation from 100 to 3900 mm/a. The denudation rates (0.0036 to 1.93 mm/a) are averaged over millennia, and reveal two to three magnitudes difference across the Central Andes. The regional distribution of denudation rates clearly demonstrates a more complex interaction of geomorphological, geological and meteorological parameters with the dominant geomorphological processes. In order to elucidate the key controls on denudation, we use multivariate statistics such as principal component analysis in order to remove potentially redundant predictors of denudation in the studied catchments. These predictors include catchment elevation, topographic relief, hillslope inclination, mean precipitation, tree cover, specific stream power, channel steepness indices, sinuosity, drainage density and hypsometric index that we derived from the SRTM 90 m Digital Elevation Database, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data, and the Terra MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields dataset. Additionally, the rock strength index (PLI) was estimated based on geological units. Preliminary results allow distinguishing five different longitudinal domains of denudation on the basis of climatic regime, hillslope steepness, and the degree of accumulated crustal deformation. We find that the pattern of 10Be catchment-wide denudation rates in the Central Andes

  14. Socialisme i Chile efter Pinochet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando


    Chile bliver ofte præsenteret som et paradigme for resten af det latinamerikanske kontinent: Et land med høj økonomisk vækst og politisk stabilitet. Landet har endda haft to socialistiske præsidenter siden 2000, den sidste den første kvindelige præsident. Succeshistorien har en bagside: De...... socialistiske regeringer har accepteret et begrænset demokrati og videreført en nyliberal økonomisk politik, der har bragt dem på konfrontationskurs med massebevægelserne og isoleret Chile fra de andre lande i regionen, der søger integration og gensidig støøte. Udgivelsesdato: Februar...

  15. [Chile: social protection in health]. (United States)

    Urriola, Rafael


    This piece begins with a brief discussion of the concepts leading to the social right to health protection. Special emphasis is placed on the principle of social cohesion, which has influenced social health protection in European countries. Chile's experience in this field from the 1990s to the present is described, as exemplified in three dimensions. In the first place, social security coverage is presented as a means to achieve universal (horizontal) coverage. A discussion follows on vertical coverage, where the author identifies health problems for which insured persons have guaranteed rights of access to medical care. This section describes available emergency care, primary health care, and the special plan for Universal Access to Explicit Guarantees (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas de salud, or AUGE). Thirdly, the discussion covers the funding sources supporting the Chilean health care system: Government subsidies, contributions to social security, and out-of-pocket disbursements for private care. Chile's public health system has various special programs. One of them is catastrophic insurance, which covers 100% of the care needed for complex and very costly treatments. Older persons (over 65) have coverage for 100% of the cost of eyeglasses and hearing aids, and for 50% of the cost of home care. If life expectancy is an appropriate indicator of health system results, it is worth noting that Chile and the United States of America have both achieved a life expectancy of 77 years, even though Chile spends only 5.9% of its gross domestic product on health care, as compared to the 15% spent by the United States.

  16. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity. (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N


    Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  17. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1 There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2 There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3 Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  18. Steady-state exhumation pattern in the central Andes SE Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, G.M.H.; Carlotto, V.; van Heiningen, P.S.; Andriessen, P.A.M.


    The Western Cordillera of SE Peru is part of the Central Andes and is situated to the west of the Eastern Andes from which it is separated by the northern termination of the Altiplano - the Inter-Andean Valley. It is a volcanic-volcano-detrital chain that developed in the Palaeogene, and is

  19. Timing of the magmatism of the paleo-Pacific border of Gondwana: U-Pb geochronology of Late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic igneous rocks of the north Chilean Andes between 20o and 31oS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksaev, Victor; Munizaga, Francisco; Tassinari, Colombo


    U-Pb zircon geochronological data provide record of about 130 Ma of igneous activity in the Andes of northern Chile, which extended episodically from the latest Early Carboniferous to Early Jurassic (328-194 Ma). The overall U-Pb data show that volcanism and plutonism were essentially synchronous and major episodes of igneous activity developed during the Late Carboniferous to Mid-Permian (310 to 260 Ma) and from Late Permian to Late Triassic (255-205 Ma), with less prominent episodes in the mid-Carboniferous (330 to 320 Ma), and Early Jurassic (200-190 Ma). Thus, from the Carboniferous to the Early Triassic dominantly silicic magmatism developed along the Chilean segment of the southwestern border of Gondwana supercontinent. Further magmatism developed during the Mid-Late Triassic (250-194 Ma) was bimodal and synchronous with rift-related, continental and/or marine sedimentary strata related to the early stages of break-up of Gondwana. Most of the silicic volcanic rocks of the Precordillera and Domeyko Cordillera of northern Chile (21 o 30 o to 25 o 30 o S) are older than the silicic rocks assigned to the Choiyoi succession in Argentina, being instead equivalent in age to Carboniferous to Early Permian marine sedimentary sequences present in the eastern Argentinean foreland. On the other hand, silicic volcanic successions exposed in the easternmost part of northern Chile are equivalent in age to the Choiyoi succession of the San Rafael Block of Argentina. An eastward expansion or migration of the volcanism during the Mid-Permian to Early Triassic is inferred, interpretation that is consistent with expansion of the volcanism at that time in Argentina. The timing of the Late Paleozoic to Early Jurassic magmatism is coincident with that of the Andes of Peru and of western Argentina according to the available U-Pb data, revealing a rather consistent evolution in time of the magmatism along the southwestern, paleo-Pacific border of Gondwana

  20. Incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in Chile. (United States)

    González, Robinson; Soza, Alejandro; Hernández, Verónica; Pérez, Rosa M; Alvarez, Manuel; Morales, Arturo; Arellano, Marco; Riquelme, Arnoldo; Viviani, Paola; Covarrubias, Carmen; Arrese, Marco; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Nervi, Flavio


    Chronic hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological data regarding this infection in developing countries is scanty. Prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) infection was investigated in a random sample of Chilean general adult population older than 20 years of age. Additionally, frequency of HCV infection was assessed in group of native Chilean Amerindians (Mapuche Indians) living in an isolated locality of the Southern Chile. Incidence of HCV infection was estimated using serum samples separated by 7 years (1993-2000). Among 959 subjects, prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was 1.15% (95% CI 0.48-1.82%) and 0.83% when only RIBA-confirmed cases were considered. Among these subjects, 62.5% had detectable HCV RNA in serum and 40% of them had a history of blood transfusion. Age distribution of cases showed a steadily increasing prevalence with age. Estimated incidence of new HCV infections was 15 per 100,000 subjects per year in the period 1993-2000. No cases were detected among the 145 Mapuche subjects studied. HCV infection is a prevalent disease in the Hispanic population of Chile with a low incidence in the last decade, whereas it was not detected in an isolated Mapuche Indian community. Age distribution of prevalence suggests that the peak of infection in Chile occurred 30 to 50 years ago.

  1. Radiation doses in neuroangiography for a clinical hospital in Chile; Dosis de radiacion en neuroangiografia para un hospital clinico de Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergara, F.; Valenzuela, E., E-mail: [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Medicina. Centro de Terapia Endovascular; Ubeda, C.A.; Nocetti, D., E-mail: [Universidade de Tarapaca (Chile). Centro de Estudos en Ciencias Radiologicas (CECRad). Dept. de Tecnologic Medica. Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud (FACSAL)


    The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of radiation to the patient in neuroangiography procedures diagnostic and therapy in a Chile's Hospital, using a biplane angiographic system Siemens model ArtisZee. This research was conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the support of their radiation protection programs for patients.

  2. An Epidemic of Oroya Fever in the Peruvian Andes (United States)


    Marafion River in regions with elevations of 600-2,450 m in Co- the Department of Ancash. Pomabamba Prov- 6 lumbia. Ecuador. Peru. Chile , Bolivia...lipopolysaccharide T’he epidemic began during the rainy season. (Difco laboratories. Detroit. M11) and Brucella November to May. Many of the lPrsi cases re

  3. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile


    Víctor Becerril-Montekio; Juan de Dios Reyes; Annick Manuel


    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como ...

  4. Earthquake engineering research program in Chile (United States)

    Saragoni, G. R.


    Earthquake engineering research in Chile has been carried out for more than 30 years. Systematic research is done at the university of Chile in Santiago. Other universities such as the Catholic University, university of Concepcion, and the Federico Santa Maria Technical University have begun to teach and conduct research in earthquake engineering in recent years. 

  5. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima


    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  6. Linchamientos y conflicto político en Los Andes Lynchings and Political conflict in The Andes


    Carlos M. Vilas


    En 2004, los alcaldes de dos municipalidades de la región aimara de los Andes fueron linchados en la aparente culminación de agudos conflictos políticos internos y entre las respectivas comunidades y el Estado central. En este artículo se discuten ambos casos con el fin de ilustrar las transformaciones experimentadas en años recientes en la organización y la dinámica interna de las comunidades andinas, y de la articulación conflictiva de la política local en los procesos e instituciones de má...

  7. Tectonic control of erosion in the southern Central Andes (United States)

    Val, Pedro; Venerdini, Agostina L.; Ouimet, William; Alvarado, Patricia; Hoke, Gregory D.


    Landscape evolution modeling and global compilations of exhumation data indicate that a wetter climate, mainly through orographic rainfall, can govern the spatial distribution of erosion rates and crustal strain across an orogenic wedge. However, detecting this link is not straightforward since these relationships can be modulated by tectonic forcing and/or obscured by heavy-tailed frequencies of catchment discharge. This study combines new and published along-strike average rates of catchment erosion constrained by 10Be and river-gauge data in the Central Andes between 28°S and 36°S. These data reveal a nearly identical latitudinal pattern in erosion rates on both sides of the range, reaching a maximum of 0.27 mm/a near 34°S. Collectively, data on topographic and fluvial relief, variability of rainfall and discharge, and crustal seismicity suggest that the along-strike pattern of erosion rates in the southern Central Andes is largely independent of climate, but closely relates to the N-S distribution of shallow crustal seismicity and diachronous surface uplift. The consistently high erosion rates on either side of the orogen near 34°S imply that climate plays a secondary role in the mass flux through an orogenic wedge where the perturbation to base level is similar on both sides.

  8. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012]. (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime


    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  9. Methods to Estimate Lettuce Evapotranspiration in Greenhouse Conditions in the Central Zone of Chile Métodos de Estimación de la Evapotranspiración de un Cultivo de Lechuga en Condiciones de Invernadero, Zona Central de Chile


    Manuel Casanova P; Ingmar Messing; Abraham Joel; Alberto Cañete M


    This study evaluates five methods to estimate crop evapotranspiration in greenhouse conditions. It compares their performance in relation to the evapotranspiration directly determined from water balance measurements (ETlys) in an irrigated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crop during 9 weeks. Daily values of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) from Class A pan (CAP), Piche atmometers (ATM), Andersson evaporimeters (ANE), FAO-Radiation (FRE) and FAO-Penman-Monteith (PME) equations were compared....

  10. Arsenic exposure and its impact on health in Chile. (United States)

    Ferreccio, Catterina; Sancha, Ana María


    The problem of arsenic in Chile was reviewed. In Chile, the population is exposed to arsenic naturally via drinking-water and by air pollution resulted from mining activities. The sources of arsenic were identified to estimate the exposure of population to arsenic through air, water, and food. Health effects, particularly early effects, observed in children and adults, such as vascular diseases (premature cardiac infarct), respiratory illnesses (bronchiectasis), and skin lesions have been described. Chronic effects, such as lung and bladder cancers, were reported 20 years after peak exposure and persisted 27 years after mitigation measures for removing arsenic from drinking surface water were initiated. Although the effects of arsenic are similar in different ethnic and cultural groups (e.g. Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Bangladeshi, American, and Taiwanese), variations could be explained by age at exposure, the dose received, smoking, and nutrition. Since health effects were observed at arsenic levels of 50 microg/L in drinking-water, it is advised that Chile follows the World Health Organization's recommendation of 10 microg/L. The Chilean experience in removal of arsenic suggests that it is feasible to reach this level using the conventional coagulation process.

  11. Mesozoic–Cenozoic Evolution of the Western Margin of South America: Case Study of the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gonzalez


    Full Text Available Based on the structural style and physiographic criteria, the Central Andes of Peru can be divided into segments running parallel to the Pacific coast. The westernmost segment, the Coastal Belt, consists of a Late Jurassic–Cretaceous volcanic arc sequence that was accreted to the South American craton in Cretaceous times. The Mesozoic strata of the adjacent Western Cordillera represent an ENE-vergent fold-and-thrust belt that formed in Eocene times. Tight upright folds developed above a shallow detachment horizon in the West, while more open folds formed above a deeper detachment horizon towards the East and in the neighboring Central Highlands. A completely different style with steeply dipping reverse faults and open folds affecting the Neoproterozoic crystalline basement is typical for the Eastern Cordillera. The Subandean Zone is characterized by mainly NE-vergent imbricate thrusting which occurred in Neogene times. A quantitative estimate of the shortening of the orogen obtained from balanced cross-sections indicates a total shortening of 120–150 km (24%–27%. This shortening was coevel with the Neogene westward drift of South America, occurred at rates between 3 and 4.7 mm/year and was responsible for the high elevation of the Peruvian Andes.

  12. Climate change and energy policy in Chile: Up in smoke?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundaca T, Luis


    This paper provides an ex-post assessment of the climate and energy policy developments in Chile emerging from a neoliberal economic model, during the period 1971–2007. First, correlation and regression analyses were performed to analyse historical CO 2 emissions as a product of demographic, economic and energy-wide drivers. Then I estimate indicators related to CO 2 emissions, energy use and economic activity. In the light of empirical results, I identify policy instruments and structural issues. Finally, I present a comparative analysis of Chile and other Latin American countries. Statistical tests show that variability of CO 2 emissions is explained mostly by GDP per capita (‘affluence’) than any other tested variable. Indicators show that the diversification and decarbonisation of the energy mix has been a major policy challenge. With two notable exceptions (hydro and natural gas), the CO 2 intensity of the energy supply mix suggests no effective policies, while energy security crises triggered negative carbon effects and increased prices. No clear policies to promote energy efficiency can be identified until 2005. Explicit policy instruments to promote renewable energy are only recognised after 2004. The results strongly suggest that Chile lacked of policies to effectively decarbonise its energy–economy system. - Highlight: ► The first paper that quantitatively assesses key drivers of CO 2 emissions in Chile. ► It examines energy and climate policy development during the period 1971–2007. ► GDP per capita (‘affluence’) is the main determinant of CO 2 emissions. ► Diversification and decarbonisation of energy mix has been a major policy challenge. ► Policy approach under analysed period not suited for a low-carbon economy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available El problema de la desigualdad en Chile ha sido abordado desde diferentes puntos de vista como la cuestión de la distribución de la riqueza o el acceso a los derechos sociales. Es este trabajo se observa el mismo problema pero desde la perspectiva recientemente esbozada por los movimientos sociales: la del racismo ambiental o la desigual distribución de los deshechos del desarrollo y el consumo. De esta manera se revisan sucintamente los principales conflictos que han surgido en el último tiempo a lo largo del país entre empresas públicas y privadas y comunidades locales y originarias. Así mismo se examinan las formas de organización que estas últimas han asumido y el estado actual de articulación entre ellas. De la revisión de la situación se concluye que estamos ante el surgimiento de un actor de nuevo tipo, que surge de las contradicciones del Chile neoliberal y que se diferencia del movimiento ecologista por vincular sus reivindicaciones a la defensa del territorio y al derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.

  14. President of Chile at CERN

    CERN Multimedia


    The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, in the ATLAS cavern with, from left to right, Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesman, Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, and Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General. Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, signing a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT).The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, paid a visit to CERN during her three-day tour of Switzerland. The charismatic Michelle Bachelet and her large delegation were greeted by the CERN Director-General and then taken to see the ATLAS experiment and the LHC. She also took time to meet the Chilean community working at CERN, comprising several physicists in the Theory Group and the ATLAS experiment. The meeting was followed by the signing of a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científi...

  15. High altitude C(4) grasslands in the northern Andes: relicts from glacial conditions? (United States)

    Boom, A; Mora, G; Cleef, A M.; Hooghiemstra, H


    The altitudinal vegetation distribution in the northern Andes during glacial time differed from the present-day conditions as a result of temperature and precipitation change. New evidence indicate that as a response to a reduced atmospheric partial CO(2) pressure (pCO(2)), the competitive balance between C(3) and C(4) plants have changed. Effects may have remained virtually undetected in pollen records, but can be observed using a stable carbon isotope analysis. Vegetation dominated by C(4) taxa, belonging to the families Cyperaceae (e.g. Bulbostylis and Cyperus) and Poaceae (e.g. Muhlenbergia, Paspalum and Sporobolus), may have been able to replace for a significant part the modern type C(3) taxa (e.g. species belonging to Carex, Rhynchospora, Aciachne, Agrostis, Calamagrostis, and Chusquea). Impact of reduced glacial atmospheric pCO(2) levels and lower glacial temperatures on the composition and the elevational distribution of the vegetation types is discussed. The present high Andean vegetation communities may differ from the glacial equivalents (non-modern analogue situation). We identified dry Sporobolus lasiophyllus tussock grassland and Arcytophyllum nitidum dwarfshrub paramo as the possible relict communities from glacial time. The effect on previous estimates of paleo-temperatures is estimated to be small.

  16. Tamaños de muestra para estimar la estructura de tallas de las capturas de langostino colorado en la zona centro-norte de Chile: una aproximación a través de remuestreo Sample sizes for estimating the catch size distribution of squat lobster in north-central Chile: a resampling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Montenegro Silva


    Full Text Available Se analizó el desempeño de distintos tamaños de muestra para estimar la composición de tallas de las capturas del langostino colorado (Pleuroncodes monodon, a partir de un procedimiento de remuestreo computacional. Se seleccionaron datos recolectados en mayo de 2002 entre los 29°10'S y 32°10'S. A partir de éstos, se probaron siete escenarios de muestreo de viajes de pesca (1-7 viajes, 12 escenarios de número de ejemplares muestreados (25, 50,...300, cada 25 ejemplares y dos estrategias de muestreo de lances de pesca al interior de un viaje de pesca (censo de lances y muestreo sistemático. Se probó la combinación de todos estos escenarios, lo que permitió analizar el desempeño de 168 escenarios de tamaño de muestra para estimar la composición de tallas por sexo. Los resultados indicaron una disminución en el índice de error en la estimación de la distribución de frecuencia de tallas, conforme aumentó el número de viajes de pesca, con disminuciones progresivamente menores entre escenarios adyacentes. Del mismo modo, se verificó una disminución en el índice de error al aumentar el número de ejemplares muestreados, con mejoras marginales sobre los 175 ejemplares.The performances of different sample sizes for estimating the size distribution of squat lobster (Pleuroncodes monodon catches were analyzed using a computer resampling procedure. The data selected were gathered in May 2002 between 29°10'S and 32°10'S. These data were used to test seven sampling scenarios for fishing trips (1-7 trips, twelve scenarios of the number of individuals sampled per tow (25, 50,..., 300, and two within-trip sampling strategies (sampling all tows and systematic tow sampling. By testing the combination of all these scenarios, we were able to analyze the performance of 168 scenarios of sample size for estimating the composition of sizes by sex. The results indicate a lower error index for estimates of the size frequency distribution as the

  17. The GalileoMobile starts its South American voyage - Astronomy education goes on tour through the Andes Mountains (United States)


    Today marks the beginning of the GalileoMobile Project, a two-month expedition to bring the wonder and excitement of astronomy to young people in Chile, Bolivia and Peru. Supported by ESO and partners, a group of astronomers and educators will travel through a region of the Andes Mountains aboard the GalileoMobile, offering astronomical activities, such as workshops for students and star parties for the general public. Professional filmmakers on the trip will produce a multilingual documentary capturing the thrill of discovery through science, culture and travel. The GalileoMobile is a Special Project of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), which is a global celebration commemorating the first use of a telescope to view the Universe by the Italian astronomer Galileo four hundred years ago. The project will promote basic science education through astronomy by visiting schools and communities that have limited access to outreach programmes. The GalileoMobile will provide these underserved groups with hands-on activities and educational material from international partners. The van is fully equipped to offer unique sky-observing opportunities for young students and other locals, with star parties at night and solar observations during the day. The team will use various tools including IYA2009's handy Galileoscopes, which will be donated to the schools after the visits. By stimulating curiosity, critical thinking and a sense of wonder and discovery for the Universe and our planet, the GalileoMobile Project aims to encourage interest in astronomy and science, and exchange culturally different visions of the cosmos. Spearheading the initiative is a group of enthusiastic Latin American and European PhD students from the European Southern Observatory, the Max Planck Society, the University Observatory Munich, and the Stockholm University Observatory. This itinerant educational programme is intended to reach about 20 000 people during eight weeks in October

  18. Letter from Chile: Re-establishing health care in Chile (United States)

    Jiménez, Jorge


    Chile's long term social policy has produced very impressive outcomes in general health indicators, with a national health service established as early as 1952. During the years of the Pinochet dictatorship (1973-89) public health institutions were greatly affected, with sharp diminution in financing which affected investment and salaries. The democratic government initiated in 1990 faced a difficult situation, with underpaid staff and decrepit hospitals. The ministry took immediate action to improve salaries and start an ambitious health sector reform including investment in infrastructure, technology, and modern management. Decentralisation and autonomy, changes in payment for service mechanisms, and a public-private mix are the main objectives of this reform, keeping the public role as predominant in the proposed structure. This process has been affected by union unrest and public opinion dissatisfaction, which tend to present obstacles to progress in this complicated issue. Imagesp729-ap730-a

  19. Relations Between Chile and ESO (United States)


    As announced in an earlier Press Release (PR 08/94 of 6 May 1994), a high-ranking ESO delegation visited Santiago de Chile during the week of 24 - 28 May 1994 to discuss various important matters of mutual interest with the Chilean Government. It consisted of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. THE SUPPLEMENTARY TREATY BETWEEN CHILE AND ESO Following a meeting with the ambassadors to Chile of the eight ESO member countries, the ESO delegation was received by the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and members of his staff. The ESO delegation was pleased to receive assurances that the present Chilean Government, like its predecessors, will continue to honour all contractual agreements, in particular the privileges and immunities of this Organisation, which were laid down in the Treaty between ESO and Chile that was signed by the parties in 1963 and ratified the following year. The discussions covered some aspects of the proposed Supplementary Treaty which has been under preparation during the past year. This included in particular the desire of the Chilean side to further increase the percentage of guaranteed time for Chilean astronomers at the future ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and also the rules governing the installation by ESO member countries of additional telescopes at the ESO observatories in Chile. ESO invited a Chilean delegation to visit the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) later this year for the final adjustment of the text of the Supplementary Treaty, after which it should be possible to proceed rapidly with the signing and ratification by the Chilean Parliament and the ESO Council. THE SITUATION AROUND PARANAL The ESO delegation expressed its deep concern to the Chilean Government about the continuing legal

  20. Mercury contamination in chile: a chronicle of a problem foretold. (United States)

    Barrios-Guerra, Carlos A


    This review analyzes the effects of environmental mercury contamination in Chile. This contamination generates one of the most important environmental conflicts in the country in that it affects air, ground, and water (rivers and oceans), which are fundamental in maintaining natural biotic equilibrium and at the same time important for the nation's economy. Chile possesses extraordinarily wealthy mining resources between Regions I and IV that have developed into an extraction industry essential for the economy of the country. However, waste discharges from this production have created an environmental problem in that the majority of the mines are located in the Andes mountain range, or areas close by, and the water used in the extraction process is deposited into the rivers, significantly increasing the amount of chemical contamination. Therefore, the cities and downstream waters used in agriculture suffer the negative consequences of a natural resource that is becoming more and more scarce. In addition, minerals released from mills into the atmosphere are deposited onto the soil, drastically affecting the biological resources of these areas. One of these affected areas is the Metropolitan region, where one of the highest contamination levels of mercury in the country was found in one of its affluents due to industrial and domestic waste discharge. In a country that is only 200 km in width, the gathering of all these contaminants in the rivers results in a rapid flow to the ocean, thereby contaminating coastal waters and the biota. In general, this contamination has been detected in semiclosed bodies of water (bays). Between Regions VII and IX, the principal sources of mercury contamination are related to cellulose industrial sites (Regions VII and VIII) and, until the 1980s, the bleach-soda industry. The most important industrial and fishing activity is also found in this area. In San Vicente Bay, waste discharges released into the ocean include sewage, industrial

  1. Remote sensing and climate data as a key for understanding fasciolosis transmission in the Andes: review and update of an ongoing interdisciplinary project

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    Màrius V. Fuentes


    Full Text Available Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica in various South American countries located on the slopes of the Andes has been recognized as an important public health problem. However, the importance of this zoonotic hepatic parasite was neglected until the last decade. Countries such as Peru and Bolivia are considered to be hyperendemic areas for human and animal fasciolosis, and other countries such as Chile, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela are also affected. At the beginning of the 1990s a multidisciplinary project was launched with the aim to shed light on the problems related to this parasitic disease in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano. A few years later, a geographic information system (GIS was incorporated into this multidisciplinary project analysing the epidemiology of human and animal fasciolosis in this South American Andean region. Various GIS projects were developed in some Andean regions using climatic data, climatic forecast indices and remote sensing data. Step by step, all these GIS projects concerning the forecast of the fasciolosis transmission risk in the Andean mountain range were revised and in some cases updated taking into account new data. The first of these projects was developed on a regional scale for the central Chilean regions and the proposed model was validated on a local scale in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano. This validated mixed model, based on both fasciolosis climatic forecast indices and normalized difference vegetation index values from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer satellite sensor, was extrapolated to other human and/or animal endemic areas of Peru and Ecuador. The resulting fasciolosis risk maps make it possible to show the known human endemic areas of, mainly, the Peruvian Altiplano, Cajamarca and Mantaro Peruvian valleys, and some valleys of the Ecuadorian Cotopaxi province. Nevertheless, more climate and remote sensing data, as well as more accurate epidemiological reports, have to be

  2. Chile: los mapuches y el Bicentenario Chile: Mapuches e do Bicentenario Chile: Mapuche and the Bicentennial

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    José Bengoa


    Full Text Available El Bicentenario de la República de Chile se conmemoró en el mes de septiembre del año 2010. Además de marcar un importante hito histórico, coincidió con un cambio político en el Gobierno del país, el que pasó de la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia a la Alianza de partidos formada por la derecha chilena. Se cumplieron por tanto 20 años desde que en el año 1990 cambiara el Gobierno militar presidido por el general Pinochet. Ese largo tiempo, dos décadas, coincide con un período de políticas que el Estado ha implementado hacia los Pueblos Indígenas. El Proyecto “Conmemoraciones y Memorias Subalternas” ha realizado durante el año 2010 un conjunto de investigaciones de terreno y documentales tendientes a comprender del modo más objetivo y científico lo ocurrido en el período y por tanto la situación actual de las sociedades mapuches en sus complejas relaciones con la chilena.O Bicentenario da República do Chile comemorou-se no mês de Setembro do ano 2010. Junto com transformar-se num marco histórico, coincidiu com uma mudança política no Governo do país, que passou da Concertação de Partidos pela Democracia (centro-esquerda à Aliança de partidos formada pela direita chilena. Cumpriram-se por tanto 20 anos desde que em 1990 mudasse o Governo militar presidido pelo general Pinochet. Esse longo tempo, duas décadas, coincide com um período de políticas que o Estado implementou para com os Povos Indígenas. O Projeto “Comemorações e Memórias Subalternas” realizou durante o ano 2010 um conjunto de pesquisas de campo e documentais tendentes a compreender do modo mais objetivo e científico o ocorrido no período e, por tanto, a situação atual das sociedades mapuches em suas complexas relações com a chilena.The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right

  3. Current Discussions Between ESO and Chile (United States)


    [Joint Press Release by the Government of the Republic of Chile and the European Southern Observatory. The text is issued simultaneously in Santiago de Chile (in Spanish) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (in English).] Today, Tuesday, 18 April 1995, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), Mr. Roberto Cifuentes, Plenipotentiary Ambassador representing the Government of the Republic of Chile, and the Director General of the European Southern Observatory, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, have signed a Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the Convention of 6 November 1963 which governs the relations between Chile and this International Organisation. This Agreement which in practice signifies a widening and strengthening of the cooperative relations between the Organisation and the Chilean scientific community will hereafter be submitted for ratification by the National Congress of the Republic of Chile (the Parliament) and by the ESO Council. According to the Agreement signed today, Chilean astronomers will have privileged access within up to 10 percent observing time on all present and future ESO telescopes in Chile. Moreover, ESO accepts to incorporate into its labour regulations for Chilean personnel concepts like freedom of association and collective bargaining. This signing of the Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the original Convention of 1963 follows after months of constructive dialogue between the parties. It constitutes an important step towards a solution of some of the pending points on the current agenda for discussions between the Government of Chile and ESO. Among the issues still pending, ESO has informed the Government of Chile that respect for its immunities by the Chilean State is of vital importance for the continuation of the construction of the world's largest telescope at Paranal, as well as the continued presence of the Organisation in Chile. The Chilean Government, on its side, and concerning

  4. Socioeconomic School Segregation in a Market-Oriented Educational System. The Case of Chile (United States)

    Valenzuela, Juan Pablo; Bellei, Cristian; de los Ríos, Danae


    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the socioeconomic status (SES) school segregation in Chile, whose educational system is regarded as an extreme case of a market-oriented education. The study estimated the magnitude and evolution of the SES segregation of schools at both national and local levels, and it studied the relationship between…

  5. Adaptive institutions? Peasant institutions and natural models facing climatic and economic changes in the Colombian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feola, Giuseppe


    In the Colombian Andes, peasants have co-evolved with their environment for centuries, but it is uncertain whether traditional informal institutions and natural models are adapting to current and possibly unprecedented economic and climatic disturbances. This study investigated institutional

  6. A new species of Trechisibus from Peruvian Andes (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Trechinae

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    Pedro Delgado


    Full Text Available In this work the new species Trechisibus (s. str. delestali sp. n., is described from the southern Peruvian Andes. The morphological differences with the geographically closest species of the subgenus are also presented and discussed.

  7. Late Pleistocene to Holocene tephrostratigraphy of the Lonquimay Volcano, South Central Chile (United States)

    Gilbert, D.; Freundt, A.; Kutterolf, S.; Burkert, C.


    The Lonquimay Volcanic Complex (LVC) in South Central Chile (38.38°S, 71.58°W) is part of the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes, which formed in response to the subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate. During the course of its magmatic evolution, the LVC produced explosive eruptions documented in the succession of widespread tephra deposits, as well as large lava flows that originated from the main edifice and several adjacent minor eruptive centers. The last eruptive phase in Lonquimays volcanic evolution occurred from 1988-1990. It led to the formation of the Navidad cinder cone with its associated 10.2 km long lava flow, and a widely distributed tephra blanket of andesitic composition (Moreno and Gardeweg, 1989). During recent field work we reinvestigated and complemented the LVC tephrostratigraphy as originally established by Polanco (1998)by detailed logging of 22 outcrops and collecting 126 stratigraphically controlled samples that were analyzed for their matrix glass, mineral and bulk rock compositions. This data set allows us to verify and extend the field-based correlations, and to establish a tephrostratigraphy for the LVC that comprises 15 stratigraphic units (LQA-LQO) and provides a framework for ongoing investigations of the petrogenetic evolution of the LVC. The stratigraphic record identifies at least 13 explosive eruptions of VEI > 3 that occurred since the last glaciation period (17150 a BP, McCulloch et al. 2000). Magmatic compositions of the tephra deposits range from basaltic scoriae (51wt% SiO2) to evolved dacitic pumice lapilli layers (67wt% SiO2), and thus have a wider compositional range than the chemically distinct andesitic lavas (57-63wt%) of the LVC. The vertical succession of tephra compositions reflects four periods of progressive magmatic differentiation, each successively tapped by several eruptions. The maximum degree of fractionation reached during these periods increases to younger ages. The

  8. Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake. (United States)

    Cisternas, Marco; Atwater, Brian F; Torrejón, Fernando; Sawai, Yuki; Machuca, Gonzalo; Lagos, Marcelo; Eipert, Annaliese; Youlton, Cristián; Salgado, Ignacio; Kamataki, Takanobu; Shishikura, Masanobu; Rajendran, C P; Malik, Javed K; Rizal, Yan; Husni, Muhammad


    It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended.

  9. Psychiatric disorders among the Mapuche in Chile. (United States)

    Vicente, Benjamin; Kohn, Robert; Rioseco, Pedro; Saldivia, Sandra; Torres, Silverio


    The Mapuche are the largest indigenous group in Chile; yet almost all data on the mental health of indigenous populations are from North America. The study examines the differential DSM-III-R prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders and service utilization among indigenous and non-indigenous community residence. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to a stratified random sample of 75 Mapuche and 434 non-Mapuche residents of the province of Cautín. Lifetime prevalence and 12-month prevalence rates were estimated. Approximately 28.4% of the Mapuche population had a lifetime, and 15.7% a 12-month, prevalent psychiatric disorder compared to 38.0% and 25.7%, respectively, of the non-Mapuche. Few significant differences were noted between the two groups; however, generalized anxiety disorder, simple phobia, and drug dependence were less prevalent among the Mapuche. Service utilization among the Mapuche with mental illness was low. This is a preliminary study based on a small sample size. Further research on the mental health of indigenous populations of South America is needed.

  10. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile]. (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H


    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level.

  11. Late Pleistocene glacial fluctuations in Cordillera Oriental, subtropical Andes (United States)

    Martini, Mateo A.; Kaplan, Michael R.; Strelin, Jorge A.; Astini, Ricardo A.; Schaefer, Joerg M.; Caffee, Marc W.; Schwartz, Roseanne


    The behavior of subtropical glaciers during Middle to Late Pleistocene global glacial maxima and abrupt climate change events, specifically in Earth's most arid low-latitude regions, remains an outstanding problem in paleoclimatology. The present-day climate of Cordillera Oriental, in arid northwestern Argentina, is influenced by shifts in subtropical climate systems, including the South American Summer Monsoon. To understand better past glacier-subtropical climates during the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 26.5-19 ka) and other time periods, we combined geomorphic features with forty-two precise 10Be ages on moraine boulders and reconstructed paleo-equilibrium line altitudes (ELA) at Nevado de Chañi (24°S) in the arid subtropical Andes. We found a major glacial expansion at ∼23 ± 1.6 ka, that is, during the global LGM. Additional glacial expansions are observed before the global LGM (at ∼52-39 ka), and after, at 15 ± 0.5 and 12 ± 0.6 ka. The ∼15 ka glacial event was found on both sides of Chañi and the ∼12 ka event is only recorded on the east side. Reconstructed ELAs of the former glaciers exhibit a rise from east to west that resembles the present subtropical climate trajectory from the Atlantic side of the continent; hence, we infer that this climate pattern must have been present in the past. Based on comparison with other low-latitude paleoclimate records, such as those from lakes and caves, we infer that both temperature and precipitation influenced past glacial occurrence in this sector of the arid Andes. Our findings also imply that abrupt deglacial climate events associated with the North Atlantic, specifically curtailed meridional overturning circulation and regional cooling, may have had attendant impacts on low subtropical Southern Hemisphere latitudes, including the climate systems that affect glacial activity around Nevado de Chañi.

  12. Complex brittle deformation pattern along the Southern Patagonian Andes (Argentina) (United States)

    Barberón, Vanesa; Sue, Christian; Ronda, Gonzalo; Ghiglione, Matías


    The Southern Patagonian Andes is located in the southern extreme of the Pacific subduction zone, where the Antartic oceanic plate sinks underneath South America. The history of the area begins with compression during Paleozoic, Jurassic extension associated to the rift and opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, then a sag stage in the Lower Cretaceous followed by a foreland phase as a result of plate tectonics (Ghiglione et al., 2016). The kinematic study is concentrated in the Argentinean foothills, between 46°40' and 48° SL. We measured around 800 fault planes and their striaes with the sense of movement in order to characterize the stress field. The software used to make the stress inversion were Tensor (Delvaux, 2011) and Multiple Inverse Method MIM (Yamaji et al., 2011). The stress field map was built with the results of the MIM. We present new data from 48 sites located in the northern sector of the Southern Patagonian Andes. The measurements were made in several rocks from Paleozoic to Lower Cretaceous, even though most were taken in pyroclastic jurassic rocks from El Quemado Complex. Paleostress tensors obtained are mostly strike-slip, although a 25% is normal and there are a few compresional. The pattern of faults found is complex. In some sites the tensor can be locally linked to satellite images and observations from the field or be related to a major thrust front. There is no clear correlation between the age and/or lithology with the tensor since the youngest rocks measured are Lower Cretaceous. Probably there are several generations of family faults connected to different and recent tectonic phases then the paleostress tensors might correspond to the latest tectonic events.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimkin, V.; Wiebe, D.; Pavlyuchenkov, Ya.; Zhukovska, S.; Semenov, D.; Henning, Th.; Vasyunin, A.; Birnstiel, T.


    We present a self-consistent model of a protoplanetary disk: 'ANDES' ('AccretioN disk with Dust Evolution and Sedimentation'). ANDES is based on a flexible and extendable modular structure that includes (1) a 1+1D frequency-dependent continuum radiative transfer module, (2) a module to calculate the chemical evolution using an extended gas-grain network with UV/X-ray-driven processes and surface reactions, (3) a module to calculate the gas thermal energy balance, and (4) a 1+1D module that simulates dust grain evolution. For the first time, grain evolution and time-dependent molecular chemistry are included in a protoplanetary disk model. We find that grain growth and sedimentation of large grains onto the disk midplane lead to a dust-depleted atmosphere. Consequently, dust and gas temperatures become higher in the inner disk (R ∼ 50 AU), in comparison with the disk model with pristine dust. The response of disk chemical structure to the dust growth and sedimentation is twofold. First, due to higher transparency a partly UV-shielded molecular layer is shifted closer to the dense midplane. Second, the presence of big grains in the disk midplane delays the freeze-out of volatile gas-phase species such as CO there, while in adjacent upper layers the depletion is still effective. Molecular concentrations and thus column densities of many species are enhanced in the disk model with dust evolution, e.g., CO 2 , NH 2 CN, HNO, H 2 O, HCOOH, HCN, and CO. We also show that time-dependent chemistry is important for a proper description of gas thermal balance.

  14. An elusive new species of Marsupial Frog (Anura: Hemiphractidae: Gastrotheca from the Andes of northern Peru

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    William E. Duellman


    Full Text Available A new species of marsupial frog, genus Gastrotheca, is described from high-elevation grasslands in the Andes in Región Amazonas in northernPeru, where even calling males are well hidden in deep moss. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its unique color pattern that includes a narrow, blackbordered, yellow middorsal stripe. The species apparently belongs to the Gastrotheca plumbea Group, which ranges in the Andes from northern Colombia to northern Peru.

  15. New ICT in the Peruvian Andes: Theoretical Foundation and Bibliographical Balance

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    Mario Sánchez-Dávila


    Full Text Available On the one hand, this paper explains the theoretical foundations on which this proposal for digital anthropology in the Peruvian Andes is based (on the origins of digital anthropology, discussions on oral and written technology, and theories of digital technology as social practice. And, on the other hand, this paper presents a bibliographical balance of the studies on the new ICT in the Peruvian Andes (on identity expression, productive development and formal education in the Andean world.

  16. Mujeres inmigrantes peruanas en Chile


    Carolina Stefoni


    Este artículo reflexiona en torno a la situación de la migración peruana en Chile, en particular sobre la situación de exclusión social y laboral que enfrentan las mujeres inmigrantes en Santiago. La migración peruana se caracteriza por ser eminentemente femenina y con una alta concentración laboral de este grupo en el trabajo doméstico. ¿Por qué se han vuelto las labores la fuente principal de trabajo para estas mujeres?, ¿basta con señalar que se debe a mano de obra más barata o existen otr...

  17. Chile: perspectives in school health. (United States)

    Langdon, M C; Gazmuri, C; Venegas, L


    The leading health problems of children and adolescents in Chile is reviewed. The Chilean educational system and how the system addresses its principal health problems are described. A school health program is described as well as other educational programs designed and developed by nongovernmental institutions which have a smaller coverage. Current research studies regarding growth and development, child morbidity, nutritional level, and mental health studies are reviewed. In addition, principal challenges that include developing more efficient ways of referring children, enriching the curriculum and teacher training, assigning school hours for health teachers, and enlarging coverage of the health care evaluation programs are outlined. Of special importance is developing prevention programs for parents and children using school and community leaders to prevent health problems in areas such as human sexuality education, decision-making, social abilities, and alcohol and drug abuse. Main efforts should be directed toward low-income families and children to improve life conditions.

  18. Intercultural bilingual education in Chile

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    Williams Ibarra Figueroa


    Full Text Available This article is based on analysis of the actions of public bodies and institutions that are being created in Chile to meet demand in Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE. The aim is to analyze the practical training of students in initial teacher training in intercultural basic education at the Catholic University of Temuco. In addition, reveal the working methods of collaborative field between family-school- community partnership in key initial identification and subsequent components and devices in the proper relationship of individuals, in order to establish criteria by biopsychosocial processes from the identity the Other and You as host in the plural diversity of human beings, with aim is to recommend  a public policy with an emphasis on multicultural values of each community, enriching the human condition and biopolitics regarding the integration from the educational training and the role that fits the state.

  19. Chile and Mercosur: One Strategic Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oviedo, Humberto


    ... a big free trade area. Chile has been proactive to open its economy unilaterally and now is looking for creating the best conditions to participate in some important economic blocks, as a NAFTA, MERCOSUR, the Asian-Pacific...

  20. A decade towards better health in Chile. (United States)

    Helmke, Irene


    In 1990, after 17 years of dictatorship, Chile started rebuilding its political system with a focus on improving social conditions and health. A recent study of the last 10 years shows some positive results. Irene Helmke reports.

  1. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  2. May 1960 Puerto Montt, Valdivia, Chile Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960, a Mw 9.5 earthquake, the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded, occurred in southern Chile. The series of earthquakes that followed...

  3. Methods to Estimate Lettuce Evapotranspiration in Greenhouse Conditions in the Central Zone of Chile Métodos de Estimación de la Evapotranspiración de un Cultivo de Lechuga en Condiciones de Invernadero, Zona Central de Chile

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    Manuel Casanova P


    Full Text Available This study evaluates five methods to estimate crop evapotranspiration in greenhouse conditions. It compares their performance in relation to the evapotranspiration directly determined from water balance measurements (ETlys in an irrigated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. crop during 9 weeks. Daily values of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo from Class A pan (CAP, Piche atmometers (ATM, Andersson evaporimeters (ANE, FAO-Radiation (FRE and FAO-Penman-Monteith (PME equations were compared. The methods showed similar temporal variations but at different ranges as follows: ANE Este estudio evalúa cinco métodos de estimación de la evapotranspiración de cultivos en condiciones de invernadero. Sus desempeños se evalúan en base a la evapotranspiración determinada directamente a partir de mediciones de balance hídrico (ETlys, para un cultivo de lechuga (Lactuca sativa L. bajo riego y un período de 9 semanas. Se compararon los valores diarios de evapotranspiración de referencia (ETo provenientes de una bandeja clase A (CAP, atmómetros de Piche (ATM, evaporímetros Andersson (ANE, la ecuación FAO-Radiación (FRE y la ecuación FAO-Penman-Monteith (PME. Los métodos muestran similares variaciones en el tiempo, pero en los diferentes rangos siguientes: ANE < CAP < FRE < PME < ATM. Además, ETo muestra una clara correlación con la radiación solar. Los coeficientes de cultivo (Kc = ETlys/ETo variaron entre métodos pero se identificaron tendencias para dos períodos: en la primera semana el Kc promedio fue de 0,3 (± 0,1 y dentro de las semanas 2 a 9 estos valores fueron del orden de 0,6 (± 0,3. Los valores de Kc encontrados en invernadero fueron inferiores a los adoptados para lechuga en condiciones de campo. En términos de diseño de riego, la evapotranspiración del cultivo puede ser estimada si se emplean los métodos de este estudio, con la salvedad que se apliquen los coeficientes de cultivo apropiados. El hecho que ANE muestre los valores m

  4. Meteorological conditions associated to high sublimation amounts in semiarid high-elevation Andes decrease the performance of empirical melt models (United States)

    Ayala, Alvaro; Pellicciotti, Francesca; MacDonell, Shelley; McPhee, James; Burlando, Paolo


    Empirical melt (EM) models are often preferred to surface energy balance (SEB) models to calculate melt amounts of snow and ice in hydrological modelling of high-elevation catchments. The most common reasons to support this decision are that, in comparison to SEB models, EM models require lower levels of meteorological data, complexity and computational costs. However, EM models assume that melt can be characterized by means of a few index variables only, and their results strongly depend on the transferability in space and time of the calibrated empirical parameters. In addition, they are intrinsically limited in accounting for specific process components, the complexity of which cannot be easily reconciled with the empirical nature of the model. As an example of an EM model, in this study we use the Enhanced Temperature Index (ETI) model, which calculates melt amounts using air temperature and the shortwave radiation balance as index variables. We evaluate the performance of the ETI model on dry high-elevation sites where sublimation amounts - that are not explicitly accounted for the EM model - represent a relevant percentage of total ablation (1.1 to 8.7%). We analyse a data set of four Automatic Weather Stations (AWS), which were collected during the ablation season 2013-14, at elevations between 3466 and 4775 m asl, on the glaciers El Tapado, San Francisco, Bello and El Yeso, which are located in the semiarid Andes of central Chile. We complement our analysis using data from past studies in Juncal Norte Glacier (Chile) and Haut Glacier d'Arolla (Switzerland), during the ablation seasons 2008-09 and 2006, respectively. We use the results of a SEB model, applied to each study site, along the entire season, to calibrate the ETI model. The ETI model was not designed to calculate sublimation amounts, however, results show that their ability is low also to simulate melt amounts at sites where sublimation represents larger percentages of total ablation. In fact, we

  5. Characterizing Magmatic Sources in the Central Andes Volcanic Zone with a Regional InSAR Time Series Survey (United States)

    Henderson, S. T.; Pritchard, M. E.


    The Central Andes Volcanic Zone (CVZ) contains many intriguing areas of ongoing crustal deformation detectable with InSAR. Foremost among these are the 1-2cm/yr radar line-of-sight (LOS) inflations near Uturuncu Volcano in Bolivia and the Lazufre volcanic area spanning the border of Chile and Argentina (Pritchard and Simons 2002). These two deformation sources are intriguing in that they are long-lived (>10yrs), have large diameters (>50km), and have modeled sources at mid-crustal depths (10-20km). For Uturuncu, the best-fitting source depths coincide with the seismically imaged Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (eg. Chimielowsi et al. 1999, Zandt et al. 2003). Regional InSAR time series analysis enables the spatial and temporal comparison of the Uturuncu and Lazufre signals with other deformations in a sub-region of the CVZ from 1992 to the present. Our study focuses on volcanic deformation, but we also resolve non-magmatic deformation signals including landslides and salars. The study region benefits from a large InSAR dataset of 631 ERS and ENVISAT interferograms, distributed between two descending tracks and two ascending tracks, covering up to 870 kilometers along the volcanic arc. We employ an inversion method based on the SBAS algorithm (Berardino 2002), but modified to avoid interpolation across dates with incoherent values. This modification effectively deals with the heterogeneous spatial extents and data gaps present in individual interferograms for long tracks. With our time series results we investigate the timing of possible magma migrations and we explore the parameters of forward models that match observations. Results indicate continuing monotonic inflation styles at Uturuncu and Lazufre with maximum LOS uplift at 1.0cm/yr and 2.5cm/yr respectively (Pritchard and Simons 2004, Froger et al. 2007, Ruch et al. 2009). We discuss evidence for 2mm/yr broad LOS deflation collocated with the Uturuncu inflation signal and comment on possible models for its origin

  6. Carbon accumulation in high-altitude peatlands of the Central Andes of Peru (United States)

    Llanos, Romina; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Huaman, Yizet; Espinoza, Raul; Apaestegui, James; Turcq, Bruno; Willems, Bram


    Despite covering only 6 - 8% of the world's land surface, peatlands contain around one third of the global organic soil carbon (C) and are an important component of the global C cycle. Most studies of peatland C dynamics have been carried out on boreal and subarctic peatlands, but less is known about peatlands at lower latitudes, yet there are significant peatland C stocks in these regions that may be more vulnerable to future climate change because they are closer to the climatic limit of peatland distribution. In South America, peatlands in high altitudes called "bofedales" represent one of the most important water resources and also provide key environmental services that support both Andean mountain biodiversity and the wellbeing of human populations. Nowdays, the need for conservation and wise use of these ecosystems is increasingly being recognized. So, a useable assessment of peatlands in the global C cycle requires accurate estimates of carbon pools and fluxes. In order to understand the impact of different altitudes on the growth, production and carbon accumulation, several short (about 30 cm) peatlands cores were collected in the headwater of the Cachi river basin, in the Central Andes of Peru. Two Distichia muscoides cushion plant-dominated "bofedales" which elevations exceed 4000 m were studied. The sedimentation rates, based on radiocarbon dating of peat samples from the two sites studied, were very variable. Cores from the bofedal located at 4200 m present an age of approximately 55 years, while the site at the highest altitude site has an age of approximately about 450 years. Our results point out very different rates of sedimentation in the two peatlands that may be related to the climatic changes observed during the recent past, with a direct consequence on the carbon accumulation rates. In the determination of the annual growth, we observed that this one presented smaller values in the first centimeters of the peatland with lower elevation, while

  7. Serum levels of interleukin-6 are linked to the severity of the disease caused by Andes Virus.

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    Jenniffer Angulo


    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV is the etiological agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in Chile. In this study, we evaluated the profile of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-12p70, IL-21, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-6 in serum samples of ANDV-infected patients at the time of hospitalization. The mean levels of circulating cytokines were determined by a Bead-Based Multiplex assay coupled with Luminex detection technology, in order to compare 43 serum samples of healthy controls and 43 samples of ANDV-infected patients that had been categorized according to the severity of disease. When compared to the controls, no significant differences in IL-1β concentration were observed in ANDV-infected patients (p = 0.9672, whereas levels of IL-12p70 and IL-21 were significantly lower in infected cases (p = <0.0001. Significantly elevated levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-6 were detected in ANDV-infected individuals (p = <0.0001, 0.0036, <0.0001, <0.0001, respectively. Notably, IL-6 levels were significantly higher (40-fold in the 22 patients with severe symptoms compared to the 21 individuals with mild symptoms (p = <0.0001. Using multivariate regression models, we show that IL-6 levels has a crude OR of 14.4 (CI: 3.3-63.1. In conclusion, the serum level of IL-6 is a significant predictor of the severity of the clinical outcome of ANDV-induced disease.

  8. Where Do Mexico and Chile Stand on Inclusive Education? Short Title: Inclusion in Mexico and Chile (United States)

    García-Cedillo, Ismael; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Ramos-Abadie, Liliana


    This paper discusses the background, current situation and challenges of educational integration and inclusive education in Mexico and Chile. These countries obtained similar low results on the academic achievement of their students (Mexico last and Chile second last) among OECD countries; and above average scores, among Latin-American countries.…

  9. Tectonic control on denudation rates in the central Bolivian Andes (United States)

    Zeilinger, Gerold; Kober, Florian; Hippe, Kristina; Lendzioch, Theodora; Grischott, Reto; Pillco Zolá, Ramiro; Christl, Markus


    Effects of a positive feedback loop between erosion and tectonics have been shown by analogue and numerical models and have been inferred from field observations at the scale of mountain ranges. We present new data from the Bolivian Andes supporting these observations, although common geomorphic parameters do not indicate a simple correlation. The upper Rio Grande segment, located between Cochabamba, Santa Cruz and Sucre, drains a major catchment in the central Bolivian Cordillera, from the Eastern Cordillera (EC) in the W, through the Interandean Zone (IAZ) and the Subandes (SA) in the E. The catchment covers an area of 58939 km² with an altitude range from 400 to 5150 m above sea level. Geologically, the Bolivian Andes comprise (from W to E) the Altiplano, the EC, the IAZ and the SA fold and thrust belts. The Altiplano represents an almost perfectly closed basin with distinct barriers defined by the Western Cordillera and Eastern Cordillera. The Rio Grande does not reach the Altiplano (unlike Rio La Paz and Rio Consata) but has its western drainage divide along the high peaks of the EC that experienced a period of intense shortening between Late Oligocene and Miocene. Near Cochabamba, the EC comprises metasedimentary siliciclastic rocks of Ordovician age. These rocks are overlain by Cretaceous to Paleocene and / or Neogene sediments with an angular unconformity. The IAZ and SA form an east-vergent fold and thrust belt and comprise Paleozoic and Mesozoic units. Farther east, the structures of the SA progressively include Neogene foreland strata of the Chaco foreland basin. The Chaco basin rests on the Brazilian shield east of the Subandean Belt and forms the modern foreland basin, where the lower Rio Grande catchment is sited. We obtained 58 cosmogenic 10Be catchment wide denudation rates for the Rio Grande catchments upstream of Abapó. They range from 7 mm/kyr to 1550 mm/kyr thus integrating at maximum over the last 10.000 years, with a mean of 262 mm/kyr. In

  10. Regional climate of the Subtropical Central Andes using high-resolution CMIP5 models. Part II: future projections for the twenty-first century (United States)

    Zazulie, Natalia; Rusticucci, Matilde; Raga, Graciela B.


    In Part I of our study (Zazulie et al. Clim Dyn, 2017, hereafter Z17) we analyzed the ability of a subset of fifteen high-resolution global climate models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 to reproduce the past climate of the Subtropical Central Andes (SCA) of Argentina and Chile. A subset of only five GCMs was shown to reproduce well the past climate (1980-2005), for austral summer and winter. In this study we analyze future climate projections for the twenty-first century over this complex orography region using those five GCMs. We evaluate the projections under two of the representative concentration pathways considered as future scenarios: RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Future projections indicate warming during the twenty-first century over the SCA region, especially pronounced over the mountains. Projections of warming at high elevations in the SCA depend on altitude, and are larger than the projected global mean warming. This phenomenon is expected to strengthen by the end of the century under the high-emission scenario. Increases in winter temperatures of up to 2.5 °C, relative to 1980-2005, are projected by 2040-2065, while a 5 °C warming is expected at the highest elevations by 2075-2100. Such a large monthly-mean warming during winter would most likely result in snowpack melting by late winter-early spring, with serious implication for water availability during summer, when precipitation is a minimum over the mountains. We also explore changes in the albedo, as a contributing factor affecting the net flux of energy at the surface and found a reduction in albedo of 20-60% at high elevations, related to the elevation dependent warming. Furthermore, a decrease in winter precipitation is projected in central Chile by the end of the century, independent of the scenario considered.

  11. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile]. (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa


    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile

  12. Recursos hídricos en los Andes: Lago Titicaca

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    Full Text Available RESSOURCES EN EAUX DANS LES ANDES : LAC TITICACA. Une analyse par régression a été menée entre les variations de niveau du Lac Titicaca et les entrées du système (apports des affluents et précipitations. Les coefficients de corrélation, quoique relativement faibles, montrent aux abords du lac un effet de persistance qui diminue lorsque les stations sont éloignées du plan d’eau. L’inertie du lac se manifeste l’année suivante pour les affluents du lac et évidemment pour le lac lui-même. Ces résultats confirment la présence d’un mécanisme de rétro alimentation (effet boomerang. Cela montre que le système du Lac Titicaca est fragile, face à une utilisation excessive de ses eaux. Las regresiones estudiadas de cambios de nivel en el lago Titicaca contra precipitaciones y aportes en su cuenca, aunque relativamente bajas, muestran un efecto de persistencia en las proximidades del lago que decrece conforme las estaciones se alejan de éste. Lo que evidencia que la inercia del lago se manifiesta en el período siguiente (lag uno en los afluentes del lago y obviamente en el propio lago, fenómeno que parece confirmar la presencia de un mecanismo de retroalimentación (efecto boomerang. Este comportamiento muestra la fragilidad del lago frente a un aprovechamiento consuntivo excesivo. WATER RESOURCES IN THE ANDES: LAKE TITICACA. The studied regressions of the level changes in the Lake Titicaca versus the rainfall and the runoff in the basin, even being relatively low, show an effect of persistence in the proximity of the lake which decreases as we go away from it. This makes evident that the lake inertia manifests itself the following period (lag one in the lake tributaries and obviously in the lake itself, phenomenon which seems to confirm the presence of a feedback mechanism (boomerang effect. This behaviour shows the fragility of the lake against the excessive consumptive uses of the waters in its basin.

  13. Large slope failures in the La Paz basin, Bolivian Andes (United States)

    Roberts, N. J.; Hermanns, R. L.; Rabus, B.; Guzmán, M. A.; Minaya, E.; Clague, J. J.


    The La Paz basin in the eastern Bolivian Andes has been a hotspot for large-scale, deep-seated gravitational slope deformation during the Holocene. In less than 2 Ma, a network of steep-sided valleys up to 800 m deep formed in sediments of the Altiplano Plateau and underlying basement rocks. We characterize the distribution, extent, mechanisms, and modern activity of large-scale failures within this landscape using optical image interpretation, existing geologic maps, synthetic RADAR interferometry (InSAR), and field investigation. Deposits of nearly 20 landslides larger than 100 Mm3 occur within the basin. Most failures have occurred in weakly lithified Late Miocene to Pliocene sedimentary rocks and include earth flows, translational and rotational landslides, and plug flows. Failures in underlying tectonized Paleozoic sedimentary rocks include bedding-parallel rockslides. The largest failure is the 3 km3 Achcocalla earth flow (ca. 11 ka BP), which ran out ~20 km. Other dated events span the period from the early Holocene to nearly the Colonial historic period. InSAR results show that many large slope failures, including the Achocalla earth flow, are currently moving at rates of a few centimeters to a few decimeters per year. Rapid deposition, shallow burial, and rapid incision of the basin fills produced steep slopes in weak geologic materials that, coupled with groundwater discharge from the valley walls, are the primary controls on instability. In contrast, the Altiplano surface has changed little in 2 Ma and the adjacent slopes of the Cordilleran Real, although steep, are relatively stable. Of the over 100 landslides that have occurred in the city of La Paz since the early twentieth century, most are at the margins of large, deep-seated prehistoric failures, and two of the most damaging historic landslides (Hanko-Hanko, 1582; Pampahasi, 2011) were large-scale reactivations of previously failed slopes. Improved understanding of large, deep-seated landslides in

  14. Estructura de la población antigua de la costa norte de Chile

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    Cocilovo, José Alberto


    Full Text Available El poblamiento arcaico del Área Centro Sur Andina, iniciado en los albores del XI milenio AP., es producido por cazadores y recolectores que ocupan progresivamente el área altiplánica, los valles fluviales y las cuencas intermedias derivados de grupos paleoindios. El proceso de dispersión que involucra la exploración, conquista y adaptación a distintos ambientes, biotopos y ecosistemas produjo la fragmentación de la población original de los cazadores holocénicos tempranos (11000-8000 AP y su progresiva divergencia genética posiblemente asociada con diferentes modelos adaptativos propuestos por la arqueología (Núñez y Santoro, 1990. Si bien los registros bioantropológicos de épocas tan tempranas son sumamente escasos, la estructura de la población antigua se proyecta en el tiempo permitiendo explicar la variación geográfica de los grupos arcaicos tardíos y formativos. En el presente informe se analizan los resultados de varios trabajos realizados con materiales bien cronometrados para explicar el poblamiento de la costa norte de Chile. Se emplearon datos métricos y no métricos obtenidos en relevamientos modernos de sitios de la costa de Arica y Valle de Azapa, Pisagua, Norte Semiárido y Zona Central de Chile. Se analizan y discuten distintos modelos elaborados para comprender el proceso microevolutivo a nivel local, suponiendo un desarrollo en relativo aislamiento moderado por eventos demográficos dependientes de acontecimientos económicos y sociopolíticos de rango medio a nivel regional (transhumancia y de rango amplio (migraciones, originados en el área circuntiticaca y en los Andes Centrales que determinaron al final, la configuración de las sociedades multiétnicas del Período Tardío.

  15. A unique collaboration in Chile. (United States)


    The Chilean Red Cross Society and the family planning association--APROFA, International Planned Parenthood Federation's affiliate, are joining forces to help prevent the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. APROFA established a working group to study the knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior of students at the National Training Institute, INACAP. 7000 students were sampled in 11 Chilean cities. The study found that 36% of the females, and 77% of males were sexually active before the age of 20. Nearly 1/2 of the women and 1/5 of the men did not know that condoms could protect them against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy. APROFA designed a program to increase students knowledge of AIDS, reduce promiscuity and increase knowledge of and use of condoms. In October, 1988 an educational package distributed, consisting of a training manual, slides, educational booklets, a poster, and a video of 3 films. It has proved so successful that APROFA has adapted it for community groups, educational institutions, and its youth program. APROFA/Red Cross nurses and Red Cross volunteers have participated in workshops and training with the package. The Red Cross has organized AIDS-related activities in Chile since 1986, including education campaigns, information for blood donors, and a telephone hotline to provide AIDS counseling. Goals are to target more poor areas and groups outside of society's mainstream in the next year for sex education and information on STDs.

  16. Climate dynamics along the arid northern coast of Chile: The 1997-1998 Dinámica del Clima de la Región de Antofagasta (DICLIMA) experiment (United States)

    Rutllant, José A.; Fuenzalida, Humberto; Aceituno, Patricio


    The DICLIMA field experiment was designed to test and quantify the hypothesis of an afternoon enhancement of the coastal subsidence in the extremely arid northern Chile because of solar heating over the west slope of the Andes. Ten-day campaigns near Antofagasta (23°S) were carried out in January 1997, July 1997, and January 1998. Significant diurnal cycles in temperature, mixing ratio, and wind from about 1000 to 4000 m above sea level were observed. This layer was decoupled from the marine boundary layer circulation below by the subsidence inversion when its base was under the average height of the coastal mountain range. The solar heating cycle over the Andes and associated circulation resulted in a mean afternoon zonal divergence above the subsidence inversion base of about 30 × 10-6 s-1, exceeding by a factor of 5 typical subtropical west coast divergences. The corresponding early morning convergence was particularly intense during the austral winter experiment. In spite of the very strong El Niño conditions that prevailed during the July 1997 and January 1998 experiments, the overwhelming control that radiation exerts on the daily cycles of the atmospheric circulation over the west slope of the Andes seems to guarantee the general validity of the results.

  17. [AIDS in Chile: a problem with multiple facets]. (United States)

    Ormazabal, B


    Chile's 1st case of AIDS was diagnosed in 1984. Some 250 AIDS cases and 1600 HIV positive persons have since been reported, although the actual number by some estimates may reach 5000. Chile, although in the initial stages of the epidemic, already has a serious problem which at present can only be combatted through education. It will be necessary to convince the population that significant modifications of sexual behavior are needed to control the spread of the disease. Education for AIDS prevention is a priority of the National Commission on AIDS (CONASIDA), which is basing its program on the premise that stable monogamy is the most natural form of expression of a couple. Manuals for prevention are under development, and the 1st, for health workers and the general population, is in process of publication. A series of pamphlets and educational videos for workers in sexually transmitted disease clinics are under development. Educational materials are also being created for specific groups such as university students and agricultural workers and for groups at high risk. A social communications campaign has been prepared and approved by the authorities, and is awaiting funding for dissemination. Education of the population is also a concern for the Catholic Church, which views reinforcement of the family and its mission of providing sex education as a primary means of preventing AIDS. CONASIDA is also responsible for epidemiological study of AIDS in Chile through surveillance of sentinel groups and in quality control of the blood supply. Condoms are to be distributed in sexually transmitted disease clinics for the purpose of AIDS prevention.

  18. Physical dating violence victimization in college women in Chile. (United States)

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A; Lehrer, Evelyn L; Zhao, Zhenxiang


    There are no published studies on physical dating violence in college students in Chile, and campuses across the country currently lack systematized programs to prevent or respond to this public health problem. This is the first study to examine prevalence and predictors of physical dating violence victimization with a sample of female college students in Chile. A closed-ended questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in general education courses at a major public university. The prevalence of women's physical dating violence victimization was calculated, and generalized ordered logit models were used to estimate risk factors for such victimization (n = 441). Ancillary analyses examined associations of dating violence victimization with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Approximately 21% of subjects reported one or more incidents of physical dating violence not involving physical injury since age 14, and another 5% reported at least one incident resulting in physical injury during this time period. Risk factors identified in five sequential models were sexual abuse and witnessing of domestic violence in childhood, low parental education, residence away from the parental home, urban residence, and having had sexual intercourse. Maternal employment and religious participation had protective effects. Dating violence victimization was found to be significantly associated with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. The study findings show a high prevalence of physical dating violence, strong associations between several sociodemographic factors and dating violence, and links between dating violence and sexual/reproductive risk. Our results indicate a need to expand attention to this public health problem in Chile as well as other developing countries, where research and prevention/response initiatives have generally been similarly limited. The findings also have important implications for the content of

  19. Regional dispersion of oxidized sulfur in Central Chile (United States)

    Olivares, G.; Gallardo, L.; Langner, J.; Aarhus, B.

    Chile has a long tradition of exploiting mineral resources, particularly copper (Cu). One of the largest Cu smelters, Caletones, located some 150 km south of the country's capital, Santiago, in Central Chile, is responsible for about 0.4% of about 70 Tg S/yr oxidized sulfur (SO x) emitted by anthropogenic sources worldwide. Santiago, a megacity with 5 million inhabitants, stands for about 5 Gg S/yr. The average meteorological conditions are unfavorable for the dispersion of pollutants in this area. All this poses risks for human health and vegetation. Also, downwind from these polluted areas there may be large-scale impacts on cloud properties and on oxidative cycles. Here, we present the first attempt to assess the regional distribution of SO x in Central Chile using a dispersion model (MATCH) driven with data from a limited area weather forecast model (HIRLAM). Emphasis has been given to the impact of Cu smelters upon urban air quality, particularly that of Santiago. Six 1-month long periods were simulated for the years 1997, 1998 and 1999. These periods span over a broad range of typical meteorological conditions in the area including El Niño and La Niña years. Estimates of the regional dispersion and deposition patterns were calculated. The emissions from the large Cu smelters dominate the distribution of SO x. A budget of SO x over an area of 200×200 km 2 around Santiago is presented. There is too low a number of monitoring stations to perform a detailed evaluation of MATCH. Nevertheless, the model reproduces consistently all the regional-scale characteristics that can be derived from the available observations.

  20. Radioactive wastes management development in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.A.; Cruz, P.F.; Rivera, J.D.; Jorquera, O.H.


    A Facility for immobilizing and conditioning of radioactive wastes generated in Chile, has recently started in operation. It is a Radioactive Wastes Treatment Plant, RWTP, whose owner is Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CCHEN. A Storgement Building of Conditioned Wastes accomplishes the facility for medium and low level activity wastes. The Project has been carried with participation of chilean professionals at CCHEN and Technical Assistance of International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA. Processes developed are volume reduction by compaction; immobilization by cementation and conditioning. Equipment has been selected to process radioactive wastes into a 200 liters drum, in which wastes are definitively conditioned, avoiding exposition and contamination risks. The Plant has capacity to treat low and medium activity radioactive wastes produced in Chile due to Reactor Experimental No. 1 operation, and annex Laboratories in Nuclear Research Centers, as also those produced by users of nuclear techniques in Industries, Hospitals, Research Centers and Universities, in the whole country. With the infrastructure developed in Chile, a centralization of Radioactive Wastes Management activities is achieved. A data base system helps to control and register radioactive wastes arising in Chile. Generation of radioactive wastes in Chile, has found solution for the present production and that of near future

  1. Salud intercultural: el ciclo vital en los andes

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    Luis Alberto Santa María

    Full Text Available Se presenta las teorías e ideas más relevantes sobre el ciclo vital en los Andes, y su relación con el desarrollo humano y la salud. El ciclo vital no es un fenómeno inmutable, el número de etapas y su significado está pautado histórica y culturalmente. Se realiza un análisis comparativo con la teoría de Freud y Erikson. Se concluye que el aporte de la cultura andina se centra en: 1 Cada etapa del desarrollo humano está asociada a procesos productivos y reproductivos de la vida en relación, así como a un adecuado equilibrio entre derechos y deberes en la vida en sociedad; 2 La pareja es la unidad social básica, y no el individuo. Es un aporte para el diseño de intervenciones sanitarias con enfoque intercultural.

  2. Use and legacy of mercury in the Andes. (United States)

    Cooke, Colin A; Hintelmann, Holger; Ague, Jay J; Burger, Richard; Biester, Harald; Sachs, Julian P; Engstrom, Daniel R


    Both cinnabar (HgS) and metallic mercury (Hg(0)) were important resources throughout Andean prehistory. Cinnabar was used for millennia to make vermillion, a red pigment that was highly valued in pre-Hispanic Peru; metallic Hg(0) has been used since the mid-16th century to conduct mercury amalgamation, an efficient process of extracting precious metals from ores. However, little is known about which cinnabar deposits were exploited by pre-Hispanic cultures, and the environmental consequences of Hg mining and amalgamation remain enigmatic. Here we use Hg isotopes to source archeological cinnabar and to fingerprint Hg pollution preserved in lake sediment cores from Peru and the Galápagos Islands. Both pre-Inca (pre-1400 AD) and Colonial (1532-1821 AD) archeological artifacts contain cinnabar that matches isotopically with cinnabar ores from Huancavelica, Peru, the largest cinnabar-bearing district in Central and South America. In contrast, the Inca (1400-1532 AD) artifacts sampled are characterized by a unique Hg isotopic composition. In addition, preindustrial (i.e., pre-1900 AD) Hg pollution preserved in lake sediments matches closely the isotopic composition of cinnabar from the Peruvian Andes. Industrial-era Hg pollution, in contrast, is distinct isotopically from preindustrial emissions, suggesting that pre- and postindustrial Hg emissions may be distinguished isotopically in lake sediment cores.

  3. Fragmentation of Andes-to-Amazon connectivity by hydropower dams. (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth P; Jenkins, Clinton N; Heilpern, Sebastian; Maldonado-Ocampo, Javier A; Carvajal-Vallejos, Fernando M; Encalada, Andrea C; Rivadeneira, Juan Francisco; Hidalgo, Max; Cañas, Carlos M; Ortega, Hernan; Salcedo, Norma; Maldonado, Mabel; Tedesco, Pablo A


    Andes-to-Amazon river connectivity controls numerous natural and human systems in the greater Amazon. However, it is being rapidly altered by a wave of new hydropower development, the impacts of which have been previously underestimated. We document 142 dams existing or under construction and 160 proposed dams for rivers draining the Andean headwaters of the Amazon. Existing dams have fragmented the tributary networks of six of eight major Andean Amazon river basins. Proposed dams could result in significant losses in river connectivity in river mainstems of five of eight major systems-the Napo, Marañón, Ucayali, Beni, and Mamoré. With a newly reported 671 freshwater fish species inhabiting the Andean headwaters of the Amazon (>500 m), dams threaten previously unrecognized biodiversity, particularly among endemic and migratory species. Because Andean rivers contribute most of the sediment in the mainstem Amazon, losses in river connectivity translate to drastic alteration of river channel and floodplain geomorphology and associated ecosystem services.

  4. Over three millennia of mercury pollution in the Peruvian Andes (United States)

    Cooke, Colin A.; Balcom, Prentiss H.; Biester, Harald; Wolfe, Alexander P.


    We present unambiguous records of preindustrial atmospheric mercury (Hg) pollution, derived from lake-sediment cores collected near Huancavelica, Peru, the largest Hg deposit in the New World. Intensive Hg mining first began ca. 1400 BC, predating the emergence of complex Andean societies, and signifying that the region served as a locus for early Hg extraction. The earliest mining targeted cinnabar (HgS) for the production of vermillion. Pre-Colonial Hg burdens peak ca. 500 BC and ca. 1450 AD, corresponding to the heights of the Chavín and Inca states, respectively. During the Inca, Colonial, and industrial intervals, Hg pollution became regional, as evidenced by a third lake record ≈225 km distant from Huancavelica. Measurements of sediment-Hg speciation reveal that cinnabar dust was initially the dominant Hg species deposited, and significant increases in deposition were limited to the local environment. After conquest by the Inca (ca. 1450 AD), smelting was adopted at the mine and Hg pollution became more widely circulated, with the deposition of matrix-bound phases of Hg predominating over cinnabar dust. Our results demonstrate the existence of a major Hg mining industry at Huancavelica spanning the past 3,500 years, and place recent Hg enrichment in the Andes in a broader historical context. PMID:19451629

  5. Linchamientos y conflicto político en Los Andes Lynchings and Political conflict in The Andes

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    Carlos M. Vilas


    Full Text Available En 2004, los alcaldes de dos municipalidades de la región aimara de los Andes fueron linchados en la aparente culminación de agudos conflictos políticos internos y entre las respectivas comunidades y el Estado central. En este artículo se discuten ambos casos con el fin de ilustrar las transformaciones experimentadas en años recientes en la organización y la dinámica interna de las comunidades andinas, y de la articulación conflictiva de la política local en los procesos e instituciones de más amplio alcance. Precariedad social e incapacidad o renuencia del Estado para responder con eficacia a demandas básicas de determinados grupos de población configuran enmarcamientos socioeconómicos e institucionales de los linchamientos. En contraste con enfoques que enfatizan en factores culturales tradicionales o en un supuesto nacionalismo indígena, en el artículo se destaca la gravitación de fenómenos y procesos político- institucionales recientes en la transformación cultural y política de las comunidades, en el modo en que éstas procesan sus conflictos internos y con el Estado central.In 2004, two municipalitys mayors form the aimara Andes of Peru and Bolivia were subjected to mass lynchings as a result of the apparent culmination of violent political confrontations. This paper deals with these events as dramatic illustrations of the transformations the Andean communities experienced during recent decades in their internal dynamics, as well as in the articulation of local politics to processes and institutions beyond the communal limits. Structural precariousness combined with the state's inability or reluctance to come to terms with social or political demands from relevant segments of the people in the communities set the socioeconomic and institutional stage for lynchings. In contrast with approaches relating these events to an alleged indigenous cultural identity, the analysis points to the impact of the communities' political

  6. Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"? (United States)

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena


    Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals) has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey). Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers.

  7. Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"?

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    Baltica Cabieses


    Full Text Available Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey. Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers.

  8. Zahraničně obchodní politika Chile


    Horáková, Anna


    The Diploma thesis focuses on foreign trade policy of Chile. The first part is a brief summary of socio-economic characteristics of the country. The following section deals with the individual strategies in the approach to foreign trade policy applied in Chile since independence to the present. It exams the determinants of changes in foreign trade policy of Chile and monitors changes in territorial and commodity structure of the foreign trade of Chile. In the final section assesses the curren...

  9. Chile; Staff Report for the 2003 Article IV Consultation


    International Monetary Fund


    Chile has successfully resisted contagion from neighboring countries difficulties. Chile's inflation targeting framework has successfully anchored inflation expectations and increased the economy's resilience to external shocks while maintaining price stability. The floating exchange rate regime is an essential part of the macroeconomic policy framework and continues to serve Chile well. The interest in recapitalizing the central bank is welcomed. Executive Directors commend Chile for the tra...

  10. [Beginning of the Microbiology education in Chile: formation centers]. (United States)

    Osorio, Carlos


    The first Chair of Microbiology in Chile was created in the School of Medicine of the Cañadilla at the University of Chile in 1892. Dr. Alejandro del Río Soto Aguilar was its first Professor. For almost three decades it was the only educational center for microbiologists in Chile. Among them were the first Professors of the new School of Medicine of the Catholic University of Chile and of the University of Concepción.

  11. Presencia de los géneros invasores Mus y Rattus en áreas naturales de Chile: un riesgo ambiental y epidemiológico Presence of the invasive genera Mus and Rattus in natural areas in Chile: an environmental and epidemiological risk

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    Full Text Available Realizamos un estudio que incluyó muestreos y prospecciones en un gradiente latitudinal en Chile continental para determinar la presencia y ausencia de roedores murinos introducidos, particularmente Mus musculus, Rattus rattus y R. norvegicus en áreas naturales o silvestres a lo largo de Chile. Además se analizó el riesgo epidemiológico que representan estas especies en el marco de un estudio sobre el virus Hanta. Los resultados mostraron que M. musculus rara vez es recolectado en áreas naturales. Sin embargo, las dos especies de Rattus han invadido ampliamente la región mediterránea chilena. Las regiones desérticas, los ambientes de alturas y las regiones australes, serían biótopos restringidos para estos invasores. Desde una perspectiva epidemiológica, la presencia del virus Hanta (variedades Andes y Seoul en Rattus es un elemento que demuestra que las especies invasoras además de generar impactos ecológicos, pueden ocasionar problemas económicos y de salud pública. La fragilidad de los ecosistemas mediterráneos determina que la presencia de especies exóticas constituya un elemento de alto riesgo para la conservación del patrimonio natural del país. Probablemente, la conservación de áreas naturales constituye la mejor herramienta para enfrentar a estas especies exóticasWe conducted a latitudinal study in natural areas of continental Chile to evaluate the occurrence of the introduced murine rodents Mus musculus, Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus. Furthermore, we evaluated the epidemiological risk of these species as part of an ongoing study on Hantavirus. The results allowed us to conclude that M. musculus occurs rarely in natural environments. However, the two species of Rattus have widely invaded the mediterranean region of Chile. Desert, altitudinal and high latitude regions seem to be restricted areas for these invasive rodents. From an epidemiological perspective, the occurrence of Hantavirus in Rattus (Andes and Seoul

  12. Evaluation of TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA performance in the Central Andes region and its dependency on spatial and temporal resolution

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    M. L. M. Scheel


    Full Text Available Climate time series are of major importance for base line studies for climate change impact and adaptation projects. However, for instance, in mountain regions and in developing countries there exist significant gaps in ground based climate records in space and time. Specifically, in the Peruvian Andes spatially and temporally coherent precipitation information is a prerequisite for ongoing climate change adaptation projects in the fields of water resources, disasters and food security. The present work aims at evaluating the ability of Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA to estimate precipitation rates at daily 0.25° × 0.25° scale in the Central Andes and the dependency of the estimate performance on changing spatial and temporal resolution. Comparison of the TMPA product with gauge measurements in the regions of Cuzco, Peru and La Paz, Bolivia were carried out and analysed statistically. Large biases are identified in both investigation areas in the estimation of daily precipitation amounts. The occurrence of strong precipitation events was well assessed, but their intensities were underestimated. TMPA estimates for La Paz show high false alarm ratio.

    The dependency of the TMPA estimate quality with changing resolution was analysed by comparisons of 1-, 7-, 15- and 30-day sums for Cuzco, Peru. The correlation of TMPA estimates with ground data increases strongly and almost linearly with temporal aggregation. The spatial aggregation to 0.5°, 0.75° and 1° grid box averaged precipitation and its comparison to gauge data of the same areas revealed no significant change in correlation coefficients and estimate performance.

    In order to profit from the TMPA combination product on a daily basis, a procedure to blend it with daily precipitation gauge measurements is proposed.

    Different sources of errors and uncertainties introduced by the sensors, sensor

  13. New Archaeological Evidence for an Early Human Presence at Monte Verde, Chile (United States)

    Dillehay, Tom D.; Ocampo, Carlos; Saavedra, José; Sawakuchi, Andre Oliveira; Vega, Rodrigo M.; Pino, Mario; Collins, Michael B.; Scott Cummings, Linda; Arregui, Iván; Villagran, Ximena S.; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Mella, Mauricio; González, Andrea; Dix, George


    Questions surrounding the chronology, place, and character of the initial human colonization of the Americas are a long-standing focus of debate. Interdisciplinary debate continues over the timing of entry, the rapidity and direction of dispersion, the variety of human responses to diverse habitats, the criteria for evaluating the validity of early sites, and the differences and similarities between colonization in North and South America. Despite recent advances in our understanding of these issues, archaeology still faces challenges in defining interdisciplinary research problems, assessing the reliability of the data, and applying new interpretative models. As the debates and challenges continue, new studies take place and previous research reexamined. Here we discuss recent exploratory excavation at and interdisciplinary data from the Monte Verde area in Chile to further our understanding of the first peopling of the Americas. New evidence of stone artifacts, faunal remains, and burned areas suggests discrete horizons of ephemeral human activity in a sandur plain setting radiocarbon and luminescence dated between at least ~18,500 and 14,500 cal BP. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including sedimentary proxies and artifact analysis, we present the probable anthropogenic origins and wider implications of this evidence. In a non-glacial cold climate environment of the south-central Andes, which is challenging for human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, these horizons provide insight into an earlier context of late Pleistocene human behavior in northern Patagonia. PMID:26580202

  14. Ideology drives health care reforms in Chile. (United States)

    Reichard, S


    The health care system of Chile evolved from rather unique historical circumstances to become one of the most progressive in Latin America, offering universal access to all citizens. Since the advent of the Pinochet regime in 1973, Chile has implemented Thatcherite/Reaganite reforms resulting in the privatization of much of the health care system. In the process, state support for health care has been sharply curtailed with deleterious effects on health services. As Chile emerges from the shadow of the Pinochet dictatorship, it faces numerous challenges as it struggles to rebuild its health care system. Other developing nations considering free-market reforms may wish to consider the high costs of the Chilean experiment.

  15. Chile: the Mapuche and the Bicentennial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bengoa


    Full Text Available The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right political wing chilean political parties. During the last 20 years the Goverment of Chile was in the hands of the center left coalition, after the dictatorship period of Gral Augusto Pinochet end in 1990. During two decades the state aplied social policies in order two develop the indigenous comunities, specially the mapuche comunities of the south of Chile. During 2010 the research proyect named “Conmemoraciones y memorias subalternas” tried to understand the current situation of the comunities, the conflict and others aspects of the indigenous situation. This paper is part of those research.

  16. Chile mental health country profile. (United States)

    Stewart, Carmen López


    This paper describes main facts about Chile starting with key socio-demographic, socio-economic, political, environmental, epidemiological, social support and social pathology aspects that characterize the context in which current mental and neurological policy and programmes have been put in place since 2000, as part of the National Health Plan and Health Sector Strategy Plan. The 'National Plan for Mental Health and Psychiatry', using a community psychiatry approach, has been partially implemented for people covered by the Public Health Insurance, which comprises 62% of the Chilean population (people with lower income). This paper also describes: the management, population needs and demands, financial resources, human resources in primary care, mental health specialist care and community-based care, physical capital, social capital, provision and processes, and outcomes of the plan. Strengths are analyzed, like the health reform, including its values and principles, the active participation of consumer and family groups as well as mental health NGOs, access to mental health services through primary care, quality assurance of the mental health services delivered to the population and progressive development of a culture of respect for human rights, including those of people with mental illnesses. Finally, difficulties for the advance of mental health care are also enumerated: the low priority still given to mental health compared with physical health by the country's leaders, the insufficient emphasis on mental health in both undergraduate and postgraduate professional training, the strong stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness in the general population and the advocacy by some mental health professionals of the traditional model of care (role of the psychiatric hospital).

  17. Fruit production in Chile: bright past, uncertain future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales


    Full Text Available In 2007 (the last agricultural census, Chile had 308, 445 ha of fruit orchards: an increase of almost 32% from the previous census (1997. The most important species were table grapes (20%, avocados (13% and apples (12%. Some 22% of the fruit crops growing area corresponded to juvenile orchards; within the species with higher proportion of juvenile orchards were prunes (42% and blueberries (56%. Most orchards are located between latitude 27º18` S (Copiapó and 40º36´S (Puerto Varas. The industry is driven by the export component which accounts for more than 50% of the fruits produced. In the crop season 2009-2010, approximately 254 million boxes (around 2.5 million tons were exported, representing over US$ 3.5 million. Processed and fresh fruits represented 8.2 and 26.7% of the total forest and agricultural Chilean exports in 2008, respectively. The main markets for this fruits were USA/Canada (42% and Europe (32%. The fruit grower receives, on average, 12-16% of the total price of the fruit in its final destination. Each year the fruit industry employs 450.000 people directly, of which 1/3 are permanent. Even though the fruit industry employs the highest proportion of the agricultural labor and the growing area has increased in the last 20 years, the proportion of agricultural employment has decreased from 19.5% in 1989 to 10.8% in 2008. It might also be noted that Chile invests only 0.7% of the GDP in research. In the last 40 years, the fruit industry has been a motor for the Chilean economic development, but the lower rates of currency exchange, the rising costs of energy (oil, electricity, and the increasing scarcity of hand labor have drastically reduced the profitability and are putting at risk the viability of a large proportion of the fruit orchards in Chile. It is estimated that this season around 65% of the orchards will have a negative economic balance in their operations. Higher investment in research, improvements in fruit quality

  18. Socioeconomic determinants of disability in Chile. (United States)

    Zitko Melo, Pedro; Cabieses Valdes, Báltica


    Disability is a worldwide public health priority. A shift from a biomedical perspective of dysfunction to a broader social understanding of disability has been proposed. Among many different social factors described in the past, socioeconomic position remains as a key multidimensional determinant of health. The study goal was to analyze the relationship between disability and different domains of socioeconomic position in Chile. Cross-sectional analysis of an anonymized population-based survey conducted in Chile in 2006. Any disability (dichotomous variable) and 6 different types of disability were analyzed on the bases of their relationship with income quintiles, occupational status, educational level, and material living standards (quality of the housing, overcrowding rate and sanitary conditions). Confounding and interaction effects were explored using R statistical program. Income, education, occupation, and material measures of socioeconomic position, along with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, were independently associated with the chance of being disabled in Chile. Interestingly, classic measures of socioeconomic position (income, education, and occupation) were consistently associated with any disability in Chile, whereas material living conditions were partially confounded by these classic measures. In addition to this, each type of disability showed a particular pattern of related social determinants, which also varied by age group. This study contributed to the understanding of disability in Chile and how different domains of socioeconomic position might be associated with this prevalent condition. Disability remains a complex multidimensional public health problem in Chile that requires the inclusion of a wide range of risk factors, of which socioeconomic position is particularly relevant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Amphibole stability using new thermobarometric formulations on calc-alkaline magmas of Volcán Doña Inés, Chile (United States)

    Hines, R. A.; Walker, J. A.


    Location and delineation of subvolcanic magma chambers have heavily relied on geophysical, particularly seismic, data. However, new and improved thermobarometric formulations can yield equally important constraints on the depths and conditions of magmatic storage and movement. The objective of this study was to utilize the single phase thermobarometric algorithms of Ridolfi et al. (2010) to determine the conditions of amphibole stability in the volcanic system beneath Volcán Doña Inés, a large stratovolcano from the Mid-Late Miocene magmatic arc in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, Chile. According to Moulds (1989), Doña Inés had three main eruptive vents: the main central vent; a second vent low on its flanks, called Loma Doña Inés; and a sister cone, called Gemelas. The barometric, thermometric, hygrometric, and oxygen fugacity formulations of Ridolfi et al. (2010) are based on the total aluminum (AlT) content, the silicon index (Si*), the octahedral aluminum index ([6]Al*), and the magnesium index (Mg*) of the amphibole grains, respectively. For this study, 120 amphiboles from 20 andesite-dacite samples from Doña Inés were analyzed approximately 30 times per grain with an electron microprobe. Amphibole compositions range from tschermakitic pargasite, to magnesiohornblende, to magnesiohastingsite, with the central vent crystals exhibiting the widest variability. Preliminary results from the thermobarometer indicate that amphibole crystallization beneath the central vent occurred between 213-928 ± 102 MPa and 872-1016 ± 22 *C, with magmatic water contents of approximately 5.2-9.9 ± 1.5 wt%. Conditions of formation of amphibole at Loma Doña Inés were between 230-405 ± 37 MPa and 901-980 ± 22 *C, with approximately 5.4-6.2 ± 0.9 wt% magmatic H2O and were similar at the sister cone Gemelas: 259-309 ± 34 MPa, 902-952 ± 22 *C, and 5.1-6.2 ± 0.9 wt% magmatic H2O. Temperatures obtained from amphibole stability agree well with the previous from

  20. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo [Comision Chilena de EnergIa Nuclear, Casilla 188D, Santiago (Chile); Loewe, Marcelo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Facultad de Fisica, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Gutierrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile); Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Av. Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Saavedra, Carlos [Universidad de Conception, Departamento de Fisica, Esteban Iturra S/N, Barrio Universitario, Conception (Chile); Haberle, Patricio [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa MarIa, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail:


    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, {approx}160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only {approx}40 to experimental physicists; {approx}178 are men and only {approx}22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that {approx}160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y TecnologIa (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not

  1. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo; Loewe, Marcelo; Gutierrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario; Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando; Saavedra, Carlos; Haberle, Patricio


    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ∼160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ∼40 to experimental physicists; ∼178 are men and only ∼22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ∼160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y TecnologIa (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is

  2. Effective Universal Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Guerrero-Núñez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: determine the prevalence of Effective Universal Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Chile and its relation with the variables: Health Care Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2; Average of diabetics with metabolic control in 2011-2013; Mortality Rate for Diabetes Mellitus; and Percentage of nurses participating in the Cardiovascular Health Program. Method: cross-sectional descriptive study with ecological components that uses documentary sources of the Ministry of Health. It was established that there is correlation between the Universal Effective Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and the independent variables; it was applied the Pearson Coefficient, being significant at the 0.05 level. Results: in Chile Universal Health Care Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (HbA1c<7% estimated population is less than 20%; this is related with Mortality Rate for Diabetes Mellitus and Percentage of nurses participating in the Cardiovascular Health Program, being significant at the 0.01 level. Conclusion: effective prevalence of Universal Health Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 is low, even though some regions stand out in this research and in the metabolic control of patients who participate in health control program; its relation with percentage of nurses participating in the Cardiovascular Health Program represents a challenge and an opportunity for the health system.

  3. Primer registro del frutero pechinegro Pipreola lubomirskii (Aves, Cotingidae en la vertiente occidental de los Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letty Salinas


    Full Text Available El frutero pechinegro, Pipreola lubomirskii, es un cotíngido registrado como raro y de distribución local en los Andes del Norte. Antes del presente registro sólo había sido reportado para la vertiente oriental del Perú y Ecuador, así como los Andes del sur de Colombia. El presente registro amplia su distribución a los bosques montañosos de la vertiente occidental de los Andes peruanos, habiéndose encontrado en los bosques nublados del valle del río Zaña, en el departamento de Cajamarca (6º50’-6º52’ latitud S, 79º10’-79º07’ longitud O.

  4. Traditional use of the Andean flicker (Colaptes rupicola as a galactagogue in the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froemming Steve


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper explores the use of the dried meat and feathers of the Andean Flicker (Colaptes rupicola to increase the milk supply of nursing women and domestic animals in the Andes. The treatment is of preColumbian origin, but continues to be used in some areas, including the village in the southern Peruvian highlands where I do ethnographic research. I explore the factors giving rise to and sustaining the practice, relate it to other galactagogues used in the Andes and to the use of birds in ethnomedical and ethnoveterinary treatments in general, and situate it within the general tendency in the Andes and elsewhere to replicate human relations in the treatment of valuable livestock. The bird's use as a galactagogue appears to be motivated by both metaphorical associations and its perceived efficacy, and conceptually blends human and animal healthcare domains.

  5. The subduction erosion and mantle source region contamination model of Andean arc magmatism: Isotopic evidence from igneous rocks of central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, Charles R


    Continental crust may be incorporated in mantle-derived Andean magmas as these magmas rise through the crust (Hildreth and Moorbath, 1988), or alternatively, crust may be tectonically transported into the mantle by subduction of trench sediments and subduction erosion of the continental margin, and then added into the mantle source region of Andean magmas (Stern, 1991). Since the mantle has relatively low Sr, Nd, and Pb concentrations compared to continental crust, differences in the isotopic compositions of magmas erupted in different region of the Andes may be produced by relatively small differences in the amount of subducted crust added to the mantle source region of these magmas. By comparison, significantly larger amounts of crust must be assimilated by mantle-derived magmas to produce isotopic differences of similar magnitude. Therefore, constraining the process by which continental crust is incorporated in Andean magmas has important implications for understanding the chemical cycling that takes place in the Andean subduction-related magma factory. Isotopic data suggest the incorporation of a greater proportion of crust in Andean magmas erupted at the northern portion of the Southern Volcanic Zone of central Chile compared to those erupted in the southern portion of the Southern Volcanic Zone of south central Chile (SSVZ) (Stern et al., 1984; Futa and Stern, 1988; Hildreth and Moorbath, 1988). The NSVZ occurs just south of the current locus of the subduction of the Juan Fernandez Ridge. The southward migration of the locus of subduction of this ridge has resulted in decreasing subduction angle below the NSVZ, the eastward migration of the volcanic front of the Andean arc, and an increase in the crustal thickness below the arc. These factors together have caused changes, since the middle Miocene, in the isotopic composition of Andean igneous rocks of central Chile. The data indicate a close chronologic relation between the southward migrations of the locus

  6. Long-term carbon accumulation in Andes peatlands (United States)

    Huaman, Yizet; Moreira-turq, Patricia; Willems, Bram; Espinoza, Raul; Turq, Bruno; Apaéstegui, James; Llanos, Romina


    High-altitude peatlands of the Andes still remain relatively unexplored since most of the studies on carbon capture in tropical soils have focused on peatlands in low altitude areas, leaving aside the importance of the study of high mountain wetlands, currently called "bofedales" located between 3000 and 5000 masl, covering most of the Andes mountains in South America. These peatlands in turn may also represent important paleoclimatic records. In this study, we investigated three peatland cores (APA-01, APA2-01, and APA2-02) at different altitudes (4210 m, 4420 m and 4432 m, respectively) in high Andean Peatlands of southern Peru. The peatland studied is located at the headwater basin Cachi River, in the town of Ayacucho, Peru. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role played by past climatic changes on the peatlands carbon accumulation. Each core was sectioned centimeter by centimeter and sub samples (n = 31) were collected for radiocarbon dating by AMS (acceleration mass spectrometer) and were used to create a sedimentological model based on the program Clam2.2R. The concentrations of carbon and nitrogen were determined from a C / H / N elemental analyzer and the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) were also analyzed. The bulk density was determined based on the volume occupied by the sediment (g /cm3). Finally, the carbon accumulation rate (gC m-2año-1) was determined. The three cores were characterized by two sedimentary units, the results present in the first sedimentary unit of APA01 an average long-term carbon accumulation rate of 59 gC m-2año-1, APA2-01 with 32 gC m-2año-1 and finally APA2-02 with 24 gC m-2año-1; for the second sedimentary unit we have: APA01 on average 17 gC m-2año-1, APA2-01 with 33 gC m-2año-1 and finally APA2-02 with 49 gC m-2año-1. In conclusion, we can say that the carbon accumulation rate for the first sedimentary unit of the three cores decreases as the altitude increases; on the other hand, we have the

  7. Structure and Evolution of the Central Andes of Peru (United States)

    Gonzalez, L.; Pfiffner, O. A.


    Three major units make up the Andes in Peru: (1) The Western Cordillera consists of the Cretaceous Coastal Batholith intruding Jurassic to Cretaceous volcaniclastics (Casma group) in the west, and a fold-and-thrust belt of Mesozoic sediments in the east. Eocene and Miocene volcanics (Calipuy group and equivalents) overly all of these rock types. (2) The Central Highland contains a folded Paleozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary sequence overlain by thick Quaternary deposits. A major fault puts Neoproterozoic basement rocks of the Eastern Cordillera next to these units. (3) In the Eastern Cordillera, Late Paleozoic clastic successions unconformably overly folded Early Paleozoic sediments and a Neoproterozoic basement in the east. Permian (locally Triassic) granitoids intruded these units and were affected by folding and thrusting. In the core of the Eastern Cordillera, Early Cretaceous overly Early or Late Paleozoic strata. To the west, a thrust belt of Paleozoic to Cenozoic strata forms the transition to the foreland of the Brasilian shield. The most external part of this thrust belt involves Pliocene sediments and is referred to as Subandine zone. The Coastal Batholith is internally undeformed. The adjacent fold-and-thrust belt to the east is characterized by tight, nearly isoclinal upright folds with amplitudes of up to 1000 m. At the surface only Cretaceous rocks are observed. Using balancing techniques, a detachment horizon at the base of the Lowermost Cretaceous (Goyallarisquizga group - Oyon Formation) can be proposed. Further east, folds are more open, asymmetric and east verging, Jurassic sediments appear in the cores of the anticlines. The abrupt change in style from upright tight folding in the west to more open folding in the east is explained by a primary difference in the depositional sequence, most probably associated with synsedimentary faulting. The overlying volcanics of the Calipuy group and equivalents are, in turn, only slightly folded. In the Northern

  8. Morphologic evolution of the Central Andes of Peru (United States)

    Gonzalez, Laura; Pfiffner, O. Adrian


    In this paper, we analyze the morphology of the Andes of Peru and its evolution based on the geometry of river channels, their bedrock profiles, stream gradient indices and the relation between thrust faults and morphology. The rivers of the Pacific Basin incised Mesozoic sediments of the Marañon thrust belt, Cenozoic volcanics and the granitic rocks of the Coastal Batholith. They are mainly bedrock channels with convex upward shapes and show signs of active ongoing incision. The changes in lithology do not correlate with breaks in slope of the channels (or knick points) such that the high gradient indices (K) with values between 2,000-3,000 and higher than 3,000 suggest that incision is controlled by tectonic activity. Our analysis reveals that many of the ranges of the Western Cordillera were uplifted to the actual elevations where peaks reach to 6,000 m above sea level by thrusting along steeply dipping faults. We correlate this uplift with the Quechua Phase of Neogene age documented for the Subandean thrust belt. The rivers of the Amazonas Basin have steep slopes and high gradient indices of 2,000-3,000 and locally more than 3,000 in those segments where the rivers flow over the crystalline basement of the Eastern Cordillera affected by vertical faulting. Gradient indices decrease to 1,000-2,000 within the east-vergent thrust belt of the Subandean Zone. Here a correlation between breaks in river channel slopes and location of thrust faults can be established, suggesting that the young, Quechua Phase thrust faults of the Subandean thrust belt, which involve Neogene sediments, influenced the channel geometry. In the eastern lowlands, these rivers become meandering and flow parallel to anticlines that formed in the hanging wall of Quechua Phase thrust faults, suggesting that the river courses were actively displaced outward into the foreland.

  9. Erosion by Ice and Water in the Southern Andes (United States)


    This scene on the remote, rugged Argentine/Chilean border in the far southern Andes Mountains offers numerous, dramatic examples of both erosional processes and features of ice and water. The sharp, glaciated crest of the Cerro San Lorenzo (center) exceeds 12,000 feet and casts a long shadow southeastward. Glaciers on its western flank flow into the valley. This Electronic Still Camera photo was taken from the International Space Station, in December 2000 (late spring) when most of the previous winter's snow had melted below an altitude of 6,000 feet. Lago Pueyrredon, and the other lakes visible here, have been excavated by geologically recent episodes of glacier erosion, when glaciers extended all the way onto the lowland plains (top right). Since the last melting of the glaciers (15,000 years ago) three distinct fan deltas (semicircular features, marked with arrows) have formed where rivers flow into the lake. Counterclockwise currents in the lake-driven by strong winds from the west-have generated thin sand spits from each fan-delta. The largest spit (attached to the largest fan-delta, see right arrow) has isolated an approximately 10-kilometer long segment of the south end of the lake. The river that constructed the largest fan presently discharges turbid water to this isolated basin, giving it a lighter color than the rest of the lake. Glacial data collected over the past 50 years indicate that small ice bodies are disappearing at accelerated rates. (EOS, vol 81, no. 24, June 13, 2000) Predictions are that large fluctuations in land ice, with significant implications to society, are possible in the coming decades and centuries due to natural and anthropogenic climate change. Before glacial data can be used to address critical problems pertaining to the world's economic and environmental health, more detailed information about such glaciers is needed. Image ISS001-ESC-5113 provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  10. Morphological analysis of Cerro Bravo Volcano, Central Andes of Colombia (United States)

    Arango-Palacio, E.; Murcia, H. F.; Robayo, C.; Chica, P.; Piedrahita, D. A.; Aguilar-Casallas, C.


    Keywords: Cerro Bravo Volcano, Volcanic landforms, Craters. Cerro Bravo Volcano (CBV) belongs to the San Diego-Cerro Machín Volcano - Tectonic Province in the Central Andes of Colombia. CVB is located 150 km NW from Bogotá, the capital of Colombia, and 25 km E from Manizales city ( 350,00 inhabitants). The volcanic activity of CBV began at 50,000 years ago and has been characterized by produce effusive and explosive (subplinian to plinian) eruptions with dacitic and andesitic in composition products. The effusive activity is evidenced by lava flows and lava domes, while the explosive activity is evidenced by pyroclastic density current deposits and pyroclastic fall deposits; some secondary deposits such as debris avalanches and lahares has been also recognised. Currently, the CBV is considered as a hazard for the Manizales city. In order to characterise the volcanic edifice, a morphological analysis was carried out and a map was created from a digital elevations model (DEM) with 12.5 m resolution as well as aerial photographs. Thus, it was possible to associate the landforms with the evolution of the volcano. Based on this analysis, it was possible to identify the base and top of the CBV edifice as 2400 and 4020 m.a.s.l., respectively, with a diameter in its major axis of 5.8 km. The volcanic edifice has four main craters opening to the north. The craters are apart from each other by heights and distances between 120 m.a.s.l. and 1 km, respectively; this geomorphology is an evidence of different eruptive stages of the volcano construction. Morphological analysis has shown that some craters were created from explosive eruptions, however the different heights between each crater suggest the creation of lava domes and their collapse as a response of the final effusive activity.

  11. Weathering and transport of sediments in the Bolivian Andes : time constraints from uranium-series isotopes


    Dosseto, A.; Bourdon, B.; Gaillardet, J.; Maurice Bourgoin, Laurence; Allegre, C.J.


    Rivers from the upper Rio Madeira basin (Bolivia) have been studied with uranium-series isotopes in order to constrain the timescales of weathering and sediment transfer from the Andes through the Amazon tropical plain. Uranium (U), thorium, (Th) and radium (Ra) isotopes (U-238-U-234-Th-230-Ra-226 and Th-232) have been analyzed in the suspended load (> 0.2 mu m) of rivers. Increasing Th-230 excesses relative to U-238 in suspended particles from the Andes to the tropical plain is interpreted a...

  12. The paradigm of paraglacial megafans of the San Juan river basin, Central Andes, Argentina (United States)

    Suvires, Graciela M.


    The spatial distribution and several morphometric characteristics of the Quaternary alluvial fans of the San Juan River, in the province of San Juan, at the Central and Western part of Argentina, have been studied to classify them as paraglacial megafans, as well to ratify its depositional environmental conditions. The high sedimentary load exported by San Juan river from the Central Andes to the foreland depressions is estimated about 3,682,200 hm3. The large alluvial fans of Ullum-Zonda and Tulum valleys were deposited into deep tectonic depressions, during the Upper Pleistocene deglaciation stages. The outcome of collecting remotely sensed data, map and DEM data, geophysical data and much fieldwork gave access to morphometric, morphographic and morphogenetic data of these alluvial fans. The main drainage network was mapped on processed images using QGis (vers.2.0.1). Several fan morphometric parameters were measured, such as the size, the shape, the thickness, the surface areas and the sedimentary volume of exported load. The analyzed fans were accumulated in deep tectonic depressions, where the alluvium fill reaches 700 to 1200 m thick. Such fans do not reach the large size that other world megafans have, and this is due to tectonic obstacles, although the sedimentary fill average volume surpasses 514,000 hm3. The author proposes to consider Ullum-Zonda and Tulum alluvial fans as paraglacial megafans. According to the stratigraphic relationships of the tropical South American Rivers, the author considers that the San Juan paraglacial megafans would have occurred in the period before 24 ka BP , possibly corresponding to Middle Pleniglacial (ca 65-24ka BP). They record colder and more humid conditions compared with the present arid and dry conditions.

  13. Global climate change increases risk of crop yield losses and food insecurity in the tropical Andes. (United States)

    Tito, Richard; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Feeley, Kenneth J


    One of the greatest current challenges to human society is ensuring adequate food production and security for a rapidly growing population under changing climatic conditions. Climate change, and specifically rising temperatures, will alter the suitability of areas for specific crops and cultivation systems. In order to maintain yields, farmers may be forced to change cultivation practices, the timing of cultivation, or even the type of crops grown. Alternatively, farmers can change the location where crops are cultivated (e.g., to higher elevations) to track suitable climates (in which case the plants will have to grow in different soils), as cultivated plants will otherwise have to tolerate warmer temperatures and possibly face novel enemies. We simulated these two last possible scenarios (for temperature increases of 1.3°C and 2.6°C) in the Peruvian Andes through a field experiment in which several traditionally grown varieties of potato and maize were planted at different elevations (and thus temperatures) using either the local soil or soil translocated from higher elevations. Maize production declined by 21%-29% in response to new soil conditions. The production of maize and potatoes declined by >87% when plants were grown under warmer temperatures, mainly as a result of the greater incidence of novel pests. Crop quality and value also declined under simulated migration and warming scenarios. We estimated that local farmers may experience severe economic losses of up to 2,300 US$ ha -1  yr -1 . These findings reveal that climate change is a real and imminent threat to agriculture and that there is a pressing need to develop effective management strategies to reduce yield losses and prevent food insecurity. Importantly, such strategies should take into account the influences of non-climatic and/or biotic factors (e.g., novel pests) on plant development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Morfología periglacial del volcán Llullaillaco (Chile/Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroder, H.


    Full Text Available The periglacial processes in the High Andes and resulting periglacial phenomena are presented here by example of Mt. Llullaillaco, at 24°43’ S and 68°32’W, on the frontier between Argentina and Chile. The landforming processes reflect the recent and present extremely arid climate as well as the different age of the volcanics. The range of periglacial landforms, the vertical distribution and association that are described here, result from the interactions of climate and bedrocks. The upper periglacial limits are the highest of the world. The identified phenomena allow to differentiate between the subandine (below 4,100 m, subandine/andine (4,100-4,300 m, andine (4,300-4,700 m, lower periglacial (4,700-5,800 m, medium periglacial (5,800-6,300 m and upper periglacial (6,300-6,739 m altitudinal zones. Due to the extreme aridity glaciers cannot form today. Their absence therefore is not due to insufficiently low temperatures, but to lack of humidity.

    Die periglaziale Oberflachenformung und der sich daraus ergebende periglaziale Formenschatz werden im Bereich der Hochanden am Beispiel des Llullaillaco bei 24°43' s.Br. und 68°32' w.L. nuf der Grenze zwischen Argentinien und Chile vorgestellt. Die Formungsprozesse spiegeln das subrezent und rezent extrem trockene Klima sowie das unterschiedliche Alter der Vulkanite ivider. Aus den neigungsdifferenzierten Wechselbeziehungen mit Klima und Gestein ergeben sich eine Vielzahl von Periglazialformen, deren hohenwiirtige Verteilung und Vergesellschaftung beschrieben werden. Die periglazialen Hohengrenzen sind die hochsten unserer Erde. Entsprechend dem ausgegliederten Formenschatz konnte zwischen subandiner (unter 4100 m, subandiner/andiner (4100-4300 m, andiner (4300-4700 m, unterer periglazialer (4700-5800 m, mittlerer periglazialer (5800-6300 m und obérer periglazialer Stufe (6300-6739 m unterschieden werden. Die extreme Trockenheit filhrt dazu, dass sich rezent keine Gletscher

  15. Presencia del género Stegomastodon entre los restos fósiles de mastodontes de Chile (Gomphotheriidae, Pleistoceno superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberdi, M. T.


    Full Text Available New Gomphotheriidae fossils encouraged the authors to study recently obtained them and review some others materials of this family that were classified in 2000 as Cuvieronius hyodon (Fischer. Together with new tusks remains, the recovery of the anterior portion of the cranial symphysis (alveolar zone of a skull from Taguatagua is remarkable. The morphology of the available tusks and the characteristics of the anterior part of the symphysis allow the assignment of these remains to Stegomastodon. The occurrence of this genus at the end of the Pleistocene in Chile is established. Fossils are compared with others remains from South America and probable dispersal routes through the Andes cordillera are discussed.Nuevos materiales fósiles de Gomphotheriidae obtenidos recientemente, estimularon a los autores a estudiarlos y a revisar algunos otros restos de esta familia, que habían sido asignados, el año 2000, a Cuvieronius hyodon (Fischer. Junto a nuevos restos de defensas, destaca la recuperación de la parte anterior de la sínfisis craneal (zona alveolar de un cráneo de Taguatagua. La morfología de las defensas disponibles y las características de la porción anterior de la sínfisis, permiten asignar estos materiales al género Stegomastodon, fundamentando así la presencia de este género en el Pleistoceno terminal de Chile. Se comparan con otros restos de América del Sur y se discuten las probables vías de migración de estos mamíferos a través de la cordillera de los Andes.

  16. A snapshot of cancer in Chile: analytical frameworks for developing a cancer policy. (United States)

    Jimenez de la Jara, Jorge; Bastias, Gabriel; Ferreccio, Catterina; Moscoso, Cristian; Sagues, Sofia; Cid, Camilo; Bronstein, Eduardo; Herrera, Cristian; Nervi, Bruno; Corvalan, Alejandro; Velasquez, Ethel V; Gonzalez, Pamela; Castellon, Enrique; Bustamante, Eva; Oñate, Sergio; McNerney, Eileen; Sullivan, Richard; Owen, Gareth I


    The South American country Chile now boasts a life expectancy of over 80 years. As a consequence, Chile now faces the increasing social and economic burden of cancer and must implement political policy to deliver equitable cancer care. Hindering the development of a national cancer policy is the lack of comprehensive analysis of cancer infrastructure and economic impact. Evaluate existing cancer policy, the extent of national investigation and the socio-economic impact of cancer to deliver guidelines for the framing of an equitable national cancer policy. Burden, research and care-policy systems were assessed by triangulating objective system metrics--epidemiological, economic, etc.--with political and policy analysis. Analysis of the literature and governmental databases was performed. The oncology community was interviewed and surveyed. Chile utilizes 1% of its gross domestic product on cancer care and treatment. We estimate that the economic impact as measured in Disability Adjusted Life Years to be US$ 3.5 billion. Persistent inequalities still occur in cancer distribution and treatment. A high quality cancer research community is expanding, however, insufficient funding is directed towards disproportionally prevalent stomach, lung and gallbladder cancers. Chile has a rapidly ageing population wherein 40% smoke, 67% are overweight and 18% abuse alcohol, and thus the corresponding burden of cancer will have a negative impact on an affordable health care system. We conclude that the Chilean government must develop a national cancer strategy, which the authors outline herein and believe is essential to permit equitable cancer care for the country.

  17. Climatic zoning of chia (Salvia hispanica L. in Chile using a species distribution model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cortés


    Full Text Available Salvia hispanica L., known as chia, is a plant species originally from tropical and subtropical Mesoamerica. It is economically important because its seeds produce omega-3, thus its demand has increased in Chile and internationally. As there is no commercial production in Chile, we investigated the places in the country where this species could be cultivated in order to satisfy at the least the national demand. The aim of the study was to quantify the main climatic requirements of chia and to produce a climatic aptitude map for chia cultivation in Chile. The methodology was based on the Maxent species distribution model. We used 78 georeferenced data points where chia is grown throughout the world, mostly from the GBIF database, along with raster climatic layers from the Worldclim project. We estimated the performance curves of annual precipitation and temperature along with their respective optimal and critical values, in analogy with the Ecocrop method. The maps used two scenarios for crops in different conditions, with and without irrigation. The results indicated that the intermediate depression and coastal edge of mainly the Arica y Parinacota, Tarapacá, Antofagasta and Atacama regions have optimum conditions for irrigated crops, but it would be impossible in rainfed conditions. We conclude that chia’s cultivation niche is reduced due to its tropical climate requirements; however, it can be cultivated under irrigation in northern Chile.

  18. Nuclear public information activities in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Quintana; R


    Nuclear plans and developing programs in developing and developed countries are facing-in a higher or lower degree- opposition from public opinion. The objectives and contents of the public education program on nuclear energy in Chile are dealt with in this paper


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Mihaela Győri


    Full Text Available The contemporary development of the Chilean Tourism sector is analyzed mainly on thebasis of data supplied by the National Service of Tourism in Chile. Figures on inboundtourism, domestic tourism, lodging, employment, receipts, as well as the existing structurewithin the sector, were taken into consideration for the investigated period of 1999-2006.

  20. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Chile


    World Bank; International Finance Corporation


    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Chile In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 through M...

  1. A solar radiation database for Chile. (United States)

    Molina, Alejandra; Falvey, Mark; Rondanelli, Roberto


    Chile hosts some of the sunniest places on earth, which has led to a growing solar energy industry in recent years. However, the lack of high resolution measurements of solar irradiance becomes a critical obstacle for both financing and design of solar installations. Besides the Atacama Desert, Chile displays a large array of "solar climates" due to large latitude and altitude variations, and so provides a useful testbed for the development of solar irradiance maps. Here a new public database for surface solar irradiance over Chile is presented. This database includes hourly irradiance from 2004 to 2016 at 90 m horizontal resolution over continental Chile. Our results are based on global reanalysis data to force a radiative transfer model for clear sky solar irradiance and an empirical model based on geostationary satellite data for cloudy conditions. The results have been validated using 140 surface solar irradiance stations throughout the country. Model mean percentage error in hourly time series of global horizontal irradiance is only 0.73%, considering both clear and cloudy days. The simplicity and accuracy of the model over a wide range of solar conditions provides confidence that the model can be easily generalized to other regions of the world.

  2. Functional Labour Market Areas for Chile


    Francisco Rowe


    Administrative areas are arbitrarily designed and do not necessarily reflect the geographical patterns of socio-economic and labour market activity. Labour market areas (LMAs) are required to analyse spatial labour market activity and provide a framework to guide spatially-explicit employment policy development. This resource describes a data source of a set of recently created labour market areas for Chile.

  3. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley. (United States)


    ... viticultural area are four 1:24,000 Scale U.S.G.S. topography maps. They are titled: (1) St. Helena, CA 1960... Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points of reference found on appropriate U.S.G.S. maps..., with a county road known locally as Chiles and Pope Valley Road; (5) Then in a southwesterly direction...

  4. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como los profesionales y técnicos. El sector privado cubre aproximadamente a 17.5% de la población perteneciente a los grupos sociales de mayores ingresos. Un pequeño sector de la población, perteneciente a la clase alta, realiza pagos directos de bolsillo a proveedores privados de servicios de atención a la salud. Alrededor de 10% de la población está cubierta por otras agencias públicas, fundamentalmente los Servicios de Salud de las Fuerzas Armadas. Recientemente el sistema se reformó creando el Régimen General de Garantías en Salud, que establece un Sistema Universal con Garantías Explícitas que se tradujo, en 2005, en el Plan de Acceso Universal con Garantías Explícitas (AUGE, que garantiza el acceso oportuno a servicios de calidad para 56 problemas de salud, incluyendo cáncer en niños, cáncer de mama, trastornos isquémicos del corazón, VIH/SIDA y diabetes.This paper describes the Chilean health system, including its structure, financing, beneficiaries, and its physical, material and human resources. This system has two sectors, public and private. The public sector comprises all the organisms that constitute the National System of Health Services, which covers 70% of the population, including the rural and urban poor, the low middle-class, the retired, and the self-employed professionals and technicians.The private sector covers 17.5% of the population, mostly the upper middle-class and the high-income population. A small

  5. An analysis of health progress in Chile. (United States)

    Medina, E; Kaempffer, A M


    Chile has been no exception to the Latin American trend of declining general mortality, i.e., over the past 20 years (between 1961-81) general mortality in Chile fell by some 47%. A number of circumstances makes Chile a suitable place for studying the factors leading to these favorable developments. National information is available, including reasonably reliable data on the magnitude of health problems, the risks of dying, and the collection of conditioning factors affecting health. Adjusting for age and sex, overall mortality in Chile fell by 20% in the 1960s and 29% in the 1970s, but the most marked declines, especially in the latter decade, occurred among infants (a 60% reduction) and children 1-4 years old (a 67% reduction). Morbidity indicators suggest that overall morbidity declined little, but considerable reductions were observed in infectious disease cases preventable by immunization as well as in moderate and severe cases of malnutrition. Data on deaths attributed to specific causes show that mortality due to certain causes, including communicable diseases, malnutrition, maternal problems, and stomach cancer, dropped sharply, while mortality caused by a wide range of mostly chronic problems remained relatively stable. This implies that health efforts made to combine those latter problems failed to greatly modify the mortality involved. It is difficult to quantify the mental health status of any group unless data on reliable and representative indicators are available. In Chile, information is available only on mortality caused by problems whose genesis normally involves a change in mental health. This happens in the case of alcoholism and cirrhosis of the liver, the latter generally being caused in Chile by excess alcohol consumption. Accidents and violent acts also have been associated frequently in Chile with excess alcohol consumption and emotional disturbances. With the exception of mortality attributed to alcoholism, which increased by 0.3 deaths

  6. February 2010 Maule, Chile Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As of May 2010, the number of confirmed deaths stood at 521, with 56 persons still missing. Estimates of economic damage are around $30 billion. According to...

  7. Evidence of proterozoic crust under the coastal Cordillera of Central Chile: Grenville age xenocrystic zircons in cretaceous volcanic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zentilli, M; Pop, N; Heaman; L; Boric, R


    In the central Andes, Proterozoic basement rocks outcrop in isolated areas from beneath a Mesozoic and Cenozoic cover in southern Peru, northernmost Chile, Bolivia, and in northwestern Argentina. Their role in Andean magmatism and metallogenesis is well documented. In the southern Central Andes, Proterozoic rocks are so far known to outcrop in Argentina, east of the continental divide. In the course of U-Pb dating of the bimodal volcanic and sub-volcanic host rocks for Mesozoic manto-type copper deposits, we have encountered xenocrystic zircon with Proterozoic and Paleozoic ages. In the Punta del Cobre Cu-Fe (Au) District (27 o 30' S / 70 o 15' W) 22 km south of Copiapo xenocrystic zircon in the Lower Cretaceous host dacite yields ca. 1 Ga ages. In the El Soldado Cu District, (32 o 38' S /71 o 04' W), 120 km northwest of Santiago, scarce and strongly resorbed zircon crystals in the Lower Cretaceous host rhyodacite yield ages of 0.5 to 1.3 Ga. The early Cretaceous bimodal volcanic and subvolcanic rocks, which consists of primitive calc-alkaline basalts and rhyodacites, display geochemical evidence of crustal contamination. Our results suggest that, during their formation and ascent, the felsic magmas picked up zircons in the Proterozoic and Paleozoic crystalline basement of the Coastal Cordillera. The presence of Proterozoic (Grenville age) basement underlying localities as close as 30 km from the Pacific coast has implications for the extent and age of the Chilenia Terrane and gives further credence to correlation models that juxtapose eastern North America (Laurentia) and southwestern South America (Gondwana) during the Late Proterozoic (au)

  8. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile


    Barrientos,Jaime E.; Bozon,Michel; Ortiz,Edith; Arredondo,Anabella


    This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW ...

  9. The Impact of College Peers on Academic Performance: Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Chile


    Díez-Amigo, Sandro


    First year students at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, one of the leading Chilean universities, are randomly assigned to their first semester college class groups. This paper takes advantage of this natural experiment in order to robustly estimate the impact of peer characteristics on undergraduate academic performance. The research hypothesis is that being assigned as a freshman to a group with more or less students from a same school, or from a given socioeconomic background, ...

  10. Vertical migration of fallout 137Cs in agricultural soils from Southern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, Paulina; Ellies, Achim; Kirchner, Gerald


    Total inventories and depth distributions of atomic weapons testing fallout 137 Cs were determined at four sites in Chile. Cesium inventories are always higher than previously estimated for the Southern Hemisphere and depend on annual rainfall. From the measured depth distributions cesium migration rates of 137 Cs transport by the convection-dispersion equation yielded a better accordance with the measured depth distributions than the application of a compartmental model

  11. 2D Anisotropic Wavelet Entropy with an Application to Earthquakes in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orietta Nicolis


    Full Text Available We propose a wavelet-based approach to measure the Shannon entropy in the context of spatial point patterns. The method uses the fully anisotropic Morlet wavelet to estimate the energy distribution at different directions and scales. The spatial heterogeneity and complexity of spatial point patterns is then analyzed using the multiscale anisotropic wavelet entropy. The efficacy of the approach is shown through a simulation study. Finally, an application to the catalog of earthquake events in Chile is considered.

  12. Costs of examinations performed in a hospital laboratory in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Lobos Andrade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the total average costs related to laboratory examinations performed in a hospital laboratory in Chile. Method: Retrospective study with data from July 2014 to June 2015. 92 examinations classified in ten groups were selected according to the analysis methodology. The costs were estimated as the sum of direct and indirect laboratory costs and indirect institutional factors. Results: The average values obtained for the costs according to examination group (in USD were: 1.79 (clinical chemistry, 10.21 (immunoassay techniques, 13.27 (coagulation, 26.06 (high-performance liquid chromatography, 21.2 (immunological, 3.85 (gases and electrolytes, 156.48 (cytogenetic, 1.38 (urine, 4.02 (automated hematological, 4.93 (manual hematological. Conclusion: The value, or service fee, returned to public institutions who perform laboratory services does not adequately reflect the true total average production costs of examinations.

  13. Cloud climatology at the Andes/Amazon Transition in Peru (United States)

    Halladay, K.; New, M. G.; Malhi, Y.


    The climate of tropical montane regions is complex but may be sensitive to global change. We examine the local and regional cloud climatology of a region of the tropical Andes in Peru using corrected ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) DX cloud product (1983-2008), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) MOD35 visible cloud flags (2000-2008) and ground-based cloud observations. The results were compared for three zones: highlands (grassland), eastern slope (the montane forest) and lowlands (tropical forest). We found that in the dry season (JJA) the study area is part of a localised region of increased cloud frequency relative to the highlands, lowlands and other parts the eastern slope, which is likely to result from the mean low-level wind trajectory and diurnal upslope flow. The highlands exhibited the greatest amplitude mean annual cycle of cloud frequency, with a minimum in June for all times of day. This was linked to the effect of the annual cycle of upper level zonal winds, with persistent westerlies in the austral winter suppressing cloud formation at higher elevations. Higher lowland cloud frequencies than those on the eastern slope in the morning in May and June suggest the persistence of nighttime downslope flows and low-level convergence at lower altitudes. We also examined trends and variability in cloud cover for the three zones, and their relationship to sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Lowland cloud frequencies were significantly correlated with tropical North Atlantic (TNA) SSTs in February, March, August and September, but this was reduced after detrending, whereas the eastern slope and the highlands were not significantly correlated with tropical North Atlantic SSTs. Pacific SST correlations were highest for the eastern slope and highlands from February to April. Indian Ocean SST anomalies were significantly correlated with dry season cloud frequency for the lowlands and

  14. Estimates of Carbon Reservoirs in High-Altitude Wetlands in the Colombian Andes


    Enrique Javier Peña; Harrison Sandoval; Orlando Zuñiga; Alba Marina Torres


    The observed increase in emission of greenhouse gases, with attendant effects on global warming, have raised interests in identifying sources and sinks of carbon in the environment. Terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration involves capture of atmospheric C through photosynthesis and storage in biota, soil and wetlands. Particularly, wetland systems function primarily as long-term reservoirs for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and as sources of atmospheric methane (CH4). The objective of this stu...

  15. Macroinvertebrate community response to acid mine drainage in rivers of the High Andes (Bolivia).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damme, P.A. van; Hamel, C.; Ayala, A.; Bervoets, L.


    Several High Andes Rivers are characterized by inorganic water pollution known as acid mine drainage (AMD). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between metal concentrations in the sediments and the macroinvertebrate communities in two river basins affected by AMD. In general, the

  16. A Uniform Conductivity Image along the Chilean Margin? Observations from the Central and Southern Andes (United States)

    Brasse, H.; Soyer, W.


    Over the last years a reasonably detailed image of electrical conductivity distribution has been achieved in the central Andes at latitudes 20--22oS. These studies have been complemented by recent magnetotelluric investigations in the southern Chilean Andes (39oS). Despite the different subduction settings concerning e.g., age of subducted plate, trench filling and history of volcanic arcs, the inferred conductivity distributions show remarkable similarities. Higher conductivities assumed to be connected with hydration-dehydration processes are only resolved as a 2nd order effect at larger depths above the downgoing slab. On the other hand, large margin-subparallel fault zones presumably originating from oblique subduction are consistently imaged as good conductors in the mid crust, e.g., the Atacama Fault and the West Fissure in the central Andes and the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault in the south. The main differences concerning electrical properties between the two subduction settings include the large conductivity anomaly below the Altiplano high plateau in the central Andes and an anisotropic forearc crust in the south, indicated by ystematic deflection of induction arrows. An explanation of the latter phenomenon may possibly be seen in fossil, Cenozoic or even Pre-Andean structures.

  17. New Osornophryne (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) from the Atlantic Versant of the Andes in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.


    Two species of the little known genus Osornophryne are described from the Atlantic (Amazonian) versant of the Andes in Ecuador. O. guacamayo spec. nov. occurs at 2100 m, has well developed cranial ridges, rather peculiar feet with toes IV and V of about equal length and much longer than the others.

  18. How well do Important Bird Areas represent species and minimize conservation conflict in the tropical Andes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O´Dea, Niall; Bastos Araujo, Miguel; Whittaker, Robert J.


    Where high species richness and high human population density coincide, potential exists for conflict between the imperatives of species conservation and human development. We examine the coincidence of at-risk bird species richness and human population in the countries of the tropical Andes. We ...

  19. Vulnerability to climate change and community based adaptation in the Peruvian Andes, a stepwise approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lasage, R.; Muis, S.; Sardella, C.S.E.; van Drunen, M.A.; Verburg, P.H.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.


    The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier water. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region.

  20. High altitude C4 grasslands in the northern Andes: relicts from glacial conditions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, A.; Mora, G.; Cleef, A.M.; Hooghiemstra, H.


    The altitudinal vegetation distribution in the northern Andes during glacial time differed from the present-day conditions as a result of temperature and precipitation change. New evidence indicate that as a response to a reduced atmospheric partial CO2 pressure (pCO2), the competitive balance

  1. Millennial-scale vegetation changes in the tropical Andes using ecological grouping and ordination methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urrego, D.H.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Rama-Corredor, O.; Martrat, B.; Grimalt, J.O.; Thompson, L.; Bush, M.B.; González-Carranza, Z.; Hanselman, J.; Valencia, B.; Velásquez-Ruiz, C.


    We compare eight pollen records reflecting climatic and environmental change from northern and southern sites in the tropical Andes. Our analysis focuses on the last 30 000 years, with particular emphasis on the Pleistocene to Holocene transition. We explore ecological grouping and downcore

  2. Climate Change in the High Andes:implications and adaptation strategies for small-scale farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, C.; Nicklin, C.; Dangles, O.; Vanek, S.; Sherwood, S.G.; Halloy, S.; Garrett, K.A.; Forbes, G.A.


    Abstract: Global climate change represents a major threat to sustainable farming in the Andes. Farmers have used local ecological knowledge and intricate production systems to cope, adapt and reorganize to meet climate uncertainty and risk, which have always been a fact of life. Those traditional

  3. Palm harvest impact in the western Amazon, Andes and Pacific lowlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik


    Palms are the most useful group of plants in tropical American forests and in this project we study the effect of extraction and trade of palms on forests in the western Amazon, Andes, and Pacific lowlands. We determine the size of the resource by making palm community studies in the different...

  4. Drunken Speech and the Construction of Meaning: Bilingual Competence in the Southern Peruvian Andes. (United States)

    Harvey, Penelope M.


    Examination of the language use of drunken speakers in a bilingual Southern Peruvian Andes community found that drunken speakers were less constrained in their linguistic choices by individual linguistic competence and of differential status between speaker and addressee, and they exploited the ambiguities in implicit social meanings that normally…

  5. Distichia acicularis sp. nov. – a new cushion forming Juncaceae from the high Andes of Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Lægaard, Simon


    Distichia acicularis is described as a new species of Juncaceae. It occurs in the high Andes of Ecuador between 3200 m and 4200 m above sea level. Its closest relative is D. muscoides Nees & Meyen from which it is distinct through its narrow, linear, mucronate leafblades and its 1–3 mm long auric...

  6. Altitudinal changes in diversity of macroinvertebrates from small streams in the Ecuadorian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Dean


    Altitudinal patterns in diversity of macroinvertebrate families at different spatial scales (stone, stream and altitude) were studied by collecting stone samples from six streams at each of the three altitudes: lowlands (400m), midlands (2000m) and highlands (3800 m), in the equatorial Andes...

  7. A millennium of metallurgy recorded by lake sediments from Morococha, Peruvian Andes. (United States)

    Cooke, Colin A; Abbott, Mark B; Wolfe, Alexander P; Kittleson, John L


    To date, information concerning pre-Colonial metallurgy in South America has largely been limited to the archaeological record of artifacts. Here, we reconstruct a millennium of smelting activity in the Peruvian Andes using the lake-sediment stratigraphy of atmospherically derived metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, Sb, Bi, and Ti) and lead isotopic ratios (206Pb/ 207Pb) associated with smelting from the Morococha mining region in the central Peruvian Andes. The earliest evidence for metallurgy occurs ca. 1000 A.D., coinciding with the fall of the Wari Empire and decentralization of local populations. Smelting during this interval appears to have been aimed at copper and copper alloys, because of large increases in Zn and Cu relative to Pb. A subsequent switch to silver metallurgy under Inca control (ca. 1450 to conquest, 1533 A.D.) is indicated by increases in Pb, Sb, and Bi, a conclusion supported by further increases of these metals during Colonial mining, which targeted silver extraction. Rapid development of the central Andes during the 20th century raised metal burdens by an order of magnitude above previous levels. Our results represent the first evidence for pre-Colonial smelting in the central Peruvian Andes, and corroborate the sensitivity of lake sediments to pre-Colonial metallurgical activity suggested by earlier findings from Bolivia.

  8. Stepwise colonization of the Andes by ruddy ducks and the evolution of novel β-globin variants. (United States)

    Muñoz-Fuentes, V; Cortázar-Chinarro, M; Lozano-Jaramillo, M; McCracken, K G


    Andean uplift played a key role in Neotropical bird diversification, yet past dispersal and genetic adaptation to high-altitude environments remain little understood. Here we use multilocus population genetics to study population history and historical demographic processes in the ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), a stiff-tailed diving duck comprising three subspecies distributed from Canada to Tierra del Fuego and inhabiting wetlands from sea level to 4500 m in the Andes. We sequenced the mitochondrial DNA, four autosomal introns and three haemoglobin genes (α(A), α(D), β(A)) and used isolation-with-migration (IM) models to study gene flow between North America and South America, and between the tropical and southern Andes. Our analyses indicated that ruddy ducks dispersed first from North America to the tropical Andes, then from the tropical Andes to the southern Andes. While no nonsynonymous substitutions were found in either α globin gene, three amino acid substitutions were observed in the β(A) globin. Based on phylogenetic reconstruction and power analysis, the first β(A) substitution, found in all Andean individuals, was acquired when ruddy ducks dispersed from low altitude in North America to high altitude in the tropical Andes, whereas the two additional substitutions occurred more recently, when ruddy ducks dispersed from high altitude in the tropical Andes to low altitude in the southern Andes. This stepwise colonization pattern accompanied by polarized β(A) globin amino acid replacements suggest that ruddy ducks first acclimatized or adapted to the Andean highlands and then again to the lowlands. In addition, ruddy ducks colonized the Andean highlands via a less common route as compared to other waterbird species that colonized the Andes northwards from the southern cone of South America. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile (United States)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  10. Crustal seismicity associated to rpid surface uplift at Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex, Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes (United States)

    Cardona, Carlos; Tassara, Andrés; Gil-Cruz, Fernando; Lara, Luis; Morales, Sergio; Kohler, Paulina; Franco, Luis


    Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex (LMVC, Southern Andes of Chile) has been experiencing large rates (ca. 30 cm/yr) of surface uplift as detected since 2008 by satellite geodetic measurements. Previous works have modeled the source of this deformation as an inflating rectangular sub-horizontal sill underlying LMVC at 5 km depth, which is supposedly related to an active process of magmatic replenishment of a shallow silicic reservoir. However little is known about the tectonic context on which this activity is taking place, particularly its relation with crustal seismicity that could help understanding and monitoring the current deformation process. Here we present the first detailed characterization of the seismic activity taking place at LMVC and integrate it with structural data acquired in the field in order to illuminate the possible connection between the ongoing process of surface uplift and the activation of crustal faults. Our main finding is the recognition of repetitive volcano-tectonic (VT) seismic swarms that occur periodically between 2011 and 2014 near the SW corner of the sill modeled by InSAR studies. A cross-correlation analysis of the waveforms recorded for these VT events allows identifying three different seismic families. Families F1 and F3 share some common features in the stacked waveform and its locations, which markedly differ from those of family F2. Swarms belonging to this later family are more energetic and its energy was increasing since 2011 to a peak in January 2013, which coincide with maximum vertical velocities detected by local GPS stations. This points to a common process relating both phenomena. The location of VT seismic swarms roughly coincides with the intersection of a NE-SW lineament with a WNW-ESE lineament. The former shows clear field evidences of dextral strike-slip that are fully consistent with one nodal plane of focal mechanism for well-recorded F2 events. The conjugate nodal plane of these focal mechanisms could

  11. A survey of volcano deformation in the central Andes using InSAR: Evidence for deep, slow inflation (United States)

    Pritchard, M. E.; Simons, M.


    We use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) to survey about 50 volcanos of the central Andes (15-27o S) for deformation during the 1992-2000 time interval. Because of the remote location of these volcanos, the activity of most are poorly constrained. Using the ERS-1/2 C-band radars (5.6 cm), we observe good interferometric correlation south of about 21o S, but poor correlation north of that latitude, especially in southern Peru. This variation is presumably related to regional climate variations. Our survey reveals broad (10's of km), roughly axisymmetric deformation at 2 volcanic centers with no previously documented deformation. At Uturuncu volcano, in southwestern Bolivia, the deformation rate can be constrained with radar data from several satellite tracks and is about 1 cm/year between 1992 and 2000. We find a second source of volcanic deformation located between Lastarria and Cordon del Azufre volcanos near the Chile/Argentina border. There is less radar data to constrain the deformation in this area, but the rate is also about 1 cm/yr between 1996 and 2000. While the spatial character of the deformation field appears to be affected by atmosphere at both locations, we do not think that the entire signal is atmospheric, because the signal is observed in several interferograms and nearby edifices do not show similar patterns. The deformation signal appears to be time-variable, although it is difficult to determine whether this is due to real variations in the deformation source or atmospheric effects. We model the deformation with both a uniform point-source source of inflation, and a tri-axial point-source ellipsoid, and compare both elastic half-space and layered-space models. We also explore the effects of local topography upon the deformation field using the method of Williams and Wadge (1998). We invert for source parameters using the global search Neighborhood Algorithm of Sambridge (1998). Preliminary results indicate that the sources at both

  12. Transcriptome markers of viral persistence in naturally-infected andes virus (bunyaviridae seropositive long-tailed pygmy rice rats.

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    Corey L Campbell

    Full Text Available Long-tailed pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus are principal reservoir hosts of Andes virus (ANDV (Bunyaviridae, which causes most hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome cases in the Americas. To develop tools for the study of the ANDV-host interactions, we used RNA-Seq to generate a de novo transcriptome assembly. Splenic RNA from five rice rats captured in Chile, three of which were ANDV-infected, was used to generate an assembly of 66,173 annotated transcripts, including noncoding RNAs. Phylogenetic analysis of selected predicted proteins showed similarities to those of the North American deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, the principal reservoir of Sin Nombre virus (SNV. One of the infected rice rats had about 50-fold more viral burden than the others, suggesting acute infection, whereas the remaining two had levels consistent with persistence. Differential expression analysis revealed distinct signatures among the infected rodents. The differences could be due to 1 variations in viral load, 2 dimorphic or reproductive differences in splenic homing of immune cells, or 3 factors of unknown etiology. In the two persistently infected rice rats, suppression of the JAK-STAT pathway at Stat5b and Ccnot1, elevation of Casp1, RIG-I pathway factors Ppp1cc and Mff, and increased FC receptor-like transcripts occurred. Caspase-1 and Stat5b activation pathways have been shown to stimulate T helper follicular cell (TFH development in other species. These data are also consistent with reports suggestive of TFH stimulation in deer mice experimentally infected with hantaviruses. In the remaining acutely infected rice rat, the apoptotic pathway marker Cox6a1 was elevated, and putative anti-viral factors Abcb1a, Fam46c, Spp1, Rxra, Rxrb, Trmp2 and Trim58 were modulated. Transcripts for preproenkephalin (Prenk were reduced, which may be predictive of an increased T cell activation threshold. Taken together, this transcriptome dataset will permit rigorous

  13. Highly differentiated, resting gn-specific memory CD8+ T cells persist years after infection by andes hantavirus.

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    Tobias Manigold


    Full Text Available In man, infection with South American Andes virus (ANDV causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. HCPS due to ANDV is endemic in Southern Chile and much of Argentina and increasing numbers of cases are reported all over South America. A case-fatality rate of about 36% together with the absence of successful antiviral therapies urge the development of a vaccine. Although T-cell responses were shown to be critically involved in immunity to hantaviruses in mouse models, no data are available on the magnitude, specificity and longevity of ANDV-specific memory T-cell responses in patients. Using sets of overlapping peptides in IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays, we herein show in 78 Chilean convalescent patients that Gn-derived epitopes were immunodominant as compared to those from the N- and Gc-proteins. Furthermore, while the relative contribution of the N-specific response significantly declined over time, Gn-specific responses remained readily detectable ex vivo up to 13 years after the acute infection. Tetramer analysis further showed that up to 16.8% of all circulating CD3(+CD8(+ T cells were specific for the single HLA-B*3501-restricted epitope Gn(465-473 years after the acute infection. Remarkably, Gn(465-473-specific cells readily secreted IFN-gamma, granzyme B and TNF-alpha but not IL-2 upon stimulation and showed a 'revertant' CD45RA(+CD27(-CD28(-CCR7(-CD127(- effector memory phenotype, thereby resembling a phenotype seen in other latent virus infections. Most intriguingly, titers of neutralizing antibodies increased over time in 10/17 individuals months to years after the acute infection and independently of whether they were residents of endemic areas or not. Thus, our data suggest intrinsic, latent antigenic stimulation of Gn-specific T-cells. However, it remains a major task for future studies to proof this hypothesis by determination of viral antigen in convalescent patients. Furthermore, it remains to be seen whether Gn-specific T

  14. Landscape-based discretization for modeling of hydrological processes in the semi-arid Andes Cordillera: a case study in Morales Basin (United States)

    Videla Giering, Y. A., III; McPhee, J. P.; Pomeroy, J. W.


    Improved understanding of cryosphere processes in the Subtropical Andes is essencial to secure water supply in Central Chile. An ongoing challenge is to identify the main controls on snow accumulation and ablation at multiple scales. In this study, we use the Cold Regions hydrological model (CRHM) to simulate the evolution of seasonal snow cover in the basin of the Estero Morales between the period 2000-2016. The model was forced with radiation, temperature, humidity, wind and precipitation data obtained from downscaled Era-Interim outputs. The basin was disaggregated spatially through representative hydrological processes and and geomorphological into HRU's. 22% of snow in the basin is subject to reallocation by topographic effects, while net short wave radiation would explain major changes in snowmelt. 80% of summer runoff comes from glacial melting, while temperature and soil properties are key factors controlling infiltration and contribution to the runoff at all times of the year. The model results indicate that 78.2% of precipitation corresponds to snow while 21.8% to rain. The flow rates of snowmelting are the main component in the water balance, accounting for approximately 62.8% of the total rainfall. It is important to point out that during the total period of modeling (2010-2016), it was noted that the 23.08% of the total annual flow corresponds to glacial melting, however for the period 2010 - 2015 this percentage increases to 45.3%, in spite of this were not observed variations in the volume of subsurface and groundwater flow. This suggests first: that systems such as analyzed in this article, have a great importance because they are fragile in terms of response and the ground due to its topographic features (such as slope and conductivity) is not able to store large percentages of resources until the end of the summer season; and second, to understand that mountain systems with presence of glaciers, naturally are regulated compared to sudden changes

  15. Palabras y silencios: la retórica del poder en los Andes

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    Full Text Available PAROLES ET SILENCES : LA RETHORIQUE DU POUVOIR DANS LES ANDES. La parole condense différents arguments et formes de pouvoir dans les sociétés andines. Le domaine social et le cadre cérémoniel appartiennent à ceux qui articulent bien les mots. La différenciation entre la valeur octroyée à la parole et celle correspondant aux silences implique diverses modalités de prestige de reconnaissance sociale et de pouvoir rituel dans les Andes. Les personnes, les vivants et les savants exercent une maîtrise subtile de la parole face aux étrangers, aux défunts et aux sots, qui demeurent socialement “muets”, silencieux. La palabra condensa diferentes argumentos y formas de poder en las sociedades andinas. El dominio social y el ámbito ceremonial pertenecen a los buenos articuladores de palabras. La diferenciación entre el valor otorgado a la palabra y el que corresponde a los silencios implica diferentes modalidades de prestigio, reconocimiento social y poder ritual en los Andes. Las personas, los vivos y los sabios ejercen un dominio exquisito de la palabra frente a los extraños, los difuntos y los “necios” que permanecen socialmente “mudos”, callados. WORDS AND SILENCES: THE RHETORIC OF POWER IN THE ANDES. Words have different meanings and means to exercise power in Andean societies. Social power and ceremonial environments belong people who are fluent in language. The difference between the value ascribed to the spoken word and that ascribed to silence implies several kinds of prestige, social recognition and ritual power in the Andes. “Ordinary”, alive and wise people exert an exquisite authority with words as compared with strange, dead and “stupid people” who remain socially 'dumb', silent.

  16. Un réseau d'observation des glaciers dans les Andes tropicales

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    Full Text Available Par leur grande sensibilité au changement climatique, les glaciers tropicaux sont d’excellents indicateurs de l’évolution du climat et, en même temps, des objets hydrologiques susceptibles d’évoluer rapidement dans le futur. On montre que l’actuel recul accéléré des glaciers dans les Andes centrales et les conséquences qu’il peut avoir en matière hydrologique et de risques naturels rendent nécessaire un programme de surveillance de ces glaciers au niveau de toute la chaîne, ce que l’ORSTOM contribue à faire depuis 1991. UNA RED DE OBSERVACIÓN DE LOS GLACIARES EN LOS ANDES TROPICALES. Por su gran sensibilidad al cambio climático, los glaciares tropicales son excelentes indicadores de la evolución del clima, así como objectos hidrológicos susceptibles de una evolución rápida en el futuro. Considerando el actual retroceso acelerado de los glaciares en los Andes centrales y las consecuencias que puede tener a nivel hidrológico así como en el campo de los riesgos naturales, es necesario un programa de monitoreo de los glaciares a nivel de toda la cordillera, que es lo que ORSTOM contribuye a hacer desde 1991. A GLACIER MONITORING NETWORK IN THE TROPICAL ANDES. The high sensibility of Tropical glaciers to climatic forcing make it possible to use them as reliable indicators of climate evolution, as well as hydrological systems which could change rapidly in the future. Considering the present increase in glacier retreat in central Andes and the consequences induced by this evolution on water resources and natural hazards, a monitoring program at a large scale appears to be highly desirable. This has been the objective of ORSTOM since 1991.

  17. Paleoclimatic reconstruction in the Bolivian Andes from oxygen isotope analysis of lake sediment cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, B.B.; Aravena, R.; Gibson, J.J.; Abbott, M.B.; Seltzer, G.O.


    Cellulose-inferred lake water δ 18 O (δ 18 O lw ) records from Lago Potosi, a seasonally-closed lake in a watershed that is not currently glaciated, and Lago Taypi Chaka Kkota, an overflowing lake in a glaciated watershed, provide the basis for late Pleistocene and Holocene paleoclimatic reconstruction in the Bolivian Andes. Deconvolution of the histories of changing evaporative isotopic enrichment from source water δ 18 O in the lake sediment records is constrained by comparison to the Sajama ice core oxygen isotope profile. At Lago Potosi, the δ 18 O lw record appears to be dominantly controlled by evaporative 18 O-enrichment, reflecting shifts in local effective moisture. Using an isotope-mass balance model, a preliminary quantitative reconstruction of summer relative humidity spanning the past 11,500 cal yr is derived from the Lago Potosi Π 18 O lw record. Results indicate that the late Pleistocene was moist with summer relative humidity values estimated at 10-20% greater than present. Increasing aridity developed in the early Holocene with maximum prolonged dryness spanning 7500 to 6000 cal yr BP at Lago Potosi, an interval characterized by summer relative humidity values that may have been 20% lower than present. Highly variable but dominantly arid conditions persist in the mid- to late Holocene, with average summer relative humidity values estimated at 15% below present, which then increase to about 10-20% greater than present by 2000 cal yr BP. Slightly more arid conditions characterize the last millennium with summer relative humidity values ranging from 5-10% lower than present. Similar long-term variations are evident in the Lago Taypi Chaka Kkota δ 18 O lw profile, except during the early Holocene when lake water evaporative 18 Oenrichment in response to low relative humidity appears to have been offset by enhanced inflow from 18 O-depleted snowmelt or groundwater from the large catchment. Close correspondence occurs between the isotope

  18. Water and sediment quality of the Lake Andes and Choteau Creek basins, South Dakota, 1983-2000 (United States)

    Sando, Steven Kent; Neitzert, Kathleen M.


    The Bureau of Reclamation has proposed construction of the Lake Andes/Wagner Irrigation Demonstration Project to investigate environmental effects of irrigation of glacial till soils substantially derived from marine shales. During 1983-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic, water-quality, and sediment data in the Lake Andes and Choteau Creek Basins, and on the Missouri River upstream and downstream from Choteau Creek, to provide baseline information in support of the proposed demonstration project. Lake Andes has a drainage area of about 230 mi2 (square miles). Tributaries to Lake Andes are ephemeral. Water-level fluctuations in Lake Andes can be large, and the lake has been completely dry on several occasions. The outlet aqueduct from Lake Andes feeds into Garden Creek, which enters Lake Francis Case just upstream from Fort Randall Dam on the Missouri River. For Lake Andes tributary stations, calcium, magnesium, and sodium are approximately codominant among the cations, and sulfate is the dominant anion. Dissolved-solids concentrations typically range from about 1,000 mg/L (milligrams per liter) to about 1,700 mg/L. Major-ion concentrations for Lake Andes tend to be higher than the tributaries and generally increase downstream in Lake Andes. Proportions of major ions are similar among the different lake units (with the exception of Owens Bay), with calcium, magnesium, and sodium being approximately codominant among cations, and sulfate being the dominant anion. Owens Bay is characterized by a calcium sulfate water type. Dissolved-solids concentrations for Lake Andes typically range from about 1,400 to 2,000 mg/L. Whole-water nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations are similar among the Lake Andes tributaries, with median whole-water nitrogen concentrations ranging from about 1.6 to 2.4 mg/L, and median whole-water phosphorus concentrations ranging from about 0.5 to 0.7 mg/L. Whole-water nitrogen concentrations in Lake Andes are similar among the

  19. Managing the effects of accelerated glacial melting on volcanic collapse and debris flows: Planchon-Peteroa Volcano, Southern Andes (United States)

    Tormey, Daniel


    mountain glacier in the Andes. Accelerated glacial melting at present rates of climate change could lead to a recurrence of many of these post-Pleistocene events. A framework for augmenting hazard assessments and countermeasures is also proposed based on the types of hazards presented by accelerated glacial melting. Glacial melting may lead to volcanic hazards in areas not previously considered at risk, and hence there may be a low level of preparedness. Compared to the end-Pleistocene accelerated glacial melting and sector collapses, present-day glacial melting in volcanic terrain has the potential to affect large human populations. Human settlements, hydropower production, forestry, mining and wilderness tourism are all concentrated near some glaciated volcanic areas. For example, the area covered by the debris avalanche from Volcan Planchon currently supports a rich agricultural economy in Chile. Effective risk management is needed to address the issues of changing patterns in vulnerability, the nature and redistribution of hazards, and the potential socioeconomic consequences of glaciovolcanic events. Since these events are infrequent, local communities frequently do not have a memory of past occurrences, and therefore have a low awareness of the potential effects. Systematic and structured impact assessment allows objective risk analysis, uncertainty analysis, and a framework for balancing countermeasures and contingency measures with public need and acceptance. An impact assessment approach similar to that used in land use planning is presented here, with the following major elements: (i) hazard characterization; (ii) consequence characterization; (iii) risk assessment; (iv) risk control and countermeasures; and (v) risk communication. The emphasis is on effective risk communication, supported by facts, in order to address the increased hazards posed by accelerated glacial melting on volcanic cone stability. Decision makers must then weigh societal acceptance of the

  20. Incorporación de nuevas tierras durante el período de conformación del agro moderno en la Argentina: el Territorio de Los Andes, primeras décadas del siglo XX

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    Alejandro Benedetti


    Full Text Available In 1900 Argentinean government gave form to the Territory of Los Andes, the last of the ten that existed in the country, on lands won to Chile after a decade of diplomatic discussions, as a conclusion of the Pacific War. The new territory was a mountainous area, and, to the very moment when it was incorporated its characteristics were almost unknown to the country. Through the different official missions and independent investigations, on the next decade and half there was an empiric known that was giving form to the idea that the new land had its fate in two extractive activities: the miner of borato and the work of vicuña's fibers and chinchilla's skin. But the development of both of them had several obstacles, that were related to the lack of transport, capital and state mechanisms of encouragement, in the context of a country with an eminent agricultural export profile of cattle and cereals. The lack of economic and demographic growth, as well as other reasons, lead to institutional and territorial fragmentation of Los Andes in 1943.En 1900 el gobierno argentino creó el Territorio de Los Andes, el último de los diez que existieron en el país, en terrenos ganados a Chile después de una década de disputas diplomáticas, como un corolario de la Guerra del Pacífico. El nuevo territorio se distribuía en su totalidad en zonas montañosas y hasta el momento de su incorporación existía en el país un casi total desconocimiento sobre sus particularidades. A través de las diferentes misiones oficiales y de investigaciones independientes, en la siguiente década y media se produjo conocimiento empírico que fue abonando a la idea de que el nuevo territorio tenía cifrado su destino en dos actividades extractivas: la minería del borato y el aprovechamiento de fibras de vicuñas y pieles de chinchillas. Pero el desarrollo de ambas actividades se enfrentaba a una serie de obstáculos, que tenían que ver con la falta de medios de transporte

  1. Natural radiation measurements in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuardo, E.


    To estimate the population indoor exposure in dwellings and workers exposure in some mines of the country, a radon and gamma monitoring programme is presently being carried out by the C.CH.E.N. Dosimetry Laboratory. In 1988-89 an indoor radon survey was started, using passive track detectors and long periods of integration time, and in the past two years some measurements of radon in mines, drinking water and high background zones have been added. The radon gas concentrations in 119 single family dwellings in Santiago in the winter season led to an estimated effective annual dose from inhalation of 500 μSv. Other radon gas concentrations in water and mines are presented and discussed. (author)

  2. Characteristics of focal mechanisms in Chile subduction

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    Wang Xiaoshan


    Full Text Available We use the Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT solution of the earthquakes occurred in Chile subduction to analyze the characteristics of focal mechanisms. We define the angle between P, B, and T axes of focal mechanisms and three stress axes of tectonic stress field as the consistency parameter, to research the dynamic changes of focal mechanism pattern in earthquake preparation area before the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake. The result shows that the consistency parameter decreases before the earthquake, and the area of the lower consistent parameter visually coincides with the distribution of aftershocks. This phenomenon is similar to the Load-Unload Response Ratio (LURR decreases prior to the occurrence of macro-fracture happened in the acoustic emission experiments involving large rock specimens under tri-axial stress.

  3. [Mental disorders among immigrants in Chile]. (United States)

    Rojas, Graciela; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Castro, Ariel; Guajardo, Viviana; Torres, Pamela; Díaz, Berta


    Chile is receiving immigrant populations coming from other Latin-American countries. To determine the prevalence of Common Mental Disorders (CMD) among immigrants who live in Independencia, a quarter in Santiago, Chile. A cross sectional study was carried out in the primary health care clinic and in the state-funded school of Independencia. A representative sample of 282 adults and 341 children were interviewed. Mental disorders were diagnosed using CIS-R and MINI structured interviews. The interviewed immigrants came mostly from Peru. The prevalence of mental disorders in the adult population was 17.8% and among children, it was 29.3%. The adult immigrants have a lower prevalence of mental disorders than the Chilean population but it increases among children. Barriers of access to health services, that should be solved, were detected.

  4. Chile's pipelines - who's out in the cold?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellhouse, G.


    There is a battle on in Northern Chile to supply the region with gas and electricity. Two pipelines and a transmission line are being built, but there is insufficient demand to merit the construction of all of these projects. It is widely believed that the first pipeline to be finished will be the overall winner, but the situation is not that simple. A more sensible conclusion could be the merger of the two pipeline projects, rationalising supply of gas to the region. (Author)

  5. How efficient are pension fund managers in Chile? Quão eficientes são os administradores de fundos de pensão no Chile?

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    Armando Barrientos


    Full Text Available The paper measures and evaluates technical efficiency among pension fund managers in Chile. Recent pension reform has established pension fund management market in nine countries in Latin America. The new pension providers compete for affiliates on the basis of fees, rates of return, and quality of service, and are subject to extensive regulation. Applying data envelopment analysis to data from Chile 1982-1999, the paper examines issues of efficiency, competition, and regulation. The analysis concludes that pension fund managers operate below the estimated "efficiency frontier", and there is no evidence of a sustained upward trend in technical efficiency over time.Este artigo se propõe a avaliar e medir a eficiência técnica dos administradores de fundos de previdência privada no Chile. A recente reforma sofrida pela previdência deu lugar a um mercado de gestão de fundos de aposentadoria em nove países da América Latina. Esses novos gestores de fundos de pensão competem por investidores através do custo de suas tarifas, dos índices de rendimento oferecidos e da qualidade do serviço prestado, estando sujeitos a uma regulamentação rigorosa. Aplicando a análise por envoltória de dados (DEA aos dados obtidos para o Chile entre 1982 e 1999, examinamos aqui as questões de eficiência, competitividade e regulamentação. Nossa análise conclui que os administradores de fundos de previdência privada operam abaixo do nível de eficiência desejado, e não há previsão de que venha a ocorrer nenhuma melhora consistente na eficiência técnica desses fundos num futuro próximo.

  6. Aves de la ladera oriental de los Andes Orientales, alto río Cusiana, Boyacá, Colombia Aves de la ladera oriental de los Andes Orientales, alto río Cusiana, Boyacá, Colombia

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    Olivares Antonio


    Full Text Available The bird collection (52 species and subspecies treated in this paper was collected in the upper Cusiana River, eastern slope of the Eastern Andes, Departamento de Boyacá, Colombia. In the introduction are given geographical details of the proper area where the material was secured.  This study is very important because of the little knowledge on the ornisof the Eastern Andes in Boyacá. Some light is thrown on the similarities and discrepancies between the avifaunas of Boyacá and Cundinamarca (Eastern Andes and also on the relations with the adjacent regions of Venezuela.  The intergradation of Atlapetes semirufus zimmeri with A. s. semirufus is discussed and the subspecies Hemispingus frontalis flavidorsalis isadded to the colombian avifauna. Previous local avifaunas of the Andes in Boyacá are: Borrero and Olivares (1955 and Olivares (1963.The bird collection (52 species and subspecies treated in this paper was collected in the upper Cusiana River, eastern slope of the Eastern Andes, Departamento de Boyacá, Colombia. In the introduction are given geographical details of the proper area where the material was secured.  This study is very important because of the little knowledge on the ornisof the Eastern Andes in Boyacá. Some light is thrown on the similarities and discrepancies between the avifaunas of Boyacá and Cundinamarca (Eastern Andes and also on the relations with the adjacent regions of Venezuela.  The intergradation of Atlapetes semirufus zimmeri with A. s. semirufus is discussed and the subspecies Hemispingus frontalis flavidorsalis isadded to the colombian avifauna. Previous local avifaunas of the Andes in Boyacá are: Borrero and Olivares (1955 and Olivares (1963.

  7. Radiological protection in interventional cardiology in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Leyton, F.A.; Farias, E.; Silva, A.M.; Vano, E.; Oyarzun, C.; Gamarra, J.; Ortiz, P.


    In September 2000, an expert mission was assigned to Chile, under the regional project named 'International BBS in Medical Practices Radiation Protection and Quality Assurance In Interventional Radiology' (ARCAL XLIX). The objective of the mission was to evaluate the level of radiation protection (RP) and safety in interventional cardiology ( IC ) installations. A team of local cardiologists, medical physicists and technologists was created for this purpose and during one week, several cardiology laboratories were evaluated and some basic quality controls (QC) were carried out. A basic pilot training course in radiation protection was imparted at the Hospital of the University of Chile in Santiago de Chile and some of the key objectives for a future national quality assurance programme were presented during the national congress of IC. In addition, a national survey on radiation protection aspects was circulated and its results evaluated. These activities enabled the local team to become familiar with the methodology of assessment of the level of protection and the organization of a programme, which was illustrated with the examples of similar European programmes. As result of these actions, several proposals were made to both the local authorities and the IAEA. The most important were: a) to initiate a basic QC programme, b) to organize a training in RP for cardiologists in order to formalize their accreditation, c) to improve personal occupational dosimetry, d) to initiate a programme of patient dosimetry, e) to optimize the technical and clinical protocols, f) to create a national registry of incidents with skin injuries. (author)

  8. Redescripción y consideraciones biogeográficas de dos especies de Scotobius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae de ambientes montanos del centro de Argentina y Chile

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    Violeta A. SILVESTRO


    Full Text Available El género neotropical Scotobius Germar (Tenebrioninae: Scotobiini comprende 61 especies distribuidas desde el centro de Perú y sur de Brasil hasta el sur de Argentina y Chile. En este trabajo, revisamos dos especies de Scotobius que habitan el oeste de las provincias de San Juan, Mendoza y Neuquén (Argentina y en Chile central, a lo largo de la Cordillera de los Andes y las montañas extra-andinas en Argentina: S. punctatus Eschscholtz, 1831 y S. andrassyi Kaszab, 1969. Se proveen redescripciones utilizando nuevos caracteres morfológicos y se proporcionan fotografías de los adultos y de los pronotos. Se consigna la distribución geográfica, rangos altitudinales y las provincias biogeográficas en las que habitan estas especies. Se utiliza un modelo predictivo de distribución de especies para proponer hipótesis sobre los factores que influencian la distribución espacial y que explicarían la alopatría de ambas especies.

  9. Elizabeth Monasterios. 2015. La vanguardia plebeya del Titikaka. Gamaliel Churata y otras beligerancias estéticas en los Andes

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    Paola Mancosu


    Full Text Available Reseña de Elizabeth Monasterios, La vanguardia plebeya del Titikaka. Gamaliel Churata y otras beligerancias estéticas en los Andes. Lima/La Paz: IFEA/Plural Editores, 2015, pp. 345.

  10. A Late Holocene explosive mafic eruption of Villarrica volcano, Southern Andes: The Chaimilla deposit (United States)

    Costantini, L.; Pioli, L.; Bonadonna, C.; Clavero, J.; Longchamp, C.


    Villarrica (Chile) is one of the most active volcanoes in South America having erupted about 60 times in the last 460 years. Although its historical eruptive activity has been mainly effusive and weakly explosive, it had strong explosive behaviour in postglacial times. Chaimilla (activity. The deposit is dispersed over an area of 250 km 2 and consists of 8 units (A-H) which were grouped into four sequences. Stratigraphic data suggest that the eruption had a relatively short duration and evolved from i) an Opening phase, dispersing ash, lapilli clasts, accretionary lapilli, blocks and bombs, to ii) a Pulsatory phase, originating a series of magmatic explosions, to iii) a Collapsing phase, characterised by unstable plumes which emplaced a series of pyroclastic density currents intercalated with thin fallout layers and finally to iv) a Climactic phase forming a more sustained plume which eventually collapsed generating the final pyroclastic density currents. The deposit (fall and flow) has a minimum cumulative volume of 0.6 km 3, with the main sustained phase being associated with a VEI 4 and the flow units having a minimum estimated total volume of 0.04 km 3. The erupted material has a homogenous chemical composition but displays a remarkable variability in both textural and physical properties. The density distribution of juvenile products shows a clear bimodality characterised by two main populations: P1 and P2. Population P1 consists of highly vesicular clasts (modal density around 1000 kg m - 3 ) with mostly sub-spherical bubbles and moderately crystallised groundmass with large-sized microlites. Clasts from population P2 are poorly vesicular (modal density around 1600 kg m - 3 ) with irregular to collapsed bubbles and numerous smaller microlites. The variability of both vesicularity and microlite characteristics suggests the involvement of two magma batches with distinct pre-eruptive degassing and rising histories. Our eruption conceptual model implies the

  11. Discovering the Complexity of Capable Faults in Northern Chile (United States)

    Gonzalez, G.; del Río, I. A.; Rojas Orrego, C., Sr.; Astudillo, L. A., Sr.


    Great crustal earthquakes (Mw >7.0) in the upper plate of subduction zones are relatively uncommon and less well documented. We hypothesize that crustal earthquakes are poorly represented in the instrumental record because they have long recurrence intervals. In northern Chile, the extreme long-term aridity permits extraordinary preservation of landforms related to fault activity, making this region a primary target to understand how upper plate faults work at subduction zones. To understand how these faults relate to crustal seismicity in the long-term, we have conducted a detailed palaeoseismological study. We performed a palaeoseismological survey integrating trench logging and photogrammetry based on UAVs. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) age determinations were practiced for dating deposits linked to faulting. In this contribution we present the study case of two primary faults located in the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile between Iquique (21ºS) and Antofagasta (24ºS). We estimate the maximum moment magnitude of earthquakes generated in these upper plate faults, their recurrence interval and the fault-slip rate. We conclude that the studied upper plate faults show a complex kinematics on geological timescales. Faults seem to change their kinematics from normal (extension) to reverse (compression) or from normal to transcurrent (compression) according to the stage of subduction earthquake cycle. Normal displacement is related to coseismic stages and compression is linked to interseismic period. As result this complex interaction these faults are capable of generating Mw 7.0 earthquakes, with recurrence times on the order of thousands of years during every stage of the subduction earthquake cycle.

  12. Happiness and health and food-related variables: Evidence for different age groups in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Lobos


    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the factors determining the happiness in young and middle-aged adults in Chile, including health and food-related factors, and their relationships between them. To achieve this objective, a survey was conducted on a total of 1163 people (from 20 to 65 years old, proportionally distributed in the cities over 100000 inhabitants in the central area of Chile. The main scales used were: Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS, Health Related Quality of Life Index (HRQoL, and Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL. In this study, the logistic ordinal regression models were estimated. The main finding was that people have more unhealthy days, poorer perception of their health, and are less satisfied with their food-related life, and are less happy in both age groups. Therefore, health-related factors and SWFL are strong predictors of happiness.

  13. Multiple Natural Hazards Assessment and Comparison to Planned Land Use in an Andean Touristic Site within the Riskscape Central Chile (United States)

    Braun, Andreas; Jaque Castillo, Edilia


    The Andes of central Chile are a natural environment characterized by multiple natural hazards (mass movements, volcanic hazards, seismic hazards, snow avalanches to name a few). The totality of these hazards, according to the notion of Müller-Mahn et al. an in relation to vulnerable entities, spans a riskscape. Spatial planning should take this riskscape into account in order to ensure a save an resilient regional development. However, as frequently observed in developing or newly developed countries, such precaution measures are only hardly realized. Spatial planing tends to be reactive to private inversion, opportunistic and frequently clientelistic. This results in spatial structures whose future development is vulnerable to natural disasters. The contribution analyses these circumstances within a riskscape in central Chile. Within the VIII. Region, close to the volcanic complex Nevados de Chillan, a touristic development around a Hotel for winter sports is established. However, the place is affected by a multitude of natural hazards. The contribution, on the basis of primary and secondary data, first provides hazard maps for several natural hazards. Secondly, the individual hazard maps are merged to an overall hazard map. This overall hazard map is related to the vulnerable entities to span a riskscape. The vulnerable entities are settlements, but also tourist infrastructures. Then, the contribution compares how a precautions spatial planning could have avoided putting vulnerable entities at risk, which spatial structure - especially regarding tourism - is actually found and which challenges for spatial development do exist. It reveals that the most important tourist infrastructures are found particularly at places, characterized by a high overall hazard. Furthermore, it will show that alternatives at economically equally attractive sites, but with a much smaller overall hazard, would have existed. It concludes by discussing possible reasons for this by

  14. High-Dose Intravenous Methylprednisolone for Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome in Chile: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial (United States)

    Vial, Pablo A.; Valdivieso, Francisca; Ferres, Marcela; Riquelme, Raul; Rioseco, M. Luisa; Calvo, Mario; Castillo, Constanza; Díaz, Ricardo; Scholz, Luis; Cuiza, Analia; Belmar, Edith; Hernandez, Carla; Martinez, Jessica; Lee, Sang-Joon; Mertz, Gregory J.; Abarca, Juan; Tomicic, Vinko; Aracena, M. Eugenia; Rehbein, Ana Maria; Velásquez, Soledad; Lavin, Victoria; Garrido, Felipe; Godoy, Paula; Martinez, Constanza; Chamorro, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Jorge; Hernandez, Jury; Pino, Marcelo; Villegas, Paola; Zapata, Viviana; León, Marisol; Vega, Ivonne; Otarola, Irisol; Ortega, Carlos; Daube, Elizabeth; Huecha, Doris; Neira, Alda; Ruiz, Ines; Nuñez, M. Antonieta; Monsalve, Luz; Chabouty, Henriette; Riquelme, Lorena; Palma, Samia; Bustos, Raul; Miranda, Ruben; Mardones, Jovita; Hernandez, Nora; Betancur, Yasna; Sanhueza, Ligia; Inostroza, Jaime; Donoso, Solange; Navarrete, Maritza; Acuña, Lily; Manriquez, Paulina; Castillo, Fabiola; Unzueta, Paola; Aguilera, Teresa; Osorio, Carola; Yobanolo, Veronica; Mardones, Jorge; Aranda, Sandra; Carvajal, Soledad; Sandoval, Moisés; Daza, Soraya; Vargas, Felipe; Diaz, Violeta; Riquelme, Mauricio; Muñoz, Miriam; Carriel, Andrea; Lanino, Paola; Hernandez, Susana; Schumacher, Patricia; Yañez, Lia; Marco, Claudia; Ehrenfeld, Mildred; Delgado, Iris; Rios, Susana; Vial, Cecilia; Bedrick, Edward


    Background. Andes virus (ANDV)–related hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) has a 35% case fatality rate in Chile and no specific treatment. In an immunomodulatory approach, we evaluated the efficacy of intravenous methylprednisolone for HCPS treatment, through a parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods. Patients aged >2 years, with confirmed or suspected HCPS in cardiopulmonary stage, admitted to any of 13 study sites in Chile, were randomized by study center in blocks of 4 with a 1:1 allocation and assigned through sequentially numbered envelopes to receive placebo or methylprednisolone 16 mg/kg/day (≤1000 mg) for 3 days. All personnel remained blinded except the local pharmacist. Infection was confirmed by immunoglobulin M antibodies or ANDV RNA in blood. The composite primary endpoint was death, partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio ≤55, cardiac index ≤2.2, or ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation within 28 days. Safety endpoints included the number of serious adverse events (SAEs) and quantification of viral RNA in blood. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results. Infection was confirmed in 60 of 66 (91%) enrollees. Fifteen of 30 placebo-treated patients and 11 of 30 methylprednisolone-treated patients progressed to the primary endpoint (P = .43). We observed no significant difference in mortality between treatment groups (P = .41). There was a trend toward more severe disease in placebo recipients at entry. More subjects in the placebo group experienced SAEs (P = .02). There were no SAEs clearly related to methylprednisolone administration, and methylprednisolone did not increase viral load. Conclusions. Although methylprednisolone appears to be safe, it did not provide significant clinical benefit to patients. Our results do not support the use of methylprednisolone for HCPS. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00128180. PMID:23784924

  15. Current state of glaciers in the tropical Andes: a perspective on glacier evolution and climate change (United States)

    Rabatel, Antoine; Francou, Bernard; Soruco, Alvaro; Gomez, Jesus; Caceres, Bolivar; Ceballos, Jorge-Luis; Vuille, Mathias; Sicart, Jean-Emmanuel; Huggel, Christian


    This presentation provides a comprehensive overview of the studies of glaciers in the tropical Andes conducted in recent decades leading to the current status of the glaciers in the context of climate change. In terms of changes in surface area and length, we show that the glacier retreat in the tropical Andes over the last three decades is unprecedented since the maximum extension of the LIA (mid 17th - early 18th century). In terms of changes in mass balance, although there have been some sporadic gains on several glaciers, we show that the trend has been quite negative over the past 50 years, with a mean mass balance deficit for glaciers in the tropical Andes that is slightly more negative than the one computed on a global scale. A break point in the trend appeared in the late 1970s with mean annual mass balance per year decreasing from -0.2 m w.e. in the period 1964-1975 to -0.76 m w.e. in the period 1976-2010. In addition, even if glaciers are currently retreating everywhere in the tropical Andes, it should be noted that this is much more pronounced on small glaciers at low altitudes that do not have a permanent accumulation zone, and which could disappear in the coming years/decades. Monthly mass balance measurements performed in Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia show that variability of the surface temperature of the Pacific Ocean is the main factor governing variability of the mass balance at the decadal time scale. Precipitation did not display a significant trend in the tropical Andes in the 20th century, and consequently cannot explain the glacier recession. On the other hand, temperature increased at a significant rate of 0.10°C/decade in the last 70 years. The higher frequency of El Niño events and changes in its spatial and temporal occurrence since the late 1970s together with a warming troposphere over the tropical Andes may thus explain much of the recent dramatic shrinkage of glaciers in this part of the world.

  16. Phylogeny and biogeography of the New World siskins and goldfinches: rapid, recent diversification in the Central Andes. (United States)

    Beckman, Elizabeth J; Witt, Christopher C


    Time-calibrated molecular phylogenies can help us to understand the origins of the diverse and unique Andean avifauna. Previous studies have shown that the tempo of diversification differed between the Andes and adjacent lowland regions of South America. Andean taxa were found to have speciated more recently and to have avoided the decelerated diversification that is typical of Neotropical lowland clades. The South American siskins, a Pleistocene finch radiation, may typify this Andean pattern. We investigated the phylogenetic biogeography of all the New World siskins and goldfinches in new detail. To understand the specific role of the Andes in siskin diversification, we asked: (1) Was diversification faster in Andean siskin lineages relative to non-Andean ones? (2) Did siskin lineages move into and out of the Andes at different rates? We found that siskin lineages in the Andes had higher diversification rates and higher outward dispersal rates than siskin lineages outside the Andes. We conclude that páramo expansion and contraction in response to Pleistocene climatic cycles caused accelerated diversification and outward dispersal in Andean siskins. The younger average age of bird species in the Andes compared to lowland South America may be attributable to bursts of recent diversification in siskins and several other vagile, open-habitat clades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mining and drought in the tropical Andes: a case study of lake Poopó (United States)

    Zogheib, C.


    The respective impacts of mining water withdrawals and El Niño-related droughts on water availability in the Altiplano region of the tropical Andes were investigated. The naturally semi-arid to arid climate of the region is highly vulnerable to the effects of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) as well as changes to the Bolivian High upper troposphere circulation. The 2015-2016 El Niño event displayed a maximal Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) of up to 2.2 °C, comparable with the 1998-1999 event, considered as the most severe of the 20th century with a maximal ONI of 2.5 °C. This has severely impacted the Altiplano region. Whereas mining has been found to affect observed water quality in the region, its influence on water availability has not been extensively examined. In light of these observations, the case of Lake Poopó, a water body at the intersection of both these climatic and anthropogenic influences, was further analyzed. The lake was officially declared dry in January 2016 by the Bolivian government. Therefore, a water balance model was implemented for the Lake Titicaca - Río Desaguadero - Lake Poopó - Salar de Coipasa (TDPS) catchment, simulating several possible climatic scenarios. Mines were identified and associated water withdrawals were extrapolated using available processing water consumption data. Long-term climatic trends, as averaged between 1970 and 2010 were used to assess the recovery prospects of the lake. Mining was found to have a very limited impact on water quantity in Lake Poopó, with total mining water withdrawals accounting for 0.2% to 0.4% of the total amount of water flowing into the lake from the Desaguadero River, reduced by only 1%. However, 1998 El Niño-induced drought conditions were found to cause a net yearly reduction in storage of 0.76 m. Under such climatic constraints, it was obtained that 32 months were needed for the lake to dry out from its height of 1.972 m as observed on the 10th of April 2013 and 38 months

  18. Fault-controlled permeability and fluid flow in low-porosity crystalline rocks: an example from naturally fractured geothermal systems in the Southern Andes (United States)

    Arancibia, G.; Roquer, T.; Sepúlveda, J.; Veloso, E. A.; Morata, D.; Rowland, J. V.


    Fault zones can control the location, emplacement, and evolution of economic mineral deposits and geothermal systems by acting as barriers and/or conduits to crustal fluid flow (e.g. magma, gas, oil, hydro-geothermal and groundwater). The nature of the fault control permeability is critical in the case of fluid flow into low porosity/permeability crystalline rocks, since structural permeability provides the main hydraulic conductivity to generate a natural fractured system. However, several processes accompanying the failure of rocks (i.e. episodic permeability given by cycling ruptures, mineral precipitation from fluids in veins, dissolution of minerals in the vicinity of a fracture) promote a complex time-dependent and enhancing/reducing fault-controlled permeability. We propose the Southern Volcanic Zone (Southern Andes, Chile) as a case study to evaluate the role of the structural permeability in low porosity crystalline rocks belonging to the Miocene North Patagonian Batholith. Recently published studies propose a relatively well-constrained first-order role of two active fault systems, the arc-parallel (NS to NNE trending) Liquiñe Ofqui Fault System and the arc-oblique (NW trending) Andean Transverse Fault Zones, in fluid flow at crustal scales. We now propose to examine the Liquiñe ( 39°S) and Maihue ( 40°S) areas as sites of interaction between these fault systems, in order to evaluate a naturally fractured geothermal system. Preliminary results indicate upwelling of thermal water directly from fractured granite or from fluvial deposits overlying granitoids. Measured temperatures of thermal springs suggest a low- to medium-enthalpy system, which could potentially be harnessed for use in geothermal energy applications (e.g. heating, wood dryer and green house), which are much needed in Southern Chile. Future work will aim to examine the nature of structural permeability from the regional to the microscopic scale connecting the paleo- and current- fluid

  19. On geographic barriers and Pleistocene glaciations: Tracing the diversification of the Russet-crowned Warbler (Myiothlypis coronata) along the Andes (United States)


    We studied the phylogeography and plumage variation of the Russet-crowned Warbler (Myiothlypis coronata), from Venezuela to Bolivia, with focus on populations from Ecuador and northern Peru. We analyzed sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, geographic distributions, as well as photographs of specimens deposited at museum collections. Phylogenetic analyses identified three major lineages formed by populations from: Venezuela and Colombia (M. c. regulus), Ecuador and northern Peru (M. elata, M. castaneiceps, M. orientalis, M. c. chapmani), and central Peru and Bolivia (M. c. coronata). We found further population structure within M. c. regulus and M. c. coronata, and population structure and complexity of plumage variation within the Ecuador-northern Peru lineage. Time-calibrated trees estimated that most intraspecific variation originated during the Pleistocene; however, this pattern may not be attributed to an increase in diversification rate during that period. We discuss these results in the context of the importance of geographic-ecological barriers in promoting lineage diversification along the Andes and put forward a preliminary taxonomic proposal for major lineages identified in this study. PMID:29522515

  20. A Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF, coordinates and velocities for South American stations: contributions to Central Andes geodynamics

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    M. V. Mackern


    Full Text Available Satellite positioning systems allow the fixing of the location of a point on the Earth's surface with very good precision and accuracy. To do this, however, it is necessary to determine the point coordinates taking account the reference system and the movements that affect them because of tectonic plate movements. These reference systems are materialized by a significant number of continuous measurement stations in South America. In SIRGAS (Sistema de Referencia Geocéntrico para las Américas, there are four Analysis Centers that process the data collected from satellites of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS, with the primary purpose to maintain the international terrestrial reference frame through calculation of the coordinates and velocities of the continuous GNSS stations of the SIRGAS-CON Network.

    In this work, we demonstrate the quality of the solutions from CIMA, one of the SIRGAS official processing centers operating in Mendoza, Argentina, in comparison with other South American processing centers. The importance of precise calculations of coordinates and velocities in a global frame is also shown. Finally, we give estimations of velocities from stations located within deformation zones in the Central Andes.

  1. On geographic barriers and Pleistocene glaciations: Tracing the diversification of the Russet-crowned Warbler (Myiothlypis coronata) along the Andes. (United States)

    Prieto-Torres, David A; Cuervo, Andrés M; Bonaccorso, Elisa


    We studied the phylogeography and plumage variation of the Russet-crowned Warbler (Myiothlypis coronata), from Venezuela to Bolivia, with focus on populations from Ecuador and northern Peru. We analyzed sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, geographic distributions, as well as photographs of specimens deposited at museum collections. Phylogenetic analyses identified three major lineages formed by populations from: Venezuela and Colombia (M. c. regulus), Ecuador and northern Peru (M. elata, M. castaneiceps, M. orientalis, M. c. chapmani), and central Peru and Bolivia (M. c. coronata). We found further population structure within M. c. regulus and M. c. coronata, and population structure and complexity of plumage variation within the Ecuador-northern Peru lineage. Time-calibrated trees estimated that most intraspecific variation originated during the Pleistocene; however, this pattern may not be attributed to an increase in diversification rate during that period. We discuss these results in the context of the importance of geographic-ecological barriers in promoting lineage diversification along the Andes and put forward a preliminary taxonomic proposal for major lineages identified in this study.

  2. Maize (Zea mays) consumption in the southern andes (30°-31° S. Lat): Stable isotope evidence (2000 BCE-1540 CE). (United States)

    Alfonso-Durruty, Marta; Troncoso, Andrés; Larach, Pablo; Becker, Cristian; Misarti, Nicole


    The timing and dietary role of maize agriculture is central to archaeological discussions in the Andean region. In the semi-arid region of northern Chile (SARNC), archaeological models propose that maize was adopted during the Early Ceramic period in tandem with pottery and sedentism. Through stable isotope (SI) analyses, of bone collagen and apatite, this study assesses the timing of maize introduction, diachronic changes (2,000 BCE to 1,540 CE.), and synchronic dietary variability in the prehistoric SARNC. Fifty-two prehistoric individuals from SARNC were analyzed for δ 13 C ap , δ 13 C col, and δ 15 N. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the results by period and location (inland and coast). Between-periods (ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests), and synchronic comparisons (inland vs. coast; Student's t-tests), were conducted. A SIAR model was run to further evaluate dietary changes. Dietary interpretations are based on food web data. Coastal groups show significant changes in the diet during the Middle (900-1,000CE; enrichment in δ 13 C), and Late Intermediate periods (100-1450CE; when the Δ 13 C ap-col is above 5.2‰). In the inland, significant changes in SI occurred in the Late Intermediate period (δ 13 C enrichment). In the Late period, the inland diet became enriched for δ 15 N. Synchronic comparisons showed coastal individuals to have higher δ 15 N. The popularization of maize in the SARNC was not associated with the appearance of pottery and/or sedentism, and its role as a dietary staple was a late phenomenon (c.a. 1,000CE). The results obtained in this study show that the adoption and consumption of maize varied dramatically in the Southern Andes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Illicit crops and armed conflict as constraints on biodiversity conservation in the Andes region. (United States)

    Fjeldså, Jon; Alvarez, María D; Lazcano, Juan Mario; León, Blanca


    Coca, once grown for local consumption in the Andes, is now produced for external markets, often in areas with armed conflict. Internationally financed eradication campaigns force traffickers and growers to constantly relocate, making drug-related activities a principal cause of forest loss. The impact on biodiversity is known only in general terms, and this article presents the first regional analysis to identify areas of special concern, using bird data as proxy. The aim of conserving all species may be significantly constrained in the Santa Marta and Perijá mountains, Darién, some parts of the Central Andes in Colombia, and between the middle Marañón and middle Huallaga valleys in Peru. Solutions to the problem must address the root causes: international drug markets, long-lasting armed conflict, and lack of alternative income for the rural poor.

  4. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View). (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana


    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  5. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000 (United States)

    Walter, Amy R.


    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables…

  6. Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.


    In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

  7. Chile - Institutional Design for an Effective Education Quality Assurance


    World Bank


    The main objective of this report is to present the Government of Chile with policy options related to the institutional distribution of roles and responsibilities for effective quality assurance in education. Following the introduction, the report is structured as follows. Chapter II presents background information on the evolution of Chile's education system since 1980. This information,...

  8. Childcare in Chile. The role of ethnicity and socioeconomic inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cárcamo Leiva, Rodrigo Alejandro


    Chile has embarked on a road that must lead to the reduction of inequality gaps for the population. A public policy called Chile Growths With You has focused on an increase in the breadth of coverage of non-maternal care through childcare centers to provide equal opportunities in early childhood and

  9. All projects related to chile | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Impact of ICTs on Local Democracy : Transparency and Citizen Participation in the Municipality of Peñalolén (Chile). Project. The municipality of Peñalolén in Santiago, Chile, is characterized by great socioeconomic diversity and strong social networks (clubs for the elderly and young people, sports clubs, labour unions, ...

  10. [A scientometric view of Revista Médica de Chile]. (United States)

    Krauskopf, Manuel; Krauskopf, Erwin


    During the last decade Revista Médica de Chile increased its visibility, measured on citations and impact factor. To perform a scientometric analysis to assess the performance of Revista Médica de Chile. Thomson's-ISI Web of Science and Journal Citation Reports QCR) were consulted for performance indicators of Revista Médica de Chile and Latin American journals whose subject is General and Internal Medicine. We also report the h-index of the journal, which infers quality linked to the quantity of the output. According to the h-index, Revista Médica de Chile ranks 4 among the 36 journals indexed and published by Argentina, Brazil, Chile and México. The top ten articles published by Revista Médica de Chile and the institutions with the higher contribution to the journal, were identified using citations. In the Latin American region, Brazil relevantly increased its scientific output. However, Argentina, Chile and México maintain a plateau during the last decade. Revista Médica de Chile increased notoriously its performance. Its contribution to the Chilean scientific community dedicated to Medicine appears to be of central value.

  11. Hedging in derivatives markets: the experience of Chile


    Fernando Avalos; Ramon Moreno


    Prior to the onset of the 2008 financial crisis, domestic FX derivatives markets in Chile had gained depth and liquidity, boosted by the growing hedging needs of private pension funds. During the crisis, Chile suffered significantly less stress than other EMEs, within Latin America and outside. We present evidence suggesting that this was related to the liquidity and resilience of its FX derivatives markets.

  12. [Health inequality gap in inmigrant versus local children in Chile]. (United States)

    Cabieses, Baltica; Chepo, Macarena; Oyarte, Marcela; Markkula, Niina; Bustos, Patricia; Pedrero, Víctor; Delgado, Iris


    Children and young international migrants face different health challenges compa red with the local population, particularly if they live in insecure environments or adverse social conditions. This study seeks to identify gaps in health outcomes of children between immigrant and local population in Chile. This study analyses data from three sources: (i) Born in Chile: Electronic records of antenatal visits from all municipal antenatal clinics of Recoleta in 2012; (ii) Growing up in Chile: Population survey "National Socioeconomic Characterization" (CASEN) from 2013 and (iii) Getting sick in Chile: Data of all hospital discharges in 2012, provided by the department of statistics and health information (DEIS) of the Ministry of Health. (I) Born in Chile: Im migrants more frequently have psychosocial risk (62.3% vs 50.1% in Chileans) and enter later into the program (63.1% vs 33.4% enter later than 14 weeks of pregnancy). All birth outcomes were better among immigrants (e.g. caesarean sections rates: 24.2% immigrants vs % Chileans). (ii) Growing up in Chile: A higher proportion of migrant children is outside the school system and lives in multidi mensional poverty (40% immigrants vs 23.2% Chileans). (iii) Getting sick in Chile: Injuries and other external causes were more frequent cause of hospitalisation among migrants (23.6%) than the local population (16.7%) aged between 7 and 14 years. Addressing the needs of the children in Chile, regardless of their immigration status, is an ethical, legal and moral imperative.

  13. Climate in the Western Cordillera of the Central Andes over the last 4300 years (United States)

    Engel, Zbyněk; Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Chuman, Tomáš; Šefrna, Luděk; Mihaljevič, Martin


    The Distichia peat core obtained in the Carhuasanta valley near Nevado Mismi, Cordillera Chila, provides information on climatic and environmental conditions over the last ˜4300 years. The relative changes in the stable carbon isotope composition of plant remains preserved in the core reflect major temperature fluctuations in the Western Cordillera of the southern Peruvian Andes. These temperature variations can be additionally linked with the changes in precipitation patterns by analysing C% and C/N ratio in the core. Relatively warm and moist conditions prevailed from 4280 to 3040 cal. yrs BP (BC 2330-1090) with a short colder dry episode around 3850 cal. yrs BP (BC 1900). The most prominent climate changes recorded in the peat occurred between 3040 and 2750 cal. yrs BP (BC 1090-800) when the initial warming turned to a rapid cooling to temperatures at least 2 °C lower than the mean for the Late Holocene. Initially drier conditions within this event turned to a short wet phase after 2780 cal. yrs BP (BC 830) when the temperature increased again. This event coincides with significant changes in peat and ice core records in the Central Andes matching the timing of the global climate event around 2.8 cal. ka BP. Climatic conditions in the study area became relatively dry and stable after the event for about 800 years. Highly variable temperatures and humidity prevailed during the last 2000 years when an extended warm and relatively humid period occurred between 640 and 155 cal. yrs BP (AD 1310-1795) followed by predominantly colder and drier conditions. The established δ13C peat record represents the first continuous proxy for the temperature in the southern Peruvian Andes dated by the AMS 14C. Distichia peat is wide spread in the Andes and the proposed approach can be applied elsewhere in high altitudes, where no other traditional climate proxies are available.

  14. Agriculture biologique dans les Andes péruviennes | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le défi. Au Pérou, la pauvreté est presque trois fois plus prononcée en milieu rural qu'en milieu urbain, et la situation est encore pire dans les Andes. On dit souvent que l'agriculture biologique permet, de façon durable, d'augmenter le rendement des exploitations agricoles, de réduire la pauvreté, d'atténuer les effets des ...

  15. Non-pollen palynomorphs from surface sediments along an altitudinal transect of the Venezuelan Andes


    Montoya, E.; Rull, V.; van Geel, B.


    Palynological studies including records of non-pollen palynomorphs (NPP) are uncommon in the Neotropics, in spite of their demonstrated usefulness in other regions. Modern analog studies to improve palaeoecological interpretations of NPP are even more scarce. Here, we report the NPP assemblages recorded in modern surface samples from an altitudinal transect of the Venezuelan Andes, ranging from about 2300 and 4600 m. We compared the assemblages with the results of previous pollen analyses of ...

  16. Non-metric variation of the Muisca dentition in the northern Andes of Colombia, South America


    Rodríguez Flórez, Carlos David


    This article presents dental non-metric data observed in Muisca samples from the central-eastern Andes of Colombia. Permanent teeth of 146 individuals between 5 and 40 years of age belonging to five pre-Hispanic human cemeteries were observe. Fifteen dental traits were score following the ASUDAS method. A comparison between the values of the five samples shows that biological homogeneity did exist within these populations. At least 800 years of genetic continuity and biological interbreeding ...

  17. Human impacts on headwater fluvial systems in the northern and central Andes (United States)

    Harden, Carol P.


    South America delivers more freshwater runoff to the ocean per km 2 land area than any other continent, and much of that water enters the fluvial system from headwaters in the Andes Mountains. This paper reviews ways in which human occupation of high mountain landscapes in the Andes have affected the delivery of water and sediment to headwater river channels at local to regional scales for millennia, and provides special focus on the vulnerability of páramo soils to human impact. People have intentionally altered the fluvial system by damming rivers at a few strategic locations, and more widely by withdrawing surface water, primarily for irrigation. Unintended changes brought about by human activities are even more widespread and include forest clearance, agriculture, grazing, road construction, and urbanization, which increase rates of rainfall runoff and accelerate processes of water erosion. Some excavations deliver more sediment to river channels by destabilizing slopes and triggering processes of mass-movement. The northern and central Andes are more affected by human activity than most high mountain regions. The wetter northern Andes are also unusual for the very high water retention characteristics of páramo (high elevation grass and shrub) soils, which cover most of the land above 3000 m. Páramo soils are important regulators of headwater hydrology, but human activities that promote vegetation loss and drying cause them to lose water storage capacity. New data from a case study in southern Ecuador show very low bulk densities (median 0.26 g cm - 3 ), high organic matter contents (median 43%), and high water-holding capacities (12% to 86% volumetrically). These data document wetter soils under grass than under tree cover. Effects of human activity on the fluvial system are evident at local scales, but difficult to discern at broader scales in the regional context of geomorphic adjustment to tectonic and volcanic processes.

  18. Issues of affinity: exploring population structure in the Middle and Regional Developments Periods of San Pedro de Atacama, Chile. (United States)

    Torres-Rouff, Christina; Knudson, Kelly J; Hubbe, Mark


    The Middle Period (AD 400-1000) in northern Chile's Atacama oases is characterized by an increase in social complexity and regional interaction, much of which was organized around the power and impact of the Tiwanaku polity. Despite the strong cultural influence of Tiwanaku and numerous other groups evident in interactions with Atacameños, the role of immigration into the oases during this period is unclear. While archaeological and bioarchaeological research in the region has shown no evidence that clearly indicates large groups of foreign immigrants, the contemporary increase in interregional exchange networks connecting the oases to other parts of the Andes suggests residential mobility and the possibility that movement of people both into and out of the oases accompanied these foreign influences. Here, we analyze biodistance through cranial non-metric traits in a skeletal sample from prehistoric San Pedro de Atacama to elucidate the extent of foreign influence in the oases and discuss its implications. We analyzed 715 individuals from the Middle Period (AD 400-1000) and later Regional Developments Period (AD 1000-1450), and found greater phenotypic differences between Middle Period cemeteries than among cemeteries in the subsequent period. We argue that this greater diversity extends beyond the relationship between the oases and the renowned Tiwanaku polity and reflects the role of the oases and its different ayllus as a node and way station for the Middle Period's myriad interregional networks. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Grenvillian remnants in the Northern Andes: Rodinian and Phanerozoic paleogeographic perspectives (United States)

    Cardona, A.; Chew, D.; Valencia, V. A.; Bayona, G.; Mišković, A.; Ibañez-Mejía, M.


    Grenvillian crust is encountered in several basement inliers in the northern Andes of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru and is also represented as a major detrital or inherited component within Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic sedimentary and magmatic rocks. This review of the tectonic and geochronological record of the Grenvillian belt in the northern Andes suggests that these crustal segments probably formed on an active continental margin in which associated arc and back-arc magmatism evolved from ca. 1.25 to 1.16 Ga, possibly extending to as young as 1.08 Ga. The lithostratigraphic and tectonic history of the Grenvillian belt in the northern Andes differs from that of the Sunsas belt on the southwest Amazonian Craton and from the Grenvillian belt of Eastern Laurentia. It is considered that this belt, along with similar terranes of Grenvillian age in Middle America and Mexico define a separate composite orogen which formed on the northwestern margin of the Amazonian Craton. Microcontinent accretion and interaction with the Sveconorwegian province on Baltica is a feasible tectonic scenario, in line with recent paleogeographic reconstructions of the Rodinian supercontinent. Although Phanerozoic tectonics may have redistributed some of these terranes, they are still viewed as para-autocthonous domains that remained in proximity to the margin of Amazonia. Paleogeographic data derived from Phanerozoic rocks suggest that some of the Colombian Grenvillian fragments were connected to northernmost Peru and Ecuador until the Mesozoic, whereas the Mexican terranes where attached to the Colombian margin until Pangea fragmentation in Late Triassic times.

  20. Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy of Forest Canopy Chemistry in the Andes-Amazon Corridor (United States)

    Martin, R.; Anderson, C.; Knapp, D. E.; Asner, G. P.


    The Andes-Amazon corridor is one of the most biologically diverse regions on Earth. Elevation gradients provide opportunities to explore the underlying sources and environmental controls on functional diversity of the forest canopy, however plot-based studies have proven highly variable. We used airborne imaging spectroscopy from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS) to quantify changes canopy functional traits in a series of eleven 25-ha landscapes distributed along a 3300 m elevation gradient from lowland Amazonia to treeline in the Peruvian Andes. Each landscape encompassed a 1 ha field plot in which all trees reaching the canopy were climbed and leaves were sampled for 20 chemical traits. We used partial least squares regression to relate plot-level chemical values with airborne spectroscopy from the 1 ha area. Sixteen chemical traits produced predictable relationships with the spectra and were used to generate maps of the 25 ha landscape. Ten chemical traits were significantly related to elevation at the 25 ha scale. These ten traits displayed 35% greater accuracy (R2) and precision (rmse) when evaluated at the 25 ha scale compared to values derived from tree climbing alone. The results indicate that high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy can be used as surrogate for laborious tree climbing and chemical assays to understand chemical diversity in Amazonian forests. Understanding how these chemicals vary among forest communities throughout the Andes-Amazon corridor will facilitate mapping of functional diversity and the response of canopies to climate change.

  1. Glacier loss and hydro-social risks in the Peruvian Andes (United States)

    Mark, Bryan G.; French, Adam; Baraer, Michel; Carey, Mark; Bury, Jeffrey; Young, Kenneth R.; Polk, Molly H.; Wigmore, Oliver; Lagos, Pablo; Crumley, Ryan; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.; Lautz, Laura


    Accelerating glacier recession in tropical highlands and in the Peruvian Andes specifically is a manifestation of global climate change that is influencing the hydrologic cycle and impacting water resources across a range of socio-environmental systems. Despite predictions regarding the negative effects of long-term glacier decline on water availability, many uncertainties remain regarding the timing and variability of hydrologic changes and their impacts. To improve context-specific understandings of the effects of climate change and glacial melt on water resources in the tropical Andes, this article synthesizes results from long-term transdisciplinary research with new findings from two glacierized Peruvian watersheds to develop and apply a multi-level conceptual framework focused on the coupled biophysical and social determinants of water access and hydro-social risks in these settings. The framework identifies several interacting variables-hydrologic transformation, land cover change, perceptions of water availability, water use and infrastructure in local and regional economies, and water rights and governance-to broadly assess how glacier change is embedded with social risks and vulnerability across diverse water uses and sectors. The primary focus is on the Santa River watershed draining the Cordillera Blanca to the Pacific. Additional analysis of hydrologic change and water access in the geographically distinct Shullcas River watershed draining the Huaytapallana massif towards the city of Huancayo further illuminates the heterogeneous character of hydrologic risk and vulnerability in the Andes.

  2. Calculated WIMP signals at the ANDES laboratory: comparison with northern and southern located dark matter detectors (United States)

    Civitarese, O.; Fushimi, K. J.; Mosquera, M. E.


    Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are possible components of the Universe’s dark matter (DM). The detection of WIMPs is signaled by the recoil of the atomic nuclei which form a detector. CoGeNT at the Soudan Underground Laboratory (SUL) and DAMA at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) have reported data on annual modulation of signals attributed to WIMPs. Both experiments are located in laboratories in the Northern Hemisphere. DM detectors are planned to operate (or already operate) in laboratories in the Southern Hemisphere, including SABRE at Stawell Underground Physics Laboratory (SUPL) in Australia, and DM-ICE in Antarctica. In this work we have analyzed the dependence of diurnal and annual modulation of signals, pertaining to the detection of WIMP, on the coordinates of the laboratory, for experiments which may be performed in the planned new Agua Negra Deep Experimental Site (ANDES) underground facility, to be built in San Juan, Argentina. We made predictions for NaI and Ge-type detectors placed in ANDES, to compare with DAMA, CoGeNT, SABRE and DM-ICE arrays, and found that the diurnal modulation of the signals, at the ANDES site, is amplified at its maximum value, both for NaI (Ge)-type detectors, while the annual modulation remains unaffected by the change in coordinates from north to south.

  3. Biological affinities and regional microevolution among pre-Hispanic communities of Colombia's Northern Andes. (United States)

    Rodríguez Flórez, C D; Colantonio, S E


    Dental non-metric data were used to examine the biological continuity of pre-Hispanic peoples of Colombia's Northern Andes, including highland, lowland and coastal peoples. This report contributes to studies regarding the peopling of South America by establishing a benchmark comparison that includes pre-Hispanic populations of the Northern Andes. The sample consisted of a total of 583 individuals from 56 cemeteries ranging in time from the Early Holocene (10,000 BP) to the Final Late Holocene (500 BP). Permanent dentitions from individuals between 5 and 40 years of age were scored for 87 dental traits based on the ASUDAS. A divergence matrix was programmed using the Smith's Mean Measure of Divergence equation (MMD). Bartlett's adjustment and Ascombe transformation were considered into MMD calculations. Principal Coordenate analysis was applied based on MMD matrix scores. A clear group was found that associated Initial Late Holocene samples with Final Late Holocene samples. Early Holocene samples are very different to that, and Middle Holocene samples show as morphologically intermediate series. A comparison of the frequencies by time and period showed that a limited biological continuity existed. Interbreeding among initial populations of the same regions is expressed in similar frequencies of dental traits within Early Holocene and Middle Holocene samples. Early Holocene samples did not match with Sinodont pattern according to discriminant function analysis. These findings help us to better understand the settlement process of human groups in the Northern Andes and its relationship with migratory movements in South America.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum seroprevalences in domestic South American camelids of the Peruvian Andes. (United States)

    Chávez-Velásquez, Amanda; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Casas-Astos, Eva; Serrano-Martínez, Enrique; Casas-Velásquez, Gina; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, Jose A; Alvarez-García, Gema


    The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of Toxoplasma gondii- and Neospora caninum-specific antibodies in domestic South American camelids (SAC) (llamas and alpacas) from the Peruvian Andes through a cross-sectional study. A wide panel of serum samples collected from 1,845 llamas and 2,874 alpacas from the two main SAC production areas of Peru was selected. Immunofluorescence antibody technique was employed to detect and titrate specific anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum immunoglobulins G in serum samples. The association between T. gondii and N. caninum seroprevalence and the geographical origin (Central and South Peruvian Andes) was evaluated. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were found in 460 (24.9 %) llamas and 706 (24.6 %) alpacas, whereas anti-N. caninum antibodies were detected in 153 (8.3 %) llamas and 425 (14.8 %) alpacas. Toxoplasma gondii infection was strongly associated with the South Peruvian Andes where moderate climate conditions, larger human population, compared to the Central region, and the presence of wildlife definitive hosts could favor horizontal transmission to SAC. In contrast, N. caninum infection was not associated with the geographical region. These results indicate that T. gondii and N. caninum infections are highly and moderately widespread, respectively, in both species of domestic SAC studied in the sampled areas and appropriate control measures should be undertaken to reduce the prevalence of both parasitic infections.

  5. The distributional incidence of the gasoline tax in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, Claudio A.; Jiménez, Johanna


    This paper analyzes the distributional incidence of the excise tax on gasoline in Chile using Household Budget Surveys. The incidence is calculated with respect to both income and expenditure distributions in order to consider the potential differences between transitory and permanent income. The Suits Index is estimated as a measure of the degree of progressivity of the tax, and confidence intervals are calculated using a bootstrap methodology to statistically compare changes in the incidence given changes in the tax. The results show that the tax, contrary to the evidence for several developed countries, is slightly or moderately progressive, with a lower degree of progressivity observed in the calculations based on income than those based on expenditure. The simulation of the 25% reduction in the tax rate implemented in 2008 shows that, in terms of incidence, its effect is to reduce the progressivity of the gasoline tax, which is the opposite of what was sought by the government with this policy. -- Highlights: •Gasoline tax is an optimal tax and is a significant instrument of climate policy. •Despite its benefits, it faces political economy challenges in its implementation. •In the public discussion in developing countries the tax is considered regressive. •The estimation of the distributional incidence shows that it is slightly progressive. •Increases in gasoline taxes can reduce both negative externalities and inequality

  6. Illegal fishing and territorial user rights in Chile. (United States)

    Oyanedel, Rodrigo; Keim, Andres; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Gelcich, Stefan


    Illegal fishing poses a major threat to conservation of marine resources worldwide. However, there is still limited empirical research that quantifies illegal catch levels. We used the randomized response technique to estimate the proportion of divers and the quantities of loco (Concholepas concholepas) they extracted illegally. Loco have been managed for the past 17 years through a territorial user rights for fisheries system (TURFs) in Chile. Illegal fishing of loco was widespread within the TURFs system. Official reported landings (i.e., legal landings) accounted for 14-30% of the total loco extraction. Our estimates suggest that ignoring the magnitude of illegal fishing and considering only official landing statistics may lead to false conclusions about the status and trends of a TURFs managed fishery. We found evidence of fisher associations authorizing their members to poach inside TURFs, highlighting the need to design TURFs systems so that government agencies and fishers' incentives and objectives align through continuous adaptation. Government support for enforcement is a key element for the TURFs system to secure the rights that are in place. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.


    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah


    Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. The module was carried out in connection with a first-aid course in an attempt to increase effectiveness of the intervention by working jointly with an established community program. Sixteen (16) Mapuches participated voluntarily and demonstrated some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are affective. Participants correctly identified sexual contact as a means of transmission, but when asked why, one person stated, “I just know it, I read it.” There were significant barriers to communication within the group, secondary to cultural practices related to age and gender. Major obstacles in controlling HIV are the lack of prevention strategies targeted to disadvantaged groups. The module developed for this intervention was the first effort of the Academic Community Partnership established between the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and the Mapuche group around HIV prevention. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for

  8. Area Handbook Series: Chile: A Country Study (United States)


    Roberto. "Competencia poco libre, la concentra- ci6n de los mercados y la presencia de los grupos," Mensaje [Santiago], 28, No. 283, October 1979, 645...Autoritario Chileno: Un Estudio de Dos Casos." (Paper presented at workshop "Six Years of Military Rule in Chile," sponsored by Latin American Program...and Louis C. Faron. Native Peoples of South America. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959. Stragier, Julio Sj. "El Mercado de la Vivienda en la Economia social



    Loyola Heufemann, AMANDA


    Los efectos del embarazo adolescente en Chile han sido poco estudiados aun cuando existe diversa literatura para el resto del mundo, en especial para países desarrollados. Este trabajo estima el efecto del embarazo adolescente sobre la asistencia o completitud de la educación secundaria, años de escolaridad y participación laboral. Usando datos de corte transversal del a˜no 2012 y un enfoque de variable instrumental a trav´es del uso de la entrega comunal de la píldora anticoncept...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nicolás Vizcaya Carrillo


    Full Text Available it is true that all human activities today are capable of analysis and prospective projection, confirmed there are a number of areas of knowledge which are considered key to the development of mankind and therefore of each company in each country is to see the evolution of the relevant future. It is true that today there are hundreds of professional disciplines that are studied and are performed as day to day and that play important roles in the welfare and development of society and in particular if this trial will be analyzed in the development of techniques current looking for Chile.



    Lulo C,Mario


    Para un sector de la crítica y de la academia chilena, la gran novela de la Dictadura es una asignatura pendiente. En este artículo se problematiza este tema mediante la formulación de una hipótesis según la cual una serie de novelas aparecidas en Chile entre 1977 y 2006 cumplen con la función de narrar -desde su fragmentariedad- las causas y consecuencias del 11 de septiembre de 1973. Así, busca plantear las bases epistemológicas e históricas que posibiliten llevar a cabo una investigación d...

  12. Sobre lectura y escritura en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grínor Rojo


    Full Text Available In recent years, research conducted in Chile on reading, reading proficiency and reading news on politics shows that negative values around 50. These data add to the forty million illiterates in Latin America, so this article rejects the death of the book and the frivolous faith in the replacement of the book by the use of information technology and communication (schools full of computers Instead, he insists on paying serious attention to the links between reason, book, and reading in the development of the individual and society

  13. Chile Successfully Halts Rise in Childhood Obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorisek, Aleksandra Sasa


    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America has become a cause for concern. The IAEA has worked closely with the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA) at the University of Chile since 1997 to address the problem of malnutrition in the country. In Santiago, the Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Stable Isotopes was established in 1998 with the help of the IAEA to provide an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and training in the use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition, infant feeding practices and total daily energy expenditure

  14. Pobladores de los andes. Entre la riqueza y la pobreza The inhabitants of the andes. Between wealth and poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracely Burgos


    Full Text Available

    La Región Andina (R.A es uno de los sistemas montañosos más grandes del mundo; atraviesa los países de Chile, Argentina, Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia y Venezuela. Este trabajo describe, hace un acercamiento y propone estrategias en tres aspectos que pueden catalogar la “riqueza” y la “pobreza”de estos países: 1. biodiversidad, 2. producción agropecuaria y 3. cultura alimentaria (expresada como seguridad alimentaria en habitantes sobre los 2000 msnm cuyas características de vida son únicas.La información se obtuvo a partir de revisión debases de datos nacionales e internacionales y enrevistas especializadas en cada área y en cada país.La tendencia fue información generalizada para habitantes de la R.A. en cada país o para Latinoamérica; aunque también se encontraron estudios específicos para habitantes sobre los 2000m. La biodiversidad de esta región, expresadaen número de especies y áreas de bosques, es catalogada como mega y a su vez de prioridad enconservación. La producción agropecuaria, sector de un alto impacto económico, ocupa importantes áreas que son aprovechadas con pocos cultivos; requiere uso eficiente de factores productivos, desarrollo y/o aplicación de innovación tecnológica y ampliación dela capacidad para enfrentar diversos riesgos. Encuanto a cultura alimentaria en la mayoría de los países resulta prioritario incrementar el nivel de salud, especialmente en niños y habitantes rurales. Se podría sintetizar que la R.A. es una de las más ricas y a su vez más pobre, a nivel mundial. Pensarlaen un presente y futuro digno requiere de planteamientos estratégicos contundentes que con lleven a1. superar la inercia mental de la realidad actual de pobreza, 2. investigar, 3. tecnificar, 4. educar y 5.hacer inversión económica. La cooperación internacional entre los países será un elemento decisivo.
    The Andean Region

  15. La atencion preescolar en Chile: desafios para la redemocratizacion (Preschool Care in Chile: Challenges for Redemocratization. Discussion Paper No. 13). (United States)

    Filp, Johanna; Undurrage, Consuelo

    This paper examines the current status of programs for preschool children in Chile. Section 1 of the paper provides an overview of the situation of preschool children in Chile. The country's population includes more than 1.6 million children between the ages of 0 and 5 years 11 months, and in urban areas, 18.4 percent of children between the ages…

  16. Desarrollo de metgis, un sistema combinado de información geográfica, meteorológica y de cobertura de nieve de alta resolución, para la región andina Development of metgis, a combined high-resolution system of geographic, meteorological and snow cover information for the andes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Spreitzhofer


    Full Text Available En el marco de un proyecto de investigación interdisciplinario e internacional con participación de institutos de investigación de montaña y universidades de Estados Unidos, Austria, Suiza y Japón se construye MetGIS (Meteorological and Geographic Information System, un sistema Java de información geográfica y meteorológica para Sudamérica, focalizado en la región andina de Argentina, Chile y Perú. La sección geográfica incluye una topografía basada en datos SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Missión e información sobre las carreteras, las vías férreas, los ríos, las fronteras y las ciudades. Las gráficas de la topografía del terreno (la altitud, la pendiente y la orientación del mismo sirven como fondo para la información meteorológica y nivológica. Con éste sistema será posible visualizar en forma combinada las observaciones de varias redes, los resultados de los pronósticos numéricos de modelos como el MM5 y los errores de dichos modelos. Los campos analizados y pronosticados pueden ser transformados a escalas de mayor resolución, usando métodos apropiados tales como el de "downscaling" (VERA = Viena Enhanced Resolution Analysis. Respecto a los rasgos del sistema, relacionados específicamente con áreas de montaña, los datos SRTM combinados con VERA permiten dar una buena estimación de las áreas con temperaturas bajo cero y acumulación de nieve. Se planea integrar en el futuro el modelo suizo SNOWPACK que realiza simulaciones de la cubierta de nieve.Within the framework of an interdisciplinary international research project with contributions from mountain research institutes and universities of the USA, Austria, Switzerland and Japan, a Java-based combined meteorological and geographic information system (named MetGIS for South America is under development, with a special focus on the Andes region of Argentina, Chile and Peru. The geographic part of the system includes a topography based on data of the

  17. Streamflow estimation in ungauged basins using remote sensed hydrological data (United States)

    Vasquez, Nicolas; Vargas, Ximena


    In several parts of the world the scarcity of streamflow gauging stations produces an important deficit of information, and calibrating these basins remains a challenge for hydrologists. Improvements in remote sensing have provided significant information about hydrological cycle, which can be used to calibrate a hydrological model when streamflow information is not available. Several satellite products related to snow, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, among other variables provide essential information about hydrological processes, and can be used to calibrate physically based hydrological models. Despite this useful information, other aspects are unknown like aquifers dimensions or precipitation heterogeneity. We calibrated three snow driven basins in the Coquimbo Region in Northern Chile, using fSCA from MODIS (MOD10 and MYD10) and NDSI from Landsat. We also considered the MOD16 product to estimate evapotranspiration. Soil Moisture from AMSR-E was considered but it was not useful due to the spatial resolution of the product and the high heterogeneity of the terrain. The Cold Regional Hydrological Modal (CHRM) was selected to represent the hydrological processes due to the importance of snow processes which are, by far, the most important in this area, where precipitation falls as snow principally in winter (June to August) and the melting period begins in spring (September) and ends in the beginning of summer (December and January). The inputs used in the model are precipitation, temperature, short wave radiation, wind speed and relative humidity. The meteorological information was obtained from stations available in the area, and distributed spatially using orographic gradients for wind and precipitation and lapse rates for air temperature and dew point temperature. Short wave radiation was computed and corrected by cloud cover data from MODIS. Streamflow data was available but it was not used in the calibration process. The three basins are Cochiguaz river

  18. Cost-effectiveness of improved primary care treatment of depression in women in Chile. (United States)

    Siskind, Dan; Araya, Ricardo; Kim, Jane


    Low- and middle-income countries lack information on contextualised mental health interventions to aid resource allocation decisions regarding healthcare. To undertake a cost-effectiveness analysis of treatments for depression contextualised to Chile. Using data from studies in Chile, we developed a computer-based Markov cohort model of depression among Chilean women to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of usual care or improved stepped care. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of usual care was I$113 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, versus no treatment, whereas stepped care had an ICER of I$468 per QALY versus usual care. This compared favourably with Chile's per-capita GDP. Results were most sensitive to variation in recurrent episode coverage, marginally sensitive to cost of treatment, and insensitive to changes in health-state utility of depression and rate of recurrence. Our results suggest that treatments for depression in low- and middle-income countries may be more cost-effective than previously estimated.

  19. Facing unprecedented drying of the Central Andes? Precipitation variability over the period AD 1000–2100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neukom, Raphael; Salzmann, Nadine; Huggel, Christian; Rohrer, Mario; Calanca, Pierluigi; Acuña, Delia; Christie, Duncan A; Morales, Mariano S


    Projected future trends in water availability are associated with large uncertainties in many regions of the globe. In mountain areas with complex topography, climate models have often limited capabilities to adequately simulate the precipitation variability on small spatial scales. Also, their validation is hampered by typically very low station density. In the Central Andes of South America, a semi-arid high-mountain region with strong seasonality, zonal wind in the upper troposphere is a good proxy for interannual precipitation variability. Here, we combine instrumental measurements, reanalysis and paleoclimate data, and a 57-member ensemble of CMIP5 model simulations to assess changes in Central Andes precipitation over the period AD 1000–2100. This new database allows us to put future projections of precipitation into a previously missing multi-centennial and pre-industrial context. Our results confirm the relationship between regional summer precipitation and 200 hPa zonal wind in the Central Andes, with stronger Westerly winds leading to decreased precipitation. The period of instrumental coverage (1965–2010) is slightly dryer compared to pre-industrial times as represented by control simulations, simulations from the past Millennium, ice core data from Quelccaya ice cap and a tree-ring based precipitation reconstruction. The model ensemble identifies a clear reduction in precipitation already in the early 21st century: the 10 year running mean model uncertainty range (ensemble 16–84% spread) is continuously above the pre-industrial mean after AD 2023 (AD 2028) until the end of the 21st century in the RCP2.6 (RCP8.5) emission scenario. Average precipitation over AD 2071–2100 is outside the range of natural pre-industrial variability in 47 of the 57 model simulations for both emission scenarios. The ensemble median fraction of dry years (defined by the 5th percentile in pre-industrial conditions) is projected to increase by a factor of 4 until 2071

  20. Geothermal Potential Evaluation for Northern Chile and Suggestions for New Energy Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia Procesi


    Full Text Available Chile is a country rich in natural resources, and it is the world’s largest producer and exporter of copper. Mining is the main industry and is an essential part of the Chilean economy, but the country has limited indigenous fossil fuels—over 90% of the country’s fossil fuels must be imported. The electricity market in Chile comprises two main independent systems: the Northern Interconnected Power Grid (SING and the Central Interconnected Power Grid (SIC. Currently, the primary Chilean energy source is imported fossil fuels, whereas hydropower represents the main indigenous source. Other renewables such as wind, solar, biomass and geothermics are as yet poorly developed. Specifically, geothermal energy has not been exploited in Chile, but among all renewables it has the greatest potential. The transition from thermal power plants to renewable energy power plants is an important target for the Chilean Government in order to reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels. In this framework, the proposed study presents an evaluation of the geothermal potential for northern Chile in terms of power generation. The El Tatio, Surire, Puchuldiza, Orriputunco-Olca and Apacheta geothermal fields are considered for the analysis. The estimated electrical power is approximately 1300 MWe, and the energy supply is 10,200 GWh/year. This means that more than 30% of the SING energy could be provided from geothermal energy, reducing the dependence on imported fossil fuels, saving 8 Mton/year of CO2 and supplying the mining industry, which is Chile’s primary energy user.

  1. Rapid characterization of seismic sources in Chile: Contribution of the GNSS component (United States)

    Barrientos, S. E.; Riquelme, S.; Baez, J. C., Sr.


    The recently created National Seismological Center (CSN) of the University of Chile was tasked to upgrade the countrýs seismic network in 2013. The upgrade included new 65 collocated accelerometer and broadband instruments together with 130 GNSS devices designed to transmit their data in real time. Forty units of the GNSS devices include the RTX option, a real time 1-Hz positioning capability at 4-cm error level. The observation system is complemented with 297 additional stand-alone strong motion instruments mainly located in basins for seismic engineering purposes. Broadband data can be accessed in real time from IRIS Data Management Service under networks C and C1. Strong motion event data can be retrieved through the CSN database ( A server is being established to handle GNSS data requests through an NTRIP Caster. Completion of the connectivity of the GNSS remote units to the main acquisition servers is expected to take place within several months. In addition to the 40 units providing real time positioning through the RTX option, Precise Point Positioning (PPP) algorithms are being tested on the CSN main servers to enable real time estimates every second for all GNSS remote devices. Because of the high earthquake productivity rate in Chile, the RTX system capabilities have been positively tested in two cases already, demonstrating their excellent performance: i) the main aftershock (M7.6) of the April 1, 2014, northern Chile event and ii) the April 24, 2017, (M6.9) event in central Chile. The former produced coastal horizontal static displacements of the order of 30 cm while the latter of the order of 5 cm. In addition to rapid earthquake characterization through static deformation, W-phase displacement waveform inversions are included in the fast analysis providing excellent results. These new applications and methodologies have profoundly impacted the rapid evaluation of the tsunamigenic potential of large earthquakes in the near field.

  2. A snapshot of cancer in Chile: analytical frameworks for developing a cancer policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Jimenez de la Jara


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The South American country Chile now boasts a life expectancy of over 80 years. As a consequence, Chile now faces the increasing social and economic burden of cancer and must implement political policy to deliver equitable cancer care. Hindering the development of a national cancer policy is the lack of comprehensive analysis of cancer infrastructure and economic impact. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate existing cancer policy, the extent of national investigation and the socio-economic impact of cancer to deliver guidelines for the framing of an equitable national cancer policy. METHODS: Burden, research and care-policy systems were assessed by triangulating objective system metrics -epidemiological, economic, etc. - with political and policy analysis. Analysis of the literature and governmental databases was performed. The oncology community was interviewed and surveyed. RESULTS: Chile utilizes 1% of its gross domestic product on cancer care and treatment. We estimate that the economic impact as measured in Disability Adjusted Life Years to be US$ 3.5 billion. Persistent inequalities still occur in cancer distribution and treatment. A high quality cancer research community is expanding, however, insufficient funding is directed towards disproportionally prevalent stomach, lung and gallbladder cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Chile has a rapidly ageing population wherein 40% smoke, 67% are overweight and 18% abuse alcohol, and thus the corresponding burden of cancer will have a negative impact on an affordable health care system. We conclude that the Chilean government must develop a national cancer strategy, which the authors outline herein and believe is essential to permit equitable cancer care for the country.

  3. HIV Issues and Mapuches in Chile. (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah


    Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. A total of 16 Mapuches participated voluntarily and showed some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are effective. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for further understanding their perceptions and health care needs.

  4. Forest mapping with satellite in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, A. [SSC Satellitbild (Sweden)


    Chile has about 9.1 million ha of forest land, among which 7.6 million ha are native forest and 1.5 million ha are plantations of exotic species. The number of plantations is constantly growing due to the important role these areas play in the national economy. Pino Radiata (Pinus radiata) is found in most of the plantations while the remaining parts are dominated by Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) The governmental Instituto Forestal (INFOR) in Santiago de Chile, is monitoring the rapid changes in these areas through frequent inventories. As an inventory of this type takes about six years to complete in all areas (one region per year), it is of great importance to find quicker ways to cover these areas. The native forest has in recent years been the subject of debate, not only for economic reasons, but also as a result of ecological pressure for conservation. Where to conserve, where to put restrictions and where to allow forestry are the big issues. Against this background it is necessary to evaluate different data sources that can give information about the present forest situation and provide the means to monitor the changes. The aim of the project was to evaluate whether satellite imagery could fulfill INFOR`s demand for forestry information, and to investigate the kind of data source and methodology to apply when using satellite data

  5. Silencio y memoria: Nocturno de Chile

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    Pedro Iniesta Ruiz


    Full Text Available El presente estudio, sostenido por el Trabajo de Fin de Grado Representación y ficción: Nocturno de Chile y Sostiene Pereira (2015, se introduce en la construcción literaria articulada en la obra Nocturno de Chile, de Roberto Bolaño, examinando y evaluando sus fronteras, fronteras que resultan tan movedizas como las de cualquier construcción inserta en el marco de la ficción. Las implicaciones históricas y políticas del relato hacen que su impronta testimonial cobre una fuerza inusitada, y nociones como la memoria, la violencia o el silencio ayudan a vertebrar una obra de arte verbal que logra, en el decurso de su propia narración, asediar al lector con las angustiosas imágenes de un pasado hecho presente en el camino de un tiempo político que se subyuga a la propia creación artística.

  6. Carbon monoxide concentration forecasting in Santiago, Chile. (United States)

    Perez, Patricio; Palacios, Rodrigo; Castillo, Alejandro


    In the city of Santiago, Chile, air quality is defined in terms of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm (PM10) concentrations. An air quality forecasting model based on past concentrations of PM10 and meteorological conditions currently is used by the metropolitan agency for the environment, which allows restrictions to emissions to be imposed in advance. This model, however, fails to forecast between 40 and 50% of the days considered to be harmful for the inhabitants every year. Given that a high correlation between particulate matter and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations is observed at monitoring stations in the city, a model for CO concentration forecasting would be a useful tool to complement information about expected air quality in the city. Here, the results of a neural network-based model aimed to forecast maximum values of the 8-hr moving average of CO concentrations for the next day are presented. Forecasts from the neural network model are compared with those produced with linear regressions. The neural network model seems to leave more room to adjust free parameters with 1-yr data to predict the following year's values. We have worked with 3 yr of data measured at the monitoring station located in the zone with the worst air quality in the city of Santiago, Chile.

  7. [Burden of psychiatric diseases in Chile]. (United States)

    Vicente P, Benjamín; Kohn, Robert; Saldivia B, Sandra; Rioseco S, Pedro


    Chile has one of the highest disease burdens caused by neuropsychiatric illnesses in the world, according to WHO, reaching to 31%. Major depression and alcohol use disorders are ranked first and second in attributed disability among adults. Nearly one-third of the population has had a psychiatric disorder in their lifetime, and 22.2% in the past year. Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent conditions, followed by major depression and alcohol abuse. Currently, mental health accounts for 2.3%) of the health care budget, which is less than some neighboring countries. The availability of 1.3 psychiatric beds per 10,000 inhabitants, is less than the mean of lower-income countries. Moreover, 81% are for chronic rather than acute care. Chile has 4.0 psychiatrist per 100,000 inhabitants, which is lower than other countries in Latin America. Only 38.5% of those patients with a psychiatric diagnosis receive any kind of mental health care, whether from a specialist or primary care. There is a perception among lay persons, that psychiatric treatments lack efficacy, despite evidence demonstrating the contrary. Not addressing the treatment gap in mental health has serious public health implications.

  8. The role of upland wetlands in modulating snowmelt runoff in the semi-arid Andes (United States)

    Hevia, Andres; Sproles, Eric; Soulsby, Chris; Tetzlaff, Doerthe


    The wetlands, or bofedales, of semi-arid northern central Chile (29°-32°S) provide a critical store of water that modulate spring snowmelt runoff. Water released from bofedales helps sustain flows throughout the dry portions of the year, providing fresh water to downstream residents and a robust tourist, agricultural, and mining economy. In the Río Claro watershed (30°S, 1515 km2, 800m to 5500 m a.s.l.) a series fourteen bofedales have formed at natural choke points in the valley bottoms of the headwater reaches. The highly erosive dynamic of this watershed provides ample sediment, and some of these bofedales are up to 30 m deep. Annual precipitation in the region is limited to 4-6 events annually that fall primarily as snow at elevations above 3500 m. The subsurface storage of the headwaters is limited by the steep terrain of the headwater catchments that are devoid of soils and primarily underlain by granite bedrock. Downstream, irrigated area has increased by 200% between 1985 and 2005, driven by the cultivation of table grapes for export. For over 70 years local water managers have flooded the bodfedales during spring runoff to augment late season flow when irrigation demand peaks. While this low-tech strategy has worked in the past, a recent 8-year drought has raised concerns over long-term water security. We apply geophysical and geographic measurements, water quality, and stable isotopic tracers to calculate the volume of water storage and residence times in the bofedales of Río Claro. This information will be used to evaluate the reliability of the bofedale system as compared to a proposed reservoir in the headwaters of the Río Claro. Additionally, estimating the storage and residence times of the will help reduce uncertainty for modeling efforts currently underway in Río Claro.

  9. [Gene geography of Chile: regional distribution of American, European and African genetic contributions]. (United States)

    Fuentes, Macarena; Pulgar, Iván; Gallo, Carla; Bortolini, María-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Bedoya, Gabriel; González-José, Rolando; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Rothhammer, Francisco


    The geographical distribution of genes plays a key role in genetic epidemiology. The Chilean population has three major stem groups (Native American, European and African). To estimate the regional rate of American, European and African admixture of the Chilean population. Forty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP´s) which exhibit substantially different frequencies between Amerindian populations (ancestry-informative markers or AIM´s), were genotyped in a sample of 923 Chilean participants to estimate individual genetic ancestry. The American, European and African individual average admixture estimates for the 15 Chilean Regions were relatively homogeneous and not statistically different. However, higher American components were found in northern and southern Chile and higher European components were found in central Chile. A negative correlation between African admixture and latitude was observed. On the average, American and European genetic contributions were similar and significantly higher than the African contribution. Weighted mean American, European and African genetic contributions of 44.34% ± 3 9%, 51.85% ± 5.44% and 3.81% ± 0.45%, were estimated. Fifty two percent of subjects harbor African genes. Individuals with Aymara and Mapuche surnames have an American admixture of 58.64% and 68.33%, respectively. Half of the Chilean population harbors African genes. Participants with Aymara and Mapuche surnames had a higher American genetic contribution than the general Chilean population. These results confirm the usefulness of surnames as a first approximation to determine genetic ancestry.

  10. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration (United States)


    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  11. Analýza obchodných vzťahov medzi EU a Chile


    Chabová, Zuzana


    The aim of my bachelor thesis is to particularly charakterize Chile's economy and to analyze its position in international trade. The main part of my whole work is the analysis of business relationship between European Union and Chile, which I also describe in point of law. The work has five main chapters. The first chapter describes the economical situation of Chile. The second chapter is concerned with Chile's whole foreign trade. The third chapter analyze Chile's foreign trade legally thro...

  12. Amazon River dissolved load: temporal dynamics and annual budget from the Andes to the ocean. (United States)

    Moquet, Jean-Sébastien; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Crave, Alain; Viers, Jérôme; Filizola, Naziano; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Oliveira, Tereza Cristina; Sánchez, Liz Stefanny Hidalgo; Lagane, Christelle; Casimiro, Waldo Sven Lavado; Noriega, Luis; Pombosa, Rodrigo


    The aim of the present study is to estimate the export fluxes of major dissolved species at the scale of the Amazon basin, to identify the main parameters controlling their spatial distribution and to identify the role of discharge variability in the variability of the total dissolved solid (TDS) flux through the hydrological cycle. Data are compiled from the monthly hydrochemistry and daily discharge database of the "Programa Climatologico y Hidrologico de la Cuenca Amazonica de Bolivia" (PHICAB) and the HYBAM observatories from 34 stations distributed over the Amazon basin (for the 1983-1992 and 2000-2012 periods, respectively). This paper consists of a first global observation of the fluxes and temporal dynamics of each geomorphological domain of the Amazon basin. Based on mean interannual monthly flux calculations, we estimated that the Amazon basin delivered approximately 272 × 10(6) t year(-1) (263-278) of TDS during the 2003-2012 period, which represents approximately 7 % of the continental inputs to the oceans. This flux is mainly made up by HCO3, Ca and SiO2, reflecting the preferential contributions of carbonate and silicate chemical weathering to the Amazon River Basin. The main tributaries contributing to the TDS flux are the Marañon and Ucayali Rivers (approximately 50 % of the TDS production over 14 % of the Amazon basin area) due to the weathering of carbonates and evaporites drained by their Andean tributaries. An Andes-sedimentary area-shield TDS flux (and specific flux) gradient is observed throughout the basin and is first explained by the TDS concentration contrast between these domains, rather than variability in runoff. This observation highlights that, under tropical context, the weathering flux repartition is primarily controlled by the geomorphological/geological setting and confirms that sedimentary areas are currently active in terms of the production of dissolved load. The log relationships of concentration vs discharge have

  13. Rapid Diversification and Time Explain Amphibian Richness at Different Scales in the Tropical Andes, Earth's Most Biodiverse Hotspot. (United States)

    Hutter, Carl R; Lambert, Shea M; Wiens, John J


    The Tropical Andes make up Earth's most species-rich biodiversity hotspot for both animals and plants. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary processes underlying this extraordinary richness remain uncertain. Here, we examine the processes that generate high richness in the Tropical Andes relative to other regions in South America and across different elevations within the Andes, using frogs as a model system. We combine distributional data, a newly generated time-calibrated phylogeny for 2,318 frog species, and phylogenetic comparative methods to test the relative importance of diversification rates and colonization times for explaining Andean diversity at different scales. At larger scales (among regions and families), we find that faster diversification rates in Andean clades most likely explain high Andean richness. In contrast, at smaller temporal and spatial scales (within family-level clades within the Andes), diversification rates rarely explain richness patterns. Instead, we show that colonization times are important for shaping elevational richness patterns within the Andes, with more species found in habitats colonized earlier. We suggest that these scale-dependent patterns might apply to many other richness gradients. Recognition of this scale dependence may help to reconcile conflicting results among studies of richness patterns across habitats, regions, and organisms.

  14. El Parque Portal Bicentenario en Santiago de Chile / Portal Bicentennial Park in Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beach Lobos, Myriam;


    Full Text Available Se presenta los principios que orientaron el diseño del Parque Portal Bicentenario, un parque de 50 hás. que será el eje principal de la nueva urbanización “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario”, actualmente en construcción en los terrenos del ex aeropuerto de Los Cerrillos en Santiago de Chile.The following text was submitted to the Architecture Competition together with the project drawings. It presents the principles that leaded the design. The 123 acres park will be the main axis of a new urban development in Santiago “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario” at present under construction on the area occupied by the former Cerrillos Airport, Santiago de Chile.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of policies aimed at increasing organ donation: the case of Chile. (United States)

    Domínguez, J; Harrison, R; Atal, R; Larraín, L


    In this article we present an economic evaluation of policies aimed at increasing deceased organ donation in Chile, a developing country that has low donation rates; it had 5.4 donors per million people (pmp) in 2010. Expert opinions of leading participants in donation and transplantation were analyzed, resulting in a set of local policies aimed at increasing donation rates. Using previous results of reported cost savings of increasing kidney transplantation in Chile, we estimated the net benefits of these policies, as a function of additional donors. The main problem of the Chilean system seems to be the low capability to identify potential donors and a deficit in intensive care unit (ICU) beds. Among considered policies central to increase donation are the following: increasing human and capital resources dedicated to identifying potential donors, providing ICU beds from private centers, and developing an online information system that facilitates procurement coordination and the evaluation of performance at each hospital. Our results show that there is a linear relationship between cost savings and incremental donors pmp. For example, if these policies are capable of elevating donation rates in Chile by 6 donors pmp net estimated cost savings are approximately US $1.9 million. Likewise, considering the effect on patients' quality of life, savings would amount to around $15.0 million dollars per year. Our estimates suggest that these policies have a large cost-saving potential. In fact, considering implementation costs, cost reduction is positive after 4 additional donors pmp, and increasing afterward. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bionenergy potential of radiata pine platantions in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acuna, E.; Espinosa, M.; Cancino, J.; Rubilar, R.; Munoz, F. [Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile)


    The bioenergy potential for electricity and ethanol production of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations in Chile was modeled in a regional basis using inventory data by age class. Specific gravity equations by age and growing region, wood moisture content variability, and efficiency of a hypothetical power plant were used to estimate the amount of electricity produced by biomass at harvesting age including logging residues. Ethanol production was obtained using laboratory derived conversion equations from material collected from plantations at different ages. Uncertainty analyses of bioenergy production were obtained using probabilistic distribution functions and assumptions of 2.0 million radiata pine plantations by year 2030. Parameters used to run uncertainty analyses included rotation length, growth rates, annual planting, logging residues production by harvesting age, and power plant efficiency. Simulations were obtained for 25 years, from 2006 until 2030. Our results suggest that in year 2030, power generation may reach 1160 PJ using current harvesting practices, however use of logging residues may provide additional 290.34 PJ. Estimates of production for year 2010 would be able to supply full non-industrial power demand. Estimates of ethanol production were 6,22 x 107 L in 2006 and 39,82 x 107 L by year 2030 for stem harvesting, and 1,5 x 107 L in year 2006 and 9,95 x 107 L by year 2030 for logging residues. Ethanol generated by forest residues would be enough to meet fuel transportation government's requirement of 2% ethanol use by year 2010 in the Chilean Metropolitan Region.

  17. Fluvial geochemistry of the eastern slope of the northeastern Andes and its foredeep in the drainage of the Orinoco in Colombia and Venezuela (United States)

    Edmond, J. M.; Palmer, M. R.; Measures, C. I.; Brown, E. T.; Huh, Y.


    The fluvial geochemistry of the tributaries of the Orinoco draining the eastern branch of the northern Andes in Colombia and Venezuela is determined by lithology and ranges from rivers dominated by aluminosilicate weathering, mainly of shales and mafic rocks, to those bearing the signatures of dissolution of marine limestones and evaporites and of continental playa deposits. These left bank tributaries of the Orinoco provide the overwhelming proportion of the suspended and dissolved loads transported by the main stem although feeding only half the discharge. However, due to the extreme severity of weathering on the Guayana Shield, the right bank tributaries supply about half the silica and 40% of the K carried by the Orinoco. There is a similar partitioning between the Andes and the lowlands in the Amazon drainage. In contrast the Mackenzie, which drains the northern extremity of the continental arc of the Western Americas, is completely dominated by the weathering of limestones and evaporites and transports very little silica. This, again, appears to be a reflection of lithology since the Yukon, in similar latitudes and terrain, has silica concentrations comparable to the Tropical systems. In addition, a conservative deconvolution of the data gives estimates of the net consumption of atmospheric CO 2 by aluminosilicate weathering that follows the same pattern. Thus, the available evidence from the Western Americas indicates that exposure and lithology, rather than the climatic variables, temperature, and runoff, dominate the weathering yields in active orogenic belts. These observations contradict the conventional view of weathering processes and their controls and are at complete variance with the assumptions parameterised in most models of the geochemical cycle.

  18. Secular variation of the Earth magnetic field recorded in Holocene lava flows from Chile (United States)

    Roperch, Pierrick; Chauvin, Annick; Lara, Luis; Moreno, Hugo


    The recent secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field is mainly characterized by the large growth of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly during the last three centuries, first documented in the geomagnetic field model GUFM (Jackson et al., 2000). This present-day magnetic anomaly is characterized in Chile by low magnetic inclinations and low intensities of the geomagnetic field (-40° and 25.7µT at 40°S). In order to better describe the secular variation during the Holocene, we sampled 21 dated lava flows or pyroclastic flows from several Chilean volcanoes (Lonquimay, Llaima, Solipulli, Villarrica, Mocho-Choshuenco, Osorno, Calbuco). Juvenile clasts from basaltic-andesitic pyroclastic flow deposits provide reliable paleomagnetic results (Roperch et al, 2014). We also sampled 56 sites in Holocene lava flows with only relative ages with respect of the dated units. Paleomagnetic results were obtained from several sites in two well-dated historic lava flows; 9 sites and 11 paleointensity results (PI) from the 1835AD eruption of the Osorno volcano and 8 sites and 23 PIs from the 1751AD eruption of the Llaima volcano. In addition, 14 PIs were obtained in bricks from shelters built along the main path across the Andes from Santiago (Chile) to Mendoza (Argentina) in 1768AD. These results confirm the high reliability of the global geomagnetic model GUFM for the last three centuries. At Villarrica, results from 10 sites in lava flows (calibrated age 1440AD±30) provide paleomagnetic directions that are different from the CALS3k.4 model (Korte et al., 2011) indicating that more paleomagnetic results in well dated lava flows are necessary to improve the robustness of global geomagnetic models prior to 1700AD. The steepest inclination of the geomagnetic field (-71.6°) and the highest intensity (70µT±5) are found in the time range 850-900AD. This observation is made from paleomagnetic results from a pyroclastic flow from the Osorno volcano (calibrated age range of 782

  19. Homicide in Chile: Trends 2000-2012. (United States)

    Otzen, Tamara; Sanhueza, Antonio; Manterola, Carlos; Hetz, Monica; Melnik, Tamara


    Homicide, an external cause of morbidity and mortality, caused 473,000 deaths worldwide in 2012, a rate of 6.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. The aim of this study was to describe homicide mortality trends in Chile between 2000 and 2012 by year, gender, age group, geographic distribution (by zone and by region) and type of homicide. This was a population-based study. Data for homicide mortality in Chile between 2000 and 2012 were used and they were provided by the Chilean Ministry of Health's Department of Statistics and Health Information (DEIS) and PAHO/WHO. The homicide mortality rates were calculated per 100,000 inhabitants. The study variables were year, geographic distribution, gender, age group and type of homicide. The annual percentage change (APC) of the rates was analyzed, and a logarithm of the rates by year and region was fitted by applying linear regression models. In addition, relative risks (RR) were calculated. 95% confidence intervals were considered in all the analyses. The average yearly rate of homicide (HMR) in Chile (2000-2012) was 4.9. The rates were higher in men (8.7) than in women (1.1), with a RR of 8.2. The rates were higher in the country's central zone (5.0), increasing in recent years in the southern zone, with a significant positive APC of 1.1%. The Aisén Region had the highest rate (7.6), although Antofagasta was the region with the most significant APC (3.1%). The highest rate (9.2) was verified in the 25 to 39 age group. The highest rate (5.5) was recorded in 2005. The most frequent type of homicide was assault with an object (44.8%). Although the homicide rates are higher in the southern zone of the country, the northern zone is showing a tendency to increase, becoming an even more serious problem, which not only affects those directly involved, but society as a whole.

  20. Patterns of glacier ablation across North-Central Chile: Identifying the limits of empirical melt models under sublimation-favorable conditions (United States)

    Ayala, A.; Pellicciotti, F.; MacDonell, S.; McPhee, J.; Burlando, P.


    We investigate the energy balance and ablation regimes of glaciers in high-elevation, dry environments using glaciometeorological data collected on six glaciers in the semiarid Andes of North-Central Chile (29-34°S, 3127-5324 m). We use a point-scale physically based energy balance (EB) model and an enhanced Temperature-Index (ETI) model that calculates melt rates only as a function of air temperature and net shortwave radiation. At all sites, the largest energy inputs are net shortwave and incoming longwave radiation, which are controlled by surface albedo and elevation, respectively. Turbulent fluxes cancel each other out at the lower sites, but as elevation increases, cold, dry and wind-exposed conditions increase the magnitude of negative latent heat fluxes, associated with large surface sublimation rates. In midsummer (January), ablation rates vary from 67.9 mm w.e. d-1 at the lowest site (˜100% corresponding to melt), to 2.3 mm w.e. d-1 at the highest site (>85% corresponding to surface sublimation). At low-elevation, low-albedo, melt-dominated sites, the ETI model correctly reproduces melt using a large range of possible parameters, but both the performance and parameter transferability decrease with elevation for two main reasons: (i) the air temperature threshold approach for melt onset does not capture the diurnal variability of melt in cold and strong irradiated environments and (ii) energy losses decrease the correlation between melt and net shortwave radiation. We summarize our results by means of an elevation profile of ablation components that can be used as reference in future studies of glacier ablation in the semiarid Andes.

  1. Migration and regional labor market adjustment: Chile 1977-1982 and 1987-1992


    Geoffrey J. D. Hewings; Patricio Aroca


    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the migration processes that have been occurring in Chile between 1977-1982 and 1987-1992, as a market mechanism to re-allocate labor among regions. Using traditional consumer theory, a model is developed for a migrant who is evaluating migration. Secondly, this model is estimated, with cross section aggregate data, for both periods using a logit formulation. The results indicate that there is a strong force in the Chilean regional labor market,...

  2. Aymaras, peruanos y chilenos en los Andes ariqueños: Resistencia y conflicto frente a la chilenización del norte de Chile

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    Alberto Díaz Araya


    Full Text Available Este artículo reflexiona desde un punto de vista de la antropología histórica las reacciones y articulaciones que generaron las comunidades Aymaras del área de Arica entre los años 1901 y 1926, periodo reconocido como “chilenización”, ante la presencia del Estado chileno, asumiendo posturas identitarias sociopolíticas en un ambiente de conflicto nacional.

  3. Coupled Socio-Environmental Changes Triggered Indigenous Aymara Depopulation of the Semiarid Andes of Tarapacá-Chile during the Late 19th-20th Centuries. (United States)

    Lima, Mauricio; Christie, Duncan A; Santoro, M Calogero; Latorre, Claudio


    Socio-economic and environmental changes are well known causes of demographic collapse of agrarian cultures. The collapse of human societies is a complex phenomenon where historical and cultural dimensions play a key role, and they may interact with the environmental context. However, the importance of the interaction between socio-economic and climatic factors in explaining possible breakdowns in Native American societies has been poorly explored. The aim of this study is to test the role of socio-economic causes and rainfall variability in the collapse suffered by the Aymara people of the semiarid Andean region of Tarapacá during the period 1820-1970. Our motivation is to demonstrate that simple population dynamic models can be helpful in understanding the causes and relative importance of population changes in Andean agro-pastoral societies in responses to socio-environmental variability. Simple logistic models that combine the effects of external socio-economic causes and past rainfall variability (inferred from Gross Domestic Product [GDP] and tree-rings, respectively) were quite accurate in predicting the sustained population decline of the Aymara people. Our results suggest that the depopulation in the semiarid Tarapacá province was caused by the interaction among external socio-economic pressures given by the economic growth of the lowlands and demands for labor coupled with a persistent decline in rainfall. This study constitutes an example of how applied ecological knowledge, in particular the application of the logistic equation and theories pertaining to nonlinear population dynamics and exogenous perturbations, can be used to better understand major demographic changes in human societies.

  4. K-Ar dating celadonite: A contribution to timing of a very low-grade metamorphism in the Central Andes of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmar, M; Schmidt, S.; Frey, M


    Clay minerals have been used in several studies to date very low-grade metamorphism processes and hydrothermal episodes. The technique of using the K-Ar isotopic dating was demonstrated by many authors (e.g. Hunziker et al., 1986; Clauer et al., 1995; Kirschner et al 1995; Zhao et al., 1997; Glasmacher et al., 2001). White mica and illitic materials of different size are usually analysed, whereasceladonite mineral with high potassium content has been low developed and few data are published. Successful dating of continental Andean celadonite could mean that is possible to date the very low-grade metamorphism (zeolites facies) in which celadonites are very often observed (au)

  5. [Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the Seventh Region of Chile]. (United States)

    Baechler, Roberto; Mujica, Verónica; Aqueveque, Ximena; Ramos, Lola; Soto, Alex


    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Latin America is not well known. To study the real prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its associated risk factors in the VII region of Chile. A probabilistic sample of 1,325 subjects over the age of 20, stratified by age and differentiated by place of residence was studied. The criteria of the World Panel of Experts convened by the World Health Organization in 1997, was used to define the presence of diabetes (two fasting blood glucose values over 126 mg/dl or a blood glucose over 200 mg/dl, 2 hours after a 75 g carbohydrate oral load). The global prevalence estimated for DM in this population was 5.39%. The calculated prevalence in subjects between 20 and 44 years was 1.88% (CI 0.39-3.37); between 45 and 64 years, 10.75% (CI 8.35-13.14); 65 years or older 11.30% (CI 8.00-14.60), p diabetics were not aware of their condition. Forty eight percent of diabetics and 31% of non diabetics were hypertensive (p diabetics and 24.6% of non diabetics had at least one diabetic parent (p diabetics than in non diabetics (15.7 and 24.3% respectively, p diabetics and non diabetics were sedentary. Health care systems require an epidemiological monitoring system to provide information about the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and to control the evolution of patients.

  6. Imaging the lithospheric structure of the Central Andes from the joint inversion of multiple seismic data sets (United States)

    Ward, Kevin Michael

    A lingering question in Cordilleran tectonics is how high plateaus form in the absence of continental collision. The type example of an active Cordilleran high plateau is found in the Central Andes of Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile. Along this section of the South American Cordillera, tectonics are primarily driven by subduction of the oceanic Nazca Plate beneath the continental South American Plate. Extending over 1,800 km along the active continental margin, the Central Andean Plateau (CAP) reaches a maximum width of around 400 km with several peaks in excess of 6 km. Numerous morphotectonic subdivisions of the CAP highlight the complex along-strike variability of the Plateau providing a natural laboratory for investigating the relative contribution of tectonic processes involved in building and maintaining Cordilleran high plateaus. The scale of this problem extends far beyond the scope of any one geoscientific discipline requiring a multidisciplinary approach. Our contribution to this scientific problem and the focus of the work presented in this dissertation is to better understand the current lithospheric and uppermost mantle structure along the CAP. This is achieved by integrating recent advances in seismic imaging techniques with a growing availability of high-quality seismic data into three distinct studies across the South American continent. In the first study, we present a shear-wave velocity model for the crust below the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex (APVC). The target of this study is to constrain the crustal volume of a large magma reservoir inferred to exist below the APVC. When combined with geological and petrological constraints, the large-volume magma reservoir imaged in this study suggests a significant magmatic contribution to the growth of the Plateau in excess of one kilometer over the last ten million years. In addition to the tectonic contributions of this work, we introduce a new method of jointly inverting surface-wave dispersion

  7. Sistemática filogenética de las lagartijas del género Stenocercus (Squamata: Iguania de los Andes del norte Phylogenetic systematics of lizards of the genus Stenocercus (Squamata: Iguania from the northern Andes

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    Omar Torres-Carvajal


    Full Text Available El género Stenocercus está compuesto por 61 especies que se distribuyen principalmente en los Andes y tierras bajas aledañas (0-4 000 m, desde el norte de Colombia y Venezuela hasta el centro de Argentina. En este trabajo se realizaron análisis de parsimonia e inferencia bayesiana para estudiar las relaciones filogenéticas entre las 20 especies de Stenocercus que habitan en los Andes del norte (Ecuador, Colombia y Venezuela, utilizando datos morfológicos y moleculares por separado y en combinación. Los análisis dieron como resultado topologías similares indicando que las especies de Stenocercus de los Andes del norte están divididas en 2 clados. Uno contiene 6 especies distribuidas entre el sur de Ecuador y sur de Colombia, mientras que el otro tiene 13 especies distribuidas desde el sur de Ecuador hasta el norte de Colombia y Venezuela. Los resultados también sugieren que la reciente formación de los Andes del norte ha tenido gran influencia sobre la evolución de Stenocercus.The genus Stenocercus is composed of 61 species that occur mainly in the Andes and adjacent lowland areas (0-4 000 m from northern Colombia and Venezuela to central Argentina. In this study, I performed parsimony and Bayesian analyses to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the 20 species of Stenocercus that occur in the northern Andes (Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela; I analyzed morphological, molecular, and combined datasets. These analyses resulted in similar topologies, which indicate that species of Stenocercus from the northern Andes are nested within 2 major clades. One of these clades contains 6 species occurring between southern Ecuador and southern Colombia, whereas the other clade includes 13 species that occur from southern Ecuador to northern Colombia and Venezuela. The results also suggest that the recent uplift of the northern Andes has had a major impact on the evolution of Stenocercus.

  8. A new species of Alopoglossus lizard (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae from the tropical Andes, with a molecular phylogeny of the genus

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    Omar Torres-Carvajal


    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Alopoglossus from the Pacific slopes of the Andes in northern Ecuador based on morphological and molecular evidence. The new species differs most significantly from all other congeners ina double longitudinal row of widened gular scales, lanceolate dorsal scales in transverse rows, 29–32 dorsal scales in a transverse row at midbody, and 4 longitudinal rows of ventrals at midbody. It is most similar in morphology to A. festae, the only species of Alopoglossus currently recognized in western Ecuador. We analyze the phylogenetic relationships among species of Alopoglossus based on the mitochondrial gene ND4. Cis-Andean [east of the Andes] and Trans-Andean [west of the Andes] species are nested in two separate clades, suggesting that the uplift of these mountains had an important effect in the diversification of Alopoglossus. In addition, we present an updated key to the species of Alopoglossus.

  9. Evaluating satellite-derived long-term historical precipitation datasets for drought monitoring in Chile (United States)

    Zambrano, Francisco; Wardlow, Brian; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Lillo-Saavedra, Mario; Lagos, Octavio


    Precipitation is a key parameter for the study of climate change and variability and the detection and monitoring of natural disaster such as drought. Precipitation datasets that accurately capture the amount and spatial variability of rainfall is critical for drought monitoring and a wide range of other climate applications. This is challenging in many parts of the world, which often have a limited number of weather stations and/or historical data records. Satellite-derived precipitation products offer a viable alternative with several remotely sensed precipitation datasets now available with long historical data records (+30years), which include the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) datasets. This study presents a comparative analysis of three historical satellite-based precipitation datasets that include Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B43 version 7 (1998-2015), PERSIANN-CDR (1983-2015) and CHIRPS 2.0 (1981-2015) over Chile to assess their performance across the country and for the case of the two long-term products the applicability for agricultural drought were evaluated when used in the calculation of commonly used drought indicator as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). In this analysis, 278 weather stations of in situ rainfall measurements across Chile were initially compared to the satellite data. The study area (Chile) was divided into five latitudinal zones: North, North-Central, Central, South-Central and South to determine if there were a regional difference among these satellite products, and nine statistics were used to evaluate their performance to estimate the amount and spatial distribution of historical rainfall across Chile. Hierarchical cluster analysis, k-means and singular value decomposition were used to analyze

  10. Metallurgical characterization of kaolin from Atacama, Chile

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    Oscar Rivera

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to determine the exploitation potentiality of a kaolin deposit from Atacama in the north of Chile, two types of kaolin (K-1 and K-2 were characterized by XRD, XRF, SEM/EDXS, size distribution, whiteness and DSC. Kaolinite, quartz, muscovite and albite were recognized as main constituents of the ore deposit, and also a significant amount of impurities that negatively impacts on quality were detected. Results show that the low quality presented by the samples, especially K-2, impedes their industrial use as raw material and further mineral concentration processes are proposed. Finally, the results of thermal analysis confirm a conversion to metakaolin that could be the basis for an alternative processing route.

  11. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity in rural Mapuche population from Chile. (United States)

    Pérez-Bravo, F; Carrasco, E; Santos, J L; Calvillán, M; Larenas, G; Albala, C


    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and obesity in the Mapuche natives from rural areas in Chile. This cross-sectional study involved men (n = 95) and women (n = 224) older than 20 y from an aboriginal ethnic group (Mapuches), residing in rural communities from the south of Chile. Prevalence of Type 2 diabetes and IGT was calculated according to the World Health Organization criteria. Data on age, degree of ancestral purity, obesity, and hypertension were also obtained. The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in rural Mapuche natives was estimated as 3.2% (95% CI: 0.7--9.0) in men and 4.5% (95% CI: 2.2--8.1) in women. The overall prevalence of obesity was 56.1% (95% CI: 50.5--61.6): 40.0% (95% CI: 30.1--40.8) in men and 62.9% (95% CI: 56.3--69.3) in women (P value Mapuche communities. The prevalence estimated in this study is higher than that reported 15 y ago. This suggests an important role of lifestyle changes as a possible explanation for epidemiologic transition.

  12. Avian influenza in Chile: a successful experience. (United States)

    Max, Vanessa; Herrera, José; Moreira, Rubén; Rojas, Hernán


    Avian influenza (AI) was diagnosed in May 2002 for the first time in Chile and South America. The epidemic was caused by the highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) virus subtype H7N3 that emerged from a low pathogenic virus. The index farm was a broiler breeder, located in San Antonio, V Region, which at the time was a densely populated poultry area. Stamping of 465,000 breeders, in 27 sheds, was immediately conducted. Surveillance activities detected a second outbreak, 1 wk later, at a turkey breeding farm from the same company. The second farm was located 4 km from the index case. Only 25% of the sheds were infected, and 18,500 turkeys were destroyed. In both outbreaks, surveillance zones and across-country control measures were established: prediagnosis quarantine, depopulation, intensive surveillance, movement control, and increased biosecurity. Other measures included cleaning, disinfection, and controlling the farms with sentinels to detect the potential presence of the virus. Zoning procedures were implemented to allow the international trade of poultry products from unaffected areas. Positive serologic results to H5N2 virus also were detected in other poultry farms, but there was no evidence of clinical signs or virus isolation. Epidemiological investigation and laboratory confirmation determined that positive serology was related to a contaminated imported batch of vaccine against inclusion body hepatitis. All actions taken allowed the control of the epidemic, and within 7 mo, Chile was free of AI. Epidemic and control measures that prevented further spread are described in this article, which illustrates the importance of a combination of control measures during and after an outbreak of AI. This study is a good example of how veterinary services need to respond if their country is affected by HPAI.

  13. Geografía, café y prosperidad en los andes occidentales de Colombia

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    Juan Barón


    Full Text Available Compuesta por los departamentos de Antioquia, Caldas, Quindío, Risaralda y Valle del Cauca, los Andes Occidentales ha sido por mucho años una de las regiones más prósperas de Colombia. Esta prosperidad se ha traducido en condiciones de vida e infraestructura superiores a las del resto del país. El éxito y bienestar que presentan hoy en día los Andes Occidentales están estrechamente ligados a la concentración de la producción de café, que se dio allí durante gran parte del siglo XX. El arraigo del café en la región no sólo se dio debido a que la geografía ofrecía las condiciones ideales para el cultivo, sino también a las instituciones cafeteras creadas para organizar la industria del café. A pesar de esta prosperidad, el constante descenso del precio internacional del café después del rompimiento del pacto de cuotas de producción en 1989, sumado al estancamiento de la industria manufacturera en algunos departamentos de la región, han afectado las economías departamentales menos diversificadas. Es así como la región de los Andes Occidentales Colombianos presenta las tasas de desempleo más altas del país, tasas que se han visto afectadas aún más con la crisis financiera internacional a través del menor flujo de remesas que los trabajadores oriundos de la región, y residentes en el exterior envían a sus familias.

  14. Land Use Change and Hydrologic Processes in High-Elevation Tropical Watersheds of the Northern Andes (United States)

    Avery, W. A.; Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Covino, T. P.; Peña, C.


    The humid tropics cover one-fifth of the Earth's land surface and generate the greatest amount of runoff of any biome globally, but remain poorly understood and understudied. Humid tropical regions of the northern and central Andes have experienced greater anthropogenic land-use/land-cover (LULC) change than nearly any other high mountain system in the world. Vast expanses of this region are currently undergoing rapid transformation to farmland for production of potatoes and pasture for cattle grazing. Although the humid tropics have some of the highest runoff ratios, precipitation, and largest river flows in the world, there is a lack of scientific literature that addresses hydrologic processes in these regions and very few field observations are available to inform management strategies to ensure the sustainability of water resources of present and future generations. We seek to improve understanding of hydrologic processes and feedbacks in the humid tropics using existing and new information from two high-elevation watersheds that span a LULC gradient in the Andes Mountains of Colombia. One site is located in the preserved Chingaza Natural National Park in Central Colombia (undisturbed). The second site is located ~60 km to the northwest and has experienced considerable LULC change over the last 40 years. Combined, these watersheds deliver over 80% of the water resources to Bogotá and neighboring communities. These watersheds have similar climatological characteristics (including annual precipitation), but have strong differences in LULC which result in substantial differences in hydrologic response and streamflow dynamics. We present an overview of many of the pressing issues and effects that land degradation and climate change are posing to the long-term sustainability of water resources in the northern Andes. Our overarching goal is to provide process-based knowledge that will be useful to prevent, mitigate, or respond to future water crises along the Andean

  15. A systematic review of the nutritional adequacy of the diet in the Central Andes

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    Peter R. Berti


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To examine dietary adequacy in the Andean area, including macro- and micronutrient intakes, with a particular focus on rural communities; to highlight nutrition priorities in the Andes; and to identify opportunities for improvement. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted, identifying published and grey literature in English and Spanish related to diet in the central Andean countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Articles reporting data from dietary surveys or nutrition interventions were included. Thirty-four papers or reports published in 1969-2011 were included in the final review. The mean and variation in intakes by sex and age group of all presented nutrients were collated and the mean of means were calculated. RESULTS: Thiamin, niacin, and vitamin C intakes were usually adequate. Intakes of most other micronutrients, including iron, zinc, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin B12, folate, and zinc were low, likely resulting in high levels of inadequacy. Energy intakes were lower than requirements, but it is unlikely to be a common problem, rather, this result was probably due to the known tendency of most dietary survey tools to underreport intake. However, energy from fat intakes was very low, usually less than 20% of the total, and in some settings, less than 10%. CONCLUSIONS: The inadequate intake of some micronutrients is common in many developing countries, but the extremely low intake of dietary fat found in the central Andes is not. Increased consumption of animal-source foods would increase fat intakes, while addressing micronutrient deficiencies; however, the impact on the fragile ecosystem of the Andes needs considering. Indigenous crops, such as lupine bean, quinoa, and amaranth are also rich in fat or micronutrients.

  16. A systematic review of the nutritional adequacy of the diet in the Central Andes. (United States)

    Berti, Peter R; Fallu, Cynthia; Cruz Agudo, Yesmina


    To examine dietary adequacy in the Andean area, including macro- and micronutrient intakes, with a particular focus on rural communities; to highlight nutrition priorities in the Andes; and to identify opportunities for improvement. A comprehensive literature search was conducted, identifying published and grey literature in English and Spanish related to diet in the central Andean countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Articles reporting data from dietary surveys or nutrition interventions were included. Thirty-four papers or reports published in 1969-2011 were included in the final review. The mean and variation in intakes by sex and age group of all presented nutrients were collated and the mean of means were calculated. Thiamin, niacin, and vitamin C intakes were usually adequate. Intakes of most other micronutrients, including iron, zinc, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin B12, folate, and zinc were low, likely resulting in high levels of inadequacy. Energy intakes were lower than requirements, but it is unlikely to be a common problem, rather, this result was probably due to the known tendency of most dietary survey tools to underreport intake. However, energy from fat intakes was very low, usually less than 20% of the total, and in some settings, less than 10%. The inadequate intake of some micronutrients is common in many developing countries, but the extremely low intake of dietary fat found in the central Andes is not. Increased consumption of animal-source foods would increase fat intakes, while addressing micronutrient deficiencies; however, the impact on the fragile ecosystem of the Andes needs considering. Indigenous crops, such as lupine bean, quinoa, and amaranth are also rich in fat or micronutrients.

  17. Population dynamics of the rat Microryzomys minutus (Rodentia: Muridae in the Venezuelan Andes

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    Daniel R Cabello


    Full Text Available The population dynamics of the small forest rice rat Microryzomys minutus, a murid rodent that occurs in the high altitudes of the northern and central Andes, was studied in disturbed and primary environments in a cloud forest of the Venezuelan Andes (Juan Pablo Peñaloza National Park, 8º11’N, 71º49’W. We collected 121 animals (66♀♀ and 55♂♂ between 1995 and 1998, using pitfall traps with formalin. Adult males were heavier than adult females. Relative abundance was much greater in the disturbed environments (over 10 individuals in some periods than in the primary cloud forest: 4-8 individuals. In the disturbed environments, the rats were extremely abundant in the first sampling period, and less frequent afterwards. In the cropland, abundance showed some fluctuations during the study and displayed two small abundance peaks in March-June 1997 and 1998. In the mined area, the rats had irregular fluctuations until March-June 1997 and were not recorded in July-October 1997. The occurrence of this rat in both disturbed and natural habitats confirms the wide ecological tolerance of this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 651-. Epub 2006 Jun 01.Se analizó la dinámica poblacional de las pequeñas ratas silvestres del arroz Microryzomys minutus en ambientes alterados y primarios, en un bosque nublado de los Andes venezolanos. El estudio fue basado en 121 animales (66♀♀ y 55♂♂ recolectados entre 1995 y 1998, usando trampas que contenían formalina. Esta especie está presente en ambos hábitats lo que confirma su amplia tolerancia ecológica. La abundancia poblacional fue mayor en ambientes alterados que en los no alterados. M. minutus presenta dimorfismo sexual en el peso: los machos son más pesados que las hembras.

  18. Constraints on deformation of the Southern Andes since the Cretaceous from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (United States)

    Maffione, Marco; Hernandez-Moreno, Catalina; Ghiglione, Matias C.; Speranza, Fabio; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Lodolo, Emanuele


    The southernmost segment of the Andean Cordillera underwent a complex deformation history characterized by alternation of contractional, extensional, and strike-slip tectonics. Key elements of southern Andean deformation that remain poorly constrained, include the origin of the orogenic bend known as the Patagonian Orocline (here renamed as Patagonian Arc), and the exhumation mechanism of an upper amphibolite facies metamorphic complex currently exposed in Cordillera Darwin. Here, we present results of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) from 22 sites in Upper Cretaceous to upper Eocene sedimentary rocks within the internal structural domain of the Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). AMS parameters from most sites reveal a weak tectonic overprint of the original magnetic fabric, which was likely acquired upon layer-parallel shortening soon after sedimentation. Magnetic lineation from 17 sites is interpreted to have formed during compressive tectonic phases associated to a continuous N-S contraction. Our data, combined with the existing AMS database from adjacent areas, show that the Early Cretaceous-late Oligocene tectonic phases in the Southern Andes yielded continuous contraction, variable from E-W in the Patagonian Andes to N-S in the Fuegian Andes, which defined a radial strain field. A direct implication is that the exhumation of the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex occurred under compressive, rather than extensional or strike-slip tectonics, as alternatively proposed. If we agree with recent works considering the curved Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt as a primary arc (i.e., no relative vertical-axis rotation of the limbs occurs during its formation), then other mechanisms different from oroclinal bending should be invoked to explain the documented radial strain field. We tentatively propose a kinematic model in which reactivation of variably oriented Jurassic faults at the South American continental margin controlled

  19. Oscillations and trends of river discharge in the southern Central Andes and linkages with climate variability (United States)

    Castino, Fabiana; Bookhagen, Bodo; Strecker, Manfred R.


    This study analyzes the discharge variability of small to medium drainage basins (102-104 km2) in the southern Central Andes of NW Argentina. The Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) was applied to evaluate non-stationary oscillatory modes of variability and trends, based on four time series of monthly-normalized discharge anomaly between 1940 and 2015. Statistically significant trends reveal increasing discharge during the past decades and document an intensification of the hydrological cycle during this period. An Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) analysis revealed that discharge variability in this region can be best described by five quasi-periodic statistically significant oscillatory modes, with mean periods varying from 1 to ∼20 y. Moreover, we show that discharge variability is most likely linked to the phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) at multi-decadal timescales (∼20 y) and, to a lesser degree, to the Tropical South Atlantic SST anomaly (TSA) variability at shorter timescales (∼2-5 y). Previous studies highlighted a rapid increase in discharge in the southern Central Andes during the 1970s, inferred to have been associated with the global 1976-77 climate shift. Our results suggest that the rapid discharge increase in the NW Argentine Andes coincides with the periodic enhancement of discharge, which is mainly linked to a negative to positive transition of the PDO phase and TSA variability associated with a long-term increasing trend. We therefore suggest that variations in discharge in this region are largely driven by both natural variability and the effects of global climate change. We furthermore posit that the links between atmospheric and hydrologic processes result from a combination of forcings that operate on different spatiotemporal scales.

  20. Mio-Pliocene aridity in the south-central Andes associated with Southern Hemisphere cold periods. (United States)

    Amidon, William H; Fisher, G Burch; Burbank, Douglas W; Ciccioli, Patricia L; Alonso, Ricardo N; Gorin, Andrew L; Silverhart, Perri H; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R C; Christoffersen, Michael S


    Although Earth's climate history is best known through marine records, the corresponding continental climatic conditions drive the evolution of terrestrial life. Continental conditions during the latest Miocene are of particular interest because global faunal turnover is roughly synchronous with a period of global glaciation from ∼6.2-5.5 Ma and with the Messinian Salinity Crisis from ∼6.0-5.3 Ma. Despite the climatic and ecological significance of this period, the continental climatic conditions associated with it remain unclear. We address this question using erosion rates of ancient watersheds to constrain Mio-Pliocene climatic conditions in the south-central Andes near 30° S. Our results show two slowdowns in erosion rate, one from ∼6.1-5.2 Ma and another from 3.6 to 3.3 Ma, which we attribute to periods of continental aridity. This view is supported by synchrony with other regional proxies for aridity and with the timing of glacial ‟cold" periods as recorded by marine proxies, such as the M2 isotope excursion. We thus conclude that aridity in the south-central Andes is associated with cold periods at high southern latitudes, perhaps due to a northward migration of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies, which disrupted the South American Low Level Jet that delivers moisture to southeastern South America. Colder glacial periods, and possibly associated reductions in atmospheric CO 2 , thus seem to be an important driver of Mio-Pliocene ecological transitions in the central Andes. Finally, this study demonstrates that paleo-erosion rates can be a powerful proxy for ancient continental climates that lie beyond the reach of most lacustrine and glacial archives.

  1. A new case constructing adelid moth from Chile (Lepidoptera

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    Luis E. Parra


    Full Text Available A new case constructing adelid moth from Chile (Lepidoptera. The adult and larva of Ceromitia tubulifolia sp. nov. are described and illustrated. The larvae seem to be associated with sclerophyllous forest of central Chile. The larvae make a protective case from of a piece of leaf. The name phylloikos is proposed for this form of larval case. A review of the morphology and bionomics of this species are provided.Uma nova mariposa Adelidae (Lepidoptera construtora de casulo do Chile. O adulto e a larva de Ceromitia tubulifolia sp. nov. são descritos e ilustrados. As larvas parecem estar associadas à mata esclerófila do Chile central. A larva utiliza um pedaço de folha para construir uma estrutura protetora denominada phylloikos. Comentários sobre aspectos morfológicos e bionômicos da espécie são apresentados.


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    Jorge Sapunar Z., MD, MSC, FACP


    Finalmente, la frecuencia, morbilidad y mortalidad de la diabetes mellitus, se suman para explicar que el manejo de la enfermedad y sus complicaciones consuma el 10,2% del presupuesto en salud de Chile.

  3. Intense Seismic Activity at Chiles and Cerro Negro Volcanoes on the Colombia-Ecuador Border (United States)

    Torres, R. A.; Cadena, O.; Gomez, D.; Ruiz, M. C.; Prejean, S. G.; Lyons, J. J.; White, R. A.


    The region of Chiles and Cerro Negro volcanoes, located on the Colombian-Ecuadorian border, has experienced an ongoing seismic swarm beginning in Aug. 2013. Based on concern for local residents and authorities, a cooperative broadband monitoring network was installed by the Servicio Geológico Colombiano in Colombia and the Instituto Geofísico of the Escuela Politécnica Nacional in Ecuador. Since November 2013 more than 538,000 earthquakes were recorded; although since May 2015 the seismicity has decreased significantly to an average of 70 events per day. Three large earthquake swarms with increasing energy occurred in Aug.-Oct. 2013, March-May 2014, and Sept.-Dec. 2014. By the end of 2014, roughly 400 earthquakes greater than M 3 had occurred with a maximum rate of 8000 earthquakes per day. The largest earthquake was a 5.6 ML on Oct. 20, 2014. This event produced an InSAR coseismic deformation of ~23 cm (S. Ebmeier, personal communication). Most events are typical brittle failure volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes that are located in a cluster beneath the southern flank of Chiles volcano, with depths between 1.5 and 10 km. Although the great majority of earthquakes are VT, some low-frequency (LF, ~0.5 Hz) and very-low-frequency (VLF) events have occurred. Particle motion analysis suggests that the VLF source migrated with time. While a VLF on Oct. 15, 2014 was located south of Chiles volcano, near the InSAR source, the VLF registered on Feb. 14, 2015 was likely located very close to Chiles Volcano. We infer that magma intrusion and resulting fluid exsolution at depths greater than 5 km are driving seismicity in the Chiles-Cerro Negro region. However earthquakes are failing in a manner consistent with regional tectonics. Relative relocations reveal a structure consistent with mapped regional faults. Thus seismicity is likely controlled by an interaction of magmatic and tectonic processes. Because the regional stress field is highly compressional and the volcanoes

  4. A first insight on the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex as studied by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTRs in Santiago, Chile.

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    María Elvira Balcells

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a significant public health problem worldwide, but the ecology of the prevalent mycobacterial strains, and their transmission, can vary depending on country and region. Chile is a country with low incidence of TB, that has a geographically isolated location in relation to the rest of South American countries due to the Andes Mountains, but recent migration from neighboring countries has changed this situation. We aimed to assess the genotypic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC strains in Santiago, Chile, and compare with reports from other Latin-American countries. We analyzed MTBC isolates from pulmonary tuberculosis cases collected between years 2008 and 2013 in Central Santiago, using two genotyping methods: spoligotyping and 12-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs. Data obtained were analyzed and compared to the SITVIT2 database. Mean age of the patients was 47.5 years and 61% were male; 11.6% were migrants. Of 103 strains (1 isolate/patient included, there were 56 distinct spoligotype patterns. Of these, 16 strains (15.5% corresponded to orphan strains in the SITVIT2 database, not previously reported. Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM (34% and T (33% lineages were the most prevalent strains, followed by Haarlem lineage (16.5%. Beijing family was scarcely represented with only two cases (1.9%, one of them isolated from a Peruvian migrant. The most frequent clustered spoligotypes were SIT33/LAM3 (10.7%, SIT53/T1 (8.7%, SIT50/H3 (7.8%, and SIT37/T3 (6.8%. We conclude that LAM and T genotypes are the most prevalent genotypes of MTBC in Santiago, Chile, and together correspond to almost two thirds of analyzed strains, which is similar to strain distribution reported from other countries of Latin America. Nevertheless, the high proportion of SIT37/T3, which was rarely found in other Latin American countries, may underline a specific history or

  5. A first insight on the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex as studied by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTRs in Santiago, Chile. (United States)

    Balcells, María Elvira; García, Patricia; Meza, Paulina; Peña, Carlos; Cifuentes, Marcela; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin


    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health problem worldwide, but the ecology of the prevalent mycobacterial strains, and their transmission, can vary depending on country and region. Chile is a country with low incidence of TB, that has a geographically isolated location in relation to the rest of South American countries due to the Andes Mountains, but recent migration from neighboring countries has changed this situation. We aimed to assess the genotypic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains in Santiago, Chile, and compare with reports from other Latin-American countries. We analyzed MTBC isolates from pulmonary tuberculosis cases collected between years 2008 and 2013 in Central Santiago, using two genotyping methods: spoligotyping and 12-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs). Data obtained were analyzed and compared to the SITVIT2 database. Mean age of the patients was 47.5 years and 61% were male; 11.6% were migrants. Of 103 strains (1 isolate/patient) included, there were 56 distinct spoligotype patterns. Of these, 16 strains (15.5%) corresponded to orphan strains in the SITVIT2 database, not previously reported. Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) (34%) and T (33%) lineages were the most prevalent strains, followed by Haarlem lineage (16.5%). Beijing family was scarcely represented with only two cases (1.9%), one of them isolated from a Peruvian migrant. The most frequent clustered spoligotypes were SIT33/LAM3 (10.7%), SIT53/T1 (8.7%), SIT50/H3 (7.8%), and SIT37/T3 (6.8%). We conclude that LAM and T genotypes are the most prevalent genotypes of MTBC in Santiago, Chile, and together correspond to almost two thirds of analyzed strains, which is similar to strain distribution reported from other countries of Latin America. Nevertheless, the high proportion of SIT37/T3, which was rarely found in other Latin American countries, may underline a specific history or

  6. Modelling and monitoring vegetation and evapotranspiration on an anthropogenic grassland succession in the Andes of Ecuador (United States)

    Silva, B.; Bendix, J.


    In the eastern Andes of southern Ecuador the infestation of pasture (mostly C4-grass Setaria sphacelata) by the aggressive bracken fern (Pteridium sp.) still is an unsolved problem. Environmental and exogenous factors and direct plant competition have been hypothesized to drive bracken occurrence. Special attention is given to pasture burning, which stimulates bracken growth, and is common in the relative dry season (Oct-Dec). However, no knowledge is available for a quantitative hypothesis investigation on bracken occurrence under current and future local climate. In this work a modeling approach is presented, in which initial investigations support the application of a two-big-leaf model, and parameterization and model forcing are made with extensive data on physiological traits and on the physical environment. Our main aims here are (i) to show field investigations on a plant scale, which are the basis for a proper model parameterization; and (ii) to provide initialization data, which is based on estimation of green leaf area index from very-high and high resolution optical remote sensing (air-photos and Quickbird images); (iii) to simulate vegetation succession after burn on an experimental site, using in situ climate data and future climate-change scenarios. The modeling approach is based in the main on the vegetation dynamic model called Southern Bracken Competition Model (SoBraCoMo), which has been coupled to a hydrological model written on the catchment model framework (CMF), to simulate soil-vegetation dynamics. Main initialization variables are biochemical parameters (quantum and carboxylation efficiency) and the green leaf area index (green-LAI). Forcing data include soil, leaf and air temperature, soil and air humidity and radiation. The model has been developed and tested on the experimental site (2100 m asl) in the Rio San Francisco Valley, Ecuador. Simulation results on the burn experiment of 2009 showed that stimulation by fire could not boost fern

  7. Elevation-dependent changes in n-alkane δD and soil GDGTs across the South Central Andes (United States)

    Nieto-Moreno, Vanesa; Rohrmann, Alexander; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Sachse, Dirk; Tofelde, Stefanie; Niedermeyer, Eva M.; Strecker, Manfred R.; Mulch, Andreas


    Surface uplift of large plateaus may significantly influence regional climate and more specifically precipitation patterns and temperature, sometimes complicating paleoaltimetry interpretations. Thus, understanding the topographic evolution of tectonically active mountain belts benefits from continued development of reliable proxies to reduce uncertainties in paleoaltimetry reconstructions. Lipid biomarker-based proxies provide a novel approach to stable isotope paleoaltimetry and complement authigenic or pedogenic mineral proxy materials, in particular outside semi-arid climate zones where soil carbonates are not abundant but (soil) organic matter has a high preservation potential. Here we present δD values of soil-derived n-alkanes and mean annual air temperature (MAT) estimates based on branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (brGDGT) distributions to assess their potential for paleoelevation reconstructions in the southern central Andes. We analyzed soil samples across two environmental and hydrological gradients that include a hillslope (26-28°S) and a valley (22-24°S) transect on the windward flanks of Central Andean Eastern Cordillera in NW Argentina. Our results show that present-day n-alkane δD values and brGDGT-based MAT estimates are both linearly related with elevation and in good agreement with present-day climate conditions. Soil n-alkanes show a δD lapse rate (Δ (δD)) of - 1.64 ‰ / 100 m (R2 = 0.91, p Colombia and Bolivia and the Equatorial and Peruvian Andes. BrGDGT-derived soil temperatures are similar to monitored winter temperatures in the region and show a lapse rate of ΔT = - 0.51 °C / 100 m (R2 = 0.91, p < 0.01), comparable with lapse rates from in situ soil temperature measurements, satellite-derived land-surface temperatures at this transect, and weather stations from the Eastern Cordillera at similar latitude. As a result of an increasing leeward sampling position along the valley transect lapse rates are biased towards

  8. Geomorphic controls on availability of weathering-derived nutrients across an erosional gradient in the Andes (United States)

    West, A.; Torres, M. A.; Kleinsasser, E.; Clark, K.; Asner, G. P.; Malhi, Y.; Quesada, C.


    Rock-derived nutrients are thought to play important roles in determining ecosystem productivity and function, particularly in tropical forests. Variation in the availability of key nutrients such as P and Ca has been attributed to changes in the supply from chemical weathering of bedrock minerals, with a general conceptual model that younger soils with higher weathering rates are capable of supplying more nutrients compared to older soils with lower weathering rates (e.g. Vitousek et al., 2003). In this study we present data from an elevational gradient in the eastern Andes of Peru, illustrating how the relationship between weathering and nutrient availability is manifest in an active erosional system. Our data suggest that weathering, driven by erosional supply of primary minerals, is important in supplying nutrients. However, there is complexity in this relationship that may be associated with the geomorphic controls on weathering geochemistry and hydrochemistry, including weathering that takes place at greater depths when erosion rates are higher (e.g. West, 2012). We compare measured weathering rates with nutrient status of soils and vegetation across a transect from high elevations in the Andes to low elevations in the foreland floodplain. Weathering rates determined from the dissolved chemistry of river samples are highest at high elevation sites in the Andes. Mineral weathering rates are significant in the floodplain, which we attribute to chemical reworking of material eroded from the Andes, but rates of mineral weathering are not as high in the floodplain as in the montane sites. Although Ca supply is highest in the mountains, the foliar Ca and Ca available in soils is lower than in the floodplain. We will explore hydrochemical reasons for this difference, which may be due to where Ca release takes place relative to the vegetation root zone. We will also explore the supply of P from weathering in relation to observed nutrient availability, based on

  9. Culture and landslide risk in the Central Andes of Bolivia and Peru

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    Nicholas Roberts


    Full Text Available Culture and its heritage play a major role in determining landslide risk in the Central Andes. Examples of some of these many possible influences are provided from natural and social science literature and from the author’s recent work in Bolivia. Landslide risk appears to have generally increased throughout the last millennium, due largely to anthropogenic modification of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and coping capacity. These changes result from both local and distant pressures and from contemporaneous and pervious cultural factors. Consequently, holistic examination of landslide risk necessitates consideration of culture and its heritage.

  10. La Guerra Civil de 1876-1877 en los Andes nororientales colombianos


    Sastoque, Edna Carolina; García, Mario


    Este trabajo busca comprender regionalmente las causas de la guerra civil de 1876-1877, en los Andes nororientales colombianos. Se reconstruye y se analiza la malla de asentamientos urbanos de los Santanderes entre 1853 y 1857, se establece la jerarquía de los centros urbanos, las condiciones que contribuyeron al surgimiento de conflictos y los relevos jerárquicos que estos propiciaron. Por otro lado, se identifica a los actores que intervinieron en la guerra y la localización de los aconteci...

  11. SRTM Perspective of Colored Height and Shaded Relief Laguna Mellquina, Andes Mountains, Argentina (United States)


    This depiction of an area south of San Martin de Los Andes, Argentina, is the first Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)view of the Andes Mountains, the tallest mountain chain in the western hemisphere. This particular site does not include the higher Andes peaks, but it does include steep-sided valleys and other distinctive landforms carved by Pleistocene glaciers. Elevations here range from about 700 to 2,440 meters (2,300 to 8,000 feet). This region is very active tectonically and volcanically, and the landforms provide a record of the changes that have occurred over many thousands of years. Large lakes fill the broad mountain valleys, and the spectacular scenery here makes this area a popular resort destination for Argentinians.Three visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading, color coding of topographic height and a perspective view. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in the southern hemisphere. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. The perspective is toward the west, 20 degrees off horizontal with 2X vertical exaggeration. The back (west) edge of the data set forms a false skyline within the Andes Range.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved

  12. [Fertility and reproductive behavior in Peru: Andes mountains and the Amazon basin]. (United States)

    Fort, A L


    "The article attempts to discuss the historical and contemporary situations of [fertility among] populations residing in the two least studied areas of Peru: the Andes mountains and the Amazon basin. The study starts with a review of the 'demographic catastrophe' that the Spanish presence meant to the people of these areas.... The harmful effects of the 'rubber boom' and, more recently, of the 'oil boom', periods are also reviewed." Fertility trends in the two areas are analyzed, with a focus on marriage, breast-feeding, and contraceptive use. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  13. Instrucción pública en chile. 1864


    Amunártegui, Luis Miguel


    Memoria escrita por el Secretario General de la Universidad de Chile. Descripción de la educación en Chile, particularmente de la universitaria, introducido por el argumento del origen común de las naciones hispanoamericanas, y las diferencias que se presentan a partir de los procesos de emancipación.

  14. The Revolutionary Left and Terrorist Violence in Chile. (United States)


    public’s expectations. The combination of an increased money supply and artificially low official prices eventually precipitated a black market in food...Fraude Electoral Designada por la Facultad de Derecho de la Pontifica Universidad de Chile," in Libro Blanco del Cambio de Gobierno de Chile, Editorial...the black market at very inflated exchange rates. Foreigners, however, including a Frenchman, a Swede, a Spanish Jesuit, and a Brazilian, have

  15. Development in Chile 1990 - 2005: L